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Sample records for adaptive biased coin

  1. Validity of tests under covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization and generalized linear models.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jun; Yu, Xinxin

    2013-12-01

    Some covariate-adaptive randomization methods have been used in clinical trials for a long time, but little theoretical work has been done about testing hypotheses under covariate-adaptive randomization until Shao et al. (2010) who provided a theory with detailed discussion for responses under linear models. In this article, we establish some asymptotic results for covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization under generalized linear models with possibly unknown link functions. We show that the simple t-test without using any covariate is conservative under covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization in terms of its Type I error rate, and that a valid test using the bootstrap can be constructed. This bootstrap test, utilizing covariates in the randomization scheme, is shown to be asymptotically as efficient as Wald's test correctly using covariates in the analysis. Thus, the efficiency loss due to not using covariates in the analysis can be recovered by utilizing covariates in covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization. Our theory is illustrated with two most popular types of discrete outcomes, binary responses and event counts under the Poisson model, and exponentially distributed continuous responses. We also show that an alternative simple test without using any covariate under the Poisson model has an inflated Type I error rate under simple randomization, but is valid under covariate-adaptive biased coin randomization. Effects on the validity of tests due to model misspecification is also discussed. Simulation studies about the Type I errors and powers of several tests are presented for both discrete and continuous responses. PMID:23848580

  2. Variable-bias coin tossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbeck, Roger; Kent, Adrian

    2006-03-01

    Alice is a charismatic quantum cryptographer who believes her parties are unmissable; Bob is a (relatively) glamorous string theorist who believes he is an indispensable guest. To prevent possibly traumatic collisions of self-perception and reality, their social code requires that decisions about invitation or acceptance be made via a cryptographically secure variable-bias coin toss (VBCT). This generates a shared random bit by the toss of a coin whose bias is secretly chosen, within a stipulated range, by one of the parties; the other party learns only the random bit. Thus one party can secretly influence the outcome, while both can save face by blaming any negative decisions on bad luck. We describe here some cryptographic VBCT protocols whose security is guaranteed by quantum theory and the impossibility of superluminal signaling, setting our results in the context of a general discussion of secure two-party computation. We also briefly discuss other cryptographic applications of VBCT.

  3. Natural Biased Coin Encoded in the Genome Determines Cell Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Dorri, Faezeh; Mahini, Hamid; Sharifi-Zarchi, Ali; Totonchi, Mehdi; Tusserkani, Ruzbeh; Pezeshk, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Decision making at a cellular level determines different fates for isogenic cells. However, it is not yet clear how rational decisions are encoded in the genome, how they are transmitted to their offspring, and whether they evolve and become optimized throughout generations. In this paper, we use a game theoretic approach to explain how rational decisions are made in the presence of cooperators and competitors. Our results suggest the existence of an internal switch that operates as a biased coin. The biased coin is, in fact, a biochemical bistable network of interacting genes that can flip to one of its stable states in response to different environmental stimuli. We present a framework to describe how the positions of attractors in such a gene regulatory network correspond to the behavior of a rational player in a competing environment. We evaluate our model by considering lysis/lysogeny decision making of bacteriophage lambda in E. coli. PMID:25090629

  4. Natural biased coin encoded in the genome determines cell strategy.

    PubMed

    Dorri, Faezeh; Mahini, Hamid; Sharifi-Zarchi, Ali; Totonchi, Mehdi; Tusserkani, Ruzbeh; Pezeshk, Hamid; Sadeghi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Decision making at a cellular level determines different fates for isogenic cells. However, it is not yet clear how rational decisions are encoded in the genome, how they are transmitted to their offspring, and whether they evolve and become optimized throughout generations. In this paper, we use a game theoretic approach to explain how rational decisions are made in the presence of cooperators and competitors. Our results suggest the existence of an internal switch that operates as a biased coin. The biased coin is, in fact, a biochemical bistable network of interacting genes that can flip to one of its stable states in response to different environmental stimuli. We present a framework to describe how the positions of attractors in such a gene regulatory network correspond to the behavior of a rational player in a competing environment. We evaluate our model by considering lysis/lysogeny decision making of bacteriophage lambda in E. coli.

  5. Preserving the allocation ratio at every allocation with biased coin randomization and minimization in studies with unequal allocation.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2012-04-13

    The demand for unequal allocation in clinical trials is growing. Most commonly, the unequal allocation is achieved through permuted block randomization. However, other allocation procedures might be required to better approximate the allocation ratio in small samples, reduce the selection bias in open-label studies, or balance on baseline covariates. When these allocation procedures are generalized to unequal allocation, special care is to be taken to preserve the allocation ratio at every allocation step. This paper offers a way to expand the biased coin randomization to unequal allocation that preserves the allocation ratio at every allocation. The suggested expansion works with biased coin randomization that balances only on treatment group totals and with covariate-adaptive procedures that use a random biased coin element at every allocation. Balancing properties of the allocation ratio preserving biased coin randomization and minimization are described through simulations. It is demonstrated that these procedures are asymptotically protected against the shift in the rerandomization distribution identified for some examples of minimization with 1:2 allocation. The asymptotic shift in the rerandomization distribution of the difference in treatment means for an arbitrary unequal allocation procedure is explicitly derived in the paper.

  6. Balance and randomness in sequential clinical trials: the dominant biased coin design.

    PubMed

    Antognini, Alessandro Baldi; Zagoraiou, Maroussa

    2014-01-01

    Efron's biased coin design (BCD) is a well-known randomization technique that helps neutralize selection bias, while keeping the experiment fairly balanced for every sample size. Several extensions of this rule have been proposed, and their properties were analyzed from an asymptotic viewpoint and compared via simulations in a finite setup. The aim of this paper is to push forward these comparisons by taking also into account the adjustable BCD, which is never considered up to now. Firstly, we show that the adjustable BCD performs better than Efron's coin with respect to both loss of precision and randomness. Moreover, the adjustable BCD is always more balanced than the other coins and, only for some sample sizes, slightly more predictable. Therefore, we suggest the dominant BCD, namely a new and flexible class of procedures that can change the allocation rule step by step in order to ensure very good performance in terms of both balance and selection bias for any sample size. Our simulations demonstrate that the dominant BCD is more balanced and, at the same time, less or equally predictable than Atkinson's optimum BCD.

  7. Adaptive Variable Bias Magnetic Bearing Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Dexter; Brown, Gerald V.; Inman, Daniel J.

    1998-01-01

    Most magnetic bearing control schemes use a bias current with a superimposed control current to linearize the relationship between the control current and the force it delivers. With the existence of the bias current, even in no load conditions, there is always some power consumption. In aerospace applications, power consumption becomes an important concern. In response to this concern, an alternative magnetic bearing control method, called Adaptive Variable Bias Control (AVBC), has been developed and its performance examined. The AVBC operates primarily as a proportional-derivative controller with a relatively slow, bias current dependent, time-varying gain. The AVBC is shown to reduce electrical power loss, be nominally stable, and provide control performance similar to conventional bias control. Analytical, computer simulation, and experimental results are presented in this paper.

  8. Rightward and leftward bisection biases in spatial neglect: two sides of the same coin?

    PubMed

    Savazzi, Silvia; Posteraro, Lucio; Veronesi, Gianluigi; Mancini, Francesca

    2007-08-01

    Neglect patients, when asked to bisect a horizontal line, typically show large rightward errors with long lines and a decreased error with medium length lines. With very short lines the bisection bias reverses from the right to left side of the line physical centre (the so-called crossover effect). It is commonly pointed out that such a leftward bias is difficult to explain by traditional theories of neglect. Several accounts propose two distinct mechanisms, one that works for short lines and one that works for long. In the present study we demonstrated that the crossover effect can be explained by means of a unitary mechanism that derives from the space anisometry hypothesis. This hypothesis postulates that in neglect patients representational space is progressively 'relaxed' contralesionally and progressively 'compressed' ipsilesionally. In a series of five experiments, we investigated the crossover effect in 26 right-brain damaged patients: 17 with neglect without hemianopia, 4 with neglect and hemianopia and 6 without neglect or hemianopia. Patients were to bisect or extend lines of objectively and subjectively different lengths. The modulation of subjective length was created by an Oppel-Kundt illusion that is thought to resemble the distortion of representational space that occurs with neglect. All groups, except for the patients with neglect and hemianopia, were prone to the illusion. The rightward bias was reduced when the illusion induced a perceptual distortion opposite to that thought to underlie neglect. Importantly, the strength of the illusion decreased with reducing the physical line length and reversed with very short lines. These results argue for a simple and unitary explanation of the crossover effect in spatial neglect within the framework of the space anisometry hypothesis. PMID:17584772

  9. A Nonlinear Adaptive Filter for Gyro Thermal Bias Error Cancellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galante, Joseph M.; Sanner, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Deterministic errors in angular rate gyros, such as thermal biases, can have a significant impact on spacecraft attitude knowledge. In particular, thermal biases are often the dominant error source in MEMS gyros after calibration. Filters, such as J\\,fEKFs, are commonly used to mitigate the impact of gyro errors and gyro noise on spacecraft closed loop pointing accuracy, but often have difficulty in rapidly changing thermal environments and can be computationally expensive. In this report an existing nonlinear adaptive filter is used as the basis for a new nonlinear adaptive filter designed to estimate and cancel thermal bias effects. A description of the filter is presented along with an implementation suitable for discrete-time applications. A simulation analysis demonstrates the performance of the filter in the presence of noisy measurements and provides a comparison with existing techniques.

  10. Coining seal

    DOEpatents

    Mancebo, Lloyd

    1976-01-01

    A bakeable high pressure-vacuum seal is provided in which an inductile sealing element having a butterfly shaped crosssection with protruding sharp edges at each of the four corners, is sandwiched between two ductile sealing elements, the sandwiched assembly then being compressed between the surfaces of the flange elements of a high pressure or high vacuum vessel to coin the ductile sealing element into the surface of the inductile sealing element as well as the surfaces of the flange elements.

  11. Visual Bias Predicts Gait Adaptability in Novel Sensory Discordant Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Batson, Crystal D.; Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    We designed a gait training study that presented combinations of visual flow and support-surface manipulations to investigate the response of healthy adults to novel discordant sensorimotor conditions. We aimed to determine whether a relationship existed between subjects visual dependence and their postural stability and cognitive performance in a new discordant environment presented at the conclusion of training (Transfer Test). Our training system comprised a treadmill placed on a motion base facing a virtual visual scene that provided a variety of sensory challenges. Ten healthy adults completed 3 training sessions during which they walked on a treadmill at 1.1 m/s while receiving discordant support-surface and visual manipulations. At the first visit, in an analysis of normalized torso translation measured in a scene-movement-only condition, 3 of 10 subjects were classified as visually dependent. During the Transfer Test, all participants received a 2-minute novel exposure. In a combined measure of stride frequency and reaction time, the non-visually dependent subjects showed improved adaptation on the Transfer Test compared to their visually dependent counterparts. This finding suggests that individual differences in the ability to adapt to new sensorimotor conditions may be explained by individuals innate sensory biases. An accurate preflight assessment of crewmembers biases for visual dependence could be used to predict their propensities to adapt to novel sensory conditions. It may also facilitate the development of customized training regimens that could expedite adaptation to alternate gravitational environments.

  12. Experimental loss-tolerant quantum coin flipping

    PubMed Central

    Berlín, Guido; Brassard, Gilles; Bussières, Félix; Godbout, Nicolas; Slater, Joshua A.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Coin flipping is a cryptographic primitive in which two distrustful parties wish to generate a random bit to choose between two alternatives. This task is impossible to realize when it relies solely on the asynchronous exchange of classical bits: one dishonest player has complete control over the final outcome. It is only when coin flipping is supplemented with quantum communication that this problem can be alleviated, although partial bias remains. Unfortunately, practical systems are subject to loss of quantum data, which allows a cheater to force a bias that is complete or arbitrarily close to complete in all previous protocols and implementations. Here we report on the first experimental demonstration of a quantum coin-flipping protocol for which loss cannot be exploited to cheat better. By eliminating the problem of loss, which is unavoidable in any realistic setting, quantum coin flipping takes a significant step towards real-world applications of quantum communication. PMID:22127057

  13. Experimental loss-tolerant quantum coin flipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlín, Guido; Brassard, Gilles; Bussières, Félix; Godbout, Nicolas; Slater, Joshua A.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2011-11-01

    Coin flipping is a cryptographic primitive in which two distrustful parties wish to generate a random bit to choose between two alternatives. This task is impossible to realize when it relies solely on the asynchronous exchange of classical bits: one dishonest player has complete control over the final outcome. It is only when coin flipping is supplemented with quantum communication that this problem can be alleviated, although partial bias remains. Unfortunately, practical systems are subject to loss of quantum data, which allows a cheater to force a bias that is complete or arbitrarily close to complete in all previous protocols and implementations. Here we report on the first experimental demonstration of a quantum coin-flipping protocol for which loss cannot be exploited to cheat better. By eliminating the problem of loss, which is unavoidable in any realistic setting, quantum coin flipping takes a significant step towards real-world applications of quantum communication.

  14. Adaptive Control in the Presence of Simultaneous Sensor Bias and Actuator Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, Suresh M.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of simultaneously accommodating unknown sensor biases and unknown actuator failures in uncertain systems is considered in a direct model reference adaptive control (MRAC) setting for state tracking using state feedback. Sensor biases and actuator faults may be present at the outset or may occur at unknown instants of time during operation. A modified MRAC law is proposed, which combines sensor bias estimation with control gain adaptation for accommodation of sensor biases and actuator failures. This control law is shown to provide signal boundedness in the resulting system. For the case when an external asymptotically stable sensor bias estimator is available, an MRAC law is developed to accomplish asymptotic state tracking and signal boundedness. For a special case wherein biases are only present in the rate measurements and bias-free position measurements are available, an MRAC law is developed using a model-independent bias estimator, and is shown to provide asymptotic state tracking with signal boundedness.

  15. Boccioni's coin.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Sergio; Teja, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The Ardito was a fighter as well as a competitor whose status as a 'warrior' was based on courage and superior physical performance: a superior man. In addition, his exuberant conduct, both on and off the battlefield, introduced a significant new sub-culture into post-war Italian society, contributing to the attachment of notable value to virility and Mussolini's cult of the 'strong man'. The purpose of this research is to analyse the impact of this 'arditismo' (spirit of daring) on the early post-war period in particular, including the different 'male image' of the Italian citizen, and to study the sense of virility in the transition from the liberal, easy-going 'Little Italy' of Giovanni Giolitti (1842-1928) to a manly, combative, and ambitious nation. Together with some of the vitalistic tendencies in the Futurist movement, the main characteristics and mentality of the ex-Ardito (former Special Forces) would thus be significantly influential in the ideology of nascent Fascism. Indeed, the 'arditismo' influence, together with the article and social movement known as Futurism would constitute the two most highly structured foundations of early Fascist culture, bringing a political and social revolution necessary to create a 'new man'. It was as if the Arditi and the new method of military training had transferred their experience from the military into civilian life, contributing to a renewal of the image of the Italian male in the collective imagination. Indirectly, the image of women would also begin to absorb and adapt to new sports models imported from abroad, which would create for the Italian Ardito, a grudgingly tolerated rival. The main sources for this paper are the archives of the Historical Office of the Army, advertising and manuals from the late nineteenth to the early twentieth century, placards and graphic publicity from books and journals or private collections, and exhibition catalogues.

  16. Boccioni's coin.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Sergio; Teja, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The Ardito was a fighter as well as a competitor whose status as a 'warrior' was based on courage and superior physical performance: a superior man. In addition, his exuberant conduct, both on and off the battlefield, introduced a significant new sub-culture into post-war Italian society, contributing to the attachment of notable value to virility and Mussolini's cult of the 'strong man'. The purpose of this research is to analyse the impact of this 'arditismo' (spirit of daring) on the early post-war period in particular, including the different 'male image' of the Italian citizen, and to study the sense of virility in the transition from the liberal, easy-going 'Little Italy' of Giovanni Giolitti (1842-1928) to a manly, combative, and ambitious nation. Together with some of the vitalistic tendencies in the Futurist movement, the main characteristics and mentality of the ex-Ardito (former Special Forces) would thus be significantly influential in the ideology of nascent Fascism. Indeed, the 'arditismo' influence, together with the article and social movement known as Futurism would constitute the two most highly structured foundations of early Fascist culture, bringing a political and social revolution necessary to create a 'new man'. It was as if the Arditi and the new method of military training had transferred their experience from the military into civilian life, contributing to a renewal of the image of the Italian male in the collective imagination. Indirectly, the image of women would also begin to absorb and adapt to new sports models imported from abroad, which would create for the Italian Ardito, a grudgingly tolerated rival. The main sources for this paper are the archives of the Historical Office of the Army, advertising and manuals from the late nineteenth to the early twentieth century, placards and graphic publicity from books and journals or private collections, and exhibition catalogues. PMID:21714203

  17. Effects of prism adaptation on motor-intentional spatial bias in neglect

    PubMed Central

    Fortis, Paola; Chen, Peii; Goedert, Kelly M.; Barrett, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    Prism adaptation may alleviate some symptoms of spatial neglect. However, the mechanism through which this technique works is still unclear. The current study investigated whether prism adaptation differentially affects dysfunction in perceptual-attentional “where” versus motor-intentional “aiming” bias. Five neglect patients performed a line bisection task in which lines were viewed under both normal and right-left reversed viewing conditions, allowing for the fractionation of “where” and “aiming” spatial bias components. Following two consecutive days of prism adaptation, participants demonstrated a significant improvement in “aiming” spatial bias, with no effect on “where” spatial bias. These findings suggest that prism adaptation may primarily affect motor-intentional “aiming” bias in post-stroke spatial neglect patients. PMID:21817924

  18. Experimental Quantum-Walk Revival with a Time-Dependent Coin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, P.; Zhang, R.; Qin, H.; Zhan, X.; Bian, Z. H.; Li, J.; Sanders, Barry C.

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a quantum walk with time-dependent coin bias. With this technique we realize an experimental single-photon one-dimensional quantum walk with a linearly ramped time-dependent coin flip operation and thereby demonstrate two periodic revivals of the walker distribution. In our beam-displacer interferometer, the walk corresponds to movement between discretely separated transverse modes of the field serving as lattice sites, and the time-dependent coin flip is effected by implementing a different angle between the optical axis of half-wave plate and the light propagation at each step. Each of the quantum-walk steps required to realize a revival comprises two sequential orthogonal coin-flip operators, with one coin having constant bias and the other coin having a time-dependent ramped coin bias, followed by a conditional translation of the walker.

  19. Experimental quantum-walk revival with a time-dependent coin.

    PubMed

    Xue, P; Zhang, R; Qin, H; Zhan, X; Bian, Z H; Li, J; Sanders, Barry C

    2015-04-10

    We demonstrate a quantum walk with time-dependent coin bias. With this technique we realize an experimental single-photon one-dimensional quantum walk with a linearly ramped time-dependent coin flip operation and thereby demonstrate two periodic revivals of the walker distribution. In our beam-displacer interferometer, the walk corresponds to movement between discretely separated transverse modes of the field serving as lattice sites, and the time-dependent coin flip is effected by implementing a different angle between the optical axis of half-wave plate and the light propagation at each step. Each of the quantum-walk steps required to realize a revival comprises two sequential orthogonal coin-flip operators, with one coin having constant bias and the other coin having a time-dependent ramped coin bias, followed by a conditional translation of the walker. PMID:25910099

  20. Learning to speciate: The biased learning of mate preferences promotes adaptive radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, R. Tucker; Kozak, Genevieve M.

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of rapid repeated speciation called adaptive radiations have generated much of Earth's biodiversity and fascinated biologists since Darwin, but we still do not know why some lineages radiate and others do not. Understanding what causes assortative mating to evolve rapidly and repeatedly in the same lineage is key to understanding adaptive radiation. Many species that have undergone adaptive radiations exhibit mate preference learning, where individuals acquire mate preferences by observing the phenotypes of other members of their populations. Mate preference learning can be biased if individuals also learn phenotypes to avoid in mates, and shift their preferences away from these avoided phenotypes. We used individual‐based computational simulations to study whether biased and unbiased mate preference learning promotes ecological speciation and adaptive radiation. We found that ecological speciation can be rapid and repeated when mate preferences are biased, but is inhibited when mate preferences are learned without bias. Our results suggest that biased mate preference learning may play an important role in generating animal biodiversity through adaptive radiation. PMID:26459795

  1. Learning to speciate: The biased learning of mate preferences promotes adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Gilman, R Tucker; Kozak, Genevieve M

    2015-11-01

    Bursts of rapid repeated speciation called adaptive radiations have generated much of Earth's biodiversity and fascinated biologists since Darwin, but we still do not know why some lineages radiate and others do not. Understanding what causes assortative mating to evolve rapidly and repeatedly in the same lineage is key to understanding adaptive radiation. Many species that have undergone adaptive radiations exhibit mate preference learning, where individuals acquire mate preferences by observing the phenotypes of other members of their populations. Mate preference learning can be biased if individuals also learn phenotypes to avoid in mates, and shift their preferences away from these avoided phenotypes. We used individual-based computational simulations to study whether biased and unbiased mate preference learning promotes ecological speciation and adaptive radiation. We found that ecological speciation can be rapid and repeated when mate preferences are biased, but is inhibited when mate preferences are learned without bias. Our results suggest that biased mate preference learning may play an important role in generating animal biodiversity through adaptive radiation.

  2. Constrained adaptive bias correction for satellite radiances assimilation in the ECMWF 4D-Var

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Bormann, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Satellite radiance observations are typically affected by biases that arise from uncertainties in the absolute calibration, the radiative transfer modeling, or other aspects. These biases have to be removed for the successful assimilation of the data in NWP systems. Two key problems have been identified in bias correction: Firstly, bias corrections can drift towards unrealistic values in regions where there is strong model error and relatively few "anchor" observations, ie, observations that have little systematic error and therefore allow the separation between model and observation bias. Examples where this has been particularly problematic are channels sensitive to ozone or stratospheric temperature. Secondly, there is undesired interaction between the quality control and bias correction for observations where bias-corrected observation departures are used for quality control and where these departures show skewed distributions (e.g., in case of cloud detection). In the study, we investigated potential solutions to these problems by providing further constraints using potential available information, such as constraints on the size of the bias correction and innovative bias correction metrics using uncertainty estimation from calibration and radiative transfer. This has been studied in the full ECMWF global 4D-Var system, using data from microwave sounders which are sensitive to stratospheric temperature. The resulting enhanced bias corrections was assessed in the context of other assimilated observations (in particular radiosondes and GPS radio occultation measurements), and through comparisons of MLS temperature retrieval data in stratosphere and mesosphere. The constrained adaptive bias correction of AMSU-A stratospheric sounding channels reduces the biases in stratosphere and improves the medium range forecasts in both stratosphere and troposphere.

  3. The Problem of Bias in Person Parameter Estimation in Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doebler, Anna

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that deviations of estimated from true values of item difficulty parameters, caused for example by item calibration errors, the neglect of randomness of item difficulty parameters, testlet effects, or rule-based item generation, can lead to systematic bias in point estimation of person parameters in the context of adaptive testing.…

  4. Experimental Quantum Coin Tossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terriza, G.; Vaziri, A.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we present the first implementation of a quantum coin-tossing protocol. This protocol belongs to a class of “two-party” cryptographic problems, where the communication partners distrust each other. As with a number of such two-party protocols, the best implementation of the quantum coin tossing requires qutrits, resulting in a higher security than using qubits. In this way, we have also performed the first complete quantum communication protocol with qutrits. In our experiment the two partners succeeded to remotely toss a row of coins using photons entangled in the orbital angular momentum. We also show the experimental bounds of a possible cheater and the ways of detecting him.

  5. Coins of the Realm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Each year Ethel R. Jones Elementary School in Portage, Indiana picks a theme for the year. This past year the theme was Indiana Jones, so the author decided to fill her classroom with projects based upon ancient civilizations and archaeology. In this article, she describes how her students made Viking-style coins. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  6. An adaptive scaling and biasing scheme for OFDM-based visible light communication systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaocheng; Wang, Qi; Chen, Sheng; Hanzo, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) has been widely used in visible light communication systems to achieve high-rate data transmission. Due to the nonlinear transfer characteristics of light emitting diodes (LEDs) and owing the high peak-to-average-power ratio of OFDM signals, the transmitted signal has to be scaled and biased before modulating the LEDs. In this contribution, an adaptive scaling and biasing scheme is proposed for OFDM-based visible light communication systems, which fully exploits the dynamic range of the LEDs and improves the achievable system performance. Specifically, the proposed scheme calculates near-optimal scaling and biasing factors for each specific OFDM symbol according to the distribution of the signals, which strikes an attractive trade-off between the effective signal power and the clipping-distortion power. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly improves the performance without changing the LED's emitted power, while maintaining the same receiver structure. PMID:24921387

  7. Adaptation to leftward-shifting prisms reduces the global processing bias of healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bultitude, Janet H; Woods, Jill M

    2010-05-01

    When healthy individuals are presented with peripheral figures in which small letters are arranged to form a large letter, they are faster to identify the global- than the local-level information, and have difficulty ignoring global information when identifying the local level. The global reaction time (RT) advantage and global interference effect imply preferential processing of global-level information in the normal brain. This contrasts with the local processing bias demonstrated following lesions to the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), such as those that lead to hemispatial neglect (neglect). Recent research from our lab demonstrated that visuo-motor adaptation to rightward-shifting prisms, which ameliorates many leftward performance deficits of neglect patients, improved the local processing bias of patients with right TPJ lesions (Bultitude, Rafal, & List, 2009). Here we demonstrate that adaptation to leftward-shifting prisms, which can induce neglect-like performance in neurologically healthy individuals, also reduces the normal global processing bias. Forty-eight healthy participants were asked to identify the global or local forms of hierarchical figures before and after adaptation to leftward- or rightward-shifting prisms. Prior to prism adaptation, both groups had greater difficulty ignoring irrelevant global information when identifying the local level (global interference) compared to their ability to ignore irrelevant local-level information when identifying the global level (local interference). Participants who adapted to leftward-shifting prisms showed a significant reduction in global interference, but there was no change in the performance of the rightward-shifting Prism Group. These results show, for the first time, that in addition to previously demonstrated effects on lateralised attention, prism adaptation can influence non-lateralised spatial attention in healthy individuals.

  8. Fixation light hue bias revisited: implications for using adaptive optics to study color vision.

    PubMed

    Hofer, H J; Blaschke, J; Patolia, J; Koenig, D E

    2012-03-01

    Current vision science adaptive optics systems use near infrared wavefront sensor 'beacons' that appear as red spots in the visual field. Colored fixation targets are known to influence the perceived color of macroscopic visual stimuli (Jameson, D., & Hurvich, L. M. (1967). Fixation-light bias: An unwanted by-product of fixation control. Vision Research, 7, 805-809.), suggesting that the wavefront sensor beacon may also influence perceived color for stimuli displayed with adaptive optics. Despite its importance for proper interpretation of adaptive optics experiments on the fine scale interaction of the retinal mosaic and spatial and color vision, this potential bias has not yet been quantified or addressed. Here we measure the impact of the wavefront sensor beacon on color appearance for dim, monochromatic point sources in five subjects. The presence of the beacon altered color reports both when used as a fixation target as well as when displaced in the visual field with a chromatically neutral fixation target. This influence must be taken into account when interpreting previous experiments and new methods of adaptive correction should be used in future experiments using adaptive optics to study color.

  9. 3D design and electric simulation of a silicon drift detector using a spiral biasing adapter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-yun; Xiong, Bo; Li, Zheng

    2016-09-01

    The detector system of combining a spiral biasing adapter (SBA) with a silicon drift detector (SBA-SDD) is largely different from the traditional silicon drift detector (SDD), including the spiral SDD. It has a spiral biasing adapter of the same design as a traditional spiral SDD and an SDD with concentric rings having the same radius. Compared with the traditional spiral SDD, the SBA-SDD separates the spiral's functions of biasing adapter and the p-n junction definition. In this paper, the SBA-SDD is simulated using a Sentaurus TCAD tool, which is a full 3D device simulation tool. The simulated electric characteristics include electric potential, electric field, electron concentration, and single event effect. Because of the special design of the SBA-SDD, the SBA can generate an optimum drift electric field in the SDD, comparable with the conventional spiral SDD, while the SDD can be designed with concentric rings to reduce surface area. Also the current and heat generated in the SBA are separated from the SDD. To study the single event response, we simulated the induced current caused by incident heavy ions (20 and 50 μm penetration length) with different linear energy transfer (LET). The SBA-SDD can be used just like a conventional SDD, such as X-ray detector for energy spectroscopy and imaging, etc.

  10. Bit-commitment-based quantum coin flipping

    SciTech Connect

    Nayak, Ashwin; Shor, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we focus on a special framework for quantum coin-flipping protocols, bit-commitment-based protocols, within which almost all known protocols fit. We show a lower bound of 1/16 for the bias in any such protocol. We also analyze a sequence of multiround protocols that tries to overcome the drawbacks of the previously proposed protocols in order to lower the bias. We show an intricate cheating strategy for this sequence, which leads to a bias of 1/4. This indicates that a bias of 1/4 might be optimal in such protocols, and also demonstrates that a more clever proof technique may be required to show this optimality.

  11. The Adaptive Biasing Force Method: Everything You Always Wanted To Know but Were Afraid To Ask

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the host of numerical schemes devised to calculate free energy differences by way of geometric transformations, the adaptive biasing force algorithm has emerged as a promising route to map complex free-energy landscapes. It relies upon the simple concept that as a simulation progresses, a continuously updated biasing force is added to the equations of motion, such that in the long-time limit it yields a Hamiltonian devoid of an average force acting along the transition coordinate of interest. This means that sampling proceeds uniformly on a flat free-energy surface, thus providing reliable free-energy estimates. Much of the appeal of the algorithm to the practitioner is in its physically intuitive underlying ideas and the absence of any requirements for prior knowledge about free-energy landscapes. Since its inception in 2001, the adaptive biasing force scheme has been the subject of considerable attention, from in-depth mathematical analysis of convergence properties to novel developments and extensions. The method has also been successfully applied to many challenging problems in chemistry and biology. In this contribution, the method is presented in a comprehensive, self-contained fashion, discussing with a critical eye its properties, applicability, and inherent limitations, as well as introducing novel extensions. Through free-energy calculations of prototypical molecular systems, many methodological aspects are examined, from stratification strategies to overcoming the so-called hidden barriers in orthogonal space, relevant not only to the adaptive biasing force algorithm but also to other importance-sampling schemes. On the basis of the discussions in this paper, a number of good practices for improving the efficiency and reliability of the computed free-energy differences are proposed. PMID:25247823

  12. Serial composition of quantum coin flipping and bounds on cheat detection for bit commitment

    SciTech Connect

    Mochon, Carlos

    2004-09-01

    Quantum protocols for coin flipping can be composed in series in such a way that a cheating party gains no extra advantage from using entanglement between different rounds. This composition principle applies to coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity as well, and is used to derive two results: There are no quantum strong coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity that is linear in the bias (or bit-commitment protocols with linear cheat detection) because these can be composed to produce strong coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias. On the other hand, it appears that quadratic cheat detection cannot be composed in series to obtain even weak coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias.

  13. When we should worry more: using cognitive bias modification to drive adaptive health behaviour.

    PubMed

    Notebaert, Lies; Chrystal, Jessica; Clarke, Patrick J F; Holmes, Emily A; MacLeod, Colin

    2014-01-01

    A lack of behavioural engagement in health promotion or disease prevention is a problem across many health domains. In these cases where people face a genuine danger, a reduced focus on threat and low levels of anxiety or worry are maladaptive in terms of promoting protection or prevention behaviour. Therefore, it is possible that increasing the processing of threat will increase worry and thereby enhance engagement in adaptive behaviour. Laboratory studies have shown that cognitive bias modification (CBM) can increase or decrease anxiety and worry when increased versus decreased processing of threat is encouraged. In the current study, CBM for interpretation (CBM-I) is used to target engagement in sun protection behaviour. The goal was to investigate whether inducing a negative rather than a positive interpretation bias for physical threat information can enhance worry elicited when viewing a health campaign video (warning against melanoma skin cancer), and consequently lead to more adaptive behaviour (sun protection). Participants were successfully trained to either adopt a positive or negative interpretation bias using physical threat scenarios. However, contrary to expectations results showed that participants in the positive training condition reported higher levels of worry elicited by the melanoma video than participants in the negative training condition. Video elicited worry was, however, positively correlated with a measure of engagement in sun protection behaviour, suggesting that higher levels of worry do promote adaptive behaviour. These findings imply that more research is needed to determine under which conditions increased versus decreased processing of threat can drive adaptive worry. Various potential explanations for the current findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  14. When We Should Worry More: Using Cognitive Bias Modification to Drive Adaptive Health Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Notebaert, Lies; Chrystal, Jessica; Clarke, Patrick J. F.; Holmes, Emily A.; MacLeod, Colin

    2014-01-01

    A lack of behavioural engagement in health promotion or disease prevention is a problem across many health domains. In these cases where people face a genuine danger, a reduced focus on threat and low levels of anxiety or worry are maladaptive in terms of promoting protection or prevention behaviour. Therefore, it is possible that increasing the processing of threat will increase worry and thereby enhance engagement in adaptive behaviour. Laboratory studies have shown that cognitive bias modification (CBM) can increase or decrease anxiety and worry when increased versus decreased processing of threat is encouraged. In the current study, CBM for interpretation (CBM-I) is used to target engagement in sun protection behaviour. The goal was to investigate whether inducing a negative rather than a positive interpretation bias for physical threat information can enhance worry elicited when viewing a health campaign video (warning against melanoma skin cancer), and consequently lead to more adaptive behaviour (sun protection). Participants were successfully trained to either adopt a positive or negative interpretation bias using physical threat scenarios. However, contrary to expectations results showed that participants in the positive training condition reported higher levels of worry elicited by the melanoma video than participants in the negative training condition. Video elicited worry was, however, positively correlated with a measure of engagement in sun protection behaviour, suggesting that higher levels of worry do promote adaptive behaviour. These findings imply that more research is needed to determine under which conditions increased versus decreased processing of threat can drive adaptive worry. Various potential explanations for the current findings and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24416344

  15. Adaptively biased molecular dynamics: An umbrella sampling method with a time-dependent potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, Volodymyr; Karpusenka, Vadzim; Moradi, Mahmoud; Roland, Christopher; Sagui, Celeste

    We discuss an adaptively biased molecular dynamics (ABMD) method for the computation of a free energy surface for a set of reaction coordinates. The ABMD method belongs to the general category of umbrella sampling methods with an evolving biasing potential. It is characterized by a small number of control parameters and an O(t) numerical cost with simulation time t. The method naturally allows for extensions based on multiple walkers and replica exchange mechanism. The workings of the method are illustrated with a number of examples, including sugar puckering, and free energy landscapes for polymethionine and polyproline peptides, and for a short β-turn peptide. ABMD has been implemented into the latest version (Case et al., AMBER 10; University of California: San Francisco, 2008) of the AMBER software package and is freely available to the simulation community.

  16. The Adaptively Biased Molecular Dynamics method revisited: New capabilities and an application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Mahmoud; Babin, Volodymyr; Roland, Christopher; Sagui, Celeste

    2015-09-01

    The free energy is perhaps one of the most important quantity required for describing biomolecular systems at equilibrium. Unfortunately, accurate and reliable free energies are notoriously difficult to calculate. To address this issue, we previously developed the Adaptively Biased Molecular Dynamics (ABMD) method for accurate calculation of rugged free energy surfaces (FES). Here, we briefly review the workings of the ABMD method with an emphasis on recent software additions, along with a short summary of a selected ABMD application based on the B-to-Z DNA transition. The ABMD method, along with current extensions, is currently implemented in the AMBER (ver.10-14) software package.

  17. Quantum coin flipping secure against channel noises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Yuexin

    2015-08-01

    So far, most existing single-shot quantum coin flipping (QCF) protocols have failed in a noisy quantum channel. Here, we present a nested-structure framework that makes it possible to achieve partially noise-tolerant QCF, due to a trade-off between the security and the justice correctness. It is showed that noise-tolerant single-shot QCF protocols can be produced by filling the presented framework up with existing or even future protocols. We also proved a lower bound of 0.25, with which a cheating Alice or Bob could bias the outcome.

  18. Creative Coin Combinations. Unit Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    This unit of study for grades K-2 focuses on counting coins and coin equivalencies up to 50 cents, making use of a literature connection. The unit provides key words; recommends subject areas and approximate length of time; poses an essential question or problem; provides a unit introduction; notes four individual lessons ((1) For Sale!; (2)…

  19. Practical quantum coin flipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappa, Anna; Chailloux, André; Diamanti, Eleni; Kerenidis, Iordanis

    2011-11-01

    We show that in the unconditional security model, a single quantum strong coin flip with security guarantees that are strictly better than in any classical protocol is possible to implement with current technology. Our protocol takes into account all aspects of an experimental implementation, including losses, multiphoton pulses emitted by practical photon sources, channel noise, detector dark counts, and finite quantum efficiency. We calculate the abort probability when both players are honest, as well as the probability of one player forcing his desired outcome. For a channel length up to 21 km and commonly used parameter values, we can achieve honest abort and cheating probabilities that are better than in any classical protocol. Our protocol is, in principle, implementable using attenuated laser pulses, with no need for entangled photons or any other specific resources.

  20. Practical quantum coin flipping

    SciTech Connect

    Pappa, Anna; Diamanti, Eleni; Chailloux, Andre; Kerenidis, Iordanis

    2011-11-15

    We show that in the unconditional security model, a single quantum strong coin flip with security guarantees that are strictly better than in any classical protocol is possible to implement with current technology. Our protocol takes into account all aspects of an experimental implementation, including losses, multiphoton pulses emitted by practical photon sources, channel noise, detector dark counts, and finite quantum efficiency. We calculate the abort probability when both players are honest, as well as the probability of one player forcing his desired outcome. For a channel length up to 21 km and commonly used parameter values, we can achieve honest abort and cheating probabilities that are better than in any classical protocol. Our protocol is, in principle, implementable using attenuated laser pulses, with no need for entangled photons or any other specific resources.

  1. Adaptive on-line estimation and control of overlay tool bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Victor M.; Finn, Karen; Edgar, Thomas F.

    2003-06-01

    Modern lithographic manufacturing processes rely on various types of exposure tools, used in a mix-and-match fashion. The motivation to use older tools alongside state-of-the-art tools is lower cost and one of the tradeoffs is a degradation in overlay performance. While average prices of semiconductor products continue to fall, the cost of manufacturing equipment rises with every product generation. Lithography processing, including the cost of ownership for tools, accounts for roughly 30% of the wafer processing costs, thus the importance of mix-and-match strategies. Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) run-by-run controllers are widely used in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. This type of controller has been implemented successfully in volume manufacturing, improving Cpk values dramatically in processes like photolithography and chemical mechanical planarization. This simple, but powerful control scheme is well suited for adding corrections to compensate for Overlay Tool Bias (OTB). We have developed an adaptive estimation technique to compensate for overlay variability due to differences in the processing tools. The OTB can be dynamically calculated for each tool, based on the most recent measurements available, and used to correct the control variables. One approach to tracking the effect of different tools is adaptive modeling and control. The basic premise of an adaptive system is to change or adapt the controller as the operating conditions of the system change. Using closed-loop data, the adaptive control algorithm estimates the controller parameters using a recursive estimation technique. Once an updated model of the system is available, modelbased control becomes feasible. In the simplest scenario, the control law can be reformulated to include the current state of the tool (or its estimate) to compensate dynamically for OTB. We have performed simulation studies to predict the impact of deploying this strategy in production. The results

  2. Fair loss-tolerant quantum coin flipping

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, Guido; Brassard, Gilles; Bussieres, Felix; Godbout, Nicolas

    2009-12-15

    Coin flipping is a cryptographic primitive in which two spatially separated players, who do not trust each other, wish to establish a common random bit. If we limit ourselves to classical communication, this task requires either assumptions on the computational power of the players or it requires them to send messages to each other with sufficient simultaneity to force their complete independence. Without such assumptions, all classical protocols are so that one dishonest player has complete control over the outcome. If we use quantum communication, on the other hand, protocols have been introduced that limit the maximal bias that dishonest players can produce. However, those protocols would be very difficult to implement in practice because they are susceptible to realistic losses on the quantum channel between the players or in their quantum memory and measurement apparatus. In this paper, we introduce a quantum protocol and we prove that it is completely impervious to loss. The protocol is fair in the sense that either player has the same probability of success in cheating attempts at biasing the outcome of the coin flip. We also give explicit and optimal cheating strategies for both players.

  3. Fair loss-tolerant quantum coin flipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlín, Guido; Brassard, Gilles; Bussières, Félix; Godbout, Nicolas

    2009-12-01

    Coin flipping is a cryptographic primitive in which two spatially separated players, who do not trust each other, wish to establish a common random bit. If we limit ourselves to classical communication, this task requires either assumptions on the computational power of the players or it requires them to send messages to each other with sufficient simultaneity to force their complete independence. Without such assumptions, all classical protocols are so that one dishonest player has complete control over the outcome. If we use quantum communication, on the other hand, protocols have been introduced that limit the maximal bias that dishonest players can produce. However, those protocols would be very difficult to implement in practice because they are susceptible to realistic losses on the quantum channel between the players or in their quantum memory and measurement apparatus. In this paper, we introduce a quantum protocol and we prove that it is completely impervious to loss. The protocol is fair in the sense that either player has the same probability of success in cheating attempts at biasing the outcome of the coin flip. We also give explicit and optimal cheating strategies for both players.

  4. The Adaptive Significance of Sensory Bias in a Foraging Context: Floral Colour Preferences in the Bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Nigel E.; Chittka, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Innate sensory biases could play an important role in helping naïve animals to find food. As inexperienced bees are known to have strong innate colour biases we investigated whether bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) colonies with stronger biases for the most rewarding flower colour (violet) foraged more successfully in their local flora. To test the adaptive significance of variation in innate colour bias, we compared the performance of colour-naïve bees, from nine bumblebee colonies raised from local wild-caught queens, in a laboratory colour bias paradigm using violet (bee UV-blue) and blue (bee blue) artificial flowers. The foraging performance of the same colonies was assessed under field conditions. Colonies with a stronger innate bias for violet over blue flowers in the laboratory harvested more nectar per unit time under field conditions. In fact, the colony with the strongest bias for violet (over blue) brought in 41% more nectar than the colony with the least strong bias. As violet flowers in the local area produce more nectar than blue flowers (the next most rewarding flower colour), these data are consistent with the hypothesis that local variation in flower traits could drive selection for innate colour biases. PMID:17579727

  5. Enhancement and bias removal of optical coherence tomography images: An iterative approach with adaptive bilateral filtering.

    PubMed

    Sudeep, P V; Issac Niwas, S; Palanisamy, P; Rajan, Jeny; Xiaojun, Yu; Wang, Xianghong; Luo, Yuemei; Liu, Linbo

    2016-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has continually evolved and expanded as one of the most valuable routine tests in ophthalmology. However, noise (speckle) in the acquired images causes quality degradation of OCT images and makes it difficult to analyze the acquired images. In this paper, an iterative approach based on bilateral filtering is proposed for speckle reduction in multiframe OCT data. Gamma noise model is assumed for the observed OCT image. First, the adaptive version of the conventional bilateral filter is applied to enhance the multiframe OCT data and then the bias due to noise is reduced from each of the filtered frames. These unbiased filtered frames are then refined using an iterative approach. Finally, these refined frames are averaged to produce the denoised OCT image. Experimental results on phantom images and real OCT retinal images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed filter. PMID:26907572

  6. Buffon's Coin Problem and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiter, Kady

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an investigation of Buffon's coin problem and related problems with the aid of an applet. The problems are accessible at a variety of grade levels and facilitate making connections between geometry and probability.

  7. Application of adaptive kinetic modelling for bias propagation reduction in direct 4D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotasidis, F. A.; Matthews, J. C.; Reader, A. J.; Angelis, G. I.; Zaidi, H.

    2014-10-01

    Parametric imaging in thoracic and abdominal PET can provide additional parameters more relevant to the pathophysiology of the system under study. However, dynamic data in the body are noisy due to the limiting counting statistics leading to suboptimal kinetic parameter estimates. Direct 4D image reconstruction algorithms can potentially improve kinetic parameter precision and accuracy in dynamic PET body imaging. However, construction of a common kinetic model is not always feasible and in contrast to post-reconstruction kinetic analysis, errors in poorly modelled regions may spatially propagate to regions which are well modelled. To reduce error propagation from erroneous model fits, we implement and evaluate a new approach to direct parameter estimation by incorporating a recently proposed kinetic modelling strategy within a direct 4D image reconstruction framework. The algorithm uses a secondary more general model to allow a less constrained model fit in regions where the kinetic model does not accurately describe the underlying kinetics. A portion of the residuals then is adaptively included back into the image whilst preserving the primary model characteristics in other well modelled regions using a penalty term that trades off the models. Using fully 4D simulations based on dynamic [15O]H2O datasets, we demonstrate reduction in propagation-related bias for all kinetic parameters. Under noisy conditions, reductions in bias due to propagation are obtained at the cost of increased noise, which in turn results in increased bias and variance of the kinetic parameters. This trade-off reflects the challenge of separating the residuals arising from poor kinetic modelling fits from the residuals arising purely from noise. Nonetheless, the overall root mean square error is reduced in most regions and parameters. Using the adaptive 4D image reconstruction improved model fits can be obtained in poorly modelled regions, leading to reduced errors potentially propagating

  8. Coining as a microforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keran, Zdenka; Math, Miljenko; Skunca, Marko

    2010-06-01

    Although elastic springback makes a great challenge in sheet metal forming, it is also a value that is considered in the area of coining. It is a parameter that can often make many difficulties when coin should obtain the etching of the die. That can happen because of small coin height in which leading part takes material composition, its grain size and microstructure. It classifies coining process to a group of microforming processes. Therefore, an experiment has been carried out whose task was to provide data about percentage of elastic springback in total deformation during coining process of Al 99.5%. This has been carried out for three different grain sizes of the same material. An experiment has also included microscopic observation of gravure filling for mentioned grain sizes and also for different tool forces. The final result is a correlation between grain size and elastic springback in coining process, and also a correlation between grain size and gravure filling for different tool forces.

  9. Asymmetrical effects of adaptation to left- and right-shifting prisms depends on pre-existing attentional biases.

    PubMed

    Goedert, Kelly M; Leblanc, Andrew; Tsai, Sen-Wei; Barrett, Anna M

    2010-09-01

    Proposals that adaptation with left-shifting prisms induces neglect-like symptoms in normal individuals rely on a dissociation between the postadaptation performance of individuals trained with left- versus right-shifting prisms (e.g., Colent, Pisella, & Rossetti, 2000). A potential problem with this evidence is that normal young adults have an a priori leftward bias (e.g., Jewell & McCourt, 2000). In Experiment 1, we compared the line bisection performance of young adults to that of aged adults, who as a group may lack a leftward bias in line bisection. Participants trained with both left- and right-shifting prisms. Consistent with our hypothesis, while young adults demonstrated aftereffects for left, but not right prisms, aged adults demonstrated reliable aftereffects for both prisms. In Experiment 2, we recruited a larger sample of young adults, some of whom were right-biased at baseline. We observed an interaction between baseline bias and prism-shift, consistent with the results of Experiment 1: Left-biased individuals showed a reduced aftereffect when training with right-shifting prisms and right-biased individuals showed a reduced aftereffect when training with left-shifting prisms. These results suggest that previous failures to find generalizable aftereffects with right-shifting prisms may be driven by participants' baseline biases rather than specific effects of the prism itself.

  10. A coin in the airway.

    PubMed

    Rogers, C; Chang, B; Shibuya, R

    1994-03-01

    A 69-year-old Chinese woman with widely metastatic endometrial carcinoma was found at autopsy to have a quarter in her air passages. Inquiry showed that her family had placed the coin in her mouth at the time of death according to traditional Chinese funeral practices. This practice is apparently not widely known among forensic pathologists.

  11. Ancient and Modern Coins Unit Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    Ancient times comes to life when a student can hold in his/her hand or read about an artifact, such as a coin of the Greek or Roman era. Students are familiar with coins, and this commonality helps them understand the similarities and differences between their lives and times in ancient Greece or Rome. Many symbols on the ancient coins can be…

  12. 31 CFR 100.10 - Exchange of uncurrent coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exchange of uncurrent coins. 100.10..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Coin § 100.10 Exchange of uncurrent coins. (a) Definition. Uncurrent coins are whole U.S. coins which are merely worn or reduced...

  13. 31 CFR 100.10 - Exchange of uncurrent coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of uncurrent coins. 100.10... CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Coin § 100.10 Exchange of uncurrent coins. (a) Definition. Uncurrent coins are whole U.S. coins which are merely worn or reduced in weight by natural abrasion yet are...

  14. Working memory capacity is associated with optimal adaptation of response bias to perceptual sensitivity in emotion perception.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Spencer K; Ibagon, Camila; Bui, Eric; Palitz, Sophie A; Simon, Naomi M; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-03-01

    Emotion perception, inferring the emotional state of another person, is a frequent judgment made under perceptual uncertainty (e.g., a scowling facial expression can indicate anger or concentration) and behavioral risk (e.g., incorrect judgment can be costly to the perceiver). Working memory capacity (WMC), the ability to maintain controlled processing in the face of competing demands, is an important component of many decisions. We investigated the association of WMC and anger perception in a task in which "angry" and "not angry" categories comprised overlapping ranges of scowl intensity, and correct and incorrect responses earned and lost points, respectively. Participants attempted to earn as many points as they could; adopting an optimal response bias would maximize decision utility. Participants with higher WMC more optimally tuned their anger perception response bias to accommodate their perceptual sensitivity (their ability to discriminate the categories) than did participants with lower WMC. Other factors that influence response bias (i.e., the relative base rate of angry vs. not angry faces and the decision costs and benefits) were ruled out as contributors to the WMC-bias relationship. Our results suggest that WMC optimizes emotion perception by contributing to perceivers' ability to adjust their response bias to account for their level of perceptual sensitivity, likely an important component of adapting emotion perception to dynamic social interactions and changing circumstances. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. The Role of Scale and Model Bias in ADAPT's Photospheric Eatimation

    SciTech Connect

    Godinez Vazquez, Humberto C.; Hickmann, Kyle Scott; Arge, Charles Nicholas; Henney, Carl

    2015-05-20

    The Air Force Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport model (ADAPT), is a magnetic flux propagation based on Worden-Harvey (WH) model. ADAPT would be used to provide a global photospheric map of the Earth. A data assimilation method based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), a method of Monte Carlo approximation tied with Kalman filtering, is used in calculating the ADAPT models.

  16. Left to Right: Representational Biases for Numbers and the Effect of Visuomotor Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Andrea M.; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Mattingley, Jason B.; Bradshaw, John L.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptation to right-shifting prisms improves left neglect for mental number line bisection. This study examined whether adaptation affects the mental number line in normal participants. Thirty-six participants completed a mental number line task before and after adaptation to either: left-shifting prisms, right-shifting prisms or control…

  17. Codon usage bias in phylum Actinobacteria: relevance to environmental adaptation and host pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Lal, Devi; Verma, Mansi; Behura, Susanta K; Lal, Rup

    2016-10-01

    Actinobacteria are Gram-positive bacteria commonly found in soil, freshwater and marine ecosystems. In this investigation, bias in codon usages of ninety actinobacterial genomes was analyzed by estimating different indices of codon bias such as Nc (effective number of codons), SCUO (synonymous codon usage order), RSCU (relative synonymous codon usage), as well as sequence patterns of codon contexts. The results revealed several characteristic features of codon usage in Actinobacteria, as follows: 1) C- or G-ending codons are used frequently in comparison with A- and U ending codons; 2) there is a direct relationship of GC content with use of specific amino acids such as alanine, proline and glycine; 3) there is an inverse relationship between GC content and Nc estimates, 4) there is low SCUO value (<0.5) for most genes; and 5) GCC-GCC, GCC-GGC, GCC-GAG and CUC-GAC are the frequent context sequences among codons. This study highlights the fact that: 1) in Actinobacteria, extreme GC content and codon bias are driven by mutation rather than natural selection; (2) traits like aerobicity are associated with effective natural selection and therefore low GC content and low codon bias, demonstrating the role of both mutational bias and translational selection in shaping the habitat and phenotype of actinobacterial species.

  18. Quantum walks driven by many coins

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Todd A.; Ambainis, Andris; Carteret, Hilary A.

    2003-05-01

    Quantum random walks have been much studied recently, largely due to their highly nonclassical behavior. In this paper, we study one possible route to classical behavior for the discrete quantum random walk on the line: the use of multiple quantum 'coins' (or more generally, coins of higher dimension) in order to diminish the effects of interference between paths. We find solutions to this system in terms of the single-coin random walk, and compare the asymptotic limit of these solutions to numerical simulations. We find exact analytical expressions for the time dependence of the first two moments, and show that in the long-time limit the ''quantum-mechanical'' behavior of the one-coin walk persists, even if each coin is flipped only twice. We further show that this is generic for a very broad class of possible walks, and that this behavior disappears only in the limit of a new coin for every step of the walk.

  19. Scholarly Research on Educational Adaptation of Social Media: Is There Evidence of Publication Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The sizeable majority of research findings on educational adaptation of social media (SM) is based on college student samples. A cursory review of the extant literature on the educational use of SM appears to convey an uncritical spirit regarding adaptations of modern Web 2.0 technology. This article examines the issue of whether "publication…

  20. How structural adaptability exists alongside HLA-A2 bias in the human αβ TCR repertoire.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Sydney J; Pierce, Brian G; Singh, Nishant K; Riley, Timothy P; Wang, Yuan; Spear, Timothy T; Nishimura, Michael I; Weng, Zhiping; Baker, Brian M

    2016-03-01

    How T-cell receptors (TCRs) can be intrinsically biased toward MHC proteins while simultaneously display the structural adaptability required to engage diverse ligands remains a controversial puzzle. We addressed this by examining αβ TCR sequences and structures for evidence of physicochemical compatibility with MHC proteins. We found that human TCRs are enriched in the capacity to engage a polymorphic, positively charged "hot-spot" region that is almost exclusive to the α1-helix of the common human class I MHC protein, HLA-A*0201 (HLA-A2). TCR binding necessitates hot-spot burial, yielding high energetic penalties that must be offset via complementary electrostatic interactions. Enrichment of negative charges in TCR binding loops, particularly the germ-line loops encoded by the TCR Vα and Vβ genes, provides this capacity and is correlated with restricted positioning of TCRs over HLA-A2. Notably, this enrichment is absent from antibody genes. The data suggest a built-in TCR compatibility with HLA-A2 that biases receptors toward, but does not compel, particular binding modes. Our findings provide an instructional example for how structurally pliant MHC biases can be encoded within TCRs. PMID:26884163

  1. How structural adaptability exists alongside HLA-A2 bias in the human αβ TCR repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Sydney J.; Pierce, Brian G.; Singh, Nishant K.; Riley, Timothy P.; Wang, Yuan; Spear, Timothy T.; Nishimura, Michael I.; Weng, Zhiping; Baker, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    How T-cell receptors (TCRs) can be intrinsically biased toward MHC proteins while simultaneously display the structural adaptability required to engage diverse ligands remains a controversial puzzle. We addressed this by examining αβ TCR sequences and structures for evidence of physicochemical compatibility with MHC proteins. We found that human TCRs are enriched in the capacity to engage a polymorphic, positively charged “hot-spot” region that is almost exclusive to the α1-helix of the common human class I MHC protein, HLA-A*0201 (HLA-A2). TCR binding necessitates hot-spot burial, yielding high energetic penalties that must be offset via complementary electrostatic interactions. Enrichment of negative charges in TCR binding loops, particularly the germ-line loops encoded by the TCR Vα and Vβ genes, provides this capacity and is correlated with restricted positioning of TCRs over HLA-A2. Notably, this enrichment is absent from antibody genes. The data suggest a built-in TCR compatibility with HLA-A2 that biases receptors toward, but does not compel, particular binding modes. Our findings provide an instructional example for how structurally pliant MHC biases can be encoded within TCRs. PMID:26884163

  2. Providing Effective Access to Shared Resources: A COIN Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Airiau, Stephane; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Managers of systems of shared resources typically have many separate goals. Examples are efficient utilization of the resources among its users and ensuring no user s satisfaction in the system falls below a preset minimal level. Since such goals will usually conflict with one another, either implicitly or explicitly the manager must determine the relative importance of the goals, encapsulating that into an overall utility function rating the possible behaviors of the entire system. Here we demonstrate a distributed, robust, and adaptive way to optimize that overall function. Our approach is to interpose adaptive agents between each user and the system, where each such agent is working to maximize its own private utility function. In turn, each such agent's function should be both relatively easy for the agent to learn to optimize, and "aligned" with the overall utility function of the system manager - an overall function that is based on but in general different from the satisfaction functions of the individual users. To ensure this we enhance the Collective INtelligence (COIN) framework to incorporate user satisfaction functions in the overall utility function of the system manager and accordingly in the associated private utility functions assigned to the users agents. We present experimental evaluations of different COIN-based private utility functions and demonstrate that those COIN-based functions outperform some natural alternatives.

  3. Providing Effective Access to Shared Resources: A COIN Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Airiau, Stephane; Wolpert, David H.; Sen, Sandip; Tumer, Kagan

    2003-01-01

    Managers of systems of shared resources typically have many separate goals. Examples are efficient utilization of the resources among its users and ensuring no user's satisfaction in the system falls below a preset minimal level. Since such goals will usually conflict with one another, either implicitly or explicitly the manager must determine the relative importance of the goals, encapsulating that into an overall utility function rating the possible behaviors of the entire system. Here we demonstrate a distributed, robust, and adaptive way to optimize that overall function. Our approach is to interpose adaptive agents between each user and the system, where each such agent is working to maximize its own private utility function. In turn, each such agent's function should be both relatively easy for the agent to learn to optimize, and 'aligned' with the overall utility function of the system manager - an overall function that is based on but in general different from the satisfaction functions of the individual users. To ensure this we enhance the COllective INtelligence (COIN) framework to incorporate user satisfaction functions in the overall utility function of the system manager and accordingly in the associated private utility functions assigned to the users agents. We present experimental evaluations of different COIN-based private utility functions and demonstrate that those COIN-based functions outperform some natural alternatives.

  4. Quantum Game of Two Discriminable Coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Heng-Feng; Wang, Qing-Liang

    2008-07-01

    In some recent letters, it was reported that quantum strategies are more successful than classical ones for coin-tossing and roulette game. In this paper, we will solve the quantum game of two discriminable coins. And we develop two methods, analogy method and isolation method, to study this problem.

  5. Microscopical Examination of Ancient Silver Coins

    SciTech Connect

    Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, El.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K.; Dilo, T.; Prifti, I.; Bilani, O.; Civici, N.; Stamati, F.; Gjongecaj, Sh.

    2007-04-23

    The microstructure of three silver coins of the IIId century B.C. from the Illyrian king Monounios, the ancient Greek city of Dyrrachion and of Korkyra was studied with XRF and microscopy. From this investigation it turned out that these coins have different chemical composition and microstructure that imply different minting method.

  6. Finite-time position and velocity estimation adapted to noisy biased acceleration measurements from periodic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, Antonio; Efimov, Denis; Perruquetti, Wilfrid

    2016-09-01

    The present work focuses on the problem of velocity and position estimation. A solution is presented for a class of oscillating systems in which position, velocity and acceleration are zero mean signals. The proposed scheme considers that the dynamic model of the system is unknown. Only noisy acceleration measurements, that may be contaminated by zero mean noise and constant bias, are considered to be available. The proposal uses the periodic nature of the signals obtaining finite-time estimations while tackling integration drift accumulation.

  7. Preliminary Report on Coining of Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P; Wall, M; Hodge, N; Schwartz, A

    2004-07-27

    We were tasked with developing a coining technique that would evaluate the feasibility of using a pressing, or coining process to imprint a one-dimensional sinusoidal pattern onto a thin disk specimen. We performed finite element method simulations of the coining process, designed, built, and tested a coining apparatus and tested surrogate materials, and coined a sample of special nuclear material. The preliminary results were encouraging. The pressing of a 3-mm diameter by {approx}100 {micro}m thick disc to 500 pounds of pressure produced a flat part with a 1-{micro}m deep by 50-{micro}m period sine wave pattern covering all of the surface and thus demonstrated the method for replicating ultraprecision, mesoscale features onto a near-net-shape metallic blank. This coining technique is being developed to provide specialty processing for the manufacturing of difficult to machine, millimeter-size components made from materials that present hazardous conditions. The technology is versatile and can be used to imprint a wide range of features, or profiles into two opposing surfaces. The coining process requires a simple, conceivably hand held tool, which efficiently produces ultra-precision work pieces without the production of byproducts such as machining chips, or grinding swarf. It shows promise for use on ductile materials that cannot be precision machined with conventional single crystal diamond tooling. As a production process, it can be used to reduce manufacturing costs where large numbers of ultra-precision, repetitive designs are required.

  8. Nano watt power rail-to-rail CMOS amplifier with adaptive biasing circuits for ultralow-power analog LSIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Toshihiro; Hirose, Tetsuya; Tsubaki, Keishi; Kuroki, Nobutaka; Numa, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present a rail-to-rail folded-cascode amplifier (AMP) with adaptive biasing circuits (ABCs). The circuit uses a nano ampere current reference circuit to achieve ultralow-power and ABCs to achieve high-speed operation. The ABCs are based on conventional circuits and modified to be suitable for rail-to-rail operation. The measurement results demonstrated that the AMP with the proposed ABCs can operate with an ultralow-power of 384 nA when the input voltage was 0.9 V and achieve high speeds of 0.162 V/µs at the rise time and 0.233 V/µs at the fall time when the input pulse frequency and the amplitude were 10 kHz and 1.5 Vpp, respectively.

  9. A High-Speed Adaptively-Biased Current-to-Current Front-End for SSPM Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Bob; Walder, Jean-Pierre; Lippe, Henrik vonder; Moses, William; Janecek, Martin

    Solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays are an interesting technology for use in PET detector modules due to their low cost, high compactness, insensitivity to magnetic fields, and sub-nanosecond timing resolution. However, the large intrinsic capacitance of SSPM arrays results in RC time constants that can severely degrade the response time, which leads to a trade-off between array size and speed. Instead, we propose a front-end that utilizes an adaptively biased current-to-current converter that minimizes the resistance seen by the SSPM array, thus preserving the timing resolution for both large and small arrays. This enables the use of large SSPM arrays with resistive networks, which creates position information and minimizes the number of outputs for compatibility with general PET multiplexing schemes. By tuning the bias of the feedback amplifier, the chip allows for precise control of the close-loop gain, ensuring stability and fast operation from loads as small as 50pF to loads as large as 1nF. The chip has 16 input channels, and 4 outputs capable of driving 100 n loads. The power consumption is 12mW per channel and 360mW for the entire chip. The chip has been designed and fabricated in an AMS 0.35um high-voltage technology, and demonstrates a fast rise-time response and low noise performances.

  10. XRF analysis of Roman Imperial coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorghinian, Astrik; Esposito, Adolfo; Ferretti, Marco; Catalli, Fiorenzo

    2013-08-01

    X-ray Fluorescence analysis has been applied on 477 ancient coins, issued in different mints active during the First Roman Emperor's reign Augustus. The study of the different denominations has been related to their composition and place/date of struck. The alloys studied were based on gold, silver and copper. The X-ray micro-beam supplied by a polycapillary optics has been often extremely precious in the analysis of very small coin's spot with no patina due to usage.

  11. 75 FR 2933 - Notification of Pricing for United States Mint 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls, 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... United States Mint Notification of Pricing for United States Mint 2010 Native American $1 Coin 25-Coin... Presidential $1 Coin 25-Coin Rolls SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the prices of the 2010 Native... both the United States Mint facilities at Philadelphia and Denver will be available. The 2010...

  12. How to Cope with Bias While Adapting for Inclusion in Physical Education and Sports: A Judgment and Decision-Making Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Bar-Eli, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a theoretical model and practice examples of judgment and decision making bias within the context of inclusion in physical education and sports. After presenting the context of adapting for inclusion, the theoretical roots of judgment and decision are described, and are linked to the practice of physical…

  13. Experimental plug and play quantum coin flipping.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Anna; Jouguet, Paul; Lawson, Thomas; Chailloux, André; Legré, Matthieu; Trinkler, Patrick; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Diamanti, Eleni

    2014-04-24

    Performing complex cryptographic tasks will be an essential element in future quantum communication networks. These tasks are based on a handful of fundamental primitives, such as coin flipping, where two distrustful parties wish to agree on a randomly generated bit. Although it is known that quantum versions of these primitives can offer information-theoretic security advantages with respect to classical protocols, a demonstration of such an advantage in a practical communication scenario has remained elusive. Here we experimentally implement a quantum coin flipping protocol that performs strictly better than classically possible over a distance suitable for communication over metropolitan area optical networks. The implementation is based on a practical plug and play system, developed by significantly enhancing a commercial quantum key distribution device. Moreover, we provide combined quantum coin flipping protocols that are almost perfectly secure against bounded adversaries. Our results offer a useful toolbox for future secure quantum communications.

  14. Experimental plug and play quantum coin flipping.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Anna; Jouguet, Paul; Lawson, Thomas; Chailloux, André; Legré, Matthieu; Trinkler, Patrick; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Diamanti, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Performing complex cryptographic tasks will be an essential element in future quantum communication networks. These tasks are based on a handful of fundamental primitives, such as coin flipping, where two distrustful parties wish to agree on a randomly generated bit. Although it is known that quantum versions of these primitives can offer information-theoretic security advantages with respect to classical protocols, a demonstration of such an advantage in a practical communication scenario has remained elusive. Here we experimentally implement a quantum coin flipping protocol that performs strictly better than classically possible over a distance suitable for communication over metropolitan area optical networks. The implementation is based on a practical plug and play system, developed by significantly enhancing a commercial quantum key distribution device. Moreover, we provide combined quantum coin flipping protocols that are almost perfectly secure against bounded adversaries. Our results offer a useful toolbox for future secure quantum communications. PMID:24758868

  15. Extended Adaptive Biasing Force Algorithm. An On-the-Fly Implementation for Accurate Free-Energy Calculations.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haohao; Shao, Xueguang; Chipot, Christophe; Cai, Wensheng

    2016-08-01

    Proper use of the adaptive biasing force (ABF) algorithm in free-energy calculations needs certain prerequisites to be met, namely, that the Jacobian for the metric transformation and its first derivative be available and the coarse variables be independent and fully decoupled from any holonomic constraint or geometric restraint, thereby limiting singularly the field of application of the approach. The extended ABF (eABF) algorithm circumvents these intrinsic limitations by applying the time-dependent bias onto a fictitious particle coupled to the coarse variable of interest by means of a stiff spring. However, with the current implementation of eABF in the popular molecular dynamics engine NAMD, a trajectory-based post-treatment is necessary to derive the underlying free-energy change. Usually, such a posthoc analysis leads to a decrease in the reliability of the free-energy estimates due to the inevitable loss of information, as well as to a drop in efficiency, which stems from substantial read-write accesses to file systems. We have developed a user-friendly, on-the-fly code for performing eABF simulations within NAMD. In the present contribution, this code is probed in eight illustrative examples. The performance of the algorithm is compared with traditional ABF, on the one hand, and the original eABF implementation combined with a posthoc analysis, on the other hand. Our results indicate that the on-the-fly eABF algorithm (i) supplies the correct free-energy landscape in those critical cases where the coarse variables at play are coupled to either each other or to geometric restraints or holonomic constraints, (ii) greatly improves the reliability of the free-energy change, compared to the outcome of a posthoc analysis, and (iii) represents a negligible additional computational effort compared to regular ABF. Moreover, in the proposed implementation, guidelines for choosing two parameters of the eABF algorithm, namely the stiffness of the spring and the mass

  16. Extended Adaptive Biasing Force Algorithm. An On-the-Fly Implementation for Accurate Free-Energy Calculations.

    PubMed

    Fu, Haohao; Shao, Xueguang; Chipot, Christophe; Cai, Wensheng

    2016-08-01

    Proper use of the adaptive biasing force (ABF) algorithm in free-energy calculations needs certain prerequisites to be met, namely, that the Jacobian for the metric transformation and its first derivative be available and the coarse variables be independent and fully decoupled from any holonomic constraint or geometric restraint, thereby limiting singularly the field of application of the approach. The extended ABF (eABF) algorithm circumvents these intrinsic limitations by applying the time-dependent bias onto a fictitious particle coupled to the coarse variable of interest by means of a stiff spring. However, with the current implementation of eABF in the popular molecular dynamics engine NAMD, a trajectory-based post-treatment is necessary to derive the underlying free-energy change. Usually, such a posthoc analysis leads to a decrease in the reliability of the free-energy estimates due to the inevitable loss of information, as well as to a drop in efficiency, which stems from substantial read-write accesses to file systems. We have developed a user-friendly, on-the-fly code for performing eABF simulations within NAMD. In the present contribution, this code is probed in eight illustrative examples. The performance of the algorithm is compared with traditional ABF, on the one hand, and the original eABF implementation combined with a posthoc analysis, on the other hand. Our results indicate that the on-the-fly eABF algorithm (i) supplies the correct free-energy landscape in those critical cases where the coarse variables at play are coupled to either each other or to geometric restraints or holonomic constraints, (ii) greatly improves the reliability of the free-energy change, compared to the outcome of a posthoc analysis, and (iii) represents a negligible additional computational effort compared to regular ABF. Moreover, in the proposed implementation, guidelines for choosing two parameters of the eABF algorithm, namely the stiffness of the spring and the mass

  17. Fully distrustful quantum bit commitment and coin flipping.

    PubMed

    Silman, J; Chailloux, A; Aharon, N; Kerenidis, I; Pironio, S; Massar, S

    2011-06-01

    In the distrustful quantum cryptography model the parties have conflicting interests and do not trust one another. Nevertheless, they trust the quantum devices in their labs. The aim of the device-independent approach to cryptography is to do away with the latter assumption, and, consequently, significantly increase security. It is an open question whether the scope of this approach also extends to protocols in the distrustful cryptography model, thereby rendering them "fully" distrustful. In this Letter, we show that for bit commitment-one of the most basic primitives within the model-the answer is positive. We present a device-independent (imperfect) bit-commitment protocol, where Alice's and Bob's cheating probabilities are ≃0.854 and 3/4, which we then use to construct a device-independent coin flipping protocol with bias ≲0.336.

  18. Fully distrustful quantum bit commitment and coin flipping.

    PubMed

    Silman, J; Chailloux, A; Aharon, N; Kerenidis, I; Pironio, S; Massar, S

    2011-06-01

    In the distrustful quantum cryptography model the parties have conflicting interests and do not trust one another. Nevertheless, they trust the quantum devices in their labs. The aim of the device-independent approach to cryptography is to do away with the latter assumption, and, consequently, significantly increase security. It is an open question whether the scope of this approach also extends to protocols in the distrustful cryptography model, thereby rendering them "fully" distrustful. In this Letter, we show that for bit commitment-one of the most basic primitives within the model-the answer is positive. We present a device-independent (imperfect) bit-commitment protocol, where Alice's and Bob's cheating probabilities are ≃0.854 and 3/4, which we then use to construct a device-independent coin flipping protocol with bias ≲0.336. PMID:21702585

  19. Fully Distrustful Quantum Bit Commitment and Coin Flipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silman, J.; Chailloux, A.; Aharon, N.; Kerenidis, I.; Pironio, S.; Massar, S.

    2011-06-01

    In the distrustful quantum cryptography model the parties have conflicting interests and do not trust one another. Nevertheless, they trust the quantum devices in their labs. The aim of the device-independent approach to cryptography is to do away with the latter assumption, and, consequently, significantly increase security. It is an open question whether the scope of this approach also extends to protocols in the distrustful cryptography model, thereby rendering them “fully” distrustful. In this Letter, we show that for bit commitment—one of the most basic primitives within the model—the answer is positive. We present a device-independent (imperfect) bit-commitment protocol, where Alice’s and Bob’s cheating probabilities are ≃0.854 and (3)/(4), which we then use to construct a device-independent coin flipping protocol with bias ≲0.336.

  20. Driving quantum-walk spreading with the coin operator

    SciTech Connect

    Romanelli, A.

    2009-10-15

    We generalize the discrete quantum walk on the line using a time-dependent unitary coin operator. We find an analytical relation between the long-time behaviors of the standard deviation and the coin operator. Selecting the coin time sequence allows to obtain a variety of predetermined asymptotic wave-function spreadings: ballistic, sub-ballistic, diffusive, subdiffusive, and localized.

  1. 31 CFR 100.11 - Exchange of bent and partial coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exchange of bent and partial coins... OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Coin § 100.11 Exchange of bent and partial coins. (a) Definitions. (1) Bent coins are U.S. coins which are bent or...

  2. 31 CFR 100.12 - Exchange of fused and mixed coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of fused and mixed coins... OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Coin § 100.12 Exchange of fused and mixed coins. (a) Definitions. (1) Fused coins are U.S. coins which are melted to the extent that they are bonded together...

  3. Adaptively biased sequential importance sampling for rare events in reaction networks with comparison to exact solutions from finite buffer dCME method

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Youfang; Liang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Critical events that occur rarely in biological processes are of great importance, but are challenging to study using Monte Carlo simulation. By introducing biases to reaction selection and reaction rates, weighted stochastic simulation algorithms based on importance sampling allow rare events to be sampled more effectively. However, existing methods do not address the important issue of barrier crossing, which often arises from multistable networks and systems with complex probability landscape. In addition, the proliferation of parameters and the associated computing cost pose significant problems. Here we introduce a general theoretical framework for obtaining optimized biases in sampling individual reactions for estimating probabilities of rare events. We further describe a practical algorithm called adaptively biased sequential importance sampling (ABSIS) method for efficient probability estimation. By adopting a look-ahead strategy and by enumerating short paths from the current state, we estimate the reaction-specific and state-specific forward and backward moving probabilities of the system, which are then used to bias reaction selections. The ABSIS algorithm can automatically detect barrier-crossing regions, and can adjust bias adaptively at different steps of the sampling process, with bias determined by the outcome of exhaustively generated short paths. In addition, there are only two bias parameters to be determined, regardless of the number of the reactions and the complexity of the network. We have applied the ABSIS method to four biochemical networks: the birth-death process, the reversible isomerization, the bistable Schlögl model, and the enzymatic futile cycle model. For comparison, we have also applied the finite buffer discrete chemical master equation (dCME) method recently developed to obtain exact numerical solutions of the underlying discrete chemical master equations of these problems. This allows us to assess sampling results objectively

  4. Multiple-Replica Strategies for Free-Energy Calculations in NAMD: Multiple-Walker Adaptive Biasing Force and Walker Selection Rules.

    PubMed

    Comer, Jeffrey; Phillips, James C; Schulten, Klaus; Chipot, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    From the most powerful supercomputers to multicore desktops and laptops, parallel computing architectures have been in the mainstream for some time. However, numerical schemes for calculating free energies in molecular systems that directly leverage this hardware paradigm, usually taking the form of multiple-replica strategies, are just now on the cusp of becoming standard practice. Here, we present a modification of the popular molecular dynamics program NAMD that is envisioned to facilitate the use of powerful multiple-replica strategies to improve ergodic sampling for a specific class of free-energy methods known as adaptive biasing force. We describe the software implementation in a so-called multiple-walker context, alongside the interface that makes the proposed approach accessible to the end users. We further evaluate the performance of the adaptive biasing force multiple-walker strategy for a model system, namely, the reversible folding of a short peptide, and show, in particular, in regions of the transition coordinate where convergence of the free-energy calculation is encumbered by hidden barriers, that the multiple-walker strategy can yield far more reliable results in appreciably less real time on parallel architectures, relative to standard, single-replica calculations. PMID:26583211

  5. Multiple-Replica Strategies for Free-Energy Calculations in NAMD: Multiple-Walker Adaptive Biasing Force and Walker Selection Rules.

    PubMed

    Comer, Jeffrey; Phillips, James C; Schulten, Klaus; Chipot, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    From the most powerful supercomputers to multicore desktops and laptops, parallel computing architectures have been in the mainstream for some time. However, numerical schemes for calculating free energies in molecular systems that directly leverage this hardware paradigm, usually taking the form of multiple-replica strategies, are just now on the cusp of becoming standard practice. Here, we present a modification of the popular molecular dynamics program NAMD that is envisioned to facilitate the use of powerful multiple-replica strategies to improve ergodic sampling for a specific class of free-energy methods known as adaptive biasing force. We describe the software implementation in a so-called multiple-walker context, alongside the interface that makes the proposed approach accessible to the end users. We further evaluate the performance of the adaptive biasing force multiple-walker strategy for a model system, namely, the reversible folding of a short peptide, and show, in particular, in regions of the transition coordinate where convergence of the free-energy calculation is encumbered by hidden barriers, that the multiple-walker strategy can yield far more reliable results in appreciably less real time on parallel architectures, relative to standard, single-replica calculations.

  6. Adaptive social learning strategies in temporally and spatially varying environments : how temporal vs. spatial variation, number of cultural traits, and costs of learning influence the evolution of conformist-biased transmission, payoff-biased transmission, and individual learning.

    PubMed

    Nakahashi, Wataru; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Henrich, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Long before the origins of agriculture human ancestors had expanded across the globe into an immense variety of environments, from Australian deserts to Siberian tundra. Survival in these environments did not principally depend on genetic adaptations, but instead on evolved learning strategies that permitted the assembly of locally adaptive behavioral repertoires. To develop hypotheses about these learning strategies, we have modeled the evolution of learning strategies to assess what conditions and constraints favor which kinds of strategies. To build on prior work, we focus on clarifying how spatial variability, temporal variability, and the number of cultural traits influence the evolution of four types of strategies: (1) individual learning, (2) unbiased social learning, (3) payoff-biased social learning, and (4) conformist transmission. Using a combination of analytic and simulation methods, we show that spatial-but not temporal-variation strongly favors the emergence of conformist transmission. This effect intensifies when migration rates are relatively high and individual learning is costly. We also show that increasing the number of cultural traits above two favors the evolution of conformist transmission, which suggests that the assumption of only two traits in many models has been conservative. We close by discussing how (1) spatial variability represents only one way of introducing the low-level, nonadaptive phenotypic trait variation that so favors conformist transmission, the other obvious way being learning errors, and (2) our findings apply to the evolution of conformist transmission in social interactions. Throughout we emphasize how our models generate empirical predictions suitable for laboratory testing.

  7. COINS: A composites information database system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siddiqi, Shahid; Vosteen, Louis F.; Edlow, Ralph; Kwa, Teck-Seng

    1992-01-01

    An automated data abstraction form (ADAF) was developed to collect information on advanced fabrication processes and their related costs. The information will be collected for all components being fabricated as part of the ACT program and include in a COmposites INformation System (COINS) database. The aim of the COINS development effort is to provide future airframe preliminary design and fabrication teams with a tool through which production cost can become a deterministic variable in the design optimization process. The effort was initiated by the Structures Technology Program Office (STPO) of the NASA LaRC to implement the recommendations of a working group comprised of representatives from the commercial airframe companies. The principal working group recommendation was to re-institute collection of composite part fabrication data in a format similar to the DOD/NASA Structural Composites Fabrication Guide. The fabrication information collection form was automated with current user friendly computer technology. This work in progress paper describes the new automated form and features that make the form easy to use by an aircraft structural design-manufacturing team.

  8. From non-Abelian anyons to quantum computation to coin-flipping by telephone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochon, Carlos

    Following their divorce, Alice and Bob would like to split some of their possessions by flipping a coin. Unwilling to meet in person, and without a trusted third party, they must figure out a scheme to flip the coin over a telephone that guarantees that neither party can cheat. The preceding scenario is the traditional definition of two-party coin-flipping. In a classical setting, without limits on the available computational power, one player can always guarantee a coin-flipping victory by cheating. However, by employing quantum communication it is possible to guarantee, with only information-theoretic assumptions, that neither party can win by cheating, with a probability greater than two thirds. Along with the description of such a protocol, this thesis derives a tight lower bound on the bias for a large family of quantum weak coin-flipping protocols, proving such a protocol optimal within the family. The protocol described herein is an improvement and generalization of one examined by Spekkens and Rudolph. The key steps of the analysis involve Kitaev's description of quantum coin-flipping as a semidefinite program whose dual problem provides a certificate that upper bounds the amount of cheating for each party. In order for such quantum protocols to be viable, though, a number of practical obstacles involving the communication and processing of quantum information must be resolved. In the second half of this thesis, a scheme for processing quantum information is presented, which uses non-abelian anyons that are the magnetic and electric excitations of a discrete-group quantum gauge theory. In particular, the connections between group structure and computational power are examined, generalizing previous work by Kitaev, Ogburn and Preskill. Anyon based computation has the advantage of being topological, which exponentially suppresses the rate of decoherence and the errors associated with the elementary quantum gates. Though no physical systems with such

  9. 31 CFR 100.12 - Exchange of fused and mixed coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....S. coins. (2) Mixed coins are U.S. coins of several alloy categories which are presented together... other substance which will render them unsuitable for coinage metal will not be accepted. (d)...

  10. Effects of Estimation Bias on Multiple-Category Classification with an IRT-Based Adaptive Classification Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xiangdong; Poggio, John C.; Glasnapp, Douglas R.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of five ability estimators, that is, maximum likelihood estimator, weighted likelihood estimator, maximum a posteriori, expected a posteriori, and Owen's sequential estimator, on the performances of the item response theory-based adaptive classification procedure on multiple categories were studied via simulations. The following…

  11. Coin ingestion: unusual appearance of the penny in a child.

    PubMed

    Fernbach, S K; Tucker, G F

    1986-02-01

    The United States of America changed the composition of the penny in 1982. It is now a copper-plated, zinc-based coin. Erosions of the edge of this new coin were observed when it was impacted in the esophagus of a 13-month-old child.

  12. Teaching Coin Discrimination to Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanney, Nicole M.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    We taught 2 children with visual impairments to select a coin from an array using tactile cues after hearing its name and then to select a coin after hearing its value. Following the acquisition of these listener (receptive language) skills, we then observed the emergence of speaker (expressive language) skills without direct instruction.…

  13. What Are the 50 Cent Euro Coins Made of?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Luis; Farinha, Ana Catarina; Rego, Florbela

    2008-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence is a non-destructive technique that allows elemental composition analysis. In this paper we describe a prescription to obtain the elemental composition of homogeneous coins, like 50 cent Euro coins, and how to get the quantitative proportions of each element with the help of Monte Carlo simulation. Undergraduate students can…

  14. Coin ingestion: unusual appearance of the penny in a child.

    PubMed

    Fernbach, S K; Tucker, G F

    1986-02-01

    The United States of America changed the composition of the penny in 1982. It is now a copper-plated, zinc-based coin. Erosions of the edge of this new coin were observed when it was impacted in the esophagus of a 13-month-old child. PMID:3941880

  15. An ingested foreign body: two sides of the same coin?

    PubMed

    Varadharajan, Kiran; Magill, Jennifer; Patel, Kalpesh

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old child presented to the emergency department with an acute onset of dysphagia and stertor. A plain anteroposterior chest X-ray revealed a single circular opacity in the middle third of the oesophagus consistent with an ingested coin. The child was taken to the theatre for rigid pharyngo-oesophagoscopy and removal of the coin. After the first coin was removed subsequent endoscopic examination revealed a second coin at the same location. This extremely rare case of two ingested coins becoming impacted with perfect radiological alignment emphasises the importance of thorough examination on endoscopy and the potential limitations of an X-ray in initial assessment of an ingested foreign body. PMID:24717590

  16. Quantum random walks with decoherent coins

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Todd A.; Ambainis, Andris; Carteret, H.A.

    2003-03-01

    The quantum random walk has been much studied recently, largely due to its highly nonclassical behavior. In this paper, we study one possible route to classical behavior for the discrete quantum walk on the line: the presence of decoherence in the quantum ''coin'' which drives the walk. We find exact analytical expressions for the time dependence of the first two moments of position, and show that in the long-time limit the variance grows linearly with time, unlike the unitary walk. We compare this to the results of direct numerical simulation, and see how the form of the position distribution changes from the unitary to the usual classical result as we increase the strength of the decoherence.

  17. Investigations of corrosion phenomena on gold coins with SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayerhofer, K. E.; Piplits, K.; Traum, R.; Griesser, M.; Hutter, H.

    2005-09-01

    In order to establish a new handling procedure for contaminated coins, the Coin Cabinet and the Conservation Science Department of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, initiated a research project on corrosion effects of gold coins. By now, investigations on historic and contemporary coins included optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Auger electron microscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), and electrochemical methods showing the distribution of pollutants. This work focuses on secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) investigations merely showing the distribution of electronegative elements, such as sulfur, oxygen, and chlorine on the surface. Sulfur is highly suspected of causing the observed corrosion phenomena, and is indeed enriched near polluting splints. Since SIMS is a destructive method, the investigated samples are test coins with intentionally added impurities. These coins were manufactured in cooperation with the Austrian Mint. They were treated with potassium polysulfide (K 2S x) for 8 h gaining a rapid corrosion of the surface. SIMS mass spectra, depth profiles, and images were done (a) at non-polluted areas, (b) near polluted areas with slight coloring, and (c) directly at polluting stains showing enrichments of sulfur and chlorine. Due to the success of these investigations further studies on historic coins are intended.

  18. 31 CFR 100.4 - Gold coin and gold certificates in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Gold coin and gold certificates in... MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General § 100.4 Gold coin and gold certificates in general. Gold coins, and gold certificates of the type issued...

  19. 31 CFR 100.4 - Gold coin and gold certificates in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Gold coin and gold certificates in... MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General § 100.4 Gold coin and gold certificates in general. Gold coins, and gold certificates of the type issued...

  20. 31 CFR 100.4 - Gold coin and gold certificates in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gold coin and gold certificates in... EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General § 100.4 Gold coin and gold certificates in general. Gold coins, and gold certificates of the type issued before January 30, 1934, are exchangeable, as...

  1. 48 CFR 37.116-1 - Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presidential $1 Coin Act... Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005. This section implements Section 104 of the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005 (31 U.S.C. 5112(p)(1)), which seeks to remove barriers to the circulation of $1 coins. Section...

  2. 26 CFR 49.4253-1 - Exemption for certain coin-operated service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemption for certain coin-operated service. 49... Exemption for certain coin-operated service. (a) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this... telephone conversation paid for by inserting coins in a public coin-operated telephone. The tax imposed...

  3. 31 CFR 100.19 - Disposition of counterfeit notes and coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... coins. 100.19 Section 100.19 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Other Information § 100.19 Disposition of counterfeit notes and coins. All counterfeit notes and coin found in remittances are cancelled and delivered to the U.S....

  4. 31 CFR 100.19 - Disposition of counterfeit notes and coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coins. 100.19 Section 100.19 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Other Information § 100.19 Disposition of counterfeit notes and coins. All counterfeit notes and coin found in remittances are...

  5. 48 CFR 37.116-1 - Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Presidential $1 Coin Act... Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005. This section implements Section 104 of the Presidential $1 Coin Act of 2005 (31 U.S.C. 5112(p)(1)), which seeks to remove barriers to the circulation of $1 coins. Section...

  6. 26 CFR 49.4253-1 - Exemption for certain coin-operated service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exemption for certain coin-operated service. 49... Exemption for certain coin-operated service. (a) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this... telephone conversation paid for by inserting coins in a public coin-operated telephone. The tax imposed...

  7. 31 CFR 100.4 - Gold coin and gold certificates in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Gold coin and gold certificates in... MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General § 100.4 Gold coin and gold certificates in general. Gold coins, and gold certificates of the type issued...

  8. 31 CFR 100.4 - Gold coin and gold certificates in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Gold coin and gold certificates in... MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General § 100.4 Gold coin and gold certificates in general. Gold coins, and gold certificates of the type issued...

  9. The music of gold: can gold counterfeited coins be detected by ear?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manas, Arnaud

    2015-07-01

    In this paper I investigate whether it is true and to what extent counterfeit coins can be detected by their sound frequency. I describe the different types of counterfeit coins encountered and their respective characteristics. I then use the Kirchoff thin plate theory to model a coin, and confirm the validity of the theory by listening to the tone of genuine and counterfeit coins.

  10. Compositional study of Parthian silver coins using PIXE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajivaliei, M.; Khademi Nadooshan, F.

    2012-10-01

    The study of the elemental composition of silver coins minted in the Ecbatana mint houses during the Parthian period can help to elucidate key questions such as provenance of the silver metal and the socio-economic situation of that period. Commercial activity and population growth increased the demand for silver, forcing the Parthian to look for new sources of this metal. The aim of this work is to study the chemical composition of some Parthian coins to find any relation between the mines used for extraction of silver and the actual silver coins minted at that time. Using PIXE technique, the metallic elements Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ag, Au, and Pb were observed. The results show that Parthian's kings used almost two types of mines for their coins.

  11. Quality control of coins mint using PIXE and RBS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumie, M.; Nsouli, B.; Chalhoub, G.; Hamdan, M.

    2010-06-01

    PIXE and RBS analysis is used to investigate the elemental content of modern Lebanese coins, in order to control their minting quality. The coins of interest were 100, 250 and 500 Lebanese Lira (LL), which are mainly bulky metals with or without coated layer. Using 3 MeV protons, proton induced X-ray emission PIXE identified and quantified elements while Rutherford backscattering spectrometry RBS checked the thickness of the coated layer. Indeed, the combination of PIXE and RBS provides a powerful tool to investigate the elemental composition of coins, either modern or ancient. In addition, the experimental protocol was checked by analyzing some other coins of known composition, such as 1-euro and 2-euro.

  12. "Heads or tails?"--a reachability bias in binary choice.

    PubMed

    Bar-Hillel, Maya; Peer, Eyal; Acquisti, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    When asked to mentally simulate coin tosses, people generate sequences that differ systematically from those generated by fair coins. It has been rarely noted that this divergence is apparent already in the very 1st mental toss. Analysis of several existing data sets reveals that about 80% of respondents start their sequence with Heads. We attributed this to the linguistic convention describing coin toss outcomes as "Heads or Tails," not vice versa. However, our subsequent experiments found the "first-toss" bias reversible under minor changes in the experimental setup, such as mentioning Tails before Heads in the instructions. We offer a comprehensive account in terms of a novel response bias, which we call reachability. It is more general than the 1st-toss bias, and it reflects the relative ease of reaching 1 option compared to its alternative in any binary choice context. When faced with a choice between 2 options (e.g., Heads and Tails, when "tossing" mental coins), whichever of the 2 is presented first by the choice architecture (hence, is more reachable) will be favored. This bias has far-reaching implications extending well beyond the context of randomness cognition; in particular, to binary surveys (e.g., accept vs. reject) and tests (e.g., True-False). In binary choice, there is an advantage to what presents first.

  13. "Heads or tails?"--a reachability bias in binary choice.

    PubMed

    Bar-Hillel, Maya; Peer, Eyal; Acquisti, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    When asked to mentally simulate coin tosses, people generate sequences that differ systematically from those generated by fair coins. It has been rarely noted that this divergence is apparent already in the very 1st mental toss. Analysis of several existing data sets reveals that about 80% of respondents start their sequence with Heads. We attributed this to the linguistic convention describing coin toss outcomes as "Heads or Tails," not vice versa. However, our subsequent experiments found the "first-toss" bias reversible under minor changes in the experimental setup, such as mentioning Tails before Heads in the instructions. We offer a comprehensive account in terms of a novel response bias, which we call reachability. It is more general than the 1st-toss bias, and it reflects the relative ease of reaching 1 option compared to its alternative in any binary choice context. When faced with a choice between 2 options (e.g., Heads and Tails, when "tossing" mental coins), whichever of the 2 is presented first by the choice architecture (hence, is more reachable) will be favored. This bias has far-reaching implications extending well beyond the context of randomness cognition; in particular, to binary surveys (e.g., accept vs. reject) and tests (e.g., True-False). In binary choice, there is an advantage to what presents first. PMID:24773285

  14. Microchemical investigation on Renaissance coins minted at Gubbio (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingo, G. M.; de Caro, T.; Padeletti, G.; Chiozzini, G.

    The bulk and surface chemical composition of Renaissance coins minted at Gubbio (Central Italy) from 1508 to 1516 and from 1521 to 1538 by Francesco Maria della Rovere is investigated by means of the combined use of different analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and optical microscopy (OM). The aim of the work is to determine the bulk chemical composition of these commonly used coins at Gubbio, to ascertain their surface nature and if they were coated by a thin film of silver or other white metals similar to silver. The results indicate that the coins were produced by coating a copper core with a thin film of silver and antimony, and also with lead whose thickness is of a few microns which is now scarcely present because the original silvered surface was almost entirely removed by degradation phenomena. Furthermore, the SEM+EDS results show that the surface content of silver and antimony cannot be attributed to long-term selective corrosion phenomena leaving the coin slightly silver or antimony enriched. Therefore, the presence of silver or apparently silver-like metals i.e. antimony and lead, could be considered as a deliberate surface finishing of the coins obtained via inverse segregation or intentional selective corrosion based on pickling solutions or a combination of them. From a historical point of view the presence of a Ag or Sb film on the surface of the coins discloses the occurrence of a period of economic difficulties.

  15. Micro-XRF analysis of silver coins from medieval Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Hoyo-Meléndez, Julio M.; Świt, Paweł; Matosz, Marta; Woźniak, Mateusz; Klisińska-Kopacz, Anna; Bratasz, Łukasz

    2015-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has become a standard method in archaeological science due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature. This technique has extensively been used for the study of numismatic collections since the data derived from it can be correlated with manufacturing processes, provenance of raw materials, and geographical distribution of ancient mints. A group of 71 silver coins of the first Piasts: Boleslaus the Brave (996-1025) and Mieszko II Lambert (1025-1034) belonging to the collections of the National Museum in Krakow have been characterized using micro-XRF spectrometry. This is the most numerous collection of their coins representing nearly 30% of all known coins from these rulers. The research has focused on evaluating the use of this technique as a screening tool for elemental surface characterization of the alloys. Surveyed coins are mainly constituted by Ag, Cu and Pb along with trace levels of Fe, Ni, Zn, Au, Hg, Bi, and Br. Quantitative analyses have revealed Ag contents in the 81.6-97.5% range for all the evaluated coins. This study had the goal of providing information about the elemental composition of these objects, which will serve to enhance the existing knowledge about geographical and chronological diversification of Polish numismatic collections.

  16. CoIN: a network analysis for document triage.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yi-Yu; Kao, Hung-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there was a rapid increase in the number of medical articles. The number of articles in PubMed has increased exponentially. Thus, the workload for biocurators has also increased exponentially. Under these circumstances, a system that can automatically determine in advance which article has a higher priority for curation can effectively reduce the workload of biocurators. Determining how to effectively find the articles required by biocurators has become an important task. In the triage task of BioCreative 2012, we proposed the Co-occurrence Interaction Nexus (CoIN) for learning and exploring relations in articles. We constructed a co-occurrence analysis system, which is applicable to PubMed articles and suitable for gene, chemical and disease queries. CoIN uses co-occurrence features and their network centralities to assess the influence of curatable articles from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. The experimental results show that our network-based approach combined with co-occurrence features can effectively classify curatable and non-curatable articles. CoIN also allows biocurators to survey the ranking lists for specific queries without reviewing meaningless information. At BioCreative 2012, CoIN achieved a 0.778 mean average precision in the triage task, thus finishing in second place out of all participants. Database URL: http://ikmbio.csie.ncku.edu.tw/coin/home.php.

  17. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  18. Paper money and coins as potential vectors of transmissible disease.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Azhar, Esam I; Bibi, Fehmida; Yasir, Muhammad; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed K; Ashshi, Ahmad M; Elshemi, Adel G; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Paper currency and coins may be a public health risk when associated with the simultaneous handling of food and could lead to the spread of nosocomial infections. Banknotes recovered from hospitals may be highly contaminated by Staphylococcus aureus. Salmonella species, Escherichia coli and S. aureus are commonly isolated from banknotes from food outlets. Laboratory simulations revealed that methicillin-resistant S. aureus can easily survive on coins, whereas E. coli, Salmonella species and viruses, including human influenza virus, Norovirus, Rhinovirus, hepatitis A virus, and Rotavirus, can be transmitted through hand contact. Large-scale, 16S rRNA, metagenomic studies and culturomics have the capacity to dramatically expand the known diversity of bacteria and viruses on money and fomites. This review summarizes the latest research on the potential of paper currency and coins to serve as sources of pathogenic agents.

  19. Characterizations of silver alloys used in modern Mexican coins

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza-Lopez, M.L.; Perez-Bueno, J.J.; Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E.

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents a complete methodology for the characterization of silver alloys used in modern coin production. Mexican coins with a nominal silver concentration from 10% to 99.99% were used in this study. Calibrated Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometers were used to determine the chemical composition of the alloys as a function of the depth, while inductively coupled plasma was used to determine the total element composition in bulk. Scanning Electron Microscope was used to study the phase distributions in the different silver coins. According to Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometers and inductively coupled plasma, the silver content found in the studied samples was consistently greater than that of the nominal silver content reported by the Mexican mint. This may lead to a review of the new methods of analysis used nowadays in contemporary coin minting. This result is very important because silver is increasing in value as metal and, considering the volume of production of silver coins, this may increase further as a consequence of a growing popular confidence in silver currency. In the case of silver studies, an advantage of the absence of silver detector in the Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometers system is that it allows for the recalibration to have a better range of detection of other metals present in the alloys. A calibration curve using the copper content obtained by inductively coupled plasma (bulk) and Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometers (depth profile) was performed. The relevance of control in modern silver coin minting was clarified, especially in minimizing the discrepancy between the nominal and the core fineness. The physical and chemical properties of the alloys studied are defined, revealing important variations in silver and copper contents. A new methodology and metrology for the control of coinage are suggested.

  20. Silver coins analyses by X-ray fluorescence methods.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, L; Italiano, A; Cutroneo, M; Gentile, C; Torrisi, A

    2013-01-01

    The investigation on the differences occurring in the manufacture of silver coins allows to get information on their elemental composition and represents a powerful support to the methodology to identify the producing technologies, workshops being also instrumental to distinguish between original and counterfeit ones. Aim of the present work is to study recent and old silver coins through non-destructive X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The XRF was applied to extend the analysis to the deepest layers of the coins; for surface layers an X-ray tube or an electron beam were employed to induce the atom fluorescence to obtain information on the surface elemental composition. Moreover, a detailed study has been performed to evaluate the influence of the surface curvature on the measurement, by deducing a proper corrective factor to keep into account in the data analysis. The elemental atomic composition was measured for each coin, mainly by means of the X-ray tube excitation for the bulk and the electron Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) microbeam probe for the surface patina analysis. Ionization was induced by an X-ray tube using an Ag anode for the bulk and by an electron microprobe for the surface composition. X-ray detection was performed by using a semiconductor Si device cooled by a Peltier system. The Ag L-lines X-ray yield is affected by coin surface morphology and geometry. The comparison between coin spectra and standard samples, shows that the Ag quantitative analysis is influenced by error of the atomic concentration lower that 10%. PMID:24004868

  1. 31 CFR 100.12 - Exchange of fused and mixed coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., but are readily and clearly identifiable as U.S. coins. (b) The United States Mint will not accept... site. Fused and mixed coins will be redeemed only at the United States Mint, P.O. Box 400,...

  2. 31 CFR 100.12 - Exchange of fused and mixed coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., but are readily and clearly identifiable as U.S. coins. (b) The United States Mint will not accept... site. Fused and mixed coins will be redeemed only at the United States Mint, P.O. Box 400,...

  3. 31 CFR 100.12 - Exchange of fused and mixed coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., but are readily and clearly identifiable as U.S. coins. (b) The United States Mint will not accept... site. Fused and mixed coins will be redeemed only at the United States Mint, P.O. Box 400,...

  4. 77 FR 61475 - Price for the 2012 Annual Uncirculated Dollar Coin Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... silver, the United States Mint is announcing a new price of $59.95 for the 2012 Annual Uncirculated... Native American $1 Coin and one American Eagle Silver Coin. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B.B....

  5. 48 CFR 37.116 - Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin. 37.116 Section 37.116 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... and Dispensing of $1 Coin....

  6. 48 CFR 37.116 - Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin. 37.116 Section 37.116 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... and Dispensing of $1 Coin....

  7. $158 per Quart: The Value of a Volume of Coins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kcenich, Stephen; Boss'e, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitous change jar (or any other container) is the focus of this investigation. Using random pocket change, a distribution is determined and statistical tools are employed to calculate the value of given volumes of coins. This brief investigation begins by considering money, which piques the interest of most students, and uses this…

  8. Manufacturing Ultra-Precision Meso-scale Products by Coining

    SciTech Connect

    Seugling, R M; Davis, P J; Rickens, K; Osmer, J; Brinksmeier, E

    2010-02-18

    A method for replicating ultra-precision, meso-scale features onto a near-net-shape metallic blank has been demonstrated. The 'coining' technology can be used to imprint a wide range of features and/or profiles into two opposing surfaces. The instrumented system provides the ability to measure and control the product thickness and total thickness variation (TTV). The coining mechanism relies on kinematic principles to accurately and efficiently produce ultra-precision work pieces without the production of by products such as machining chips, or grinding swarf while preserving surface finish, material structure and overall form. Coining has been developed as a niche process for manufacturing difficult to machine, millimeter size components made from materials that may present hazardous conditions. In the case described in this paper a refractory metal part, tantalum (Ta) was produced with 4 {micro}m peak to valley 50 {micro}m special wavelength sine wave coined into the surface of 50 {micro}m blank. This technique shows promise for use on ductile materials that cannot be precision machined with conventional single crystal diamond tooling and/or has strict requirements on subsurface damage, surface impurities and grain structure. As a production process, it can be used to reduce manufacturing costs where large numbers of ultra-precision, repetitive designs are required and produce parts out of hazardous materials without generating added waste.

  9. Novice in Secondary School--The Coin Has Two Sides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulvik, Marit; Smith, Kari; Helleve, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to gain an insight into novice teachers' diverse experiences. The study is conducted among nine beginning teachers in upper secondary school in Norway, and the research instrument was semi structured interviews. The main findings indicate that there are two sides of the coin of being a new teacher, positive as well as less…

  10. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for 2012 Products Featuring $1 Coins

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Products Featuring $1 Coins AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing 2012 pricing for...

  11. 78 FR 19799 - National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Mint National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition... (heads side) of the 2014 National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coins. The competition, which...

  12. 31 CFR 100.3 - Lawfully held coin and currencies in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lawfully held coin and currencies in general. 100.3 Section 100.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General § 100.3 Lawfully held coin and currencies in general....

  13. 76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin AGENCY: United States... pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin. The price of the coin will be $60.45....

  14. 76 FR 53717 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint... the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The price of the coins will be raised from $59.95 to...

  15. 76 FR 67799 - Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set AGENCY: United States... price of the American Eagle 25th Anniversary Silver Coin Set. The coin set will be offered for sale at...

  16. 77 FR 840 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY... announcing the re-pricing of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins. The price of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins will be lowered from $229.95 to $204.95....

  17. 76 FR 33026 - Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint... 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The coin will be offered for sale at a price of $59.95....

  18. 76 FR 65563 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM AGENCY... announcing the re-pricing of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins. The price of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins will be lowered from $279.95 to $229.95....

  19. 77 FR 15457 - Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint... 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The coins will be offered for sale at a price of $59.95....

  20. 77 FR 40704 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin AGENCY: United States Mint... 2012 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coin. The coin will be offered for sale at a price of...

  1. 75 FR 62184 - Notification of United States Mint Silver Eagle Bullion Coin Premium Increase

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... United States Mint Notification of United States Mint Silver Eagle Bullion Coin Premium Increase ACTION: Notification of United States Mint Silver Eagle Bullion Coin Premium Increase. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is increasing the premium charged to Authorized Purchasers for American Eagle Silver Bullion Coins,...

  2. 78 FR 24816 - Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set AGENCY: United... the price of the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set. The coin set will be offered...

  3. 76 FR 65563 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins AGENCY: United... the re-pricing of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins. The price of the 2011 American Eagle Silver Proof Coins will be lowered from $68.45 to $58.95, and the price of the 2011...

  4. 31 CFR 101.4 - Extraction of gold bullion from the counterfeit coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extraction of gold bullion from the... MITIGATION OF FORFEITURE OF COUNTERFEIT GOLD COINS § 101.4 Extraction of gold bullion from the counterfeit coins. If the petition is approved, the Assistant Secretary shall then forward the gold coins to...

  5. 48 CFR 52.237-11 - Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of $1 Coin. 52.237-11 Section 52.237-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.237-11 Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin. As prescribed in 37.116-2, insert the following clause: Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin (SEP 2008) (a) This clause applies to service contracts...

  6. 37 CFR 254.3 - Compulsory license fees for coin-operated phonorecord players.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coin-operated phonorecord players. 254.3 Section 254.3 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT... ROYALTY RATE FOR COIN-OPERATED PHONORECORD PLAYERS § 254.3 Compulsory license fees for coin-operated phonorecord players. (a) Commencing January 1, 1982, the annual compulsory license fee for a...

  7. 31 CFR 100.3 - Lawfully held coin and currencies in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lawfully held coin and currencies in... MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General § 100.3 Lawfully held coin and currencies in general. The official agencies of the Department of the Treasury...

  8. 31 CFR 103.26 - Reports of certain domestic coin and currency transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reports of certain domestic coin and... Made § 103.26 Reports of certain domestic coin and currency transactions. (a) If the Secretary of the... payment, receipt, or transfer of United States coins or currency (or such other monetary instruments...

  9. 37 CFR 254.2 - Definition of coin-operated phonorecord player.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definition of coin-operated... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY RATE FOR COIN-OPERATED PHONORECORD PLAYERS § 254.2 Definition of coin-operated phonorecord player. As used in this...

  10. 48 CFR 52.237-11 - Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of $1 Coin. 52.237-11 Section 52.237-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Clauses 52.237-11 Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin. As prescribed in 37.116-2, insert the following clause: Accepting and Dispensing of $1 Coin (SEP 2008) (a) This clause applies to service contracts...

  11. 37 CFR 254.2 - Definition of coin-operated phonorecord player.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition of coin-operated... CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES ADJUSTMENT OF ROYALTY RATE FOR COIN-OPERATED PHONORECORD PLAYERS § 254.2 Definition of coin-operated phonorecord player. As used in this...

  12. Case report of sideroblastic anemia caused by ingestion of coins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Jazieh, A R

    2001-02-01

    This is a report of a 54-year-old schizophrenic patient with a 15-year history of ingesting metal objects (pica). He presented with severe anemia (hemoglobin of 3 g/dl and hematocrit of 8.3%) and leukopenia (white blood count of 1,300/mm3). Work-up revealed copper deficiency (copper level of <0.05 microg/ml) and elevated zinc levels (280 microg/ml). The zinc toxicity was produced by the zinc content in the coins ingested by the patient over a period of many years. He was initially treated with -acetylcysteine and sodium bicarbonate followed by intravenous copper sulfate. He was also placed on Adolph's meat tenderizer and pancreatin thrice a day orally to loosen the massive amount of metallic objects including coins in his bowel and allow them to pass out in his feces. He was also continued on oral copper sulfate. His copper levels began to rise and reached a maximum of 0.72 microg/ml, and his zinc level fell to 153 microg/ml. However, as he refused surgery to remove the metal objects from his bowel and continued to ingest more coins, there was continued absorption of zinc, which later overcame the efforts to reduce the zinc level and increase copper levels in his blood. He finally succumbed to sepsis and multiorgan failure. Autopsy revealed a coin mass in the stomach weighing 1,870 grams in addition to a sigmoid volvulus caused by another coin bezoar in the colon. PMID:11421292

  13. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  14. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-08-02

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  15. Cognitive Mechanisms of Insight: The Role of Heuristics and Representational Change in Solving the Eight-Coin Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öllinger, Michael; Jones, Gary; Faber, Amory H.; Knoblich, Günther

    2013-01-01

    The 8-coin insight problem requires the problem solver to move 2 coins so that each coin touches exactly 3 others. Ormerod, MacGregor, and Chronicle (2002) explained differences in task performance across different versions of the 8-coin problem using the availability of particular moves in a 2-dimensional search space. We explored 2 further…

  16. 31 CFR 100.16 - Exchange of paper and coin to be handled through Federal Reserve banks and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exchange of paper and coin to be... CURRENCY AND COIN Other Information § 100.16 Exchange of paper and coin to be handled through Federal... exchange of paper currency and coin shall be handled through the Federal Reserve banks and branches....

  17. 26 CFR 49.4254-2 - Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph service in coin-operated telephones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... service in coin-operated telephones. 49.4254-2 Section 49.4254-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Communications § 49.4254-2 Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph service in coin-operated telephones... radio dispatch or message is paid by inserting coins in a coin-operated telephone, the tax shall...

  18. Coins as intermediate targets: reconstructive analysis with synthetic body models.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Rodriguez, William R; Smirniotopoulos, James G; Richardson, A Charles; Fowler, David; Godwin, Michael; Jurrus, Aaron; Fletcher, Douglas; Mallak, Craig

    2009-06-01

    The phenomenon of intermediate targets is well known in wound ballistics. In forensic science, models are used to reconstruct injury patterns to answer questions regarding the dynamic formation of these unusual injuries. Soft-tissue substitutes or glycerin soap and ordnance gelatin have been well established. Recently, based on previous experiences with artificial bone, a skull-brain model was developed. The goal of this study was to create and analyze a model-supported reconstruction of a real forensic case with a coin as an intermediate target. It was possible not only to demonstrate the "bullet-coin interaction," but also to recreate the wound pattern found in the victim. This case demonstrates that by using ballistic models, gunshot cases can be reproduced simply and economically, without coming into conflict with ethical guidelines. PMID:19465807

  19. Large deviation theory for coin tossing and turbulence.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sagar; Saha, Arnab; Bhattacharjee, Jayanta K

    2009-11-01

    Large deviations play a significant role in many branches of nonequilibrium statistical physics. They are difficult to handle because their effects, though small, are not amenable to perturbation theory. Even the Gaussian model, which is the usual initial step for most perturbation theories, fails to be a starting point while discussing intermittency in fluid turbulence, where large deviations dominate. Our contention is: in the large deviation theory, the central role is played by the distribution associated with the tossing of a coin and the simple coin toss is the "Gaussian model" of problems where rare events play significant role. We illustrate this by applying it to calculate the multifractal exponents of the order structure factors in fully developed turbulence.

  20. Coins as intermediate targets: reconstructive analysis with synthetic body models.

    PubMed

    Thali, Michael J; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Rodriguez, William R; Smirniotopoulos, James G; Richardson, A Charles; Fowler, David; Godwin, Michael; Jurrus, Aaron; Fletcher, Douglas; Mallak, Craig

    2009-06-01

    The phenomenon of intermediate targets is well known in wound ballistics. In forensic science, models are used to reconstruct injury patterns to answer questions regarding the dynamic formation of these unusual injuries. Soft-tissue substitutes or glycerin soap and ordnance gelatin have been well established. Recently, based on previous experiences with artificial bone, a skull-brain model was developed. The goal of this study was to create and analyze a model-supported reconstruction of a real forensic case with a coin as an intermediate target. It was possible not only to demonstrate the "bullet-coin interaction," but also to recreate the wound pattern found in the victim. This case demonstrates that by using ballistic models, gunshot cases can be reproduced simply and economically, without coming into conflict with ethical guidelines.

  1. Analysis of surface stains on modern gold coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corregidor, V.; Alves, L. C.; Cruz, J.

    2013-07-01

    It is a mandatory practice in the European Mint Houses to provide a certificate of guarantee of their products specially when issuing commemorative gold or silver coins. This practise should assure satisfaction and trust both for the mint house and for the demanding numismatic collector. For these reasons the Mint Houses follow a strict quality control in all the production steps in order to ensure a no-defect, fully supervised output. In spite of all the undertaken precautions, different surface stains with diverse origin on gold coins recently minted in Europe were observed. Those were compositionally studied by means of IBA techniques at the end-stage nuclear microprobe installed at IST/ITN. From this study it was possible to identify several possible sources for these stains. The presence of defects at the surface of these commemorative coins address the need of improving the quality control system and the results here presented point out where these improvements should occur, in order to reduce/eliminate them and give the customer a product that with time probably will be revalued.

  2. LAMQS and XRF analyses of ancient Egyptian bronze coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Caridi, F.; Borrielli, A.; Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, A.; Mondio, G.; Mezzasalma, A.; Serafino, T.; Caltabiano, M.; Castrizio, E. D.; Paniz, E.; Romeo, M.; Salici, A.

    2010-10-01

    A set of Egyptian bronze coins, dating back to the sixth or seventh century AD, has been studied by different experimental techniques in order to compare their composition and surface morphology, the process of coinage and, possibly, to also identify the place of production. The measurements have been performed by laser ablation with mass quadrupole spectrometry and energy dispersed X-ray fluorescence. Both analyses are non-invasive and can be safely used according to the integrity requirements of the analyzed pieces. Owing to the poor number of available samples, this work, more than to solve a numismatic question, has been carried out in order to test the validity of the above experimental techniques in view of further analyses on the same coins, based on better quality statistics. The preliminary results, presented in this paper, indicate significant differences in the chemistry of the coins' patina, i.e. composition and isotopic species content. This seems to support, in agreement with the archaeological expectations, the hypothesis of the existence of a local mint in Antinoopolis, never before considered in Egyptian numismatics.

  3. A study of degradation of plates for nickel-cadmium spacecraft cells. [feasibility of coining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The relative merits of coining and not coining of sintered nickel-oxide and cadmium plates was investigated. A survey of the industry including cell manufactures and users was made and results summarized. Sample plate materials from most commercial cell suppliers were obtained and characterized for properties that may correlate with the tendency toward physical disintegration during handling and over long periods of time in the cell. Special test methods were developed to obtain comparative data in a short time. A wide range of physical properties and coining thicknesses was observed, resulting in a range of responses. The stronger, less brittle materials resisted loss of sinter better than weaker materials whether or not coined. Coining improved handling and resistance to electrochemical cycling in all materials tested. An apparent exception was found to be due to improper coining of a tapered edge.

  4. Double propensity-score adjustment: A solution to design bias or bias due to incomplete matching.

    PubMed

    Austin, Peter C

    2014-07-17

    Propensity-score matching is frequently used to reduce the effects of confounding when using observational data to estimate the effects of treatments. Matching allows one to estimate the average effect of treatment in the treated. Rosenbaum and Rubin coined the term "bias due to incomplete matching" to describe the bias that can occur when some treated subjects are excluded from the matched sample because no appropriate control subject was available. The presence of incomplete matching raises important questions around the generalizability of estimated treatment effects to the entire population of treated subjects. We describe an analytic solution to address the bias due to incomplete matching. Our method is based on using optimal or nearest neighbor matching, rather than caliper matching (which frequently results in the exclusion of some treated subjects). Within the sample matched on the propensity score, covariate adjustment using the propensity score is then employed to impute missing potential outcomes under lack of treatment for each treated subject. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we found that the proposed method resulted in estimates of treatment effect that were essentially unbiased. This method resulted in decreased bias compared to caliper matching alone and compared to either optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone. Caliper matching alone resulted in design bias or bias due to incomplete matching, while optimal matching or nearest neighbor matching alone resulted in bias due to residual confounding. The proposed method also tended to result in estimates with decreased mean squared error compared to when caliper matching was used.

  5. A one-dimensional quantum walk with multiple-rotation on the coin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Peng; Zhang, Rong; Qin, Hao; Zhan, Xiang; Bian, Zhihao; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a one-dimensional quantum walk with two time-independent rotations on the coin. We study the influence on the property of quantum walk due to the second rotation on the coin. Based on the asymptotic solution in the long time limit, a ballistic behaviour of this walk is observed. This quantum walk retains the quadratic growth of the variance if the combined operator of the coin rotations is unitary. That confirms no localization exhibits in this walk. This result can be extended to the walk with multiple time-independent rotations on the coin.

  6. A one-dimensional quantum walk with multiple-rotation on the coin.

    PubMed

    Xue, Peng; Zhang, Rong; Qin, Hao; Zhan, Xiang; Bian, Zhihao; Li, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a one-dimensional quantum walk with two time-independent rotations on the coin. We study the influence on the property of quantum walk due to the second rotation on the coin. Based on the asymptotic solution in the long time limit, a ballistic behaviour of this walk is observed. This quantum walk retains the quadratic growth of the variance if the combined operator of the coin rotations is unitary. That confirms no localization exhibits in this walk. This result can be extended to the walk with multiple time-independent rotations on the coin. PMID:26822563

  7. Adapted Physical Activity Programme and Self-Perception in Obese Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Between Morphological Awareness and Positive Illusory Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaun, Laureline; Reynes, Eric; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In adolescents with intellectual disability, the management of obesity is a crucial issue, yet also quite complex because of their particular perception of themselves. This study investigated the relationship between self-perception variables and morphological variables and their changes after a 9-month Adapted Physical Activity (APA)…

  8. Regional vertical total electron content (VTEC) modeling together with satellite and receiver differential code biases (DCBs) using semi-parametric multivariate adaptive regression B-splines (SP-BMARS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durmaz, Murat; Karslioglu, Mahmut Onur

    2015-04-01

    There are various global and regional methods that have been proposed for the modeling of ionospheric vertical total electron content (VTEC). Global distribution of VTEC is usually modeled by spherical harmonic expansions, while tensor products of compactly supported univariate B-splines can be used for regional modeling. In these empirical parametric models, the coefficients of the basis functions as well as differential code biases (DCBs) of satellites and receivers can be treated as unknown parameters which can be estimated from geometry-free linear combinations of global positioning system observables. In this work we propose a new semi-parametric multivariate adaptive regression B-splines (SP-BMARS) method for the regional modeling of VTEC together with satellite and receiver DCBs, where the parametric part of the model is related to the DCBs as fixed parameters and the non-parametric part adaptively models the spatio-temporal distribution of VTEC. The latter is based on multivariate adaptive regression B-splines which is a non-parametric modeling technique making use of compactly supported B-spline basis functions that are generated from the observations automatically. This algorithm takes advantage of an adaptive scale-by-scale model building strategy that searches for best-fitting B-splines to the data at each scale. The VTEC maps generated from the proposed method are compared numerically and visually with the global ionosphere maps (GIMs) which are provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). The VTEC values from SP-BMARS and CODE GIMs are also compared with VTEC values obtained through calibration using local ionospheric model. The estimated satellite and receiver DCBs from the SP-BMARS model are compared with the CODE distributed DCBs. The results show that the SP-BMARS algorithm can be used to estimate satellite and receiver DCBs while adaptively and flexibly modeling the daily regional VTEC.

  9. Investigations on the Predictability of Coining Stainless Steel AISI 410

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobbink, S. J.; Klaseboer, G.; Post, J.; Huetink, J.

    2010-06-01

    Due to the increasing trend towards miniaturization, various industries demand the knowledge of materials forming on microscale. Forming has many advantages above machining such as high accuracy, low costs and strengthening by cold-working. However, a drawback of microforming is that it leads to problems caused by so-called size effects. A lot of research has been done on this topic, but only a minor part deals with the forming of high strength materials. In this study two channels with 0.25 mm width and 4.5 mm length are formed in stainless steel sheet AISI 410 with an initial sheet thickness 0.5 mm. The channels are formed by the coining process. The experiments have been repeated in which all dimensions are scaled down by a factor two, in order to check if size effects occur. Ring compression tests are used to determine a shear friction coefficient. A finite element model was build up and solved with MSC.Marc in order to gain a better understanding of the coining process. A size dependent material model known from literature and a conventional material model is used for the simulations. Both results are compared with the experimental results.

  10. Isolation of cultivable microorganisms from Polish notes and coins.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Michal; Palusińska-Szysz, Marta; Turska-Szewczuk, Anna; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Urbanik-Sypniewska, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The potential role of currency in the spread of pathogenic microflora has been evaluated in many countries. In this study Polish paper notes and the coins in general circulation were assayed for the presence of cultivable bacteria and fungi. Bacterial isolates identification was based on cultural and biochemical characters and by comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Fungal isolates were recognized with biochemical and morphological criteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, (43.6% of the total bacterial count) including Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis, and Enteroccus spp. (30.8% of the total bacterial count), i.e. E.faecalis, E.faecium and E. durans, were the most numerous bacterial contamination. Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were the most frequently detected moulds whereas Candida spp. was the most frequent yeast isolated from currency. A visible dependence between the banknote denomination, the physical condition of paper currency, and the number of bacteria and fungi was found. The overall count of bacteria isolated from currency was thousand-fold higher than that of fungal isolates. The total amount of bacteria and fungi recovered from the coins was approximately 2.7-fold lower than that isolated from the notes. In summary, the Polish currency notes were found to be contaminated mainly with commensal bacteria and fungi while the opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas stutzeri and C. albicans were detected at a low frequency.

  11. Isolation of cultivable microorganisms from Polish notes and coins.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Michal; Palusińska-Szysz, Marta; Turska-Szewczuk, Anna; Wdowiak-Wróbel, Sylwia; Urbanik-Sypniewska, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The potential role of currency in the spread of pathogenic microflora has been evaluated in many countries. In this study Polish paper notes and the coins in general circulation were assayed for the presence of cultivable bacteria and fungi. Bacterial isolates identification was based on cultural and biochemical characters and by comparison of the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Fungal isolates were recognized with biochemical and morphological criteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci, (43.6% of the total bacterial count) including Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, and S. hominis, and Enteroccus spp. (30.8% of the total bacterial count), i.e. E.faecalis, E.faecium and E. durans, were the most numerous bacterial contamination. Penicillium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were the most frequently detected moulds whereas Candida spp. was the most frequent yeast isolated from currency. A visible dependence between the banknote denomination, the physical condition of paper currency, and the number of bacteria and fungi was found. The overall count of bacteria isolated from currency was thousand-fold higher than that of fungal isolates. The total amount of bacteria and fungi recovered from the coins was approximately 2.7-fold lower than that isolated from the notes. In summary, the Polish currency notes were found to be contaminated mainly with commensal bacteria and fungi while the opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas stutzeri and C. albicans were detected at a low frequency. PMID:24459833

  12. Nonvacuum analyses of silver coins (9th to 15th century A.D.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Marie-Anne; Demortier, Guy

    1990-04-01

    Quantitative analyses of silver coins were performed by PIXE with a 2.8 MeV external proton beam. These coins were stamped from 875 to 1456 A.D. mainly by Princes of the Principality of Liège (Belgium). Three series of coins were irradiated at least in four different regions of 0.5 mm 2: 17 coins of Hugues de Pierrepont (1203-1229), 27 coins of Englebert de la Marck (1344-1364), and one set of 20 coins belonging to the reigns of 20 other Sovereigns or Princes from Charles le Chauve (869-870) to Jean de Heinsberg (1419-1455). The elements of interest were Ag, Cu, Au, Hg, Pb, Bi, Zn, As and Fe. Each position of the samples was carefully controlled in order to avoid differences in geometrical factors from one analysis to another. All the analyses were made in flat external and bright regions, as to exclude the irradiation of possible inclusions or deposits. Those analyzed regions are then probably the most worn away. The analytical results furnish a possible chronological classification of coins taking into account the relative concentrations of Cu-Pb-Au and the absolute concentration of Au. No means of classification may be expected from Ag or Cu contents (except for the most recent debased coins), nor from traces of Hg and Bi which are only present in a limited number of items.

  13. Coins and Costs: A Simple and Rapid Assessment of Basic Financial Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, Paul; Bailey, Rebecca; Dymond, Simon; Parry, Rhonwen

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We describe a simple and rapid screening test for basic financial knowledge that is suitable for administration to people with mild intellectual disabilities. Method: The Coins and Costs test asks respondents to name coins, and to estimate prices of objects ranging between 1 British Pound (an ice cream) and 100K British Pounds (a…

  14. 31 CFR 100.19 - Disposition of counterfeit notes and coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposition of counterfeit notes and coins. 100.19 Section 100.19 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Other Information §...

  15. 31 CFR 100.3 - Lawfully held coin and currencies in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lawfully held coin and currencies in general. 100.3 Section 100.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General §...

  16. 31 CFR 100.3 - Lawfully held coin and currencies in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lawfully held coin and currencies in general. 100.3 Section 100.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN In General §...

  17. 31 CFR 100.19 - Disposition of counterfeit notes and coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposition of counterfeit notes and coins. 100.19 Section 100.19 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Other Information §...

  18. 77 FR 42365 - Price for the Making American History Coin and Currency Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the Making American History Coin and Currency Set AGENCY: United States Mint... for the Making American History Coin and Currency Set. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B.B....

  19. 76 FR 12225 - Authority To Conduct Research and Development on All Circulating Coins

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... United States Mint Authority To Conduct Research and Development on All Circulating Coins AGENCY: United... costs for all circulating coin denominations have risen dramatically for the past several years. Most.... II. Request for Comment The United States Mint requests public comment from all interested...

  20. 75 FR 17832 - Pricing for 2010 Lincoln One-Cent Coin Two-Roll Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2010 Lincoln One-Cent Coin Two-Roll Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the... $8.95. This set will contain rolls of coins struck at both the United States Mint facilities...

  1. 77 FR 43662 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle Silver Proof Coin AGENCY: United States Mint... American Eagle Silver Proof Coin. The product will now be offered for sale at a price of $54.95....

  2. 78 FR 41195 - Re-pricing of Several Silver Coin Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... United States Mint Re-pricing of Several Silver Coin Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Because of the recent decrease in the market price of silver, the United States Mint is lowering the price of several silver coin products as follows: 2013...

  3. 75 FR 4451 - Notification of United States Mint 2010 Commemorative Coin Pricing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... announcing the prices of the 2010 American Veterans Disabled for Life Silver Dollar and the 2010 Boy Scouts of America Centennial Silver Dollar Programs. Public Laws 110-227 and 110-363 require the United... Silver Dollar Commemorative Coins, respectively. ] These coins will be offered in both proof...

  4. 76 FR 17485 - Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Bullion Coin Presentation Case

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Bullion Coin Presentation Case... is announcing the price of the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Bullion Coin Presentation...

  5. 77 FR 839 - Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins Agency: United States Mint... the 2011 American Eagle Silver Uncirculated Coins. The price of the 2011 American Eagle...

  6. 12 CFR 250.260 - Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and bullion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and... Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and bullion. The Board has received numerous inquiries from member banks relating to the repeal of the ban on ownership of gold by United States citizens. Listed below...

  7. 12 CFR 250.260 - Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and bullion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and... Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and bullion. The Board has received numerous inquiries from member banks relating to the repeal of the ban on ownership of gold by United States citizens. Listed below...

  8. 12 CFR 250.260 - Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and bullion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and... interpretations; gold coin and bullion. The Board has received numerous inquiries from member banks relating to the repeal of the ban on ownership of gold by United States citizens. Listed below are questions...

  9. 31 CFR 101.4 - Extraction of gold bullion from the counterfeit coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extraction of gold bullion from the... MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MITIGATION OF FORFEITURE OF COUNTERFEIT GOLD COINS § 101.4 Extraction of gold bullion from the counterfeit coins. If the petition is approved, the Assistant...

  10. 31 CFR 101.4 - Extraction of gold bullion from the counterfeit coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extraction of gold bullion from the... MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MITIGATION OF FORFEITURE OF COUNTERFEIT GOLD COINS § 101.4 Extraction of gold bullion from the counterfeit coins. If the petition is approved, the Assistant...

  11. 31 CFR 403.1 - Delivery of counterfeit obligations and other securities and coins authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and other securities and coins authorized. 403.1 Section 403.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT COUNTERFEIT OBLIGATIONS AND OTHER SECURITIES AND COINS OF THE UNITED STATES OR OF ANY FOREIGN GOVERNMENT § 403.1 Delivery of counterfeit obligations and other securities and...

  12. The Weight of Euro Coins: Its Distribution Might Not Be as Normal as You Would Expect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shkedy, Ziv; Aerts, Marc; Callaert, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Classical regression models, ANOVA models and linear mixed models are just three examples (out of many) in which the normal distribution of the response is an essential assumption of the model. In this paper we use a dataset of 2000 euro coins containing information (up to the milligram) about the weight of each coin, to illustrate that the…

  13. 31 CFR 100.11 - Exchange of bent and partial coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... each category. Bent and partial coins shall be redeemed on the basis of their weight and denomination category rates (which is the weight equivalent of face value). If not presented separately by denomination... redeemed at the face value equivalent of copper one cent coins. (c) Redemption site. Bent and partial...

  14. 31 CFR 101.4 - Extraction of gold bullion from the counterfeit coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extraction of gold bullion from the... MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MITIGATION OF FORFEITURE OF COUNTERFEIT GOLD COINS § 101.4 Extraction of gold bullion from the counterfeit coins. If the petition is approved, the Assistant...

  15. 12 CFR 250.260 - Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and bullion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and... Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and bullion. The Board has received numerous inquiries from member banks relating to the repeal of the ban on ownership of gold by United States citizens. Listed below...

  16. 31 CFR 101.4 - Extraction of gold bullion from the counterfeit coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Extraction of gold bullion from the... MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MITIGATION OF FORFEITURE OF COUNTERFEIT GOLD COINS § 101.4 Extraction of gold bullion from the counterfeit coins. If the petition is approved, the Assistant...

  17. 12 CFR 250.260 - Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and bullion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Miscellaneous interpretations; gold coin and... interpretations; gold coin and bullion. The Board has received numerous inquiries from member banks relating to the repeal of the ban on ownership of gold by United States citizens. Listed below are questions...

  18. 31 CFR 100.11 - Exchange of bent and partial coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... denomination category in lots of at least one pound for each category. Bent and partial coins shall be redeemed on the basis of their weight and denomination category rates (which is the weight equivalent of face value). If not presented separately by denomination category, bent and partial coins will not...

  19. Design, installation, and monitorig of a water-preheat system for coin laundries

    SciTech Connect

    Cloud, N. E.

    1983-01-01

    This project involved the design, installation, and monitoring of a water-preheat system for coin laundries. The system has two components. One component is solar, the other is waste heat reclamation from the clothes dryer exhaust. The energy savings achieved amount to roughly 50% of the total water heating load for a typical coin laundry.

  20. Biased Allostery.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Stuart J; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large group of integral membrane proteins that transduce extracellular signals from a wide range of agonists into targeted intracellular responses. Although the responses can vary depending on the category of G-proteins activated by a particular receptor, responses were also found to be triggered by interactions of the receptor with β-arrestins. It was subsequently discovered that for the same receptor molecule (e.g., the β-adrenergic receptor), some agonists have a propensity to specifically favor responses by G-proteins, others by β-arrestins, as has now been extensively studied. This feature of the GPCR system is known as biased agonism and is subject to various interpretations, including agonist-induced conformational change versus selective stabilization of preexisting active conformations. Here, we explore a complete allosteric framework for biased agonism based on alternative preexisting conformations that bind more strongly, but nonexclusively, either G-proteins or β-arrestins. The framework incorporates reciprocal effects among all interacting molecules. As a result, G-proteins and β-arrestins are in steric competition for binding to the cytoplasmic surface of either the G-protein-favoring or β-arrestin-favoring GPCR conformation. Moreover, through linkage relations, the strength of the interactions of G-proteins or β-arrestins with the corresponding active conformation potentiates the apparent affinity for the agonist, effectively equating these two proteins to allosteric modulators. The balance between response alternatives can also be influenced by the physiological concentrations of either G-proteins or β-arrestins, as well as by phosphorylation or interactions with positive or negative allosteric modulators. The nature of the interactions in the simulations presented suggests novel experimental tests to distinguish more fully among alternative mechanisms. PMID:27602718

  1. 77 FR 32716 - Price for the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two-Coin Silver Proof Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Price for the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two-Coin Silver Proof Set AGENCY... announcing the price of the 2012 American Eagle San Francisco Two-Coin Silver Proof Set. The coin set will...

  2. 31 CFR 100.16 - Exchange of paper and coin to be handled through Federal Reserve banks and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of paper and coin to be... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Other Information § 100.16 Exchange of paper and coin to be handled through Federal Reserve banks and branches. Other than as...

  3. Adaptive Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) Eliminates the Risk of Biochemical Failure Caused by the Bias of Rectal Distension in Prostate Cancer Treatment Planning: Clinical Evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sean S.; Yan Di; McGrath, Samuel; Dilworth, Joshua T.; Liang Jian; Ye Hong; Krauss, Daniel J.; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Kestin, Larry L.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Rectal distension has been shown to decrease the probability of biochemical control. Adaptive image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) corrects for target position and volume variations, reducing the risk of biochemical failure while yielding acceptable rates of gastrointestinal (GI)/genitourinary (GU) toxicities. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2006, 962 patients were treated with computed tomography (CT)-based offline adaptive IGRT. Patients were stratified into low (n = 400) vs. intermediate/high (n = 562) National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk groups. Target motion was assessed with daily CT during the first week. Electronic portal imaging device (EPID) was used to measure daily setup error. Patient-specific confidence-limited planning target volumes (cl-PTV) were then constructed, reducing the standard PTV and compensating for geometric variation of the target and setup errors. Rectal volume (RV), cross-sectional area (CSA), and rectal volume from the seminal vesicles to the inferior prostate (SVP) were assessed on the planning CT. The impact of these volumetric parameters on 5-year biochemical control (BC) and chronic Grades {>=}2 and 3 GU and GI toxicity were examined. Results: Median follow-up was 5.5 years. Median minimum dose covering cl-PTV was 75.6 Gy. Median values for RV, CSA, and SVP were 82.8 cm{sup 3}, 5.6 cm{sup 2}, and 53.3 cm{sup 3}, respectively. The 5-year BC was 89% for the entire group: 96% for low risk and 83% for intermediate/high risk (p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences in BC were seen with stratification by RV, CSA, and SVP in quartiles. Maximum chronic Grades {>=}2 and 3 GI toxicities were 21.2% and 2.9%, respectively. Respective values for GU toxicities were 15.5% and 4.3%. No differences in GI or GU toxicities were noted when patients were stratified by RV. Conclusions: Incorporation of adaptive IGRT reduces the risk of geometric miss and results in excellent biochemical control that is

  4. Genetic testing in the workplace: the employer's coin toss.

    PubMed

    French, Samantha

    2002-09-01

    A toss of the coin by the modern-day employer reveals two options regarding genetic testing in the workplace. The employer may choose to take advantage of increasingly precise, available, and affordable genetic testing in order to ascertain the genetic characteristics--and deficiencies--of its employees. This outcome exposes the employer to a vast array of potential litigation and liability relating to the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Fourth Amendment, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, and state legislation designed to protect genetic privacy. Alternatively, the employer may neglect to indulge in this trend of genetic testing and may face liability for employer negligence, violations of federal legislation such as OSHA regulations, and increased costs associated with insuring the health of genetically endangered employees. In the rapidly developing universe of genetic intelligence, the employer is faced with a staggering dilemma.

  5. Coin hoards speak of population declines in Ancient Rome

    PubMed Central

    Turchin, Peter; Scheidel, Walter

    2009-01-01

    In times of violence, people tend to hide their valuables, which are later recovered unless the owners had been killed or driven away. Thus, the temporal distribution of unrecovered coin hoards is an excellent proxy for the intensity of internal warfare. We use this relationship to resolve a long-standing controversy in Roman history. Depending on who was counted in the early Imperial censuses (adult males or the entire citizenry including women and minors), the Roman citizen population of Italy either declined, or more than doubled, during the first century BCE. This period was characterized by a series of civil wars, and historical evidence indicates that high levels of sociopolitical instability are associated with demographic contractions. We fitted a simple model quantifying the effect of instability (proxied by hoard frequency) on population dynamics to the data before 100 BCE. The model predicts declining population after 100 BCE. This suggests that the vigorous growth scenario is highly implausible. PMID:19805043

  6. Proposal for founding mistrustful quantum cryptography on coin tossing

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Adrian

    2003-07-01

    A significant branch of classical cryptography deals with the problems which arise when mistrustful parties need to generate, process, or exchange information. As Kilian showed a while ago, mistrustful classical cryptography can be founded on a single protocol, oblivious transfer, from which general secure multiparty computations can be built. The scope of mistrustful quantum cryptography is limited by no-go theorems, which rule out, inter alia, unconditionally secure quantum protocols for oblivious transfer or general secure two-party computations. These theorems apply even to protocols which take relativistic signaling constraints into account. The best that can be hoped for, in general, are quantum protocols which are computationally secure against quantum attack. Here a method is described for building a classically certified bit commitment, and hence every other mistrustful cryptographic task, from a secure coin-tossing protocol. No security proof is attempted, but reasons are sketched why these protocols might resist quantum computational attack.

  7. Neutrophils in Cancer: Two Sides of the Same Coin

    PubMed Central

    Uribe-Querol, Eileen; Rosales, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in blood and are considered to be the first line of defense during inflammation and infections. In addition, neutrophils are also found infiltrating many types of tumors. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) have relevant roles in malignant disease. Indeed neutrophils may be potent antitumor effector cells. However, increasing clinical evidence shows TANs correlate with poor prognosis. The tumor microenvironment controls neutrophil recruitment and in turn TANs help tumor progression. Hence, TANs can be beneficial or detrimental to the host. It is the purpose of this review to highlight these two sides of the neutrophil coin in cancer and to describe recent studies that provide some light on the mechanisms for neutrophil recruitment to the tumor, for neutrophils supporting tumor progression, and for neutrophil activation to enhance their antitumor functions. PMID:26819959

  8. Coin hoards speak of population declines in Ancient Rome.

    PubMed

    Turchin, Peter; Scheidel, Walter

    2009-10-13

    In times of violence, people tend to hide their valuables, which are later recovered unless the owners had been killed or driven away. Thus, the temporal distribution of unrecovered coin hoards is an excellent proxy for the intensity of internal warfare. We use this relationship to resolve a long-standing controversy in Roman history. Depending on who was counted in the early Imperial censuses (adult males or the entire citizenry including women and minors), the Roman citizen population of Italy either declined, or more than doubled, during the first century BCE. This period was characterized by a series of civil wars, and historical evidence indicates that high levels of sociopolitical instability are associated with demographic contractions. We fitted a simple model quantifying the effect of instability (proxied by hoard frequency) on population dynamics to the data before 100 BCE. The model predicts declining population after 100 BCE. This suggests that the vigorous growth scenario is highly implausible. PMID:19805043

  9. Ingested foreign bodies and societal wealth: three year observational study of swallowed coins

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, H; Biller, J A

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relation between coins ingested by children and the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Design Observational study. Main outcome measures Total value of coins ingested and number of incidents of coins versus other objects swallowed, measured before and after the stock market crash of October 2008. Results Eighteen objects, including 11 coins, were ingested (NASDAQ (numismatic and sundry detritus acquired) composite of 18). The total value of the 11 coins swallowed was $1.03 (FTSE 100 (fraction of the US$ or 100 cents) index of 103). The pecuniary extraction ratio (PE ratio) was 0.57 (9/16). Comparing values for a period before and after October 2008, the mean monthly NASDAQ composite (0.41 (SD 0.67) v 0.5 (0.85), P=0.75), FTSE 100 index in cents (2.3 (6.8) v 3.1 (7.8), P=0.77), and PE ratio (0.54 (0.52) v 0.66 (0.29), P=0.50) did not change. The mean end-of-month closing value of the Dow Jones, however, decreased significantly (12 537 (841.4) v 8388 (699.8), P<0.001) Conclusion There was no detectable difference in the total value of coins ingested, or ratio of coins to other objects swallowed, before or after a massive stock market crash. PMID:19965938

  10. Ancient bronze coins from Mediterranean basin: LAMQS potentiality for lead isotopes comparative analysis with former mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Italiano, A.; Torrisi, A.

    2016-11-01

    Bronze coins coming from the area of the Mediterranean basin, dated back the II-X Cent. A.D., were analyzed using different physical analytical techniques. Characteristic X-ray fluorescence was used with electrons and photons, in order to investigate the elemental composition of both the surface layers and bulk. Moreover, the quadrupole mass spectrometry coupled to laser ablation (LAMQS technique) in high vacuum was used to analyse typical material compounds from surface contamination. Mass spectrometry, at high resolution and sensitivity, extended up to 300 amu, allowed measuring the 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb isotopic ratios into the coins. Quantitative relative analyses of these isotopic ratios identify the coin composition such as a "fingerprint" depending on the mineral used to extract the lead. Isotopic ratios in coins can be compared to those of the possible minerals used to produce the bronze alloy. A comparison between the measured isotope ratios in the analyzed coins and the literature database, related to the mineral containing Pb as a function of its geological and geophysical extraction mine, is presented. The analysis, restricted to old coins and the mines of the Mediterranean basin, indicates a possible correlation between the coin compositions and the possible geological sites of the extracted mineral.

  11. Isolation of Copper from a 5-Cent Coin: An Example of Electrorefining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sogo, Steven G.

    2004-01-01

    Copper is isolated from a 5-cent coin with the help of electrolysis. This experiment is useful for conceptual understanding of the significance of reduction potentials in situation of competition for electrons.

  12. Establishing the equivalence between Szegedy's and coined quantum walks using the staggered model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portugal, Renato

    2016-04-01

    Coined quantum walks (QWs) are being used in many contexts with the goal of understanding quantum systems and building quantum algorithms for quantum computers. Alternative models such as Szegedy's and continuous-time QWs were proposed taking advantage of the fact that quantum theory seems to allow different quantized versions based on the same classical model, in this case the classical random walk. In this work, we show the conditions upon which coined QWs are equivalent to Szegedy's QWs. Those QW models have in common a large class of instances, in the sense that the evolution operators are equal when we convert the graph on which the coined QW takes place into a bipartite graph on which Szegedy's QW takes place, and vice versa. We also show that the abstract search algorithm using the coined QW model can be cast into Szegedy's searching framework using bipartite graphs with sinks.

  13. Analysis of corrosion layers in ancient Roman silver coins with high resolution surface spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keturakis, Christopher J.; Notis, Ben; Blenheim, Alex; Miller, Alfred C.; Pafchek, Rob; Notis, Michael R.; Wachs, Israel E.

    2016-07-01

    Determination of the microchemistry of surface corrosion layers on ancient silver alloy coins is important both in terms of understanding the nature of archaeological environmental conditions to which these ancient coins were exposed and also to help in their conservation. In this present study, five ancient silver alloy coins (225 BCE-244 CE) were used as test vehicles to measure their immediate surface microchemistry and evaluate the appropriateness and limitations of High Sensitivity-Low Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (HS-LEIS, 0.3 nm depth analysis), High Resolution-X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HR-XPS, 1-3 nm depth analysis) and High Resolution-Raman Spectroscopy (HR-Raman, ∼1000 nm depth analysis). Additional information about the deeper corrosion layers, up to ∼300-1000 nm, was provided by dynamic HS-LEIS and HR-Raman spectroscopy. While not archeologically significant, the use of these coins of small commercial value provides data that is more representative of the weaker signals typically obtained from ancient corroded objects, which can be in stark contrast to pristine data often obtained from carefully prepared alloys of known composition. The oldest coins, from 225 to 214 BCE, possessed an outermost surface layer containing Cu2O, Na, Al, Pb, and adsorbed hydrocarbons, while the more recent coins, from 98 to 244 CE, contained Cu2O, Ag, N, F, Na, Al, S, Cl, and adsorbed hydrocarbons in similar corresponding surface layers. It thus appears that alloying with copper, even in small amounts, leads to the formation of an outer Cu2O layer. Depth profiling revealed the presence of K, Na, Cl, and S as key corrosion components for both sets of coins with S, most likely as Ag2S, concentrated towards the surface while the Cl, most likely as AgCl, penetrated deeper. Schema to understand the overall chemistry of the corrosion layers present on these silver alloy coins were developed from the equipment limitations encountered and are presented.

  14. Ancient coins: cluster analysis applied to find a correlation between corrosion process and burial soil characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Although it is well known that any material degrades faster when exposed to an aggressive environment as well as that "aggressive" cannot be univocally defined as depending also on the chemical-physical characteristics of material, few researches on the identification of the most significant parameters influencing the corrosion of metallic object are available. A series of ancient coins, coming from the archaeological excavation of Palazzo Valentini (Rome) were collected together with soils, both near and far from them, and then analysed using different analytical techniques looking for a correlation between the corrosion products covering the coins and the chemical-physical soil characteristics. The content of soluble salts in the water-bearing stratum and surfacing in the archaeological site, was also measured. The obtained results stress the influence of alkaline soils on formation of patina. Cerussite, probably due to the circulation of water in layers rich in marble and plaster fragments, was the main corrosion product identified by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Copper, lead and vanadium were found in soil surrounding coins. By measuring conductivity, pH and soluble salts content of the washing solutions from both coins and soils, we could easily separate coins coming from different stratigraphic units of the site. Data were treated by cluster and multivariate analysis, revealing a correlation between part of the coins and the nearby soil samples. PMID:22594444

  15. Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Emmanuelle R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The Cognitive Biases Questionnaire for psychosis (CBQp) was developed to capture 5 cognitive distortions (jumping to conclusions, intentionalising, catastrophising, emotional reasoning, and dichotomous thinking), which are considered important for the pathogenesis of psychosis. Vignettes were adapted from the Cognitive Style Test (CST),1 relating to “Anomalous Perceptions” and “Threatening Events” themes. Method: Scale structure, reliability, and validity were investigated in a psychosis group, and CBQp scores were compared with those of depressed and healthy control samples. Results: The CBQp showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The 5 biases were not independent, with a 2-related factor scale providing the best fit. This structure suggests that the CBQp assesses a general thinking bias rather than distinct cognitive errors, while Anomalous Perception and Threatening Events theme scores can be used separately. Total CBQp scores showed good convergent validity with the CST, but individual biases were not related to existing tasks purporting to assess similar reasoning biases. Psychotic and depressed populations scored higher than healthy controls, and symptomatic psychosis patients scored higher than their nonsymptomatic counterparts, with modest relationships between CBQp scores and symptom severity once emotional disorders were partialled out. Anomalous Perception theme and Intentionalising bias scores showed some specificity to psychosis. Conclusions: Overall, the CBQp has good psychometric properties, although it is likely that it measures a different construct to existing tasks, tentatively suggested to represent a bias of interpretation rather than reasoning, judgment or decision-making processes. It is a potentially useful tool in both research and clinical arenas. PMID:23413104

  16. Exploring microstructure and surface features of Chinese coins using non-invasive approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ruishi; Li, Yuanli; Guo, Baogang; Hu, Hailong; Jiang, Linhai

    2015-03-01

    Despite the apparent significance of Chinese coins, the knowledge about the surface properties of the coins is still largely unknown. To date, most analytical techniques (e.g., cross-section analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, thermal analysis) require the partial or total destruction of the investigated sample, which is fatal to precious objects (e.g., artefacts and monuments). Herein, we systematically investigate the surface of a series of one yuan Chinese coins to disclose their chemical composition, morphology, and microstructure features using non-invasive techniques. Investigations were performed with scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The application of these approaches enables unambiguous explorations of the component, morphology, microstructure and physical properties of the samples without destroying them. The identification of the coins was achieved in light of the name of issuing authority and floral pattern. The morphology observations of the samples display that these coins possess mostly homogeneous surfaces; hence such a finding allows the formulation of a possible minting technology. Besides, the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy has proved of great role in exploring these coins, mainly because of its detectability to easily probe the presence of certain minor elements, which is critical in understanding surface finishing technologies, and production processes. The findings manifest that the coins were made of high purity nickel and a good refining process was applied in general. The detectable amounts of carbon measured in some coins suggest that the refining process was not exactly alike. These coin samples are found to be highly crystalline in nature with face-centred cubic crystallographic structure. Furthermore, to shed more light on the surface features of the coins, their physical properties (e.g., interplanar spacing, lattice parameter, lattice

  17. Divertor bias experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, G. M.

    1994-06-01

    Electrical biasing of the divertor target plates has recently been implemented on several tokamaks. The results of these experiments to date will be reviewed in this paper. The bias electrode configuration is unique in each experiment. The effects of biasing on the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma also differ. By comparing results between machines, and using theoretical models, an understanding of the basic physics of biasing begins to emerge. Divertor biasing has been demonstrated to have a strong influence on the particle and energy transport within the SOL. The ability to externally control the SOL plasma with biasing has promising applications to future tokamak reactors.

  18. Study of archaeological coins of different dynasties using libs coupled with multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awasthi, Shikha; Kumar, Rohit; Rai, G. K.; Rai, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an atomic emission spectroscopic technique having unique capability of an in-situ monitoring tool for detection and quantification of elements present in different artifacts. Archaeological coins collected form G.R. Sharma Memorial Museum; University of Allahabad, India has been analyzed using LIBS technique. These coins were obtained from excavation of Kausambi, Uttar Pradesh, India. LIBS system assembled in the laboratory (laser Nd:YAG 532 nm, 4 ns pulse width FWHM with Ocean Optics LIBS 2000+ spectrometer) is employed for spectral acquisition. The spectral lines of Ag, Cu, Ca, Sn, Si, Fe and Mg are identified in the LIBS spectra of different coins. LIBS along with Multivariate Analysis play an effective role for classification and contribution of spectral lines in different coins. The discrimination between five coins with Archaeological interest has been carried out using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results show the potential relevancy of the methodology used in the elemental identification and classification of artifacts with high accuracy and robustness.

  19. The feasibility of coin motors for use in a vibrotactile display for the blind.

    PubMed

    Stronks, H Christiaan; Parker, Daniel J; Walker, Janine; Lieby, Paulette; Barnes, Nick

    2015-06-01

    We have tested the potential of three types of vibration motors for use in a tactile vision substitution device for the blind. The motors were of the coin type, which are available off-the-shelf, and are characterized by their affordability, energy efficiency, and ease of implementation. The primary limitation of coin motors is the lack of control they offer over stimulus parameters. Specifically, adjusting the input voltage of a coin motor not only changes the vibration intensity, but also the vibration frequency and duration. This characteristic may result in unpredictable perceptions in psychophysical tests. By using standard psychophysical procedures, we were able to show that the tested coin motors evoked predictable magnitude perceptions across their dynamic range, following Fechner's law as if vibration intensity alone were varied. The best-performing motor was able to generate a median number of 15 available just-noticeable differences, meaning that it was potentially capable of conveying 16 gray levels in its dynamic range. We conclude that coin motors are potential candidates for the construction of a tactile display to substitute for lost vision. PMID:25586668

  20. Localizationlike effect in two-dimensional alternate quantum walks with periodic coin operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Franco, Carlo; Paternostro, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Exploiting multidimensional quantum walks as feasible platforms for quantum computation and quantum simulation attracts constantly growing attention from a broad experimental physics community. Here, we propose a two-dimensional quantum walk scheme with a single-qubit coin that presents, in the considered regimes, a strong localizationlike effect on the walker. The result could provide new possible directions for the implementation of quantum algorithms or from the point of view of quantum simulation. We characterize the localizationlike effect in terms of the parameters of a step-dependent qubit operation that acts on the coin space after any standard coin operation, showing that a proper choice can guarantee a nonnegligible probability of finding the walker in the origin even for large times. We finally discuss the robustness to imperfections, a qualitative relation with coherences behavior, and possible experimental realizations of this model with the current state-of-the-art settings.

  1. Demonstrating the Correspondence Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jennifer L.; Shepperd, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Among the best-known and most robust biases in person perception is the correspondence bias--the tendency for people to make dispositional, rather than situational, attributions for an actor's behavior. The correspondence bias appears in virtually every social psychology textbook and in many introductory psychology textbooks, yet the authors'…

  2. Bias in Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John

    2008-01-01

    Bias in grading can be conscious or unconscious. The author describes different types of bias, such as those based on student attractiveness or performance in prior courses, and a variety of methods of reducing bias, including keeping students anonymous during grading and using detailed criteria for subjective grading.

  3. Combined elemental and microstructural analysis of genuine and fake copper-alloy coins

    SciTech Connect

    Bartoli, L; Agresti, J; Mascalchi, M; Mencaglia, A; Cacciari, I; Siano, Salvatore

    2011-07-31

    Innovative noninvasive material analysis techniques are applied to determine archaeometallurgical characteristics of copper-alloy coins from Florence's National Museum of Archaeology. Three supposedly authentic Roman coins and three hypothetically fraudolent imitations are thoroughly investigated using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy and time of flight neutron diffraction along with 3D videomicroscopy and electron microscopy. Material analyses are aimed at collecting data allowing for objective discrimination between genuine Roman productions and late fakes. The results show the mentioned techniques provide quantitative compositional and textural data, which are strictly related to the manufacturing processes and aging of copper alloys. (laser applications)

  4. Evasion and Immuno-Endocrine Regulation in Parasite Infection: Two Sides of the Same Coin in Chagas Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Morrot, Alexandre; Villar, Silvina R.; González, Florencia B.; Pérez, Ana R.

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is a serious illness caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Nearly 30% of chronically infected people develop cardiac, digestive, or mixed alterations, suggesting a broad range of host-parasite interactions that finally impact upon chronic disease outcome. The ability of T. cruzi to persist and cause pathology seems to depend on diverse factors like T. cruzi strains, the infective load and the route of infection, presence of virulence factors, the parasite capacity to avoid protective immune response, the strength and type of host defense mechanisms and the genetic background of the host. The host-parasite interaction is subject to a constant neuro-endocrine regulation that is thought to influence the adaptive immune system, and as the infection proceeds it can lead to a broad range of outcomes, ranging from pathogen elimination to its continued persistence in the host. In this context, T. cruzi evasion strategies and host defense mechanisms can be envisioned as two sides of the same coin, influencing parasite persistence and different outcomes observed in Chagas disease. Understanding how T. cruzi evade host's innate and adaptive immune response will provide important clues to better dissect mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of Chagas disease. PMID:27242726

  5. Queries for Bias Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Diana F.

    1992-01-01

    Selecting a good bias prior to concept learning can be difficult. Therefore, dynamic bias adjustment is becoming increasingly popular. Current dynamic bias adjustment systems, however, are limited in their ability to identify erroneous assumptions about the relationship between the bias and the target concept. Without proper diagnosis, it is difficult to identify and then remedy faulty assumptions. We have developed an approach that makes these assumptions explicit, actively tests them with queries to an oracle, and adjusts the bias based on the test results.

  6. 45 CFR 2102.11 - Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like. 2102.11 Section 2102.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating..., insignia, coins, seals, and the like. Each submission of the design for a proposed item which is within...

  7. 45 CFR 2102.11 - Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Procedures on Submissions of Plans or Designs § 2102.11 Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like. Each submission of the design for a proposed item which is within the... medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like. 2102.11 Section 2102.11 Public Welfare Regulations...

  8. 45 CFR 2102.11 - Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Procedures on Submissions of Plans or Designs § 2102.11 Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like. Each submission of the design for a proposed item which is within the... medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like. 2102.11 Section 2102.11 Public Welfare Regulations...

  9. Analyzing Lead Content in Ancient Bronze Coins by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Archaeometry Laboratory with Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donais, Mary Kate; Whissel, Greg; Dumas, Ashley; Golden, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    A unique, interdisciplinary collaboration between chemistry and classics has led to the development of an experiment for nonscience majors. This instrumental analysis experiment was designed for use in an archaeology course to quantify the amount of lead in ancient bronze coins. The coins were corroded beyond visual identification, so provenance…

  10. 76 FR 21802 - Notice Announcing the Price of the 2010 America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated CoinsTM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... United States Mint Notice Announcing the Price of the 2010 America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver... America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM . In accordance with 31 U.S.C. 5112(u) & 9701(b), the United States Mint 2010 America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins TM...

  11. 77 FR 61661 - Price for the American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins and the America the Beautiful...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... United States Mint Price for the American Eagle Silver Proof and Uncirculated Coins and the America the Beautiful Five Ounce Silver Uncirculated Coins\\TM\\ AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Because of the recent increase in the market price of silver, the United...

  12. 77 FR 4084 - Prices for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... table below. The attached grid is the pricing for products that include gold coins based on the market price of gold. Product Introductory price Regular price 2012 Infantry Soldier Proof Silver $54.95 $59.95... Attached Grid. Gold Coin. 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Uncirculated See Attached Grid See Attached Grid....

  13. Using Conditional Discrimination Training to Produce Emergent Relations between Coins and Their Values in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keintz, Krista S.; Miguel, Caio F.; Kao, Betty; Finn, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of conditional discrimination (listener) training with coins on the emergence of novel stimulus relations, textual behavior, tacts, and intraverbals. Two preschoolers with autism were taught 3 relations among coins, their names, and values. After initial training, 4 relations emerged for the first…

  14. More Than Two Sides to Every Coin: Using Melville's "Moby Dick" to Teach Objective and Subjective Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, David B.

    1995-01-01

    Explains a descriptive analysis exercise based on Chapter 99 of "Moby Dick." Notes that students are given a description of a coin, asked to draw the coin, and then freewrite about what they and their classmates have drawn. States that the exercise is intended to illustrate the relationship between objective and subjective description. (PA)

  15. 45 CFR 2102.11 - Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like. 2102.11 Section 2102.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating..., insignia, coins, seals, and the like. Each submission of the design for a proposed item which is within...

  16. 45 CFR 2102.11 - Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope and content of submissions for proposed medals, insignia, coins, seals, and the like. 2102.11 Section 2102.11 Public Welfare Regulations Relating..., insignia, coins, seals, and the like. Each submission of the design for a proposed item which is within...

  17. Cognitive mechanisms of insight: the role of heuristics and representational change in solving the eight-coin problem.

    PubMed

    Öllinger, Michael; Jones, Gary; Faber, Amory H; Knoblich, Günther

    2013-05-01

    The 8-coin insight problem requires the problem solver to move 2 coins so that each coin touches exactly 3 others. Ormerod, MacGregor, and Chronicle (2002) explained differences in task performance across different versions of the 8-coin problem using the availability of particular moves in a 2-dimensional search space. We explored 2 further explanations by developing 6 new versions of the 8-coin problem in order to investigate the influence of grouping and self-imposed constraints on solutions. The results identified 2 sources of problem difficulty: first, the necessity to overcome the constraint that a solution can be found in 2-dimensional space and, second, the necessity to decompose perceptual groupings. A detailed move analysis suggested that the selection of moves was driven by the established representation rather than the application of the appropriate heuristics. Both results support the assumptions of representational change theory (Ohlsson, 1992).

  18. Prenatal bias in sex ratios in a marsupial, Antechinus agilis.

    PubMed Central

    Davison, M J; Ward, S J

    1998-01-01

    Biased sex ratios of young of birds and mammals clearly occur and may have an adaptive significance, but we rarely know the stage at which a bias is generated, or the mechanism. If a bias is generated prior to birth, studies of marsupials may be insightful because gestation is short and neonates are relatively undifferentiated. This study investigated whether biased sex ratios in Antechinus agilis are generated in the brief period between birth and the attachment of young to the mother's teats. When all young born, or just pouch young, or supernumerary young were considered, litters were strongly biased towards females (0.32 males), and there was no significant difference across the groups, so a bias is generated before birth in this species. Evidence from counts of corpora lutea suggests that embryo loss during gestation cannot account fully for the level of bias observed. Therefore, prefertilization mechanisms must contribute to the generation of sex-biased litters in this marsupial. PMID:9842736

  19. Interactive effect of microstructure and cavity dimension on filling behavior in micro coining of pure nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuanjie; Wang, Chunju; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Peng; Shan, Debin; Guo, Bin

    2016-04-01

    In this study, interactive effects of microstructure and cavity dimension on the filling behaviors in micro coining were investigated. The results indicate that the filling ability is dependent on both the cavity width t and the ratio of cavity width to grain size t/d strongly. The critical ratio t/d for the worst filling ability increases with cavity width t and tends to disappear when the cavity width t increases to 300 μm. A polycrystalline filling model considering the friction size effect, effect of constrained grains by the tools, grain size, cavity width and ratio of cavity width to grain size is proposed to reveal the filling size effect in micro coining. A quasi in-situ Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) method is proposed to investigate filling mechanism in micro coining. When several grains across the cavity width, each grain deforms heterogeneously to ordinate the deformation compatibility. When there is only one grain across the cavity width, the grain is fragmented into several smaller grains with certain prolongation along the extrusion direction to coordinate the deformation in the cavity. This is different from the understandings before. Then the filling deformation mechanism is revealed by a proposed model considering the plastic flow in micro coining.

  20. Unasked but Answered: Comparing the Relative Probabilities of Coin Flip Sequence Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernoff, Egan J.; Mamolo, Ami

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to contribute to research on teachers' probabilistic knowledge and reasoning. To meet this objective, prospective mathematics teachers were presented coin flip sequences and were asked to determine and explain which of the sequences was least likely to occur. This research suggests that certain individuals, when…

  1. 31 CFR 403.1 - Delivery of counterfeit obligations and other securities and coins authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delivery of counterfeit obligations and other securities and coins authorized. 403.1 Section 403.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) SECRET SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AUTHORIZATION OF...

  2. An Introduction to Biological Modeling Using Coin Flips to Predict the Outcome of a Diffusion Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Greg Q.; Rodriguez, Juan; Chirhart, Scott; Messina, Troy C.

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase students' awareness for and comfort with mathematical modeling of biological processes, and increase their understanding of diffusion, the following lab was developed for use in 100-level, majors/non-majors biology and neuroscience courses. The activity begins with generation of a data set that uses coin-flips to replicate…

  3. 31 CFR 92.3 - Manufacture and sale of “proof” coins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacture and sale of âproofâ coins. 92.3 Section 92.3 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance UNITED STATES MINT OPERATIONS AND PROCEDURES Numismatic Operations § 92.3 Manufacture and sale of “proof”...

  4. 37 CFR 254.3 - Compulsory license fees for coin-operated phonorecord players.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... this section, whichever is applicable. (e) Commencing January 1, 1990, the annual compulsory license... phonorecord players. (a) Commencing January 1, 1982, the annual compulsory license fee for a coin-operated phonorecord player shall be $25. (b) Commencing January 1, 1984, the annual compulsory license fee for a...

  5. We Can Still Learn About Probability by Rolling Dice and Tossing Coins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    Rolling dice and tossing coins can still be used to teach probability even if students know (or think they know) what happens in these experiments. This article considers many simple variations of these experiments which are interesting, potentially enjoyable and challenging. Using these variations can cause students (and teachers) to think again…

  6. 77 FR 54659 - Price for the 2012 Annual Uncirculated Dollar Coin Set

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... United States Mint Price for the 2012 Annual Uncirculated Dollar Coin Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing a price of $54.95... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: B. B. Craig, Associate Director for Sales and Marketing; United States...

  7. 78 FR 70414 - Pricing for the 2013 Coin and Chronicles Set-Theodore Roosevelt

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 Coin and Chronicles Set--Theodore Roosevelt AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing a price...: Marc Landry, Acting Associate Director for Sales and Marketing; United States Mint; 801 9th Street...

  8. 78 FR 25784 - Re-pricing of Several Silver Coin Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... United States Mint Re-pricing of Several Silver Coin Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Because of the recent decrease in the market price of silver, the United States Mint is lowering the price of several numismatic products that contain silver...

  9. The Monroe Doctrine: Critical Thinking through the Use of a Commemorative Coin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Leisa A.

    2007-01-01

    The author presents a social studies lesson that uses a commemorative coin to encourage understanding of the Monroe Doctrine. The international factors surrounding the formation of the Monroe Doctrine are discussed along with the implications and limitations of the document. The lesson provides quotations from the Monroe Doctrine, discusses how…

  10. Child Abuse and Neglect in Japan: Coin-Operated-Locker Babies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouno, Akihisa; Johnson, Charles F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews Japan's child abuse/neglect history, including the incidence of "coin-operated-locker babies," where murdered infants are hidden in railway and airport lockers, and actions taken to reduce this problem. The incidence of child abuse in Japan and the United States is compared, and social influences on the number of reported cases…

  11. Currency notes and coins as a possible source of transmitting fungal pathogens of man and plants.

    PubMed

    Wanule, Dinesh; Jalander, Vaghmare; Gachande, B D; Sirsikar, A N

    2011-10-01

    Currency (notes and coins) handling by people during transaction is one of the most mobile objects within the community, which has a potential of transmitting pathogens. A survey carried out recently in Nanded city (Maharashtra) revealed heavy contamination of currency notes and coins by important fungal pathogens of plants and man, i.e. Aspergillus niger (60.37%), A. flavus (3.98%), A.nidulans (0.2%), Penicillium citrinum (17.80%), Alternaria tenuis (0.20%), Curvularia pallescens (0.20%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (10.69%), Rhizopus stolonifer (1.04%), an unidentified Aspergillus species .1 (0.20%) and another unidentified Aspergillus species.2 (3.14%), Fusarium sp. (0.20%), Trichoderma viride (0.20%),white sterile mycelium (0.62%) and brown sterile mycelium (0.62%). The study highlights the importance of preventing and controlling fungal contamination of currency notes and coins in public health and plant protection. Currency notes or coins are rarely suspected as infection sources and often not quarantined at airport or seaport terminal. Possible transmission of pathogens or "alien", invasive species through currency across borders or across countries needs to be taken into consideration especially under circumstances of serious outbreak of important disease or when there is a threat of biological warfare.

  12. Solving Classical Insight Problems without Aha! Experience: 9 Dot, 8 Coin, and Matchstick Arithmetic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danek, Amory H.; Wiley, Jennifer; Öllinger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Insightful problem solving is a vital part of human thinking, yet very difficult to grasp. Traditionally, insight has been investigated by using a set of established "insight tasks," assuming that insight has taken place if these problems are solved. Instead of assuming that insight takes place during every solution of the 9 Dot, 8 Coin,…

  13. Parental restriction and children's diets. The chocolate coin and Easter egg experiments.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Cordey, Phillipa; Cutler, Laura; Thomas, Hayley

    2013-02-01

    Two naturalistic experiments are reported exploring the impact of parental restriction on children's diets. For study 1, 53 parents gave 75 g of chocolate coins to their child over a weekend. For study 2, 86 parents were recruited prior to the 2 week Easter break when their children would be receiving chocolate Easter eggs. For both studies, parents were randomly allocated to either the non-restriction or restriction conditions and rated their child's preoccupation with the target food and other sweet foods (demanding and eating) at the start and end of the interventions. Perceived and actual food intake was assessed. Children in the restriction conditions consumed fewer chocolate coins and Easter eggs. All children showed decreased preoccupation with chocolate coins or Easter eggs over the course of the studies yet by the end the restriction group were more preoccupied with the target food. In contrast, all children showed an increased preoccupation with other sweet foods as the studies progressed which was greater in the non-restriction group for the chocolate coins study. Overall, restriction resulted in reduced intake but relative increased preoccupation with the food being restricted. Non-restriction resulted in a greater preoccupation with other sweet foods once the target foods had been consumed.

  14. The Facts Are on the Table: Analyzing the Geometry of Coin Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilmann, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In a typical high school course, the complex physics of collisions is broken up into the dichotomy of perfectly elastic versus completely inelastic collisions. Real-life collisions, however, generally fall between these two extremes. An accurate treatment is still possible, as demonstrated in an investigation of coin collisions. Simple…

  15. Interactive effect of microstructure and cavity dimension on filling behavior in micro coining of pure nickel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chuanjie; Wang, Chunju; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Peng; Shan, Debin; Guo, Bin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, interactive effects of microstructure and cavity dimension on the filling behaviors in micro coining were investigated. The results indicate that the filling ability is dependent on both the cavity width t and the ratio of cavity width to grain size t/d strongly. The critical ratio t/d for the worst filling ability increases with cavity width t and tends to disappear when the cavity width t increases to 300 μm. A polycrystalline filling model considering the friction size effect, effect of constrained grains by the tools, grain size, cavity width and ratio of cavity width to grain size is proposed to reveal the filling size effect in micro coining. A quasi in-situ Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) method is proposed to investigate filling mechanism in micro coining. When several grains across the cavity width, each grain deforms heterogeneously to ordinate the deformation compatibility. When there is only one grain across the cavity width, the grain is fragmented into several smaller grains with certain prolongation along the extrusion direction to coordinate the deformation in the cavity. This is different from the understandings before. Then the filling deformation mechanism is revealed by a proposed model considering the plastic flow in micro coining. PMID:27049754

  16. 75 FR 43943 - Defense Science Board; Task Force on Counter Insurgency (COIN) Intelligence, Surveillance and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... of the Secretary Defense Science Board; Task Force on Counter Insurgency (COIN) Intelligence...) Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) Operations will meet in closed session on August 24-26, and... perceived needs of the Department of Defense. These meetings will identify how DoD intelligence can...

  17. 17 CFR 31.3 - Fraud in connection with certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other commodities. 31.3 Section 31.3... in connection with certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other commodities... transaction for the purchase, sale or delivery of silver bullion, gold bullion, bulk silver coins, bulk...

  18. 17 CFR 31.3 - Fraud in connection with certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other commodities. 31.3 Section 31.3... in connection with certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other commodities... transaction for the purchase, sale or delivery of silver bullion, gold bullion, bulk silver coins, bulk...

  19. 17 CFR 31.3 - Fraud in connection with certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other commodities. 31.3 Section 31.3... in connection with certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other commodities... transaction for the purchase, sale or delivery of silver bullion, gold bullion, bulk silver coins, bulk...

  20. 17 CFR 31.3 - Fraud in connection with certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other commodities. 31.3 Section 31.3... in connection with certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other commodities... transaction for the purchase, sale or delivery of silver bullion, gold bullion, bulk silver coins, bulk...

  1. 17 CFR 31.3 - Fraud in connection with certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other commodities. 31.3 Section 31.3... in connection with certain transactions in silver or gold bullion or bulk coins, or other commodities... transaction for the purchase, sale or delivery of silver bullion, gold bullion, bulk silver coins, bulk...

  2. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    PubMed

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms.

  3. Preliminary study of statistical pattern recognition-based coin counterfeit detection by means of high resolution 3D scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leich, Marcus; Kiltz, Stefan; Krätzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2011-03-01

    According to the European Commission around 200,000 counterfeit Euro coins are removed from circulation every year. While approaches exist to automatically detect these coins, satisfying error rates are usually only reached for low quality forgeries, so-called "local classes". High-quality minted forgeries ("common classes") pose a problem for these methods as well as for trained humans. This paper presents a first approach for statistical analysis of coins based on high resolution 3D data acquired with a chromatic white light sensor. The goal of this analysis is to determine whether two coins are of common origin. The test set for these first and new investigations consists of 62 coins from not more than five different sources. The analysis is based on the assumption that, apart from markings caused by wear such as scratches and residue consisting of grease and dust, coins from equal origin have a more similar height field than coins from different mints. First results suggest that the selected approach is heavily affected by influences of wear like dents and scratches and the further research is required the eliminate this influence. A course for future work is outlined.

  4. The Development of Spatial Frequency Biases in Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Hayley C.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that a mid-band of spatial frequencies is critical to face recognition in adults, but few studies have explored the development of this bias in children. We present a paradigm adapted from the adult literature to test spatial frequency biases throughout development. Faces were presented on a screen with particular…

  5. Political bias is tenacious.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Peter H; Wojcik, Sean P; Chen, Eric Evan; Grady, Rebecca Hofstein; Ringel, Megan M

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al. are right to worry about political bias in social psychology but they underestimate the ease of correcting it. Both liberals and conservatives show partisan bias that often worsens with cognitive sophistication. More non-liberals in social psychology is unlikely to speed our convergence upon the truth, although it may broaden the questions we ask and the data we collect.

  6. Investigating Test Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepfner, Ralph; Strickland, Guy P.

    This study investigates the question of test bias to develop an index of the appropriateness of a test to a particular socioeconomic or racial-ethnic group. Bias is defined as an item by race interaction in an analysis-of-variance design. The sample of 172 third graders at two integrated schools in a large California school district, included 26…

  7. Sampler bias -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-03-07

    This documents Phase 1 determinations on sampler induced bias for four sampler types used in tank characterization. Each sampler, grab sampler or bottle-on-a-string, auger sampler, sludge sampler and universal sampler, is briefly discussed and their physical limits noted. Phase 2 of this document will define additional testing and analysis to further define Sampler Bias.

  8. Suitability of Transportable EDXRF for the On-site Assessment of Ancient Silver Coins and Other Silver Artifacts.

    PubMed

    Gore, Damian B; Davis, Gillan

    2016-05-01

    Transportable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers allow the elemental composition of coins to be measured at collections, enhancing security while maximizing access to historically important material. We assessed 10 silver coins, using five XRF spectrometers. We found no systematic differences between analyses using Mo- and Rh-anode tubes, and no substantial advantage using He flush over air for elements heavier than Ti. Higher voltage X-ray tubes enhanced analytical precision. Understanding patina composition made a numerical correction possible, allowing an approximation of the underlying coin metal with good results for metals including Cu, Ag, Au, Pb, and Bi. PMID:27044848

  9. Expectancy biases in fear and anxiety and their link to biases in attention.

    PubMed

    Aue, Tatjana; Okon-Singer, Hadas

    2015-12-01

    Healthy individuals often exhibit prioritized processing of aversive information, as manifested in enhanced orientation of attention to threatening stimuli compared with neutral items. In contrast to this adaptive behavior, anxious, fearful, and phobic individuals show exaggerated attention biases to threat. In addition, they overestimate the likelihood of encountering their feared stimulus and the severity of the consequences; both are examples of expectancy biases. The co-occurrence of attention and expectancy biases in fear and anxiety raises the question about causal influences. Herein, we summarize findings related to expectancy biases in fear and anxiety, and their association with attention biases. We suggest that evidence calls for more comprehensive research strategies in the investigation of mutual influences between expectancy and attention biases, as well as their combined effects on fear and anxiety. Moreover, both types of bias need to be related to other types of distorted information processing commonly observed in fear and anxiety (e.g., memory and interpretation biases). Finally, we propose new research directions that may be worth considering in developing more effective treatments for anxiety disorders.

  10. Expectancy biases in fear and anxiety and their link to biases in attention.

    PubMed

    Aue, Tatjana; Okon-Singer, Hadas

    2015-12-01

    Healthy individuals often exhibit prioritized processing of aversive information, as manifested in enhanced orientation of attention to threatening stimuli compared with neutral items. In contrast to this adaptive behavior, anxious, fearful, and phobic individuals show exaggerated attention biases to threat. In addition, they overestimate the likelihood of encountering their feared stimulus and the severity of the consequences; both are examples of expectancy biases. The co-occurrence of attention and expectancy biases in fear and anxiety raises the question about causal influences. Herein, we summarize findings related to expectancy biases in fear and anxiety, and their association with attention biases. We suggest that evidence calls for more comprehensive research strategies in the investigation of mutual influences between expectancy and attention biases, as well as their combined effects on fear and anxiety. Moreover, both types of bias need to be related to other types of distorted information processing commonly observed in fear and anxiety (e.g., memory and interpretation biases). Finally, we propose new research directions that may be worth considering in developing more effective treatments for anxiety disorders. PMID:26379081

  11. Biased predecision processing.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Aaron L

    2003-07-01

    Decision makers conduct biased predecision processing when they restructure their mental representation of the decision environment to favor one alternative before making their choice. The question of whether biased predecision processing occurs has been controversial since L. Festinger (1957) maintained that it does not occur. The author reviews relevant research in sections on theories of cognitive dissonance, decision conflict, choice certainty, action control, action phases, dominance structuring, differentiation and consolidation, constructive processing, motivated reasoning, and groupthink. Some studies did not find evidence of biased predecision processing, but many did. In the Discussion section, the moderators are summarized and used to assess the theories. PMID:12848220

  12. Hormesis: Decoding Two Sides of the Same Coin

    PubMed Central

    Bhakta-Guha, Dipita; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In the paradigm of drug administration, determining the correct dosage of a therapeutic is often a challenge. Several drugs have been noted to demonstrate contradictory effects per se at high and low doses. This duality in function of a drug at different concentrations is known as hormesis. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study these biphasic functions in order to understand the mechanistic basis of their effects. In this article, we focus on different molecules and pathways associated with diseases that possess a duality in their function and thus prove to be the seat of hormesis. In particular, we have highlighted the pathways and factors involved in the progression of cancer and how the biphasic behavior of the molecules involved can alter the manifestations of cancer. Because of the pragmatic role that it exhibits, the imminent need is to draw attention to the concept of hormesis. Herein, we also discuss different stressors that trigger hormesis and how stress-mediated responses increase the overall adaptive response of an individual to stress stimulus. We talk about common pathways through which cancer progresses (such as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Nrf2-Keap1), sirtuin-forkhead box O (SIRT-FOXO) and others), analyzing how diverse molecules associated with these pathways conform to hormesis. PMID:26694419

  13. New techniques to test fatigue properties of coined sheet specimens. Part 4: Development of experimental techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Anders; Melander, Arne

    1994-09-01

    The present work was directed to the development of laboratory specimens suitable for simulation of fatigue in coinings in sheet materials. This report describes the different steps taken to advance the test procedures towards the requirements formulated for the experiments. Two test geometries with corresponding test procedures were established. The two dimensional geometry loaded axially in the fatigue test benefits from its very simple form which results in ease of manufacture, testing and analysis. The more sophisticated three dimensional geometry developed resembles much of coinings in real automotive components - bending loading, geometry and similar fatigue failure site. However, due to its geometrical complexity it demands more when it comes to fatigue testing and analysis.

  14. CoinFold: a web server for protein contact prediction and contact-assisted protein folding

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Wei; Zhang, Renyu; Liu, Shiwang; Xu, Jinbo

    2016-01-01

    CoinFold (http://raptorx2.uchicago.edu/ContactMap/) is a web server for protein contact prediction and contact-assisted de novo structure prediction. CoinFold predicts contacts by integrating joint multi-family evolutionary coupling (EC) analysis and supervised machine learning. This joint EC analysis is unique in that it not only uses residue coevolution information in the target protein family, but also that in the related families which may have divergent sequences but similar folds. The supervised learning further improves contact prediction accuracy by making use of sequence profile, contact (distance) potential and other information. Finally, this server predicts tertiary structure of a sequence by feeding its predicted contacts and secondary structure to the CNS suite. Tested on the CASP and CAMEO targets, this server shows significant advantages over existing ones of similar category in both contact and tertiary structure prediction. PMID:27112569

  15. Hot-hand bias in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Tommy C; Wilke, Andreas; Hayden, Benjamin Y

    2014-07-01

    Human decision-makers often exhibit the hot-hand phenomenon, a tendency to perceive positive serial autocorrelations in independent sequential events. The term is named after the observation that basketball fans and players tend to perceive streaks of high accuracy shooting when they are demonstrably absent. That is, both observing fans and participating players tend to hold the belief that a player's chance of hitting a shot are greater following a hit than following a miss. We hypothesize that this bias reflects a strong and stable tendency among primates (including humans) to perceive positive autocorrelations in temporal sequences, that this bias is an adaptation to clumpy foraging environments, and that it may even be ecologically rational. Several studies support this idea in humans, but a stronger test would be to determine whether nonhuman primates also exhibit a hot-hand bias. Here we report behavior of 3 monkeys performing a novel gambling task in which correlation between sequential gambles (i.e., temporal clumpiness) is systematically manipulated. We find that monkeys have better performance (meaning, more optimal behavior) for clumped (positively correlated) than for dispersed (negatively correlated) distributions. These results identify and quantify a new bias in monkeys' risky decisions, support accounts that specifically incorporate cognitive biases into risky choice, and support the suggestion that the hot-hand phenomenon is an evolutionary ancient bias.

  16. Rapid, automated measurement of layer thicknesses on steel coin blanks using laser-induced-breakdown spectroscopy depth profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Asimellis, George; Giannoudakos, Aggelos; Kompitsas, Michael

    2007-02-20

    We report application of a near-real-time method to determine layer thickness on electroplated coin blanks. The method was developed on a simple laser-induced-breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) arrangement by monitoring relative emission-line intensities from key probe elements via successive laser ablation shots. This is a unique LIBS application where no other current spectroscopic method (inductively coupled plasma or x-ray fluorescence) can be applied effectively. Method development is discussed, and results with precalibrated coins are presented.

  17. Ancient Coins and their Modern Fakes: An Attempt of Physico-Chemical Unmasking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzasalma, A. M.; Mondio, G.; Serafino, T.; De Fulvio, G.; Romeo, M.; Salici, A.

    As a consequence of police operations in Messina (Sicily), a huge quantity of perfect imitations of ancient coins, realized by a sicilian forger, has been recently found. Such fakes have been realized by the lost wax casting technique and reproduce coins issued by different authorities in different historical epochs. In order to overcome the obvious subjectivity of the traditional (autoptical) numismatic analysis, which sometime provides contrasting interpretations, five of these fakes have been analysed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersed X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF). The results obtained have given information on the microstructure, the homogeneity and the elemental composition of the alloys used by the forger. Furthermore, evident traces of the chemical treatment utilized for the artificial ageing of the coins have been found. Due to the presumable and dangerous large diffusion of these sicilian fakes in the international market, the results of such analyses may certainly be of noticeable interest for Numismatics and forensic applications as well, representing a set of proofs to be used in the unmasking of analogous counterfeiting cases.

  18. Introduction to Unconscious Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, Joan T.

    2010-05-01

    We all have biases, and we are (for the most part) unaware of them. In general, men and women BOTH unconsciously devalue the contributions of women. This can have a detrimental effect on grant proposals, job applications, and performance reviews. Sociology is way ahead of astronomy in these studies. When evaluating identical application packages, male and female University psychology professors preferred 2:1 to hire "Brian” over "Karen” as an assistant professor. When evaluating a more experienced record (at the point of promotion to tenure), reservations were expressed four times more often when the name was female. This unconscious bias has a repeated negative effect on Karen's career. This talk will introduce the concept of unconscious bias and also give recommendations on how to address it using an example for a faculty search committee. The process of eliminating unconscious bias begins with awareness, then moves to policy and practice, and ends with accountability.

  19. Estimating Bias Error Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tian-Shu; Finley, Tom D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper formulates the general methodology for estimating the bias error distribution of a device in a measuring domain from less accurate measurements when a minimal number of standard values (typically two values) are available. A new perspective is that the bias error distribution can be found as a solution of an intrinsic functional equation in a domain. Based on this theory, the scaling- and translation-based methods for determining the bias error distribution arc developed. These methods are virtually applicable to any device as long as the bias error distribution of the device can be sufficiently described by a power series (a polynomial) or a Fourier series in a domain. These methods have been validated through computational simulations and laboratory calibration experiments for a number of different devices.

  20. Political bias is tenacious.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Peter H; Wojcik, Sean P; Chen, Eric Evan; Grady, Rebecca Hofstein; Ringel, Megan M

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al. are right to worry about political bias in social psychology but they underestimate the ease of correcting it. Both liberals and conservatives show partisan bias that often worsens with cognitive sophistication. More non-liberals in social psychology is unlikely to speed our convergence upon the truth, although it may broaden the questions we ask and the data we collect. PMID:26786070

  1. Modeling the Overalternating Bias with an Asymmetric Entropy Measure

    PubMed Central

    Gronchi, Giorgio; Raglianti, Marco; Noventa, Stefano; Lazzeri, Alessandro; Guazzini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Psychological research has found that human perception of randomness is biased. In particular, people consistently show the overalternating bias: they rate binary sequences of symbols (such as Heads and Tails in coin flipping) with an excess of alternation as more random than prescribed by the normative criteria of Shannon's entropy. Within data mining for medical applications, Marcellin proposed an asymmetric measure of entropy that can be ideal to account for such bias and to quantify subjective randomness. We fitted Marcellin's entropy and Renyi's entropy (a generalized form of uncertainty measure comprising many different kinds of entropies) to experimental data found in the literature with the Differential Evolution algorithm. We observed a better fit for Marcellin's entropy compared to Renyi's entropy. The fitted asymmetric entropy measure also showed good predictive properties when applied to different datasets of randomness-related tasks. We concluded that Marcellin's entropy can be a parsimonious and effective measure of subjective randomness that can be useful in psychological research about randomness perception. PMID:27458418

  2. Analysis of medieval Serbian silver coins from XIV and XV century by means of wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gržetić, Ivan; Orlić, Jovana; Radić, Vesna; Radić, Milica; Ilijević, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is known as excellent nondestructive technique for analysis of artifacts, in our case, medieval numismatic coins. Collections of 30 silver coins, owned by National Museum in Belgrade, were investigated during our research. Coins from the historical period from 1389 to 1458 belong to the reign of two Serbian rulers, Stefan Lazarević and Đurđe Branković. The aim of this study was to determine elemental composition of silver coins and to characterize alloys from which the coins were minted. The dominant elements detected in all coins were Ag, Cu, Zn and Pb. In some coins Fe, Si and S were detected as well. Results from quantitative analysis shows that the content of Ag in all investigated silver coins exceed 90%, except in two coins that were assumed to be forged. The concentration of Cu ranged from 3% to 5%, and the contents of Zn and Pb varied around 1%. Characterization of coins provided us information about raw materials and employed metallurgical processes.

  3. A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Cognitive Bias Modification on Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallion, Lauren S.; Ruscio, Ayelet Meron

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive biases have been theorized to play a critical role in the onset and maintenance of anxiety and depression. Cognitive bias modification (CBM), an experimental paradigm that uses training to induce maladaptive or adaptive cognitive biases, was developed to test these causal models. Although CBM has generated considerable interest in the…

  4. Frontal theta overrides pavlovian learning biases.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Eisenberg, Ian; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Huys, Quentin; Frank, Michael J

    2013-05-01

    Pavlovian biases influence learning and decision making by intricately coupling reward seeking with action invigoration and punishment avoidance with action suppression. This bias is not always adaptive-it can often interfere with instrumental requirements. The prefrontal cortex is thought to help resolve such conflict between motivational systems, but the nature of this control process remains unknown. EEG recordings of midfrontal theta band power are sensitive to conflict and predictive of adaptive control over behavior, but it is not clear whether this signal reflects control over conflict between motivational systems. Here we used a task that orthogonalized action requirements and outcome valence while recording concurrent EEG in human participants. By applying a computational model of task performance, we derived parameters reflective of the latent influence of Pavlovian bias and how it was modulated by midfrontal theta power during motivational conflict. Between subjects, those who performed better under Pavlovian conflict exhibited higher midfrontal theta power. Within subjects, trial-to-trial variance in theta power was predictive of ability to overcome the influence of the Pavlovian bias, and this effect was most pronounced in subjects with higher midfrontal theta to conflict. These findings demonstrate that midfrontal theta is not only a sensitive index of prefrontal control, but it can also reflect the application of top-down control over instrumental processes.

  5. Halo velocity bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagetti, Matteo; Desjacques, Vincent; Kehagias, Alex; Riotto, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    It has been recently shown that any halo velocity bias present in the initial conditions does not decay to unity, in agreement with predictions from peak theory. However, this is at odds with the standard formalism based on the coupled-fluids approximation for the coevolution of dark matter and halos. Starting from conservation laws in phase space, we discuss why the fluid momentum conservation equation for the biased tracers needs to be modified in accordance with the change advocated in Baldauf et al. Our findings indicate that a correct description of the halo properties should properly take into account peak constraints when starting from the Vlasov-Boltzmann equation.

  6. Synergetic effect of laser patterning and micro coining for controlled lubricant propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenkranz, Andreas; Gruetzmacher, Philipp G.; Szurdak, Adam; Gachot, Carsten; Hirt, Gerhard; Muecklich, Frank

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the anisotropic spreading behavior of Poly-(alpha)-olefin oil (kinematic viscosity of 7.8 cSt at 100 °C) on stainless steel samples (AISI 403) having periodic, channel-like structures produced by hot micro-coining (periodicity of 400 μm and depth of 40 μm) as well as multi-scale structures (coining and laser patterning) was investigated. These results were compared to the behavior of periodic channels fabricated by direct laser interference patterning (periodicity of 5 μm and depth of 1 μm). The spreading behavior of a droplet (3 μl) was studied for a polished reference as well as for all modified surfaces and recorded by a digital light microscope. From this study, it can be concluded that the polished reference leads to an isotropic spreading behavior resulting from the stochastic surface roughness without any preferential orientation whereas all structured samples induce an anisotropic spreading behavior but with different degrees of anisotropy. The observed behavior can be well correlated with pinning induced by the grooves thus hindering the droplet propagation perpendicular to the grooves and the generation of capillary forces which favor the droplet movement along the grooves. It could be proved that the structural depth is a very desicive parameter with regard to the resulting spreading behavior. The multi-scale surface combining large structural depths and the steeper pattern geometry of the micro-coined surface with much smaller grooves of the laser-structure shows the largest anisotropic spreading behavior due to a stronger pinning and increased capillary forces.

  7. Own Variety Bias

    PubMed Central

    García, Andrea Ariza

    2015-01-01

    In a language identification task, native Belgian French and native Swiss French speakers identified French from France as their own variety. However, Canadian French was not subject to this bias. Canadian and French listeners didn’t claim a different variety as their own.

  8. Biased to Learn Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    Some recent publications that explore the foundations of early language development are reviewed in this article. The review adopts the pivotal idea that infants' advancements are helped by the existence of different types of biases. The infant's discovery of the phonological properties of the language of the environment, as well as their learning…

  9. Optically biased laser gyro

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.Z.; Chow, W.W.; Scully, M.O.; Sanders, V.E.

    1980-10-01

    We describe a four-mode ring laser that exhibits none of the mode-locking characteristics that plague laser gyros. This laser is characterized by a bias that changes sign with a change in the direction of rotation and prevents the counterpropagating modes from locking. A theoretical analysis explaining the experimental results is outlined.

  10. Own Variety Bias.

    PubMed

    Sloos, Marjoleine; García, Andrea Ariza

    2015-10-01

    In a language identification task, native Belgian French and native Swiss French speakers identified French from France as their own variety. However, Canadian French was not subject to this bias. Canadian and French listeners didn't claim a different variety as their own. PMID:27648211

  11. From Coin to Medal: A Metallurgical Study of the Brazing Drop on a 19th Century Scudo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breda, M.; Canovaro, C.; Pérez, A. F. Miranda; Calliari, I.

    2012-11-01

    In the past, it was customary to use out-of-circulation coins as pendants by brazing a peg or ring on the edge of the coin in order to transform it into a devotional or decorative object; this practice was very common for specimens of the Papal States, especially for silver coins. This metallurgical investigation of a 19th century Scudo aimed to relate the internal structure of the coin to the minting technology with a special focus on the brazing drop, in order to provide information on the solidification microstructure arising from a strongly nonequilibrium process such as brazing. The results show that the Ag content in the coin ranges from 92% in the bulk up to 97% on the surface, due to enrichment, while analysis of the brazing revealed that it consists of an Ag-Cu-Zn-Pb alloy, for which the melting temperature has been estimated. Considering the distribution of minor elements, Zn segregates in the secondary (Cu-rich) β-dendrites and inside the whole eutectic structure, while Pb is only present in the Ag-based phases and seems to reduce the solubility of Zn inside the primary (Ag-rich) α-dendrites.

  12. Classical-like behavior in quantum walks with inhomogeneous, time-dependent coin operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, Miquel

    2016-06-01

    Although quantum walks exhibit peculiar properties that distinguish them from random walks, classical behavior can be recovered in the asymptotic limit by destroying the coherence of the pure state associated to the quantum system. Here I show that this is not the only way: I introduce a quantum walk driven by an inhomogeneous, time-dependent coin operator, which mimics the statistical properties of a random walk at all time scales. The quantum particle undergoes unitary evolution and, in fact, the high correlation evidenced by the components of the wave function can be used to revert the outcome of an accidental measurement of its chirality.

  13. Analysis of antique bronze coins by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachler, M. Orlić; Bišćan, M.; Kregar, Z.; Jelovica Badovinac, I.; Dobrinić, J.; Milošević, S.

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a feasibility study of applying the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to data obtained by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with the aim of determining correlation between different samples. The samples were antique bronze coins coated in silver (follis) dated in the Roman Empire period and were made during different rulers in different mints. While raw LIBS data revealed that in the period from the year 286 to 383 CE content of silver was constantly decreasing, the PCA showed that the samples can be somewhat grouped together based on their place of origin, which could be a useful hint when analysing unknown samples. It was also found that PCA can help in discriminating spectra corresponding to ablation from the surface and from the bulk. Furthermore, Partial Least Squares method (PLS) was used to obtain, based on a set of samples with known composition, an estimation of relative copper concentration in studied ancient coins. This analysis showed that copper concentration in surface layers ranged from 83% to 90%.

  14. [Experiences with computer-assisted x-ray diagnosis of pulmonary coin lesions (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Rotte, K H; Stier, M

    1976-08-01

    Favourable results of the computer-aided diagnosis of peripheral bronchial carcinoma lead to a simplified scheme for calculation fo diagnosis, basing upon X-ray symptoms. This scheme was tested in the Zentralinstitut für Krebsforschung (ZIK) in 102 pateints and in the Forschungsinstitut für Lungenkrankheiten und Tuberkulose (FLT) in 101 patients. These patients had coin lesions of the lung with unknown diagnoses. The histological diagnoses later proved were compared with the calculated diagnoses. In ZIK there were correct diagnosis in 92.16% (in 96.53% of the carcinomas, in 44.4% of the tuberculomas and in all benign tumors), while in FLT 85.53% of the coin lesions were correctly classified (89.13% of carcinomas, 79.31% of the tuberculomas and all benign tumors). The comparison with the clinical-histological diagnoses showed a clear improvement of the accuracy by the calculated diagnoses. The method can be recommended for the basic diagnosis especially of peripheral bronchial carcinoma. It implies a reduction of the diagnostic delay, but it can not substitute the histologic investigation of the lesions.

  15. Temperature trend biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    In an accompanying talk we show that well-homogenized national dataset warm more than temperatures from global collections averaged over the region of common coverage. In this poster we want to present auxiliary work about possible biases in the raw observations and on how well relative statistical homogenization can remove trend biases. There are several possible causes of cooling biases, which have not been studied much. Siting could be an important factor. Urban stations tend to move away from the centre to better locations. Many stations started inside of urban areas and are nowadays more outside. Even for villages the temperature difference between the centre and edge can be 0.5°C. When a city station moves to an airport, which often happened around WWII, this takes the station (largely) out of the urban heat island. During the 20th century the Stevenson screen was established as the dominant thermometer screen. This screen protected the thermometer much better against radiation than earlier designs. Deficits of earlier measurement methods have artificially warmed the temperatures in the 19th century. Newer studies suggest we may have underestimated the size of this bias. Currently we are in a transition to Automatic Weather Stations. The net global effect of this transition is not clear at this moment. Irrigation on average decreases the 2m-temperature by about 1 degree centigrade. At the same time, irrigation has increased significantly during the last century. People preferentially live in irrigated areas and weather stations serve agriculture. Thus it is possible that there is a higher likelihood that weather stations are erected in irrigated areas than elsewhere. In this case irrigation could lead to a spurious cooling trend. In the Parallel Observations Science Team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI-POST) we are studying influence of the introduction of Stevenson screens and Automatic Weather Stations using parallel measurements

  16. Mimicking the probability distribution of a two-dimensional Grover walk with a single-qubit coin.

    PubMed

    Di Franco, C; Mc Gettrick, M; Busch, Th

    2011-02-25

    The nonlocalized case of the spatial density probability of the two-dimensional Grover walk can be obtained using only a two-dimensional coin space and a quantum walk in alternate directions. This significantly reduces the resources necessary for its feasible experimental realization. We present a formal proof of this correspondence and analyze the behavior of the coin-position entanglement as well as the x-y spatial entanglement in our scheme with respect to the Grover one. Our scheme allows us to entangle the two orthogonal directions of the walk more efficiently.

  17. Characterisation of corrosion layers formed under burial environment of copper-based Greek and Roman coins from Pompeii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronti, Lucilla; Felici, Anna Candida; Alesiani, Marcella; Tarquini, Ombretta; Bracciale, Maria Paola; Santarelli, Maria Laura; Pardini, Giacomo; Piacentini, Mario

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out on patinas covering copper-based Greek and Roman coins found in the archaeological excavation of Regio VIII.7.1-15 in Pompeii (Italy). Since in cultural heritage ancient artefacts should not be damaged, non-destructive and micro-destructive techniques have been used to identify typical and uncommon compounds and to characterize the surface morphology. The chlorine content of light green patinas and the presence of typical minerals allowed us to identify the bronze disease. Coins from the same stratigraphic unit have shown different morphologies of corrosion, probably due to different micro-environmental conditions.

  18. BeiDou Inter-Satellite-Type Bias Evaluation and Calibration for Mixed Receiver Attitude Determination

    PubMed Central

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Teunissen, Peter J. G.; Raziq, Noor

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese BeiDou system (BDS), having different types of satellites, is an important addition to the ever growing system of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). It consists of Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. This paper investigates the receiver-dependent bias between these satellite types, for which we coined the name “inter-satellite-type bias” (ISTB), and its impact on mixed receiver attitude determination. Assuming different receiver types may have different delays/biases for different satellite types, we model the differential ISTBs among three BeiDou satellite types and investigate their existence and their impact on mixed receiver attitude determination. Our analyses using the real data sets from Curtin's GNSS array consisting of different types of BeiDou enabled receivers and series of zero-baseline experiments with BeiDou-enabled receivers reveal the existence of non-zero ISTBs between different BeiDou satellite types. We then analyse the impact of these biases on BeiDou-only attitude determination using the constrained (C-)LAMBDA method, which exploits the knowledge of baseline length. Results demonstrate that these biases could seriously affect the integer ambiguity resolution for attitude determination using mixed receiver types and that a priori correction of these biases will dramatically improve the success rate. PMID:23881141

  19. Assessing Bias in Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowshowitz, Abbe; Kawaguchi, Akira

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the measurement of bias in search engines on the Web, defining bias as the balance and representation of items in a collection retrieved from a database for a set of queries. Assesses bias by measuring the deviation from the ideal of the distribution produced by a particular search engine. (Author/LRW)

  20. Negativity bias and basic values.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shalom H

    2014-06-01

    Basic values explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The values most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. Value conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450

  1. Two success-biased social learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Baldini, Ryan

    2013-06-01

    I compare the evolutionary dynamics of two success-biased social learning strategies, which, by definition, use the success of others to inform one's social learning decisions. The first, "Compare Means", causes a learner to adopt cultural variants with highest mean payoff in her sample. The second, "Imitate the Best", causes a learner to imitate the single most successful individual in her sample. I summarize conditions under which each strategy performs well or poorly, and investigate their evolution via a gene-culture coevolutionary model. Despite the adaptive appeal of these strategies, both encounter conditions under which they systematically perform worse than simply imitating at random. Compare Means performs worst when the optimal cultural variant is usually at high frequency, while Imitate the Best performs worst when suboptimal variants sometimes produce high payoffs. The extent to which it is optimal to use success-biased social learning depends strongly on the payoff distributions and environmental conditions that human social learners face.

  2. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  3. Quantifying ligand bias at seven-transmembrane receptors.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Ahn, Seungkirl; Rominger, David H; Gowen-MacDonald, William; Lam, Christopher M; Dewire, Scott M; Violin, Jonathan D; Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2011-09-01

    Seven transmembrane receptors (7TMRs), commonly referred to as G protein-coupled receptors, form a large part of the "druggable" genome. 7TMRs can signal through parallel pathways simultaneously, such as through heterotrimeric G proteins from different families, or, as more recently appreciated, through the multifunctional adapters, β-arrestins. Biased agonists, which signal with different efficacies to a receptor's multiple downstream pathways, are useful tools for deconvoluting this signaling complexity. These compounds may also be of therapeutic use because they have distinct functional and therapeutic profiles from "balanced agonists." Although some methods have been proposed to identify biased ligands, no comparison of these methods applied to the same set of data has been performed. Therefore, at this time, there are no generally accepted methods to quantify the relative bias of different ligands, making studies of biased signaling difficult. Here, we use complementary computational approaches for the quantification of ligand bias and demonstrate their application to two well known drug targets, the β2 adrenergic and angiotensin II type 1A receptors. The strategy outlined here allows a quantification of ligand bias and the identification of weakly biased compounds. This general method should aid in deciphering complex signaling pathways and may be useful for the development of novel biased therapeutic ligands as drugs.

  4. Is There a Universal Positivity Bias in Attributions? A Meta-Analytic Review of Individual, Developmental, and Cultural Differences in the Self-Serving Attributional Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezulis, Amy H.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Hyde, Janet S.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers have suggested the presence of a self-serving attributional bias, with people making more internal, stable, and global attributions for positive events than for negative events. This study examined the magnitude, ubiquity, and adaptiveness of this bias. The authors conducted a meta-analysis of 266 studies, yielding 503 independent…

  5. Decision-level adaptation in motion perception

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to visual stimuli causes a bias in observers' responses to subsequent stimuli. Such adaptation-induced biases are usually explained in terms of changes in the relative activity of sensory neurons in the visual system which respond selectively to the properties of visual stimuli. However, the bias could also be due to a shift in the observer's criterion for selecting one response rather than the alternative; adaptation at the decision level of processing rather than the sensory level. We investigated whether adaptation to implied motion is best attributed to sensory-level or decision-level bias. Three experiments sought to isolate decision factors by changing the nature of the participants' task while keeping the sensory stimulus unchanged. Results showed that adaptation-induced bias in reported stimulus direction only occurred when the participants' task involved a directional judgement, and disappeared when adaptation was measured using a non-directional task (reporting where motion was present in the display, regardless of its direction). We conclude that adaptation to implied motion is due to decision-level bias, and that a propensity towards such biases may be widespread in sensory decision-making. PMID:27019726

  6. 31 CFR 100.16 - Exchange of paper and coin to be handled through Federal Reserve banks and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exchange of paper and coin to be handled through Federal Reserve banks and branches. 100.16 Section 100.16 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF...

  7. 31 CFR 100.16 - Exchange of paper and coin to be handled through Federal Reserve banks and branches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exchange of paper and coin to be handled through Federal Reserve banks and branches. 100.16 Section 100.16 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EXCHANGE OF...

  8. 77 FR 6865 - Pricing for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... United States Mint Pricing for 2012 Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar and 2012 Star- Spangled Banner... Star-Spangled Banner Commemorative Coin products: Introductory Product price Regular price Infantry... Infantry Soldier Silver Dollar Special N/A 51.95 Set Star-Spangled Banner Proof Silver Dollar 49.95...

  9. X-ray Fluorescence analytical criteria to assess the fineness of ancient silver coins: Application on Ptolemaic coinage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantarelou, Vasiliki; Ager, Francisco José; Eugenidou, Despoina; Chaves, Francisca; Andreou, Alexandros; Kontou, Elena; Katsikosta, Niki; Respaldiza, Miguel Angel; Serafin, Patrizia; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zarkadas, Charalambos; Polikreti, Kyriaki; Karydas, Andreas Germanos

    2011-09-01

    The application of X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis in a non-invasive manner on ancient silver coins may not provide reliable bulk compositional data due to possible presence of a surface, silver enriched layer. The present work proposes a set of three complementary analytical methodologies to assess and improve the reliability of XRF data in such cases: a) comparison of XRF data on original and cleaned micro-spots on coin surface, b) Ag K/L ratio test and c) comparison of experimental and theoretically simulated intensities of the Rayleigh characteristic radiation emitted from the anode. The proposed methodology was applied on 82 silver coins from the collection of Ioannes Demetriou, donated to the Numismatic Museum of Athens in the 1890s. The coins originate from different mints and are attributed to the first five Ptolemaic kings' reign (321-180 B.C.). They were analyzed in-situ by using a milli-probe XRF spectrometer. The presence of an Ag-enriched layer was excluded for the majority of them. The silver fineness was found to be high, with very low concentrations of copper and lead. The composition data provide important information about possible sources of silver during the Ptolemaic period and indications of a gradual coinage debasement after 270 B.C. due to economic or technical reasons.

  10. Analysis of a Visual Prompting Procedure on Acquisition and Generalization of Coin Skills by Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Alan R.; Wacker, David P.

    1986-01-01

    A visual prompting procedure was instituted to train four mildly retarded elementary children to make purchases. Results indicated all students acquired coin skills taught during training, generalized skills to untrained items, and maintained skills over a four-week interval. Removal of visual prompts (fading) resulted in improvement for all…

  11. 26 CFR 49.4254-2 - Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph service in coin-operated telephones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph... Communications § 49.4254-2 Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph service in coin-operated telephones. Where the tax on a toll telephone or radio telephone message or conversation, or a telegraph, cable,...

  12. 26 CFR 49.4254-2 - Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph service in coin-operated telephones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph... Communications § 49.4254-2 Payment for toll telephone service or telegraph service in coin-operated telephones. Where the tax on a toll telephone or radio telephone message or conversation, or a telegraph, cable,...

  13. Promoting Institutional Change Through Bias Literacy

    PubMed Central

    Carnes, Molly; Devine, Patricia G.; Isaac, Carol; Manwell, Linda Baier; Ford, Cecelia E.; Byars-Winston, Angela; Fine, Eve; Sheridan, Jennifer Thurik

    2012-01-01

    The National Science Foundation and others conclude that institutional transformation is required to ensure equal opportunities for the participation and advancement of men and women in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Such transformation requires changing the habitual attitudes and behaviors of faculty. Approaching implicit bias as a remediable habit, we present the theoretical basis and conceptual model underpinning an educational intervention to promote bias literacy among university faculty as a step toward institutional transformation regarding gender equity. We describe the development and implementation of a Bias Literacy Workshop in detail so others can replicate or adapt it to their setting. Of the 220 (167 faculty and 53 nonfaculty) attendees from the initial 17 departments/divisions offered this workshop, all 180 who completed a written evaluation found the workshop at least “somewhat useful” and 74% found it “very useful.” Over 68% indicated increased knowledge of the workshop material. Of the 186 participants who wrote a commitment to engage in new activities to promote gender equity, 87% incorporated specific workshop content. Twenty-four participants were interviewed 4–6 months after attending the workshop; 75% of these not only demonstrated increased bias awareness, but described plans to change—or had actually changed—behaviors because of the workshop. Based on our sample of faculty from a Midwestern university, we conclude that at least one third of STEMM faculty who are invited will attend a 2.5-hr Bias Literacy Workshop, that nearly all will find it useful, and that most will complete a written commitment to promoting gender equity. These findings suggest that this educational intervention may effectively promote institutional change regarding gender equity. PMID:22822416

  14. 'Magic coins' and 'magic squares': the discovery of astrological sigils in the Oldenburg Letters.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2008-09-20

    Enclosed in a 1673 letter to Henry Oldenburg were two drawings of a series of astrological sigils, coins and amulets from the collection of Strasbourg mathematician Julius Reichelt (1637-1719). As portrayals of particular medieval and early modern sigils are relatively rare, this paper will analyse the role of these medals in medieval and early modern medicine, the logic behind their perceived efficacy, and their significance in early modern astrological and cabalistic practice. I shall also demonstrate their change in status in the late seventeenth century from potent magical healing amulets tied to the mysteries of the heavens to objects kept in a cabinet for curiosos. The evolving perception of the purpose of sigils mirrored changing early modem beliefs in the occult influences of the heavens upon the body and the natural world, as well as the growing interests among virtuosi in collecting, numismatics and antiquities.

  15. The Double Heads of Istrus: the Oldest Eclipse on a Coin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saslaw, W.; Murdin, P.

    2005-08-01

    The ancient city of Istrus was situated in the delta of the River Danube on the western edge of the Black Sea near what is now Constanta in Romania. From the late fifth and through most of the fourth century B.C. it minted silver coins whose remarkable obverse shows two young male heads, inverted with respect to each other. The heads are essentially identical, and always anti-parallel. The image of the double, anti-parallel heads appears to be unique, not only in numismatics but also in general. We searched the Warburg collection of iconography without finding any similar example. We propose that these are images of the sun-god Apollo and that their inversion was inspired by a nearly total eclipse of the Sun visible at Istrus in 434 B.C.

  16. 'Magic coins' and 'magic squares': the discovery of astrological sigils in the Oldenburg Letters.

    PubMed

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2008-09-20

    Enclosed in a 1673 letter to Henry Oldenburg were two drawings of a series of astrological sigils, coins and amulets from the collection of Strasbourg mathematician Julius Reichelt (1637-1719). As portrayals of particular medieval and early modern sigils are relatively rare, this paper will analyse the role of these medals in medieval and early modern medicine, the logic behind their perceived efficacy, and their significance in early modern astrological and cabalistic practice. I shall also demonstrate their change in status in the late seventeenth century from potent magical healing amulets tied to the mysteries of the heavens to objects kept in a cabinet for curiosos. The evolving perception of the purpose of sigils mirrored changing early modem beliefs in the occult influences of the heavens upon the body and the natural world, as well as the growing interests among virtuosi in collecting, numismatics and antiquities. PMID:19244856

  17. Outcome-adaptive randomization for a delayed outcome with a short-term predictor: imputation-based designs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Ok; Liu, Chunyan; Hu, Feifang; Lee, J Jack

    2014-10-15

    Delay in the outcome variable is challenging for outcome-adaptive randomization, as it creates a lag between the number of subjects accrued and the information known at the time of the analysis. Motivated by a real-life pediatric ulcerative colitis trial, we consider a case where a short-term predictor is available for the delayed outcome. When a short-term predictor is not considered, studies have shown that the asymptotic properties of many outcome-adaptive randomization designs are little affected unless the lag is unreasonably large relative to the accrual process. These theoretical results assumed independent identical delays, however, whereas delays in the presence of a short-term predictor may only be conditionally homogeneous. We consider delayed outcomes as missing and propose mitigating the delay effect by imputing them. We apply this approach to the doubly adaptive biased coin design (DBCD) for motivating pediatric ulcerative colitis trial. We provide theoretical results that if the delays, although non-homogeneous, are reasonably short relative to the accrual process similarly as in the iid delay case, the lag is also asymptotically ignorable in the sense that a standard DBCD that utilizes only observed outcomes attains target allocation ratios in the limit. Empirical studies, however, indicate that imputation-based DBCDs performed more reliably in finite samples with smaller root mean square errors. The empirical studies assumed a common clinical setting where a delayed outcome is positively correlated with a short-term predictor similarly between treatment arm groups. We varied the strength of the correlation and considered fast and slow accrual settings. PMID:24889540

  18. Accommodating Sensor Bias in MRAC for State Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patre, Parag; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of accommodating unknown sensor bias is considered in a direct model reference adaptive control (MRAC) setting for state tracking using state feedback. Sensor faults can occur during operation, and if the biased state measurements are directly used with a standard MRAC control law, neither closed-loop signal boundedness, nor asymptotic tracking can be guaranteed and the resulting tracking errors may be unbounded or unacceptably large. A modified MRAC law is proposed, which combines a bias estimator with control gain adaptation, and it is shown that signal boundedness can be accomplished, although the tracking error may not go to zero. Further, for the case wherein an asymptotically stable sensor bias estimator is available, an MRAC control law is proposed to accomplish asymptotic tracking and signal boundedness. Such a sensor bias estimator can be designed if additional sensor measurements are available, as illustrated for the case wherein bias is present in the rate gyro and airspeed measurements. Numerical example results are presented to illustrate each of the schemes.

  19. The intentionality bias and schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Moore, J W; Pope, A

    2014-01-01

    The "intentionality bias" refers to our automatic tendency to judge other people's actions to be intentional. In this experiment we extended research on this effect in two key ways. First, we developed a novel nonlinguistic task for assessing the intentionality bias. This task used video stimuli of ambiguous movements. Second, we investigated the relationship between the strength of this bias and schizotypy (schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy individuals). Our results showed that the intentionality bias was replicated for the video stimuli and also that this bias is stronger in those individuals scoring higher on the schizotypy rating scales. Overall these findings lend further support for the existence of the intentionality bias. We also discuss the possible relevance of these findings for our understanding of certain symptoms of schizophrenic illness.

  20. Biases in small RNA deep sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Raabe, Carsten A.; Tang, Thean-Hock; Brosius, Juergen; Rozhdestvensky, Timofey S.

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is considered a powerful tool for novel gene discovery and fine-tuned transcriptional profiling. The digital nature of RNA-seq is also believed to simplify meta-analysis and to reduce background noise associated with hybridization-based approaches. The development of multiplex sequencing enables efficient and economic parallel analysis of gene expression. In addition, RNA-seq is of particular value when low RNA expression or modest changes between samples are monitored. However, recent data uncovered severe bias in the sequencing of small non-protein coding RNA (small RNA-seq or sRNA-seq), such that the expression levels of some RNAs appeared to be artificially enhanced and others diminished or even undetectable. The use of different adapters and barcodes during ligation as well as complex RNA structures and modifications drastically influence cDNA synthesis efficacies and exemplify sources of bias in deep sequencing. In addition, variable specific RNA G/C-content is associated with unequal polymerase chain reaction amplification efficiencies. Given the central importance of RNA-seq to molecular biology and personalized medicine, we review recent findings that challenge small non-protein coding RNA-seq data and suggest approaches and precautions to overcome or minimize bias. PMID:24198247

  1. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  2. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubinsky, M.S.

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. Correcting for Visuo-Haptic Biases in 3D Haptic Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Kuling, Irene A.; Brenner, Eli; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Visuo-haptic biases are observed when bringing your unseen hand to a visual target. The biases are different between, but consistent within participants. We investigated the usefulness of adjusting haptic guidance to these user-specific biases in aligning haptic and visual perception. By adjusting haptic guidance according to the biases, we aimed to reduce the conflict between the modalities. We first measured the biases using an adaptive procedure. Next, we measured performance in a pointing task using three conditions: 1) visual images that were adjusted to user-specific biases, without haptic guidance, 2) veridical visual images combined with haptic guidance, and 3) shifted visual images combined with haptic guidance. Adding haptic guidance increased precision. Combining haptic guidance with user-specific visual information yielded the highest accuracy and the lowest level of conflict with the guidance at the end point. These results show the potential of correcting for user-specific perceptual biases when designing haptic guidance. PMID:27438009

  4. BitCoin meets Google Trends and Wikipedia: Quantifying the relationship between phenomena of the Internet era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-12-01

    Digital currencies have emerged as a new fascinating phenomenon in the financial markets. Recent events on the most popular of the digital currencies - BitCoin - have risen crucial questions about behavior of its exchange rates and they offer a field to study dynamics of the market which consists practically only of speculative traders with no fundamentalists as there is no fundamental value to the currency. In the paper, we connect two phenomena of the latest years - digital currencies, namely BitCoin, and search queries on Google Trends and Wikipedia - and study their relationship. We show that not only are the search queries and the prices connected but there also exists a pronounced asymmetry between the effect of an increased interest in the currency while being above or below its trend value.

  5. BitCoin meets Google Trends and Wikipedia: quantifying the relationship between phenomena of the Internet era.

    PubMed

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Digital currencies have emerged as a new fascinating phenomenon in the financial markets. Recent events on the most popular of the digital currencies--BitCoin--have risen crucial questions about behavior of its exchange rates and they offer a field to study dynamics of the market which consists practically only of speculative traders with no fundamentalists as there is no fundamental value to the currency. In the paper, we connect two phenomena of the latest years--digital currencies, namely BitCoin, and search queries on Google Trends and Wikipedia--and study their relationship. We show that not only are the search queries and the prices connected but there also exists a pronounced asymmetry between the effect of an increased interest in the currency while being above or below its trend value. PMID:24301322

  6. BitCoin meets Google Trends and Wikipedia: Quantifying the relationship between phenomena of the Internet era

    PubMed Central

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Digital currencies have emerged as a new fascinating phenomenon in the financial markets. Recent events on the most popular of the digital currencies – BitCoin – have risen crucial questions about behavior of its exchange rates and they offer a field to study dynamics of the market which consists practically only of speculative traders with no fundamentalists as there is no fundamental value to the currency. In the paper, we connect two phenomena of the latest years – digital currencies, namely BitCoin, and search queries on Google Trends and Wikipedia – and study their relationship. We show that not only are the search queries and the prices connected but there also exists a pronounced asymmetry between the effect of an increased interest in the currency while being above or below its trend value. PMID:24301322

  7. BitCoin meets Google Trends and Wikipedia: quantifying the relationship between phenomena of the Internet era.

    PubMed

    Kristoufek, Ladislav

    2013-12-04

    Digital currencies have emerged as a new fascinating phenomenon in the financial markets. Recent events on the most popular of the digital currencies--BitCoin--have risen crucial questions about behavior of its exchange rates and they offer a field to study dynamics of the market which consists practically only of speculative traders with no fundamentalists as there is no fundamental value to the currency. In the paper, we connect two phenomena of the latest years--digital currencies, namely BitCoin, and search queries on Google Trends and Wikipedia--and study their relationship. We show that not only are the search queries and the prices connected but there also exists a pronounced asymmetry between the effect of an increased interest in the currency while being above or below its trend value.

  8. Chemical attribution of corroded coins using X-ray fluorescence and lead isotope ratios: a case study from first century Judaea.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Michael S; Hendin, David B; Yu, Lee L; Bower, Nathan W

    2010-04-01

    Nondestructive analyses using a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-QMS) and polarizing, multi-target, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (PEDXRF) with three-dimensional optics were conducted on Judean coins from the first century BCE and CE to determine the efficacy and limits of these methods for numismatic analyses of coins with a patina. Comparisons with destructive analyses and literature databases demonstrate their value even when corrosion is present. An outstanding question about the dating of Herod Agrippa I or II "canopy" coins that has significance to Biblical historians is used as a case study. Multiple lines of evidence attribute this coin to Agrippa I, with a date of 41 to 45 CE, produced using Faynan (Feinan), Jordan, and Cyprus ores.

  9. "Heads or Tails?"--A Reachability Bias in Binary Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Hillel, Maya; Peer, Eyal; Acquisti, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    When asked to mentally simulate coin tosses, people generate sequences that differ systematically from those generated by fair coins. It has been rarely noted that this divergence is apparent already in the very 1st mental toss. Analysis of several existing data sets reveals that about 80% of respondents start their sequence with Heads. We…

  10. Controlling and reversing the transition from classical diffusive to quantum ballistic transport in a quantum walk by driving the coin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Peng; Sanders, Barry C.

    2013-02-01

    We show that the standard quantum-walk quantum-to-classical transition, characterized by ballistic-to-diffusive spreading of the walker's position, can be controlled by externally modulating the coin state. We illustrate this by showing an oscillation between classical diffusive and quantum ballistic spreading using numerical and asymptotically exact closed-form solutions, and we prove that the walker is in a controllable incoherent mixture of classical and quantum walks with a reversible quantum-to-classical transition.

  11. Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim

    2015-03-01

    The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.

  12. The corrosion phenomena in the coin cell BR2325 of the ``superstoichiometric fluorocarbon-lithium'' system

    SciTech Connect

    Mitkin, V.N.; Galkin, P.S.; Denisova, T.N.

    1998-07-01

    It was noted at the earlier study and at the longer observations of the novel various types of superstoichiometric fluorocarbon materials CF{sub 1+x}, where x = 0.1--0.33 (FCM) and their behavior, that despite of their known hygroscopity during a storage of samples in laboratory and technological utensils nevertheless occurs an appreciable sorption of atmospheric moisture. The color of samples does not change but sometimes there appears a smell of hydrogen fluoride and even corrosion of glasswares at a long storage. On the basis of these facts was assumed that at a long storage the slow reactions of HF producing with a sorption moisture can proceed. This phenomena is necessary to take into account for successful manufacturing of long life lithium cells based on superstoichiometric fluorocarbon composite cathodes (FCC). The chemistry of such slow hydrolytic process and especially of processes which can proceed at manufacturing of FCC earlier was not investigated also of any data in the literature in this occasion is not present. Just for this reason the authors undertook a study of the corrosion phenomena which can proceed in industrial sources of a current at a long storage under influence of slow hydrolysis of C-F bonds by moisture. The goal of the study was to search long term damages in the slightly wet FCM and based on these materials cathodic composites for fluorocarbon-lithium cells. As a model for corrosion process investigation they have chosen a standard coin lithium battery of a type BR2325.

  13. Cognitive Bias in Systems Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Working definition of cognitive bias: Patterns by which information is sought and interpreted that can lead to systematic errors in decisions. Cognitive bias is used in diverse fields: Economics, Politics, Intelligence, Marketing, to name a few. Attempts to ground cognitive science in physical characteristics of the cognitive apparatus exceed our knowledge. Studies based on correlations; strict cause and effect is difficult to pinpoint. Effects cited in the paper and discussed here have been replicated many times over, and appear sound. Many biases have been described, but it is still unclear whether they are all distinct. There may only be a handful of fundamental biases, which manifest in various ways. Bias can effect system verification in many ways . Overconfidence -> Questionable decisions to deploy. Availability -> Inability to conceive critical tests. Representativeness -> Overinterpretation of results. Positive Test Strategies -> Confirmation bias. Debiasing at individual level very difficult. The potential effect of bias on the verification process can be managed, but not eliminated. Worth considering at key points in the process.

  14. Observational biases for transiting planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, David M.; Sandford, Emily

    2016-09-01

    Observational biases distort our view of nature, such that the patterns we see within a surveyed population of interest are often unrepresentative of the truth we seek. Transiting planets currently represent the most informative data set on the ensemble properties of exoplanets within 1 AU of their star. However, the transit method is inherently biased due to both geometric and detection-driven effects. In this work, we derive the overall observational biases affecting the most basic transit parameters from first principles. By assuming a trapezoidal transit and using conditional probability, we infer the expected distribution of these terms both as a joint distribution and in a marginalized form. These general analytic results provide a baseline against which to compare trends predicted by mission-tailored injection/recovery simulations and offer a simple way to correct for observational bias. Our results explain why the observed population of transiting planets displays a non-uniform impact parameter distribution, with a bias towards near-equatorial geometries. We also find that the geometric bias towards observed planets transiting near periastron is attenuated by the longer durations which occur near apoastron. Finally, we predict that the observational bias with respect to ratio-of-radii is super-quadratic, scaling as (RP/R⋆)5/2, driven by an enhanced geometric transit probability and modestly longer durations.

  15. Codon Adaptation of Plastid Genes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Haruo; Morton, Brian R.

    2016-01-01

    Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes. PMID:27196606

  16. Codon Adaptation of Plastid Genes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Haruo; Morton, Brian R

    2016-01-01

    Codon adaptation is codon usage bias that results from selective pressure to increase the translation efficiency of a gene. Codon adaptation has been studied across a wide range of genomes and some early analyses of plastids have shown evidence for codon adaptation in a limited set of highly expressed plastid genes. Here we study codon usage bias across all fully sequenced plastid genomes which includes representatives of the Rhodophyta, Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Euglenozoa, Glaucocystophyceae, Rhizaria, Stramenopiles and numerous lineages within the Viridiplantae, including Chlorophyta and Embryophyta. We show evidence that codon adaptation occurs in all genomes except for two, Theileria parva and Heicosporidium sp., both of which have highly reduced gene contents and no photosynthesis genes. We also show evidence that selection for codon adaptation increases the representation of the same set of codons, which we refer to as the adaptive codons, across this wide range of taxa, which is probably due to common features descended from the initial endosymbiont. We use various measures to estimate the relative strength of selection in the different lineages and show that it appears to be fairly strong in certain Stramenopiles and Chlorophyta lineages but relatively weak in many members of the Rhodophyta, Euglenozoa and Embryophyta. Given these results we propose that codon adaptation in plastids is widespread and displays the same general features as adaptation in eubacterial genomes. PMID:27196606

  17. Model-Biased, Data-Driven Adaptive Failure Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leen, Todd K.

    2004-01-01

    This final report, which contains a research summary and a viewgraph presentation, addresses clustering and data simulation techniques for failure prediction. The researchers applied their techniques to both helicopter gearbox anomaly detection and segmentation of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite imagery.

  18. The intentionality bias in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Peyroux, Elodie; Strickland, Brent; Tapiero, Isabelle; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-11-30

    The tendency to over-interpret events of daily life as resulting from voluntary or intentional actions is one of the key aspects of schizophrenia with persecutory delusions. Here, we ask whether this characteristic may emerge from the abnormal activity of a basic cognitive process found in healthy adults and children: the intentionality bias, which refers to the implicit and automatic inclination to interpret human actions as intentional (Rosset, 2008, Cognition 108, 771-780). In our experiment, patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were shown sentences describing human actions in various linguistic contexts, and were asked to indicate whether the action was intentional or not. The results indicated that people with schizophrenia exhibited a striking bias to over attribute intentionality regardless of linguistic context, contrary to healthy controls who did not exhibit such a general intentionality bias. Moreover, this study provides some insight into the cognitive mechanisms underlying this bias: an inability to inhibit the automatic attribution of intentionality.

  19. Magnetic bearings with zero bias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic bearing operating without a bias field has supported a shaft rotating at speeds up to 12,000 rpm with the usual four power supplies and with only two. A magnetic bearing is commonly operated with a bias current equal to half of the maximum current allowable in its coils. This linearizes the relation between net force and control current and improves the force slewing rate and hence the band width. The steady bias current dissipates power, even when no force is required from the bearing. The power wasted is equal to two-thirds of the power at maximum force output. Examined here is the zero bias idea. The advantages and disadvantages are noted.

  20. Codon Bias Patterns of E. coli’s Interacting Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Dilucca, Maddalena; Cimini, Giulio; Semmoloni, Andrea; Deiana, Antonio; Giansanti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synonymous codons, i.e., DNA nucleotide triplets coding for the same amino acid, are used differently across the variety of living organisms. The biological meaning of this phenomenon, known as codon usage bias, is still controversial. In order to shed light on this point, we propose a new codon bias index, CompAI, that is based on the competition between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs during translation, without being tuned to the usage bias of highly expressed genes. We perform a genome-wide evaluation of codon bias for E.coli, comparing CompAI with other widely used indices: tAI, CAI, and Nc. We show that CompAI and tAI capture similar information by being positively correlated with gene conservation, measured by the Evolutionary Retention Index (ERI), and essentiality, whereas, CAI and Nc appear to be less sensitive to evolutionary-functional parameters. Notably, the rate of variation of tAI and CompAI with ERI allows to obtain sets of genes that consistently belong to specific clusters of orthologous genes (COGs). We also investigate the correlation of codon bias at the genomic level with the network features of protein-protein interactions in E.coli. We find that the most densely connected communities of the network share a similar level of codon bias (as measured by CompAI and tAI). Conversely, a small difference in codon bias between two genes is, statistically, a prerequisite for the corresponding proteins to interact. Importantly, among all codon bias indices, CompAI turns out to have the most coherent distribution over the communities of the interactome, pointing to the significance of competition among cognate and near-cognate tRNAs for explaining codon usage adaptation. Notably, CompAI may potentially correlate with translation speed measurements, by accounting for the specific delay induced by wobble-pairing between codons and anticodons. PMID:26566157

  1. COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepuritis, Rolands; Willy Danielsen, Svein

    2014-05-01

    COIN Project: Towards a zero-waste technology for concrete aggregate production in Norway Rolands Cepuritis, Norcem/NTNU and Svein Willy Danielsen, SINTEF Aggregate production is a mining operation where no purification of the "ore" is necessary. Still it is extremely rare that an aggregate production plant is operating on the basis of zero-waste concept. This is since historically the fine crushed aggregate (particles with a size of less than 2, 4 or sometimes 8 mm) has been regarded as a by-product or waste of the more valuable coarse aggregate production. The reason is that the crushed coarse aggregates can easily replace coarse rounded natural stones in almost any concrete composition; while, the situation with the sand is different. The production of coarse aggregate normally yields fine fractions with rough surface texture, flaky or elongated particles an inadequate gradation. When such a material replaces smooth and rounded natural sand grains in a concrete mix, the result is usually poor and much more water and cement has to be used to achieve adequate concrete flow. The consequences are huge stockpiles of the crushed fine fractions that can't be sold (mass balance problems) for the aggregate producers, sustainability problems for the whole industry and environmental issues for society due to dumping and storing of the fine co-generated material. There have been attempts of utilising the material in concrete before; however, they have mostly ended up in failure. There have been attempts to adjust the crushed sand to the properties of the natural sand, which would still give a lot of waste, especially if the grading would have to be adjusted and the high amounts of fines abundantly present in the crushed sand would have to be removed. Another fundamental reason for failure has been that historically such attempts have mainly ended up in a research carried out by people (both industrial and academic) with aggregate background (= parties willing to find market

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and anti-Hsp60 immunity: the two sides of the coin.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Francesco; Conway de Macario, Everly; Di Felice, Valentina; Zummo, Giovanni; Macario, Alberto J L

    2009-08-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60) and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human) may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician.

  3. Bias and design in software specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straub, Pablo A.; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation bias in a specification is an arbitrary constraint in the solution space. Presented here is a model of bias in software specifications. Bias is defined in terms of the specification process and a classification of the attributes of the software product. Our definition of bias provides insight into both the origin and the consequences of bias. It also shows that bias is relative and essentially unavoidable. Finally, we describe current work on defining a measure of bias, formalizing our model, and relating bias to software defects.

  4. Biased feedback in brain-computer interfaces

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Even though feedback is considered to play an important role in learning how to operate a brain-computer interface (BCI), to date no significant influence of feedback design on BCI-performance has been reported in literature. In this work, we adapt a standard motor-imagery BCI-paradigm to study how BCI-performance is affected by biasing the belief subjects have on their level of control over the BCI system. Our findings indicate that subjects already capable of operating a BCI are impeded by inaccurate feedback, while subjects normally performing on or close to chance level may actually benefit from an incorrect belief on their performance level. Our results imply that optimal feedback design in BCIs should take into account a subject's current skill level. PMID:20659350

  5. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) applied to stratigrafic elemental analysis and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to damage determination of cultural heritage Brazilian coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Amaral, Marcello; Raele, Marcus P.; Z. de Freitas, Anderson; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Samad, Ricardo E.; D. Vieira, Nilson, Jr.; G. Tarelho, Luiz V.

    2009-07-01

    This work presents a compositional characterization of 1939's Thousand "Réis" and 1945's One "Cruzeiro" Brazilian coins, forged on aluminum bronze alloy. The coins were irradiated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with 4 ns pulse width and energy of 25mJ emitting at 1064nm reaching 3.1010Wcm-2 (assured condition for stoichiometric ablation), forming a plasma in a small fraction of the coin. Plasma emission was collected by an optical fiber system connected to an Echelle spectrometer. The capability of LIBS to remove small fraction of material was exploited and the coins were analyzed ablating layer by layer from patina to the bulk. The experimental conditions to assure reproductivity were determined by evaluation of three plasma paramethers: ionization temperature using Saha-Boltzmann plot, excitation temperature using Boltzmann plot, plasma density using Saha-Boltzmann plot and Stark broadening. The Calibration-Free LIBS technique was applied to both coins and the analytical determination of elemental composition was employed. In order to confirm the Edict Law elemental composition the results were corroborated by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). In both cases the results determined by CF-LIBS agreed to with the Edict Law and NAA determination. Besides the major components for the bronze alloy some other impurities were observed. Finally, in order to determine the coin damage made by the laser, the OCT (Optical Coherence Tomography) technique was used. After tree pulses of laser 54μg of coin material were removed reaching 120μm in depth.

  6. Diamond nucleation under bias conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckel, R.; Stammler, M.; Janischowsky, K.; Ley, L.; Albrecht, M.; Strunk, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    The so-called bias pretreatment allows the growth of heteroepitaxial diamond films by plasma chemical vapor deposition on silicon (100) surfaces. We present plan-view and cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the substrate surface at different phases of the bias pretreatment. These observations are augmented by measurements of the etch rates of Si, SiC, and different carbon modifications under plasma conditions and the size distribution of oriented diamond crystals grown after bias pretreatment. Based on these results a new model for diamond nucleation under bias conditions is proposed. First, a closed layer of nearly epitaxially oriented cubic SiC with a thickness of about 10 nm is formed. Subplantation of carbon into this SiC layer causes a supersaturation with carbon and results in the subcutaneous formation of epitaxially oriented nucleation centers in the SiC layer. Etching of the SiC during the bias pretreatment as well as during diamond growth brings these nucleation centers to the sample surface and causes the growth of diamonds epitaxially oriented on the Si/SiC substrate. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Biased signaling at chemokine receptors.

    PubMed

    Corbisier, Jenny; Galès, Céline; Huszagh, Alexandre; Parmentier, Marc; Springael, Jean-Yves

    2015-04-10

    The ability of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to activate selective signaling pathways according to the conformation stabilized by bound ligands (signaling bias) is a challenging concept in the GPCR field. Signaling bias has been documented for several GPCRs, including chemokine receptors. However, most of these studies examined the global signaling bias between G protein- and arrestin-dependent pathways, leaving unaddressed the potential bias between particular G protein subtypes. Here, we investigated the coupling selectivity of chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5, and CCR7 in response to various ligands with G protein subtypes by using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer biosensors monitoring directly the activation of G proteins. We also compared data obtained with the G protein biosensors with those obtained with other functional readouts, such as β-arrestin-2 recruitment, cAMP accumulation, and calcium mobilization assays. We showed that the binding of chemokines to CCR2, CCR5, and CCR7 activated the three Gαi subtypes (Gαi1, Gαi2, and Gαi3) and the two Gαo isoforms (Gαoa and Gαob) with potencies that generally correlate to their binding affinities. In addition, we showed that the binding of chemokines to CCR5 and CCR2 also activated Gα12, but not Gα13. For each receptor, we showed that the relative potency of various agonist chemokines was not identical in all assays, supporting the notion that signaling bias exists at chemokine receptors.

  8. Micro-Raman study of copper hydroxychlorides and other corrosion products of bronze samples mimicking archaeological coins.

    PubMed

    Bertolotti, Giulia; Bersani, Danilo; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Alesiani, Marcella; Malcherek, Thomas; Schlüter, Jochen

    2012-02-01

    Three bronze samples created by CNR-ISMN (National Research Council-Institute of Nanostructured Materials) to be similar to Punic and Roman coins found in Tharros (OR, Sardinia, Italy) were studied to identify the corrosion products on their surfaces and to evaluate the reliability of the reproduction process. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was chosen to investigate the corroded surfaces because it is a non-destructive technique, it has high spatial resolution, and it gives the opportunity to discriminate between polymorphs and to correlate colour and chemical composition. A significant amount of green copper hydroxychlorides (Cu(2)(OH)(3)Cl) was detected on all the coins. Their discrimination by Raman spectroscopy was challenging because the literature on the topic is currently confusing. Thus, it was necessary to determine the characteristic peaks of atacamite, clinoatacamite, and the recently discovered anatacamite by acquiring Raman spectra of comparable natural mineral samples. Clinoatacamite, with different degrees of order in its structure, was the major component identified on the three coins. The most widespread corrosion product, besides hydroxychlorides, was the red copper oxide cuprite (Cu(2)O). Other corrosion products of the elements of the alloy (laurionite, plumbonacrite, zinc carbonate) and those resulting from burial in the soil (anatase, calcite, hematite) were also found. This study shows that identification of corrosion products, including discrimination of copper hydroxychlorides, could be accomplished by micro-Raman on valuable objects, for example archaeological findings or works of art, avoiding any damage because of extraction of samples or the use of a destructive analytical technique.

  9. Heuristic-biased stochastic sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Bresina, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a search technique for scheduling problems, called Heuristic-Biased Stochastic Sampling (HBSS). The underlying assumption behind the HBSS approach is that strictly adhering to a search heuristic often does not yield the best solution and, therefore, exploration off the heuristic path can prove fruitful. Within the HBSS approach, the balance between heuristic adherence and exploration can be controlled according to the confidence one has in the heuristic. By varying this balance, encoded as a bias function, the HBSS approach encompasses a family of search algorithms of which greedy search and completely random search are extreme members. We present empirical results from an application of HBSS to the realworld problem of observation scheduling. These results show that with the proper bias function, it can be easy to outperform greedy search.

  10. Anchoring bias in online voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zimo; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2012-12-01

    Voting online with explicit ratings could largely reflect people's preferences and objects' qualities, but ratings are always irrational, because they may be affected by many unpredictable factors like mood, weather and other people's votes. By analyzing two real systems, this paper reveals a systematic bias embedding in the individual decision-making processes, namely people tend to give a low rating after a low rating, as well as a high rating following a high rating. This so-called anchoring bias is validated via extensive comparisons with null models, and numerically speaking, the extent of bias decays with voting interval in a logarithmic form. Our findings could be applied in the design of recommender systems and considered as important complementary materials to previous knowledge about anchoring effects on financial trades, performance judgments, auctions, and so on.

  11. Measurement of Receptor Signaling Bias.

    PubMed

    Kenakin, Terry

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are often pleiotropically linked to numerous cellular signaling mechanisms in cells, and it is now known that many agonists differentially activate some signaling pathways at the expense of others. The mechanism for this effect is the stabilization of different active receptor states by different agonists, and it leads to varying qualities of efficacy for different agonists. Agonist bias is a powerful mechanism to amplify beneficial signals and diminish harmful signals, and thus improve the overall profile of agonist ligands. This unit describes a method to quantify agonist bias with a scale that enables medicinal chemists to amplify or reduce these effects in new molecules. The method is based on the Black/Leff operational model and yields a statistical estimate of the confidence for bias measurements. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27636109

  12. Unpacking the Evidence of Gender Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Connie L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender bias in pre-service principals using the Gender-Leader Implicit Association Test. Analyses of student-learning narratives revealed how students made sense of gender bias (biased or not-biased) and how each reacted to evidence (surprised or not-surprised). Two implications were: (1) the need for…

  13. Measurement Bias Detection through Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barendse, M. T.; Oort, F. J.; Werner, C. S.; Ligtvoet, R.; Schermelleh-Engel, K.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement bias is defined as a violation of measurement invariance, which can be investigated through multigroup factor analysis (MGFA), by testing across-group differences in intercepts (uniform bias) and factor loadings (nonuniform bias). Restricted factor analysis (RFA) can also be used to detect measurement bias. To also enable nonuniform…

  14. A Reconsideration of Bias in the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Greene, Mark T.

    This paper discusses three conceptual problems--point of view, unit of bias, and behavioral response--with using content analysis to study news bias. The paper shows that the point of view of the content analyst is not appropriate if one wants to see how news consumers define and react to bias, that the unit of bias should be the specific instance…

  15. Collection Development and the Psychology of Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The library literature addressing the role of bias in collection development emphasizes a philosophical approach. It is based on the notion that bias can be controlled by the conscious act of believing in certain values and adhering to a code of ethics. It largely ignores the psychological research on bias, which suggests that bias is a more…

  16. The Truth and Bias Model of Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Tessa V.; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of…

  17. Without Bias: A Guidebook for Nondiscriminatory Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickens, Judy E., Ed.; And Others

    This guidebook discusses ways to eliminate various types of discrimination from business communications. Separately authored chapters discuss eliminating racial and ethnic bias; eliminating sexual bias; achieving communication sensitive about handicaps of disabled persons; eliminating bias from visual media; eliminating bias from meetings,…

  18. Measurement bias in activation-recovery intervals from unipolar electrograms

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Ben; Taggart, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The activation-recovery interval (ARI) calculated from unipolar electrograms is regularly used as a convenient surrogate measure of local cardiac action potential durations (APD). This method enables important research bridging between computational studies and in vitro and in vivo human studies. The Wyatt method is well established as a theoretically sound method for calculating ARIs; however, some studies have observed that it is prone to a bias error in measurement when applied to positive T waves. This article demonstrates that recent theoretical and computational studies supporting the use of the Wyatt method are likely to have underestimated the extent of this bias in many practical experimental recording scenarios. This work addresses these situations and explains the measurement bias by adapting existing theoretical expressions of the electrogram to represent practical experimental recording configurations. A new analytic expression for the electrogram's local component is derived, which identifies the source of measurement bias for positive T waves. A computer implementation of the new analytic model confirms our hypothesis that the bias is systematically dependent on the electrode configuration. These results provide an aid to electrogram interpretation in general, and this work's outcomes are used to make recommendations on how to minimize measurement error. PMID:25398981

  19. The Threshold of Embedded M Collider Bias and Confounding Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelcey, Benjamin; Carlisle, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Of particular import to this study, is collider bias originating from stratification on retreatment variables forming an embedded M or bowtie structural design. That is, rather than assume an M structural design which suggests that "X" is a collider but not a confounder, the authors adopt what they consider to be a more reasonable position and…

  20. Solar array/spacecraft biasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzgerald, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Biasing techniques and their application to the control of spacecraft potential is discussed. Normally when a spacecraft is operated with ion thrusters, the spacecraft will be 10-20 volts negative of the surrounding plasma. This will affect scientific measurements and will allow ions from the charge-exchange plasma to bombard the spacecraft surfaces with a few tens of volts of energy. This condition may not be tolerable. A proper bias system is described that can bring the spacecraft to or near the potential of the surrounding plasma.

  1. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  2. Bias in Dynamic Monte Carlo Alpha Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Sweezy, Jeremy Ed; Nolen, Steven Douglas; Adams, Terry R.; Trahan, Travis John

    2015-02-06

    A 1/N bias in the estimate of the neutron time-constant (commonly denoted as α) has been seen in dynamic neutronic calculations performed with MCATK. In this paper we show that the bias is most likely caused by taking the logarithm of a stochastic quantity. We also investigate the known bias due to the particle population control method used in MCATK. We conclude that this bias due to the particle population control method is negligible compared to other sources of bias.

  3. Attributional Bias and Course Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gigliotti, Richard J.; Buchtel, Foster S.

    1990-01-01

    How self-serving bias affects evaluations of college courses was tested for 691 students by comparing a model predicting that evaluations reflect actual grades with a model predicting that evaluations reflect confirmation or disconfirmation of expectations. Results support course evaluation validity by indicating a minimal effect of self-serving…

  4. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms.

  5. Combating Anti-Muslim Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    America's 2.5 million Muslims make up less than 1% of the U.S. population, according to the Pew Research Center. Many Muslim students face discrimination and some cases have warranted investigation by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights. Muslim groups have reported widespread bias as well. For many Muslim…

  6. Stereotype Formation: Biased by Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Pelley, Mike E.; Reimers, Stian J.; Calvini, Guglielmo; Spears, Russell; Beesley, Tom; Murphy, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    We propose that biases in attitude and stereotype formation might arise as a result of learned differences in the extent to which social groups have previously been predictive of behavioral or physical properties. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that differences in the experienced predictiveness of groups with respect to evaluatively neutral…

  7. Attentional bias in math anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms. PMID:26528208

  8. Key Words in Instruction. Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Two challenging criteria for judging information involve bias and authority. In both cases, judgments may not be clearly possible. In both cases, there may be degrees or levels of acceptability. For students to gain experience and to demonstrate skills in making judgments, they need opportunities to consider a wide spectrum of resources under a…

  9. Attentional bias in math anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsten, Orly; Eidlin, Hili; Wohl, Hadas; Akibli, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theory from the field of general anxiety suggests that the tendency to display attentional bias toward negative information results in anxiety. Accordingly, the current study aims to investigate whether attentional bias is involved in math anxiety (MA) as well (i.e., a persistent negative reaction to math). Twenty seven participants (14 with high levels of MA and 13 with low levels of MA) were presented with a novel computerized numerical version of the well established dot probe task. One of six types of prime stimuli, either math related or typically neutral, was presented on one side of a computer screen. The prime was preceded by a probe (either one or two asterisks) that appeared in either the prime or the opposite location. Participants had to discriminate probe identity (one or two asterisks). Math anxious individuals reacted faster when the probe was at the location of the numerical related stimuli. This suggests the existence of attentional bias in MA. That is, for math anxious individuals, the cognitive system selectively favored the processing of emotionally negative information (i.e., math related words). These findings suggest that attentional bias is linked to unduly intense MA symptoms. PMID:26528208

  10. Fireplace adapters

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.L.

    1983-12-27

    An adapter is disclosed for use with a fireplace. The stove pipe of a stove standing in a room to be heated may be connected to the flue of the chimney so that products of combustion from the stove may be safely exhausted through the flue and outwardly of the chimney. The adapter may be easily installed within the fireplace by removing the damper plate and fitting the adapter to the damper frame. Each of a pair of bolts has a portion which hooks over a portion of the damper frame and a threaded end depending from the hook portion and extending through a hole in the adapter. Nuts are threaded on the bolts and are adapted to force the adapter into a tight fit with the adapter frame.

  11. A coin-like peripheral small cell lung carcinoma associated with acute paraneoplastic axonal Guillain-Barre-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ioan; Gurzu, Simona; Balasa, Rodica; Motataianu, Anca; Contac, Anca Otilia; Halmaciu, Ioana; Popescu, Septimiu; Simu, Iunius

    2015-06-01

    A 65-year-old previously healthy male heavy smoker was hospitalized with a 2-week history of progressive muscle weakness in the lower and upper extremities. After 10 days of hospitalization, urinary sphincter incompetence and fecal incontinence were added and tetraparesis was established. The computer-tomography scan examination revealed a massive right hydrothorax and multifocal solid acinar structures with peripheral localization in the left lung, which suggested pulmonary cancer. Bone marrow metastases were also suspected. Based on the examination results, the final diagnosis was acute paraneoplastic axonal Guillain-Barre-like syndrome. The patient died 3 weeks after hospitalization. At autopsy, bronchopneumonia and a right hydrothorax were confirmed. Several 4 to 5-mm-sized round peripherally located white nodules were identified in the left lung, without any central tumor mass. Under microscope, a coin-shaped peripheral/subpleural small cell carcinoma was diagnosed, with generalized bone metastases. A huge thrombus in the abdominal aorta and acute pancreatitis was also seen at autopsy. This case highlights the difficulty of diagnosis of lung carcinomas and the necessity of a complex differential diagnosis of severe progressive ascending neuropathies. This is the 6th reported case of small cell lung cancer-associated acute Guillain-Barre-like syndrome and the first report about an association with a coin-like peripheral pattern. PMID:26039124

  12. Biased Brownian dynamics for rate constant calculation.

    PubMed

    Zou, G; Skeel, R D; Subramaniam, S

    2000-08-01

    An enhanced sampling method-biased Brownian dynamics-is developed for the calculation of diffusion-limited biomolecular association reaction rates with high energy or entropy barriers. Biased Brownian dynamics introduces a biasing force in addition to the electrostatic force between the reactants, and it associates a probability weight with each trajectory. A simulation loses weight when movement is along the biasing force and gains weight when movement is against the biasing force. The sampling of trajectories is then biased, but the sampling is unbiased when the trajectory outcomes are multiplied by their weights. With a suitable choice of the biasing force, more reacted trajectories are sampled. As a consequence, the variance of the estimate is reduced. In our test case, biased Brownian dynamics gives a sevenfold improvement in central processing unit (CPU) time with the choice of a simple centripetal biasing force.

  13. Biased Brownian dynamics for rate constant calculation.

    PubMed

    Zou, G; Skeel, R D; Subramaniam, S

    2000-08-01

    An enhanced sampling method-biased Brownian dynamics-is developed for the calculation of diffusion-limited biomolecular association reaction rates with high energy or entropy barriers. Biased Brownian dynamics introduces a biasing force in addition to the electrostatic force between the reactants, and it associates a probability weight with each trajectory. A simulation loses weight when movement is along the biasing force and gains weight when movement is against the biasing force. The sampling of trajectories is then biased, but the sampling is unbiased when the trajectory outcomes are multiplied by their weights. With a suitable choice of the biasing force, more reacted trajectories are sampled. As a consequence, the variance of the estimate is reduced. In our test case, biased Brownian dynamics gives a sevenfold improvement in central processing unit (CPU) time with the choice of a simple centripetal biasing force. PMID:10919998

  14. Feasibility of different cleaning methods for silver-copper alloys by X-ray fluorescence: Application to ancient Greek silver coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Suárez, A. I.; Ager, F. J.; Rodríquez-Segovia, C.; Gómez-Morón, A.; Chaves, F.; Scrivano, S.; Gómez-Tubío, B.; Pliego, R.; Respaldiza, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Archeological pieces with high Ag concentrations often have a surface enrichment of Ag. Usually, researchers in this field do not agree on the causes of these enrichments, one of which could be the cleaning procedures. In this work, a set of 18 ancient Greek silver coins was selected to study the effects of different cleaning procedures in terms of producing a surface Ag enrichment. The aim of this study is to find and select the less aggressive one in terms of the lower modification of Ag concentrations and visual aspect. These coins were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) before and after each cleaning procedure.

  15. The application of photon, electron and proton induced X-ray analysis for the identification and characterisation of medieval silver coins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linke, R.; Schreiner, M.; Demortier, G.

    2004-11-01

    Photons, electrons and protons beams applied to the scientific investigation of archaeological materials provide complementary information for characterising the state of preservation and the provenance of the objects. Investigations were carried out on medieval silver coins of the "Friesacher Pfennig" and the "Tiroler Kreuzer" from the Kunsthistorisches Museum Vienna and the Oesterreichische Nationalbank. Techniques employed were EDXRF, SEM/EDX and PIXE. By determining the trace elements of the alloys it was possible to assign coins to their mint. The results outline advantages and disadvantages of EDXRF, SEM/EDX and PIXE when applied to corroded objects.

  16. Recalibrating gender perception: face aftereffects and the perceptual underpinnings of gender-related biases.

    PubMed

    Lick, David J; Johnson, Kerri L

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary perceivers encounter highly gendered imagery in media, social networks, and the workplace. Perceivers also express strong interpersonal biases related to targets' gendered appearances after mere glimpses at their faces. In the current studies, we explored adaptation to gendered facial features as a perceptual mechanism underlying these biases. In Study 1, brief visual exposure to highly gendered exemplars shifted perceptual norms for men's and women's faces. Studies 2-4 revealed that changes in perceptual norms were accompanied by notable shifts in social evaluations. Specifically, exposure to feminine phenotypes exacerbated biases against hypermasculine faces, whereas exposure to masculine phenotypes mitigated them. These findings replicated across multiple independent samples with diverse stimulus sets and outcome measures, revealing that perceptual gender norms are calibrated on the basis of recent visual encounters, with notable implications for downstream evaluations of others. As such, visual adaptation is a useful tool for understanding and altering social biases related to gendered facial features.

  17. Automated Monte Carlo biasing for photon-generated electrons near surfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Franke, Brian Claude; Crawford, Martin James; Kensek, Ronald Patrick

    2009-09-01

    This report describes efforts to automate the biasing of coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo particle transport calculations. The approach was based on weight-windows biasing. Weight-window settings were determined using adjoint-flux Monte Carlo calculations. A variety of algorithms were investigated for adaptivity of the Monte Carlo tallies. Tree data structures were used to investigate spatial partitioning. Functional-expansion tallies were used to investigate higher-order spatial representations.

  18. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  19. Class Size and Student Diversity: Two Sides of the Same Coin. Teacher Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froese-Germain, Bernie; Riel, Rick; McGahey, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Among Canadian teacher unions, discussions of class size are increasingly being informed by the importance of considering the diversity of student needs within the classroom (often referred to as class composition). For teachers, both class size and diversity matter. Teachers consistently adapt their teaching to address the individual needs of the…

  20. Belief bias and relational reasoning.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Maxwell J; Sykes, Elizabeth D A

    2003-01-01

    When people evaluate categorical syllogisms, they tend to reject unbelievable conclusions and accept believable ones irrespective of their validity. Typically, this effect is particularly marked for invalid conclusions that are possible, but do not necessarily follow, given the premises. However, smaller believability effects can also be detected for other types of conclusion. Three experiments are reported here, in which an attempt was made to determine whether belief bias effects can manifest themselves on the relational inference task. Subjects evaluated the validity of conclusions such as William the Conqueror was king after the Pyramids were built (temporal task) or Manchester is north of Bournemouth (spatial task) with respect to their premises. All of the major findings for equivalent categorical syllogism tasks were replicated. However, the overall size of the main effect of believability appears to be related to task presentation, a phenomenon not previously identified for categorical syllogisms and which current theories of belief bias have difficulty explaining.

  1. Casuistry and social category bias.

    PubMed

    Norton, Michael I; Vandello, Joseph A; Darley, John M

    2004-12-01

    This research explored cases where people are drawn to make judgments between individuals based on questionable criteria, in particular those individuals' social group memberships. We suggest that individuals engage in casuistry to mask biased decision making, by recruiting more acceptable criteria to justify such decisions. We present 6 studies that demonstrate how casuistry licenses people to judge on the basis of social category information but appear unbiased--to both others and themselves--while doing so. In 2 domains (employment and college admissions decisions), with 2 social categories (gender and race), and with 2 motivations (favoring an in-group or out-group), the present studies explored how participants justify decisions biased by social category information by arbitrarily inflating the relative value of their preferred candidates' qualifications over those of competitors.

  2. Adaptive Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on various adaptive technology resources available to people with disabilities. (Contains 19 references, an annotated list of 129 websites, and 12 additional print resources.) (JOW)

  3. Contour adaptation.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    It is known that adaptation to a disk that flickers between black and white at 3-8 Hz on a gray surround renders invisible a congruent gray test disk viewed afterwards. This is contrast adaptation. We now report that adapting simply to the flickering circular outline of the disk can have the same effect. We call this "contour adaptation." This adaptation does not transfer interocularly, and apparently applies only to luminance, not color. One can adapt selectively to only some of the contours in a display, making only these contours temporarily invisible. For instance, a plaid comprises a vertical grating superimposed on a horizontal grating. If one first adapts to appropriate flickering vertical lines, the vertical components of the plaid disappears and it looks like a horizontal grating. Also, we simulated a Cornsweet (1970) edge, and we selectively adapted out the subjective and objective contours of a Kanisza (1976) subjective square. By temporarily removing edges, contour adaptation offers a new technique to study the role of visual edges, and it demonstrates how brightness information is concentrated in edges and propagates from them as it fills in surfaces.

  4. Girl child and gender bias.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, D P

    1995-01-01

    This article identifies gender bias against female children and youth in India. Gender bias is based on centuries-old religious beliefs and sayings from ancient times. Discrimination is reflected in denial or ignorance of female children's educational, health, nutrition, and recreational needs. Female infanticide and selective abortion of female fetuses are other forms of discrimination. The task of eliminating or reducing gender bias will involve legal, developmental, political, and administrative measures. Public awareness needs to be created. There is a need to reorient the education and health systems and to advocate for gender equality. The government of India set the following goals for the 1990s: to protect the survival of the girl child and practice safe motherhood; to develop the girl child in general; and to protect vulnerable girl children in different circumstances and in special groups. The Health Authorities should monitor the laws carefully to assure marriage after the minimum age, ban sex determination of the fetus, and monitor the health and nutrition of pre-school girls and nursing and pregnant mothers. Mothers need to be encouraged to breast feed, and to breast feed equally between genders. Every village and slum area needs a mini health center. Maternal mortality must decline. Primary health centers and hospitals need more women's wards. Education must be universally accessible. Enrollments should be increased by educating rural tribal and slum parents, reducing distances between home and school, making curriculum more relevant to girls, creating more female teachers, and providing facilities and incentives for meeting the needs of girl students. Supplementary income could be provided to families for sending girls to school. Recreational activities must be free of gender bias. Dowry, sati, and devdasi systems should be banned.

  5. Self regulating body bias generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, Kenneth (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The back bias voltage on a functional circuit is controlled through a closed loop process. A delay element receives a clock pulse and produces a delay output. The delay element is advantageously constructed of the same materials as the functional circuit so that the aging and degradation of the delay element parallels the degradation of the functional circuit. As the delay element degrades, the transistor switching time increases, increasing the time delay of the delay output. An AND gate compares a clock pulse to an output pulse of the delay element, the AND output forming a control pulse. A duty cycle of the control pulse is determined by the delay time between the clock pulse and the delay element output. The control pulse is received at the input of a charge pump. The charge pump produces a back bias voltage which is then applied to the delay element and to the functional circuit. If the time delay produced by the delay element exceeds the optimal delay, the duty cycle of the control pulse is shortened, and the back bias voltage is lowered, thereby increasing the switching speed of the transistors in the delay element and reducing the time delay. If the throughput of the delay element is too fast, the duty cycle of the control pulse is lengthened, raising the back bias voltage produced by the charge pump. This, in turn, lowers the switching speed of the transistors in both the delay element and the functional circuit. The slower switching speed in the delay element increases time delay. In this manner, the switching speed of the delay element, and of the functional circuit, is maintained at a constant level over the life of the circuit.

  6. SEASAT altimeter timing bias estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Williamson, R. G.

    1982-04-01

    The calibration of the altimeter observation time tags to the millisecond level of accuracy is fundamental to the processing of the data. Initial analyses of the SEASAT altimeter data indicated the presence of a time calibration bias which produced altimeter measurement errors in excess of a meter. A technique has been developed for the solution of the time tag bias based upon the analysis of sea surface height discrepancies at ground track intersections. This technique has permitted very good separation of the dominant once per revolution ephemeris error, which amounts to about 1.5 m rms, from the timing error signature. Furthermore, the technique does not depend upon the availability of precise geoid data. The application of this technique to a global set of SEASAT altimeter data covering the time period of July 28-August 9, 1978, has resulted in a value of -81.0±2 ms for the time tag bias. This value agrees to within 2.9 ms of the value derived at the University of Texas from a similar analysis of the altimeter data. Furthermore, these values corroborate the revised value of -79.4 ms derived at NASA/Wallops Flight Center and the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Lab from a reexamination of the internal instrument time delays. The modeling of oceanic tides and the orbit computations are the major error sources in these analyses.

  7. Generalization of the FRAM's Bias

    SciTech Connect

    Duc T. Vo

    2005-10-01

    The Fixed-Energy Response-Function Analysis with Multiple Efficiency (FRAM) code was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure the gamma-ray spectrometry of the isotopic composition of plutonium, uranium, and other actinides. Its reported uncertainties of the results come from the propagation of the statistics in the peak areas only. No systematic error components are included in the reported uncertainties. We have done several studies and found that the FRAM's statistical precision can be reasonably represented by its reported uncertainties. The FRAM's biases or systematic uncertainties can come from a variety of sources and can be difficult to determine. We carefully examined the FRAM analytical results of the archival plutonium data and of the data specifically acquired for this isotopic uncertainty analysis project and found the relationship between the bias and other parameters. We worked out the equations representing the biases of the measured isotopes from each measurement using the internal parameters in the spectrum such as peak resolution and shape, region of analysis, and burnup (for plutonium) or enrichment (for uranium).

  8. Response bias in plaintiffs' histories.

    PubMed

    Lees-Haley, P R; Williams, C W; Zasler, N D; Marguilies, S; English, L T; Stevens, K B

    1997-11-01

    This study investigated response bias in self-reported history of factors relevant to the assessment of traumatic brain injury, toxic brain injury and related emotional distress. Response bias refers to systematic error in self-report data. A total of 446 subjects (comprising 131 litigating and 315 non-litigating adults from five locations in the United States) completed a symptom questionnaire. Data were obtained from university faculty and students, from patients in clinics specializing in physiatry neurology, and family medicine, and from plaintiffs undergoing forensic neuropsychological evaluations. Comparisons were made for litigant and non litigant ratings of their past and current cognitive and emotional functioning, including life in general, ability to concentrate, memory, depression, anxiety, alcohol, drugs, ability to work or attend school, irritability, headaches, confusion, self-esteem, and fatigue. Although there is no basis for hypothesizing plaintiffs to be healthier than the general population, plaintiffs rated their pre-injury functioning superior to non-plaintiffs. These findings suggest that response biases need to be taken into account by forensic examiners when relying on litigants' self-reports of pre-injury status.

  9. The Probability Distribution for a Biased Spinner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This article advocates biased spinners as an engaging context for statistics students. Calculating the probability of a biased spinner landing on a particular side makes valuable connections between probability and other areas of mathematics. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)

  10. The Nonverbal Transmission of Intergroup Bias: A Model of Bias Contagion with Implications for Social Policy

    PubMed Central

    Weisbuch, Max; Pauker, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Social and policy interventions over the last half-century have achieved laudable reductions in blatant discrimination. Yet members of devalued social groups continue to face subtle discrimination. In this article, we argue that decades of anti-discrimination interventions have failed to eliminate intergroup bias because such bias is contagious. We present a model of bias contagion in which intergroup bias is subtly communicated through nonverbal behavior. Exposure to such nonverbal bias “infects” observers with intergroup bias. The model we present details two means by which nonverbal bias can be expressed—either as a veridical index of intergroup bias or as a symptom of worry about appearing biased. Exposure to this nonverbal bias can increase perceivers’ own intergroup biases through processes of implicit learning, informational influence, and normative influence. We identify critical moderators that may interfere with these processes and consequently propose several social and educational interventions based on these moderators. PMID:23997812

  11. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  12. Basic and Special Criteria for the Evaluation of Manually Activated and/or Coin Activated Vending Machines for Foods and/or Beverages. Revised February 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI.

    Appraisal of various types of manually activated and/or coin activated vending machines is discussed in this standard. The following are included--(1) introduction and definitions and discussion of various types of food and beverage vending machines, (2) general provisions including minimum requirements, alternate materials, and a classification…

  13. Experimental study on the effect of wavelength and fluence in the laser cleaning of silvering in late Roman coins (Mid 3rd/4th century AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachou-Mogire, C.; Drakaki, E.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Zergioti, I.; Boukos, N.

    2007-03-01

    The political problems in Late Roman Empire caused significant changes in the coin technology. The silver content dropped severely and a new technology, in all the mints operating around the Empire, was introduced. For the production of these coins, copper based quaternary alloys were used and their surface was covered by a silver amalgam plating layer. Hoards of these coins have been recovered in thousands from across the Empire, however, their treatment has been problematic. Both mechanical and chemical cleaning results in the damage or the complete destruction of the thin silver layer. The use of laser technology in the cleaning of works of art has a wide range of applications which includes metallic objects. The main aim of this work was to investigate the use of lasers in the cleaning of the thin silver plating layers found in late Roman coins. The optimisation of laser parameters was achieved through comparative cleaning tests by employing Nd:YAG (532 nm and 266 nm) laser systems. The cleaning results on the plated areas were characterised by optical microscopy, and SEM-EDX analysis. Following a systematic investigation and many cleaning trials on two different wavelengths and fluence values, optimum irradiation parameters were thoroughly demonstrated. Microscopic observations of the cleaned areas evidenced complete removal of the encrustation and high selectivity of the laser cleaning. Neither thermal or mechanical injuries, nor cuprite blackening were observed on the cleaned surfaces at the optimum laser cleaning technique, using 532 nm of the Nd: YAG laser.

  14. Gender Bias: Recent Research and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Research Bulletin, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 14 publications about recent research on gender bias and interventions to reduce gender bias in schools. The bibliography is divided into two sections: current research and intervention. The first includes descriptions of studies examining the following topics: gender bias in U.S. schools and its effects;…

  15. Outcome-Reporting Bias in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigott, Therese D.; Valentine, Jeffrey C.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Williams, Ryan T.; Canada, Dericka D.

    2013-01-01

    Outcome-reporting bias occurs when primary studies do not include information about all outcomes measured in a study. When studies omit findings on important measures, efforts to synthesize the research using systematic review techniques will be biased and interpretations of individual studies will be incomplete. Outcome-reporting bias has been…

  16. Attentional Bias for Exercise-Related Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Stolp, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined attentional bias toward exercise-related images using a visual probe task. It was hypothesized that more-active participants would display attentional bias toward the exercise-related images. The results showed that men displayed attentional bias for the exercise images. There was a significant interaction of activity level…

  17. Using Newspapers to Study Media Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirman, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn to recognize media bias by studying media reports of current events or historical topics. Describes a study unit using media coverage of the second anniversary of the Palestinian uprising against Israel. Discusses lesson objectives, planning, defining bias teaching procedures, and criteria for determining bias. (DK)

  18. Culturally Biased Assumptions in Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Paul B.

    2003-01-01

    Eight clusters of culturally biased assumptions are identified for further discussion from Leong and Ponterotto's (2003) article. The presence of cultural bias demonstrates that cultural bias is so robust and pervasive that is permeates the profession of counseling psychology, even including those articles that effectively attack cultural bias…

  19. Sexual dimorphism and speciation on two ecological coins: patterns from nature and theoretical predictions.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Idelle A; Gilman, R Tucker; Boughman, Janette Wenrick

    2011-09-01

    Adaptive divergence of phenotypes, such as sexual dimorphism or adaptive speciation, can result from disruptive selection via competition for limited resources. Theory indicates that speciation and sexual dimorphism can result from identical ecological conditions, but co-occurrence is unlikely because whichever evolves first should dissipate the disruptive selection necessary to drive evolution of the other. Here, we consider ecological conditions in which disruptive selection can act along multiple ecological axes. Speciation in lake populations of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has been attributed to disruptive selection due to competition for resources. Head shape in sticklebacks is thought to reflect adaptation to different resource acquisition strategies. We measure sexual dimorphism and species variation in head shape and body size in stickleback populations in two lakes in British Columbia, Canada. We find that sexual dimorphism in head shape is greater than interspecific differences. Using a numerical simulation model that contains two axes of ecological variation, we show that speciation and sexual dimorphism can readily co-occur when the effects of loci underlying sexually dimorphic traits are orthogonal to those underlying sexually selected traits.

  20. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Weng, Hong-Lei; Cai, Xiaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Li, Hai; Wang, Tai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called "second pathway of liver regeneration." The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin.

  1. Two sides of one coin: massive hepatic necrosis and progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Hong-Lei; Cai, Xiaobo; Yuan, Xiaodong; Liebe, Roman; Dooley, Steven; Li, Hai; Wang, Tai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Massive hepatic necrosis is a key event underlying acute liver failure, a serious clinical syndrome with high mortality. Massive hepatic necrosis in acute liver failure has unique pathophysiological characteristics including extremely rapid parenchymal cell death and removal. On the other hand, massive necrosis rapidly induces the activation of liver progenitor cells, the so-called “second pathway of liver regeneration.” The final clinical outcome of acute liver failure depends on whether liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration can efficiently restore parenchymal mass and function within a short time. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding massive hepatic necrosis and liver progenitor cell-mediated regeneration in patients with acute liver failure, the two sides of one coin. PMID:26136687

  2. Attentional bias modification for addictive behaviors: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Cox, W Miles; Fadardi, Javad S; Intriligator, James M; Klinger, Eric

    2014-06-01

    When a person has a goal of drinking alcohol or using another addictive substance, the person appears to be automatically distracted by stimuli related to the goal. Because the attentional bias might propel the person to use the substance, an intervention might help modify it. In this article, we discuss techniques that have been developed to help people overcome their attentional bias for alcohol, smoking-related stimuli, drugs, or unhealthy food. We also discuss how these techniques are being adapted for use on mobile devices. The latter would allow people with an addictive behavior to use the attentional training in privacy and as frequently as needed. The attentional training techniques discussed here appear to have several advantages. They are inexpensive, can be fun to use, and have flexibility in when, where, and how often they are used. The evidence so far also suggests that they are effective.

  3. Food-specific spatial memory biases in an omnivorous bird.

    PubMed

    Sulikowski, Danielle; Burke, Darren

    2007-06-22

    The tendency of nectarivorous birds to perform better on tasks requiring them to avoid previously rewarding locations (to win-shift) than to return to them (win-stay) has been explained as an adaptation to the depleting nature of nectar. This interpretation relies on the previously untested assumption that the win-shift tendency is not associated with food types possessing a different distribution. To test this assumption, we examined the specificity of this bias to different food types in an omnivorous honeyeater, the noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala). As predicted, we found that the win-shift bias was sensitive to foraging context, manifesting only in association with foraging for nectar, not with foraging for invertebrates.

  4. Food-specific spatial memory biases in an omnivorous bird.

    PubMed

    Sulikowski, Danielle; Burke, Darren

    2007-06-22

    The tendency of nectarivorous birds to perform better on tasks requiring them to avoid previously rewarding locations (to win-shift) than to return to them (win-stay) has been explained as an adaptation to the depleting nature of nectar. This interpretation relies on the previously untested assumption that the win-shift tendency is not associated with food types possessing a different distribution. To test this assumption, we examined the specificity of this bias to different food types in an omnivorous honeyeater, the noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala). As predicted, we found that the win-shift bias was sensitive to foraging context, manifesting only in association with foraging for nectar, not with foraging for invertebrates. PMID:17426005

  5. Sex-biased transcriptome evolution in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Assis, Raquel; Zhou, Qi; Bachtrog, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Sex-biased genes are thought to drive phenotypic differences between males and females. The recent availability of high-throughput gene expression data for many related species has led to a burst of investigations into the genomic and evolutionary properties of sex-biased genes. In Drosophila, a number of studies have found that X chromosomes are deficient in male-biased genes (demasculinized) and enriched for female-biased genes (feminized) and that male-biased genes evolve faster than female-biased genes. However, studies have yielded vastly different conclusions regarding the numbers of sex-biased genes and forces shaping their evolution. Here, we use RNA-seq data from multiple tissues of Drosophila melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura, a species with a recently evolved X chromosome, to explore the evolution of sex-biased genes in Drosophila. First, we compare several independent metrics for classifying sex-biased genes and find that the overlap of genes identified by different metrics is small, particularly for female-biased genes. Second, we investigate genome-wide expression patterns and uncover evidence of demasculinization and feminization of both ancestral and new X chromosomes, demonstrating that gene content on sex chromosomes evolves rapidly. Third, we examine the evolutionary rates of sex-biased genes and show that male-biased genes evolve much faster than female-biased genes, which evolve at similar rates to unbiased genes. Analysis of gene expression among tissues reveals that this trend may be partially due to pleiotropic effects of female-biased genes, which limits their evolutionary potential. Thus, our findings illustrate the importance of accurately identifying sex-biased genes and provide insight into their evolutionary dynamics in Drosophila.

  6. Negatively-Biased Credulity and the Cultural Evolution of Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Pisor, Anne C.; Navarrete, Carlos David

    2014-01-01

    The functions of cultural beliefs are often opaque to those who hold them. Accordingly, to benefit from cultural evolution’s ability to solve complex adaptive problems, learners must be credulous. However, credulity entails costs, including susceptibility to exploitation, and effort wasted due to false beliefs. One determinant of the optimal level of credulity is the ratio between the costs of two types of errors: erroneous incredulity (failing to believe information that is true) and erroneous credulity (believing information that is false). This ratio can be expected to be asymmetric when information concerns hazards, as the costs of erroneous incredulity will, on average, exceed the costs of erroneous credulity; no equivalent asymmetry characterizes information concerning benefits. Natural selection can therefore be expected to have crafted learners’ minds so as to be more credulous toward information concerning hazards. This negatively-biased credulity extends general negativity bias, the adaptive tendency for negative events to be more salient than positive events. Together, these biases constitute attractors that should shape cultural evolution via the aggregated effects of learners’ differential retention and transmission of information. In two studies in the U.S., we demonstrate the existence of negatively-biased credulity, and show that it is most pronounced in those who believe the world to be dangerous, individuals who may constitute important nodes in cultural transmission networks. We then document the predicted imbalance in cultural content using a sample of urban legends collected from the Internet and a sample of supernatural beliefs obtained from ethnographies of a representative collection of the world’s cultures, showing that beliefs about hazards predominate in both. PMID:24736596

  7. Negatively-biased credulity and the cultural evolution of beliefs.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Pisor, Anne C; Navarrete, Carlos David

    2014-01-01

    The functions of cultural beliefs are often opaque to those who hold them. Accordingly, to benefit from cultural evolution's ability to solve complex adaptive problems, learners must be credulous. However, credulity entails costs, including susceptibility to exploitation, and effort wasted due to false beliefs. One determinant of the optimal level of credulity is the ratio between the costs of two types of errors: erroneous incredulity (failing to believe information that is true) and erroneous credulity (believing information that is false). This ratio can be expected to be asymmetric when information concerns hazards, as the costs of erroneous incredulity will, on average, exceed the costs of erroneous credulity; no equivalent asymmetry characterizes information concerning benefits. Natural selection can therefore be expected to have crafted learners' minds so as to be more credulous toward information concerning hazards. This negatively-biased credulity extends general negativity bias, the adaptive tendency for negative events to be more salient than positive events. Together, these biases constitute attractors that should shape cultural evolution via the aggregated effects of learners' differential retention and transmission of information. In two studies in the U.S., we demonstrate the existence of negatively-biased credulity, and show that it is most pronounced in those who believe the world to be dangerous, individuals who may constitute important nodes in cultural transmission networks. We then document the predicted imbalance in cultural content using a sample of urban legends collected from the Internet and a sample of supernatural beliefs obtained from ethnographies of a representative collection of the world's cultures, showing that beliefs about hazards predominate in both. PMID:24736596

  8. Negatively-biased credulity and the cultural evolution of beliefs.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Pisor, Anne C; Navarrete, Carlos David

    2014-01-01

    The functions of cultural beliefs are often opaque to those who hold them. Accordingly, to benefit from cultural evolution's ability to solve complex adaptive problems, learners must be credulous. However, credulity entails costs, including susceptibility to exploitation, and effort wasted due to false beliefs. One determinant of the optimal level of credulity is the ratio between the costs of two types of errors: erroneous incredulity (failing to believe information that is true) and erroneous credulity (believing information that is false). This ratio can be expected to be asymmetric when information concerns hazards, as the costs of erroneous incredulity will, on average, exceed the costs of erroneous credulity; no equivalent asymmetry characterizes information concerning benefits. Natural selection can therefore be expected to have crafted learners' minds so as to be more credulous toward information concerning hazards. This negatively-biased credulity extends general negativity bias, the adaptive tendency for negative events to be more salient than positive events. Together, these biases constitute attractors that should shape cultural evolution via the aggregated effects of learners' differential retention and transmission of information. In two studies in the U.S., we demonstrate the existence of negatively-biased credulity, and show that it is most pronounced in those who believe the world to be dangerous, individuals who may constitute important nodes in cultural transmission networks. We then document the predicted imbalance in cultural content using a sample of urban legends collected from the Internet and a sample of supernatural beliefs obtained from ethnographies of a representative collection of the world's cultures, showing that beliefs about hazards predominate in both.

  9. Charge amplifier with bias compensation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W.

    2002-01-01

    An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

  10. Challenges in bias correcting climate change simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maraun, Douglas; Shepherd, Ted; Zappa, Giuseppe; Gutierrez, Jose; Widmann, Martin; Hagemann, Stefan; Richter, Ingo; Soares, Pedro; Mearns, Linda

    2016-04-01

    Biases in climate model simulations - if these are directly used as input for impact models - will introduce further biases in subsequent impact simulations. In response to this issue, so-called bias correction methods have been developed to post-process climate model output. These methods are now widely used and a crucial component in the generation of high resolution climate change projections. Bias correction is conceptually similar to model output statistics, which has been successfully used for several decades in numerical weather prediction. Yet in climate science, some authors outrightly dismiss any form of bias correction. Starting from this seeming contradiction, we highlight differences between the two contexts and infer consequences and limitations for the applicability of bias correction to climate change projections. We first show that cross validation approaches successfully used to evaluate weather forecasts are fundamentally insufficient to evaluate climate change bias correction. We further demonstrate that different types of model mismatches with observations require different solutions, and some may not sensibly be mitigated. In particular we consider the influence of large-scale circulation biases, biases in the persistence of weather regimes, and regional biases caused by an insufficient representation of the flow-topography interaction. We conclude with a list of recommendations and suggestions for future research to reduce, to post-process, and to cope with climate model biases.

  11. Winning the genetic lottery: biasing birth sex ratio results in more grandchildren.

    PubMed

    Thogerson, Collette M; Brady, Colleen M; Howard, Richard D; Mason, Georgia J; Pajor, Edmond A; Vicino, Greg A; Garner, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    Population dynamics predicts that on average parents should invest equally in male and female offspring; similarly, the physiology of mammalian sex determination is supposedly stochastic, producing equal numbers of sons and daughters. However, a high quality parent can maximize fitness by biasing their birth sex ratio (SR) to the sex with the greatest potential to disproportionately outperform peers. All SR manipulation theories share a fundamental prediction: grandparents who bias birth SR should produce more grandoffspring via the favored sex. The celebrated examples of biased birth SRs in nature consistent with SR manipulation theories provide compelling circumstantial evidence. However, this prediction has never been directly tested in mammals, primarily because the complete three-generation pedigrees needed to test whether individual favored offspring produce more grandoffspring for the biasing grandparent are essentially impossible to obtain in nature. Three-generation pedigrees were constructed using 90 years of captive breeding records from 198 mammalian species. Male and female grandparents consistently biased their birth SR toward the sex that maximized second-generation success. The most strongly male-biased granddams and grandsires produced respectively 29% and 25% more grandoffspring than non-skewing conspecifics. The sons of the most male-biasing granddams were 2.7 times as fecund as those of granddams with a 50∶50 bias (similar results are seen in grandsires). Daughters of the strongest female-biasing granddams were 1.2 times as fecund as those of non-biasing females (this effect is not seen in grandsires). To our knowledge, these results are the first formal test of the hypothesis that birth SR manipulation is adaptive in mammals in terms of grandchildren produced, showing that SR manipulation can explain biased birth SR in general across mammalian species. These findings also have practical implications: parental control of birth SR has the

  12. Winning the Genetic Lottery: Biasing Birth Sex Ratio Results in More Grandchildren

    PubMed Central

    Thogerson, Collette M.; Brady, Colleen M.; Howard, Richard D.; Mason, Georgia J.; Pajor, Edmond A.; Vicino, Greg A.; Garner, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Population dynamics predicts that on average parents should invest equally in male and female offspring; similarly, the physiology of mammalian sex determination is supposedly stochastic, producing equal numbers of sons and daughters. However, a high quality parent can maximize fitness by biasing their birth sex ratio (SR) to the sex with the greatest potential to disproportionately outperform peers. All SR manipulation theories share a fundamental prediction: grandparents who bias birth SR should produce more grandoffspring via the favored sex. The celebrated examples of biased birth SRs in nature consistent with SR manipulation theories provide compelling circumstantial evidence. However, this prediction has never been directly tested in mammals, primarily because the complete three-generation pedigrees needed to test whether individual favored offspring produce more grandoffspring for the biasing grandparent are essentially impossible to obtain in nature. Three-generation pedigrees were constructed using 90 years of captive breeding records from 198 mammalian species. Male and female grandparents consistently biased their birth SR toward the sex that maximized second-generation success. The most strongly male-biased granddams and grandsires produced respectively 29% and 25% more grandoffspring than non-skewing conspecifics. The sons of the most male-biasing granddams were 2.7 times as fecund as those of granddams with a 50∶50 bias (similar results are seen in grandsires). Daughters of the strongest female-biasing granddams were 1.2 times as fecund as those of non-biasing females (this effect is not seen in grandsires). To our knowledge, these results are the first formal test of the hypothesis that birth SR manipulation is adaptive in mammals in terms of grandchildren produced, showing that SR manipulation can explain biased birth SR in general across mammalian species. These findings also have practical implications: parental control of birth SR has the

  13. Winning the genetic lottery: biasing birth sex ratio results in more grandchildren.

    PubMed

    Thogerson, Collette M; Brady, Colleen M; Howard, Richard D; Mason, Georgia J; Pajor, Edmond A; Vicino, Greg A; Garner, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    Population dynamics predicts that on average parents should invest equally in male and female offspring; similarly, the physiology of mammalian sex determination is supposedly stochastic, producing equal numbers of sons and daughters. However, a high quality parent can maximize fitness by biasing their birth sex ratio (SR) to the sex with the greatest potential to disproportionately outperform peers. All SR manipulation theories share a fundamental prediction: grandparents who bias birth SR should produce more grandoffspring via the favored sex. The celebrated examples of biased birth SRs in nature consistent with SR manipulation theories provide compelling circumstantial evidence. However, this prediction has never been directly tested in mammals, primarily because the complete three-generation pedigrees needed to test whether individual favored offspring produce more grandoffspring for the biasing grandparent are essentially impossible to obtain in nature. Three-generation pedigrees were constructed using 90 years of captive breeding records from 198 mammalian species. Male and female grandparents consistently biased their birth SR toward the sex that maximized second-generation success. The most strongly male-biased granddams and grandsires produced respectively 29% and 25% more grandoffspring than non-skewing conspecifics. The sons of the most male-biasing granddams were 2.7 times as fecund as those of granddams with a 50∶50 bias (similar results are seen in grandsires). Daughters of the strongest female-biasing granddams were 1.2 times as fecund as those of non-biasing females (this effect is not seen in grandsires). To our knowledge, these results are the first formal test of the hypothesis that birth SR manipulation is adaptive in mammals in terms of grandchildren produced, showing that SR manipulation can explain biased birth SR in general across mammalian species. These findings also have practical implications: parental control of birth SR has the

  14. Numeracy and framing bias in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunmi; Wong, John B; Mendiratta, Anil; Heiman, Gary A; Hamberger, Marla J

    2011-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy are frequently confronted with complex treatment decisions. Communicating treatment risks is often difficult because patients may have difficulty with basic statistical concepts (i.e., low numeracy) or might misconceive the statistical information based on the way information is presented, a phenomenon known as "framing bias." We assessed numeracy and framing bias in 95 adults with chronic epilepsy and explored cognitive correlates of framing bias. Compared with normal controls, patients with epilepsy had significantly poorer performance on the Numeracy scale (P=0.02), despite a higher level of education than normal controls (P<0.001). Compared with patients with higher numeracy, patients with lower numeracy were significantly more likely to exhibit framing bias. Abstract problem solving performance correlated with the degree of framing bias (r=0.631, P<0.0001), suggesting a relationship between aspects of executive functioning and framing bias. Poor numeracy and susceptibility framing bias place patients with epilepsy at risk for uninformed decisions.

  15. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  16. A self-learning algorithm for biased molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tribello, Gareth A; Ceriotti, Michele; Parrinello, Michele

    2010-10-12

    A new self-learning algorithm for accelerated dynamics, reconnaissance metadynamics, is proposed that is able to work with a very large number of collective coordinates. Acceleration of the dynamics is achieved by constructing a bias potential in terms of a patchwork of one-dimensional, locally valid collective coordinates. These collective coordinates are obtained from trajectory analyses so that they adapt to any new features encountered during the simulation. We show how this methodology can be used to enhance sampling in real chemical systems citing examples both from the physics of clusters and from the biological sciences. PMID:20876135

  17. Importance biasing scheme implemented in the PRIZMA code

    SciTech Connect

    Kandiev, I.Z.; Malyshkin, G.N.

    1997-12-31

    PRIZMA code is intended for Monte Carlo calculations of linear radiation transport problems. The code has wide capabilities to describe geometry, sources, material composition, and to obtain parameters specified by user. There is a capability to calculate path of particle cascade (including neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons and heavy charged particles) taking into account possible transmutations. Importance biasing scheme was implemented to solve the problems which require calculation of functionals related to small probabilities (for example, problems of protection against radiation, problems of detection, etc.). The scheme enables to adapt trajectory building algorithm to problem peculiarities.

  18. Biases on cosmological parameter estimators from galaxy cluster number counts

    SciTech Connect

    Penna-Lima, M.; Wuensche, C.A.; Makler, M. E-mail: martin@cbpf.br

    2014-05-01

    Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys are promising probes of cosmology — in particular for Dark Energy (DE) —, given their ability to find distant clusters and provide estimates for their mass. However, current SZ catalogs contain tens to hundreds of objects and maximum likelihood estimators may present biases for such sample sizes. In this work we study estimators from cluster abundance for some cosmological parameters, in particular the DE equation of state parameter w{sub 0}, the amplitude of density fluctuations σ{sub 8}, and the Dark Matter density parameter Ω{sub c}. We begin by deriving an unbinned likelihood for cluster number counts, showing that it is equivalent to the one commonly used in the literature. We use the Monte Carlo approach to determine the presence of bias using this likelihood and study its behavior with both the area and depth of the survey, and the number of cosmological parameters fitted. Our fiducial models are based on the South Pole Telescope (SPT) SZ survey. Assuming perfect knowledge of mass and redshift some estimators have non-negligible biases. For example, the bias of σ{sub 8} corresponds to about 40% of its statistical error bar when fitted together with Ω{sub c} and w{sub 0}. Including a SZ mass-observable relation decreases the relevance of the bias, for the typical sizes of current SZ surveys. Considering a joint likelihood for cluster abundance and the so-called ''distance priors'', we obtain that the biases are negligible compared to the statistical errors. However, we show that the biases from SZ estimators do not go away with increasing sample sizes and they may become the dominant source of error for an all sky survey at the SPT sensitivity. Finally, we compute the confidence regions for the cosmological parameters using Fisher matrix and profile likelihood approaches, showing that they are compatible with the Monte Carlo ones. The results of this work validate the use of the current maximum likelihood methods for

  19. Bayesian Item Selection in Constrained Adaptive Testing Using Shadow Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2010-01-01

    Application of Bayesian item selection criteria in computerized adaptive testing might result in improvement of bias and MSE of the ability estimates. The question remains how to apply Bayesian item selection criteria in the context of constrained adaptive testing, where large numbers of specifications have to be taken into account in the item…

  20. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us. PMID:25941868

  1. Increased hindsight bias in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Todd S; Moritz, Steffen; Arnold, Michelle M; Cuttler, Carrie; Whitman, Jennifer C; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2006-07-01

    An underlying theme common to prominent theoretical accounts of cognition in schizophrenia is that information processing is disproportionately influenced by recently/currently encountered information relative to the influence of previously learned information. In this study, the authors tested this account by using the hindsight bias or knew-it-all-along (KIA) paradigm, which demonstrates that newly acquired knowledge influences recall of past events. In line with the account that patients with schizophrenia display a disproportionately strong influence of recently encountered information relative to the influence of previously learned information, patients displayed a KIA effect that was significantly greater than in controls. This result is discussed in the context of the cognitive underpinnings of the KIA effect and delusion formation. PMID:16846264

  2. Symmetry as Bias: Rediscovering Special Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, Michael R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a rational reconstruction of Einstein's discovery of special relativity, validated through an implementation: the Erlanger program. Einstein's discovery of special relativity revolutionized both the content of physics and the research strategy used by theoretical physicists. This research strategy entails a mutual bootstrapping process between a hypothesis space for biases, defined through different postulated symmetries of the universe, and a hypothesis space for physical theories. The invariance principle mutually constrains these two spaces. The invariance principle enables detecting when an evolving physical theory becomes inconsistent with its bias, and also when the biases for theories describing different phenomena are inconsistent. Structural properties of the invariance principle facilitate generating a new bias when an inconsistency is detected. After a new bias is generated. this principle facilitates reformulating the old, inconsistent theory by treating the latter as a limiting approximation. The structural properties of the invariance principle can be suitably generalized to other types of biases to enable primal-dual learning.

  3. Publication Bias in Methodological Computational Research

    PubMed Central

    Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Stierle, Veronika; Hapfelmeier, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The problem of publication bias has long been discussed in research fields such as medicine. There is a consensus that publication bias is a reality and that solutions should be found to reduce it. In methodological computational research, including cancer informatics, publication bias may also be at work. The publication of negative research findings is certainly also a relevant issue, but has attracted very little attention to date. The present paper aims at providing a new formal framework to describe the notion of publication bias in the context of methodological computational research, facilitate and stimulate discussions on this topic, and increase awareness in the scientific community. We report an exemplary pilot study that aims at gaining experiences with the collection and analysis of information on unpublished research efforts with respect to publication bias, and we outline the encountered problems. Based on these experiences, we try to formalize the notion of publication bias. PMID:26508827

  4. Professional Culture and Climate: Addressing Unconscious Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2016-10-01

    Unconscious bias reflects expectations or stereotypes that influence our judgments of others (regardless of our own group). Everyone has unconscious biases. The end result of unconscious bias can be an accumulation of advantage or disadvantage that impacts the long term career success of individuals, depending on which biases they are subject to. In order to foster a professional culture and climate, being aware of these unconscious biases and mitigating against them is a first step. This is particularly important when judgements are needed, such as in cases for recruitment, choice of speakers for conferences, and even reviewing papers submitted for publication. This presentation will cover how unconscious bias manifests itself, what evidence exists to demonstrate it exists, and ways it can be addressed.

  5. Quantum Criticality in the Biased Dicke Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hanjie; Zhang, Guofeng; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    The biased Dicke model describes a system of biased two-level atoms coupled to a bosonic field, and is expected to produce new phenomena that are not present in the original Dicke model. In this paper, we study the critical properties of the biased Dicke model in the classical oscillator limits. For the finite-biased case in this limit, We present analytical results demonstrating that the excitation energy does not vanish for arbitrary coupling. This indicates that the second order phase transition is avoided in the biased Dicke model, which contrasts to the original Dicke model. We also analyze the squeezing and the entanglement in the ground state, and find that a finite bias will strongly modify their behaviors in the vicinity of the critical coupling point. PMID:26786239

  6. Improving IRT Item Bias Detection with Iterative Linking and Ability Scale Purification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Dong-Gun; Lautenschlager, Gary J.

    1990-01-01

    The effectiveness of two iterative methods of item response theory (IRT) item bias detection was examined in a simulation study. A modified form of the iterative item parameter linking method of F. Drasgow and an adaptation of the test purification procedure of F. M. Lord were compared. (SLD)

  7. Cognitive Biases and Nonverbal Cue Availability in Detecting Deception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoon, Judee K.; Blair, J. Pete; Strom, Renee E.

    2008-01-01

    In potentially deceptive situations, people rely on mental shortcuts to help process information. These heuristic judgments are often biased and result in inaccurate assessments of sender veracity. Four such biases--truth bias, visual bias, demeanor bias, and expectancy violation bias--were examined in a judgment experiment that varied nonverbal…

  8. Monocular motion adaptation affects the perceived trajectory of stereomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Kevin R.

    2002-01-01

    Perceived stereomotion trajectory was measured before and after adaptation to lateral motion in the dominant or nondominant eye to assess the relative contributions of 2 cues: changing disparity and interocular velocity difference. Perceived speed for monocular lateral motion and perceived binocular visual direction (BVD) was also assessed. Unlike stereomotion trajectory perception, the BVD of static targets showed an ocular dominance bias, even without adaptation. Adaptation caused equivalent biases in perceived trajectory and monocular motion speed, without significantly affecting perceived BVD. Predictions from monocular motion data closely match trajectory perception data, unlike those from BVD sources. The results suggest that the interocular velocity differences make a significant contribution to stereomotion trajectory perception.

  9. When Do Children Exhibit a "Yes" Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether one hundred and thirty-five 3- to 6-year-old children exhibit a yes bias to various yes-no questions and whether their knowledge status affects the production of a yes bias. Three-year-olds exhibited a yes bias to all yes-no questions such as "preference-object" and "knowledge-object" questions pertaining to…

  10. A self-biased PLL with low power and compact area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hailong, Jia; Xianmin, Chen; Qi, Liu; Guangtao, Feng

    2015-10-01

    A new low power, low phase jitter, compact realization, and self-biased PLL, which is fabricated on SMIC 40 nm CMOS technology is introduced. The proposed self-biased PLL eliminates extra band gap biasing circuits, and internally generates all the biasing voltages and currents. Meanwhile, all of the PLL dynamic loop parameters, such as loop bandwidth, natural frequency, damping factors are kept constant adaptively. By optimizing the circuit structures, the perfect unity of chip estate, power dissipation, phase jitter, and loop stability is achieved. The PLL consumes 4.2 mW of power under 1.1 V/2.5 V voltage supply at 2.4 GHz VCO frequency, while occupying a die area of less than 0.02 mm2 (180 × 110 μm2), and the typical period jitter (RMS) is around 2.8 ps.

  11. The cycle of bias in health research: a framework and toolbox for critical appraisal training.

    PubMed

    Odierna, Donna H; Forsyth, Susan R; White, Jenny; Bero, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing bias in health research is crucial for evidence-based decision making. We worked with eight community groups to develop materials for nine modular, individualized critical appraisal workshops we conducted with 102 consumers (four workshops), 43 healthcare providers (three workshops), and 33 journalists (two workshops) in California. We presented workshops using a "cycle of bias" framework, and developed a toolbox of presentations, problem-based small group sessions, and skill-building materials to improve participants' ability to evaluate research for financial and other conflicts of interest, bias, validity, and applicability. Participant feedback indicated that the adaptability of the toolbox and our focus on bias were critical elements in the success of our workshops.

  12. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  13. Adaptive Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Bong-Jun; Calise, Anthony J.; Craig, James I.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2005-01-01

    Most active vibration isolation systems that try to a provide quiescent acceleration environment for space science experiments have utilized linear design methods. In this paper, we address adaptive control augmentation of an existing classical controller that employs a high-gain acceleration feedback together with a low-gain position feedback to center the isolated platform. The control design feature includes parametric and dynamic uncertainties because the hardware of the isolation system is built as a payload-level isolator, and the acceleration Sensor exhibits a significant bias. A neural network is incorporated to adaptively compensate for the system uncertainties, and a high-pass filter is introduced to mitigate the effect of the measurement bias. Simulations show that the adaptive control improves the performance of the existing acceleration controller and keep the level of the isolated platform deviation to that of the existing control system.

  14. The truth and bias model of judgment.

    PubMed

    West, Tessa V; Kenny, David A

    2011-04-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of the attraction and the value is the location toward which the judgment is attracted. The model also makes a formal theoretical distinction between bias and moderator variables. Two major classes of biases are discussed: biases that are measured with variables (e.g., assumed similarity) and directional bias, which refers to the extent to which judgments are pulled toward 1 end of the judgment continuum. Moderator variables are conceptualized as variables that affect the accuracy and bias forces but that do not affect judgments directly. We illustrate the model with 4 examples. We discuss the theoretical, empirical, methodological, measurement, and design implications of the model. PMID:21480740

  15. The truth and bias model of judgment.

    PubMed

    West, Tessa V; Kenny, David A

    2011-04-01

    We present a new model for the general study of how the truth and biases affect human judgment. In the truth and bias model, judgments about the world are pulled by 2 primary forces, the truth force and the bias force, and these 2 forces are interrelated. The truth and bias model differentiates force and value, where the force is the strength of the attraction and the value is the location toward which the judgment is attracted. The model also makes a formal theoretical distinction between bias and moderator variables. Two major classes of biases are discussed: biases that are measured with variables (e.g., assumed similarity) and directional bias, which refers to the extent to which judgments are pulled toward 1 end of the judgment continuum. Moderator variables are conceptualized as variables that affect the accuracy and bias forces but that do not affect judgments directly. We illustrate the model with 4 examples. We discuss the theoretical, empirical, methodological, measurement, and design implications of the model.

  16. Chronic and acute biases in perceptual stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dossari, Munira; Blake, Randolph; Brascamp, Jan W.; Freeman, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    When perceptually ambiguous stimuli are presented intermittently, the percept on one presentation tends to be the same as that on the previous presentation. The role of short-term, acute biases in the production of this perceptual stability is relatively well understood. In addition, however, long-lasting, chronic bias may also contribute to stability. In this paper we develop indices for both biases and for stability, and show that stability can be expressed as a sum of contributions from the two types of bias. We then apply this analytical procedure to binocular rivalry, showing that adjustment of the monocular contrasts can alter the relative contributions of the two biases. Stability is mainly determined by chronic bias when the contrasts are equal, but acute bias dominates stability when right-eye contrast is set lower than left-eye contrast. Finally, we show that the right-eye bias persists in continuous binocular rivalry. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated contribution of chronic bias to stable perception. PMID:26641947

  17. Deterministic photon bias in speckle imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beletic, James W.

    1989-01-01

    A method for determining photo bias terms in speckle imaging is presented, and photon bias is shown to be a deterministic quantity that can be calculated without the use of the expectation operator. The quantities obtained are found to be identical to previous results. The present results have extended photon bias calculations to the important case of the bispectrum where photon events are assigned different weights, in which regime the bias is a frequency dependent complex quantity that must be calculated for each frame.

  18. delta-biased Josephson tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, J.; Koshelets, V. P.; Dmitriev, P.

    2010-02-01

    The behavior of a long Josephson tunnel junction drastically depends on the distribution of the dc bias current. We investigate the case in which the bias current is fed in the central point of a one-dimensional junction. Such junction configuration has been recently used to detect the persistent currents circulating in a superconducting loop. Analytical and numerical results indicate that the presence of fractional vortices leads to remarkable differences from the conventional case of uniformly distributed dc bias current. The theoretical findings are supported by detailed measurements on a number of delta-biased samples having different electrical and geometrical parameters.

  19. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  20. Recursive bias estimation for high dimensional regression smoothers

    SciTech Connect

    Hengartner, Nicolas W; Cornillon, Pierre - Andre; Matzner - Lober, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In multivariate nonparametric analysis, sparseness of the covariates also called curse of dimensionality, forces one to use large smoothing parameters. This leads to biased smoother. Instead of focusing on optimally selecting the smoothing parameter, we fix it to some reasonably large value to ensure an over-smoothing of the data. The resulting smoother has a small variance but a substantial bias. In this paper, we propose to iteratively correct of the bias initial estimator by an estimate of the latter obtained by smoothing the residuals. We examine in details the convergence of the iterated procedure for classical smoothers and relate our procedure to L{sub 2}-Boosting, For multivariate thin plate spline smoother, we proved that our procedure adapts to the correct and unknown order of smoothness for estimating an unknown function m belonging to H({nu}) (Sobolev space where m should be bigger than d/2). We apply our method to simulated and real data and show that our method compares favorably with existing procedures.

  1. Bias in the Gradient Sensing Response of Chemotactic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Skupsky, Ron; McCann, Colin; Nossal, Ralph; Losert, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    We apply linear-stability theory and perform perturbation studies to better characterize, and to generate new experimental predictions from, a model of chemotactic gradient sensing in eukaryotic cells. The model uses reaction-diffusion equations to describe 3′ phosphoinositide signaling and its regulation at the plasma membrane. It demonstrates a range of possible gradient-sensing mechanisms and captures such characteristic behaviors as strong polarization in response to static gradients, adaptation to differing mean levels of stimulus, and plasticity in response to changing gradients. An analysis of the stability of polarized steady-state solutions indicates that the model is most sensitive to off-axis perturbations. This biased sensitivity is reflected in responses to localized external stimuli as well, and leads to a clear experimental prediction, namely, that a cell which is polarized in a background gradient will be most sensitive to transient point-source stimuli lying within a range of angles that are oblique with respect to the polarization axis. Stimuli at angles below this range will elicit responses whose directions overshoot the stimulus angle, while responses to stimuli applied at larger angles will undershoot the stimulus angle. We argue that such a bias is likely to be a general feature of gradient sensing in highly motile cells, particularly if they are optimized to respond to small gradients. Finally, an angular bias in gradient sensing might lead to preferred turn angles and zigzag movements of cells moving up chemotactic gradients, as has been noted under certain experimental conditions. PMID:17462672

  2. Diversity in in-group bias: structural factors, situational features, and social functions.

    PubMed

    Scheepers, Daan; Spears, Russell; Doosje, Bertjan; Manstead, Antony S R

    2006-06-01

    Four experiments addressed the different forms and functions of in-group bias in different contexts. The authors proposed 2 functions: an identity-expressive function and an instrumental function (or promotion of positive social change). The authors manipulated status differentials, the stability of these differences, and the communication context (intra- vs. intergroup) and measured in-group bias and both functions. As predicted, identity expression via in-group bias on symbolic measures was most important for stable, high-status groups. By contrast, material in-group bias for instrumental motives was most prevalent in unstable, low-status groups but only when communicating with in-group members. This latter effect illustrates the strategic adaptation of group behavior to audience (i.e., displaying in-group bias may provoke the out-group and be counterproductive in instrumental terms). Stable, low-status groups displayed more extreme forms of in-group bias for instrumental reasons regardless of communication context (i.e., they had nothing to lose). Results are discussed in terms of a contextual-functional approach to in-group bias.

  3. Transgenerational inheritance or resetting of stress-induced epigenetic modifications: two sides of the same coin

    PubMed Central

    Tricker, Penny J.

    2015-01-01

    The transgenerational inheritance of stress-induced epigenetic modifications is still controversial. Despite several examples of defense “priming” and induced genetic rearrangements, the involvement and persistence of transgenerational epigenetic modifications is not known to be general. Here I argue that non-transmission of epigenetic marks through meiosis may be regarded as an epigenetic modification in itself, and that we should understand the implications for plant evolution in the context of both selection for and selection against transgenerational epigenetic memory. Recent data suggest that both epigenetic inheritance and resetting are mechanistically directed and targeted. Stress-induced epigenetic modifications may buffer against DNA sequence-based evolution to maintain plasticity, or may form part of plasticity’s adaptive potential. To date we have tended to concentrate on the question of whether and for how long epigenetic memory persists. I argue that we should now re-direct our question to investigate the differences between where it persists and where it does not, to understand the higher order evolutionary methods in play and their contribution. PMID:26442015

  4. Analysis of Catalonian silver coins from the Spanish War of Independence period (1808-1814) by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitarch, A.; Queralt, I.; Alvarez-Perez, A.

    2011-02-01

    Between the years 1808 and 1814, the Spanish War of Independence took place. This period, locally known as "Guerra del Francès", generated the need for money and consequently five mints were opened around the Catalan territory. To mark the 200th anniversary of the beginning of the war, an extensive campaign of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence measurements of some of these "emergency coins" was carried out. Apart from the silver (major constituent of all the studied coins) it has been possible to recognize copper as main metal alloying element. Likewise, the presence of zinc, tin, lead, gold, platinum, antimony, nickel and iron has been also identified. The obtained results have been useful not only for the characterization of the alloys, but also to determine the differences and analogies between the emissions and for historical explanations.

  5. Producer Biases and Kin Selection in the Evolution of Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirolli, Marco; Parisi, Domenico

    The evolution of communication requires the co-evolution of two abilities: the ability to send useful signals and the ability to react appropriately to perceived signals. This fact poses two related but distinct problems, which are often mixed up: (1) the phylogenetic problem regarding how can communication evolve if the two traits that are necessary for its emergence are complementary and seem to require each other for providing reproductive advantages; (2) the adaptive problem regarding how can communication systems that do not advantage both signallers and receivers in the same way emerge, given their altruistic character. Here we clarify the distinction, and provide some insights on how these problems can be solved in both real and artificial systems by reporting experiments on the evolution of artificial agents that have to evolve a simple food-call communication system. Our experiments show that (1) the phylogenetic problem can be solved thanks to the presence of producer biases that make agents spontaneously produce useful signals, an idea that is complementary to the well-known "receiver bias" hypothesis found in the biological literature, and (2) the adaptive problem can be solved by having agents communicate preferentially among kin, as predicted by kin selection theory. We discuss these results with respect to both the scientific understanding of the evolution of communication and the design of embodied and communicating artificial agents.

  6. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  7. Spontaneous formation of spiral-like patterns with distinct periodic physical properties by confined electrodeposition of Co-In disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golvano-Escobal, Irati; Gonzalez-Rosillo, Juan Carlos; Domingo, Neus; Illa, Xavi; López-Barberá, José Francisco; Fornell, Jordina; Solsona, Pau; Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Suriñach, Santiago; Baró, Maria Dolors; Puig, Teresa; Pané, Salvador; Nogués, Josep; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns are ubiquitous in different areas of materials science and biological systems. However, typically the motifs in these types of systems present a random distribution with many possible different structures. Herein, we demonstrate that controlled spatio-temporal patterns, with reproducible spiral-like shapes, can be obtained by electrodeposition of Co-In alloys inside a confined circular geometry (i.e., in disks that are commensurate with the typical size of the spatio-temporal features). These patterns are mainly of compositional nature, i.e., with virtually no topographic features. Interestingly, the local changes in composition lead to a periodic modulation of the physical (electric, magnetic and mechanical) properties. Namely, the Co-rich areas show higher saturation magnetization and electrical conductivity and are mechanically harder than the In-rich ones. Thus, this work reveals that confined electrodeposition of this binary system constitutes an effective procedure to attain template-free magnetic, electric and mechanical surface patterning with specific and reproducible shapes.

  8. Spontaneous formation of spiral-like patterns with distinct periodic physical properties by confined electrodeposition of Co-In disks.

    PubMed

    Golvano-Escobal, Irati; Gonzalez-Rosillo, Juan Carlos; Domingo, Neus; Illa, Xavi; López-Barberá, José Francisco; Fornell, Jordina; Solsona, Pau; Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Suriñach, Santiago; Baró, Maria Dolors; Puig, Teresa; Pané, Salvador; Nogués, Josep; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns are ubiquitous in different areas of materials science and biological systems. However, typically the motifs in these types of systems present a random distribution with many possible different structures. Herein, we demonstrate that controlled spatio-temporal patterns, with reproducible spiral-like shapes, can be obtained by electrodeposition of Co-In alloys inside a confined circular geometry (i.e., in disks that are commensurate with the typical size of the spatio-temporal features). These patterns are mainly of compositional nature, i.e., with virtually no topographic features. Interestingly, the local changes in composition lead to a periodic modulation of the physical (electric, magnetic and mechanical) properties. Namely, the Co-rich areas show higher saturation magnetization and electrical conductivity and are mechanically harder than the In-rich ones. Thus, this work reveals that confined electrodeposition of this binary system constitutes an effective procedure to attain template-free magnetic, electric and mechanical surface patterning with specific and reproducible shapes. PMID:27462025

  9. Spontaneous formation of spiral-like patterns with distinct periodic physical properties by confined electrodeposition of Co-In disks

    PubMed Central

    Golvano-Escobal, Irati; Gonzalez-Rosillo, Juan Carlos; Domingo, Neus; Illa, Xavi; López-Barberá, José Francisco; Fornell, Jordina; Solsona, Pau; Aballe, Lucia; Foerster, Michael; Suriñach, Santiago; Baró, Maria Dolors; Puig, Teresa; Pané, Salvador; Nogués, Josep; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns are ubiquitous in different areas of materials science and biological systems. However, typically the motifs in these types of systems present a random distribution with many possible different structures. Herein, we demonstrate that controlled spatio-temporal patterns, with reproducible spiral-like shapes, can be obtained by electrodeposition of Co-In alloys inside a confined circular geometry (i.e., in disks that are commensurate with the typical size of the spatio-temporal features). These patterns are mainly of compositional nature, i.e., with virtually no topographic features. Interestingly, the local changes in composition lead to a periodic modulation of the physical (electric, magnetic and mechanical) properties. Namely, the Co-rich areas show higher saturation magnetization and electrical conductivity and are mechanically harder than the In-rich ones. Thus, this work reveals that confined electrodeposition of this binary system constitutes an effective procedure to attain template-free magnetic, electric and mechanical surface patterning with specific and reproducible shapes. PMID:27462025

  10. [High-precision in situ analysis of the lead isotopic composition in copper using femtosecond laser ablation MC-ICP-MS and the application in ancient coins].

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai-Yun; Fan, Chao; Yuan, Hong-Lin; Bao, Zhi-An; Zong, Chun-Lei; Dai, Meng-Ning; Ling, Xue; Yang, Ying

    2013-05-01

    In the present study we set up a femtosecond laser ablation MC-ICP-MS method for lead isotopic analysis. Pb isotopic composition of fifteen copper (brass, bronze) standard samples from the National Institute of Standards Material were analyzed using the solution method (MC-ICP-MS) and laser method (fLA-MC-ICPMS) respectively, the results showed that the Pb isotopic composition in CuPb12 (GBW02137) is very homogeneous, and can be used as external reference material for Pb isotopic in situ analysis. On CuPb12 112 fLA-MC-ICPMS Pb isotope analysis, the weighted average values of the Pb isotopic ratio are in good agreement with the results analyzed by bulk solution method within 2sigma error, the internal precision RSEs of the 208 Pb/204 Pb ratio and 207 Pb/206 Pb ratio are less than 90 and 40 ppm respectively, and the external precision RSDs of them are less than 60 and 30 ppm respectively. Pb isotope of thirteen ancient bronze coins was analyzed via fLA-MC-ICPMS, the results showed that the Pb isotopic composition of ancient coins of different dynasties is significantly different, and not all the Pb isotopic compositions in the coins even from the same dynasty are in agreement with each other.

  11. Zero-bias spin separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganichev, Sergey D.; Bel'Kov, Vasily V.; Tarasenko, Sergey A.; Danilov, Sergey N.; Giglberger, Stephan; Hoffmann, Christoph; Ivchenko, Eougenious L.; Weiss, Dieter; Wegscheider, Werner; Gerl, Christian; Schuh, Dieter; Stahl, Joachim; de Boeck, Jo; Borghs, Gustaaf; Prettl, Wilhelm

    2006-09-01

    The generation, manipulation and detection of spin-polarized electrons in low-dimensional semiconductors are at the heart of spintronics. Pure spin currents, that is, fluxes of magnetization without charge current, are quite attractive in this respect. A paradigmatic example is the spin Hall effect, where an electrical current drives a transverse spin current and causes a non-equilibrium spin accumulation observed near the sample boundary. Here we provide evidence for an another effect causing spin currents which is fundamentally different from the spin Hall effect. In contrast to the spin Hall effect, it does not require an electric current to flow: without bias the spin separation is achieved by spin-dependent scattering of electrons in media with suitable symmetry. We show, by free-carrier absorption of terahertz (THz) radiation, that spin currents flow in a wide range of temperatures. Moreover, the experimental results provide evidence that simple electron gas heating by any means is already sufficient to yield spin separation due to spin-dependent energy-relaxation processes.

  12. Haploinsufficiency predictions without study bias

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Julia; Honti, Frantisek; Meader, Stephen; Webber, Caleb

    2015-01-01

    Any given human individual carries multiple genetic variants that disrupt protein-coding genes, through structural variation, as well as nucleotide variants and indels. Predicting the phenotypic consequences of a gene disruption remains a significant challenge. Current approaches employ information from a range of biological networks to predict which human genes are haploinsufficient (meaning two copies are required for normal function) or essential (meaning at least one copy is required for viability). Using recently available study gene sets, we show that these approaches are strongly biased towards providing accurate predictions for well-studied genes. By contrast, we derive a haploinsufficiency score from a combination of unbiased large-scale high-throughput datasets, including gene co-expression and genetic variation in over 6000 human exomes. Our approach provides a haploinsufficiency prediction for over twice as many genes currently unassociated with papers listed in Pubmed as three commonly-used approaches, and outperforms these approaches for predicting haploinsufficiency for less-studied genes. We also show that fine-tuning the predictor on a set of well-studied ‘gold standard’ haploinsufficient genes does not improve the prediction for less-studied genes. This new score can readily be used to prioritize gene disruptions resulting from any genetic variant, including copy number variants, indels and single-nucleotide variants. PMID:26001969

  13. Understanding Implicit Bias: What Educators Should Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    The desire to ensure the best for children is precisely why educators should become aware of the concept of implicit bias: the attitudes or stereotypes that affect our understanding, actions, and decisions in an unconscious manner. Operating outside of our conscious awareness, implicit biases are pervasive, and they can challenge even the most…

  14. The Antifeminist Bias in Traditional Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Katharine M.

    Ten recent articles and books are cited in this paper as examples of a continuing antifeminist bias in literary criticism. Several forms of this bias are discussed, including an imperviousness to the feminist awareness, a refusal to recognize it, and open irritation by some critics that women are now finding a voice in literary criticism. A…

  15. Biases in Children's and Adults' Moral Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Nina L.; Derbyshire, Stuart W. G.; Guttentag, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined biases in children's (5/6- and 7/8-year-olds) and adults' moral judgments. Participants at all ages judged that it was worse to produce harm when harm occurred (a) through action rather than inaction (omission bias), (b) when physical contact with the victim was involved (physical contact principle), and (c) when the harm…

  16. Gender Bias in Lebanese Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mougharbel, Ghada M.; Bahous, Rima

    2010-01-01

    Gender bias, though often implicit and unnoticed, exists in many forms and in different situations. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender bias exists in Lebanese language classrooms. Semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, and nonparticipant observational techniques were used for data collection. Results reveal…

  17. A Reconsideration of Bias in the News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Robert L.; Greene, Mark T.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses conceptual problems with the traditional approach to the study of news bias; reports on a study conducted with 73 college students, which yielded data supporting the thesis that what news consumers see as biased news is often material that is discrepant with what they already believe. (GT)

  18. Hindsight Bias and Developing Theories of Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Atance, Cristina; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Although "hindsight bias" (the "I knew it all along" phenomenon) has been documented in adults, its development has not been investigated. This is despite the fact that hindsight bias errors closely resemble the errors children make on theory of mind (ToM) tasks. Two main goals of the present work were to (a) create a battery of hindsight tasks…

  19. Distinctive characteristics of sexual orientation bias crimes.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-10-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question: What are the differences between sexual orientation motivated bias crimes and racial bias crimes? This question is examined using data from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) and multiple regression techniques. This analysis draws on the strengths of NIBRS to look at the incident characteristics of hate crimes and distinguishing characteristics of sexual orientation crimes. Specifically this analysis looks at the types and seriousness of offenses motivated by sexual orientation bias as opposed to race bias as well as victim and offender characteristics. The findings suggest that there are differences between these two types of bias crimes, suggesting a need for further separation of the bias types in policy and research.

  20. Response Bias in Needs Assessment Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calsyn, Robert J.; Klinkenberg, W. Dean

    1995-01-01

    Agencies conducting needs assessments in which respondents are asked about their awareness of the agency must be alert to a bias that inflates awareness (agency awareness acquiescence). A study with 157 college students demonstrated such awareness bias, which was related to the impression management component of social desirability. (SLD)

  1. Understanding Unconscious Bias and Unintentional Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moule, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Unconscious biases affect one's relationships, whether they are fleeting relationships in airports or longer term relationships between teachers and students, teachers and parents, teachers and other educators. In this article, the author argues that understanding one's possible biases is essential for developing community in schools.…

  2. Framing Bias among Expert and Novice Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Caryn; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A study explored the responses of medical students, resident physicians, and experienced physicians to 12 vignettes describing hypothetical patients to determine the relationship between clinical experience and susceptibility to bias in treatment decisions resulting from presentation of possible outcomes. Framing bias was most evident in the…

  3. Distinctive Characteristics of Sexual Orientation Bias Crimes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…

  4. The Battle over Studies of Faculty Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravois, John

    2007-01-01

    The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) recently commissioned a study to review the research that finds liberal bias run amok in academe. Believing that the AFT is not a dispassionate observer of this debate, this article provides "The Chronicle of Higher Education's" survey of the genre. The studies reviewed include: (1) "Political Bias in the…

  5. Racially Biased Policing: Determinants of Citizen Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzer, Ronald; Tuch, Steven A.

    2005-01-01

    The current controversy surrounding racial profiling in America has focused renewed attention on the larger issue of racial bias by the police. Yet little is known about the extent of police racial bias and even less about public perceptions of the problem. This article analyzes recent national survey data on citizens' views of and reported…

  6. Exploratory Studies of Bias in Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross; Draper, John F.

    This paper considers the question of bias in group administered academic achievement tests, bias which is inherent in the instruments themselves. A body of data on the test of performance of three disadvantaged minority groups--northern, urban black; southern, rural black; and, southwestern, Mexican-Americans--as tryout samples in contrast to…

  7. Sex Bias in Job Evaluation Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvey, Richard D.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines issues pertaining to possible sex bias in job evaluation procedures and reviews relevant research. Gives attention to possible sex bias in job analysis procedures, choice and weighting of factors, and reliability and validity issues. Discusses future research needs, particularly reliability and validity aspects of job evaluation…

  8. How Many Hindsight Biases Are There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Hartmut; Nestler, Steffen; von Collani, Gernot; Fischer, Volkhard

    2008-01-01

    The answer is three: questioning a conceptual default assumption in hindsight bias research, we argue that the hindsight bias is not a unitary phenomenon but consists of three separable and partially independent subphenomena or components, namely, memory distortions, impressions of foreseeability and impressions of necessity. Following a detailed…

  9. The meaning of the bias uncertainty measure.

    PubMed

    Bartley, David L

    2008-08-01

    Characterization of measurement uncertainty in terms of root sums of squares of both unknown systematic as well as random error components is given meaning in the sense of prediction intervals. Both types of errors are commonly encountered with industrial hygiene air monitoring of hazardous substances. Two extreme types of measurement methods are presented for illustrating how confidence levels may be ascribed to prediction intervals defined by such uncertainty values. In the case of method calibration at each measurement, systematic error or bias may enter from a biased calibrant. At another extreme, a single initial method evaluation may leave residual bias owing to random error in the evaluation itself or to the use of a biased reference method. Analysis is simplified through new simple approximations to probabilistic limits (quantiles) on the magnitude of a non-central Student t-distributed random variable. Connection is established between traditional confidence limits, accuracy measures in the case of bias minimization and an uncertainty measure.

  10. Are all biases missing data problems?

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Chanelle J.; Cain, Lauren E.; Hogan, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating causal effects is a frequent goal of epidemiologic studies. Traditionally, there have been three established systematic threats to consistent estimation of causal effects. These three threats are bias due to confounders, selection, and measurement error. Confounding, selection, and measurement bias have typically been characterized as distinct types of biases. However, each of these biases can also be characterized as missing data problems that can be addressed with missing data solutions. Here we describe how the aforementioned systematic threats arise from missing data as well as review methods and their related assumptions for reducing each bias type. We also link the assumptions made by the reviewed methods to the missing completely at random (MCAR) and missing at random (MAR) assumptions made in the missing data framework that allow for valid inferences to be made based on the observed, incomplete data. PMID:26576336

  11. Exploring the various interpretations of "test bias".

    PubMed

    Warne, Russell T; Yoon, Myeongsun; Price, Chris J

    2014-10-01

    Test bias is a hotly debated topic in society, especially as it relates to diverse groups of examinees who often score low on standardized tests. However, the phrase "test bias" has a multitude of interpretations that many people are not aware of. In this article, we explain five different meanings of "test bias" and summarize the empirical and theoretical evidence related to each interpretation. The five meanings are as follows: (a) mean group differences, (b) differential predictive validity, (c) differential item functioning, (d) differing factor structures of tests, and (e) unequal consequences of test use for various groups. We explain in this article why meanings (a) and (e) are not actual forms of test bias and that there are serious concerns about (b). In our conclusion, we discuss the benefits of standardized testing for diverse examinees and urge readers to be careful and precise in their use of the phrase "test bias."

  12. Medical journal peer review: process and bias.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Kaye, Alan D; Boswell, Mark V; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2015-01-01

    Scientific peer review is pivotal in health care research in that it facilitates the evaluation of findings for competence, significance, and originality by qualified experts. While the origins of peer review can be traced to the societies of the eighteenth century, it became an institutionalized part of the scholarly process in the latter half of the twentieth century. This was a response to the growth of research and greater subject specialization. With the current increase in the number of specialty journals, the peer review process continues to evolve to meet the needs of patients, clinicians, and policy makers. The peer review process itself faces challenges. Unblinded peer review might suffer from positive or negative bias towards certain authors, specialties, and institutions. Peer review can also suffer when editors and/or reviewers might be unable to understand the contents of the submitted manuscript. This can result in an inability to detect major flaws, or revelations of major flaws after acceptance of publication by the editors. Other concerns include potentially long delays in publication and challenges uncovering plagiarism, duplication, corruption and scientific misconduct. Conversely, a multitude of these challenges have led to claims of scientific misconduct and an erosion of faith. These challenges have invited criticism of the peer review process itself. However, despite its imperfections, the peer review process enjoys widespread support in the scientific community. Peer review bias is one of the major focuses of today's scientific assessment of the literature. Various types of peer review bias include content-based bias, confirmation bias, bias due to conservatism, bias against interdisciplinary research, publication bias, and the bias of conflicts of interest. Consequently, peer review would benefit from various changes and improvements with appropriate training of reviewers to provide quality reviews to maintain the quality and integrity of

  13. Climate adaptation planning in practice: an evaluation of adaptation plans from three developed nations

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L; Westaway, Richard M.; Yuen, Emma J.

    2011-04-01

    Formal planning for climate change adaptation is emerging rapidly at a range of geo-political scales. This first generation of adaptation plans provides useful information regarding how institutions are framing the issue of adaptation and the range of processes that are recognized as being part of an adaptation response. To better understand adaptation planning among developed nations, a set of 57 adaptation plans from Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States was evaluated against a suite of 19 planning processes identified from existing guidance instruments for adaptation planning. Total scores among evaluated plans ranged from 16% of the maximum possible score to 61%, with an average of 37%. These results suggest adaptation plans are largely under-developed. Critical weaknesses in adaptation planning are related to limited consideration for non-climatic factors as well as neglect for issues of adaptive capacity including entitlements to various forms of capital needed for effective adaptation. Such gaps in planning suggest there are opportunities for institutions to make better use of existing guidance for adaptation planning and the need to consider the broader governance context in which adaptation will occur. In addition, the adaptation options prescribed by adaptation plans reflect a preferential bias toward low-risk capacity-building (72% of identified options) over the delivery of specific actions to reduce vulnerability. To the extent these findings are representative of the state of developed nation adaptation planning, there appear to be significant deficiencies in climate change preparedness, even among those nations often assumed to have the greatest adaptive capacity.

  14. Eye Movements while Reading Biased Homographs: Effects of Prior Encounter and Biasing Context on Reducing the Subordinate Bias Effect

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Readers experience processing difficulties when reading biased homographs preceded by subordinate-biasing contexts. Attempts to overcome this processing deficit have often failed to reduce the subordinate bias effect (SBE). In the present studies, we examined the processing of biased homographs preceded by single-sentence, subordinate-biasing contexts, and varied whether this preceding context contained a prior instance of the homograph or a control word/phrase. Having previously encountered the homograph earlier in the sentence reduced the SBE for the subsequent encounter, while simply instantiating the subordinate meaning produced processing difficulty. We compared these reductions in reading times to differences in processing time between dominant-biased repeated and non-repeated conditions in order to verify that the reductions observed in the subordinate cases did not simply reflect a general repetition benefit. Our results indicate that a strong, subordinate-biasing context can interact during lexical access to overcome the activation from meaning frequency and reduce the SBE during reading. PMID:24073328

  15. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  16. Adaptive VFH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odriozola, Iñigo; Lazkano, Elena; Sierra, Basi

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates the improvement of the Vector Field Histogram (VFH) local planning algorithm for mobile robot systems. The Adaptive Vector Field Histogram (AVFH) algorithm has been developed to improve the effectiveness of the traditional VFH path planning algorithm overcoming the side effects of using static parameters. This new algorithm permits the adaptation of planning parameters for the different type of areas in an environment. Genetic Algorithms are used to fit the best VFH parameters to each type of sector and, afterwards, every section in the map is labelled with the sector-type which best represents it. The Player/Stage simulation platform has been chosen for making all sort of tests and to prove the new algorithm's adequateness. Even though there is still much work to be carried out, the developed algorithm showed good navigation properties and turned out to be softer and more effective than the traditional VFH algorithm.

  17. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  18. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Bobby L.; Aeby, Ian

    1982-01-01

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data having variable frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  19. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  20. Identifying Differential Item Functioning in Multi-Stage Computer Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis; Li, Johnson

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of CATSIB (Computer Adaptive Testing-Simultaneous Item Bias Test) for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) when items in the matching and studied subtest are administered adaptively in the context of a realistic multi-stage adaptive test (MST). MST was simulated using a 4-item…

  1. Oceanic origin of southeast tropical Atlantic biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhao; Li, Mingkui; Patricola, Christina M.; Chang, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Most coupled general circulation models suffer from a prominent warm sea surface temperature bias in the southeast tropical Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. The origin of the bias is not understood and remains highly controversial. Previous studies suggest that the origin of the bias stems from systematic errors of atmospheric models in simulating surface heat flux and coastal wind, or poorly simulated coastal upwelling. In this study, we show, using different reanalysis and observational data sets combined with a set of eddy-resolving regional ocean model simulations, that systematic errors in ocean models also make a significant contribution to the bias problem. In particular (1) the strong warm bias at the Angola-Benguela front that is maintained by the local wind and the convergence of Angola and Benguela Currents is caused by an overshooting of the Angola Current in ocean models and (2) the alongshore warm bias to the south of the front is caused by ocean model deficiencies in simulating the sharp thermocline along the Angola coast, which is linked to biases in the equatorial thermocline, and the complex circulation system within the Benguela upwelling zone.

  2. Statistical framework for estimating GNSS bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Coster, Anthea J.; Rideout, William C.; Erickson, Philip J.; Norberg, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    We present a statistical framework for estimating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) non-ionospheric differential time delay bias. The biases are estimated by examining differences of measured line-integrated electron densities (total electron content: TEC) that are scaled to equivalent vertical integrated densities. The spatiotemporal variability, instrumentation-dependent errors, and errors due to inaccurate ionospheric altitude profile assumptions are modeled as structure functions. These structure functions determine how the TEC differences are weighted in the linear least-squares minimization procedure, which is used to produce the bias estimates. A method for automatic detection and removal of outlier measurements that do not fit into a model of receiver bias is also described. The same statistical framework can be used for a single receiver station, but it also scales to a large global network of receivers. In addition to the Global Positioning System (GPS), the method is also applicable to other dual-frequency GNSS systems, such as GLONASS (Globalnaya Navigazionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema). The use of the framework is demonstrated in practice through several examples. A specific implementation of the methods presented here is used to compute GPS receiver biases for measurements in the MIT Haystack Madrigal distributed database system. Results of the new algorithm are compared with the current MIT Haystack Observatory MAPGPS (MIT Automated Processing of GPS) bias determination algorithm. The new method is found to produce estimates of receiver bias that have reduced day-to-day variability and more consistent coincident vertical TEC values.

  3. Weight Bias in University Health Professions Students.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Cynthia; Brooks, Jennifer K; McKnight, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes toward people with high body weight have been documented in pre-professional health students, prompting concern that such feelings may manifest as poor patient care in professional practice. This study assessed weight bias in university students in the non-physician health professions. A convenience sample of 206 students completed an online survey composed of a validated 14-item scale (1-5 lowest to highest weight bias) and questions regarding personal experiences of weight bias. Respondents were grouped by discipline within graduate and undergraduate levels. Weight bias was present in a majority of respondents. Overall, the percentage of responses indicative of weight bias was 92.7%. The mean total score was 3.65. ± 0.52, and the rating exceeded 3 for all 14 scale descriptors of high-weight people. In graduate students, discipline had a significant main effect on total score (p=0.01), with lower scores in dietetics (3.17 ± 0.46) vs audiology/sign language/speech language pathology (3.84 ± 0.41) and physician assistant students (3.78 ± 0.51; p<0.05). These findings show that weight bias is prevalent in health professions students at a mountain west university. Well-controlled studies that track students into professional practice would help determine whether bias-reduction interventions in college improve provider behaviors and clinical outcomes. PMID:27585618

  4. Reduced susceptibility to confirmation bias in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Doll, Bradley B; Waltz, James A; Cockburn, Jeffrey; Brown, Jaime K; Frank, Michael J; Gold, James M

    2014-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show cognitive impairments on a wide range of tasks, with clear deficiencies in tasks reliant on prefrontal cortex function and less consistently observed impairments in tasks recruiting the striatum. This study leverages tasks hypothesized to differentially recruit these neural structures to assess relative deficiencies of each. Forty-eight patients and 38 controls completed two reinforcement learning tasks hypothesized to interrogate prefrontal and striatal functions and their interaction. In each task, participants learned reward discriminations by trial and error and were tested on novel stimulus combinations to assess learned values. In the task putatively assessing fronto-striatal interaction, participants were (inaccurately) instructed that one of the stimuli was valuable. Consistent with prior reports and a model of confirmation bias, this manipulation resulted in overvaluation of the instructed stimulus after its true value had been experienced. Patients showed less susceptibility to this confirmation bias effect than did controls. In the choice bias task hypothesized to more purely assess striatal function, biases in endogenously and exogenously chosen actions were assessed. No group differences were observed. In the subset of participants who showed learning in both tasks, larger group differences were observed in the confirmation bias task than in the choice bias task. In the confirmation bias task, patients also showed impairment in the task conditions with no prior instruction. This deficit was most readily observed on the most deterministic discriminations. Taken together, these results suggest impairments in fronto-striatal interaction in SZ, rather than in striatal function per se.

  5. [Practical considerations on detection of publication bias].

    PubMed

    Palma Pérez, Silvia; Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel

    2006-12-01

    The present review aims to answer 3 questions: does publication bias need to be assessed in meta-analyses?; what procedures, not requiring complex statistical approaches, can be applied to detect it?; and should other factors be taken into account when interpreting the procedures? The first question is easy to answer. Publication bias is a potential threat to the validity of the conclusions of meta-analyses. Therefore, both the MOOSE and QUOROM statements include publication bias in their guidelines; nevertheless, many meta-analyses do not use these statements (e.g., meta-analyses conducted by the Cochrane Collaboration), perhaps because they use a comprehensive search strategy. There are many methods to assess publication bias. The most frequently used are funnel plots or , (which allow the effects of bias to be estimated), and methods based upon regression on plots, such as Egger's method and funnel plot regression. An advantage of these methods is that they can only be applied using published data. However, agreement between these methods in detecting bias is often poor. Therefore, application of more than one method to detect publication bias is recommended. To correctly interpret the results, the number of pooled studies should be more than 10 and the existence of heterogeneity in the pooled estimate must be taken into account.

  6. Bias correction methods for regional climate model simulations considering the distributional parametric uncertainty underlying the observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kue Bum; Kwon, Hyun-Han; Han, Dawei

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a comparative study of bias correction methods for regional climate model simulations considering the distributional parametric uncertainty underlying the observations/models. In traditional bias correction schemes, the statistics of the simulated model outputs are adjusted to those of the observation data. However, the model output and the observation data are only one case (i.e., realization) out of many possibilities, rather than being sampled from the entire population of a certain distribution due to internal climate variability. This issue has not been considered in the bias correction schemes of the existing climate change studies. Here, three approaches are employed to explore this issue, with the intention of providing a practical tool for bias correction of daily rainfall for use in hydrologic models ((1) conventional method, (2) non-informative Bayesian method, and (3) informative Bayesian method using a Weather Generator (WG) data). The results show some plausible uncertainty ranges of precipitation after correcting for the bias of RCM precipitation. The informative Bayesian approach shows a narrower uncertainty range by approximately 25-45% than the non-informative Bayesian method after bias correction for the baseline period. This indicates that the prior distribution derived from WG may assist in reducing the uncertainty associated with parameters. The implications of our results are of great importance in hydrological impact assessments of climate change because they are related to actions for mitigation and adaptation to climate change. Since this is a proof of concept study that mainly illustrates the logic of the analysis for uncertainty-based bias correction, future research exploring the impacts of uncertainty on climate impact assessments and how to utilize uncertainty while planning mitigation and adaptation strategies is still needed.

  7. Antagonistic relationships between intron content and codon usage bias of genes in three mosquito species: functional and evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Behura, Susanta K; Singh, Brajendra K; Severson, David W

    2013-01-01

    Genome biology of mosquitoes holds potential in developing knowledge-based control strategies against vectorborne diseases such as malaria, dengue, West Nile, and others. Although the genomes of three major vector mosquitoes have been sequenced, attempts to elucidate the relationship between intron and codon usage bias across species in phylogenetic contexts are limited. In this study, we investigated the relationship between intron content and codon bias of orthologous genes among three vector mosquito species. We found an antagonistic relationship between codon usage bias and the intron number of genes in each mosquito species. The pattern is further evident among the intronless and the intron-containing orthologous genes associated with either low or high codon bias among the three species. Furthermore, the covariance between codon bias and intron number has a directional component associated with the species phylogeny when compared with other nonmosquito insects. By applying a maximum likelihood–based continuous regression method, we show that codon bias and intron content of genes vary among the insects in a phylogeny-dependent manner, but with no evidence of adaptive radiation or species-specific adaptation. We discuss the functional and evolutionary significance of antagonistic relationships between intron content and codon bias. PMID:24187589

  8. Effects of long-term meditation practice on attentional biases towards emotional faces: An eye-tracking study.

    PubMed

    Pavlov, S V; Korenyok, V V; Reva, N V; Tumyalis, A V; Loktev, K V; Aftanas, L I

    2015-01-01

    Attentional biases towards affective stimuli reflect an individual balance of appetitive and aversive motivational systems. Vigilance in relation to threatening information reflects emotional imbalance, associated with affective and somatic problems. It is known that meditation practice significantly improves control of attention, which is considered to be a tool for adaptive emotional regulation. In this regard, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of meditation on attentional bias towards neutral and emotional facial expressions. Eyes were tracked while 21 healthy controls and 23 experienced meditators (all males) viewed displays consisting of four facial expressions (neutral, angry, fearful and happy) for 10 s. Measures of biases in initial orienting and maintenance of attention were assessed. No effects were found for initial orienting biases. Meditators spent significantly less time viewing angry and fearful faces than control subjects. Furthermore, meditators selectively attended to happy faces whereas control subjects showed attentional biases towards both angry and happy faces. In sum we can conclude that long-term meditation practice adaptively affects attentional biases towards motivationally significant stimuli and that these biases reflect positive mood and predominance of appetitive motivation.

  9. Removing Malmquist bias from linear regressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verter, Frances

    1993-01-01

    Malmquist bias is present in all astronomical surveys where sources are observed above an apparent brightness threshold. Those sources which can be detected at progressively larger distances are progressively more limited to the intrinsically luminous portion of the true distribution. This bias does not distort any of the measurements, but distorts the sample composition. We have developed the first treatment to correct for Malmquist bias in linear regressions of astronomical data. A demonstration of the corrected linear regression that is computed in four steps is presented.

  10. Exchange bias effect in alloys and compounds.

    PubMed

    Giri, S; Patra, M; Majumdar, S

    2011-02-23

    The phenomenology of exchange bias effects observed in structurally single-phase alloys and compounds but composed of a variety of coexisting magnetic phases such as ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, spin-glass, cluster-glass and disordered magnetic states are reviewed. The investigations on exchange bias effects are discussed in diverse types of alloys and compounds where qualitative and quantitative aspects of magnetism are focused based on macroscopic experimental tools such as magnetization and magnetoresistance measurements. Here, we focus on improvement of fundamental issues of the exchange bias effects rather than on their technological importance.

  11. Gas nozzle adapter

    SciTech Connect

    Bunce, E.B.

    1993-08-24

    A gasoline nozzle is described for connection to a gasoline pump through a gasoline delivery hose, said nozzle comprising: (a) a housing which contains a normally closed valve, (b) a trigger mechanism on said housing for opening said valve, (c) a rigid cylindrical tube having an inner end which is operatively connected to said valve and an outer open end, (d) an outer annular protuberance on said tube between said inner and outer ends, (e) a flexible gasoline fume return hose which surrounds said rigid tube, said fume return hose having an inner end which is fixed to said housing and an outer open end which is normally biased into alignment with the outer open end of said rigid tube, said fume return hose being compressible from its outer end for movement along the length of said rigid tube from the outer end of the rigid tube to a position between the housing and said protuberance, (f) a control mechanism to prevent said valve from being opened by said trigger mechanism when said fume return hose is at its normal extended position and to enable said valve to be opened by said trigger mechanism when said fume return hose is compressed so that the outer end of the fume return hose is at said position between the housing and said protuberance, and (g) an adapter comprising a main body portion which has a slot and an opening to the slot and a handle which is fixed to said main body portion to enable said main body portion to be interposed between said protuberance and the outer end of said fume return hose so that the rigid tube is within said slot when said fume return hose is compressed to the extent that the outer end of said fume return hose is at said position beyond the housing and said protuberance, whereby said adapter is biased against said protuberance by the outer end of said fume return hose and said valve can be opened by the actuation of said trigger mechanism.

  12. Remote Impact of Extratropical Thermal Bias on Tropical Biases in the Norwegian Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseki, Shunya; Losada, Teresa; Keenlyside, Noel; Toniazzo, Thomas; Castano-Tierno, Antonio; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belen; Demissie, Teferi; Mechoso, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    One of large biases exhibited by most state-of-the-art coupled general circulation models (CGCMs) is warm sea surface temperature (SST) in the tropical ocean. Due to the warm SST bias, CGCMs fails to represent the location of intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) realistically. Other common bias is warm SST over the Southern Ocean partly because of less reproduction of stratocumulus over the Southern Ocean. Some previous studies show that the ITCZ position is affected by the extratropical thermal condition. In this study, we explore a connection between the extratropical warm SST bias and tropical biases in the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM). The control simulation of NorESM has the common tropical biases and warm bias over the Southern Ocean. NorESM overestimates the downward shortwave radiation flux over the Southern Ocean and underestimates the low-level cloud formation (in particular, between 40S and 30S). The more incoming shortwave radiation is consistent with the warm SST bias over the Southern Ocean. We conduct a sensitivity experiment in which the incoming shortwave radiation at the top of atmosphere is reduced artificially only between 30S and 60S. The reduced shortwave radiation cools the SST in the Southern Ocean. Interestingly, the annual-mean rainfall over the tropics is reduced (amplified) to the south (north) of the equator. Especially, the double-ITCZ over the tropical Pacific Ocean is diminished in the sensitivity experiment. Moreover, warm SST biases in the tropical ocean are also reduced. Over the tropical Atlantic, the reduction of biases is more remarkable in MAM and JJA: westerly bias over the equatorial Atlantic is reduced and SST is cooler compared to control simulation. Consequently, the rainfall increases (decreases) in the north (south) of the equator, that is, the sensitivity experiment shows more realistic climatological state. This result indicates that a part of tropical biases in NorESM is associated with the warm SST bias in

  13. Autobiographical memory bias in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Bryant, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    In social anxiety the psychological self is closely related to the feared stimulus. Socially anxious individuals are, by definition, concerned about how the self is perceived and evaluated by others. As autobiographical memory is strongly related to views of the self it follows that biases in autobiographical memory play an important role in social anxiety. In the present study high (n = 19) and low (n = 29) socially anxious individuals were compared on autobiographical memory bias, current goals, and self-discrepancy. Individuals high in social anxiety showed a bias towards recalling more negative and more social anxiety-related autobiographical memories, reported more current goals related to overcoming social anxiety, and showed larger self-discrepancies. The pattern of results is largely in line with earlier research in individuals with PTSD and complicated grief. This suggests that the relation between autobiographical memory bias and the self is a potentially valuable trans-diagnostic factor.

  14. FIP bias in a sigmoidal active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Green, L. M.; Steed, K.; Carlyle, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in an anemone active region (AR) - coronal hole (CH) complex using an abundance map derived from Hinode/EIS spectra. The detailed, spatially resolved abundance map has a large field of view covering 359'' × 485''. Plasma with high FIP bias, or coronal abundances, is concentrated at the footpoints of the AR loops whereas the surrounding CH has a low FIP bias, ~1, i.e. photospheric abundances. A channel of low FIP bias is located along the AR's main polarity inversion line containing a filament where ongoing flux cancellation is observed, indicating a bald patch magnetic topology characteristic of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  15. Assessing Projection Bias in Consumers' Food Preferences.

    PubMed

    de-Magistris, Tiziana; Gracia, Azucena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test whether projection bias exists in consumers' purchasing decisions for food products. To achieve our aim, we used a non-hypothetical experiment (i.e., experimental auction), where hungry and non-hungry participants were incentivized to reveal their willingness to pay (WTP). The results confirm the existence of projection bias when consumers made their decisions on food products. In particular, projection bias existed because currently hungry participants were willing to pay a higher price premium for cheeses than satiated ones, both in hungry and satiated future states. Moreover, participants overvalued the food product more when they were delivered in the future hungry condition than in the satiated one. Our study provides clear, quantitative and meaningful evidence of projection bias because our findings are based on economic valuation of food preferences. Indeed, the strength of this study is that findings are expressed in terms of willingness to pay which is an interpretable amount of money.

  16. Neurocognition and cognitive biases in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Cristina P; Sacks, Stephanie A; Weisman de Mamani, Amy G

    2012-08-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have been found to exhibit a number of information processing biases that may play a role in the development and exacerbation of symptoms and may impair overall functioning. However, little is known about the factors that are associated with these cognitive biases. Recently, researchers have begun to consider whether neurocognitive deficits, common in schizophrenia, may be risk factors for the development of cognitive biases. In the present study, we assessed neurocognition (verbal learning, delayed verbal recall memory, and verbal recognition memory) and cognitive biases (knowledge corruption and impaired cognitive insight) in 72 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. As hypothesized, poorer delayed verbal recall memory was associated with increased knowledge corruption. Contrary to expectations, verbal learning and verbal memory were not associated with cognitive insight. These findings suggest that an inadequate recall memory system may put patients with schizophrenia at greater risk for cognitive distortions.

  17. Gender bias in the force concept inventory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, R. D.; Pearson, R. H.; Semak, M. R.; Willis, C. W.

    2012-02-01

    Could the well-established fact that males tend to score higher than females on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) be due to gender bias in the questions? The eventual answer to the question hinges on the definition of bias. We assert that a question is biased only if a factor other than ability (in this case gender) affects the likelihood that a student will answer the question correctly. The statistical technique of differential item functioning allows us to control for ability in our analysis of student performance on each of the thirty FCI questions. This method uses the total score on the FCI as the measure of ability. We conclude that the evidence for gender bias in the FCI questions is marginal at best.

  18. Questions of bias in climate models

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Wigley, Tom M.; Meinshausen, Malte; Rogelj, Joeri

    2014-08-27

    The recent work by Shindell usefully contributes to the debate over estimating climate sensitivity by highlighting an important aspect of the climate system: that climate forcings that occur over land result in a more rapid temperature response than forcings that are distributed more uniformly over the globe. While, as noted in this work, simple climate models may be biased by assuming the same temperature response for all forcing agents, the implication that the MAGICC model is biased in this way is not correct.

  19. Quantifying Biogenic Bias in Screening Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Hert, Jérôme; Irwin, John J.; Laggner, Christian; Keiser, Michael J.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    In lead discovery, libraries of 106 molecules are screened for biological activity. Given the over 1060 drug-like molecules thought possible, such screens might never succeed. That they do, even occasionally, implies a biased selection of library molecules. Here a method is developed to quantify the bias in screening libraries towards biogenic molecules. With this approach, we consider what is missing from screening libraries and how they can be optimized. PMID:19483698

  20. Adaptive compressive sensing camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming K.; Cha, Jae; Iwamura, Tomo; Landa, Joseph; Nguyen, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    We have embedded Adaptive Compressive Sensing (ACS) algorithm on Charge-Coupled-Device (CCD) camera based on the simplest concept that each pixel is a charge bucket, and the charges comes from Einstein photoelectric conversion effect. Applying the manufactory design principle, we only allow altering each working component at a minimum one step. We then simulated what would be such a camera can do for real world persistent surveillance taking into account of diurnal, all weather, and seasonal variations. The data storage has saved immensely, and the order of magnitude of saving is inversely proportional to target angular speed. We did design two new components of CCD camera. Due to the matured CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology, the on-chip Sample and Hold (SAH) circuitry can be designed for a dual Photon Detector (PD) analog circuitry for changedetection that predicts skipping or going forward at a sufficient sampling frame rate. For an admitted frame, there is a purely random sparse matrix [Φ] which is implemented at each bucket pixel level the charge transport bias voltage toward its neighborhood buckets or not, and if not, it goes to the ground drainage. Since the snapshot image is not a video, we could not apply the usual MPEG video compression and Hoffman entropy codec as well as powerful WaveNet Wrapper on sensor level. We shall compare (i) Pre-Processing FFT and a threshold of significant Fourier mode components and inverse FFT to check PSNR; (ii) Post-Processing image recovery will be selectively done by CDT&D adaptive version of linear programming at L1 minimization and L2 similarity. For (ii) we need to determine in new frames selection by SAH circuitry (i) the degree of information (d.o.i) K(t) dictates the purely random linear sparse combination of measurement data a la [Φ]M,N M(t) = K(t) Log N(t).