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Sample records for adaptive bit allocation

  1. Proposed first-generation WSQ bit allocation procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.

    1993-09-08

    The Wavelet/Scalar Quantization (WSQ) gray-scale fingerprint image compression algorithm involves a symmetric wavelet transform (SWT) image decomposition followed by uniform scalar quantization of each subband. The algorithm is adaptive insofar as the bin widths for the scalar quantizers are image-specific and are included in the compressed image format. Since the decoder requires only the actual bin width values -- but not the method by which they were computed -- the standard allows for future refinements of the WSQ algorithm by improving the method used to select the scalar quantizer bin widths. This report proposes a bit allocation procedure for use with the first-generation WSQ encoder. In previous work a specific formula is provided for the relative sizes of the scalar quantizer bin widths in terms of the variances of the SWT subbands. An explicit specification for the constant of proportionality, q, that determines the absolute bin widths was not given. The actual compression ratio produced by the WSQ algorithm will generally vary from image to image depending on the amount of coding gain obtained by the run-length and Huffman coding, stages of the algorithm, but testing performed by the FBI established that WSQ compression produces archival quality images at compression ratios of around 20 to 1. The bit allocation procedure described in this report possesses a control parameter, r, that can be set by the user to achieve a predetermined amount of lossy compression, effectively giving the user control over the amount of distortion introduced by quantization noise. The variability observed in final compression ratios is thus due only to differences in lossless coding gain from image to image, chiefly a result of the varying amounts of blank background surrounding the print area in the images. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the proposed method`s effectiveness.

  2. Suboptimal greedy power allocation schemes for discrete bit loading.

    PubMed

    Al-Hanafy, Waleed; Weiss, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    We consider low cost discrete bit loading based on greedy power allocation (GPA) under the constraints of total transmit power budget, target BER, and maximum permissible QAM modulation order. Compared to the standard GPA, which is optimal in terms of maximising the data throughput, three suboptimal schemes are proposed, which perform GPA on subsets of subchannels only. These subsets are created by considering the minimum SNR boundaries of QAM levels for a given target BER. We demonstrate how these schemes can significantly reduce the computational complexity required for power allocation, particularly in the case of a large number of subchannels. Two of the proposed algorithms can achieve near optimal performance including a transfer of residual power between subsets at the expense of a very small extra cost. By simulations, we show that the two near optimal schemes, while greatly reducing complexity, perform best in two separate and distinct SNR regions.

  3. Suboptimal Greedy Power Allocation Schemes for Discrete Bit Loading

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We consider low cost discrete bit loading based on greedy power allocation (GPA) under the constraints of total transmit power budget, target BER, and maximum permissible QAM modulation order. Compared to the standard GPA, which is optimal in terms of maximising the data throughput, three suboptimal schemes are proposed, which perform GPA on subsets of subchannels only. These subsets are created by considering the minimum SNR boundaries of QAM levels for a given target BER. We demonstrate how these schemes can significantly reduce the computational complexity required for power allocation, particularly in the case of a large number of subchannels. Two of the proposed algorithms can achieve near optimal performance including a transfer of residual power between subsets at the expense of a very small extra cost. By simulations, we show that the two near optimal schemes, while greatly reducing complexity, perform best in two separate and distinct SNR regions. PMID:24501578

  4. Rate Distortion Analysis and Bit Allocation Scheme for Wavelet Lifting-Based Multiview Image Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasang, Pongsak; Kumwilaisak, Wuttipong

    2009-12-01

    This paper studies the distortion and the model-based bit allocation scheme of wavelet lifting-based multiview image coding. Redundancies among image views are removed by disparity-compensated wavelet lifting (DCWL). The distortion prediction of the low-pass and high-pass subbands of each image view from the DCWL process is analyzed. The derived distortion is used with different rate distortion models in the bit allocation of multiview images. Rate distortion models including power model, exponential model, and the proposed combining the power and exponential models are studied. The proposed rate distortion model exploits the accuracy of both power and exponential models in a wide range of target bit rates. Then, low-pass and high-pass subbands are compressed by SPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees) with a bit allocation solution. We verify the derived distortion and the bit allocation with several sets of multiview images. The results show that the bit allocation solution based on the derived distortion and our bit allocation scheme provide closer results to those of the exhaustive search method in both allocated bits and peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). It also outperforms the uniform bit allocation and uniform bit allocation with normalized energy in the order of 1.7-2 and 0.3-1.4 dB, respectively.

  5. Application-oriented region of interest based image compression using bit-allocation optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuanping

    2015-01-01

    Region of interest (ROI) based image compression can offer a high image-compression ratio along with high quality in the important regions of the image. For many applications, stable compression quality is required for both the ROIs and the images. However, image compression does not consider information specific to the application and cannot meet this requirement well. This paper proposes an application-oriented ROI-based image-compression method using bit-allocation optimization. Unlike typical methods that define bit-rate parameters empirically, the proposed method adjusts the bit-rate parameters adaptively to both images and ROIs. First, an application-dependent optimization model is constructed. The relationship between the compression parameters and the image content is learned from a training image set. Image redundancy is used to measure the compression capability of image content. Then, during compression, the global bit rate and the ROI bit rate are adjusted in the images and ROIs, respectively-supported by the application-dependent information in the optimization model. As a result, stable compression quality is assured in the applications. Experiments with two different applications showed that quality deviation in the reconstructed images decreased, verifying the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. A perceptual optimization of H.264/AVC bit allocation at the frame and macroblock levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrarti, M.; Saadane, H.; Larabi, M.-C.; Tamtaoui, A.; Aboutajdine, D.

    2012-01-01

    In H.264/AVC rate control algorithm, the bit allocation process and the QP determination are not optimal. At frame layer, there is an implicit assumption considering that the video sequence is more or less stationary and consequently the neighbouring frames have similar characteristics. So, the target Bit-Rate for each frame is estimated using a straightforward process that allocates an equal bit budget for each frame regardless of its temporal and spatial complexities. This uniform allocation is surely not suited especially for all types of video sequences. The target bits determination at macroblock layer uses the MAD (Mean Absolute Difference) ratio as a complexity measure in order to promote interesting macroblocks, but this measure remains inefficient in handling macroblock characteristics. In a previous work we have proposed Rate-Quantization (R-Q) models for Intra and Inter frames used to deal with the QP determination shortcoming. In this paper, we look to overcome the limitation of the bit allocation process at the frame and the macroblock layers. At the frame level, we enhance the bit allocation process by exploiting frame complexity measures. Thereby, the target bit determination for P-frames is adjusted by combining two temporal measures: The first one is a motion ratio determined from actual bits used to encode previous frames. The second measure exploits both the difference between two consecutive frames and the histogram of this difference. At macroblock level, the visual saliency is used in the bit allocation process. The basic idea is to promote salient macroblocks. Hence, a saliency map, based on a Bottom-Up approach, is generated and a macroblock classification is performed. This classification is then used to accurately adjust UBitsH264 which represents the usual bit budget estimated by H.264/AVC bit allocation process. For salient macroblocks the adjustment leads to a bit budget which is always larger than UBitsH264. The extra bits added to

  7. Inferential Aspects of Adaptive Allocation Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Donald A.

    In clinical trials, adaptive allocation means that the therapies assigned to the next patient or patients depend on the results obtained thus far in the trial. Although many adaptive allocation procedures have been proposed for clinical trials, few have actually used adaptive assignment, largely because classical frequentist measures of inference…

  8. Block-layer bit allocation for quality constrained video encoding based on constant perceptual quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Mou, Xuanqin; Hong, Wei; Zhang, Lei

    2013-02-01

    In lossy image/video encoding, there is a compromise between the number of bits (rate) and the extent of distortion. Bits need to be properly allocated to different sources, such as frames and macro blocks (MBs). Since the human eyes are more sensitive to the difference than the absolute value of signals, the MINMAX criterion suggests to minimizing the maximum distortion of the sources to limit quality fluctuation. There are many works aimed to such constant quality encoding, however, almost all of them focus on the frame layer bit allocation, and use PSNR as the quality index. We suggest that the bit allocation for MBs should also be constrained in the constant quality, and furthermore, perceptual quality indices should be used instead of PSNR. Based on this idea, we propose a multi-pass block-layer bit allocation scheme for quality constrained encoding. The experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve much better encoding performance. Keywords: Bit allocation, block-layer, perceptual quality, constant quality, quality constrained

  9. A novel bit-wise adaptable entropy coding technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A.; Klimesh, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel entropy coding technique which is adaptable in that each bit to be encoded may have an associated probability esitmate which depends on previously encoded bits. The technique may have advantages over arithmetic coding. The technique can achieve arbitrarily small redundancy and admits a simple and fast decoder.

  10. Efficient bit allocation using new intra and inter-frame modeling for H.264/AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrarti, Miryem; Saadane, Abdelhakim; Larabi, Mohamed-Chaker; Tamtaoui, Ahmed; Aboutajdine, Driss

    2012-01-01

    Rate control is a critical issue in H.264/AVC video coding standard because it suffers from some shortcomings that make the bit allocation process not optimal. This leads to a video quality that may vary significantly from frame to frame. Our aim is to enhance the rate control efficiency in H.264/AVC baseline profile by handling two of its defects: the initial quantization parameter (QP) estimation for Intra-Frames (I-Frames) and the target number of bits determination for Inter-Frames (P-Frames) encoding. First, we propose a Rate-Quantization (R-Q) model for the I-Frame constructed empirically after extensive experiments. The optimal initial QP calculation is based on both target bit-rate and I-Frame complexity. The I-Frame target bit-rate is derived from the global target bit-rate by using a new non-linear model. Secondly, we propose an enhancement of the bit allocation process by exploiting frame complexity measures. The target number of bits determination for P-Frames is adjusted by combining two temporal measures: the first is a motion ratio based on actual bits used to encode previous frames; the second measure exploits the difference between two consecutive frames and the histogram of this difference. The simulation results, carried out using the JM15.0 reference software and the JVT-O016 rate control algorithm, show that the right choice of initial QP for I-Frame and first P-Frame allows improvement of both the bit-rate and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). Finally, the Inter-Frame bit allocation process further improves the bit-rates while keeping the same PSNR improvement (up to +1.33 dB/+2 dB for QCIF/CIF resolutions). Moreover, this process reduces the buffer level variation leading to a more consistent quality of reconstructed videos.

  11. Stereoscopic Visual Attention-Based Regional Bit Allocation Optimization for Multiview Video Coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Jiang, Gangyi; Yu, Mei; Chen, Ken; Dai, Qionghai

    2010-12-01

    We propose a Stereoscopic Visual Attention- (SVA-) based regional bit allocation optimization for Multiview Video Coding (MVC) by the exploiting visual redundancies from human perceptions. We propose a novel SVA model, where multiple perceptual stimuli including depth, motion, intensity, color, and orientation contrast are utilized, to simulate the visual attention mechanisms of human visual system with stereoscopic perception. Then, a semantic region-of-interest (ROI) is extracted based on the saliency maps of SVA. Both objective and subjective evaluations of extracted ROIs indicated that the proposed SVA model based on ROI extraction scheme outperforms the schemes only using spatial or/and temporal visual attention clues. Finally, by using the extracted SVA-based ROIs, a regional bit allocation optimization scheme is presented to allocate more bits on SVA-based ROIs for high image quality and fewer bits on background regions for efficient compression purpose. Experimental results on MVC show that the proposed regional bit allocation algorithm can achieve over [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]% bit-rate saving while maintaining the subjective image quality. Meanwhile, the image quality of ROIs is improved by [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] dB at the cost of insensitive image quality degradation of the background image.

  12. A unified framework of unsupervised subjective optimized bit allocation for multiple video object coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhenzhong; Han, Junwei; Ngan, King Ngi

    2005-10-01

    MPEG-4 treats a scene as a composition of several objects or so-called video object planes (VOPs) that are separately encoded and decoded. Such a flexible video coding framework makes it possible to code different video object with different distortion scale. It is necessary to analyze the priority of the video objects according to its semantic importance, intrinsic properties and psycho-visual characteristics such that the bit budget can be distributed properly to video objects to improve the perceptual quality of the compressed video. This paper aims to provide an automatic video object priority definition method based on object-level visual attention model and further propose an optimization framework for video object bit allocation. One significant contribution of this work is that the human visual system characteristics are incorporated into the video coding optimization process. Another advantage is that the priority of the video object can be obtained automatically instead of fixing weighting factors before encoding or relying on the user interactivity. To evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, we compare it with traditional verification model bit allocation and the optimal multiple video object bit allocation algorithms. Comparing with traditional bit allocation algorithms, the objective quality of the object with higher priority is significantly improved under this framework. These results demonstrate the usefulness of this unsupervised subjective quality lifting framework.

  13. Rate distortion optimal bit allocation methods for volumetric data using JPEG 2000.

    PubMed

    Kosheleva, Olga M; Usevitch, Bryan E; Cabrera, Sergio D; Vidal, Edward

    2006-08-01

    Computer modeling programs that generate three-dimensional (3-D) data on fine grids are capable of generating very large amounts of information. These data sets, as well as 3-D sensor/measured data sets, are prime candidates for the application of data compression algorithms. A very flexible and powerful compression algorithm for imagery data is the newly released JPEG 2000 standard. JPEG 2000 also has the capability to compress volumetric data, as described in Part 2 of the standard, by treating the 3-D data as separate slices. As a decoder standard, JPEG 2000 does not describe any specific method to allocate bits among the separate slices. This paper proposes two new bit allocation algorithms for accomplishing this task. The first procedure is rate distortion optimal (for mean squared error), and is conceptually similar to postcompression rate distortion optimization used for coding codeblocks within JPEG 2000. The disadvantage of this approach is its high computational complexity. The second bit allocation algorithm, here called the mixed model (MM) approach, mathematically models each slice's rate distortion curve using two distinct regions to get more accurate modeling at low bit rates. These two bit allocation algorithms are applied to a 3-D Meteorological data set. Test results show that the MM approach gives distortion results that are nearly identical to the optimal approach, while significantly reducing computational complexity.

  14. Are outcome-adaptive allocation trials ethical?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Randomization is firmly established as a cornerstone of clinical trial methodology. Yet, the ethics of randomization continues to generate controversy. The default, and most efficient, allocation scheme randomizes patients equally (1:1) across all arms of study. However, many randomized trials are using outcome-adaptive allocation schemes, which dynamically adjust the allocation ratio in favor of the better performing treatment arm. Advocates of outcome-adaptive allocation contend that it better accommodates clinical equipoise and promotes informed consent, since such trials limit patient-subject exposure to sub-optimal care. In this essay, we argue that this purported ethical advantage of outcome-adaptive allocation does not stand up to careful scrutiny in the setting of two-armed studies and/or early-phase research.

  15. A perceptual-based approach to bit allocation for H.264 encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Tao-Sheng; Huang, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Homer H.

    2010-07-01

    Since the ultimate receivers of encoded video are human eyes, the characteristics of human visual system should be taken into consideration in the design of bit allocation to improve the perceptual video quality. In this paper, we incorporate the structural similarity index as a distortion metric and propose a novel rate-distortion model to characterize the relationship between rate and the structural similarity index. Based on the model, we develop an optimum bit allocation and rate control scheme for H.264 encoders. Experimental results show that up to 25% bitrate reduction over the JM reference software can be achieved. Subjective evaluation further confirms that the proposed scheme preserves more structural information and improves the perceptual quality of the encoded video.

  16. S-EMG signal compression based on domain transformation and spectral shape dynamic bit allocation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surface electromyographic (S-EMG) signal processing has been emerging in the past few years due to its non-invasive assessment of muscle function and structure and because of the fast growing rate of digital technology which brings about new solutions and applications. Factors such as sampling rate, quantization word length, number of channels and experiment duration can lead to a potentially large volume of data. Efficient transmission and/or storage of S-EMG signals are actually a research issue. That is the aim of this work. Methods This paper presents an algorithm for the data compression of surface electromyographic (S-EMG) signals recorded during isometric contractions protocol and during dynamic experimental protocols such as the cycling activity. The proposed algorithm is based on discrete wavelet transform to proceed spectral decomposition and de-correlation, on a dynamic bit allocation procedure to code the wavelets transformed coefficients, and on an entropy coding to minimize the remaining redundancy and to pack all data. The bit allocation scheme is based on mathematical decreasing spectral shape models, which indicates a shorter digital word length to code high frequency wavelets transformed coefficients. Four bit allocation spectral shape methods were implemented and compared: decreasing exponential spectral shape, decreasing linear spectral shape, decreasing square-root spectral shape and rotated hyperbolic tangent spectral shape. Results The proposed method is demonstrated and evaluated for an isometric protocol and for a dynamic protocol using a real S-EMG signal data bank. Objective performance evaluations metrics are presented. In addition, comparisons with other encoders proposed in scientific literature are shown. Conclusions The decreasing bit allocation shape applied to the quantized wavelet coefficients combined with arithmetic coding results is an efficient procedure. The performance comparisons of the proposed S-EMG data

  17. High fidelity adaptive vector quantization at very low bit rates for progressive transmission of radiographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sunanda; Yang, Shu Y.

    1999-01-01

    An adaptive vector quantizer (VQ) using a clustering technique known as adaptive fuzzy leader clustering (AFLC) that is similar in concept to deterministic annealing for VQ codebook design has been developed. This vector quantizer, AFLC-VQ, has been designed to vector quantize wavelet decomposed sub images with optimal bit allocation. The high- resolution sub images at each level have been statistically analyzed to conform to generalized Gaussian probability distributions by selecting the optimal number of filter taps. The adaptive characteristics of AFLC-VQ result from AFLC, an algorithm that uses self-organizing neural networks with fuzzy membership values of the input samples for upgrading the cluster centroids based on well known optimization criteria. By generating codebooks containing codewords of varying bits, AFLC-VQ is capable of compressing large color/monochrome medical images at extremely low bit rates (0.1 bpp and less) and yet yielding high fidelity reconstructed images. The quality of the reconstructed images formed by AFLC-VQ has been compared with JPEG and EZW, the standard and the well known wavelet based compression technique (using scalar quantization), respectively, in terms of statistical performance criteria as well as visual perception. AFLC-VQ exhibits much better performance than the above techniques. JPEG and EZW were chosen as comparative benchmarks since these have been used in radiographic image compression. The superior performance of AFLC-VQ over LBG-VQ has been reported in earlier papers.

  18. Adaptive de-blocking filter for low bit rate applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xin; Zhu, Guangxi

    2006-01-01

    In block-based video compression technology, blocking artifacts are obvious because of the luminance and chrominance discontinuities which are caused by block-based discrete cosine transform (DCT) and motion compensation. As a kind of solution, an in-loop filter has been successfully used in H.264 adapting to quantization parameter and video content. In this paper, blocking artifacts distribution properties are analyzed carefully to reflect the blocking effect more accurately in the low bit rate applications. Two important parameters, named blocking severity and pixel variation, are defined to describe the boundary strength and the gradient of the samples across the edge respectively. Through series of statistical data retrieval and analysis for these parameters using multiple representative video sequences, a novel blocking artifacts distribution model is concluded. Based on this distribution model, an improved filter is proposed to H.264 with novel strength determination rule and different alpha model. Comparing with H.264 anchor results, the proposed de-blocking filter shows better performance especially in subjective aspect, which could be widely used in low bit rate applications.

  19. Adaptive Control Allocation in the Presence of Actuator Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yu; Crespo, Luis G.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel adaptive control allocation framework is proposed. In the adaptive control allocation structure, cooperative actuators are grouped and treated as an equivalent control effector. A state feedback adaptive control signal is designed for the equivalent effector and allocated to the member actuators adaptively. Two adaptive control allocation algorithms are proposed, which guarantee closed-loop stability and asymptotic state tracking in the presence of uncertain loss of effectiveness and constant-magnitude actuator failures. The proposed algorithms can be shown to reduce the controller complexity with proper grouping of the actuators. The proposed adaptive control allocation schemes are applied to two linearized aircraft models, and the simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithms.

  20. A Novel Joint Power and Feedback Bit Allocation Interference Alignment Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shibao; He, Chang; Wang, Yixin; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Jianhang; Huang, Tingpei

    2017-01-01

    It is necessary to improve the energy efficiency of batteries in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has become an important means to ameliorate WSNs, and interference management is the core of improving energy efficiency. A promising approach is interference alignment (IA), which effectively reduces the interference and improves the throughput of a system in the MIMO interference channels. However, the IA scheme requires perfect channel state information (CSI) at all transceivers in practice, which results in considerable feedback overhead. Thus, limited IA feedback has attracted much attention. In this paper, we analyze the throughput loss of the K-user MIMO interference channels when each transmitter delivers multiple streams in one slot, and derives the upper-bound of the system interference leakage and throughput loss. Then, to reduce the interference leakage and throughput loss for the MIMO interference alignment with limited feedback, a joint power and feedback bit allocation optimization scheme is proposed. The simulation results show that, compared with the conventional schemes, the presented optimal scheme achieves less residual interference and better performance in the system throughput. PMID:28287434

  1. Adaptive bit truncation and compensation method for EZW image coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Sheng-Kui; Zhu, Guangxi; Wang, Yao

    2003-09-01

    The embedded zero-tree wavelet algorithm (EZW) is widely adopted to compress wavelet coefficients of images with the property that the bits stream can be truncated and produced anywhere. The lower bit plane of the wavelet coefficents is verified to be less important than the higher bit plane. Therefore it can be truncated and not encoded. Based on experiments, a generalized function, which can provide a glancing guide for EZW encoder to intelligently decide the number of low bit plane to be truncated, is deduced in this paper. In the EZW decoder, a simple method is presented to compensate for the truncated wavelet coefficients, and finally it can surprisingly enhance the quality of reconstructed image and spend scarcely any additional cost at the same time.

  2. Effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring of automated systems.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, R; Mouloua, M; Molloy, R

    1996-12-01

    The effects of adaptive task allocation on monitoring for automation failure during multitask flight simulation were examined. Participants monitored an automated engine status task while simultaneously performing tracking and fuel management tasks over three 30-min sessions. Two methods of adaptive task allocation, both involving temporary return of the automated engine status task to the human operator ("human control"), were examined as a possible countermeasure to monitoring inefficiency. For the model-based adaptive group, the engine status task was allocated to all participants in the middle of the second session for 10 min, following which it was again returned to automation control. The same occurred for the performance-based adaptive group, but only if an individual participant's monitoring performance up to that point did not meet a specified criterion. For the nonadaptive control groups, the engine status task remained automated throughout the experiment. All groups had low probabilities of detection of automation failures for the first 40 min spent with automation. However, following the 10-min intervening period of human control, both adaptive groups detected significantly more automation failures during the subsequent blocks under automation control. The results show that adaptive task allocation can enhance monitoring of automated systems. Both model-based and performance-based allocation improved monitoring of automation. Implications for the design of automated systems are discussed.

  3. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, P.; Rossetti, A.; Brambilla, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina) retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  4. A bit-level image encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaotic system and self-adaptive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Lin; Wang, Xingyuan

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes a bit-level image encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaotic system which is self-adaptive. We use a bit-level encryption scheme to reduce the volume of data during encryption and decryption in order to reduce the execution time. We also use the adaptive encryption scheme to make the ciphered image dependent on the plain image to improve performance. Simulation results show that the performance and security of the proposed encryption algorithm can encrypt plaintext effectively and resist various typical attacks.

  5. Psychological Issues in Online Adaptive Task Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, N. M.; Rouse, W. B.; Ward, S. L.; Frey, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Adaptive aiding is an idea that offers potential for improvement over many current approaches to aiding in human-computer systems. The expected return of tailoring the system to fit the user could be in the form of improved system performance and/or increased user satisfaction. Issues such as the manner in which information is shared between human and computer, the appropriate division of labor between them, and the level of autonomy of the aid are explored. A simulated visual search task was developed. Subjects are required to identify targets in a moving display while performing a compensatory sub-critical tracking task. By manipulating characteristics of the situation such as imposed task-related workload and effort required to communicate with the computer, it is possible to create conditions in which interaction with the computer would be more or less desirable. The results of preliminary research using this experimental scenario are presented, and future directions for this research effort are discussed.

  6. Bit Rate Maximising Per-Tone Equalisation with Adaptive Implementation for DMT-Based Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitjongsataporn, Suchada; Yuvapoositanon, Peerapol

    2009-12-01

    We present a bit rate maximising per-tone equalisation (BM-PTEQ) cost function that is based on an exact subchannel SNR as a function of per-tone equaliser in discrete multitone (DMT) systems. We then introduce the proposed BM-PTEQ criterion whose derivation for solution is shown to inherit from the methodology of the existing bit rate maximising time-domain equalisation (BM-TEQ). By solving a nonlinear BM-PTEQ cost function, an adaptive BM-PTEQ approach based on a recursive Levenberg-Marquardt (RLM) algorithm is presented with the adaptive inverse square-root (iQR) algorithm for DMT-based systems. Simulation results confirm that the performance of the proposed adaptive iQR RLM-based BM-PTEQ converges close to the performance of the proposed BM-PTEQ. Moreover, the performance of both these proposed BM-PTEQ algorithms is improved as compared with the BM-TEQ.

  7. Peak-to-average power ratio mitigation and adaptive bit assignment in single-carrier frequency division multiplexing access via hierarchical modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Bo; Xin, Xiangjun; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-11-01

    A hierarchical modulation with multilevels is proposed for an optical single-carrier frequency division multiplexing access (SC-FDMA) system. It can mitigate the nonlinearity by reducing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the SC-FDM signal. According to different optical signal-to-noise ratio requirements, the adaptive bit allocation can be implemented on different levels during hierarchical modulation. In the experiment, the PAPR of the hierarchical-modulated SC-FDM signal outperforms the conventional SC-FDM signal by 0.7 dB. Signals with 4- and 6-bit hierarchical modulation are successfully demodulated by the optical network unit with power penalties less than 0.2 and 0.45 dB, respectively.

  8. Performance of the JPEG Estimated Spectrum Adaptive Postfilter (JPEG-ESAP) for Low Bit Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linares, Irving (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-based, pixel-adaptive filtering using the JPEG-ESAP algorithm for low bit rate JPEG formatted color images may allow for more compressed images while maintaining equivalent quality at a smaller file size or bitrate. For RGB, an image is decomposed into three color bands--red, green, and blue. The JPEG-ESAP algorithm is then applied to each band (e.g., once for red, once for green, and once for blue) and the output of each application of the algorithm is rebuilt as a single color image. The ESAP algorithm may be repeatedly applied to MPEG-2 video frames to reduce their bit rate by a factor of 2 or 3, while maintaining equivalent video quality, both perceptually, and objectively, as recorded in the computed PSNR values.

  9. Elastic all-optical multi-hop interconnection in data centers with adaptive spectrum allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yuanyuan; Hong, Xuezhi; Chen, Jiajia; He, Sailing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel flex-grid all-optical interconnect scheme that supports transparent multi-hop connections in data centers is proposed. An inter-rack all-optical multi-hop connection is realized with an optical loop employed at flex-grid wavelength selective switches (WSSs) in an intermediate rack rather than by relaying through optical-electric-optical (O-E-O) conversions. Compared with the conventional O-E-O based approach, the proposed all-optical scheme is able to off-load the traffic at intermediate racks, leading to a reduction of the power consumption and cost. The transmission performance of the proposed flex-grid multi-hop all-optical interconnect scheme with various modulation formats, including both coherently detected and directly detected approaches, are investigated by Monte-Carlo simulations. To enhance the spectrum efficiency (SE), number-of-hop adaptive bandwidth allocation is introduced. Numerical results show that the SE can be improved by up to 33.3% at 40 Gbps, and by up to 25% at 100 Gbps. The impact of parameters, such as targeted bit error rate (BER) level and insertion loss of components, on the transmission performance of the proposed approach are also explored. The results show that the maximum SE improvement of the adaptive approach over the non-adaptive one is enhanced with the decrease of the targeted BER levels and the component insertion loss.

  10. Adaptive broadcasting mechanism for bandwidth allocation in mobile services.

    PubMed

    Horng, Gwo-Jiun; Wang, Chi-Hsuan; Chou, Chih-Lun

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a tree-based adaptive broadcasting (TAB) algorithm for data dissemination to improve data access efficiency. The proposed TAB algorithm first constructs a broadcast tree to determine the broadcast frequency of each data and splits the broadcast tree into some broadcast wood to generate the broadcast program. In addition, this paper develops an analytical model to derive the mean access latency of the generated broadcast program. In light of the derived results, both the index channel's bandwidth and the data channel's bandwidth can be optimally allocated to maximize bandwidth utilization. This paper presents experiments to help evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the proposed mechanism is feasible in practice.

  11. Performance of Improved Channel Allocation for Multicarrier CDMA with Adaptive Frequency Hopping and Multiuser Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-29

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Subchannel allocation for the reverse link of multicarrier code-division multiplex-access (MC-CDMA) system with adaptive...Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS subchannel allocation, fading channels, CDMA Tao Jia, Alexandra Duel-Hallen North Carolina State University... Subchannel allocation for the reverse link of multicarrier code-division multiplex-access (MC-CDMA) system with adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) is

  12. Plants adapted to nutrient limitation allocate less biomass into stems in an arid-hot grassland.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bangguo; Ji, Zhonghua; Fan, Bo; Wang, Xuemei; He, Guangxiong; Shi, Liangtao; Liu, Gangcai

    2016-09-01

    Biomass allocation can exert a great influence on plant resource acquisition and nutrient use. However, the role of biomass allocation strategies in shaping plant community composition under nutrient limitations remains poorly addressed. We hypothesized that species-specific allocation strategies can affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations, resulting in species turnover and changes in community-level biomass allocations across nutrient gradients. In this study, we measured species abundance and the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in leaves and soil nutrients in an arid-hot grassland. We quantified species-specific allocation parameters for stems vs leaves based on allometric scaling relationships. Species-specific stem vs leaf allocation parameters were weighted with species abundances to calculate the community-weighted means driven by species turnover. We found that the community-weighted means of biomass allocation parameters were significantly related to the soil nutrient gradient as well as to leaf stoichiometry, indicating that species-specific allocation strategies can affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations in the studied grassland. Species that allocate less to stems than leaves tend to dominate nutrient-limited environments. The results support the hypothesis that species-specific allocations affect plant adaptation to nutrient limitations. The allocation trade-off between stems and leaves has the potential to greatly affect plant distribution across nutrient gradients.

  13. Probabilistic resource allocation system with self-adaptive capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yufik, Yan M. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A probabilistic resource allocation system is disclosed containing a low capacity computational module (Short Term Memory or STM) and a self-organizing associative network (Long Term Memory or LTM) where nodes represent elementary resources, terminal end nodes represent goals, and weighted links represent the order of resource association in different allocation episodes. Goals and their priorities are indicated by the user, and allocation decisions are made in the STM, while candidate associations of resources are supplied by the LTM based on the association strength (reliability). Weights are automatically assigned to the network links based on the frequency and relative success of exercising those links in the previous allocation decisions. Accumulation of allocation history in the form of an associative network in the LTM reduces computational demands on subsequent allocations. For this purpose, the network automatically partitions itself into strongly associated high reliability packets, allowing fast approximate computation and display of allocation solutions satisfying the overall reliability and other user-imposed constraints. System performance improves in time due to modification of network parameters and partitioning criteria based on the performance feedback.

  14. Probabilistic resource allocation system with self-adaptive capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yufik, Yan M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A probabilistic resource allocation system is disclosed containing a low capacity computational module (Short Term Memory or STM) and a self-organizing associative network (Long Term Memory or LTM) where nodes represent elementary resources, terminal end nodes represent goals, and directed links represent the order of resource association in different allocation episodes. Goals and their priorities are indicated by the user, and allocation decisions are made in the STM, while candidate associations of resources are supplied by the LTM based on the association strength (reliability). Reliability values are automatically assigned to the network links based on the frequency and relative success of exercising those links in the previous allocation decisions. Accumulation of allocation history in the form of an associative network in the LTM reduces computational demands on subsequent allocations. For this purpose, the network automatically partitions itself into strongly associated high reliability packets, allowing fast approximate computation and display of allocation solutions satisfying the overall reliability and other user-imposed constraints. System performance improves in time due to modification of network parameters and partitioning criteria based on the performance feedback.

  15. Adaptation of carbon allocation under light and nutrient reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Frederik; Werner, Christiane

    2015-04-01

    The allocation of recently assimilated carbon (C) by plants depends on developmental stage and on environmental factors, but the underlying mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Whereas shifts in the allocation of photosynthates induced by reduced water availability, enhanced temperature and CO2 concentration were recently investigated in various studies, less is known about the response to light and nutrient reduction. We induced different allocation patterns in the Mediterranean shrub Halimium halimifolium L. by a reduction of light (Low L treatment) and nutrient availability (Low N treatment) and analysed allocation parameters as well as morphological and physiological traits for 15 months. Finally, we conducted a 13CO2 pulse-labelling and followed the fate of recently assimilated carbon to eight different classes of plant tissues and respiration for 13 days. The results revealed a high intraspecific variability in C distribution to tissues and in respiration. Allocation changes even varied within leaf and stem tissue classes (e.g. more C in main stems, less in lateral stems). These results show that the common separation of plant tissues in only three classes, i.e. root, shoot and leaf tissues, can result in missing information about allocation changes. The nutrient reduction enhanced the transport of recently assimilated C from leaves to roots in terms of quantity (c. 200%) and velocity compared to control plants. Interestingly, a 57% light reduction enhanced photosynthetic capacity and caused no change in final biomass after 15 months. Therefore, our results support the recently discussed sink regulation of photosynthesis. Finally, our results indicate that growing heterotrophic tissues strongly reduce the C loss from storage and structural C pools and therefore enhance the fraction of recent assimilates used for respiration. We propose that this interruption of the C reflux from storage and structural C pools could be a control mechanism for C

  16. Allocation of Attention and the Locus of Adaptation to Displaced Vision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelso, J. A. Scott; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article examined the effect of allocation of attention on adaptation to displacement when proprioception and vision conflict and considered whether more effective procedures to insure that attention is directed in the prescribed manner would cause adaptation to be confined strictly to the unattended modality. (Author/RK)

  17. Adaptive sex allocation in birds: the complexities of linking theory and practice.

    PubMed Central

    Komdeur, Jan; Pen, Ido

    2002-01-01

    We review some recent theoretical and empirical developments in the study of sex allocation in birds. The advent of reliable molecular sexing techniques has led to a sharp increase in the number of studies that report biased offspring sex ratios in birds. However, compelling evidence for adaptive sex allocation in birds is still very scant. We argue that there are two reasons for this: (i) standard sex allocation models, very helpful in understanding sex allocation of invertebrates, do not sufficiently take the complexities of bird life histories and physiology into account. Recent theoretical work might bring us a step closer to more realistic models; (ii) experimental field and laboratory studies on sex allocation in birds are scarce. Recent experimental work both in the laboratory and in the field shows that this is a promising approach. PMID:11958705

  18. Drag bit construction

    DOEpatents

    Hood, M.

    1986-02-11

    A mounting movable with respect to an adjacent hard face has a projecting drag bit adapted to engage the hard face. The drag bit is disposed for movement relative to the mounting by encounter of the drag bit with the hard face. That relative movement regulates a valve in a water passageway, preferably extending through the drag bit, to play a stream of water in the area of contact of the drag bit and the hard face and to prevent such water play when the drag bit is out of contact with the hard face. 4 figs.

  19. Drag bit construction

    DOEpatents

    Hood, Michael

    1986-01-01

    A mounting movable with respect to an adjacent hard face has a projecting drag bit adapted to engage the hard face. The drag bit is disposed for movement relative to the mounting by encounter of the drag bit with the hard face. That relative movement regulates a valve in a water passageway, preferably extending through the drag bit, to play a stream of water in the area of contact of the drag bit and the hard face and to prevent such water play when the drag bit is out of contact with the hard face.

  20. Rate Adaptive Based Resource Allocation with Proportional Fairness Constraints in OFDMA Systems.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhendong; Zhuang, Shufeng; Wu, Zhilu; Ma, Bo

    2015-09-25

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), which is widely used in the wireless sensor networks, allows different users to obtain different subcarriers according to their subchannel gains. Therefore, how to assign subcarriers and power to different users to achieve a high system sum rate is an important research area in OFDMA systems. In this paper, the focus of study is on the rate adaptive (RA) based resource allocation with proportional fairness constraints. Since the resource allocation is a NP-hard and non-convex optimization problem, a new efficient resource allocation algorithm ACO-SPA is proposed, which combines ant colony optimization (ACO) and suboptimal power allocation (SPA). To reduce the computational complexity, the optimization problem of resource allocation in OFDMA systems is separated into two steps. For the first one, the ant colony optimization algorithm is performed to solve the subcarrier allocation. Then, the suboptimal power allocation algorithm is developed with strict proportional fairness, and the algorithm is based on the principle that the sums of power and the reciprocal of channel-to-noise ratio for each user in different subchannels are equal. To support it, plenty of simulation results are presented. In contrast with root-finding and linear methods, the proposed method provides better performance in solving the proportional resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems.

  1. Rate Adaptive Based Resource Allocation with Proportional Fairness Constraints in OFDMA Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhendong; Zhuang, Shufeng; Wu, Zhilu; Ma, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA), which is widely used in the wireless sensor networks, allows different users to obtain different subcarriers according to their subchannel gains. Therefore, how to assign subcarriers and power to different users to achieve a high system sum rate is an important research area in OFDMA systems. In this paper, the focus of study is on the rate adaptive (RA) based resource allocation with proportional fairness constraints. Since the resource allocation is a NP-hard and non-convex optimization problem, a new efficient resource allocation algorithm ACO-SPA is proposed, which combines ant colony optimization (ACO) and suboptimal power allocation (SPA). To reduce the computational complexity, the optimization problem of resource allocation in OFDMA systems is separated into two steps. For the first one, the ant colony optimization algorithm is performed to solve the subcarrier allocation. Then, the suboptimal power allocation algorithm is developed with strict proportional fairness, and the algorithm is based on the principle that the sums of power and the reciprocal of channel-to-noise ratio for each user in different subchannels are equal. To support it, plenty of simulation results are presented. In contrast with root-finding and linear methods, the proposed method provides better performance in solving the proportional resource allocation problem in OFDMA systems. PMID:26426016

  2. Improved Channel Allocation for Multicarrier CDMA with Adaptive Frequency Hopping and Multiuser Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-29

    Areas Commun., vol. 14, pp. 1852-1858, Dec. 1996. [6] Y. H. Kim, I. Song, S. Yoon and S. R. Park, “A multicarrier CDMA system with adaptive subchannel ...J. Li, and Z. Cao, “A near optimal subchannel allocation policy in forward links for multicarrier CDMA system,” Proc. IEEE VTC, 2001-Spring, vol. 2...Rhodes, Greece, 2001, pp. 896-900. [10] T. Jia, and A. Duel-Hallen, “ Subchannel allocation for multicarrier CDMA with adaptive frequency hopping

  3. Carbon allocation changes: an adaptive response to variations in atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, S. P.; Li, G.; Prentice, I. C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Given the ubiquity of nutrient constraints on primary production, an optimal carbon allocation strategy is expected to increase total below-ground allocation (fine root production and turnover, allocation to mycorrhizae and carbon exudation to the rhizophere) as CO2 concentration increases. Conversely, below-ground allocation should be reduced under low CO2 concentrations, as occurred during glacial times. Using a coupled generic primary production and tree-growth model, we quantify the changes in carbon allocation that are required to explain the apparent homoeostasis of tree radial growth during recent decades and between glacial and interglacial conditions. These results suggest a resolution of the apparent paradox of continuing terrestrial CO2 uptake (a consequence of CO2 fertilization) and the widespread lack of observed radial growth enhancement in trees. Adaptive shifts in carbon allocation are thus a key feature that needs to be accounted for in models to predict, for example, future timber yields as well as in large-scale ecosystem and carbon cycle models.

  4. Carbon allocation changes: an adaptive response to variations in atmospheric CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Sandy; Li, Guangqi; Prentice, Iain Colin

    2016-04-01

    Given the ubiquity of nutrient constraints on primary production, an optimal carbon allocation strategy is expected to increase total below-ground allocation (fine root production and turnover, allocation to mycorrhizae and carbon exudation to the rhizophere) as atmospheric CO2 concentration increases. Conversely, below-ground allocation should be reduced when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were low, as occurred during glacial times. Using a coupled generic primary production and tree-growth model, we quantify the changes in carbon allocation that are required to explain the apparent homoeostasis of tree radial growth during recent decades and between glacial and interglacial conditions. These results suggest a resolution of the apparent paradox of continuing terrestrial CO2 uptake (a consequence of CO2 fertilization) and the widespread lack of observed enhancement of stem growth in trees. Adaptive shifts in carbon allocation are thus a key feature that should to be accounted for in models to predict tree growth and future timber harvests, as well as in large-scale ecosystem and carbon cycle models.

  5. Adaptive allocation of vision under competing task demands

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Chris R.; Knill, David C.; Jacobs, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Human behavior in natural tasks consists of an intricately coordinated dance of cognitive, perceptual, and motor activities. While much research has progressed in understanding the nature of cognitive, perceptual, or motor processing in isolation or in highly constrained settings, few studies have sought to examine how these systems are coordinated in the context of executing complex behavior. Previous research has suggested that in the course of visually-guided reaching movements, the eye and hand are yoked, or linked in a nonadaptive manner. In this work we report an experiment that manipulated the demands that a task placed on the motor and visual systems, and then examined in detail the resulting changes in visuomotor coordination. We develop an ideal actor model that predicts the optimal coordination of vision and motor control in our task. On the basis of our model’s predictions, we demonstrate that human performance in our experiment reflects an adaptive response to the varying costs imposed by our experimental manipulations. Our results stand in contrast to previous theories that have assumed a fixed control mechanism for coordinating vision and motor control in reaching behavior. PMID:21248118

  6. Real-Time Adaptive Control Allocation Applied to a High Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Bundick, W. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the development and application of one approach to the control of aircraft with large numbers of control effectors. This approach, referred to as real-time adaptive control allocation, combines a nonlinear method for control allocation with actuator failure detection and isolation. The control allocator maps moment (or angular acceleration) commands into physical control effector commands as functions of individual control effectiveness and availability. The actuator failure detection and isolation algorithm is a model-based approach that uses models of the actuators to predict actuator behavior and an adaptive decision threshold to achieve acceptable false alarm/missed detection rates. This integrated approach provides control reconfiguration when an aircraft is subjected to actuator failure, thereby improving maneuverability and survivability of the degraded aircraft. This method is demonstrated on a next generation military aircraft Lockheed-Martin Innovative Control Effector) simulation that has been modified to include a novel nonlinear fluid flow control control effector based on passive porosity. Desktop and real-time piloted simulation results demonstrate the performance of this integrated adaptive control allocation approach.

  7. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (II): Case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, rapid economic development and increase of the human population are considered as the major triggers of increasing challenges for water resources management. This proposed integrated optimal allocation model (IOAM) for complex adaptive system of water resources management is applied in Dongjiang River basin located in the Guangdong Province of China. The IOAM is calibrated and validated under baseline period 2010 year and future period 2011-2030 year, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model can make a trade-off between demand and supply for sustainable development of society, economy, ecology and environment and achieve adaptive management of water resources allocation. The optimal scheme derived by multi-objective evaluation is recommended for decision-makers in order to maximize the comprehensive benefits of water resources management.

  8. Legume adaptation to sulfur deficiency revealed by comparing nutrient allocation and seed traits in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Hélène; Poignavent, Germain; Le Signor, Christine; Aimé, Delphine; Vieren, Eric; Tadla, Charlène; Lugan, Raphaël; Belghazi, Maya; Labas, Valérie; Santoni, Anne-Lise; Wipf, Daniel; Buitink, Julia; Avice, Jean-Christophe; Salon, Christophe; Gallardo, Karine

    2013-12-01

    Reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions and the use of sulfur-free mineral fertilizers are decreasing soil sulfur levels and threaten the adequate fertilization of most crops. To provide knowledge regarding legume adaptation to sulfur restriction, we subjected Medicago truncatula, a model legume species, to sulfur deficiency at various developmental stages, and compared the yield, nutrient allocation and seed traits. This comparative analysis revealed that sulfur deficiency at the mid-vegetative stage decreased yield and altered the allocation of nitrogen and carbon to seeds, leading to reduced levels of major oligosaccharides in mature seeds, whose germination was dramatically affected. In contrast, during the reproductive period, sulfur deficiency had little influence on yield and nutrient allocation, but the seeds germinated slowly and were characterized by low levels of a biotinylated protein, a putative indicator of germination vigor that has not been previously related to sulfur nutrition. Significantly, plants deprived of sulfur at an intermediary stage (flowering) adapted well by remobilizing nutrients from source organs to seeds, ensuring adequate quantities of carbon and nitrogen in seeds. This efficient remobilization of photosynthates may be explained by vacuolar sulfate efflux to maintain leaf metabolism throughout reproductive growth, as suggested by transcript and metabolite profiling. The seeds from these plants, deprived of sulfur at the floral transition, contained normal levels of major oligosaccharides but their germination was delayed, consistent with low levels of sucrose and the glycolytic enzymes required to restart seed metabolism during imbibition. Overall, our findings provide an integrative view of the legume response to sulfur deficiency.

  9. Statistical inference for response adaptive randomization procedures with adjusted optimal allocation proportions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongjian

    2016-12-12

    Seamless phase II/III clinical trials have attracted increasing attention recently. They mainly use Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) designs. There has been little research into seamless clinical trials using frequentist RAR designs because of the difficulty in performing valid statistical inference following this procedure. The well-designed frequentist RAR designs can target theoretically optimal allocation proportions, and they have explicit asymptotic results. In this paper, we study the asymptotic properties of frequentist RAR designs with adjusted target allocation proportions, and investigate statistical inference for this procedure. The properties of the proposed design provide an important theoretical foundation for advanced seamless clinical trials. Our numerical studies demonstrate that the design is ethical and efficient.

  10. Empirical Analysis of EEG and ERPs for Psychophysiological Adaptive Task Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Mikulka, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the efficacy of using Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) for making task allocation decisions. Thirty-six participants were randomly assigned to an experimental, yoked, or control group condition. Under the experimental condition, a tracking task was switched between task modes based upon the participant's EEG. The results showed that the use of adaptive aiding improved performance and lowered subjective workload under negative feedback as predicted. Additionally, participants in the adaptive group had significantly lower RMSE and NASA-TLX ratings than participants in either the yoked or control group conditions. Furthermore, the amplitudes of the N1 and P3 ERP components were significantly larger under the experimental group condition than under either the yoked or control group conditions. These results are discussed in terms of the implications for adaptive automation design.

  11. Fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing concepts: An adaptation for the Komati Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlamini, Enoch M.; Dhlamini, Sidney; Mthimkhulu, Sindy

    This paper presents an adaptation of fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing (FWARCS) concepts for application in the Komati Basin, a river system shared between South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. Many traditional methods for allocating water are based on volume-per-unit-time allocation that is supplied at some level of assurance and managed using priority-based reservoir and river system operating rules, as well as on the “use it or lose it” principle, which is considered exclusive by water users as it leaves them out of the management of their water allocations. In the Komati Basin, these traditional methods of water allocation led to frequent conflicts among users and with water managers. However, the introduction of the modified FWARCS, which assigns available water in the system to water users according to the proportions of their water entitlements and allows water to be banked in reservoirs, appears to be a solution to some of these problems. This method allows water users to decide when and how much of that entitlement they may use. Since the implementation of the modified FWARCS technique in the Komati Basin in 2002, the regulation, transparency and efficiency of operating the system improved and subsequently the number of disputes over water has declined. South Africa improved from an overuse of 8.2 Mm 3 in 2002/03 water year to realize a saving of 29.5 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Similarly, Swaziland improved from an overuse of 3.9 Mm 3 in 2002/03 to achieve a saving of 14.6 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Users have recognised and embraced the transparency and flexibility of the modified FWARCS. They choose, as the need and opportunity arise, when and how much water they utilise, whether to “bank” and/or “trade” the water they save subject to the conditions of their entitlements. The implementation of the modified FWARCS was also made successful by the existence of proper institutional structures, appropriate decision support tools, good water

  12. The Neural Mechanism Exploration of Adaptive Motor Control: Dynamical Economic Cell Allocation in the Primary Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Guo, Yangyang; Fan, Jing; Ma, Chaolin; Ma, Xuan; Chen, Xi; He, Jiping

    2016-06-14

    Adaptive flexibility is of significance for the smooth and efficient movements in goal attainment. However, the underlying work mechanism of the cerebral cortex in adaptive motor control still remains unclear. How does the cerebral cortex organize and coordinate the activity of a large population of cells in the implementation of various motor strategies? To explore this issue, single-unit activities from the M1 region and kinematic data were recorded simultaneously in monkeys performing 3D reach-to-grasp tasks with different perturbations. Varying motor control strategies were employed and achieved in different perturbed tasks, via the dynamic allocation of cells to modulate specific movement parameters. An economic principle was proposed for the first time to describe a basic rule for cell allocation in the primary motor cortex. This principle, defined as the Dynamic Economic Cell Allocation Mechanism (DECAM), guarantees benefit maximization in cell allocation under limited neuronal resources, and avoids committing resources to uneconomic investments for unreliable factors with no or little revenue. That is to say, the cells recruited are always preferentially allocated to those factors with reliable return; otherwise, the cells are dispatched to respond to other factors about task. The findings of this study might partially reveal the working mechanisms underlying the role of the cerebral cortex in adaptive motor control, wherein is also of significance for the design of future intelligent brain-machine interfaces and rehabilitation device.

  13. Adaptive allocation of decisionmaking responsibility between human and computer in multitask situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Y.-Y.; Rouse, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    As human and computer come to have overlapping decisionmaking abilities, a dynamic or adaptive allocation of responsibilities may be the best mode of human-computer interaction. It is suggested that the computer serve as a backup decisionmaker, accepting responsibility when human workload becomes excessive and relinquishing responsibility when workload becomes acceptable. A queueing theory formulation of multitask decisionmaking is used and a threshold policy for turning the computer on/off is proposed. This policy minimizes event-waiting cost subject to human workload constraints. An experiment was conducted with a balanced design of several subject runs within a computer-aided multitask flight management situation with different task demand levels. It was found that computer aiding enhanced subsystem performance as well as subjective ratings. The queueing model appears to be an adequate representation of the multitask decisionmaking situation, and to be capable of predicting system performance in terms of average waiting time and server occupancy. Server occupancy was further found to correlate highly with the subjective effort ratings.

  14. Self-adaptive Worker-Helper Systems with Self-Organized Task Allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, Daniel; Middendorf, Martin; Scheidler, Alexander

    In this chapter a self-organized worker helper system is described, which is part of an abstract Organic Computing system (OC system). It consists of normal worker components and helper components, and the workers need some service from time to time in order to continue with their normal work. The service is done by the helpers, which have reconfigurable hardware to perform the different service tasks. The speed of service for a certain task depends on the amount of resources configured for this task. Strategies are presented that can be used by the helpers to decide whether to accept a service task and how to reconfigure themselves. It is also described how the worker helper system can be organized without global knowledge about the type of service requests and the set of available helper components. In order to obtain a decentralized mechanism and to make it suitable for the paradigm of OC a fully decentralized and dynamic clustering algorithm has been combined with a self-organized task allocation system. Empirical results show that the described worker helper system can adapt to dynamic situations with changing probabilities for service, and that decentralized clustering is able to reduce the reconfiguration cost significantly.

  15. Drilling bit

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, F. M.

    1985-07-09

    A drilling bit comprising a drill body formed from a base portion and a crown portion having a plurality of cutting elements; the base and crown portions are interengaged by a connection portion. An external opening in the crown portion communicates with a core-receiving section in the connecting portion. A core milling assembly, comprising a pair of rotatable, frustum-shaped rotary members, is supported in the connecting section. Each rotary member carries a plurality of cutting elements. During drilling, a core is received in the core-receiving section, where it is milled by the rotation of the rotary members.

  16. Application of Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Task Allocation Techniques for Controlling Operator Hazardous States of Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2001-01-01

    Prinzel, Hadley, Freeman, and Mikulka found that adaptive task allocation significantly enhanced performance only when used at the endpoints of the task workload continuum (i.e., very low or high workload), but that the technique degraded performance if invoked during other levels of task demand. These researchers suggested that other techniques should be used in conjunction with adaptive automation to help minimize the onset of hazardous states of awareness (HSA) and keep the operator 'in-the-loop.' The paper reports on such a technique that uses psychophysiological self-regulation to modulate the level of task engagement. Eighteen participants were assigned to three groups (self-regulation, false feedback, and control) and performed a compensatory tracking task that was cycled between three levels of task difficulty on the basis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) record. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower NASA-TLX scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. Furthermore, the false feedback and control groups had significantly more task allocations resulting in return-to-manual performance decrements and higher EEG difference scores. Theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  17. Within-Leaf Nitrogen Allocation in Adaptation to Low Nitrogen Supply in Maize during Grain-Filling Stage

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xiaohuan; Chen, Qinwu; Chen, Fanjun; Yuan, Lixing; Mi, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) plays a vital role in photosynthesis and crop productivity. Maize plants may be able to increase physiological N utilization efficiency (NUtE) under low-N stress by increasing photosynthetic rate (Pn) per unit leaf N, that is, photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE). In this study, we analyzed the relationship between PNUE and N allocation in maize ear-leaves during the grain-filling stage under low N (no N application) and high N (180 kg N ha-1) in a 2-year field experiment. Under low N, grain yield decreased while NUtE increased. Low-N treatment reduced the specific N content of ear leaves by 38% without significant influencing Pn, thereby increasing PNUE by 54%. Under low-N stress, maize plants tended to invest relatively more N into bioenergetics to sustain electron transport. In contrast, N allocated to chlorophyll and light-harvesting proteins was reduced to control excess electron production. Soluble proteins were reduced to shrink the N storage reservoir. We conclude that optimization of N allocation within leaves is a key adaptive mechanism to maximize Pn and crop productivity when N is limited during the grain-filling stage in maize under low-N conditions. PMID:27252716

  18. Adaptive call admission control and resource allocation in multi server wireless/cellular network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Madhu; Mittal, Ragini

    2016-11-01

    The ever increasing demand of the subscribers has put pressure on the capacity of wireless networks around the world. To utilize the scare resources, in the present paper we propose an optimal allocation scheme for an integrated wireless/cellular model with handoff priority and handoff guarantee services. The suggested algorithm optimally allocates the resources in each cell and dynamically adjust threshold to control the admission. To give the priority to handoff calls over the new calls, the provision of guard channels and subrating scheme is taken into consideration. The handoff voice call may balk and renege from the system while waiting in the buffer. An iterative algorithm is implemented to generate the arrival rate of the handoff calls in each cell. Various performance indices are established in term of steady state probabilities. The sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to examine the tractability of algorithms and to explore the effects of system descriptors on the performance indices.

  19. Better predictions, better allocations: scientific advances and adaptation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Mark C; Groom, Ben; Zeckhauser, Richard J

    2015-11-28

    Climate science initially aspired to improve understanding of what the future would bring, and thereby produce appropriate public policies and effective international climate agreements. If that hope is dashed, as now seems probable, effective policies for adapting to climate change become critical. Climate science assumes new responsibilities by helping to foster more appropriate adaptation measures, which might include shifting modes or locales of production. This theoretical article focuses on two broader tools: consumption smoothing in response to the risk of future losses, and physical adaptation measures to reduce potential damages. It shows that informative signals on the effects of climate change facilitate better decisions on the use of each tool, thereby increasing social welfare.

  20. Resource Allocation Scheme in MIMO-OFDMA System for User's Different Data Throughput Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sann Maw, Maung; Sasase, Iwao

    In the subcarrier and power allocation schemes in Multi-Input Multi-Output and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (MIMO-OFDMA) systems, only equal fairness among users has been considered and no scheme for proportional data rate fairness has been considered. In this paper, a subcarrier, bit and power allocation scheme is proposed to maximize the total throughput under the constraints of total power and proportional data rate fairness among users. In the proposed scheme, joint subchannel allocation and adaptive bit loading is firstly performed by using singular value decomposition (SVD) of channel matrix under the constraint of users' data throughput requirements, and then adaptive power loading is applied. Simulation results show that effective performance of the system has been improved as well as each throughput is proportionally distributed among users in MIMO-OFDMA systems.

  1. A bit serial sequential circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    Normally a sequential circuit with n state variables consists of n unique hardware realizations, one for each state variable. All variables are processed in parallel. This paper introduces a new sequential circuit architecture that allows the state variables to be realized in a serial manner using only one next state logic circuit. The action of processing the state variables in a serial manner has never been addressed before. This paper presents a general design procedure for circuit construction and initialization. Utilizing pass transistors to form the combinational next state forming logic in synchronous sequential machines, a bit serial state machine can be realized with a single NMOS pass transistor network connected to shift registers. The bit serial state machine occupies less area than other realizations which perform parallel operations. Moreover, the logical circuit of the bit serial state machine can be modified by simply changing the circuit input matrix to develop an adaptive state machine.

  2. Transgenerational Adaptation to Pollution Changes Energy Allocation in Populations of Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Goussen, Benoit; Péry, Alexandre R R; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Beaudouin, Rémy

    2015-10-20

    Assessing the evolutionary responses of long-term exposed populations requires multigeneration ecotoxicity tests. However, the analysis of the data from these tests is not straightforward. Mechanistic models allow the in-depth analysis of the variation of physiological traits over many generations, by quantifying the trend of the physiological and toxicological parameters of the model. In the present study, a bioenergetic mechanistic model has been used to assess the evolution of two populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in control conditions or exposed to uranium. This evolutionary pressure resulted in a brood size reduction of 60%. We showed an adaptation of individuals of both populations to experimental conditions (increase of maximal length, decrease of growth rate, decrease of brood size, and decrease of the elimination rate). In addition, differential evolution was also highlighted between the two populations once the maternal effects had been diminished after several generations. Thus, individuals that were greater in maximal length, but with apparently a greater sensitivity to uranium were selected in the uranium population. In this study, we showed that this bioenergetics mechanistic modeling approach provided a precise, certain, and powerful analysis of the life strategy of C. elegans populations exposed to heavy metals resulting in an evolutionary pressure across successive generations.

  3. Towards an equitable allocation of the cost of a global change adaptation plan at the river basin scale: going beyond the perfect cooperation assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Pulido-Velázquez, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Adaptation to global change is a key issue in the planning of water resource systems in a changing world. Adaptation has to be efficient, but also equitable in the share of the costs of joint adaptation at the river basin scale. Least-cost hydro-economic optimization models have been helpful at defining efficient adaptation strategies. However, they often rely on the assumption of a "perfect cooperation" among the stakeholders, required for reaching the optimal solution. Nowadays, most adaptation decisions have to be agreed among the different actors in charge of their implementation, thus challenging the validity of a perfect command-and-control solution. As a first attempt to over-pass this limitation, our work presents a method to allocate the cost of an efficient adaptation programme of measures among the different stakeholders at the river basin scale. Principles of equity are used to define cost allocation scenarios from different perspectives, combining elements from cooperative game theory and axioms from social justice to bring some "food for thought" in the decision making process of adaptation. To illustrate the type of interactions between stakeholders in a river basin, the method has been applied in a French case study, the Orb river basin. Located on the northern rim of the Mediterranean Sea, this river basin is experiencing changes in demand patterns, and its water resources will be impacted by climate change, calling for the design of an adaptation plan. A least-cost river basin optimization model (LCRBOM) has been developed under GAMS to select the combination of demand- and supply-side adaptation measures that allows meeting quantitative water management targets at the river basin scale in a global change context. The optimal adaptation plan encompasses measures in both agricultural and urban sectors, up-stream and down-stream of the basin, disregarding the individual interests of the stakeholders. In order to ensure equity in the cost allocation

  4. Broadband Integrated Transmittances (BITS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Roger E.; Berrick, Stephen W.

    1995-02-01

    Broadband Integrated Transmittances (BITS) is an EOSAEL module that calculates transmittance for systems with broad spectral response. Path-integrated concentration data from COMBIC, other EOSAEL modules, or user models are used as input for BITS. The primary function of BITS is to provide rigorous transmittance calculations for broadband systems, replacing the Beer-Lambert law used in most obscuration models. To use BITS, the system detector, filters, optics, and source spectral functions must be defined. The spectral transmittances of the atmosphere and mass extinction coefficient spectral data for the obscurant are also required. The output consists of transmittance as a function of concentration length for Beer's law and band-integrated computation methods. The theory of the model, a description of the module organization, and an operations guide that provides input and output in EOSAEL format are provided in this user's guide. Example uses for BITS are also included.

  5. Energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network based on adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Xiao, Nengwu; Chen, Chen; Yuan, Weicheng; Qiu, Kun

    2016-02-01

    We propose an energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) using adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation. In this scheme, a bidirectional-centralized algorithm named the receiver and transmitter accurate sleep control and dynamic bandwidth allocation (RTASC-DBA), which has an overall bandwidth scheduling policy, is employed to enhance the energy efficiency of the OFDM-PON. The RTASC-DBA algorithm is used in an optical line terminal (OLT) to control the sleep mode of an optical network unit (ONU) sleep and guarantee the quality of service of different services of the OFDM-PON. The obtained results show that, by using the proposed scheme, the average power consumption of the ONU is reduced by ˜40% when the normalized ONU load is less than 80%, compared with the average power consumption without using the proposed scheme.

  6. Adaptive Allocation of Decision Making Responsibility Between Human and Computer in Multi-Task Situations. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Y. Y.

    1978-01-01

    A unified formulation of computer-aided, multi-task, decision making is presented. Strategy for the allocation of decision making responsibility between human and computer is developed. The plans of a flight management systems are studied. A model based on the queueing theory was implemented.

  7. Double acting bit holder

    DOEpatents

    Morrell, Roger J.; Larson, David A.; Ruzzi, Peter L.

    1994-01-01

    A double acting bit holder that permits bits held in it to be resharpened during cutting action to increase energy efficiency by reducing the amount of small chips produced. The holder consist of: a stationary base portion capable of being fixed to a cutter head of an excavation machine and having an integral extension therefrom with a bore hole therethrough to accommodate a pin shaft; a movable portion coextensive with the base having a pin shaft integrally extending therefrom that is insertable in the bore hole of the base member to permit the moveable portion to rotate about the axis of the pin shaft; a recess in the movable portion of the holder to accommodate a shank of a bit; and a biased spring disposed in adjoining openings in the base and moveable portions of the holder to permit the moveable portion to pivot around the pin shaft during cutting action of a bit fixed in a turret to allow front, mid and back positions of the bit during cutting to lessen creation of small chip amounts and resharpen the bit during excavation use.

  8. Hey! A Flea Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Hey! A Flea Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Flea Bit Me! Print A A A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! Hey! A Bedbug Bit ...

  9. Female butterflies adapt and allocate their progeny to the host-plant quality of their own larval experience.

    PubMed

    Cahenzli, Fabian; Wenk, Barbara A; Erhardt, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies with diverse taxa have shown that parents can utilize their experience of the environment to adapt their offspring's phenotype to the same environmental conditions. Thus, offspring would then perform best under environmental conditions experienced by their parents due to transgenerational phenotypic plasticity. Such an effect has been dubbed transgenerational acclimatization. However, evidence that parents can subsequently ensure the appropriate environmental conditions in order that offspring benefit from transgenerational acclimatization has never been demonstrated. We reared Pieris rapae larvae in the parental generation on high-nitrogen and low-nitrogen host plants, and reared the offspring (F1) of both treatments again on high- and low-nitrogen plants. Furthermore, we tested if females prefer to oviposit on high- or low-nitrogen host plants in two-way choice tests. We here show not only that females adapt their offspring's phenotype to the host-plant quality that they themselves experienced, but that females also mainly oviposit on the host quality to which they adapt their offspring. Moreover, effects of larval host plant on oviposition preference of females increased across two generations in F1-females acclimatized to low-nitrogen host plants, showing an adaptive host shift from one generation to the next. These findings may have profound implications for host-race formation and sympatric speciation.

  10. Hey! A Tick Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the arachnid family, which also includes mites, spiders, and scorpions . A tick attaches itself to the ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! Hey! A Bedbug Bit Me! Going ...

  11. High water level impedes the adaptation of Polygonum hydropiper to deep burial: responses of biomass allocation and root morphology.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Xie, Yong H; Deng, Zheng M; Tang, Yue; Pan, Dong D

    2014-07-08

    Many studies have investigated the individual effects of sedimentation or inundation on the performance of wetland plants, but few have examined the combined influence of these processes. Wetland plants might show greater morphological plasticity in response to inundation than to sedimentation when these processes occur simultaneously since inundation can negate the negative effects of burial on plant growth. Here, we evaluate this hypothesis by assessing growth of the emergent macrophyte Polygonum hydropiper under flooding (0 and 40 cm) and sedimentation (0, 5, and 10 cm), separately and in combination. Deep burial and high water level each led to low oxidation-reduction potential, biomass (except for 5-cm burial), and growth of thick, short roots. These characteristics were generally more significant under high water level than under deep burial conditions. More biomass was allocated to stems in the deep burial treatments, but more to leaves in the high water level treatments. Additionally, biomass accumulation was lower and leaf mass ratio was higher in the 40-cm water level + 10-cm burial depth treatment than both separate effects. Our data indicate that inundation plays a more important role than sedimentation in determining plant morphology, suggesting hierarchical effects of environmental stressors on plant growth.

  12. Smart BIT/TSMD Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    integracion . Smart BIT/TSMD provides Rome Laboratory with a laboratory testbed to evaluate and assess the individual characteristics as well as the integration...returning its MIL-STD-1553B data tables and BIT status to normal (no fault) data. When the scenario requires sensory -caused faults, the UUT computer sets...uncorrelated faults. Information Enhanced BIT is a technique that uses additional sensory data to complement the standard BIT information. Sensory information

  13. Robust relativistic bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony

    2016-12-01

    Relativistic cryptography exploits the fact that no information can travel faster than the speed of light in order to obtain security guarantees that cannot be achieved from the laws of quantum mechanics alone. Recently, Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.030502] presented a bit-commitment scheme where each party uses two agents that exchange classical information in a synchronized fashion, and that is both hiding and binding. A caveat is that the commitment time is intrinsically limited by the spatial configuration of the players, and increasing this time requires the agents to exchange messages during the whole duration of the protocol. While such a solution remains computationally attractive, its practicality is severely limited in realistic settings since all communication must remain perfectly synchronized at all times. In this work, we introduce a robust protocol for relativistic bit commitment that tolerates failures of the classical communication network. This is done by adding a third agent to both parties. Our scheme provides a quadratic improvement in terms of expected sustain time compared with the original protocol, while retaining the same level of security.

  14. Optimizing journal bearing bit performance

    SciTech Connect

    Moerbe, O.E.; Evans, W.

    1986-10-01

    This article explains that continuous progress in the field of rock bit technology has produced many new designs and improved features in the tri-cone rock bits used today. Much of the research and advancements have centered around journal bearing systems, seals and lubricants leading to greatly extended bearing life. These improved bearing systems, incorporated into both tooth and insert-type bits, have not only increased the effective life of a rock bit, but have also allowed greater energy levels to be applied. This, in turn, has allowed for higher rates of penetration and lower costs per foot of hole drilled. Continuous improvements in journal bearing bits allowing them to run longer and harder have required similar advancements to be made in cutting structures. In tooth bit designs, these improvements have been basically limited to the areas of gauge protection and to application of hardfacing materials.

  15. Drill bit assembly for releasably retaining a drill bit cutter

    DOEpatents

    Glowka, David A.; Raymond, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A drill bit assembly is provided for releasably retaining a polycrystalline diamond compact drill bit cutter. Two adjacent cavities formed in a drill bit body house, respectively, the disc-shaped drill bit cutter and a wedge-shaped cutter lock element with a removable fastener. The cutter lock element engages one flat surface of the cutter to retain the cutter in its cavity. The drill bit assembly thus enables the cutter to be locked against axial and/or rotational movement while still providing for easy removal of a worn or damaged cutter. The ability to adjust and replace cutters in the field reduces the effect of wear, helps maintains performance and improves drilling efficiency.

  16. Data compression using adaptive transform coding. Appendix 1: Item 1. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, Martin Christopher

    1988-01-01

    Adaptive low-rate source coders are described in this dissertation. These coders adapt by adjusting the complexity of the coder to match the local coding difficulty of the image. This is accomplished by using a threshold driven maximum distortion criterion to select the specific coder used. The different coders are built using variable blocksized transform techniques, and the threshold criterion selects small transform blocks to code the more difficult regions and larger blocks to code the less complex regions. A theoretical framework is constructed from which the study of these coders can be explored. An algorithm for selecting the optimal bit allocation for the quantization of transform coefficients is developed. The bit allocation algorithm is more fully developed, and can be used to achieve more accurate bit assignments than the algorithms currently used in the literature. Some upper and lower bounds for the bit-allocation distortion-rate function are developed. An obtainable distortion-rate function is developed for a particular scalar quantizer mixing method that can be used to code transform coefficients at any rate.

  17. Hey! A Gnat Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Gnat Bit Me! Print A A A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Flea ...

  18. Hey! A Bedbug Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Hey! A Bedbug Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Bedbug Bit Me! Print A A A ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Bee Stung Me! Hey! A Scorpion Stung ...

  19. Experimental unconditionally secure bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-03-01

    Quantum physics allows unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when they do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security. Only when relativistic causality constraints combined, the unconditional secure bit commitment becomes feasible. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. Bits are successfully committed with less than 5 . 68 ×10-2 cheating probability. This provides an experimental proof of unconditional secure bit commitment and demonstrates the feasibility of relativistic quantum communication.

  20. Task allocation among multiple intelligent robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasser, L.; Bekey, G.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers describe the design of a decentralized mechanism for allocating assembly tasks in a multiple robot assembly workstation. Currently, the approach focuses on distributed allocation to explore its feasibility and its potential for adaptability to changing circumstances, rather than for optimizing throughput. Individual greedy robots make their own local allocation decisions using both dynamic allocation policies which propagate through a network of allocation goals, and local static and dynamic constraints describing which robots are elibible for which assembly tasks. Global coherence is achieved by proper weighting of allocation pressures propagating through the assembly plan. Deadlock avoidance and synchronization is achieved using periodic reassessments of local allocation decisions, ageing of allocation goals, and short-term allocation locks on goals.

  1. Adaptive allocation of attentional gain.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T

    2009-09-23

    Humans are adept at distinguishing between stimuli that are very similar, an ability that is particularly crucial when the outcome is of serious consequence (e.g., for a surgeon or air-traffic controller). Traditionally, selective attention was thought to facilitate perception by increasing the gain of sensory neurons tuned to the defining features of a behaviorally relevant object (e.g., color, orientation, etc.). In contrast, recent mathematical models counterintuitively suggest that, in many cases, attentional gain should be applied to neurons that are tuned away from relevant features, especially when discriminating highly similar stimuli. Here we used psychophysical methods to critically evaluate these "ideal observer" models. The data demonstrate that attention enhances the gain of the most informative sensory neurons, even when these neurons are tuned away from the behaviorally relevant target feature. Moreover, the degree to which an individual adopted optimal attentional gain settings by the end of testing predicted success rates on a difficult visual discrimination task, as well as the amount of task improvement that occurred across repeated testing sessions (learning). Contrary to most traditional accounts, these observations suggest that the primary function of attentional gain is not to enhance the representation of target features per se, but instead to optimize performance on the current perceptual task. Additionally, individual differences in gain suggest that the operating characteristics of low-level attentional phenomena are not stable trait-like attributes and that variability in how attention is deployed may play an important role in determining perceptual abilities.

  2. Experimental Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Yuan; Curty, Marcos; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Wang, Jian; Cui, Ke; Li, Yu-Huai; Lin, Ze-Hong; Sun, Qi-Chao; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Teng-Yun; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang; Cabello, Adán; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Quantum physics allows for unconditionally secure communication between parties that trust each other. However, when the parties do not trust each other such as in the bit commitment scenario, quantum physics is not enough to guarantee security unless extra assumptions are made. Unconditionally secure bit commitment only becomes feasible when quantum physics is combined with relativistic causality constraints. Here we experimentally implement a quantum bit commitment protocol with relativistic constraints that offers unconditional security. The commitment is made through quantum measurements in two quantum key distribution systems in which the results are transmitted via free-space optical communication to two agents separated with more than 20 km. The security of the protocol relies on the properties of quantum information and relativity theory. In each run of the experiment, a bit is successfully committed with less than 5.68×10-2 cheating probability. This demonstrates the experimental feasibility of quantum communication with relativistic constraints.

  3. Optimal encryption of quantum bits

    SciTech Connect

    Boykin, P. Oscar; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2003-04-01

    We show that 2n random classical bits are both necessary and sufficient for encrypting any unknown state of n quantum bits in an informationally secure manner. We also characterize the complete set of optimal protocols in terms of a set of unitary operations that comprise an orthonormal basis in a canonical inner product space. Moreover, a connection is made between quantum encryption and quantum teleportation that allows for a different proof of optimality of teleportation.

  4. Rock drill bit lubrication system

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, C.

    1980-07-08

    A drill bit is described that includes a body part, a first chamber in said body part for containing a fluid lubricat under pressure higher than atmosphere during operation of the drill bit, at least one bit segment extending from said body part, a generally conical cutting element mounted on said bit segment and freely rotatable thereon thus forming a cutting element assembly, the improvement in combination therewith, wherein: said bit segment iclujdes an annular part having inner and outer circumferential bearing surfaces, said conical cutting element has corresponding bearing surfaces adjacent those of said annular part thereby forming two pairs of bearing surfaces defining first and second raceways, the second raceway being radially outward of the first raceway, said second raceway further includes a plurlaity of ball bearing elements distributed therein, this second raceway and ball bearing elements forming a locking bearing for retaining said conical cutting element coupled to said annular part of said bit segment, said cutting element assembly further comprising a plurality of rolling bearing elements distributed in said second raceway forming an inner bearing, and lubrication mens for lubricating said raceways and bearing elements therein.

  5. String bit models for superstring

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    The authors extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. They mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei invariant theory in (D {minus} 2) + 1 dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in D {minus} 2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in D dimensional space-time enjoying the full N = 2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring.

  6. String bit models for superstring

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.

    1995-11-15

    We extend the model of string as a polymer of string bits to the case of superstring. We mainly concentrate on type II-B superstring, with some discussion of the obstacles presented by not II-B superstring, together with possible strategies for surmounting them. As with previous work on bosonic string we work within the light-cone gauge. The bit model possesses a good deal less symmetry than the continuous string theory. For one thing, the bit model is formulated as a Galilei-invariant theory in [({ital D}{minus}2)+1]-dimensional space-time. This means that Poincare invariance is reduced to the Galilei subgroup in {ital D}{minus}2 space dimensions. Naturally the supersymmetry present in the bit model is likewise dramatically reduced. Continuous string can arise in the bit models with the formation of infinitely long polymers of string bits. Under the right circumstances (at the critical dimension) these polymers can behave as string moving in {ital D}-dimensional space-time enjoying the full {ital N}=2 Poincare supersymmetric dynamics of type II-B superstring.

  7. Bit storage and bit flip operations in an electromechanical oscillator.

    PubMed

    Mahboob, I; Yamaguchi, H

    2008-05-01

    The Parametron was first proposed as a logic-processing system almost 50 years ago. In this approach the two stable phases of an excited harmonic oscillator provide the basis for logic operations. Computer architectures based on LC oscillators were developed for this approach, but high power consumption and difficulties with integration meant that the Parametron was rendered obsolete by the transistor. Here we propose an approach to mechanical logic based on nanoelectromechanical systems that is a variation on the Parametron architecture and, as a first step towards a possible nanomechanical computer, we demonstrate both bit storage and bit flip operations.

  8. Bit by bit: the Darwinian basis of life.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Gerald F

    2012-01-01

    All known examples of life belong to the same biology, but there is increasing enthusiasm among astronomers, astrobiologists, and synthetic biologists that other forms of life may soon be discovered or synthesized. This enthusiasm should be tempered by the fact that the probability for life to originate is not known. As a guiding principle in parsing potential examples of alternative life, one should ask: How many heritable "bits" of information are involved, and where did they come from? A genetic system that contains more bits than the number that were required to initiate its operation might reasonably be considered a new form of life.

  9. Introduction to the Mu-bit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarandache, Florentin; Christianto, V.

    2011-03-01

    Mu-bit is defined here as `multi-space bit'. It is different from the standard meaning of bit in conventional computation, because in Smarandache's multispace theory (also spelt multi-space) the bit is created simultaneously in many subspaces (that form together a multi-space). This new `bit' term is different from multi-valued-bit already known in computer technology, for example as MVLong. This new concept is also different from qu-bit from quantum computation terminology. We know that using quantum mechanics logic we could introduce new way of computation with `qubit' (quantum bit), but the logic remains Neumann. Now, from the viewpoint of m-valued multi-space logic, we introduce a new term: `mu-bit' (from `multi-space bit).

  10. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Mosquito ... español ¡Ay! ¡Me picó un mosquito! What's a Mosquito? A mosquito (say: mus-KEE-toe) is an ...

  11. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    2004-04-16

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We describe an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive nonrelativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  12. Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Happens in the Operating Room? Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Mosquito ... español ¡Ay! ¡Me picó un mosquito! What's a Mosquito? A mosquito (say: mus-KEE-toe) is an ...

  13. Hey! A Louse Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a sesame seed, and are tan to gray in color. Lice need to suck a tiny bit of blood to survive, and they sometimes live on people's heads and lay eggs in the hair , on the back of the neck, or behind ...

  14. Hey! A Tarantula Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... leave you alone. Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD Date reviewed: September 2016 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Scorpion Stung Me! Hey! A Black Widow Spider Bit Me! Hey! A Brown Recluse ...

  15. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  16. Region-of-interest determination and bit-rate conversion for H.264 video transcoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shu-Fen; Chen, Mei-Juan; Tai, Kuang-Han; Li, Mian-Shiuan

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a video bit-rate transcoder for baseline profile in H.264/AVC standard to fit the available channel bandwidth for the client when transmitting video bit-streams via communication channels. To maintain visual quality for low bit-rate video efficiently, this study analyzes the decoded information in the transcoder and proposes a Bayesian theorem-based region-of-interest (ROI) determination algorithm. In addition, a curve fitting scheme is employed to find the models of video bit-rate conversion. The transcoded video will conform to the target bit-rate by re-quantization according to our proposed models. After integrating the ROI detection method and the bit-rate transcoding models, the ROI-based transcoder allocates more coding bits to ROI regions and reduces the complexity of the re-encoding procedure for non-ROI regions. Hence, it not only keeps the coding quality but improves the efficiency of the video transcoding for low target bit-rates and makes the real-time transcoding more practical. Experimental results show that the proposed framework gets significantly better visual quality.

  17. Classification system adopted for fixed cutter bits

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.J.; Doiron, H.H.

    1988-01-01

    The drilling industry has begun adopting the 1987 International Association of Drilling Contractors' (IADC) method for classifying fixed cutter drill bits. By studying the classification codes on bit records and properly applying the new IADC fixed cutter dull grading system to recently run bits, the end-user should be able to improve the selection and usage of fixed cutter bits. Several users are developing databases for fixed cutter bits in an effort to relate field performance to some of the more prominent bit design characteristics.

  18. Decision-fusion-based automated drill bit toolmark correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brett C.; Press, Michael J.; Guerci, Joseph R.

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a recent study conducted to investigate the reproducibility of toolmarks left by drill bits. This paper focuses on the automated analysis aspect of the study, and particularly the advantages of using decision fusion methods in the comparisons. To enable the study to encompass a large number of samples, existing technology was adapted to the task of automatically comparing the test impressions. Advanced forensic pattern recognition algorithms that had been developed for the comparison of ballistic evidence in the DRUGFIRETM system were modified for use in this test. The results of the decision fusion architecture closely matched those obtained by expert visual examination. The study, aided by the improved pattern recognition algorithm, showed that drill bit impressions do contain reproducible marks. In a blind test, the DRUGFIRE pattern recognition algorithm, enhanced with the decision fusion architecture, consistently identified the correct bit as the source of the test impressions.

  19. BitCube: A Bottom-Up Cubing Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferro, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Puglisi, Piera Laura; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

    Enhancing on line analytical processing through efficient cube computation plays a key role in Data Warehouse management. Hashing, grouping and mining techniques are commonly used to improve cube pre-computation. BitCube, a fast cubing method which uses bitmaps as inverted indexes for grouping, is presented. It horizontally partitions data according to the values of one dimension and for each resulting fragment it performs grouping following bottom-up criteria. BitCube allows also partial materialization based on iceberg conditions to treat large datasets for which a full cube pre-computation is too expensive. Space requirement of bitmaps is optimized by applying an adaption of the WAH compression technique. Experimental analysis, on both synthetic and real datasets, shows that BitCube outperforms previous algorithms for full cube computation and results comparable on iceberg cubing.

  20. Dynamic Channel Allocation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    7 1 . Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA) ........................................................7 2. Dynamic Channel ...19 7. CSMA/CD-Based Multiple Network Lines .....................................20 8. Hybrid Channel Allocation in Wireless Networks...28 1 . Channel Allocation

  1. Stability of single skyrmionic bits

    PubMed Central

    Hagemeister, J.; Romming, N.; von Bergmann, K.; Vedmedenko, E. Y.; Wiesendanger, R.

    2015-01-01

    The switching between topologically distinct skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states has been proposed as a bit operation for information storage. While long lifetimes of the bits are required for data storage devices, the lifetimes of skyrmions have not been addressed so far. Here we show by means of atomistic Monte Carlo simulations that the field-dependent mean lifetimes of the skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states have a high asymmetry with respect to the critical magnetic field, at which these lifetimes are identical. According to our calculations, the main reason for the enhanced stability of skyrmions is a different field dependence of skyrmionic and ferromagnetic activation energies and a lower attempt frequency of skyrmions rather than the height of energy barriers. We use this knowledge to propose a procedure for the determination of effective material parameters and the quantification of the Monte Carlo timescale from the comparison of theoretical and experimental data. PMID:26465211

  2. 24-Hour Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbanis, Ephanielle; Martin, Anthony; Houlmann, Raphaël; Boso, Gianluca; Bussières, Félix; Zbinden, Hugo

    2016-09-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which a party wishes to commit a secret bit to another party. Perfect security between mistrustful parties is unfortunately impossible to achieve through the asynchronous exchange of classical and quantum messages. Perfect security can nonetheless be achieved if each party splits into two agents exchanging classical information at times and locations satisfying strict relativistic constraints. A relativistic multiround protocol to achieve this was previously proposed and used to implement a 2-millisecond commitment time. Much longer durations were initially thought to be insecure, but recent theoretical progress showed that this is not so. In this Letter, we report on the implementation of a 24-hour bit commitment solely based on timed high-speed optical communication and fast data processing, with all agents located within the city of Geneva. This duration is more than 6 orders of magnitude longer than before, and we argue that it could be extended to one year and allow much more flexibility on the locations of the agents. Our implementation offers a practical and viable solution for use in applications such as digital signatures, secure voting and honesty-preserving auctions.

  3. Development of PDC Bits for Downhole Motors

    SciTech Connect

    Karasawa, H.; Ohno, T.

    1995-01-01

    To develop polycrystalline hamond compact (PDC) bits of the full-face type which can be applied to downhole motor drilling, drilling tests for granite and two types of andesite were conducted using bits with 98.43 and 142.88 mm diameters. The bits successfully drilled these types of rock at rotary speeds from 300 to 400 rpm.

  4. Need for liquid-crystal display monitors having the capability of rendering higher than 8 bits in display-bit depth.

    PubMed

    Hiwasa, Takeshi; Morishita, Junji; Hatanaka, Shiro; Ohki, Masafumi; Toyofuku, Fukai; Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to examine the potential usefulness of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors having the capability of rendering higher than 8 bits in display-bit depth. An LCD monitor having the capability of rendering 8, 10, and 12 bits was used. It was calibrated to the grayscale standard display function with a maximum luminance of 450 cd/m(2) and a minimum of 0.75 cd/m(2). For examining the grayscale resolution reported by ten observers, various simple test patterns having two different combinations of luminance in 8, 10, and 12 bits were randomly displayed on the LCD monitor. These patterns were placed on different uniform background luminance levels, such as 0, 50, and 100%, for maximum luminance. All observers participating in this study distinguished a smaller difference in luminance than one gray level in 8 bits irrespective of background luminance levels. As a result of the adaptation processes of the human visual system, observers distinguished a smaller difference in luminance as the luminance level of the test pattern was closer to the background. The smallest difference in luminance that observers distinguished was four gray levels in 12 bits, i.e., one gray level in 10 bits. Considering the results obtained by use of simple test patterns, medical images should ideally be displayed on LCD monitors having 10 bits or greater so that low-contrast objects with small differences in luminance can be detected and for providing a smooth gradation of grayscale.

  5. BIT BY BIT: A Game Simulating Natural Language Processing in Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Taichi; Arakawa, Chuichi

    2008-01-01

    BIT BY BIT is an encryption game that is designed to improve students' understanding of natural language processing in computers. Participants encode clear words into binary code using an encryption key and exchange them in the game. BIT BY BIT enables participants who do not understand the concept of binary numbers to perform the process of…

  6. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  7. Adaptive EZW coding using a rate-distortion criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Che-Yi

    2001-07-01

    This work presents a new method that improves on the EZW image coding algorithm. The standard EZW image coder uses a uniform quantizer with a threshold (deadzone) that is identical in all subbands. The quantization step sizes are not optimized under the rate-distortion sense. We modify the EZW by applying the Lagrange multiplier to search for the best step size for each subband and allocate the bit rate for each subband accordingly. Then we implement the adaptive EZW codec to code the wavelet coefficients. Two coding environments, independent and dependent, are considered for the optimization process. The proposed image coder retains all the good features of the EZW, namely, embedded coding, progressive transmission, order of the important bits, and enhances it through the rate-distortion optimization with respect to the step sizes.

  8. Improved high-power TSP bits

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, J.H.; Maurer, W.C.; Westcott, P.A.

    1994-12-31

    Four 3-in. (76.2-mm) diameter experimental bits utilizing large TSP cutters were manufactured in an attempt to develop improved hard rock drill bits. The bits were tested on a 2 3/8-in. (60.3-mm) downhole motor that operated at speeds up to 2,700 rpm and delivered up to 48 hp (36 kW). The TSP bits drilled Batesville marble at rates up to 550 ft/hr (168 m/hr) compared to 50 to 100 ft/hr (15 to 30 m/hr) for conventional roller cone bit drilling in this type of rock. The high penetration rates were achieved because the large cutters cut deep grooves in the rock and there was good clearance beneath the bits due to the large bit/rock standoff distance. None of the large cutters broke during the tests despite the severe drilling conditions and high power levels delivered to the bits, thus overcoming cutter breakage problems experienced with smaller TSP bits on earlier tests. The large cutter TSP bits were capable of operating at much higher power levels than the 48 hp (36 kW) delivered by the drilling motor, showing the need for improved high-power motors for use with these improved TSP bits.

  9. Arbitrarily Long Relativistic Bit Commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Chailloux, André; Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    We consider the recent relativistic bit commitment protocol introduced by Lunghi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 030502 (2015)] and present a new security analysis against classical attacks. In particular, while the initial complexity of the protocol scales double exponentially with the commitment time, our analysis shows that the correct dependence is only linear. This has dramatic implications in terms of implementation: in particular, the commitment time can easily be made arbitrarily long, by only requiring both parties to communicate classically and perform efficient classical computation.

  10. Bit-serial neuroprocessor architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A neuroprocessor architecture employs a combination of bit-serial and serial-parallel techniques for implementing the neurons of the neuroprocessor. The neuroprocessor architecture includes a neural module containing a pool of neurons, a global controller, a sigmoid activation ROM look-up-table, a plurality of neuron state registers, and a synaptic weight RAM. The neuroprocessor reduces the number of neurons required to perform the task by time multiplexing groups of neurons from a fixed pool of neurons to achieve the successive hidden layers of a recurrent network topology.

  11. Bit Threads and Holographic Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Michael; Headrick, Matthew

    2017-05-01

    The Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) formula relates the entanglement entropy of a region in a holographic theory to the area of a corresponding bulk minimal surface. Using the max flow-min cut principle, a theorem from network theory, we rewrite the RT formula in a way that does not make reference to the minimal surface. Instead, we invoke the notion of a "flow", defined as a divergenceless norm-bounded vector field, or equivalently a set of Planck-thickness "bit threads". The entanglement entropy of a boundary region is given by the maximum flux out of it of any flow, or equivalently the maximum number of bit threads that can emanate from it. The threads thus represent entanglement between points on the boundary, and naturally implement the holographic principle. As we explain, this new picture clarifies several conceptual puzzles surrounding the RT formula. We give flow-based proofs of strong subadditivity and related properties; unlike the ones based on minimal surfaces, these proofs correspond in a transparent manner to the properties' information-theoretic meanings. We also briefly discuss certain technical advantages that the flows offer over minimal surfaces. In a mathematical appendix, we review the max flow-min cut theorem on networks and on Riemannian manifolds, and prove in the network case that the set of max flows varies Lipshitz continuously in the network parameters.

  12. Stability of single skyrmionic bits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedmedenko, Olena; Hagemeister, Julian; Romming, Niklas; von Bergmann, Kirsten; Wiesendanger, Roland

    The switching between topologically distinct skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states has been proposed as a bit operation for information storage. While long lifetimes of the bits are required for data storage devices, the lifetimes of skyrmions have not been addressed so far. Here we show by means of atomistic Monte Carlo simulations that the field-dependent mean lifetimes of the skyrmionic and ferromagnetic states have a high asymmetry with respect to the critical magnetic field, at which these lifetimes are identical. According to our calculations, the main reason for the enhanced stability of skyrmions is a different field dependence of skyrmionic and ferromagnetic activation energies and a lower attempt frequency of skyrmions rather than the height of energy barriers. We use this knowledge to propose a procedure for the determination of effective material parameters and the quantification of the Monte Carlo timescale from the comparison of theoretical and experimental data. Financial support from the DFG in the framework of the SFB668 is acknowledged.

  13. Bit Threads and Holographic Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Michael; Headrick, Matthew

    2016-11-01

    The Ryu-Takayanagi (RT) formula relates the entanglement entropy of a region in a holographic theory to the area of a corresponding bulk minimal surface. Using the max flow-min cut principle, a theorem from network theory, we rewrite the RT formula in a way that does not make reference to the minimal surface. Instead, we invoke the notion of a "flow", defined as a divergenceless norm-bounded vector field, or equivalently a set of Planck-thickness "bit threads". The entanglement entropy of a boundary region is given by the maximum flux out of it of any flow, or equivalently the maximum number of bit threads that can emanate from it. The threads thus represent entanglement between points on the boundary, and naturally implement the holographic principle. As we explain, this new picture clarifies several conceptual puzzles surrounding the RT formula. We give flow-based proofs of strong subadditivity and related properties; unlike the ones based on minimal surfaces, these proofs correspond in a transparent manner to the properties' information-theoretic meanings. We also briefly discuss certain technical advantages that the flows offer over minimal surfaces. In a mathematical appendix, we review the max flow-min cut theorem on networks and on Riemannian manifolds, and prove in the network case that the set of max flows varies Lipshitz continuously in the network parameters.

  14. FastBit Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng

    2007-08-02

    An index in a database system is a data structure that utilizes redundant information about the base data to speed up common searching and retrieval operations. Most commonly used indexes are variants of B-trees, such as B+-tree and B*-tree. FastBit implements a set of alternative indexes call compressed bitmap indexes. Compared with B-tree variants, these indexes provide very efficient searching and retrieval operations by sacrificing the efficiency of updating the indexes after the modification of an individual record. In addition to the well-known strengths of bitmap indexes, FastBit has a special strength stemming from the bitmap compression scheme used. The compression method is called the Word-Aligned Hybrid (WAH) code. It reduces the bitmap indexes to reasonable sizes and at the same time allows very efficient bitwise logical operations directly on the compressed bitmaps. Compared with the well-known compression methods such as LZ77 and Byte-aligned Bitmap code (BBC), WAH sacrifices some space efficiency for a significant improvement in operational efficiency. Since the bitwise logical operations are the most important operations needed to answer queries, using WAH compression has been shown to answer queries significantly faster than using other compression schemes. Theoretical analyses showed that WAH compressed bitmap indexes are optimal for one-dimensional range queries. Only the most efficient indexing schemes such as B+-tree and B*-tree have this optimality property. However, bitmap indexes are superior because they can efficiently answer multi-dimensional range queries by combining the answers to one-dimensional queries.

  15. Stinger Enhanced Drill Bits For EGS

    SciTech Connect

    Durrand, Christopher J.; Skeem, Marcus R.; Crockett, Ron B.; Hall, David R.

    2013-04-29

    The project objectives were to design, engineer, test, and commercialize a drill bit suitable for drilling in hard rock and high temperature environments (10,000 meters) likely to be encountered in drilling enhanced geothermal wells. The goal is provide a drill bit that can aid in the increased penetration rate of three times over conventional drilling. Novatek has sought to leverage its polycrystalline diamond technology and a new conical cutter shape, known as the Stinger®, for this purpose. Novatek has developed a fixed bladed bit, known as the JackBit®, populated with both shear cutter and Stingers that is currently being tested by major drilling companies for geothermal and oil and gas applications. The JackBit concept comprises a fixed bladed bit with a center indenter, referred to as the Jack. The JackBit has been extensively tested in the lab and in the field. The JackBit has been transferred to a major bit manufacturer and oil service company. Except for the attached published reports all other information is confidential.

  16. Mine roof drill bits that save money

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, L.M.

    1982-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, has developed advanced technology roof bolt drill bits which have demonstrated longer life, higher penetration rates at lower thrust and torque, and lower specific energy than conventional roof bolt drill bits. This is achieved through use of advanced technology cutting materials and novel bit body designs. These bits have received extensive laboratory and mine testing. Their performance has been evaluated and estimates of their value in reducing coal production costs have been made. The work was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy.

  17. A Digital Camcorder Image Stabilizer Based on Gray Coded Bit-Plane Block Matching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    Matching", IEEE 1998. [9] Sung- Hee Lee, Seung -Won Jeon, Eui-Sung Kang and Sung-Jea Ko, "Fast Digital Stabilizer based on Gray Coded Bit- Plane Matching...Jea Ko and Sung- Hee Lee adopted bit-plane or gray-coded bit-plane block matching to greatly reduce the computational complexity. However, their...Yong Chul Park, and Dong Wook Kim , "An Adaptive Motion Decision System for Digital Image Stabilizer Based on Edge Pattern Matching", IEEE Trans. on

  18. FMO-based H.264 frame layer rate control for low bit rate video transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cajote, Rhandley D.; Aramvith, Supavadee; Miyanaga, Yoshikazu

    2011-12-01

    The use of flexible macroblock ordering (FMO) in H.264/AVC improves error resiliency at the expense of reduced coding efficiency with added overhead bits for slice headers and signalling. The trade-off is most severe at low bit rates, where header bits occupy a significant portion of the total bit budget. To better manage the rate and improve coding efficiency, we propose enhancements to the H.264/AVC frame layer rate control, which take into consideration the effects of using FMO for video transmission. In this article, we propose a new header bits model, an enhanced frame complexity measure, a bit allocation and a quantization parameter adjustment scheme. Simulation results show that the proposed improvements achieve better visual quality compared with the JM 9.2 frame layer rate control with FMO enabled using a different number of slice groups. Using FMO as an error resilient tool with better rate management is suitable in applications that have limited bandwidth and in error prone environments such as video transmission for mobile terminals.

  19. Rotating bits including a plurality of types of preferential cutting elements

    SciTech Connect

    Bidegaray, D. A.

    1985-04-23

    A rotating bit, particularly a rotary bit, is provided with a plurality of teeth incorporating diamond cutting elements of a first and second type. Each type of tooth is particularly adapted to cut a particular type of rock formation. For example, the plurality of the first type of teeth are particularly designed to cut soft to medium-hard rock formations, and the plurality of the second type of teeth are particularly adapted to cut hard or abrasive rock formations. In one embodiment, the first type of teeth are set on the bit face to have a greater exposure from the bit face than the second type of teeth. In that case, the first type of teeth will engage the rock formation first. A second embodiment has the relative disposition of the first and second types of teeth as measured by their disposition from the axis of rotation on the bit reversed. In the case where the teeth, which are adapted for hard rock cutting, extend furthermost from the bit, the rock formation first comes into contact with these teeth and if it should be a hard rock formation, primary cutting action will be accomplished with the hard rock cutting teeth, while the soft rock cutting teeth are held out of contact from the formation to minimize wear of these softer rock cutting teeth. However, when a soft rock formation is encountered, the hard rock teeth will fully embed into the softer rock formation, thereby allowing full engagement of the softer rock formation cutting teeth.

  20. Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... putting them on. Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD Date reviewed: September 2016 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Hey! A Fire Ant Stung Me! Hey! A Tarantula Bit Me! Hey! A Scorpion Stung Me! Hey! A Black Widow Spider Bit Me! Contact Us Print Resources ...

  1. Drag blade bit with diamond cutting elements

    SciTech Connect

    Radtke, R. P.; Morris, W. V.

    1985-02-19

    A drag blade bit for connection on a drill string has a hollow body on which there are welded a plurality of cutting or drilling blades. The blades extend longitudinally and radially of the bit body and terminate in relatively flat, radially extending cutting edges. A plurality of cutters are positioned in and spaced along the cutting edges and consists of cylindrical sintered carbide inserts with polycrystalline diamond cutting elements mounted thereon. Hardfacing is provided on the cutting edges between the cutters and on the other surfaces of the blades and the bit body subject to abrasive wear. One or more nozzles are positioned in passages from the interior of the bit body for directing flow of drilling fluid for flushing cuttings from the well bore and for cooling the bit.

  2. Rotary drill bit with rotary cutters

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenstein, M.; Ernst, H.M.; Kunkel, H.; Olschewski, A.; Walter, L.

    1981-03-31

    A rotary drill bit is described that has a drill bit body and at least one trunnion projecting from the drill bit body and a rotary cutter supported on at least one pair of radial rolling bearings on the trunnion. The rolling elements of at least one bearing are guided on at last one axial end facing the drill bit body in an outer bearing race groove incorporated in the bore of the rotary cutter. The inner bearing groove is formed on the trunnion for the rolling elements of the radial roller bearing. A filling opening is provided for assembly of the rolling elements comprising a channel which extends through the drill bit body and trunnion and is essentially axially oriented having one terminal end adjacent the inner bearing race groove and at least one filler piece for sealing the opening. The filling opening is arranged to provide a common filling means for each radial bearing.

  3. Rotary drill bit with rotary cutters

    SciTech Connect

    Lachonius, L.

    1981-04-28

    A rotary drill bit is described having a drill bit body and at least one trunnion projecting from the drill bit body and a rotary cutter supported on at least one radial roller bearing on the trunnion. The rolling elements of the bearing are guided on at least one axial end facing the drill bit body in an outer bearing race groove incorporated in the bore of the rotary cutter. The inner bearing race groove is formed on the trunnion for the rolling elements of the radial roller bearing. At least one filling opening is provided which extends through the drill bit body and trunnion and is essentially axially oriented having one terminal end adjacent the inner bearing race groove and at least one pair of filler piece for sealing the opening. One of the filler pieces is made of an elastically compressible material.

  4. Rotary drill bit with rotary cutter

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenstein, M.; Kunkel, H.; Olschewski, A.; Walter, L.

    1981-03-17

    A rotary drill bit having a drill bit body and at least one trunnion projecting from the drill bit body and a rotary cutter supported on at least one radial roller bearing on the trunnion. The rolling elements of the bearing are guided on at least one axial end facing the drill bit body in an outer bearing race groove incorporated in the bore of the rotary cutter. The inner bearing race groove is formed on the trunnion for the rolling elements of the radial roller bearing. At least one filling opening is provided which extends through the drill bit body and trunnion and is essentially axially oriented having one terminal end adjacent the inner bearing race groove and at least one filler piece for sealing the opening.

  5. Bit error rate measurement above and below bit rate tracking threshold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayaski, H. S.; Fowler, J.; Kurple, W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Bit error rate is measured by sending a pseudo-random noise (PRN) code test signal simulating digital data through digital equipment to be tested. An incoming signal representing the response of the equipment being tested, together with any added noise, is received and tracked by being compared with a locally generated PRN code. Once the locally generated PRN code matches the incoming signal a tracking lock is obtained. The incoming signal is then integrated and compared bit-by-bit against the locally generated PRN code and differences between bits being compared are counted as bit errors.

  6. Bit-string scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1990-01-29

    We construct discrete space-time coordinates separated by the Lorentz-invariant intervals h/mc in space and h/mc{sup 2} in time using discrimination (XOR) between pairs of independently generated bit-strings; we prove that if this space is homogeneous and isotropic, it can have only 1, 2 or 3 spacial dimensions once we have related time to a global ordering operator. On this space we construct exact combinatorial expressions for free particle wave functions taking proper account of the interference between indistinguishable alternative paths created by the construction. Because the end-points of the paths are fixed, they specify completed processes; our wave functions are born collapsed''. A convenient way to represent this model is in terms of complex amplitudes whose squares give the probability for a particular set of observable processes to be completed. For distances much greater than h/mc and times much greater than h/mc{sup 2} our wave functions can be approximated by solutions of the free particle Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. Using a eight-counter paradigm we relate this construction to scattering experiments involving four distinguishable particles, and indicate how this can be used to calculate electromagnetic and weak scattering processes. We derive a non-perturbative formula relating relativistic bound and resonant state energies to mass ratios and coupling constants, equivalent to our earlier derivation of the Bohr relativistic formula for hydrogen. Using the Fermi-Yang model of the pion as a relativistic bound state containing a nucleon-antinucleon pair, we find that (G{sub {pi}N}{sup 2}){sup 2} = (2m{sub N}/m{sub {pi}}){sup 2} {minus} 1. 21 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Add 16-bit processing to any computer

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, W.

    1983-01-01

    A zoom computer is a simple, fast, and friendly computer in a very small package. Zoom architecture provides an easy migration path from existing 8-bit computers to today's 16-bit and tomorrow's 32-bit designs. With zoom, the benefits of the VLSI technological explosion can be attained with your present peripherals-there is no need to purchase new peripherals because all your old applications run unhindered on zoom. And in addition to all your old applications, zoom offers a whole new world of processing power at your fingertips.

  8. A practical quantum bit commitment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash Sheikholeslam, S.; Aaron Gulliver, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new quantum bit commitment protocol which is secure against entanglement attacks. A general cheating strategy is examined and shown to be practically ineffective against the proposed approach.

  9. FastBit: Interactively Searching Massive Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Chen, Jacqueline; Childs, Hank; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Geddes, Cameron; Gu, Junmin; Hagen, Hans; Hamann, Bernd; Koegler, Wendy; Lauret, Jerome; Meredith, Jeremy; Messmer, Peter; Otoo, Ekow; Perevoztchikov, Victor; Poskanzer, Arthur; Prabhat,; Rubel, Oliver; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alexander; Stockinger, Kurt; Weber, Gunther; Zhang, Wei-Ming

    2009-06-23

    As scientific instruments and computer simulations produce more and more data, the task of locating the essential information to gain insight becomes increasingly difficult. FastBit is an efficient software tool to address this challenge. In this article, we present a summary of the key underlying technologies, namely bitmap compression, encoding, and binning. Together these techniques enable FastBit to answer structured (SQL) queries orders of magnitude faster than popular database systems. To illustrate how FastBit is used in applications, we present three examples involving a high-energy physics experiment, a combustion simulation, and an accelerator simulation. In each case, FastBit significantly reduces the response time and enables interactive exploration on terabytes of data.

  10. An optical ultrafast random bit generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The generation of random bit sequences based on non-deterministic physical mechanisms is of paramount importance for cryptography and secure communications. High data rates also require extremely fast generation rates and robustness to external perturbations. Physical generators based on stochastic noise sources have been limited in bandwidth to ~100 Mbit s-1 generation rates. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having time-delayed self-feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300 Gbit s-1. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.

  11. Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Operating Room? Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Brown ... picó una reclusa parda! What's a Brown Recluse Spider? The brown recluse spider is one of the ...

  12. 28-Bit serial word simulator/monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durbin, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Modular interface unit transfers data at high speeds along four channels. Device expedites variable-word-length communication between computers. Operation eases exchange of bit information by automatically reformatting coded input data and status information to match requirements of output.

  13. A Study of a Standard BIT Circuit.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    availability through improved fault detection and isolation techniques. The particular approach taken in this study involves the use of built-in-test (BIT...circuits at the replaceable unit level to facilitate fault detection and isolation .

  14. Diffusion bonding of Stratapax for drill bits

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, J.N.; Finger, J.T.

    1983-01-01

    A process has been developed for the diffusion bonding of General Electric's Stratapax drill blanks to support studs for cutter assemblies in drill bits. The diffusion bonding process is described and bond strength test data are provided for a variety of materials. The extensive process details, provided in the Appendices, should be sufficient to enable others to successfully build diffusion-bonded drill bit cutter assemblies.

  15. Neural network implementation using bit streams.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nitish D; Nguang, Sing Kiong; Coghill, George G

    2007-09-01

    A new method for the parallel hardware implementation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) using digital techniques is presented. Signals are represented using uniformly weighted single-bit streams. Techniques for generating bit streams from analog or multibit inputs are also presented. This single-bit representation offers significant advantages over multibit representations since they mitigate the fan-in and fan-out issues which are typical to distributed systems. To process these bit streams using ANNs concepts, functional elements which perform summing, scaling, and squashing have been implemented. These elements are modular and have been designed such that they can be easily interconnected. Two new architectures which act as monotonically increasing differentiable nonlinear squashing functions have also been presented. Using these functional elements, a multilayer perceptron (MLP) can be easily constructed. Two examples successfully demonstrate the use of bit streams in the implementation of ANNs. Since every functional element is individually instantiated, the implementation is genuinely parallel. The results clearly show that this bit-stream technique is viable for the hardware implementation of a variety of distributed systems and for ANNs in particular.

  16. Channel Allocation Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Robert S.

    The Frequency Allocation Subcommittee of the Coordinating Committee for Cable Communication Systems, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, was formed to produce a background report on the general problems of frequency allocation and assignments in cable television. The present paper, based on the subcommittee's interim report,…

  17. Proper bit design improves penetration rate in abrasive horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Gentges, R.J. )

    1993-08-09

    Overall drilling penetration rates nearly tripled, and drill bit life nearly doubled compared to conventional bits when specially designed natural diamond and polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits were used during a seven-well horizontal drilling program. The improvement in drilling performance from better-designed bits lowered drilling costs at ANR Pipeline Co.'s Reed City gas storage field in Michigan. Laboratory tests with scaled down bits used on abrasive cores helped determine the optimum design for drilling the gas storage wells. The laboratory test results and actual field data were used to develop a matrix-body natural diamond bit, which was later modified to become a matrix-body, blade-type polycrystalline diamond compact bit. This bit had excellent penetration rates and abrasion resistance. The paper describes the background to the project, bit selection, natural diamond bits, field results, new bit designs, and field results from the new design.

  18. Dynamic Resource Allocation and Adaptability in Teamwork

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-31

    for panel data: Monte Carlo evidence and an application to employment equations. Review of Economic Studies, 58, 277-297. Arellano , M., & Bover, 0...unobserved unit or cross-section heterogeneity into the estimation procedure (e.g., Anderson & Hsiao, 1981; Arellano & Bond, 1991; Holtz- Eakin, Newey...Rosen, 1988). The Generalized-Method-of Moments (GMM) estimators developed by Arellano and Bond (1991) and Arellano & Bover, (1995) are useful when

  19. Adaptive and Robust Resource Allocation and Scheduling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-03

    HOK nvjrnocn OT. vvunr. uim l NUMDUI /. rtni-unminiu UHUHNUA I IUN NMivttis) HNU Muuneosicoi Brown University Office of Research...telecommunication technologies which enables entreprises and organizations to track their operations in real-time us- ing technologies such as GPS...RFIDs, sensors, and high- performance networks. The ubiquity of telecommunication technologies led to a paradigm shift in business processes

  20. Instant Foundry Adaptive through Bits (iFAB)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    source libraries including Sencha’s ExtJS [15], and the Three.js WebGL library [16]. Figure 39. AMFA GUI Web Page Some of the other features of...34 [Online]. Available: http://www.sencha.com/products/extjs. [16] "Software: Three.js WebGL (Library)," [Online]. Available: https://github.com/mrdoob

  1. The best bits in an iris code.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J

    2009-06-01

    Iris biometric systems apply filters to iris images to extract information about iris texture. Daugman's approach maps the filter output to a binary iris code. The fractional Hamming distance between two iris codes is computed and decisions about the identity of a person are based on the computed distance. The fractional Hamming distance weights all bits in an iris code equally. However, not all the bits in an iris code are equally useful. Our research is the first to present experiments documenting that some bits are more consistent than others. Different regions of the iris are compared to evaluate their relative consistency, and contrary to some previous research, we find that the middle bands of the iris are more consistent than the inner bands. The inconsistent-bit phenomenon is evident across genders and different filter types. Possible causes of inconsistencies, such as segmentation, alignment issues, and different filters are investigated. The inconsistencies are largely due to the coarse quantization of the phase response. Masking iris code bits corresponding to complex filter responses near the axes of the complex plane improves the separation between the match and nonmatch Hamming distance distributions.

  2. Nugget hardfacing toughens roller cone bits

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-25

    A new hardfacing material made of pure sintered tungsten carbide nuggets has improved roller cone rock bit performance in extremely hard lithologies, increasing penetration rates and extending bit life through multiple formations. In a recent test run in the Shushufindi 95 wells in Ecuador, a Security DBS 9 7/8-in. MPSF IADC 117M (International Association of Drilling Contractors bit code) bit with this new hardfacing drilled out the float equipment, cement, and show and then 3,309 ft of hard formations. The bit drilled through the Orteguaza claystone/shale/sand and chert formations and then to total depth at 6,309 ft in the Tiyuyacu shale/sand. The 3,309-ft interval was drilled at an average penetration rate (ROP) of 52.5 ft/hr. The proprietary nugget material was tested according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) G65 wear test method, a standard industry method of measuring wear resistance. The nugget material had ASTM wear test resistance more than twice that of standard hardfacing from conventional tungsten carbide.

  3. CP/M: A Family of 8- and 16-Bit Computer Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kildall, Gary

    1982-01-01

    Traces the development of the computer CP/M (Control Program for Microcomputers) and MP/M (Multiprogramming Monitor Microcomputers) operating system by Gary Kildall of Digital Research Company. Discusses the adaptation of these operating systems to the newly emerging 16 and 32 bit microprocessors. (Author/LC)

  4. Evaluations of bit sleeve and twisted-body bit designs for controlling roof bolter dust

    PubMed Central

    Beck, T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Drilling into coal mine roof strata to install roof bolts has the potential to release substantial quantities of respirable dust. Due to the proximity of drill holes to the breathing zone of roof bolting personnel, dust escaping the holes and avoiding capture by the dust collection system pose a potential respiratory health risk. Controls are available to complement the typical dry vacuum collection system and minimize harmful exposures during the initial phase of drilling. This paper examines the use of a bit sleeve in combination with a dust-hog-type bit to improve dust extraction during the critical initial phase of drilling. A twisted-body drill bit is also evaluated to determine the quantity of dust liberated in comparison with the dust-hog-type bit. Based on the results of our laboratory tests, the bit sleeve may reduce dust emissions by one-half during the initial phase of drilling before the drill bit is fully enclosed by the drill hole. Because collaring is responsible for the largest dust liberations, overall dust emission can also be substantially reduced. The use of a twisted-body bit has minimal improvement on dust capture compared with the commonly used dust-hog-type bit. PMID:26257435

  5. Managing the Number of Tag Bits Transmitted in a Bit-Tracking RFID Collision Resolution Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Landaluce, Hugo; Perallos, Asier; Angulo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology faces the problem of message collisions. The coexistence of tags sharing the communication channel degrades bandwidth, and increases the number of bits transmitted. The window methodology, which controls the number of bits transmitted by the tags, is applied to the collision tree (CT) protocol to solve the tag collision problem. The combination of this methodology with the bit-tracking technology, used in CT, improves the performance of the window and produces a new protocol which decreases the number of bits transmitted. The aim of this paper is to show how the CT bit-tracking protocol is influenced by the proposed window, and how the performance of the novel protocol improves under different conditions of the scenario. Therefore, we have performed a fair comparison of the CT protocol, which uses bit-tracking to identify the first collided bit, and the new proposed protocol with the window methodology. Simulations results show that the proposed window positively decreases the total number of bits that are transmitted by the tags, and outperforms the CT protocol latency in slow tag data rate scenarios. PMID:24406861

  6. Friction of drill bits under Martian pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K. A.; Cooper, G. A.

    2007-03-01

    Frictional behavior was investigated for two materials that are good candidates for Mars drill bits: Diamond Impregnated Segments and Polycrystalline Diamond Compacts (PDC). The bits were sliding against dry sandstone and basalt rocks under both Earth and Mars atmospheric pressures and also at temperatures ranging from subzero to over 400 °C. It was found that the friction coefficient dropped from approximately 0.16 to 0.1 as the pressure was lowered from the Earth's pressure to Mars' pressure, at room temperature. This is thought to be a result of the loss of weakly bound water on the sliding surfaces. Holding the pressure at 5 torr and increasing the temperature to approximately 200°C caused a sudden increase in the friction coefficient by approximately 50%. This is attributed to the loss of surface oxides. If no indication of the bit temperature is available, an increase in drilling torque could be misinterpreted as being caused by an increase in auger torque (due to accumulation of cuttings) rather than being the result of a loss of oxide layers due to elevated bit temperatures. An increase in rotational speed (to allow for clearing of cuttings) would then cause greater frictional heating and would increase the drilling torque further. Therefore it would be advisable to monitor the bit temperature or, if that is not possible, to include pauses in drilling to allow the heat to dissipate. Higher friction would also accelerate the wear of the drill bit and in turn reduce the depth of the hole.

  7. Quantum bit commitment under Gaussian constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandilara, Aikaterini; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2012-06-01

    Quantum bit commitment has long been known to be impossible. Nevertheless, just as in the classical case, imposing certain constraints on the power of the parties may enable the construction of asymptotically secure protocols. Here, we introduce a quantum bit commitment protocol and prove that it is asymptotically secure if cheating is restricted to Gaussian operations. This protocol exploits continuous-variable quantum optical carriers, for which such a Gaussian constraint is experimentally relevant as the high optical nonlinearity needed to effect deterministic non-Gaussian cheating is inaccessible.

  8. Classical teleportation of a quantum Bit

    PubMed

    Cerf; Gisin; Massar

    2000-03-13

    Classical teleportation is defined as a scenario where the sender is given the classical description of an arbitrary quantum state while the receiver simulates any measurement on it. This scenario is shown to be achievable by transmitting only a few classical bits if the sender and receiver initially share local hidden variables. Specifically, a communication of 2.19 bits is sufficient on average for the classical teleportation of a qubit, when restricted to von Neumann measurements. The generalization to positive-operator-valued measurements is also discussed.

  9. Secure quantum bit commitment against empty promises

    SciTech Connect

    He Guangping

    2006-08-15

    The existence of unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is excluded by the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem. Here we look for the second-best: a QBC protocol that can defeat certain quantum attacks. By breaking the knowledge symmetry between the participants with quantum algorithm, a QBC protocol is proposed and is proven to be secure against a major kind of coherent attacks - the dummy attack, in which the participant makes an empty promise instead of committing to a specific bit. Therefore it surpasses previous QBC protocols which are secure against individual attacks only.

  10. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  11. Protected Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bits For Hard Rock Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Lee Cardenas

    2000-10-31

    Two bits were designed. One bit was fabricated and tested at Terra-Tek's Drilling Research Laboratory. Fabrication of the second bit was not completed due to complications in fabrication and meeting scheduled test dates at the test facility. A conical bit was tested in a Carthage Marble (compressive strength 14,500 psi) and Sierra White Granite (compressive strength 28,200 psi). During the testing, Hydraulic Horsepower, Bit Weight, Rotation Rate, were varied for the Conical Bit, a Varel Tricone Bit and Varel PDC bit. The Conical Bi did cut rock at a reasonable rate in both rocks. Beneficial effects from the near and through cutter water nozzles were not evident in the marble due to test conditions and were not conclusive in the granite due to test conditions. At atmospheric drilling, the Conical Bit's penetration rate was as good as the standard PDC bit and better than the Tricone Bit. Torque requirements for the Conical Bit were higher than that required for the Standard Bits. Spudding the conical bit into the rock required some care to avoid overloading the nose cutters. The nose design should be evaluated to improve the bit's spudding characteristics.

  12. Nanomagnetic Bit Cells for MRAM Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Brad

    2007-03-01

    Magnetoresistive Random Access Memory (MRAM) combines magnetic tunnel junction devices with standard silicon-based microelectronics to obtain the combined attributes of non-volatility, high-speed operation, and unlimited read/write endurance not found in any other existing memory technology. The first MRAM product to market, Freescale's 4Mb MR2A16A, is built on 180 nm CMOS technology with magnetic bit cells of 300 nm minimum dimensions integrated in the upper layers of metal. At these dimensions, both the magnetic switching and magnetoresistive property distributions are governed by a combination of material and patterning variations. One of the keys to controlling these distributions and insuring manufacturability was the invention of the Toggle Write mode. This mode uses a balanced synthetic antiferromagnetic free layer combined with a phased write pulse sequence to achieve robust magnetic switching margin by eliminating the half-select disturb issue found in conventional approaches. Another crucial solution was the ability to deposit and pattern high-quality, high-TMR magnetic tunnel junctions with narrow bit-to-bit resistance variation, low defect density and long-term reliability. In this talk, I will present details of each of the above technology elements, the performance and bit cell reliability, and the scaling behavior to the reduced dimensions of advanced technology nodes.

  13. Multiple bit differential detection of offset QPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M.

    2003-01-01

    Analogous to multiple symbol differential detection of quadrature phase-shift-keying, a multiple bit differential detection scheme is described for offset QPSK that also exhibits continuous improvement in performance with increasing observation interval. Being derived from maximum-likelihood (ML) considerations, the proposed scheme is purported to be the most power efficient scheme for such a modulation and detection method.

  14. Hey! A Black Widow Spider Bit Me!

    MedlinePlus

    ... dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Hey! A Black Widow Spider Bit Me! KidsHealth > For Kids > Hey! A Black ... Me picó una araña viuda negra! What's a Black Widow Spider? The black widow spider is one of the ...

  15. 1 /N perturbations in superstring bit models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorn, Charles B.

    2016-03-01

    We develop the 1 /N expansion for stable string bit models, focusing on a model with bit creation operators carrying only transverse spinor indices a =1 ,…,s . At leading order (N =∞ ), this model produces a (discretized) light cone string with a "transverse space" of s Grassmann worldsheet fields. Higher orders in the 1 /N expansion are shown to be determined by the overlap of a single large closed chain (discretized string) with two smaller closed chains. In the models studied here, the overlap is not accompanied with operator insertions at the break/join point. Then, the requirement that the discretized overlap has a smooth continuum limit leads to the critical Grassmann "dimension" of s =24 . This "protostring," a Grassmann analog of the bosonic string, is unusual, because it has no large transverse dimensions. It is a string moving in one space dimension, and there are neither tachyons nor massless particles. The protostring, derived from our pure spinor string bit model, has 24 Grassmann dimensions, 16 of which could be bosonized to form 8 compactified bosonic dimensions, leaving 8 Grassmann dimensions—the worldsheet content of the superstring. If the transverse space of the protostring could be "decompactified," string bit models might provide an appealing and solid foundation for superstring theory.

  16. Iterative rate-distortion optimization of H.264 with constant bit rate constraint.

    PubMed

    An, Cheolhong; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we apply the primal-dual decomposition and subgradient projection methods to solve the rate-distortion optimization problem with the constant bit rate constraint. The primal decomposition method enables spatial or temporal prediction dependency within a group of picture (GOP) to be processed in the master primal problem. As a result, we can apply the dual decomposition to minimize independently the Lagrangian cost of all the MBs using the reference software model of H.264. Furthermore, the optimal Lagrange multiplier lambda* is iteratively derived from the solution of the dual problem. As an example, we derive the optimal bit allocation condition with the consideration of temporal prediction dependency among the pictures. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves better performance than the reference software model of H.264 with rate control.

  17. Frictional ignition with coal-mining bits. Information Circular/1990

    SciTech Connect

    Courtney, W.G.

    1990-01-01

    The publication reviews recent U.S. Bureau of Mines studies of frictional ignition of a methane-air environment by coal mining bits cutting into sandstone and the effectiveness of remedial techniques to reduce the likelihood of frictional ignition. Frictional ignition with a mining bit always involves a worn bit having a wear flat on the tip of the bit. The worn bit forms hot spots on the surface of the sandstone because of frictional abrasion. The hot spots then can ignite the methane-air environment. A small wear flat forms a small hot spot, which does not give ignition, while a large wear flat forms a large hot spot, which gives ignition. The likelihood of frictional ignition can be somewhat reduced by using a mushroom-shaped tungsten-carbide bit tip on the mining bit and by increasing the bit clearance angle; it can be significantly reduced by using a water spray nozzle in back of each bit.

  18. Statistical mechanics analysis of thresholding 1-bit compressed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingying; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    The one-bit compressed sensing framework aims to reconstruct a sparse signal by only using the sign information of its linear measurements. To compensate for the loss of scale information, past studies in the area have proposed recovering the signal by imposing an additional constraint on the l 2-norm of the signal. Recently, an alternative strategy that captures scale information by introducing a threshold parameter to the quantization process was advanced. In this paper, we analyze the typical behavior of thresholding 1-bit compressed sensing utilizing the replica method of statistical mechanics, so as to gain an insight for properly setting the threshold value. Our result shows that fixing the threshold at a constant value yields better performance than varying it randomly when the constant is optimally tuned, statistically. Unfortunately, the optimal threshold value depends on the statistical properties of the target signal, which may not be known in advance. In order to handle this inconvenience, we develop a heuristic that adaptively tunes the threshold parameter based on the frequency of positive (or negative) values in the binary outputs. Numerical experiments show that the heuristic exhibits satisfactory performance while incurring low computational cost.

  19. Approximate Minimum Bit Error Rate Equalization for Fading Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Lorant; Levendovszky, Janos; Olah, Andras; Treplan, Gergely

    2010-12-01

    A novel channel equalizer algorithm is introduced for wireless communication systems to combat channel distortions resulting from multipath propagation. The novel algorithm is based on minimizing the bit error rate (BER) using a fast approximation of its gradient with respect to the equalizer coefficients. This approximation is obtained by estimating the exponential summation in the gradient with only some carefully chosen dominant terms. The paper derives an algorithm to calculate these dominant terms in real-time. Summing only these dominant terms provides a highly accurate approximation of the true gradient. Combined with a fast adaptive channel state estimator, the new equalization algorithm yields better performance than the traditional zero forcing (ZF) or minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalizers. The performance of the new method is tested by simulations performed on standard wireless channels. From the performance analysis one can infer that the new equalizer is capable of efficient channel equalization and maintaining a relatively low bit error probability in the case of channels corrupted by frequency selectivity. Hence, the new algorithm can contribute to ensuring QoS communication over highly distorted channels.

  20. Multi-channel time-reversal receivers for multi and 1-bit implementations

    DOEpatents

    Candy, James V.; Chambers, David H.; Guidry, Brian L.; Poggio, Andrew J.; Robbins, Christopher L.

    2008-12-09

    A communication system for transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprising digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. In one embodiment a transmitter is adapted to transmit the signal, a multiplicity of receivers are adapted to receive the signal, a digitizer digitizes the signal, and a time-reversal signal processor is adapted to time-reverse the digitized signal. An embodiment of the present invention includes multi bit implementations. Another embodiment of the present invention includes 1-bit implementations. Another embodiment of the present invention includes a multiplicity of receivers used in the step of transmitting the signal through the channel medium.

  1. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Conservation Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Dynamic Resource Allocation in Conservation Planning Daniel Golovin Caltech Pasadena, CA, USA Andreas Krause ETH Zürich Zurich, Switzerland Beth...to adaptive policies ( Golovin and Krause 2010). We omit details due to space limita- tions. 1335 using the independent cascade model of Goldenberg... Golovin and Krause [2010]. However, their approach is not known to provide competitiveness guarantees such as those of Theo- rem 2, where the set of

  2. Blind One-Bit Compressive Sampling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-17

    notation and recalling some background from convex analysis . For the d-dimensional Euclidean space Rd, the class of all lower semicontinuous convex...compressed sensing, Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis , 27 (2009), pp. 265 – 274. [3] P. T. Boufounos and R. G. Baraniuk, 1-bit compressive sensing...Convergence analysis of the algorithm is presented. Our approach is to obtain a sequence of optimization problems by successively approximating the ℓ0

  3. Acquisition and Retaining Granular Samples via a Rotating Coring Bit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    This device takes advantage of the centrifugal forces that are generated when a coring bit is rotated, and a granular sample is entered into the bit while it is spinning, making it adhere to the internal wall of the bit, where it compacts itself into the wall of the bit. The bit can be specially designed to increase the effectiveness of regolith capturing while turning and penetrating the subsurface. The bit teeth can be oriented such that they direct the regolith toward the bit axis during the rotation of the bit. The bit can be designed with an internal flute that directs the regolith upward inside the bit. The use of both the teeth and flute can be implemented in the same bit. The bit can also be designed with an internal spiral into which the various particles wedge. In another implementation, the bit can be designed to collect regolith primarily from a specific depth. For that implementation, the bit can be designed such that when turning one way, the teeth guide the regolith outward of the bit and when turning in the opposite direction, the teeth will guide the regolith inward into the bit internal section. This mechanism can be implemented with or without an internal flute. The device is based on the use of a spinning coring bit (hollow interior) as a means of retaining granular sample, and the acquisition is done by inserting the bit into the subsurface of a regolith, soil, or powder. To demonstrate the concept, a commercial drill and a coring bit were used. The bit was turned and inserted into the soil that was contained in a bucket. While spinning the bit (at speeds of 600 to 700 RPM), the drill was lifted and the soil was retained inside the bit. To prove this point, the drill was turned horizontally, and the acquired soil was still inside the bit. The basic theory behind the process of retaining unconsolidated mass that can be acquired by the centrifugal forces of the bit is determined by noting that in order to stay inside the interior of the bit, the

  4. Approaches to Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Paul; Simon, Lou Anna Kimsey

    1976-01-01

    Various budgeting patterns and strategies are currently in use, each with its own particular strengths and weaknesses. Neither cost-benefit analysis nor cost-effectiveness analysis offers any better solution to the allocation problem than do the unsupported contentions of departments or the historical unit costs. An operable model that performs…

  5. NSC 800, 8-bit CMOS microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suszko, S. F.

    1984-01-01

    The NSC 800 is an 8-bit CMOS microprocessor manufactured by National Semiconductor Corp., Santa Clara, California. The 8-bit microprocessor chip with 40-pad pin-terminals has eight address buffers (A8-A15), eight data address -- I/O buffers (AD(sub 0)-AD(sub 7)), six interrupt controls and sixteen timing controls with a chip clock generator and an 8-bit dynamic RAM refresh circuit. The 22 internal registers have the capability of addressing 64K bytes of memory and 256 I/O devices. The chip is fabricated on N-type (100) silicon using self-aligned polysilicon gates and local oxidation process technology. The chip interconnect consists of four levels: Aluminum, Polysi 2, Polysi 1, and P(+) and N(+) diffusions. The four levels, except for contact interface, are isolated by interlevel oxide. The chip is packaged in a 40-pin dual-in-line (DIP), side brazed, hermetically sealed, ceramic package with a metal lid. The operating voltage for the device is 5 V. It is available in three operating temperature ranges: 0 to +70 C, -40 to +85 C, and -55 to +125 C. Two devices were submitted for product evaluation by F. Stott, MTS, JPL Microprocessor Specialist. The devices were pencil-marked and photographed for identification.

  6. Lathe tool bit and holder for machining fiberglass materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, L. E. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    A lathe tool and holder combination for machining resin impregnated fiberglass cloth laminates is described. The tool holder and tool bit combination is designed to accommodate a conventional carbide-tipped, round shank router bit as the cutting medium, and provides an infinite number of cutting angles in order to produce a true and smooth surface in the fiberglass material workpiece with every pass of the tool bit. The technique utilizes damaged router bits which ordinarily would be discarded.

  7. Method to manufacture bit patterned magnetic recording media

    DOEpatents

    Raeymaekers, Bart; Sinha, Dipen N

    2014-05-13

    A method to increase the storage density on magnetic recording media by physically separating the individual bits from each other with a non-magnetic medium (so-called bit patterned media). This allows the bits to be closely packed together without creating magnetic "cross-talk" between adjacent bits. In one embodiment, ferromagnetic particles are submerged in a resin solution, contained in a reservoir. The bottom of the reservoir is made of piezoelectric material.

  8. Laboratory and field testing of improved geothermal rock bits

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, R.R.; Jones, A.H.; Winzenried, R.W.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-07-01

    The development and testing of 222 mm (8-3/4 inch) unsealed, insert type, medium hard formation, high-temperature bits are described. The new bits were fabricated by substituting improved materials in critical bit components. These materials were selected on bases of their high temperature properties, machinability, and heat treatment response. Program objectives required that both machining and heat treating could be accomplished with existing rock bit production equipment. Two types of experimental bits were subjected to laboratory air drilling tests at 250/sup 0/C (482/sup 0/F) in cast iron. These tests indicated field testing could be conducted without danger to the hole, and that bearing wear would be substantially reduced. Six additional experimental bits, and eight conventional bits were then subjected to air drilling a 240/sup 0/C (464/sup 0/F) in Francisan Graywacke at The Geysers, CA. The materials selected improved roller wear by 200%, friction-pin wear by 150%, and lug wear by 150%. Geysers drilling performances compared directly to conventional bits indicate that in-gage drilling life was increased by 70%. All bits at The Geysers are subjected to reaming out-of-gage hole prior to drilling. Under these conditions the experimental bits showed a 30% increase in usable hole over the conventional bits. These tests demonstrated a potential well cost reduction of 4 to 8%. Savings of 12% are considered possible with drilling procedures optimized for the experimental bits.

  9. High penetration rates and extended bit life through revolutionary hydraulic and mechanical design in PDC drill bit development

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M.R.; Murdock, A.D.; Evans, S.M.

    1996-12-31

    PDC drill bit developments have been made to achieve higher penetration rates and longer life, involving a compromise between open, light set, bits for speed and heavy set ones for durability. Developments are described which provided the benefits of both in a revolutionary hydraulic and mechanical design. The hydraulic design causes mud to flow first towards the bit Centre and then outwards. It was extensively flow tested using high speed photography to ensure that bit balling was prevented. It includes features to address bit whirl which were demonstrated in full scale laboratory testing to reduce the bit`s vibration level. The mechanical design maximizes open face volume, known to benefit penetration rate, by using very high blades. However, the heights attainable can be limited by the bit body`s mechanical strength. Steel was chosen to maximize blade strength and was coated with a newly developed hardfacing to improve erosion resistance. A program of fatigue testing assured adequate strength.

  10. High penetration rates and extended bit life through revolutionary hydraulic and mechanical design in PDC drill bit development

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, M.R.; Murdock, A.D.; Evans, S.M.

    1999-03-01

    PDC drill bit developments have been made to achieve higher penetration rates and longer life, involving a compromise between open, light set, bits for speed, and heavy set ones for durability. Developments are described which provided the benefits of both in a revolutionary hydraulic and mechanical design. The hydraulic design causes mud to flow first towards the bit center and then outwards. It was extensively flow tested using high-speed photography to ensure that bit balling was prevented. It includes features to address bit whirl which were demonstrated in full scale laboratory testing to reduce the bit`s vibration level. The mechanical design maximizes open-face volume, known to benefit penetration rate, by using very high blades. However, the heights attainable can be limited by the bit body`s mechanical strength. Steel was chosen to maximize blade strength and was coated with a newly developed hardfacing to improve erosion resistance. A program of fatigue testing assured adequate strength.

  11. Reversible n-Bit to n-Bit Integer Haar-Like Transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Senecal, J; Duchaineau, M; Joy, K I

    2003-11-03

    We introduce a wavelet-like transform similar to the Haar transform, but with the properties that it packs the results into the same number of bits as the original data, and is reversible. Our method, called TLHaar, uses table lookups to replace the averaging, differencing, and bit shifting performed in a Haar IntegerWavelet Transform (IWT). TLHaar maintains the same coefficient magnitude relationships for the low- and high-pass coefficients as true Haar, but reorders them to fit into the same number of bits as the input signal, thus eliminating the sign bit that is added to the Haar IWT output coefficients. Eliminating the sign bit avoids using extra memory and speeds the transform process. We tested TLHaar on a variety of image types, and when compared to the Haar IWT TLHaar is significantly faster. For image data with lines or hard edges TLHaar coefficients compress better than those of the Haar IWT. Due to its speed TLHaar is suitable for streaming hardware implementations with fixed data sizes, such as DVI channels.

  12. Computer Series, 81. Bits and Pieces, 33.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John W., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Provides a series of short articles about various uses of computers and courseware in teaching chemistry. Addresses topics such as a programming utility for animation, an organic synthesis program, a program for the allocation of organic qualitative analysis of unknowns, color images of molecules, and enhancing spreadsheet capabilities. (TW)

  13. A novel bit-quad-based Euler number computing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bin; He, Lifeng; Kang, Shiying; Chao, Yuyan; Zhao, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    The Euler number of a binary image is an important topological property in computer vision and pattern recognition. This paper proposes a novel bit-quad-based Euler number computing algorithm. Based on graph theory and analysis on bit-quad patterns, our algorithm only needs to count two bit-quad patterns. Moreover, by use of the information obtained during processing the previous bit-quad, the average number of pixels to be checked for processing a bit-quad is only 1.75. Experimental results demonstrated that our method outperforms significantly conventional Euler number computing algorithms.

  14. Theoretical and subjective bit assignments in transform picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. W., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that all combinations of symmetrical input distributions with difference distortion measures give a bit assignment rule identical to the well-known rule for a Gaussian input distribution with mean-square error. Published work is examined to show that the bit assignment rule is useful for transforms of full pictures, but subjective bit assignments for transform picture coding using small block sizes are significantly different from the theoretical bit assignment rule. An intuitive explanation is based on subjective design experience, and a subjectively obtained bit assignment rule is given.

  15. Detachable shoe plates for large diameter drill bits

    SciTech Connect

    Bardwell, A.E.

    1984-08-21

    Shoe members and drill shank members for large diameter cable drilling bits are provided with a tongue on one of the members that projects axially relative to the drill shank member and with an arcuate lip and projecting stop on the other of the members to trap the tongue and prevent radial movement of the shoe member in response to radially directed forces caused by the spinning of the bit in drilling operations. Such forces would impose shear stresses on the fastening members that extend through the shoe member and axially into the drill shank. Four embodiments are disclosed: a spudding bit, two star bits and a scow bit.

  16. Constrained control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of the allocation of several flight controls to the generation of specified body-axis moments. The number of controls is greater than the number of moments being controlled, and the ranges of the controls are constrained to certain limits. The controls are assumed to be individually linear in their effect throughout their ranges of motion, and independent of one another in their effects. The geometries of the subset of the constrained controls and of its image in moment space are examined. A direct method of allocating these several controls is presented, that guarantees the maximum possible moment is generated within the constraints of the controls. The results are illustrated by an example problem involving three controls and two moments.

  17. Myrmics Memory Allocator

    SciTech Connect

    Lymperis, S.

    2011-09-23

    MMA is a stand-alone memory management system for MPI clusters. It implements a shared Partitioned Global Address Space, where multiple MPI processes request objects from the allocator and the latter provides them with system-wide unique memory addresses for each object. It provides applications with an intuitive way of managing the memory system in a unified way, thus enabling easier writing of irregular application code.

  18. New Mechanisms of rock-bit wear in geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Macini, Paolo

    1996-01-24

    This paper presents recent results of an investigation on failure mode and wear of rock-bits used to drill geothermal wells located in the area of Larderello (Italy). A new wear mechanism, conceived from drilling records and dull bit evaluation analysis, has been identified and a particular configuration of rock-bit has been developed and tested in order to reduce drilling costs. The role of high Bottom Hole Temperature (BHT) on rock-bit performances seems not yet very well understood: so far, only drillability and formation abrasiveness are generally considered to account for poor drilling performances. In this paper, the detrimental effects of high BHT on sealing and reservoir system of Friction Bearing Rock-bits (FBR) have been investigated, and a new bearing wear pattern for FBR's run in high BHT holes has been identified and further verified via laboratory inspections on dull bits. A novel interpretation of flat worn cutting structure has been derived from the above wear pattern, suggesting the design of a particular bit configuration. Test bits, designed in the light of the above criteria, have been prepared and field tested successfully. The paper reports the results of these tests, which yielded a new rock-bit application, today considered as a standad practice in Italian geothermal fields. This application suggests that the correct evaluation of rock-bit wear can help to improve the overall drilling performances and to minimize drilling problems through a better interpretation of the relationships amongst rock-bits, formation properties and downhole temperature.

  19. New EEPROM concept for single bit operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raguet, J. R.; Laffont, R.; Bouchakour, R.; Bidal, V.; Regnier, A.; Mirabel, J. M.

    2008-10-01

    A new 0.56 μm 2 dual-gate EEPROM transistor is presented in this paper. To optimize the cell layout, a new model based on previous work has been developed. This concept allows single bit memory operations with high density; new cell programming conditions has been defined to optimize electrical behavior. Concept has been validated in an EEPROM standard technology from STMicroelectronics and allows a cell area reduction of above 50%. With appropriate potentials, the cell produces a programming window of 4 V. Moreover, this dual-gate transistor in static mode becomes an adjustable threshold voltage transistor which can be used in logic circuit or RFID applications.

  20. Object tracking based on bit-planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Zhao, Xiangmo; Liu, Ying; Li, Daxiang; Wu, Shiqian; Zhao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Visual object tracking is one of the most important components in computer vision. The main challenge for robust tracking is to handle illumination change, appearance modification, occlusion, motion blur, and pose variation. But in surveillance videos, factors such as low resolution, high levels of noise, and uneven illumination further increase the difficulty of tracking. To tackle this problem, an object tracking algorithm based on bit-planes is proposed. First, intensity and local binary pattern features represented by bit-planes are used to build two appearance models, respectively. Second, in the neighborhood of the estimated object location, a region that is most similar to the models is detected as the tracked object in the current frame. In the last step, the appearance models are updated with new tracking results in order to deal with environmental and object changes. Experimental results on several challenging video sequences demonstrate the superior performance of our tracker compared with six state-of-the-art tracking algorithms. Additionally, our tracker is more robust to low resolution, uneven illumination, and noisy video sequences.

  1. Progress in the Advanced Synthetic-Diamond Drill Bit Program

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.; Dennis, T.; Le, Phi; Cohen, J.; Chow, J.

    1995-11-01

    Cooperative research is currently underway among five drill bit companies and Sandia National Laboratories to improve synthetic-diamond drill bits for hard-rock applications. This work, sponsored by the US Department of Energy and individual bit companies, is aimed at improving performance and bit life in harder rock than has previously been possible to drill effectively with synthetic-diamond drill bits. The goal is to extend to harder rocks the economic advantages seen in using synthetic-diamond drill bits in soft and medium rock formations. Four projects are being conducted under this research program. Each project is investigating a different area of synthetic diamond bit technology that builds on the current technology base and market interests of the individual companies involved. These projects include: optimization of the PDC claw cutter; optimization of the Track-Set PDC bit; advanced TSP bit development; and optimization of impregnated-diamond drill bits. This paper describes the progress made in each of these projects to date.

  2. Recent developments in polycrystalline diamond-drill-bit design

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, C.F.; Varnado, S.G.

    1980-05-01

    Development of design criteria for polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits for use in severe environments (hard or fractured formations, hot and/or deep wells) is continuing. This effort consists of both analytical and experimental analyses. The experimental program includes single point tests of cutters, laboratory tests of full scale bits, and field tests of these designs. The results of laboratory tests at simulated downhole conditions utilizing new and worn bits are presented. Drilling at simulated downhole pressures was conducted in Mancos Shale and Carthage Marble. Comparisons are made between PDC bits and roller cone bits in drilling with borehole pressures up to 5000 psi (34.5 PMa) with oil and water based muds. The PDC bits drilled at rates up to 5 times as fast as roller bits in the shale. In the first field test, drilling rates approximately twice those achieved with conventional bits were achieved with a PDC bit. A second test demonstrated the value of these bits in correcting deviation and reaming.

  3. Rearrangement and Grouping of Data Bits for Efficient Lossless Encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B, Ajitha Shenoy K.; Ajith, Meghana; Mantoor, Vinayak M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the efficacy of rearranging and grouping of data bits. Lossless encoding techniques like Huffman Coding, Arithmetic Coding etc., works well on data which contains redundant information. The idea behind these techniques is to encode more frequently occurring symbols with less number of bits and more seldom occurring symbols with more number of bits. Most of the methods fail if there is a non-redundant data. We propose a method to re arrange and group data bits there by making the data redundant and then different lossless encoding techniques can be applied. In this paper we propose three different methods to rearrange the data bits, and efficient way of grouping them. This is first such attempt. We also justify the need of rearranging and grouping data bits for efficient lossless encoding.

  4. Temperature-compensated 8-bit column driver for AMLCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingwall, Andrew G. F.; Lin, Mark L.

    1995-06-01

    An all-digital, 5 V input, 50 Mhz bandwidth, 10-bit resolution, 128- column, AMLCD column driver IC has been designed and tested. The 10-bit design can enhance display definition over 6-bit nd 8-bit column drivers. Precision is realized with on-chip, switched-capacitor DACs plus transparently auto-offset-calibrated, opamp outputs. Increased resolution permits multiple 10-bit digital gamma remappings in EPROMs over temperature. Driver IC features include externally programmable number of output column, bi-directional digital data shifting, user- defined row/column/pixel/frame inversion, power management, timing control for daisy-chained column drivers, and digital bit inversion. The architecture uses fewer reference power supplies.

  5. Computationally efficient control allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durham, Wayne (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A computationally efficient method for calculating near-optimal solutions to the three-objective, linear control allocation problem is disclosed. The control allocation problem is that of distributing the effort of redundant control effectors to achieve some desired set of objectives. The problem is deemed linear if control effectiveness is affine with respect to the individual control effectors. The optimal solution is that which exploits the collective maximum capability of the effectors within their individual physical limits. Computational efficiency is measured by the number of floating-point operations required for solution. The method presented returned optimal solutions in more than 90% of the cases examined; non-optimal solutions returned by the method were typically much less than 1% different from optimal and the errors tended to become smaller than 0.01% as the number of controls was increased. The magnitude of the errors returned by the present method was much smaller than those that resulted from either pseudo inverse or cascaded generalized inverse solutions. The computational complexity of the method presented varied linearly with increasing numbers of controls; the number of required floating point operations increased from 5.5 i, to seven times faster than did the minimum-norm solution (the pseudoinverse), and at about the same rate as did the cascaded generalized inverse solution. The computational requirements of the method presented were much better than that of previously described facet-searching methods which increase in proportion to the square of the number of controls.

  6. Popularity-aware rate allocation in multiview video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiandrotti, Attilio; Chakareski, Jacob; Frossard, Pascal

    2010-07-01

    We propose a framework for popularity-driven rate allocation in H.264/MVC-based multi-view video communications when the overall rate and the rate necessary for decoding each view are constrained in the delivery architecture. We formulate a rate allocation optimization problem that takes into account the popularity of each view among the client population and the rate-distortion characteristics of the multi-view sequence so that the performance of the system is maximized in terms of popularity-weighted average quality. We consider the cases where the global bit budget or the decoding rate of each view is constrained. We devise a simple ratevideo- quality model that accounts for the characteristics of interview prediction schemes typical of multi-view video. The video quality model is used for solving the rate allocation problem with the help of an interior point optimization method. We then show through experiments that the proposed rate allocation scheme clearly outperforms baseline solutions in terms of popularity-weighted video quality. In particular, we demonstrate that the joint knowledge of the rate-distortion characteristics of the video content, its coding dependencies, and the popularity factor of each view is key in achieving good coding performance in multi-view video systems.

  7. Second quantization in bit-string physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noyes, H. Pierre

    1993-01-01

    Using a new fundamental theory based on bit-strings, a finite and discrete version of the solutions of the free one particle Dirac equation as segmented trajectories with steps of length h/mc along the forward and backward light cones executed at velocity +/- c are derived. Interpreting the statistical fluctuations which cause the bends in these segmented trajectories as emission and absorption of radiation, these solutions are analogous to a fermion propagator in a second quantized theory. This allows us to interpret the mass parameter in the step length as the physical mass of the free particle. The radiation in interaction with it has the usual harmonic oscillator structure of a second quantized theory. How these free particle masses can be generated gravitationally using the combinatorial hierarchy sequence (3,10,137,2(sup 127) + 136), and some of the predictive consequences are sketched.

  8. Quantum Bit Commitment with a Composite Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srikanth, R.

    2004-01-01

    Entanglement-based attacks, which are subtle and powerful, are usually believed to render quantum bit commitment insecure. We point out that the no-go argument leading to this view implicitly assumes the evidence-of-commitment to be a monolithic quantum system. We argue that more general evidence structures, allowing for a composite, hybrid (classical quantum) evidence, conduce to improved security. In particular, we present and prove the security of the following protocol Bob sends Alice an anonymous state. She inscribes her commitment b by measuring part of it in the + (for b = 0) or × (for b = 1) basis. She then communicates to him the (classical) measurement outcome Rx and the partmeasured anonymous state interpolated into other, randomly prepared qubits as her evidence-of-commitment.

  9. Development and testing of a Mudjet-augmented PDC bit.

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Alan; Chahine, Georges; Raymond, David Wayne; Matthews, Oliver; Grossman, James W.; Bertagnolli, Ken (US Synthetic); Vail, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a project to develop technology to integrate passively pulsating, cavitating nozzles within Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) bits for use with conventional rig pressures to improve the rock-cutting process in geothermal formations. The hydraulic horsepower on a conventional drill rig is significantly greater than that delivered to the rock through bit rotation. This project seeks to leverage this hydraulic resource to extend PDC bits to geothermal drilling.

  10. Link Dependent Adaptive Radio Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    14. ABSTRACT This paper shows the optimized Link Dependent Adaptive Radio (LDAR) using the variable QAM OFDM modulation size which adapts to channel...bit error rate (BER), Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM ) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Unclassified 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...using the variable QAM OFDM modulation size which adapts to channel conditions. The LDAR enhanced performance is illustrated by use of a flight path

  11. How do people learn to allocate resources? Comparing two learning theories.

    PubMed

    Rieskamp, Jörg; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Laine, Tei

    2003-11-01

    How do people learn to allocate resources? To answer this question, 2 major learning models are compared, each incorporating different learning principles. One is a global search model, which assumes that allocations are made probabilistically on the basis of expectations formed through the entire history of past decisions. The 2nd is a local adaptation model, which assumes that allocations are made by comparing the present decision with the most successful decision up to that point, ignoring all other past decisions. In 2 studies, participants repeatedly allocated a capital resource to 3 financial assets. Substantial learning effects occurred, although the optimal allocation was often not found. From the calibrated models of Study 1, a priori predictions were derived and tested in Study 2. This generalization test shows that the local adaptation model provides a better account of learning in resource allocations than the global search model.

  12. Quantum bit commitment with cheat sensitive binding and approximate sealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Wan, Zong-Jie

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a cheat-sensitive quantum bit commitment scheme based on single photons, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob. Here, Bob’s probability of success at cheating as obtains the committed bit before the opening phase becomes close to \\frac{1}{2} (just like performing a guess) as the number of single photons used is increased. And if Alice alters her committed bit after the commitment phase, her cheating will be detected with a probability that becomes close to 1 as the number of single photons used is increased. The scheme is easy to realize with present day technology.

  13. Improved seal for geothermal drill bit. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, R.F.

    1984-07-06

    Each of the two field test bits showed some promise though their performances were less than commercially acceptable. The Ohio test bit ran just over 3000 feet where about 4000 is considered a good run but it was noted that a Varel bit of the same type having a standard O ring seal was completely worn out after 8-1/2 hours (1750 feet drilled). The Texas test bit had good seal-bearing life but was the wrong cutting structure type for the formation being drilled and the penetration rate was low.

  14. PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) bit research at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Glowka, D.A.

    1989-06-01

    From the beginning of the geothermal development program, Sandia has performed and supported research into polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits. These bits are attractive because they are intrinsically efficient in their cutting action (shearing, rather than crushing) and they have no moving parts (eliminating the problems of high-temperature lubricants, bearings, and seals.) This report is a summary description of the analytical and experimental work done by Sandia and our contractors. It describes analysis and laboratory tests of individual cutters and complete bits, as well as full-scale field tests of prototype and commercial bits. The report includes a bibliography of documents giving more detailed information on these topics. 26 refs.

  15. 24-bit color image quantization for 8-bits color display based on Y-Cr-Cb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Long-Wen; Liu, Tsann-Shyong

    1993-10-01

    A new fast algorithm that can display true 24-bits color images of JPEG and MPEG on a 8 bits color display is described. Instead of generating a colormap in the R-G-B color space conventionally, we perform analysis of color images based on the Y-Cr-Cb color space. By using Bayes decision rule, the representative values for Y component are selected based on its histogram. Then, the representative values for Cr and Cb components are determined by their conditional histogram assuming Y. Finally, a fast lookup table that can generate R-G-B outputs for Y-Cr-Cb inputs without matrix transformation is addressed. The experimental results show that good-looking quality color quantization images can be achieved by our proposed algorithm.

  16. High density bit transition requirements versus the effects on BCH error correcting code. [bit synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F. M.; Schoggen, W. O.

    1982-01-01

    The design to achieve the required bit transition density for the Space Shuttle high rate multiplexes (HRM) data stream of the Space Laboratory Vehicle is reviewed. It contained a recommended circuit approach, specified the pseudo random (PN) sequence to be used and detailed the properties of the sequence. Calculations showing the probability of failing to meet the required transition density were included. A computer simulation of the data stream and PN cover sequence was provided. All worst case situations were simulated and the bit transition density exceeded that required. The Preliminary Design Review and the critical Design Review are documented. The Cover Sequence Generator (CSG) Encoder/Decoder design was constructed and demonstrated. The demonstrations were successful. All HRM and HRDM units incorporate the CSG encoder or CSG decoder as appropriate.

  17. BitPredator: A Discovery Algorithm for BitTorrent Initial Seeders and Peers

    SciTech Connect

    Borges, Raymond; Patton, Robert M; Kettani, Houssain; Masalmah, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    There is a large amount of illegal content being replicated through peer-to-peer (P2P) networks where BitTorrent is dominant; therefore, a framework to profile and police it is needed. The goal of this work is to explore the behavior of initial seeds and highly active peers to develop techniques to correctly identify them. We intend to establish a new methodology and software framework for profiling BitTorrent peers. This involves three steps: crawling torrent indexers for keywords in recently added torrents using Really Simple Syndication protocol (RSS), querying torrent trackers for peer list data and verifying Internet Protocol (IP) addresses from peer lists. We verify IPs using active monitoring methods. Peer behavior is evaluated and modeled using bitfield message responses. We also design a tool to profile worldwide file distribution by mapping IP-to-geolocation and linking to WHOIS server information in Google Earth.

  18. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  19. Experimental test of Landauer’s principle in single-bit operations on nanomagnetic memory bits

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeongmin; Lambson, Brian; Dhuey, Scott; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing energy dissipation has emerged as the key challenge in continuing to scale the performance of digital computers. The question of whether there exists a fundamental lower limit to the energy required for digital operations is therefore of great interest. A well-known theoretical result put forward by Landauer states that any irreversible single-bit operation on a physical memory element in contact with a heat bath at a temperature T requires at least kBT ln(2) of heat be dissipated from the memory into the environment, where kB is the Boltzmann constant. We report an experimental investigation of the intrinsic energy loss of an adiabatic single-bit reset operation using nanoscale magnetic memory bits, by far the most ubiquitous digital storage technology in use today. Through sensitive, high-precision magnetometry measurements, we observed that the amount of dissipated energy in this process is consistent (within 2 SDs of experimental uncertainty) with the Landauer limit. This result reinforces the connection between “information thermodynamics” and physical systems and also provides a foundation for the development of practical information processing technologies that approach the fundamental limit of energy dissipation. The significance of the result includes insightful direction for future development of information technology. PMID:26998519

  20. Adaptive image coding based on cubic-spline interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jian-Xing; Hong, Shao-Hua; Lin, Tsung-Ching; Wang, Lin; Truong, Trieu-Kien

    2014-09-01

    It has been investigated that at low bit rates, downsampling prior to coding and upsampling after decoding can achieve better compression performance than standard coding algorithms, e.g., JPEG and H. 264/AVC. However, at high bit rates, the sampling-based schemes generate more distortion. Additionally, the maximum bit rate for the sampling-based scheme to outperform the standard algorithm is image-dependent. In this paper, a practical adaptive image coding algorithm based on the cubic-spline interpolation (CSI) is proposed. This proposed algorithm adaptively selects the image coding method from CSI-based modified JPEG and standard JPEG under a given target bit rate utilizing the so called ρ-domain analysis. The experimental results indicate that compared with the standard JPEG, the proposed algorithm can show better performance at low bit rates and maintain the same performance at high bit rates.

  1. CAMAC based 4-channel 12-bit digitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Amit K.; Sharma, Atish; Raval, Tushar; Reddy, D. Chenna

    2010-02-01

    With the development in Fusion research a large number of diagnostics are being used to understand the complex behaviour of plasma. During discharge, several diagnostics demand high sampling rate and high bit resolution to acquire data for rapid changes in plasma parameters. For the requirements of such fast diagnostics, a 4-channel simultaneous sampling, high-speed, 12-bit CAMAC digitizer has been designed and developed which has several important features for application in CAMAC based nuclear instrumentation. The module has independent ADC per channel for simultaneous sampling and digitization, and 512 Ksamples RAM per channel for on-board storage. The digitizer has been designed for event based acquisition and the acquisition window gives post-trigger as well as pre-trigger (software selectable) data that is useful for analysis. It is a transient digitizer and can be operated either in pre/post trigger mode or in burst mode. The record mode and the active memory size are selected through software commands to satisfy the current application. The module can be used to acquire data at high sampling rate for short time discharge e.g. 512 ms at 1MSPS. The module can also be used for long time discharge at low sampling rate e.g. 512 seconds at 1KSPS. This paper describes the design of digitizer module, development of VHDL code for hardware logic, Graphical User Interface (GUI) and important features of module from application point of view. The digitizer has CPLD based hardware logic, which provides flexibility in configuring the module for different sampling rates and different pre/post trigger samples through GUI. The digitizer can be operated with either internal (for testing/acquisition) or external (synchronized acquisition) clock and trigger. The digitizer has differential inputs with bipolar input range ±5V and it is being used with sampling rate of 1 MSamples Per Second (MSPS) per channel but it also supports higher sampling rate up to 3MSPS per channel. A

  2. TriBITS (Tribal Build, Integrate, and Test System)

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-16

    TriBITS is a configuration, build, test, and reporting system that uses the Kitware open-source CMake/CTest/CDash system. TriBITS contains a number of custom CMake/CTest scripts and python scripts that extend the functionality of the out-of-the-box CMake/CTest/CDash system.

  3. 8-, 16-, and 32-Bit Processors: Characteristics and Appropriate Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James G.

    1984-01-01

    Defines and describes the components and functions that constitute a microcomputer--bits, bytes, address register, cycle time, data path, and bus. Characteristics of 8-, 16-, and 32-bit machines are explained in detail, and microprocessor evolution, architecture, and implementation are discussed. Application characteristics or types for each bit…

  4. Approximation of Bit Error Rates in Digital Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and Technology Organisation DSTO—TN—0761 ABSTRACT This report investigates the estimation of bit error rates in digital communi- cations, motivated by...recent work in [6]. In the latter, bounds are used to construct estimates for bit error rates in the case of differentially coherent quadrature phase

  5. Report on ignitability testing of ''no-flow'' push bit

    SciTech Connect

    Witwer, K.S.

    1997-04-23

    Testing was done to determine if an ignition occurs during a sixty foot drop of a Universal Sampler onto a push-mode bit in a flammable gas environment. Ten drops each of the sampler using both a push-mode and rotary mode insert onto a push-mode bit were completed. No ignition occurred during any of the drops.

  6. Influence of 8-bit versus 11-bit digital displays on observer performance and visual search: a multi-center evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Siddiqui, Khan; Siegel, Eliot; Shrestha, Rasu; Grant, Edward; Roehrig, Hans; Fan, Jiahua

    2007-03-01

    Monochrome monitors typically display 8 bits of data (256 shades of gray) at one time. This study determined if monitors that can display a wider range of grayscale information (11-bit) can improve observer performance and decrease the use of window/level in detecting pulmonary nodules. Three sites participated using 8 and 11-bit displays from three manufacturers. At each site, six radiologists reviewed 100 DR chest images on both displays. There was no significant difference in ROC Az (F = 0.0374, p = 0.8491) as a function of 8 vs 11 bit-depth. Average Az across all observers with 8-bits was 0.8284 and with 11-bits was 0.8253. There was a significant difference in overall viewing time (F = 10.209, p = 0.0014) favoring the 11-bit displays. Window/level use did not differ significantly for the two types of displays. Eye position recording on a subset of images at one site showed that cumulative dwell times for each decision category were lower with the 11-bit than with the 8-bit display. T-tests for paired observations showed that the TP (t = 1.452, p = 0.1507), FN (t = 0.050, p = 0.9609) and FP (t = 0.042, p = 0.9676) were not statistically significant. The difference for the TN decisions was statistically significant (t = 1.926, p = 0.05). 8-bit displays will not impact negatively diagnostic accuracy, but using 11-bit displays may improve workflow efficiency.

  7. NOAO/IRAF's ``Save The Bits'' - A Pragmatic Data Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Rob

    minilanguage tape monitor program (similar to lpc ) provides a screen oriented status display that may be run from any of the domes, or from a privileged account when swapping full archive tapes. The Save The Bits design would be straightforward to adapt to other projects.

  8. Single Abrikosov vortices as quantized information bits

    PubMed Central

    Golod, T.; Iovan, A.; Krasnov, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting digital devices can be advantageously used in future supercomputers because they can greatly reduce the dissipation power and increase the speed of operation. Non-volatile quantized states are ideal for the realization of classical Boolean logics. A quantized Abrikosov vortex represents the most compact magnetic object in superconductors, which can be utilized for creation of high-density digital cryoelectronics. In this work we provide a proof of concept for Abrikosov-vortex-based random access memory cell, in which a single vortex is used as an information bit. We demonstrate high-endurance write operation and two different ways of read-out using a spin valve or a Josephson junction. These memory cells are characterized by an infinite magnetoresistance between 0 and 1 states, a short access time, a scalability to nm sizes and an extremely low write energy. Non-volatility and perfect reproducibility are inherent for such a device due to the quantized nature of the vortex. PMID:26456592

  9. Continuous chain bit with downhole cycling capability

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, Don F.; St. Clair, Jack A.; Togami, Henry K.

    1983-01-01

    A continuous chain bit for hard rock drilling is capable of downhole cycling. A drill head assembly moves axially relative to a support body while the chain on the head assembly is held in position so that the bodily movement of the chain cycles the chain to present new composite links for drilling. A pair of spring fingers on opposite sides of the chain hold the chain against movement. The chain is held in tension by a spring-biased tensioning bar. A head at the working end of the chain supports the working links. The chain is centered by a reversing pawl and piston actuated by the pressure of the drilling mud. Detent pins lock the head assembly with respect to the support body and are also operated by the drilling mud pressure. A restricted nozzle with a divergent outlet sprays drilling mud into the cavity to remove debris. Indication of the centered position of the chain is provided by noting a low pressure reading indicating proper alignment of drilling mud slots on the links with the corresponding feed branches.

  10. Multiple-Bit Differential Detection of OQPSK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    A multiple-bit differential-detection method has been proposed for the reception of radio signals modulated with offset quadrature phase-shift keying (offset QPSK or OQPSK). The method is also applicable to other spectrally efficient offset quadrature modulations. This method is based partly on the same principles as those of a multiple-symbol differential-detection method for M-ary QPSK, which includes QPSK (that is, non-offset QPSK) as a special case. That method was introduced more than a decade ago by the author of the present method as a means of improving performance relative to a traditional (two-symbol observation) differential-detection scheme. Instead of symbol-by-symbol detection, both that method and the present one are based on a concept of maximum-likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE). As applied to the modulations in question, MLSE involves consideration of (1) all possible binary data sequences that could have been received during an observation time of some number, N, of symbol periods and (2) selection of the sequence that yields the best match to the noise-corrupted signal received during that time. The performance of the prior method was shown to range from that of traditional differential detection for short observation times (small N) to that of ideal coherent detection (with differential encoding) for long observation times (large N).

  11. Power-efficient distributed resource allocation under goodput QoS constraints for heterogeneous networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreotti, Riccardo; Del Fiorentino, Paolo; Giannetti, Filippo; Lottici, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    This work proposes a distributed resource allocation (RA) algorithm for packet bit-interleaved coded OFDM transmissions in the uplink of heterogeneous networks (HetNets), characterized by small cells deployed over a macrocell area and sharing the same band. Every user allocates its transmission resources, i.e., bits per active subcarrier, coding rate, and power per subcarrier, to minimize the power consumption while both guaranteeing a target quality of service (QoS) and accounting for the interference inflicted by other users transmitting over the same band. The QoS consists of the number of information bits delivered in error-free packets per unit of time, or goodput (GP), estimated at the transmitter by resorting to an efficient effective SNR mapping technique. First, the RA problem is solved in the point-to-point case, thus deriving an approximate yet accurate closed-form expression for the power allocation (PA). Then, the interference-limited HetNet case is examined, where the RA problem is described as a non-cooperative game, providing a solution in terms of generalized Nash equilibrium. Thanks to the closed-form of the PA, the solution analysis is based on the best response concept. Hence, sufficient conditions for existence and uniqueness of the solution are analytically derived, along with a distributed algorithm capable of reaching the game equilibrium.

  12. Resource Balancing Control Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the control effort. The paper discusses the alternative choice of using the l1 norm for minimization of the tracking error and a normalized l(infinity) norm, or sup norm, for minimization of the control effort. The algorithm computes the norm of the actuator deflections scaled by the actuator limits. Minimization of the control effort then translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection as a percentage of its range of motion. The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of resource balancing, where the resources are the control surfaces and the algorithm balances these resources to achieve the desired command. A study of the sensitivity of the algorithms to the data is presented, which shows that the normalized l(infinity) algorithm has the lowest sensitivity, although high sensitivities are observed whenever the limits of performance are reached.

  13. The prevalence of oral ulceration in Swedish horses when ridden with bit and bridle and when unridden.

    PubMed

    Tell, Anna; Egenvall, Agneta; Lundström, Torbjörn; Wattle, Ove

    2008-12-01

    Oral soft tissue ulcers are common disorders of horses, but it is unclear if their prevalence is increased by riding horses with a bit and bridle. Oral examinations were performed on 113 horses and ponies, all which had received routine dental floating, that were divided into four groups depending on when they had last been ridden with a bit and bridle. The subjects comprised: group 1, a randomly selected population of ridden horses; group 2, a group of horses examined after being rested at pasture for 5 weeks; group 3, the previous group following 7 weeks of riding with a bit and bridle, and group 4, brood mares that had not been ridden for at least 11 months. Lip and intraoral soft tissue lesions were recorded at seven pre-determined locations, with lesions classified as large or small; acute or chronic. The examinations showed that horses that were currently being ridden with a bit and bridle had a significantly higher prevalence of large and acute buccal ulcers opposite the maxillary Triadan 06 teeth and of the commissures of the lips, as compared to horses that were not being currently ridden. It was concluded that using a bit and bridle can cause oral ulceration even in horses that have regular prophylactic dental floating. It is suggested that riding tack should be individually fitted for each horse and also that prophylactic dental treatments should be individually adapted for each horse.

  14. Calculation of the number of bits required for the estimation of the bit error ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Álvaro J.; Silva, Nuno A.; Muga, Nelson J.; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.

    2014-08-01

    We present a calculation of the required number of bits to be received in a system of communications in order to achieve a given level of confidence. The calculation assumes a binomial distribution function for the errors. The function is numerically evaluated and the results are compared with the ones obtained from Poissonian and Gaussian approximations. The performance in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio is also studied. We conclude that for higher number of errors in detection the use of approximations allows faster and more efficient calculations, without loss of accuracy.

  15. Field trial of a 1.5 Tb/s adaptive and gridless OXC supporting elastic 1000-fold all-optical bandwidth granularity.

    PubMed

    Amaya, N; Zervas, G S; Rofoee, B Rahimzadeh; Irfan, M; Qin, Y; Simeonidou, D

    2011-12-12

    An adaptive gridless OXC is implemented using a 3D-MEMS optical backplane plus optical modules (sub-systems) that provide elastic spectrum and time switching functionality. The OXC adapts its architecture on demand to fulfill the switching requirements of incoming traffic. The system is implemented in a seven-node network linked by installed fiber and is shown to provide suitable architectures on demand for three scenarios with increasing traffic and switching complexity. In the most complex scenario, signals of mixed bit-rates and modulation formats are successfully switched with flexible per-channel allocation of spectrum, time and space, achieving over 1000-fold bandwidth granularity and 1.5 Tb/s throughput with good end-to-end performance.

  16. Resource allocation using risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T. F.; Eisenhawer, S. W.

    2003-01-01

    Allocating limited resources among competing priorities is an important problem in management. In this paper we describe an approach to resource allocation using risk as a metric. We call this approach the Logic-Evolved Decision (LED) approach because we use logic-models to generate an exhaustive set of competing options and to describe the often highly complex model used for evaluating the risk reduction achieved by different resource allocations among these options. The risk evaluation then proceeds using probabilistic or linguistic input data.

  17. Theoretical Accuracy for ESTL Bit Error Rate Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin

    1998-01-01

    "Bit error rate" [BER] for the purposes of this paper is the fraction of binary bits which are inverted by passage through a communication system. BER can be measured for a block of sample bits by comparing a received block with the transmitted block and counting the erroneous bits. Bit Error Rate [BER] tests are the most common type of test used by the ESTL for evaluating system-level performance. The resolution of the test is obvious: the measurement cannot be resolved more finely than 1/N, the number of bits tested. The tolerance is not. This paper examines the measurement accuracy of the bit error rate test. It is intended that this information will be useful in analyzing data taken in the ESTL. This paper is divided into four sections and follows a logically ordered presentation, with results developed before they are evaluated. However, first-time readers will derive the greatest benefit from this paper by skipping the lengthy section devoted to analysis, and treating it as reference material. The analysis performed in this paper is based on a Probability Density Function [PDF] which is developed with greater detail in a past paper, Theoretical Accuracy for ESTL Probability of Acquisition Tests, EV4-98-609.

  18. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    PubMed Central

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  19. Collaborative Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Wax, Allan; Lam, Raymond; Baldwin, John; Borden, Chester

    2007-01-01

    Collaborative Resource Allocation Networking Environment (CRANE) Version 0.5 is a prototype created to prove the newest concept of using a distributed environment to schedule Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna times in a collaborative fashion. This program is for all space-flight and terrestrial science project users and DSN schedulers to perform scheduling activities and conflict resolution, both synchronously and asynchronously. Project schedulers can, for the first time, participate directly in scheduling their tracking times into the official DSN schedule, and negotiate directly with other projects in an integrated scheduling system. A master schedule covers long-range, mid-range, near-real-time, and real-time scheduling time frames all in one, rather than the current method of separate functions that are supported by different processes and tools. CRANE also provides private workspaces (both dynamic and static), data sharing, scenario management, user control, rapid messaging (based on Java Message Service), data/time synchronization, workflow management, notification (including emails), conflict checking, and a linkage to a schedule generation engine. The data structure with corresponding database design combines object trees with multiple associated mortal instances and relational database to provide unprecedented traceability and simplify the existing DSN XML schedule representation. These technologies are used to provide traceability, schedule negotiation, conflict resolution, and load forecasting from real-time operations to long-range loading analysis up to 20 years in the future. CRANE includes a database, a stored procedure layer, an agent-based middle tier, a Web service wrapper, a Windows Integrated Analysis Environment (IAE), a Java application, and a Web page interface.

  20. Unconditionally secure bit commitment by transmitting measurement outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kent, Adrian

    2012-09-28

    We propose a new unconditionally secure bit commitment scheme based on Minkowski causality and the properties of quantum information. The receiving party sends a number of randomly chosen Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) qubits to the committer at a given point in space-time. The committer carries out measurements in one of the two BB84 bases, depending on the committed bit value, and transmits the outcomes securely at (or near) light speed in opposite directions to remote agents. These agents unveil the bit by returning the outcomes to adjacent agents of the receiver. The protocol's security relies only on simple properties of quantum information and the impossibility of superluminal signalling.

  1. Using Bit Errors To Diagnose Fiber-Optic Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergman, L. A.; Hartmayer, R.; Marelid, S.

    1989-01-01

    Technique for diagnosis of fiber-optic digital communication link in local-area network of computers based on measurement of bit-error rates. Variable optical attenuator inserted in optical fiber to vary power of received signal. Bit-error rate depends on ratio of peak signal power to root-mean-square noise in receiver. For optimum measurements, one selects bit-error rate between 10 to negative 8th power and 10 to negative 4th power. Greater rates result in low accuracy in determination of signal-to-noise ratios, while lesser rates require impractically long measurement times.

  2. Fitness Probability Distribution of Bit-Flip Mutation.

    PubMed

    Chicano, Francisco; Sutton, Andrew M; Whitley, L Darrell; Alba, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Bit-flip mutation is a common mutation operator for evolutionary algorithms applied to optimize functions over binary strings. In this paper, we develop results from the theory of landscapes and Krawtchouk polynomials to exactly compute the probability distribution of fitness values of a binary string undergoing uniform bit-flip mutation. We prove that this probability distribution can be expressed as a polynomial in p, the probability of flipping each bit. We analyze these polynomials and provide closed-form expressions for an easy linear problem (Onemax), and an NP-hard problem, MAX-SAT. We also discuss a connection of the results with runtime analysis.

  3. Making Pedagogical Adaptability Less Obvious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagle, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I try to make pedagogical adaptability a bit less obvious. In particular, I use some post-structural philosophical ideas and some concepts at the intersections of social class and race to re-interpret Dylan Wiliam's conception of formative assessment. I suggest that this interpretation can provide opportunities to resist the urge…

  4. A 400-MS/s 12-bit current-steering D/A converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaopeng, Wang; Yannan, Ren; Fule, Li; Zhihua, Wang

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a 400-MS/s 12-bit CMOS current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The proposed DAC adapts 6+2+4 segmented architecture and a modified switching scheme to improve dynamic and static performance. The measured spurious-free dynamic range is up to 77.18 dB at 400 MS/s with a 10 MHz input signal. The full-scale output current is 20 mA with a 1.8 V single power supply. The core area occupies 0.6 mm2 in a standard 1P-6M 0.18-μm CMOS process.

  5. World Oil`s 1995 drill bit classifier

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    World Oil offers this comprehensive listing of major manufacturer`s drilling bits to aid drilling supervisors and engineers in field selection. While this listing has been published annually for several years, changes have been made in this year`s tables to reflect modern industry nomenclature. The tables are divided into six formation categories. Within these are listed most available drilling/coring bits by type and manufacturers. To use the listings, identify the formation to be drilled, decide which bit type is appropriate, i.e., roller, fixed cutter, steel tooth, insert, diamond, etc., and choose the manufacturer. Companies were asked to list bit data by: (1) new IADC code, (2) readily available sizes (special sizes are often available on request), (3) recommended WOB in lb/in. diameter, and (4) codes for special features and usage, a combination of new IADC and World Oil special codes, see Nomenclature.

  6. Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.

    PubMed

    Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H

    2013-11-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.

  7. Precise accounting of bit errors in floating-point computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    2009-08-01

    Floating-point computation generates errors at the bit level through four processes, namely, overflow, underflow, truncation, and rounding. Overflow and underflow can be detected electronically, and represent systematic errors that are not of interest in this study. Truncation occurs during shifting toward the least-significant bit (herein called right-shifting), and rounding error occurs at the least significant bit. Such errors are not easy to track precisely using published means. Statistical error propagation theory typically yields conservative estimates that are grossly inadequate for deep computational cascades. Forward error analysis theory developed for image and signal processing or matrix operations can yield a more realistic typical case, but the error of the estimate tends to be high in relationship to the estimated error. In this paper, we discuss emerging technology for forward error analysis, which allows an algorithm designer to precisely estimate the output error of a given operation within a computational cascade, under a prespecified set of constraints on input error and computational precision. This technique, called bit accounting, precisely tracks the number of rounding and truncation errors in each bit position of interest to the algorithm designer. Because all errors associated with specific bit positions are tracked, and because integer addition only is involved in error estimation, the error of the estimate is zero. The technique of bit accounting is evaluated for its utility in image and signal processing. Complexity analysis emphasizes the relationship between the work and space estimates of the algorithm being analyzed, and its error estimation algorithm. Because of the significant overhead involved in error representation, it is shown that bit accounting is less useful for real-time error estimation, but is well suited to analysis in support of algorithm design.

  8. Eight-Bit-Slice GaAs General Processor Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, John; Gauthier, Robert V.

    1989-01-01

    Novel GaAs 8-bit slice enables quick and efficient implementation of variety of fast GaAs digital systems ranging from central processing units of computers to special-purpose processors for communications and signal-processing applications. With GaAs 8-bit slice, designers quickly configure and test hearts of many digital systems that demand fast complex arithmetic, fast and sufficient register storage, efficient multiplexing and routing of data words, and ease of control.

  9. 8-Bit Gray Scale Images of Fingerprint Image Groups

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST 8-Bit Gray Scale Images of Fingerprint Image Groups (PC database for purchase)   The NIST database of fingerprint images contains 2000 8-bit gray scale fingerprint image pairs. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  10. Advanced DFM application for automated bit-line pattern dummy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Tae Hyun; Kim, Cheolkyun; Yang, Hyunjo; Bahr, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an automated DFM solution to generate Bit Line Pattern Dummy (BLPD) for memory devices. Dummy shapes are aligned with memory functional bits to ensure uniform and reliable memory device. This paper will present a smarter approach that uses an analysis based technique for adding the dummy shapes that have different types according to the space available. Experimental results based on layout of Mobile dynamic random access memory (DRAM).

  11. Automatic DFM methodology for bit line pattern dummy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents an automated DFM solution to generate Bit Line Pattern Dummy (BLPD) for memory chips. Dummy shapes are aligned with memory functional bits lines to ensure uniform and reliable memory device. This paper will present a smarter approach that uses an analysis based technique for adding the dummy fill shapes that have different types according to the space available. Experimental results based on layout of a memory test chip.

  12. Proper bit selection improves ROP in coiled tubing drilling

    SciTech Connect

    King, W.W. )

    1994-04-18

    Using the correct type of bit can improve the rate of penetration (ROP) and therefore the economics of coiled tubing drilling operations. Key factors, based on studies of the coiled tubing jobs to date, are that the drilling system must be analyzed as a whole system and that both the drill bit type and the formation compressive strength are critical components in this analysis. Once a candidate job has been qualified technically for drilling with coiled tubing, the job will have to be justified economically compared to conventional drilling. A key part of the economic analysis is predicting the ROP in each formation to be drilled to establish a drilling time curve. This prediction should be based on the key components of the system, including the following: hydraulics, motor capabilities, weight on bit (WOB), rock compressive strength, and bit type. This analysis should not base expected ROPs and offset wells drilled with conventional rigs and equipment. Furthermore, a small-diameter bit should not be selected simply by using the International Association of Drilling Contractor (IADC) codes of large-diameter bits used in offset wells. Coiled tubing drilling is described, then key factors in the selection are discussed.

  13. Applicability and Limitations of Reliability Allocation Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Reliability allocation process may be described as the process of assigning reliability requirements to individual components within a system to attain the specified system reliability. For large systems, the allocation process is often performed at different stages of system design. The allocation process often begins at the conceptual stage. As the system design develops, more information about components and the operating environment becomes available, different allocation methods can be considered. Reliability allocation methods are usually divided into two categories: weighting factors and optimal reliability allocation. When properly applied, these methods can produce reasonable approximations. Reliability allocation techniques have limitations and implied assumptions that need to be understood by system engineers. Applying reliability allocation techniques without understanding their limitations and assumptions can produce unrealistic results. This report addresses weighting factors, optimal reliability allocation techniques, and identifies the applicability and limitations of each reliability allocation technique.

  14. Collective credit allocation in science.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-08-26

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors' contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions.

  15. Collective credit allocation in science

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration among researchers is an essential component of the modern scientific enterprise, playing a particularly important role in multidisciplinary research. However, we continue to wrestle with allocating credit to the coauthors of publications with multiple authors, because the relative contribution of each author is difficult to determine. At the same time, the scientific community runs an informal field-dependent credit allocation process that assigns credit in a collective fashion to each work. Here we develop a credit allocation algorithm that captures the coauthors’ contribution to a publication as perceived by the scientific community, reproducing the informal collective credit allocation of science. We validate the method by identifying the authors of Nobel-winning papers that are credited for the discovery, independent of their positions in the author list. The method can also compare the relative impact of researchers working in the same field, even if they did not publish together. The ability to accurately measure the relative credit of researchers could affect many aspects of credit allocation in science, potentially impacting hiring, funding, and promotion decisions. PMID:25114238

  16. Joint source-channel rate allocation in parallel channels.

    PubMed

    Pu, Lingling; Marcellin, Michael W; Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane; Bilgin, Ali

    2007-08-01

    A fast rate-optimal rate allocation algorithm is proposed for parallel transmission of scalable images in multichannel systems. Scalable images are transmitted via fixed-length packets. The proposed algorithm selects a subchannel, as well as a channel code rate for each packet, based on the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the subchannels. The resulting scheme provides unequal error protection of source bits and significant gains are obtained over equal error protection schemes. An application of the proposed algorithm to JPEG2000 transmission shows the advantages of exploiting differences in SNRs between subchannels. Multiplexing of multiple sources is also considered, and additional gains are achieved by exploiting information diversity among the sources.

  17. Rate allocation for spotlight SAR phase history data compression.

    PubMed

    Owens, J W; Marcellin, M W

    1999-01-01

    Complex phase history data in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems require extensive processing before useful images can be obtained. In spotlight mode SAR systems, useful images can be obtained by applying aperture weighting and inverse Fourier transform operations to SAR phase history data. In this paper, we are concerned with the compression of the complex phase history data obtained by a spotlight SAR system. We exploit knowledge of the aperture weighting function along with Fourier transform processing to attach a "gain" factor to each complex phase history data sample. This gain factor is then used to efficiently allocate bits to the phase history data during quantization. Performance evaluations are presented for this compression system relative to other existing SAR phase history data compression systems.

  18. Task allocation in a distributed computing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seward, Walter D.

    1987-01-01

    A conceptual framework is examined for task allocation in distributed systems. Application and computing system parameters critical to task allocation decision processes are discussed. Task allocation techniques are addressed which focus on achieving a balance in the load distribution among the system's processors. Equalization of computing load among the processing elements is the goal. Examples of system performance are presented for specific applications. Both static and dynamic allocation of tasks are considered and system performance is evaluated using different task allocation methodologies.

  19. Optimized bit extraction using distortion modeling in the scalable extension of H.264/AVC.

    PubMed

    Maani, Ehsan; Katsaggelos, Aggelos K

    2009-09-01

    The newly adopted scalable extension of H.264/AVC video coding standard (SVC) demonstrates significant improvements in coding efficiency in addition to an increased degree of supported scalability relative to the scalable profiles of prior video coding standards. Due to the complicated hierarchical prediction structure of the SVC and the concept of key pictures, content-aware rate adaptation of SVC bit streams to intermediate bit rates is a nontrivial task. The concept of quality layers has been introduced in the design of the SVC to allow for fast content-aware prioritized rate adaptation. However, existing quality layer assignment methods are suboptimal and do not consider all network abstraction layer (NAL) units from different layers for the optimization. In this paper, we first propose a technique to accurately and efficiently estimate the quality degradation resulting from discarding an arbitrary number of NAL units from multiple layers of a bitstream by properly taking drift into account. Then, we utilize this distortion estimation technique to assign quality layers to NAL units for a more efficient extraction. Experimental results show that a significant gain can be achieved by the proposed scheme.

  20. Complex Genetic Effects on Early Vegetative Development Shape Resource Allocation Differences Between Arabidopsis lyrata Populations

    PubMed Central

    Remington, David L.; Leinonen, Päivi H.; Leppälä, Johanna; Savolainen, Outi

    2013-01-01

    Costs of reproduction due to resource allocation trade-offs have long been recognized as key forces in life history evolution, but little is known about their functional or genetic basis. Arabidopsis lyrata, a perennial relative of the annual model plant A. thaliana with a wide climatic distribution, has populations that are strongly diverged in resource allocation. In this study, we evaluated the genetic and functional basis for variation in resource allocation in a reciprocal transplant experiment, using four A. lyrata populations and F2 progeny from a cross between North Carolina (NC) and Norway parents, which had the most divergent resource allocation patterns. Local alleles at quantitative trait loci (QTL) at a North Carolina field site increased reproductive output while reducing vegetative growth. These QTL had little overlap with flowering date QTL. Structural equation models incorporating QTL genotypes and traits indicated that resource allocation differences result primarily from QTL effects on early vegetative growth patterns, with cascading effects on later vegetative and reproductive development. At a Norway field site, North Carolina alleles at some of the same QTL regions reduced survival and reproductive output components, but these effects were not associated with resource allocation trade-offs in the Norway environment. Our results indicate that resource allocation in perennial plants may involve important adaptive mechanisms largely independent of flowering time. Moreover, the contributions of resource allocation QTL to local adaptation appear to result from their effects on developmental timing and its interaction with environmental constraints, and not from simple models of reproductive costs. PMID:23979581

  1. Foldable Instrumented Bits for Ultrasonic/Sonic Penetrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Iskenderian, Theodore; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Linderman, Randel

    2010-01-01

    Long tool bits are undergoing development that can be stowed compactly until used as rock- or ground-penetrating probes actuated by ultrasonic/sonic mechanisms. These bits are designed to be folded or rolled into compact form for transport to exploration sites, where they are to be connected to their ultrasonic/ sonic actuation mechanisms and unfolded or unrolled to their full lengths for penetrating ground or rock to relatively large depths. These bits can be designed to acquire rock or soil samples and/or to be equipped with sensors for measuring properties of rock or soil in situ. These bits can also be designed to be withdrawn from the ground, restowed, and transported for reuse at different exploration sites. Apparatuses based on the concept of a probe actuated by an ultrasonic/sonic mechanism have been described in numerous prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, the most recent and relevant being "Ultrasonic/ Sonic Impacting Penetrators" (NPO-41666) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 4 (April 2008), page 58. All of those apparatuses are variations on the basic theme of the earliest ones, denoted ultrasonic/sonic drill corers (USDCs). To recapitulate: An apparatus of this type includes a lightweight, low-power, piezoelectrically driven actuator in which ultrasonic and sonic vibrations are generated and coupled to a tool bit. The combination of ultrasonic and sonic vibrations gives rise to a hammering action (and a resulting chiseling action at the tip of the tool bit) that is more effective for drilling than is the microhammering action of ultrasonic vibrations alone. The hammering and chiseling actions are so effective that the size of the axial force needed to make the tool bit advance into soil, rock, or another material of interest is much smaller than in ordinary twist drilling, ordinary hammering, or ordinary steady pushing. Examples of properties that could be measured by use of an instrumented tool bit include electrical conductivity, permittivity, magnetic

  2. Allocation of Public Resources for Psychological Therapy between Types of Mental Health Condition: Towards Structural Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tustin, Don

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses issues of allocating public resources efficiently between mental health conditions that are associated with different levels of disability, and presents an adaptation of an established framework to help decision-making in this area. The adapted framework refers to psychological interventions that are universal, indicated,…

  3. A comparison between 8-bit and 10-bit luminance resolution when generating low-contrast sinusoidal test pattern on an LCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sund, Patrik; Båth, Magnus; Ungsten, Linda; Månsson, Lars Gunnar

    2007-03-01

    Radiological images are today mostly displayed on monitors, but much is still unknown regarding the interaction between monitor and viewer. Issues like monitor luminance range, calibration, contrast resolution and luminance distribution need to be addressed further. To perform vision research of high validity to the radiologists, test images should be presented on medical displays. One of the problems has been how to display low contrast patterns in a strictly controlled way. This paper demonstrates how to generate test patterns close to the detection limit on a medical grade display using subpixel modulation. Patterns are generated with both 8-bit and 10-bit monitor input. With this technique, up to 7162 luminance levels can be displayed and the average separation is approximately 0.08 of a JND (Just Noticeable Difference) on a display with a luminance range between 1 and 400 cd/m2. These patterns were used in a 2AFC detection task and the detection threshold was found to be 0.75 +/- 0.02 of a JND when the adaptation level was the same as the target luminance (20 cd/m2). This is a reasonable result considering that the magnitude of a JND is based on the method of adjustment rather than on a detection task. When test patterns with a different luminance than the adaptation level (20 cd/m2) were displayed, the detection thresholds were 1.11 and 1.06 of a JND for target luminance values 1.8 and 350 cd/m2, respectively.

  4. Role Allocation and Team Structure in Command and Control Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    adaptability and flexibility required in these complex situations. In response, models of more agile , decentralized organizations – such as Edge...for a given team that allocation remain relatively stable once established. The findings are discussed with regards to team effectiveness and agility ...more agile , decentralized organizations – such as Edge organizations (EO) – have been proposed (e.g., Alberts & Hayes, 2003, 2006). These

  5. Low-bit-rate subband image coding with matching pursuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiee, Hamid; Safavian, S. R.; Gardos, Thomas R.; Mirani, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a novel multiresolution algorithm for low bit-rate image compression is presented. High quality low bit-rate image compression is achieved by first decomposing the image into approximation and detail subimages with a shift-orthogonal multiresolution analysis. Then, at the coarsest resolution level, the coefficients of the transformation are encoded by an orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm with a wavelet packet dictionary. Our dictionary consists of convolutional splines of up to order two for the detail and approximation subbands. The intercorrelation between the various resolutions is then exploited by using the same bases from the dictionary to encode the coefficients of the finer resolution bands at the corresponding spatial locations. To further exploit the spatial correlation of the coefficients, the zero trees of wavelets (EZW) algorithm was used to identify the potential zero trees. The coefficients of the presentation are then quantized and arithmetic encoded at each resolution, and packed into a scalable bit stream structure. Our new algorithm is highly bit-rate scalable, and performs better than the segmentation based matching pursuit and EZW encoders at lower bit rates, based on subjective image quality and peak signal-to-noise ratio.

  6. Bit-array alignment effect of perpendicular SOMA media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Peiying; Yuan, Zhimin; Kuan Lee, Hwee; Guo, Guoxiao

    2006-08-01

    One effective way to overcome the superparamagnetic limit of magnetic recording system is to reduce the grain number per bit at given signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) level by using uniformed media grains. The self organized magnetic array (SOMA) is designed to have uniform grains with perfect grain array structure. It is believed that high enough SNR with small number of grains per bit can be acheived. But in the engineering application, the recorded bit on SOMA media may align with the regular array at different locations and angles due to non-grain synchronized writing, skew angle, and circular track. This induces the bit-array alignment effect and degrades system performance of SOMA media. In this paper, the micromagnetic simulation results show that the bit array alignment effect causes large level SNR fluctuation on the same media. The SOMA media is not preferred to be used in the conventional recording configuration. It is only suitable for the configuration of patterned media.

  7. Robustness of spiking Deep Belief Networks to noise and reduced bit precision of neuro-inspired hardware platforms.

    PubMed

    Stromatias, Evangelos; Neil, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Michael; Galluppi, Francesco; Furber, Steve B; Liu, Shih-Chii

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly large deep learning architectures, such as Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are the focus of current machine learning research and achieve state-of-the-art results in different domains. However, both training and execution of large-scale Deep Networks require vast computing resources, leading to high power requirements and communication overheads. The on-going work on design and construction of spike-based hardware platforms offers an alternative for running deep neural networks with significantly lower power consumption, but has to overcome hardware limitations in terms of noise and limited weight precision, as well as noise inherent in the sensor signal. This article investigates how such hardware constraints impact the performance of spiking neural network implementations of DBNs. In particular, the influence of limited bit precision during execution and training, and the impact of silicon mismatch in the synaptic weight parameters of custom hybrid VLSI implementations is studied. Furthermore, the network performance of spiking DBNs is characterized with regard to noise in the spiking input signal. Our results demonstrate that spiking DBNs can tolerate very low levels of hardware bit precision down to almost two bits, and show that their performance can be improved by at least 30% through an adapted training mechanism that takes the bit precision of the target platform into account. Spiking DBNs thus present an important use-case for large-scale hybrid analog-digital or digital neuromorphic platforms such as SpiNNaker, which can execute large but precision-constrained deep networks in real time.

  8. Causes of wear of PDC bits and ways of improving their wear resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timonin, VV; Smolentsev, AS; Shakhtorin, I. O.; Polushin, NI; Laptev, AI; Kushkhabiev, AS

    2017-02-01

    The scope of the paper encompasses basic factors that influence PDC bit efficiency. Feasible ways of eliminating the negatives are illustrated. The wash fluid flow in a standard bit is modeled, the resultant pattern of the bit washing is analyzed, and the recommendations are made on modification of the PDC bit design.

  9. The Discipline of Asset Allocation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzel, Todd E.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of asset allocation for college/university endowment funds focuses on three levels of risk: (1) the absolute risk of the portfolio (usually leading to asset diversification); (2) the benchmark risk (usually comparison with peer institutions; and (3) personal career risk (which may incline managers toward maximizing short-term returns,…

  10. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  11. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    DOEpatents

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  12. Resource Allocation: A Participatory Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Alban E.

    Whether a participatory process for resource allocation in a public community college setting occurs depends upon several key factors: (1) the leadership style of the institutional chief executive officer; (2) the administrative organizational structure of the institution; (3) the relationship which exists between and among members of the various…

  13. Can relativistic bit commitment lead to secure quantum oblivious transfer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-05-01

    While unconditionally secure bit commitment (BC) is considered impossible within the quantum framework, it can be obtained under relativistic or experimental constraints. Here we study whether such BC can lead to secure quantum oblivious transfer (QOT). The answer is not completely negative. In one hand, we provide a detailed cheating strategy, showing that the "honest-but-curious adversaries" in some of the existing no-go proofs on QOT still apply even if secure BC is used, enabling the receiver to increase the average reliability of the decoded value of the transferred bit. On the other hand, it is also found that some other no-go proofs claiming that a dishonest receiver can always decode all transferred bits simultaneously with reliability 100% become invalid in this scenario, because their models of cryptographic protocols are too ideal to cover such a BC-based QOT.

  14. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    PubMed

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-03-23

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.

  15. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.

  16. 13 bits per incident photon optical communications demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, William H.; Choi, John M.; Moision, Bruce

    2013-03-01

    Minimizing the mass and power burden of a laser transceiver on a spacecraft for interplanetary optical communications links drives requires operation in a "photon starved" regime. The relevant performance metric in the photon starved regime is Photon Information Efficiency (PIE) with units of bits per photon. Measuring this performance at the detector plane of an optical communications receiver, prior art has achieved performance levels around one bit per incident photon using pulse position modulation (PPM). By combining a PPM modulator with greater than 75 dB extinction ratio with a tungsten silicide (WSi) superconducting nanowire detector with greater than 83% detection efficiency we have demonstrated an optical communications link at 13 bits per incident photon.

  17. Bit-string methods for selective compound acquisition

    PubMed

    Rhodes; Willett; Dunbar; Humblet

    2000-03-01

    Selective compound acquisition programs need to ensure that the compounds that are chosen do not contain undesirable functionality. This is easy to achieve if a supplier is prepared to provide unambiguous structure representations for the compounds that they have available: this paper discusses selection techniques that can be used when a supplier is prepared to make available only fragment bit-string representations for the compounds in their catalog. Experiments with three databases and three types of bit-string show that a simple k-nearest-neighbor searching method provides a surprisingly effective, although far from perfect, way of selecting compounds when only bit-string representations are available. A second approach, based on the use of a fragment weighting scheme analogous to those used in substructural analysis studies, proved to be noticeably less effective in operation.

  18. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment

    PubMed Central

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-01-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities. PMID:25796977

  19. Use of single-cutter data in the analysis of PDC bit designs

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1986-10-10

    A method is developed for predicting cutter forces, temperatures, and wear on PDC bits as well as integrated bit performance parameters such as weight-on-bit (WOB), drilling torque, and bit imbalance. A computer code called PDCWEAR has been developed to make this method available as a tool for general bit design. The method uses single-cutter data to provide a measure of rock drillability and employs theoretical considerations to account for interaction among closely spaced cutters on the bit. Experimental data are presented to establish the effects of cutter size and wearflat area on the forces that develop during rock cutting. Waterjet assistance is shown to significantly reduce cutting forces, thereby extending bit life and reducing WOB and torque requirements in hard rock. The effects of bit profile, cutter placement density, bit rotary speed, and wear mode on bit life and drilling performance are investigated. 21 refs., 34 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Reading boundless error-free bits using a single photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Saikat; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2013-06-01

    We address the problem of how efficiently information can be encoded into and read out reliably from a passive reflective surface that encodes classical data by modulating the amplitude and phase of incident light. We show that nature imposes no fundamental upper limit to the number of bits that can be read per expended probe photon and demonstrate the quantum-information-theoretic trade-offs between the photon efficiency (bits per photon) and the encoding efficiency (bits per pixel) of optical reading. We show that with a coherent-state (ideal laser) source, an on-off (amplitude-modulation) pixel encoding, and shot-noise-limited direct detection (an overly optimistic model for commercial CD and DVD drives), the highest photon efficiency achievable in principle is about 0.5 bits read per transmitted photon. We then show that a coherent-state probe can read unlimited bits per photon when the receiver is allowed to make joint (inseparable) measurements on the reflected light from a large block of phase-modulated memory pixels. Finally, we show an example of a spatially entangled nonclassical light probe and a receiver design—constructible using a single-photon source, beam splitters, and single-photon detectors—that can in principle read any number of error-free bits of information. The probe is a single photon prepared in a uniform coherent superposition of multiple orthogonal spatial modes, i.e., a W state. The code and joint-detection receiver complexity required by a coherent-state transmitter to achieve comparable photon efficiency performance is shown to be much higher in comparison to that required by the W-state transceiver, although this advantage rapidly disappears with increasing loss in the system.

  1. Shifts in Aboveground Biomass Allocation Patterns of Dominant Shrub Species across a Strong Environmental Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Kumordzi, Bright B.; Gundale, Michael J.; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Most plant biomass allocation studies have focused on allocation to shoots versus roots, and little is known about drivers of allocation for aboveground plant organs. We explored the drivers of within-and between-species variation of aboveground biomass allocation across a strong environmental resource gradient, i.e., a long-term chronosequence of 30 forested islands in northern Sweden across which soil fertility and plant productivity declines while light availability increases. For each of the three coexisting dominant understory dwarf shrub species on each island, we estimated the fraction of the total aboveground biomass produced year of sampling that was allocated to sexual reproduction (i.e., fruits), leaves and stems for each of two growing seasons, to determine how biomass allocation responded to the chronosequence at both the within-species and whole community levels. Against expectations, within-species allocation to fruits was least on less fertile islands, and allocation to leaves at the whole community level was greatest on intermediate islands. Consistent with expectations, different coexisting species showed contrasting allocation patterns, with the species that was best adapted for more fertile conditions allocating the most to vegetative organs, and with its allocation pattern showing the strongest response to the gradient. Our study suggests that co-existing dominant plant species can display highly contrasting biomass allocations to different aboveground organs within and across species in response to limiting environmental resources within the same plant community. Such knowledge is important for understanding how community assembly, trait spectra, and ecological processes driven by the plant community vary across environmental gradients and among contrasting ecosystems. PMID:27270445

  2. Demonstration of low-power bit-interleaving TDM PON.

    PubMed

    Van Praet, Christophe; Chow, Hungkei; Suvakovic, Dusan; Van Veen, Doutje; Dupas, Arnaud; Boislaigue, Roger; Farah, Robert; Lau, Man Fai; Galaro, Joseph; Qua, Gin; Anthapadmanabhan, N Prasanth; Torfs, Guy; Yin, Xin; Vetter, Peter

    2012-12-10

    A functional demonstration of bit-interleaving TDM downstream protocol for passive optical networks (Bi-PON) is reported. The proposed protocol presents a significant reduction in dynamic power consumption in the customer premise equipment over the conventional TDM protocol. It allows to select the relevant bits of all aggregated incoming data immediately after clock and data recovery (CDR) and, hence, allows subsequent hardware to run at much lower user rate. Comparison of experimental results of FPGA-based implementations of Bi-PON and XG-PON shows that more than 30x energy-savings in protocol processing is achievable.

  3. Multiple-bit-rate clock recovery circuit: theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplunenko, V.

    1999-11-01

    The multiple-bit-rate clock recovery circuit has been recently proposed as a part of the communications packet switch. All packets must be the same length and be preceded by the frequency header, which is a number of consecutive ones (return-to-zero mode). The header is compared with the internal clock, and the result is used to set output clock frequency. The clock rate is defined by a number of fluxons propagating in ring oscillator, which is a close circular Josephson transmission line. The theory gives a bit rate bandwidth as a function of internal clock frequency, header length and silence time (maximum number of consecutive zeros in the packet).

  4. Micro-electromechanical memory bit based on magnetic repulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Suárez, Miquel; Neri, Igor

    2016-09-01

    A bistable micro-mechanical system based on magnetic repulsion is presented exploring its applicability as memory unit where the state of the bit is encoded in the rest position of a deflected cantilever. The non-linearity induced on the cantilever can be tuned through the magnetic interaction intensity between the cantilever magnet and the counter magnet in terms of geometrical parameters. A simple model provides a sound prediction of the behavior of the system. Finally, we measured the energy required to store a bit of information on the system that, for the considered protocols, is bounded by the energy barrier separating the two stable states.

  5. Hanford coring bit temperature monitor development testing results report

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, D.

    1995-05-01

    Instrumentation which directly monitors the temperature of a coring bit used to retrieve core samples of high level nuclear waste stored in tanks at Hanford was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Monitoring the temperature of the coring bit is desired to enhance the safety of the coring operations. A unique application of mature technologies was used to accomplish the measurement. This report documents the results of development testing performed at Sandia to assure the instrumentation will withstand the severe environments present in the waste tanks.

  6. Development of a jet-assisted polycrystalline diamond drill bit

    SciTech Connect

    Pixton, D.S.; Hall, D.R.; Summers, D.A.; Gertsch, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    A preliminary investigation has been conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility and potential economic benefits of a new type of drill bit. This bit transmits both rotary and percussive drilling forces to the rock face, and augments this cutting action with high-pressure mud jets. Both the percussive drilling forces and the mud jets are generated down-hole by a mud-actuated hammer. Initial laboratory studies show that rate of penetration increases on the order of a factor of two over unaugmented rotary and/or percussive drilling rates are possible with jet-assistance.

  7. Loss-aware rate-distortion optimization for redundant picture allocation in H.264/AVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinho; Cha, Jihun; Choi, Jin Soo; Choi, Haechul

    2010-02-01

    A redundant picture is one of the H.264/AVC tools for increasing error resiliency when video is delivered over error prone environments. We present a loss-aware redundant picture allocation method that determines whether the redundant picture is inserted for each primary coded picture or not. The determination is based on an error rate of transmission network and the distortion of decoded picture caused by the error. Simulation results showed that the proposed method alleviates the distortion and, thereby, it achieves higher quality of the decoded picture than the conventional methods, including the hierarchical redundant picture. In particular, the proposed method produces outstanding results at low bit rates; thus, the method is highly applicable to low bit-rate wireless video transmission.

  8. Differential response to copper stress in the reproductive resources and allocation of metallophyte Kummerowia stipulacea.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jin-hua; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Jin-Ping; Chen, Da-Qing

    2013-03-01

    Abundant seed production is a key life history trait for plant to maintain the stability of the whole population in adverse environments such as heavy metal contaminated mine area. In the current studies, we hypothesize that mine (metallicolous) populations of metallophytes have formed specialized reproductive strategies to adapt themselves to the heavy metal contaminated habitats, and differ from normal (non-metallicolous) populations in reproductive allocation. To test this hypothesis, the differences in reproductive resources and reproductive allocation between the copper mine and non-copper mine populations of pseudo-metallophyte Kummerowia stipulacea were comparatively examined under controlled Cu exposure experiments. Compared to non-copper mine population, copper mine population shows an increased seed output and larger reproductive effort under Cu stress. The increase of reproductive allocation in metallicolous population depends on not only seed size but also seed number per plant. The plants of metallicolous population increase allocation to the reproductive organs at the expense of a curtailment of allocation to vegetative traits, resulting in plants with shorter height and fewer branch numbers. There is little evidence displaying effect of root nodule on the reproductive resources and allocation. In addition, plants in metallicolous population reduce the transfer of Cu from roots to aboveground parts. These data suggest that plants of metallicolous population tend to invest more resources to reproductive output and increase their reproductive allocation in the adaptive evolution to Cu-enriched mine soils.

  9. Radiation-hardened 16K-bit MNOS EAROM

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, M.G.; Dellin, T.A.; Jones, R.V.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation-hardened silicon-gate CMOS/NMNOS 16K-bit EAROM has been designed, fabricated, and evaluated. This memory has been designed to be used as a ROM replacement in radiation-hardened microprocessor-based systems.

  10. A radiation-hardened 16/32-bit microprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, K.J.; Treece, R.K.; Giddings, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    A radiation-hardened 16/32-bit microprocessor has been fabricated and tested. Our initial evaluation has demonstrated that it is functional after a total gamma dose of 5Mrad(Si) and is immune to SEU from Krypton ions. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Steganography forensics method for detecting least significant bit replacement attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Wei, Chengcheng; Han, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    We present an image forensics method to detect least significant bit replacement steganography attack. The proposed method provides fine-grained forensics features by using the hierarchical structure that combines pixels correlation and bit-planes correlation. This is achieved via bit-plane decomposition and difference matrices between the least significant bit-plane and each one of the others. Generated forensics features provide the susceptibility (changeability) that will be drastically altered when the cover image is embedded with data to form a stego image. We developed a statistical model based on the forensics features and used least square support vector machine as a classifier to distinguish stego images from cover images. Experimental results show that the proposed method provides the following advantages. (1) The detection rate is noticeably higher than that of some existing methods. (2) It has the expected stability. (3) It is robust for content-preserving manipulations, such as JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, etc. (4) The proposed method provides satisfactory generalization capability.

  12. Characterization of a 16-Bit Digitizer for Lidar Data Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Cynthia K.; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2000-01-01

    A 6-MHz 16-bit waveform digitizer was evaluated for use in atmospheric differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements of ozone. The digitizer noise characteristics were evaluated, and actual ozone DIAL atmospheric returns were digitized. This digitizer could replace computer-automated measurement and control (CAMAC)-based commercial digitizers and improve voltage accuracy.

  13. Rock bit requires no flushing medium to maintain drilling speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Steel drill bit having terraces of teeth intersected by spiral grooves with teeth permits the boring of small holes through rock with low power. The cuttings are stored in a chamber behind the cutting head. Could be used as sampling device.

  14. New group demodulator for bandlimited and bit asynchronous FDMA signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.; Kumagai, T.; Kato, S.

    1994-05-01

    The authors propose a group demodulator that employs the multisymbol chirp Fourier transform to demodulate pulse-shaped and time-asynchronous signals. Computer simulation results show that the bit error rate degradation of the proposed group demodulator at BER = 10(exp -3) is less than 0.3 dB with a 7 symbol chirp Fourier transform.

  15. Critical Investigation of Wear Behaviour of WC Drill Bit Buttons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anurag; Chattopadhyaya, Somnath; Hloch, Sergej

    2013-01-01

    Mining and petroleum drill bits are subjected to highly abrasive rock and high-velocity fluids that cause severe wear and erosion in service. To augment the rate of penetration and minimize the cost per foot, such drill bits are subjected to increasing rotary speeds and weight. A rotary/percussive drill typically hits the rock 50 times per second with hydraulic impact pressure of about 170-200 bar and feed pressure of about 90-100 bar, while rotating at 75-200 rpm. The drill rig delivers a high-velocity flow of drilling fluid onto the rock surface to dislodge cuttings and cool the bit. The impingement of high-velocity drilling fluid with entrained cuttings accelerates the erosion rate of the bit. Also, high service temperature contributes to softening of the rock for increased penetration. Hence, there is a need to optimize the drilling process and balance the wear rate and penetration rate simultaneously. This paper presents an experimental scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of electroplated (nickel-bonded) diamond drills for different wear modes.

  16. Bit-error-rate testing of high-power 30-GHz traveling-wave tubes for ground-terminal applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.

    1987-01-01

    Tests were conducted at NASA Lewis to measure the bit-error-rate performance of two 30-GHz 200-W coupled-cavity traveling-wave tubes (TWTs). The transmission effects of each TWT on a band-limited 220-Mbit/s SMSK signal were investigated. The tests relied on the use of a recently developed digital simulation and evaluation system constructed at Lewis as part of the 30/20-GHz technology development program. This paper describes the approach taken to test the 30-GHz tubes and discusses the test data. A description of the bit-error-rate measurement system and the adaptations needed to facilitate TWT testing are also presented.

  17. Bit-error-rate testing of high-power 30-GHz traveling wave tubes for ground-terminal applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Kurt A.; Fujikawa, Gene

    1986-01-01

    Tests were conducted at NASA Lewis to measure the bit-error-rate performance of two 30 GHz, 200 W, coupled-cavity traveling wave tubes (TWTs). The transmission effects of each TWT were investigated on a band-limited, 220 Mb/sec SMSK signal. The tests relied on the use of a recently developed digital simulation and evaluation system constructed at Lewis as part of the 30/20 GHz technology development program. The approach taken to test the 30 GHz tubes is described and the resultant test data are discussed. A description of the bit-error-rate measurement system and the adaptations needed to facilitate TWT testing are also presented.

  18. 10 CFR 455.31 - Allocation formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY... conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, for schools and hospitals, shall be allocated... percent of all amounts allocated in any grant program cycle. No State will be allocated more than...

  19. 42 CFR 457.228 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 457.228 Section 457.228 Public...; Reduction of Federal Medical Payments § 457.228 Cost allocation. A State plan must provide that the single or appropriate CHIP Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with the Department...

  20. 42 CFR 433.34 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 433.34 Section 433.34 Public... Provisions § 433.34 Cost allocation. A State plan under Title XIX of the Social Security Act must provide that the single or appropriate Agency will have an approved cost allocation plan on file with...

  1. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  2. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  3. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... allocation. The burden of ascertaining and accurately transmitting current allocations and status of...

  4. 24 CFR 945.203 - Allocation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation plan. 945.203 Section... FAMILIES Application and Approval Procedures § 945.203 Allocation plan. (a) Applicable terminology. (1) As used in this section, the terms “initial allocation plan” refers to the PHA's first submission of...

  5. Communication patterns and allocation strategies.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Mache, Jens Wolfgang; Bunde, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by observations about job runtimes on the CPlant system, we use a trace-driven microsimulator to begin characterizing the performance of different classes of allocation algorithms on jobs with different communication patterns in space-shared parallel systems with mesh topology. We show that relative performance varies considerably with communication pattern. The Paging strategy using the Hilbert space-filling curve and the Best Fit heuristic performed best across several communication patterns.

  6. Minority Transportation Expenditure Allocation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, Anant D.; Santini, Danilo J.; Marik, Sheri K.

    1993-04-12

    MITRAM (Minority TRansportation expenditure Allocation Model) can project various transportation related attributes of minority (Black and Hispanic) and majority (white) populations. The model projects vehicle ownership, vehicle miles of travel, workers, new car and on-road fleet fuel economy, amount and share of household income spent on gasoline, and household expenditures on public transportation and taxis. MITRAM predicts reactions to sustained fuel price changes for up to 10 years after the change.

  7. Algorithms for optimal redundancy allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenkieboom, J.; Youngblood, R.

    1993-01-01

    Heuristic and exact methods for solving the redundancy allocation problem are compared to an approach based on genetic algorithms. The various methods are applied to the bridge problem, which has been used as a benchmark in earlier work on optimization methods. Comparisons are presented in terms of the best configuration found by each method, and the computation effort which was necessary in order to find it.

  8. Above-belowground Carbon Allocation in Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, X.; Hoffman, F. M.; Xu, X.; Iversen, C. M.; Kumar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Above-belowground carbon allocation is a critical mechanism for vegetation growth and its adaptation to the changing environment. The model representation of carbon allocation mechanisms significantly influence the simulated carbon stock and land-atmosphere exchange in Earth System Models (ESMs). Few previous studies, however, have investigated and evaluated the above-belowground carbon allocation in ESMs. In this study, we analyzed carbon density in belowground, total vegetation (above + belowground), and belowground:vegetation ratios of eleven ESMs from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), which were used for the latest IPCC Assessment Report (AR5). Overall, results of ESMs are not consistent with observational data; both the belowground and total vegetation carbon density are underestimated in tropical/subtropical and temperate regions, while overestimated in arctic/subarctic regions. Moreover, the ratios of belowground:total vegetation carbon are underestimated in all three climate zones. The model-data discrepancies in carbon density vary substantially among biomes, while the ratios of belowground:total vegetation carbon are consistently underestimated across all major biomes expect tropical moist forests. This study indicates that the carbon allocation algorithms in current ESMs need to be improved to better simulate vegetation growth and its responses to global change.

  9. Gestational experience alters sex allocation in the subsequent generation

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, E. Z.; Pereira, J. C.; Wapstra, E.; Ferguson-Smith, M. A.; Horton, S. R.; Thomasson, K.

    2016-01-01

    Empirical tests of adaptive maternal sex allocation hypotheses have presented inconsistent results in mammals. The possibility that mothers are constrained in their ability to adjust sex ratios could explain some of the remaining variation. Maternal effects, the influence of the maternal phenotype or genotype on her developing offspring, may constrain sex allocation through physiological changes in response to the gestational environment. We tested if maternal effects constrain future parental sex allocation through a lowered gestational stress environment in laboratory mice. Females that experienced lowered stress as embryos in utero gave birth to female-biased litters as adults, with no change to litter size. Changes in offspring sex ratio was linked to peri-conceptual glucose, as those females that had increasing blood glucose peri-conceptionally gave birth to litters with a higher male to female sex ratio. There was, however, no effect of the lowered prenatal stress for developing male embryos and their sperm sex ratio when adult. We discuss the implications of maternal effects and maternal stress environment on the lifelong physiology of the offspring, particularly as a constraint on later maternal sex allocation. PMID:27493776

  10. Estimating Hardness from the USDC Tool-Bit Temperature Rise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    A method of real-time quantification of the hardness of a rock or similar material involves measurement of the temperature, as a function of time, of the tool bit of an ultrasonic/sonic drill corer (USDC) that is being used to drill into the material. The method is based on the idea that, other things being about equal, the rate of rise of temperature and the maximum temperature reached during drilling increase with the hardness of the drilled material. In this method, the temperature is measured by means of a thermocouple embedded in the USDC tool bit near the drilling tip. The hardness of the drilled material can then be determined through correlation of the temperature-rise-versus-time data with time-dependent temperature rises determined in finite-element simulations of, and/or experiments on, drilling at various known rates of advance or known power levels through materials of known hardness. The figure presents an example of empirical temperature-versus-time data for a particular 3.6-mm USDC bit, driven at an average power somewhat below 40 W, drilling through materials of various hardness levels. The temperature readings from within a USDC tool bit can also be used for purposes other than estimating the hardness of the drilled material. For example, they can be especially useful as feedback to control the driving power to prevent thermal damage to the drilled material, the drill bit, or both. In the case of drilling through ice, the temperature readings could be used as a guide to maintaining sufficient drive power to prevent jamming of the drill by preventing refreezing of melted ice in contact with the drill.

  11. High-resolution image digitizing through 12x3-bit RGB-filtered CCD camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Andrew Y. S.; Pau, Michael C. Y.

    1996-09-01

    A high resolution computer-controlled CCD image capturing system is developed by using a 12 bits 1024 by 1024 pixels CCD camera and motorized RGB filters to grasp an image with color depth up to 36 bits. The filters distinguish the major components of color and collect them separately while the CCD camera maintains the spatial resolution and detector filling factor. The color separation can be done optically rather than electronically. The operation is simply by placing the capturing objects like color photos, slides and even x-ray transparencies under the camera system, the necessary parameters such as integration time, mixing level and light intensity are automatically adjusted by an on-line expert system. This greatly reduces the restrictions of the capturing species. This unique approach can save considerable time for adjusting the quality of image, give much more flexibility of manipulating captured object even if it is a 3D object with minimal setup fixers. In addition, cross sectional dimension of a 3D capturing object can be analyzed by adapting a fiber optic ring light source. It is particularly useful in non-contact metrology of a 3D structure. The digitized information can be stored in an easily transferable format. Users can also perform a special LUT mapping automatically or manually. Applications of the system include medical images archiving, printing quality control, 3D machine vision, and etc.

  12. Dynamic Task Allocation: Issues for Implementing Adaptive Intelligent Automation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    published data from psychology studies. The perceptual and motor buffers, for example, are based on an existing theory of perception and motor action...engineering research (Vol. 2): JAI Press/Elsevier. Dawes, R. M. (1994). House of cards: Psychology and psychotherapy built on myth. New York, NY: The Free...Aviation Psychology , Columbus, OH. Degani, A., Shafto, M., & Kirlik, A. (1999). Modes in human-machine systems: Review, classification, and

  13. Maternal-fetal resource allocation: co-operation and conflict.

    PubMed

    Fowden, A L; Moore, T

    2012-11-01

    Pregnancy is generally a co-operative interaction between mother and fetus in which the evolutionary genetic interests of both benefit from production of healthy offspring. While this view is largely supported by empirical data, Kinship Theory predicts that mother and fetus will disagree over the optimum level of maternal investment that maximises their respective fitnesses. This conflict will be more evident with polyandrous than monogamous mating systems, when resources are scarce and in late gestation when the fetus is growing maximally, particularly if conceptus mass is large relative to maternal mass. As the site of nutrient transfer, the placenta is pivotal in the tug-of-war between mother and fetus over resource allocation. It responds to both fetal signals of nutrient demand and maternal signals of nutrient availability and, by adapting its phenotype, regulates the distribution of available resources. These adaptations involve changes in placental size, morphology, transport characteristics, metabolism and hormone bioavailability. They are mediated by key growth regulatory, endocrine and nutrient supply genes responsive to mismatches between nutrient availability and the fetal genetic drive for growth. Indeed, evolution of genomic imprinting and placental secretion of hormones are believed to have been driven by maternal-fetal conflict over resource allocation. Although many of the specific mechanisms involved still have to be identified, the placenta confers optimal fitness on the offspring for its developmental environment by balancing conflict and cooperation in the allocation of resources through generation of nutrient transport phenotypes specific to the prevailing nutritional conditions and/or fetal genotype.

  14. Allocating Variability and Reserve Requirements (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation describes how you could conceivably allocate variability and reserve requirements, including how to allocate aggregation benefits. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Aggregation provides benefits because individual requirements are not 100% correlated; (2) Method needed to allocate reduced requirement among participants; (3) Differences between allocation results are subtle - (a) Not immediately obvious which method is 'better'; (b) Many are numerically 'correct', they sum to the physical requirement; (c) Many are not 'fair', Results depend on sub-aggregation and/or the order individuals are included; and (4) Vector allocation method is simple and fair.

  15. Real-time optical OFDM transmissions with spectral efficiency up to 6.93 bit/s/Hz over 50 km SSMF IMDD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qianwu; Liu, Min; Chen, Jian; Dun, Han; Zhang, Junjie; Li, Yingchun; Song, Yingxiong; Wang, Min

    2017-03-01

    Real-time optical OFDM transmissions based on FPGA with 6.93 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency by using simple directly modulated DFB laser and DAC/ADC with sampling rate as low as 2GS/s without inline amplifier are experimentally demonstrated. 7.09-Gb/s OFDM signals with subcarrier modulation format up to 512-QAM can be successfully transmitted over 50-km SSMF with adopted HD-FEC (3.8×10-3). The robustness of system performance is also extensively explored to determine the tolerance to DAC/ADC resolution mismatch. It is shown that aggregate system capacity can be maintained almost constant for DAC/ADC resolution mismatch as large as 3bits due to the utilization of adaptive bit and power loading scheme. On the other hand, for a certain system configuration and an expected signal line rate, it also gives a reference minimum DAC/ADC boundary for practical deployment.

  16. 45 CFR 402.31 - Determination of allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ASSISTANCE GRANTS State Allocations § 402.31 Determination of allocations. (a) Allocation formula. Allocations will be computed according to a formula using the following factors and weights: (1) 50...

  17. 10 CFR 217.53 - Types of allocation orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of allocation orders. 217.53 Section 217.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.53 Types of allocation orders. There are three types of allocation orders available for communicating allocation...

  18. Fully Distrustful Quantum Bit Commitment and Coin Flipping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silman, J.; Chailloux, A.; Aharon, N.; Kerenidis, I.; Pironio, S.; Massar, S.

    2011-06-01

    In the distrustful quantum cryptography model the parties have conflicting interests and do not trust one another. Nevertheless, they trust the quantum devices in their labs. The aim of the device-independent approach to cryptography is to do away with the latter assumption, and, consequently, significantly increase security. It is an open question whether the scope of this approach also extends to protocols in the distrustful cryptography model, thereby rendering them “fully” distrustful. In this Letter, we show that for bit commitment—one of the most basic primitives within the model—the answer is positive. We present a device-independent (imperfect) bit-commitment protocol, where Alice’s and Bob’s cheating probabilities are ≃0.854 and (3)/(4), which we then use to construct a device-independent coin flipping protocol with bias ≲0.336.

  19. Finger vein recognition based on a personalized best bit map.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gongping; Xi, Xiaoming; Yin, Yilong

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns have recently been recognized as an effective biometric identifier. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on a personalized best bit map (PBBM). Our method is rooted in a local binary pattern based method and then inclined to use the best bits only for matching. We first present the concept of PBBM and the generating algorithm. Then we propose the finger vein recognition framework, which consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PBBM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PBBM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition.

  20. A 128K-bit CCD buffer memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemens, K. H.; Wallace, R. W.; Robinson, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype system was implemented to demonstrate that CCD's can be applied advantageously to the problem of low power digital storage and particularly to the problem of interfacing widely varying data rates. 8K-bit CCD shift register memories were used to construct a feasibility model 128K-bit buffer memory system. Peak power dissipation during a data transfer is less than 7 W., while idle power is approximately 5.4 W. The system features automatic data input synchronization with the recirculating CCD memory block start address. Descriptions are provided of both the buffer memory system and a custom tester that was used to exercise the memory. The testing procedures and testing results are discussed. Suggestions are provided for further development with regards to the utilization of advanced versions of CCD memory devices to both simplified and expanded memory system applications.

  1. Efficient biased random bit generation for parallel processing

    SciTech Connect

    Slone, Dale M.

    1994-09-28

    A lattice gas automaton was implemented on a massively parallel machine (the BBN TC2000) and a vector supercomputer (the CRAY C90). The automaton models Burgers equation ρt + ρρx = vρxx in 1 dimension. The lattice gas evolves by advecting and colliding pseudo-particles on a 1-dimensional, periodic grid. The specific rules for colliding particles are stochastic in nature and require the generation of many billions of random numbers to create the random bits necessary for the lattice gas. The goal of the thesis was to speed up the process of generating the random bits and thereby lessen the computational bottleneck of the automaton.

  2. Finger Vein Recognition Based on a Personalized Best Bit Map

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gongping; Xi, Xiaoming; Yin, Yilong

    2012-01-01

    Finger vein patterns have recently been recognized as an effective biometric identifier. In this paper, we propose a finger vein recognition method based on a personalized best bit map (PBBM). Our method is rooted in a local binary pattern based method and then inclined to use the best bits only for matching. We first present the concept of PBBM and the generating algorithm. Then we propose the finger vein recognition framework, which consists of preprocessing, feature extraction, and matching. Finally, we design extensive experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of our proposal. Experimental results show that PBBM achieves not only better performance, but also high robustness and reliability. In addition, PBBM can be used as a general framework for binary pattern based recognition. PMID:22438735

  3. b.i.t. Bremerhaven: Thin Clients entlasten Schulen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Schulamt Bremerhaven zentralisiert die Verwaltungs-IT und schafft dadurch Freiräume für pädagogische und organisatorische Herausforderungen. Pflege und Support der neuen Infrastruktur übernimmt der Dienstleister b.i.t. Bremerhaven, die Thin Clients kommen vom Bremer Hersteller IGEL Technology. Ganztagsschulen, das 12-jährige Abitur, PISA, der Wegfall der Orientierungsstufe - deutsche Schulen müssen derzeit zahlreiche organisatorische und pädagogische Herausforderungen bewältigen. Um die neuen Strukturen umsetzen zu können, werden zusätzliche Ressourcen benötigt. Das Schulamt Bremerhaven hat gemeinsam mit dem Dienstleister b.i.t. Bremerhaven (Betrieb für Informationstechnologie) eine intelligente Lösung gefunden, wie sich die benötigten finanziellen Freiräume schaffen lassen.

  4. Spin Quantum Bit with Ferromagnetic Contacts for Circuit QED

    SciTech Connect

    Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis

    2010-10-15

    We theoretically propose a scheme for a spin quantum bit based on a double quantum dot contacted to ferromagnetic elements. Interface exchange effects enable an all electric manipulation of the spin and a switchable strong coupling to a superconducting coplanar waveguide cavity. Our setup does not rely on any specific band structure and can in principle be realized with many different types of nanoconductors. This allows us to envision on-chip single spin manipulation and readout using cavity QED techniques.

  5. Photon-number-resolving detector with 10 bits of resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Leaf A.; Dauler, Eric A.; Chang, Joshua T

    2007-06-15

    A photon-number-resolving detector with single-photon resolution is described and demonstrated. It has 10 bits of resolution, does not require cryogenic cooling, and is sensitive to near ir wavelengths. This performance is achieved by flood illuminating a 32x32 element In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}AsP Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode array that has an integrated counter and digital readout circuit behind each pixel.

  6. Spin quantum bit with ferromagnetic contacts for circuit QED.

    PubMed

    Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis

    2010-10-15

    We theoretically propose a scheme for a spin quantum bit based on a double quantum dot contacted to ferromagnetic elements. Interface exchange effects enable an all electric manipulation of the spin and a switchable strong coupling to a superconducting coplanar waveguide cavity. Our setup does not rely on any specific band structure and can in principle be realized with many different types of nanoconductors. This allows us to envision on-chip single spin manipulation and readout using cavity QED techniques.

  7. Simplified 2-bit photonic digital-to-analog conversion unit based on polarization multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Gao, Bindong; Ge, Xiaozhong; Pan, Shilong

    2016-03-01

    A 2-bit photonic digital-to-analog conversion unit is proposed and demonstrated based on polarization multiplexing. The proposed 2-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) unit is realized by optical intensity weighting and summing, and its complexity is greatly reduced compared with the traditional 2-bit photonic DACs. Performance of the proposed 2-bit DAC unit is experimentally investigated. The established 2-bit DAC unit achieves a good linear transfer function, and the effective number of bits is calculated to be 1.3. Based on the proposed 2-bit DAC unit, two DAC structures with higher (>2) bit resolutions are proposed and discussed, and the system complexity is expected to be reduced by half by using the proposed technique.

  8. Development of a near-bit MWD system. Quarterly report, April 1994--June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, W.J.; Pittard, G.T.

    1994-11-01

    Horizontal drilling utilized in the oil and gas fields has need of accurate directional placement and drilling conditions at the bit. The preliminary design of a drill bit with a measuring instrument/telemetry system attached is briefly described.

  9. High performance 14-bit pipelined redundant signed digit ADC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Swina; Pandey, Sujata

    2016-03-01

    A novel architecture of a pipelined redundant-signed-digit analog to digital converter (RSD-ADC) is presented featuring a high signal to noise ratio (SNR), spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) and signal to noise plus distortion (SNDR) with efficient background correction logic. The proposed ADC architecture shows high accuracy with a high speed circuit and efficient utilization of the hardware. This paper demonstrates the functionality of the digital correction logic of 14-bit pipelined ADC at each 1.5 bit/stage. This prototype of ADC architecture accounts for capacitor mismatch, comparator offset and finite Op-Amp gain error in the MDAC (residue amplification circuit) stages. With the proposed architecture of ADC, SNDR obtained is 85.89 dB, SNR is 85.9 dB and SFDR obtained is 102.8 dB at the sample rate of 100 MHz. This novel architecture of digital correction logic is transparent to the overall system, which is demonstrated by using 14-bit pipelined ADC. After a latency of 14 clocks, digital output will be available at every clock pulse. To describe the circuit behavior of the ADC, VHDL and MATLAB programs are used. The proposed architecture is also capable of reducing the digital hardware. Silicon area is also the complexity of the design.

  10. Color encoding for gamut extension and bit-depth extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao

    2005-02-01

    Monitor oriented RGB color spaces (e.g. sRGB) are widely applied for digital image representation for the simplicity in displaying images on monitor displays. However, the physical gamut limits its ability to encode colors accurately for color images that are not limited to the display RGB gamut. To extend the encoding gamut, non-physical RGB primaries may be used to define the color space, or the RGB tone ranges may be extended beyond the physical range. An out-of-gamut color has at least one of the R, G, and B channels that are smaller than 0 or higher than 100%. Instead of using wide-gamut RGB primaries for gamut expansion, we may extend the tone ranges to expand the encoding gamut. Negative tone values and tone values over 100% are allowed. Methods to efficiently and accurately encode out-of-gamut colors are discussed in this paper. Interpretation bits are added to interpret the range of color values or to encode color values with a higher bit-depth. The interpretation bits of R, G, and B primaries can be packed and stored in an alpha channel in some image formats (e.g. TIFF) or stored in a data tag (e.g. in JEPG format). If a color image does not have colors that are out of a regular RGB gamut, a regular program (e.g. Photoshop) is able to manipulate the data correctly.

  11. Multi-bit biomemory consisting of recombinant protein variants, azurin.

    PubMed

    Yagati, Ajay Kumar; Kim, Sang-Uk; Min, Junhong; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2009-01-01

    In this study a protein-based multi-bit biomemory device consisting of recombinant azurin with its cysteine residue modified by site-directed mutagenesis method has been developed. The recombinant azurin was directly immobilized on four different gold (Au) electrodes patterned on a single silicon substrate. Using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and open circuit potential amperometry (OCPA) methods the memory function of the fabricated biodevice was validated. The charge transfer occurs between protein molecules and Au electrode enables a bi-stable electrical conductivity allowing the system to be used as a digital memory device. Data storage is achieved by applying redox potentials which are within the range of 200mV. Oxidation and open circuit potentials with current sensing were used for writing and reading operations respectively. Applying oxidation potentials in different combinations to each Au electrodes, multi-bit information was stored in to the azurin molecules. Finally, the switching robustness and reliability of the proposed device has been examined. The results suggest that the proposed device has a function of memory and can be used for the construction of nano-scale multi-bit information storage device.

  12. Application of morphological bit planes in retinal blood vessel extraction.

    PubMed

    Fraz, M M; Basit, A; Barman, S A

    2013-04-01

    The appearance of the retinal blood vessels is an important diagnostic indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. Retinal blood vessels have been shown to provide evidence in terms of change in diameter, branching angles, or tortuosity, as a result of ophthalmic disease. This paper reports the development for an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of methods for retinal blood vessel skeleton detection and multidirectional morphological bit plane slicing is presented to extract the blood vessels from the color retinal images. The skeleton of main vessels is extracted by the application of directional differential operators and then evaluation of combination of derivative signs and average derivative values. Mathematical morphology has been materialized as a proficient technique for quantifying the retinal vasculature in ocular fundus images. A multidirectional top-hat operator with rotating structuring elements is used to emphasize the vessels in a particular direction, and information is extracted using bit plane slicing. An iterative region growing method is applied to integrate the main skeleton and the images resulting from bit plane slicing of vessel direction-dependent morphological filters. The approach is tested on two publicly available databases DRIVE and STARE. Average accuracy achieved by the proposed method is 0.9423 for both the databases with significant values of sensitivity and specificity also; the algorithm outperforms the second human observer in terms of precision of segmented vessel tree.

  13. Computer-Aided Design for Built-In-Test (CADBIT) - BIT Library. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    description including introduction, automated procedure, data base, menus, CAD and BIT survey , and recommendati,ns. Volume II contains a description...applications were also surveyed to determine standards required for the CAD-BI I module implemen- tation and to establish requirements for and define...I include Menus, the CAD-BIT Feasibility Demonstration. BIT and CAD workstation surveys and Standards Recommendations, SLART-BIT Appli- cations, and a

  14. Allocation of speech in conversation.

    PubMed

    Simon, Carsta; Baum, William M

    2017-03-01

    In a replication and extension of Conger and Killeen's (1974) widely cited demonstration of matching in conversations, we evaluated nine participants' allocation of speech and gaze to two conversational partners. German speakers participated in two 90-min sessions in which confederates uttered approval on independent variable-interval schedules. In one of the sessions, confederates uttered approval contingent upon and contiguous with eye contact whereas in the other session approval was uttered independent of the participant's gaze. Several measures of participants' verbal behavior were taken, including relative duration and rate of speech and gaze. These were compared to confederates' relative rate of approval and relative duration and rate of talk. The generalized matching equation was fitted to the various relations between participants' behavior and confederates' behavior. Conger and Killeen's results were not replicated; participants' response allocation did not show a systematic relation to the confederates' relative rate of approval. The strongest relations were to overall talk, rather than approval. In both conditions, the participant talked more to the confederate who talked less-inverse or antimatching. Participants' gaze showed the same inverse relation to the confederates' talk. Requiring gaze to be directed toward a confederate for delivery of approval made no difference in the results. The absence of a difference combined with prior research suggests that matching or antimatching in conversations is more likely due to induction than to reinforcement.

  15. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Matteo; Hwa, Terence; Martin, Olivier C.

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an “ensemble averaging” procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferred at fast growth). In addition, CAFBA allows for quantitatively accurate predictions on the rate of acetate excretion and growth yield based on only 3 parameters determined by empirical growth laws. PMID:27355325

  16. Design of 1-bit and 2-bit magnitude comparators using electro-optic effect in Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Bisht, Ashish; Singh, Gurdeep; Choudhary, Kuldeep; Raina, K. K.; Amphawan, Angela

    2015-12-01

    The Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) structures collectively show powerful capability in switching an input optical signal to a desired output port from a collection of output ports. Hence, it is possible to construct complex optical combinational digital circuits using the electro-optic effect constituting MZI structure as a basic building block. Optical switches have been designed for 1-bit and 2-bit magnitude comparators based on electro-optic effect using Mach-Zehnder interferometers. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. Analysis of some factors influencing the performances of proposed device has been discussed properly. The study is verified using beam propagation method.

  17. Robustness of spiking Deep Belief Networks to noise and reduced bit precision of neuro-inspired hardware platforms

    PubMed Central

    Stromatias, Evangelos; Neil, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Michael; Galluppi, Francesco; Furber, Steve B.; Liu, Shih-Chii

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly large deep learning architectures, such as Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) are the focus of current machine learning research and achieve state-of-the-art results in different domains. However, both training and execution of large-scale Deep Networks require vast computing resources, leading to high power requirements and communication overheads. The on-going work on design and construction of spike-based hardware platforms offers an alternative for running deep neural networks with significantly lower power consumption, but has to overcome hardware limitations in terms of noise and limited weight precision, as well as noise inherent in the sensor signal. This article investigates how such hardware constraints impact the performance of spiking neural network implementations of DBNs. In particular, the influence of limited bit precision during execution and training, and the impact of silicon mismatch in the synaptic weight parameters of custom hybrid VLSI implementations is studied. Furthermore, the network performance of spiking DBNs is characterized with regard to noise in the spiking input signal. Our results demonstrate that spiking DBNs can tolerate very low levels of hardware bit precision down to almost two bits, and show that their performance can be improved by at least 30% through an adapted training mechanism that takes the bit precision of the target platform into account. Spiking DBNs thus present an important use-case for large-scale hybrid analog-digital or digital neuromorphic platforms such as SpiNNaker, which can execute large but precision-constrained deep networks in real time. PMID:26217169

  18. Universality and clustering in {bold 1+1} dimensional superstring-bit models

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.

    1996-03-01

    We construct a 1+1 dimensional superstring-bit model for {ital D}=3 type IIB superstring. This low dimension model escapes the problems encountered in higher dimension models: (1) It possesses full Galilean supersymmetry. (2) For noninteracting polymers of bits, the exactly soluble linear superpotential describing bit interactions is in a large universality class of superpotentials which includes ones bounded at spatial infinity. (3) The latter are used to construct a superstring-bit model with the clustering properties needed to define an {ital S} matrix for closed polymers of superstring bits. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Universality and clustering in 1 + 1 dimensional superstring-bit models

    SciTech Connect

    Bergman, O.; Thorn, C.B.

    1996-03-01

    We construct a 1+1 dimensional superstring-bit model for D=3 Type IIB superstring. This low dimension model escapes the problem encountered in higher dimension models: (1) It possesses full Galilean supersymmetry; (2) For noninteracting Polymers of bits, the exactly soluble linear superpotential describing bit interactions is in a large universality class of superpotentials which includes ones bounded at spatial infinity; (3) The latter are used to construct a superstring-bit model with the clustering properties needed to define an S-matrix for closed polymers of superstring-bits.

  20. Constant time worker thread allocation via configuration caching

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2014-11-04

    Mechanisms are provided for allocating threads for execution of a parallel region of code. A request for allocation of worker threads to execute the parallel region of code is received from a master thread. Cached thread allocation information identifying prior thread allocations that have been performed for the master thread are accessed. Worker threads are allocated to the master thread based on the cached thread allocation information. The parallel region of code is executed using the allocated worker threads.

  1. The ESS under spatial variation with applications to sex allocation.

    PubMed

    Proulx, S R

    2000-08-01

    I derive a new approximation which uses the backward Kolmogorov equation to describe evolution when individuals have variable numbers of offspring. This approximation is based on an explicit fixed population size assumption and therefore differs from previous models. I show that for individuals to accept an increase in the variance of offspring number, they must be compensated by an increase in mean offspring number. Based on this model and any given set of feasible alleles, an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) can be found. Four types of ESS are possible and can be discriminated by graphical methods. These ESS values depend on population size, but population size can be reinterpreted as deme size in a structured population. I adapt this theory to the problem of sex allocation under variable returns to male and female function and derive the ESS sex allocation strategy. I show that allocation to the more variable sexual function should be reduced, but that this effect decreases as population size increases and as variability decreases. These results are compared with results from exact matrix models and computer simulations, all of which show strong congruence.

  2. Radio Resource Allocation on Complex 4G Wireless Cellular Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psannis, Kostas E.

    2015-09-01

    In this article we consider the heuristic algorithm which improves step by step wireless data delivery over LTE cellular networks by using the total transmit power with the constraint on users’ data rates, and the total throughput with the constraints on the total transmit power as well as users’ data rates, which are jointly integrated into a hybrid-layer design framework to perform radio resource allocation for multiple users, and to effectively decide the optimal system parameter such as modulation and coding scheme (MCS) in order to adapt to the varying channel quality. We propose new heuristic algorithm which balances the accessible data rate, the initial data rates of each user allocated by LTE scheduler, the priority indicator which signals delay- throughput- packet loss awareness of the user, and the buffer fullness by achieving maximization of radio resource allocation for multiple users. It is noted that the overall performance is improved with the increase in the number of users, due to multiuser diversity. Experimental results illustrate and validate the accuracy of the proposed methodology.

  3. Lessons learned from a regional strategy for resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Janine C; Stapley, Jonathan; Akins, Ralitsa; Silenas, Rasa; Williams, Josie R

    2005-01-01

    Two qualitative case studies focus on the allocation of CDC funds distributed during 2002 for bioterrorism preparedness in two Texas public health regions (each as populous and complex as many states). Lessons learned are presented for public health officials and others who work to build essential public health services and security for our nation. The first lesson is that personal relationships are the cornerstone of preparedness. A major lesson is that a regional strategy to manage funds may be more effective than allocating funds on a per capita basis. One regional director required every local department to complete a strategic plan as a basis for proportional allocation of the funds. Control of communicable diseases was a central component of the planning. Some funds were kept at the regional level to provide epidemiology services, computer software, equipment, and training for the entire region. Confirmation of the value of this regional strategy was expressed by local public health and emergency management officials in a focus group 1 year after the strategy had been implemented. The group members also pointed out the need to streamline the planning process, provide up-to-date computer networks, and receive more than minimal communication. This regional strategy can be viewed from the perspective of adaptive leadership, defined as activities to bring about constructive change, which also can be used to analyze other difficult areas of preparedness.

  4. Chaotic laser based physical random bit streaming system with a computer application interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Susumu; Arai, Kenichi; Davis, Peter; Sunada, Satoshi; Harayama, Takahisa

    2017-03-01

    We demonstrate a random bit streaming system that uses a chaotic laser as its physical entropy source. By performing real-time bit manipulation for bias reduction, we were able to provide the memory of a personal computer with a constant supply of ready-to-use physical random bits at a throughput of up to 4 Gbps. We pay special attention to the end-to-end entropy source model describing how the entropy from physical sources is converted into bit entropy. We confirmed the statistical quality of the generated random bits by revealing the pass rate of the NIST SP800-22 test suite to be 65 % to 75 %, which is commonly considered acceptable for a reliable random bit generator. We also confirmed the stable operation of our random bit steaming system with long-term bias monitoring.

  5. Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun

    2014-10-15

    We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.

  6. Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun

    2014-10-01

    We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.

  7. 75 FR 18016 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting...: Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2010 Allocation Round of the... page, investor letters and organizational charts) in electronic form (see Section IV.D. of this...

  8. Adaptive and Adaptable Automation Design: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kaber, David B.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a review of literature on approaches to adaptive and adaptable task/function allocation and adaptive interface technologies for effective human management of complex systems that are likely to be issues for the Next Generation Air Transportation System, and a focus of research under the Aviation Safety Program, Integrated Intelligent Flight Deck Project. Contemporary literature retrieved from an online database search is summarized and integrated. The major topics include the effects of delegation-type, adaptable automation on human performance, workload and situation awareness, the effectiveness of various automation invocation philosophies and strategies to function allocation in adaptive systems, and the role of user modeling in adaptive interface design and the performance implications of adaptive interface technology.

  9. Simplified quantum bit commitment using single photon nonlocality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang Ping

    2014-10-01

    We simplified our previously proposed quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, by replacing symmetric beam splitters with asymmetric ones. It eliminates the need for random sending time of the photons; thus, the feasibility and efficiency are both improved. The protocol is immune to the cheating strategy in the Mayers-Lo-Chau no-go theorem of unconditionally secure QBC, because the density matrices of the committed states do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go theorem holds.

  10. Design of high-bit-rate coherent communication links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konyshev, V. A.; Leonov, A. V.; Nanii, O. E.; Novikov, A. G.; Treshchikov, V. N.; Ubaydullaev, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    We report an analysis of the problems encountered in the design of modern high-bit-rate coherent communication links. A phenomenological communication link model is described, which is suitable for solving applied tasks of the network design with nonlinear effects taken into account. We propose an engineering approach to the design that is based on the use of fundamental nonlinearity coefficients calculated in advance for the experimental configurations of communication links. An experimental method is presented for calculating the nonlinearity coefficient of communication links. It is shown that the proposed approach allows one to successfully meet the challenges in designing communication networks.

  11. Cryptographic Properties of the Hidden Weighted Bit Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-23

    40 and revisited by D. Knuth in Vol. 4 of The Art of Computer Programming, is a function that seems to be the simplest one with exponential Binary...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The hidden weighted bit function (HWBF), introduced by R. Bryant in IEEE Trans. Comp. 40 and revisited by D. Knuth in...but has a VLSI implementation with low area-time complexity [2]. In [19], Knuth reproved Bryant’s theorem stating that the HWBF has a large BDD size

  12. Floating-point function generation routines for 16-bit microcomputers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, M. A.; Soeder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Several computer subroutines have been developed that interpolate three types of nonanalytic functions: univariate, bivariate, and map. The routines use data in floating-point form. However, because they are written for use on a 16-bit Intel 8086 system with an 8087 mathematical coprocessor, they execute as fast as routines using data in scaled integer form. Although all of the routines are written in assembly language, they have been implemented in a modular fashion so as to facilitate their use with high-level languages.

  13. All-optical pseudorandom bit sequences generator based on TOADs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhenchao; Wang, Zhi; Wu, Chongqing; Wang, Fu; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    A scheme for all-optical pseudorandom bit sequences (PRBS) generator is demonstrated with optical logic gate 'XNOR' and all-optical wavelength converter based on cascaded Tera-Hertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer (TOADs). Its feasibility is verified by generation of return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK) 263-1 PRBS at the speed of 1 Gb/s with 10% duty radio. The high randomness of ultra-long cycle PRBS is validated by successfully passing the standard benchmark test.

  14. Fast computational scheme of image compression for 32-bit microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasperovich, Leonid

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational scheme of image compression based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT), underlying JPEG and MPEG International Standards. The algorithm for the 2-d DCT computation uses integer operations (register shifts and additions / subtractions only); its computational complexity is about 8 additions per image pixel. As a meaningful example of an on-board image compression application we consider the software implementation of the algorithm for the Mars Rover (Marsokhod, in Russian) imaging system being developed as a part of Mars-96 International Space Project. It's shown that fast software solution for 32-bit microprocessors may compete with the DCT-based image compression hardware.

  15. BIT/External Test Figures of Merit and Demonstration Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    review indicates that all the FOMs fall into seventeen generic groupings . The ’specific FOMs within each group vary in numerical value and exact... group of tests, or all tests. TB can be represented by the following model- 3o N (active running time of the tth BIT/ETE test routine, T TB the...FOMs may be needed. Categorization of the FOMs was also used in Section 6.0 for determining which FOMe are inter- relaied and for determining.an

  16. Development of iFab (Instant Foundry Adaptive Through Bits) Manufacturing Process and Machine Library

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    constitute the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188...number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) August 2012...machine capability library. Specifically, the report is in draft form and addresses three major task areas relevant to the proposed effort. The main

  17. Dual lookup table algorithm: an enhanced method of displaying 16-bit gray-scale images on 8-bit RGB graphic systems.

    PubMed

    Gillespy, T; Rowberg, A H

    1994-02-01

    Most digital radiologic images have an extended contrast range of 9 to 13 bits, and are stored in memory and disk as 16-bit integers. Consequently, it is difficult to view such images on computers with 8-bit red-green-blue (RGB) graphic systems. Two approaches have traditionally been used: (1) perform a one-time conversion of the 16-bit image data to 8-bit gray-scale data, and then adjust the brightness and contrast of the image by manipulating the color palette (palette animation); and (2) use a software lookup table to interactively convert the 16-bit image data to 8-bit gray-scale values with different window width and window level parameters. The first method can adjust image appearance in real time, but some image features may not be visible because of the lack of access to the full contrast range of the image and any region of interest measurements may be inaccurate. The second method allows "windowing" and "leveling" through the full contrast range of the image, but there is a delay after each adjustment that some users may find objectionable. We describe a method that combines palette animation and the software lookup table conversion method that optimizes the changes in image contrast and brightness on computers with standard 8-bit RGB graphic hardware--the dual lookup table algorithm. This algorithm links changes in the window/level control to changes in image contrast and brightness via palette animation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. 48 CFR 5452.249 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 5452.249 Section 5452.249 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 5452.249 Allocation. The...

  19. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: "allocation," "induction," and "correlation." Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of…

  20. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  1. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  2. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  3. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  4. 42 CFR 24.2 - Allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Allocation. 24.2 Section 24.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.2 Allocation. (a) The Secretary, within the number authorized in the PHS Act, shall determine...

  5. Projected 1999-2000 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    Information contained in this summary was derived from data submitted by Wisconsin technical colleges on their 1999-2000 projected cost allocation schedules. Cost allocation information is used to calculate the distribution of state aids to each college, and prepare financial and enrollment reports including state statistical summaries and reports…

  6. Resource Allocation: Ration, Fashion, or Innovashun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourens, Roy

    1986-01-01

    Resource allocation is a key factor in promoting or retarding innovation. In a restrictive economic climate, it is easy to use resource allocation for decremental rationing and to stifle innovative thinking. The technique can also be used to ensure that the institution's human resources are encouraged to identify opportunities for innovation. (MSE)

  7. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  8. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  9. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  10. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  11. 45 CFR 98.55 - Cost allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost allocation. 98.55 Section 98.55 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.55 Cost allocation. (a) The Lead Agency and...

  12. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Congress appropriates less than $1.5 billion of HOME funds, $335,000 is substituted for $500,000. (4) The... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a... factors. The first and sixth factors are weighted 0.1; the other four factors are weighted 0.2....

  13. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  14. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle Credit Program § 490.503 Credit allocation. (a) Based on annual credit activity report information,...

  15. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  16. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  17. 10 CFR 490.503 - Credit allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit allocation. 490.503 Section 490.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM Alternative Fueled Vehicle... described in section 490.507 of this part, DOE shall allocate one credit for each alternative fueled...

  18. Projected 1998-99 Cost Allocation Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Edward

    Designed for use in calculating the distribution of state aid to colleges in the Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) and in preparing financial and enrollment reports, this document provides a summary of projected cost allocations for the WTCS for 1998-99, derived from data submitted by the colleges on cost allocation schedules. Following a…

  19. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25 Splitnose S. of 40°10′ N. lat... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is further subdivided among the... nonwhiting fishery. (B) Pacific Ocean Perch (POP). Allocate 17 percent or 30 mt, whichever is greater, of...

  20. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  1. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Sablefish S. of 36° N. lat. 42 58 PACIFIC OCEAN PERCH 95 5 WIDOW 91 9 Chilipepper S. of 40°10′ N. lat. 75 25... rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation will be further subdivided among.... For darkblotched rockfish, Pacific Ocean Perch, and widow rockfish, the trawl allocation is...

  2. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure…

  3. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  4. 23 CFR 1240.15 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Allocations. 1240.15 Section 1240.15 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE...

  5. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  6. 50 CFR 600.517 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 600.517 Section 600.517 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.517 Allocations. The...

  7. 50 CFR 660.320 - Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Indian fishery, is divided into limited entry and open access fisheries. Separate allocations for the limited entry and open access fisheries will be established biennially or annually for certain species and... excluding set asides for recreational or tribal Indian fisheries) minus the allocation to the open...

  8. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include:...

  9. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of...

  10. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of...

  11. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include:...

  12. 10 CFR 217.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 217.54 Section 217.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ENERGY PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 217.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include: (a) A detailed description of...

  13. 49 CFR 33.54 - Elements of an allocation order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Elements of an allocation order. 33.54 Section 33.54 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATION SYSTEM Allocation Actions § 33.54 Elements of an allocation order. Each allocation order must include:...

  14. 7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL... program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...

  15. Carbon allocation and accumulation in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Gower, S.T.; Isebrands, J.G.; Sheriff, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Forests cover approximately 33% of the land surface of the earth, yet they are responsible for 65% of the annual carbon (C) accumulated by all terrestrial biomes. In general, total C content and net primary production rates are greater for forests than for other biomes, but C budgets differ greatly among forests. Despite several decades of research on forest C budgets, there is still an incomplete understanding of the factors controlling C allocation. Yet, if we are to understand how changing global events such as land use, climate change, atmospheric N deposition, ozone, and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} affect the global C budget, a mechanistic understanding of C assimilation, partitioning, and allocation is necessary. The objective of this chapter is to review the major factors that influence C allocation and accumulation in conifer trees and forests. In keeping with the theme of this book, we will focus primarily on evergreen conifers. However, even among evergreen conifers, leaf, canopy, and stand-level C and nutrient allocation patterns differ, often as a function of leaf development and longevity. The terminology related to C allocation literature is often inconsistent, confusing and inadequate for understanding and integrating past and current research. For example, terms often used synonymously to describe C flow or movement include translocation, transport, distribution, allocation, partitioning, apportionment, and biomass allocation. A common terminology is needed because different terms have different meanings to readers. In this paper we use C allocation, partitioning, and accumulation according to the definitions of Dickson and Isebrands (1993). Partitioning is the process of C flow into and among different chemical, storage, and transport pools. Allocation is the distribution of C to different plant parts within the plant (i.e., source to sink). Accumulation is the end product of the process of C allocation.

  16. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Fade Compensation Protocol Impact on Very Small-Aperture Terminal Bit Error Rate Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Christina B.; Coney, Thom A.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) communications system operates at Ka band. ACTS uses an adaptive rain fade compensation protocol to reduce the impact of signal attenuation resulting from propagation effects. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of an analysis characterizing the improvement in VSAT performance provided by this protocol. The metric for performance is VSAT bit error rate (BER) availability. The acceptable availability defined by communication system design specifications is 99.5% for a BER of 5E-7 or better. VSAT BER availabilities with and without rain fade compensation are presented. A comparison shows the improvement in BER availability realized with rain fade compensation. Results are presented for an eight-month period and for 24 months spread over a three-year period. The two time periods represent two different configurations of the fade compensation protocol. Index Terms-Adaptive coding, attenuation, propagation, rain, satellite communication, satellites.

  17. Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Kretschmann, Dennis; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard F.

    2007-09-15

    Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. We give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed 'honest' strategy, so that 'anonymous state protocols', which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results, are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two-party protocols, which is applicable to more general situations, and an estimate about the continuity of the Stinespring dilation of a general quantum channel. The result also provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimited available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present such a protocol whose security, perhaps surprisingly, relies on decoherence in the receiver's laboratory.

  18. A 32-bit Ultrafast Parallel Correlator using Resonant Tunneling Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shriram; Mazumder, Pinaki; Haddad, George I.

    1995-01-01

    An ultrafast 32-bit pipeline correlator has been implemented using resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) and hetero-junction bipolar transistors (HBT). The negative differential resistance (NDR) characteristics of RTD's is the basis of logic gates with the self-latching property that eliminates pipeline area and delay overheads which limit throughput in conventional technologies. The circuit topology also allows threshold logic functions such as minority/majority to be implemented in a compact manner resulting in reduction of the overall complexity and delay of arbitrary logic circuits. The parallel correlator is an essential component in code division multi-access (CDMA) transceivers used for the continuous calculation of correlation between an incoming data stream and a PN sequence. Simulation results show that a nano-pipelined correlator can provide and effective throughput of one 32-bit correlation every 100 picoseconds, using minimal hardware, with a power dissipation of 1.5 watts. RTD plus HBT based logic gates have been fabricated and the RTD plus HBT based correlator is compared with state of the art complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) implementations.

  19. Extending Landauer's Bound from Bit Erasure to Arbitrary Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, David

    Recent analyses have calculated the minimal thermodynamic work required to perform any computation π whose output is independent of its input, e.g., bit erasure. First I extend these analyses to calculate the work required even if the output of π depends on its input. Next I show that if a physical computer C implementing a computation π will be re-used, then the work required depends only on the dynamics of the logical variables under π, independent of the physical details of C. This establishes a formal identity between the thermodynamics of (re-usable) computers and theoretical computer science. To illustrate this identity, I prove that the minimal work required to compute a bit string σ on a (physical) Turing machine M is kB Tln (2) [ Kolmogorov complexity(σ) + log (Bernoulli measure of the set of strings that compute σ) + log(halting probability of M) ] . I also prove that uncertainty about the distribution over inputs to the computer increases the minimal work required to run the computer. I end by using these results to relate the free energy flux incident on an organism / robot / biosphere to the maximal amount of computation that the organism / robot / biosphere can do per unit time.

  20. Asymmetric programming: a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory-based sensor systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

    2014-10-10

    While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme.

  1. Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

  2. Cognitive-Aware Modality Allocation in Intelligent Multimodal Information Presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yujia; Theune, Mariët; Nijholt, Anton

    Intelligent multimodal presentation (IMMP) systems are able to generate multimodal presentations adaptively, based on the run-time requirements of user-computer interaction. Modality allocation in IMMP system needs to adapt the modality choice to changes in various relevant factors, such as the type of information to be conveyed, the presentation goal, the characteristics of the available modalities, the user profile, the condition of the environment, and the type of user task. In this study, we emphasize that modality allocation in IMMP systems should also take into account the cognitive impacts of modality on human information processing. We first describe several modality-related cognitive and neuropsychological findings. Then a user study is presented to demonstrate the effects of modality on performance, cognitive load and stress, using a high-load and time-critical user task. Finally, we show a possible way to integrate relevant cognitive theories into a computational model that can systematically predict the suitability of a modality choice for a given presentation task.

  3. Fidelity of Implementing an Assessment Translation and Adaptation Framework in a Study of an Emerging International Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chia, Magda Yanira

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the complex process of translation and adaptation of two Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) performance tasks (PTs), originally developed in English for American students, into the languages and cultures of five participating countries. Focusing on confirming evidence bits (CEBs), disconfirming evidence bits (DEBs), and no…

  4. Improved Iris Recognition through Fusion of Hamming Distance and Fragile Bit Distance.

    PubMed

    Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J

    2011-12-01

    The most common iris biometric algorithm represents the texture of an iris using a binary iris code. Not all bits in an iris code are equally consistent. A bit is deemed fragile if its value changes across iris codes created from different images of the same iris. Previous research has shown that iris recognition performance can be improved by masking these fragile bits. Rather than ignoring fragile bits completely, we consider what beneficial information can be obtained from the fragile bits. We find that the locations of fragile bits tend to be consistent across different iris codes of the same eye. We present a metric, called the fragile bit distance, which quantitatively measures the coincidence of the fragile bit patterns in two iris codes. We find that score fusion of fragile bit distance and Hamming distance works better for recognition than Hamming distance alone. To our knowledge, this is the first and only work to use the coincidence of fragile bit locations to improve the accuracy of matches.

  5. Control Allocation with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodson, Marc; Frost, Susan A.

    2009-01-01

    Next generation aircraft with a large number of actuators will require advanced control allocation methods to compute the actuator commands needed to follow desired trajectories while respecting system constraints. Previously, algorithms were proposed to minimize the l1 or l2 norms of the tracking error and of the actuator deflections. The paper discusses the alternative choice of the l(infinity) norm, or sup norm. Minimization of the control effort translates into the minimization of the maximum actuator deflection (min-max optimization). The paper shows how the problem can be solved effectively by converting it into a linear program and solving it using a simplex algorithm. Properties of the algorithm are also investigated through examples. In particular, the min-max criterion results in a type of load balancing, where the load is th desired command and the algorithm balances this load among various actuators. The solution using the l(infinity) norm also results in better robustness to failures and to lower sensitivity to nonlinearities in illustrative examples.

  6. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals.

  7. Alterations in flowering strategies and sexual allocation of Caragana stenophylla along a climatic aridity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lina; Guo, Hongyu; Ma, Chengcang

    2016-01-01

    Plant can alter reproductive strategies for adaptation to different environments. However, alterations in flowering strategies and sexual allocation for the same species growing in different environments still remain unclear. We examined the sexual reproduction parameters of Caragana stenophylla across four climatic zones from semi-arid, arid, very arid, to intensively arid zones in the Inner Mongolia Steppe, China. Under the relatively favorable climatic conditions of semi-arid zone, C. stenophylla took a K-strategy for flowering (fewer but bigger flowers, and higher seed set). In contrast, under the harsher climatic conditions of intensively arid zone, C. stenophylla took an r-strategy for flowering (more but smaller flowers, and lower seed set). In arid and very arid zones, C. stenophylla exhibited intermediate flowering strategies between K- and r-strategies. In semi-arid, arid and very arid zones, sexual allocation and sexual allocation efficiency (SAE) of C. stenophylla were high, and the population recruitment might be mainly through sexual reproduction; in intensively arid zone, however, sexual allocation and SAE were very low, seed production was very limited, and clonal reproduction might compensate for the decrease in sexual reproduction. Our results suggested that C. stenophylla adapted to the climatic aridity gradient by alterations in flowering strategies and reproductive allocation. PMID:27628093

  8. A survey and taxonomy on energy efficient resource allocation techniques for cloud computing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hameed, Abdul; Khoshkbarforoushha, Alireza; Ranjan, Rajiv; Jayaraman, Prem Prakash; Kolodziej, Joanna; Balaji, Pavan; Zeadally, Sherali; Malluhi, Qutaibah Marwan; Tziritas, Nikos; Vishnu, Abhinav; Khan, Samee U.; Zomaya, Albert

    2014-06-06

    In a cloud computing paradigm, energy efficient allocation of different virtualized ICT resources (servers, storage disks, and networks, and the like) is a complex problem due to the presence of heterogeneous application (e.g., content delivery networks, MapReduce, web applications, and the like) workloads having contentious allocation requirements in terms of ICT resource capacities (e.g., network bandwidth, processing speed, response time, etc.). Several recent papers have tried to address the issue of improving energy efficiency in allocating cloud resources to applications with varying degree of success. However, to the best of our knowledge there is no published literature on this subject that clearly articulates the research problem and provides research taxonomy for succinct classification of existing techniques. Hence, the main aim of this paper is to identify open challenges associated with energy efficient resource allocation. In this regard, the study, first, outlines the problem and existing hardware and software-based techniques available for this purpose. Furthermore, available techniques already presented in the literature are summarized based on the energy-efficient research dimension taxonomy. The advantages and disadvantages of the existing techniques are comprehensively analyzed against the proposed research dimension taxonomy namely: resource adaption policy, objective function, allocation method, allocation operation, and interoperability.

  9. The Three Colorado Rivers: Comparing the Physical, Legal, and Economic Allocation of a Shared River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushforth, R.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2015-12-01

    : For many rivers, the legal allocation of surface water was settled decades ago. The process of apportioning surface water between multiple stakeholders is an arduous process with opposing interests competing for scarce resources. The political capital spent initially allocating a river often cannot be regained, stymieing future attempts for re-allocation. The Colorado River Compact (Compact), signed in 1922, has been "the law of the river" for over 90 years. Since its signing, the Colorado River Basin (CRB) population has increased tenfold, while average river flows have decreased due to threats unforeseeable to Compact signers, such as global climate change. Water sharing agreements, like the Compact, legally re-allocate physical river flows; however, water is increasingly shared through trade rather than aqueducts. Virtual water, or the water embodied by a good or service, is a trade adaption to resource scarcity, namely water and land. This study presents findings of a virtual water complement to the Compact. The goal of this study is to determine how the legal allocation of physical water resources are re-allocated as virtual water via economic trade in a shared river basin. Results are presented by at the sub-basin, state, and county-level, showing the geographic origin and destination of virtual water from CRB states and the Upper and Lower basins. A water stress index is calculated to show the indirect water stress of Colorado River water resources and network statistics are employed to rank the importance of virtual water sources in the CRB.

  10. The SMART MIL-STD-1553 bus adapter hardware manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ton, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The SMART Multiplexer Interface Adapter, (SMIA) a complete system interface for message structure of the MIL-STD-1553, is described. It provides buffering and storage for transmitted and received data and handles all the necessary handshaking to interface between parallel 8-bit data bus and a MIL-STD serial bit stream. The bus adapter is configured as either a bus controller of a remote terminal interface. It is coupled directly to the multiplex bus, or stub coupled through an additional isolation transformer located at the connection point. Fault isolation resistors provide short circuit protection.

  11. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  12. Security of quantum bit string commitment depends on the information measure.

    PubMed

    Buhrman, Harry; Christandl, Matthias; Hayden, Patrick; Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Wehner, Stephanie

    2006-12-22

    Unconditionally secure nonrelativistic bit commitment is known to be impossible in both the classical and the quantum world. However, when committing to a string of n bits at once, how far can we stretch the quantum limits? In this Letter, we introduce a framework of quantum schemes where Alice commits a string of n bits to Bob, in such a way that she can only cheat on a bits and Bob can learn at most b bits of information before the reveal phase. Our results are twofold: we show by an explicit construction that in the traditional approach, where the reveal and guess probabilities form the security criteria, no good schemes can exist: a + b is at least n. If, however, we use a more liberal criterion of security, the accessible information, we construct schemes where a = 4log2(n) + O(1) and b = 4, which is impossible classically. Our findings significantly extend known no-go results for quantum bit commitment.

  13. Avalanche and bit independence characteristics of double random phase encoding in the Fourier and Fresnel domains.

    PubMed

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu; Lee, Yeon H; Javidi, Bahram

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we evaluate the avalanche effect and bit independence properties of the double random phase encoding (DRPE) algorithm in the Fourier and Fresnel domains. Experimental results show that DRPE has excellent bit independence characteristics in both the Fourier and Fresnel domains. However, DRPE achieves better avalanche effect results in the Fresnel domain than in the Fourier domain. DRPE gives especially poor avalanche effect results in the Fourier domain when only one bit is changed in the plaintext or in the encryption key. Despite this, DRPE shows satisfactory avalanche effect results in the Fresnel domain when any other number of bits changes in the plaintext or in the encryption key. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the avalanche effect and bit independence behaviors of optical encryption approaches for bit units.

  14. Characterization of L10-FePt/Fe based exchange coupled composite bit pattern media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Li, Weimin; Rahman, M. Tofizur; Zhao, Haibao; Ding, Jun; Chen, Yunjie; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2012-04-01

    L10-FePt exchange coupled composite (ECC) bit patterned media has been considered as a potential candidate to achieve high thermal stability and writability for future high density magnetic recording. In this paper, FePt based ECC bit patterned structures with 31 nm bit size and 37 nm pitch size were fabricated using di-block copolymer lithography on 3 inch wafer. Remanant states were tracked using magnetic force microscopy (MFM). DC demagnetization (DCD) curves were plotted by counting the reversed bits in the MFM images. Magnetic domains in which the magnetizations of the neighboring bits were aligned to the same direction were observed in the MFM patterns. Thermal decay measurement was performed for the samples to obtain the thermal stability and gain factor. The thermal barrier was found around 210 kBT with a gain factor up to 1.57 for the bit patterned structure FePt(4 nm)/Fe(4 nm).

  15. Sub-threshold 10T SRAM bit cell with read/write XY selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feki, Anis; Allard, Bruno; Turgis, David; Lafont, Jean-Christophe; Drissi, Faress Tissafi; Abouzeid, Fady; Haendler, Sebastien

    2015-04-01

    New SRAM bit cell architectures have been proposed recently as solutions to the limitations of the six-transistor (6T) SRAM bit cell in term of minimum supply voltage, VDDMIN. There is no demonstrated bit cell as superior under ultra-low supply voltage like the 6T bit cell at nominal voltage. Main limitations concern first the ratio between the read current and the standby current at the lowest operating voltage, second the bit cell robustness to perturbations and third the data sensing sensitivity, among other but minor limitations. The paper presents two proposals of ten-transistor (10T) Ultra-Low-Voltage bit cell for 0.3 V operation and processed in 28 nm LP CMOS bulk. Simulation results are compared to experimental results to demonstrate a satisfying operation at Ultra-Low supply voltage.

  16. Parameter allocation of parallel array bistable stochastic resonance and its application in communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, You-Guo; Zhai, Qi-Qing; Liu, Jin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a parameter allocation scheme in a parallel array bistable stochastic resonance-based communication system (P-BSR-CS) to improve the performance of weak binary pulse amplitude modulated (BPAM) signal transmissions. The optimal parameter allocation policy of the P-BSR-CS is provided to minimize the bit error rate (BER) and maximize the channel capacity (CC) under the adiabatic approximation condition. On this basis, we further derive the best parameter selection theorem in realistic communication scenarios via variable transformation. Specifically, the P-BSR structure design not only brings the robustness of parameter selection optimization, where the optimal parameter pair is not fixed but variable in quite a wide range, but also produces outstanding system performance. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that in the P-BSR-CS the proposed parameter allocation scheme yields considerable performance improvement, particularly in very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) environments. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61179027), the Qinglan Project of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. QL06212006), and the University Postgraduate Research and Innovation Project of Jiangsu Province (Grant Nos. KYLX15_0829, KYLX15_0831).

  17. [Allocation of cognitive resources during the simultaneous performance of cognitive and sensorimotor tasks].

    PubMed

    Krampe, R T; Rapp, M A; Bondar, A; Baltes, P B

    2003-03-01

    We review research on the allocation of cognitive resources during the simultaneous performance of cognitive and sensorimotor tasks. From the developmental and clinical perspectives,we emphasize: (1) the distinction between the availability and the allocation of resources, (2) lifespan changes in relation to the environmental validity of sensorimotor functions, and (3) the potentials and limitations for an individuals' adaptations to multi-task constraints. These aspects can be operationalized within the framework of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC). Related studies focus on older individuals' selective resource allocation and compensatory processes as adaptive means in the context of reduced resources and decreased sensorimotor functioning. Results show that older adults must invest increasing amounts of their cognitive resources into the coordination of bodily functions such as balance and gait. SOC research on Alzheimer's patients provides new insights into the increased risks of falling. We argue that adaptive resource allocation in everyday sensorimotor performance is an instance of intelligent behavior that is insufficiently represented in extant psychometric tests.

  18. A data-driven allocation tool for in-kind resources distributed by a state health department

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Cora; Kegler, Scott R.; Parker, Wende R.; Sullivan, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to leverage a state health department’s operational data to allocate in-kind resources (children’s car seats) to counties, with the proposition that need-based allocation could ultimately improve public health outcomes. Methods This study used a retrospective analysis of administrative data on car seats distributed to counties statewide by the Georgia Department of Public Health and development of a need-based allocation tool (presented as interactive supplemental digital content, adaptable to other types of in-kind public health resources) that relies on current county-level injury and sociodemographic data. Results Car seat allocation using public health data and a need-based formula resulted in substantially different recommended allocations to individual counties compared to historic distribution. Conclusions Results indicate that making an in-kind public health resource like car seats universally available results in a less equitable distribution of that resource compared to deliberate allocation according to public health need. Public health agencies can use local data to allocate in-kind resources consistent with health objectives; that is, in a manner offering the greatest potential health impact. Future analysis can determine whether the change to a more equitable allocation of resources is also more efficient, resulting in measurably improved public health outcomes. PMID:26890693

  19. Bit-string physics: A novel theory of everything

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, H.P.

    1994-08-01

    We encode the quantum numbers of the standard model of quarks and leptons using constructed bitstrings of length 256. These label a grouting universe of bit-strings of growing length that eventually construct a finite and discrete space-time with reasonable cosmological properties. Coupling constants and mass ratios, computed from closure under XOR and a statistical hypothesis, using only {h_bar}, c and m{sub p} to fix our units of mass, length and time in terms of standard (meterkilogram-second) metrology, agree with the first four to seven significant figures of accepted experimental results. Finite and discrete conservation laws and commutation relations insure the essential characteristics of relativistic quantum mechanics, including particle-antiparticle pair creation. The correspondence limit in (free space) Maxwell electromagnetism and Einstein gravitation is consistent with the Feynman-Dyson-Tanimura ``proof.``

  20. Bit-Serial Adder Based on Quantum Dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir; Toomarian, Nikzad; Modarress, Katayoon; Spotnitz, Mathew

    2003-01-01

    A proposed integrated circuit based on quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) would function as a bit-serial adder. This circuit would serve as a prototype building block for demonstrating the feasibility of quantum-dots computing and for the further development of increasingly complex and increasingly capable quantum-dots computing circuits. QCA-based bit-serial adders would be especially useful in that they would enable the development of highly parallel and systolic processors for implementing fast Fourier, cosine, Hartley, and wavelet transforms. The proposed circuit would complement the QCA-based circuits described in "Implementing Permutation Matrices by Use of Quantum Dots" (NPO-20801), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 10 (October 2001), page 42 and "Compact Interconnection Networks Based on Quantum Dots" (NPO-20855), which appears elsewhere in this issue. Those articles described the limitations of very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuitry and the major potential advantage afforded by QCA. To recapitulate: In a VLSI circuit, signal paths that are required not to interact with each other must not cross in the same plane. In contrast, for reasons too complex to describe in the limited space available for this article, suitably designed and operated QCA-based signal paths that are required not to interact with each other can nevertheless be allowed to cross each other in the same plane without adverse effect. In principle, this characteristic could be exploited to design compact, coplanar, simple (relative to VLSI) QCA-based networks to implement complex, advanced interconnection schemes. To enable a meaningful description of the proposed bit-serial adder, it is necessary to further recapitulate the description of a quantum-dot cellular automation from the first-mentioned prior article: A quantum-dot cellular automaton contains four quantum dots positioned at the corners of a square cell. The cell contains two extra mobile electrons that can tunnel (in the

  1. A one-bit approach for image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, An Hung; Pickering, Mark; Lambert, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Motion estimation or optic flow computation for automatic navigation and obstacle avoidance programs running on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is a challenging task. These challenges come from the requirements of real-time processing speed and small light-weight image processing hardware with very limited resources (especially memory space) embedded on the UAVs. Solutions towards both simplifying computation and saving hardware resources have recently received much interest. This paper presents an approach for image registration using binary images which addresses these two requirements. This approach uses translational information between two corresponding patches of binary images to estimate global motion. These low bit-resolution images require a very small amount of memory space to store them and allow simple logic operations such as XOR and AND to be used instead of more complex computations such as subtractions and multiplications.

  2. Novel Parity-Preserving Designs of Reversible 4-Bit Comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xue-mei; Chen, Fu-long; Wang, Hong-tao; Sun, Yun-xiang; Guo, Liang-min

    2014-04-01

    Reversible logic has attracted much attention in recent years especially when the calculation with minimum energy consumption is considered. This paper presents two novel approaches for designing reversible 4-bit comparator based on parity-preserving gates, which can detect any fault that affects no more than a single logic signal. In order to construct the comparator, three variable EX-OR gate (TVG), comparator gate (CPG), four variable EX-OR gate block (FVGB) and comparator gate block (CPGB) are designed, and they are parity-preserving and reversible. Their quantum equivalent implementations are also proposed. The design of two comparator circuits is completed by using existing reversible gates and the above new reversible circuits. All these comparators have been modeled and verified in Verilog hardware description language (Verilog HDL). The Quartus II simulation results indicate that their circuits' logic structures are correct. The comparative results are presented in terms of quantum cost, delay and garbage outputs.

  3. Measurements of Aperture Averaging on Bit-Error-Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.; Andrews, Larry C.; Phillips, Ronald L.; Nelson, Richard A.; Ferrell, Bobby A.; Borbath, Michael R.; Galus, Darren J.; Chin, Peter G.; Harris, William G.; Marin, Jose A.; Burdge, Geoffrey L.; Wayne, David; Pescatore, Robert

    2005-01-01

    We report on measurements made at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at Kennedy Space Center of receiver aperture averaging effects on a propagating optical Gaussian beam wave over a propagation path of 1,000 in. A commercially available instrument with both transmit and receive apertures was used to transmit a modulated laser beam operating at 1550 nm through a transmit aperture of 2.54 cm. An identical model of the same instrument was used as a receiver with a single aperture that was varied in size up to 20 cm to measure the effect of receiver aperture averaging on Bit Error Rate. Simultaneous measurements were also made with a scintillometer instrument and local weather station instruments to characterize atmospheric conditions along the propagation path during the experiments.

  4. The Application of Bit Slice Design to Digital Image Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    AM2910 INSTR H#E ;continue RESULTINO MICROWORD: 0043 3FOF FOIE (X-1) CO IMENTS: Bits L15-47 declare the source registers to be in the pipeline...3FFF CO24 ;PUSH ADO. ON STACK, LO CTR w/02 0101 Oe4F 3F03 F14E ;MEMORY -) R4 0102 0043 3FOF FOIE ;RI-4 -, RI 0103 084F 3FO3 F13E ;MEMORY - R3 0101t 0043...3FOF F34E ;R3*R9 -> R4 .O S 0043 3FCF F21E ;R1-2 - RI S0105 084F 3F03 F13E ;MEMORY -, R3 0107 0043 3FCF F34E ;R3 R4 -) R4 0108 0043 3F0F FOIE ;RI4

  5. Retractable tool bit having latch type catch mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voellmer, George

    1993-01-01

    A retractable tool bit assembly for a tool such as an allen key is presented. The assembly includes one or more spring loaded nestable or telescoping tubular sections together with a catch mechanism for capturing and holding the tool in its retracted position. The catch mechanism consists of a latch mechanism located in a base section and which engages a conically shaped tool head located at the inner end of the tool. The tool head adjoins an eccentric oval type neck portion which extends to a rear lip of the tool head. The latch mechanism releases when the ovular neck portion rotates about the catch members upon actuation of a rotary tool drive motor. When released, all the telescoping sections and the tool extends fully outward to a use position.

  6. Quantum random bit generation using stimulated Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Bustard, Philip J; Moffatt, Doug; Lausten, Rune; Wu, Guorong; Walmsley, Ian A; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2011-12-05

    Random number sequences are a critical resource in a wide variety of information systems, including applications in cryptography, simulation, and data sampling. We introduce a quantum random number generator based on the phase measurement of Stokes light generated by amplification of zero-point vacuum fluctuations using stimulated Raman scattering. This is an example of quantum noise amplification using the most noise-free process possible: near unitary quantum evolution. The use of phase offers robustness to classical pump noise and the ability to generate multiple bits per measurement. The Stokes light is generated with high intensity and as a result, fast detectors with high signal-to-noise ratios can be used for measurement, eliminating the need for single-photon sensitive devices. The demonstrated implementation uses optical phonons in bulk diamond.

  7. The Health Resources Allocation Model (HRAM) for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Maire, Nicolas; Hegnauer, Michael; Nguyen, Dana; Godelmann, Lucas; Hoffmann, Axel; de Savigny, Don; Tanner, Marcel

    2012-05-01

    The Health Resources Allocation Model (HRAM) is an eLearning tool for health cadres and scientists introducing basic concepts of sub-national, rational district-based health planning and systems thinking under resources constraint. HRAM allows the evaluation of resource allocation strategies in relation to key outcome measures such as coverage, equity of services achieved and number of deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) prevented. In addition, the model takes into account geographical and demographic characteristics and populations' health seeking behaviour. It can be adapted to different socio-ecological and health system settings.

  8. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pollock cooperative permit. (3) Conversion of quota share percentage to TAC allocations. (Effective April... that subarea. Each cooperative's annual pollock TAC allocation may be published in the proposed...

  9. Development and Testing of a Jet Assisted Polycrystalline Diamond Drilling Bit. Phase II Development Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Pixton

    1999-09-20

    Phase II efforts to develop a jet-assisted rotary-percussion drill bit are discussed. Key developments under this contract include: (1) a design for a more robust polycrystalline diamond drag cutter; (2) a new drilling mechanism which improves penetration and life of cutters; and (3) a means of creating a high-pressure mud jet inside of a percussion drill bit. Field tests of the new drill bit and the new robust cutter are forthcoming.

  10. Adaptable recursive binary entropy coding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiely, Aaron B.; Klimesh, Matthew A.

    2002-07-01

    We present a novel data compression technique, called recursive interleaved entropy coding, that is based on recursive interleaving of variable-to variable length binary source codes. A compression module implementing this technique has the same functionality as arithmetic coding and can be used as the engine in various data compression algorithms. The encoder compresses a bit sequence by recursively encoding groups of bits that have similar estimated statistics, ordering the output in a way that is suited to the decoder. As a result, the decoder has low complexity. The encoding process for our technique is adaptable in that each bit to be encoded has an associated probability-of-zero estimate that may depend on previously encoded bits; this adaptability allows more effective compression. Recursive interleaved entropy coding may have advantages over arithmetic coding, including most notably the admission of a simple and fast decoder. Much variation is possible in the choice of component codes and in the interleaving structure, yielding coder designs of varying complexity and compression efficiency; coder designs that achieve arbitrarily small redundancy can be produced. We discuss coder design and performance estimation methods. We present practical encoding and decoding algorithms, as well as measured performance results.

  11. 14-bit pipeline-SAR ADC for image sensor readout circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gengyun; Peng, Can; Liu, Tianzhao; Ma, Cheng; Ding, Ning; Chang, Yuchun

    2015-03-01

    A two stage 14bit pipeline-SAR analog-to-digital converter includes a 5.5bit zero-crossing MDAC and a 9bit asynchronous SAR ADC for image sensor readout circuits built in 0.18um CMOS process is described with low power dissipation as well as small chip area. In this design, we employ comparators instead of high gain and high bandwidth amplifier, which consumes as low as 20mW of power to achieve the sampling rate of 40MSps and 14bit resolution.

  12. Field drilling tests on improved geothermal unsealed roller-cone bits. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, R.R.; Jones, A.H.; Winzenried, R.W.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-05-01

    The development and field testing of a 222 mm (8-3/4 inch) unsealed, insert type, medium hard formation, high-temperature bit are described. Increased performance was gained by substituting improved materials in critical bit components. These materials were selected on bases of their high temperature properties, machinability and heat treatment response. Program objectives required that both machining and heat treating could be accomplished with existing rock bit production equipment. Six of the experimental bits were subjected to air drilling at 240/sup 0/C (460/sup 0/F) in Franciscan graywacke at the Geysers (California). Performances compared directly to conventional bits indicate that in-gage drilling time was increased by 70%. All bits at the Geysers are subjected to reaming out-of-gage hole prior to drilling. Under these conditions the experimental bits showed a 30% increase in usable hole drilled, compared with the conventional bits. The materials selected improved roller wear by 200%, friction per wear by 150%, and lug wear by 150%. These tests indicate a potential well cost savings of 4 to 8%. Savings of 12% are considered possible with drilling procedures optimized for the experimental bits.

  13. Two-bit quantum random number generator based on photon-number-resolving detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Yi; Ren, Min; Wu, E.; Wu, Guang; Zeng, Heping

    2011-07-01

    Here we present a new fast two-bit quantum random number generator based on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical phenomenon of photon statistics of coherent light source. Two-bit random numbers were generated according to the number of detected photons in each light pulse by a photon-number-resolving detector. Poissonian photon statistics of the coherent light source guaranteed the complete randomness of the bit sequences. Multi-bit true random numbers were generated for the first time based on the multi-photon events from a coherent light source.

  14. CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162694.html CDC Allocates $184 Million for Zika Protection Funds are earmarked for states, territories, local ... million has been earmarked to protect Americans against Zika virus infection, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...

  15. Spatial Allocator for air quality modeling

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Spatial Allocator is a set of tools that helps users manipulate and generate data files related to emissions and air quality modeling without requiring the use of a commercial Geographic Information System.

  16. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  17. Allocation of Scarce Resources: Some Problems

    PubMed Central

    Secundy, Marian G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of current philosophical perspectives and societal trends in relation to allocation of scarce resources. An analysis and comparative assessment of various positions of current philosophers, theologians, and bioethicists is provided. Currently proposed cost containment measures at the federal level require that black health professionals particularly pay attention to these proposals specifically as related to allocation of resources. The ways in which cost containment and/ or modification of resource allocation will affect health care delivery, specifically for the black community, must be carefully examined. This article may suggest some approaches for individual and group response to the continuing dialogue and to the allocation process itself. The equitable distribution of health care, particularly scarce new technologies, will be one of the greatest problems facing society in the next 20 years. PMID:7265284

  18. Optimal dynamic bandwidth allocation for complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Liang, Man-Gui; Li, Qian; Guo, Dong-Chao

    2013-03-01

    Traffic capacity of one network strongly depends on the link’s bandwidth allocation strategy. In previous bandwidth allocation mechanisms, once one link’s bandwidth is allocated, it will be fixed throughout the overall traffic transmission process. However, the traffic load of every link changes from time to time. In this paper, with finite total bandwidth resource of the network, we propose to dynamically allocate the total bandwidth resource in which each link’s bandwidth is proportional to the queue length of the output buffer of the link per time step. With plenty of data packets in the network, the traffic handling ability of all links of the network achieves full utilization. The theoretical analysis and the extensive simulation results on complex networks are consistent. This work is valuable for network service providers to improve network performance or to do reasonable network design efficiently.

  19. 15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Allocation of Section 306 Program Administration... to any coastal state for the purpose of administering that state's management program, if the...

  20. Optimality versus stability in water resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Read, Laura; Madani, Kaveh; Inanloo, Bahareh

    2014-01-15

    Water allocation is a growing concern in a developing world where limited resources like fresh water are in greater demand by more parties. Negotiations over allocations often involve multiple groups with disparate social, economic, and political status and needs, who are seeking a management solution for a wide range of demands. Optimization techniques for identifying the Pareto-optimal (social planner solution) to multi-criteria multi-participant problems are commonly implemented, although often reaching agreement for this solution is difficult. In negotiations with multiple-decision makers, parties who base decisions on individual rationality may find the social planner solution to be unfair, thus creating a need to evaluate the willingness to cooperate and practicality of a cooperative allocation solution, i.e., the solution's stability. This paper suggests seeking solutions for multi-participant resource allocation problems through an economics-based power index allocation method. This method can inform on allocation schemes that quantify a party's willingness to participate in a negotiation rather than opt for no agreement. Through comparison of the suggested method with a range of distance-based multi-criteria decision making rules, namely, least squares, MAXIMIN, MINIMAX, and compromise programming, this paper shows that optimality and stability can produce different allocation solutions. The mismatch between the socially-optimal alternative and the most stable alternative can potentially result in parties leaving the negotiation as they may be too dissatisfied with their resource share. This finding has important policy implications as it justifies why stakeholders may not accept the socially optimal solution in practice, and underlies the necessity of considering stability where it may be more appropriate to give up an unstable Pareto-optimal solution for an inferior stable one. Authors suggest assessing the stability of an allocation solution as an

  1. Allocating petroleum products during oil supply disruptions.

    PubMed

    Bezdek, R H; Taylor, W B

    1981-06-19

    Four options for allocating a long-term, severe shortfall of petroleum imports are analyzed: oil price and allocation controls, coupon gasoline rationing, variable gasoline tax and rebate, and no oil price controls with partial rebates. Each of these options is evaluated in terms of four criteria: microeconomic effects, macroeconomic effects, equity, and practical problems. The implications of this analysis for energy contingency planning are discussed.

  2. Frequency allocations accommodate new commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiglitz, Martin R.; Blanchard, Christine

    1992-07-01

    An overview is presented of the 1992 World Administrative Radio Frequency Conference whose principal responsibility is to review and update the International Radio Regulations, including the International Table of Frequency Allocations and the procedures for utilizing the allocations. Consideration is given to the earth exploration-satellite service, the space research space operation, general-satellite service, and wind profiler radar. Attention is given to shortwave or HF broadcasting, mobile and mobile-satellite services and future public land mobile telecommunications systems.

  3. Allocation Games: Addressing the Ill-Posed Nature of Allocation in Life-Cycle Inventories.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Rebecca J; Cruze, Nathan B; Goel, Prem K; Bakshi, Bhavik R

    2015-07-07

    Allocation is required when a life cycle contains multi-functional processes. One approach to allocation is to partition the embodied resources in proportion to a criterion, such as product mass or cost. Many practitioners apply multiple partitioning criteria to avoid choosing one arbitrarily. However, life cycle results from different allocation methods frequently contradict each other, making it difficult or impossible for the practitioner to draw any meaningful conclusions from the study. Using the matrix notation for life-cycle inventory data, we show that an inventory that requires allocation leads to an ill-posed problem: an inventory based on allocation is one of an infinite number of inventories that are highly dependent upon allocation methods. This insight is applied to comparative life-cycle assessment (LCA), in which products with the same function but different life cycles are compared. Recently, there have been several studies that applied multiple allocation methods and found that different products were preferred under different methods. We develop the Comprehensive Allocation Investigation Strategy (CAIS) to examine any given inventory under all possible allocation decisions, enabling us to detect comparisons that are not robust to allocation, even when the comparison appears robust under conventional partitioning methods. While CAIS does not solve the ill-posed problem, it provides a systematic way to parametrize and examine the effects of partitioning allocation. The practical usefulness of this approach is demonstrated with two case studies. The first compares ethanol produced from corn stover hydrolysis, corn stover gasification, and corn grain fermentation. This comparison was not robust to allocation. The second case study compares 1,3-propanediol (PDO) produced from fossil fuels and from biomass, which was found to be a robust comparison.

  4. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-03-14

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies.

  5. Advances in liver transplantation allocation systems

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Michael L; Moini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    With the growing number of patients in need of liver transplantation, there is a need for adopting new and modifying existing allocation policies that prioritize patients for liver transplantation. Policy should ensure fair allocation that is reproducible and strongly predictive of best pre and post transplant outcomes while taking into account the natural history of the potential recipients liver disease and its complications. There is wide acceptance for allocation policies based on urgency in which the sickest patients on the waiting list with the highest risk of mortality receive priority. Model for end-stage liver disease and Child-Turcotte-Pugh scoring system, the two most universally applicable systems are used in urgency-based prioritization. However, other factors must be considered to achieve optimal allocation. Factors affecting pre-transplant patient survival and the quality of the donor organ also affect outcome. The optimal system should have allocation prioritization that accounts for both urgency and transplant outcome. We reviewed past and current liver allocation systems with the aim of generating further discussion about improvement of current policies. PMID:26973389

  6. Implementation of a fast 16-Bit dynamic clamp using LabVIEW-RT.

    PubMed

    Kullmann, Paul H M; Wheeler, Diek W; Beacom, Joshua; Horn, John P

    2004-01-01

    The dynamic-clamp method provides a powerful electrophysiological tool for creating virtual ionic conductances in living cells and studying their influence on membrane potential. Here we describe G-clamp, a new way to implement a dynamic clamp using the real-time version of the Lab-VIEW programming environment together with a Windows host, an embedded microprocessor that runs a real-time operating system and a multifunction data-acquisition board. The software includes descriptions of a fast voltage-dependent sodium conductance, delayed rectifier, M-type and A-type potassium conductances, and a leak conductance. The system can also read synaptic conductance waveforms from preassembled data files. These virtual conductances can be reliably implemented at speeds < or =43 kHz while simultaneously saving two channels of data with 16-bit precision. G-clamp also includes utilities for measuring current-voltage relations, synaptic strength, and synaptic gain. Taking an approach built on a commercially available software/hardware platform has resulted in a system that is easy to assemble and upgrade. In addition, the graphical programming structure of LabVIEW should make it relatively easy for others to adapt G-clamp for new experimental applications.

  7. The anoikis effector Bit1 displays tumor suppressive function in lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Jennings, Scott; Ireland, Shubha Kale; Pham, Tri; Temple, Brandi; Davis, Mya; Chen, Renwei; Davenport, Ian; Biliran, Hector

    2014-01-01

    The mitochondrial Bit1 (Bcl-2 inhibitor of transcription 1) protein is a part of an apoptotic pathway that is uniquely regulated by integrin-mediated attachment. As an anoikis effector, Bit1 is released into the cytoplasm following loss of cell attachment and induces a caspase-independent form of apoptosis. Considering that anoikis resistance is a critical determinant of transformation, we hypothesized that cancer cells may circumvent the Bit1 apoptotic pathway to attain anchorage-independence and tumorigenic potential. Here, we provide the first evidence of the tumor suppressive effect of Bit1 through a mechanism involving anoikis induction in human lung adenocarcinoma derived A549 cells. Restitution of Bit1 in anoikis resistant A549 cells is sufficient to induce detachment induced-apoptosis despite defect in caspase activation and impairs their anchorage-independent growth. Conversely, stable downregulation of Bit1 in these cells significantly enhances their anoikis resistance and anchorage-independent growth. The Bit1 knockdown cells exhibit significantly enhanced tumorigenecity in vivo. It has been previously shown that the nuclear TLE1 corepressor is a putative oncogene in lung cancer, and we show here that TLE1 blocks Bit1 mediated anoikis in part by sequestering the pro-apoptotic partner of Bit1, the Amino-terminal Enhancer of Split (AES) protein, in the nucleus. Taken together, these findings suggest a tumor suppressive role of the caspase-independent anoikis effector Bit1 in lung cancer. Consistent with its role as a tumor suppressor, we have found that Bit1 is downregulated in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues.

  8. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K. N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  9. Contrarian behavior in a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Liang, Y; An, K N; Yang, G; Huang, J P

    2013-01-01

    Contrarian behavior is a kind of self-organization in complex adaptive systems (CASs). Here we report the existence of a transition point in a model resource-allocation CAS with contrarian behavior by using human experiments, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis. The resource ratio and system predictability serve as the tuning parameter and order parameter, respectively. The transition point helps to reveal the positive or negative role of contrarian behavior. This finding is in contrast to the common belief that contrarian behavior always has a positive role in resource allocation, say, stabilizing resource allocation by shrinking the redundancy or the lack of resources. It is further shown that resource allocation can be optimized at the transition point by adding an appropriate size of contrarians. This work is also expected to be of value to some other fields ranging from management and social science to ecology and evolution.

  10. Seismic Investigations of the Zagros-Bitlis Thrust Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritto, R.; Sibol, M.; Caron, P.; Quigley, K.; Ghalib, H.; Chen, Y.

    2009-05-01

    We present results of crustal studies obtained with seismic data from the Northern Iraq Seismic Network (NISN). NISN has operated 10 broadband stations in north-eastern Iraq since late 2005. At present, over 800 GB of seismic waveform data have been analyzed. The aim of the present study is to derive models of the local and regional crustal structure of north and north-eastern Iraq, including the northern extension of the Zagros collision zone. This goal is, in part, achieved by estimating local and regional seismic velocity models using receiver function- and surface wave dispersion analyses and to use these velocity models to obtain accurate hypocenter locations and event focal mechanisms. Our analysis of hypocenter locations produces a clear picture of the seismicity associated with the tectonics of the region. The largest seismicity rate is confined to the active northern section of the Zagros thrust zone, while it decreases towards the southern end, before the intensity increases in the Bandar Abbas region again. Additionally, the rift zones in the Read Sea and the Gulf of Aden are clearly demarked by high seismicity rates. Our analysis of waveform data indicates clear propagation paths from the west or south-west across the Arabian shield as well as from the north and east into NISN. Phases including Pn, Pg, Sn, Lg, as well as LR are clearly observed on these seismograms. In contrast, blockage or attenuation of Pg and Sg-wave energy is observed for propagation paths across the Zagros-Bitlis zone from the south, while Pn and Sn phases are not affected. These findings are in support of earlier tectonic models that suggested the existence of multiple parallel listric faults splitting off the main Zagros fault zone in east-west direction. These faults appear to attenuate the crustal phases while the refracted phases, propagating across the mantle lid, remain unaffected. We will present surface wave analysis in support of these findings, indicating multi

  11. 24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation of funding. 982.101... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Funding and PHA Application for Funding § 982.101 Allocation of funding. (a) Allocation of funding. HUD allocates available...

  12. 24 CFR 982.101 - Allocation of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation of funding. 982.101... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Funding and PHA Application for Funding § 982.101 Allocation of funding. (a) Allocation of funding. HUD allocates available...

  13. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General objective. The allocation planning process should provide for the equitable distribution of available...

  14. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  15. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  16. 26 CFR 1.141-6 - Allocation and accounting rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Allocation and accounting rules. 1.141-6 Section... Allocation and accounting rules. (a) Allocation of proceeds to expenditures. For purposes of §§ 1.141-1.... Thus, allocations generally may be made using any reasonable, consistently applied accounting...

  17. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  18. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  19. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  20. 24 CFR 791.404 - Field Office allocation planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Field Office allocation planning... Allocation of Budget Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.404 Field Office allocation planning. (a) General... authority, consistent with the relative housing needs of each allocation area within the field...

  1. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  2. 47 CFR 2.106 - Table of Frequency Allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Table of Frequency Allocations. 2.106 Section 2.106 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Allocation, Assignment, and Use of Radio Frequencies § 2.106 Table of Frequency Allocations. Editorial...

  3. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... effect on the application of the automatic allocation rules applicable after the transferor's death under... a Form 709 for calendar year 2008). (d) Allocations after the transferor's death—(1) Allocation by... negligible. (2) Automatic allocation after death. A decedent's unused GST exemption is...

  4. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... effect on the application of the automatic allocation rules applicable after the transferor's death under... a Form 709 for calendar year 2008). (d) Allocations after the transferor's death—(1) Allocation by... negligible. (2) Automatic allocation after death. A decedent's unused GST exemption is...

  5. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... effect on the application of the automatic allocation rules applicable after the transferor's death under... a Form 709 for calendar year 2008). (d) Allocations after the transferor's death—(1) Allocation by... negligible. (2) Automatic allocation after death. A decedent's unused GST exemption is...

  6. 26 CFR 26.2632-1 - Allocation of GST exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... effect on the application of the automatic allocation rules applicable after the transferor's death under... a Form 709 for calendar year 2008). (d) Allocations after the transferor's death—(1) Allocation by... negligible. (2) Automatic allocation after death. A decedent's unused GST exemption is...

  7. 47 CFR 64.903 - Cost allocation manuals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost allocation manuals. 64.903 Section 64.903... RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Allocation of Costs § 64.903 Cost allocation manuals. (a) Each... mid-sized incumbent local exchange carriers is required to file a cost allocation manual...

  8. The Use of Different Rules to Allocate Reward and Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Charles W.

    Much research has been conducted about how and when individuals allocate rewards, yet little research exists concerning the allocation of punishment. The process of allocating negative outcomes may be different from the decision making process for positive outcomes. To examine the decision making process for allocating rewards and punishment,…

  9. Sperm allocation in relation to female size in a semelparous salmonid

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Masaki; Kitayama, Takenori; Kawabata, Yuuki; Kitagawa, Takashi; Kojima, Takahito; Pitcher, Trevor E.

    2016-01-01

    To maximize reproductive success, males have to adaptively tailor their sperm expenditure in relation to the quality of potential mates because they require time to replenish their sperm supply for subsequent mating opportunities. Therefore, in mating contexts where males must choose among females in a short period of time, as is the case with semelparous species (which die after one intensely competitive short duration breeding season), selection on sperm allocation can be expected to be a powerful selective agent that shapes the male reproductive success. We quantitatively investigated sperm allocation patterns in chum salmon in relation to perceived female quality by developing a novel method for determining the amount of sperm allocated per ejaculate during spawning bouts. We examined the relationship between sperm expenditure and the body size of paired females (a proxy of egg number and egg quality) in the absence of male–male competition in an experimental channel. The estimated amount of sperm released per spawning event was positively correlated with the size of paired females. However, the number of spawning events a female participated in, which reduces the number of eggs she spawns in each subsequent bout, did not affect this relationship. These results provide support for predictions arising from the sperm allocation hypothesis, male salmon do economize their sperm expenditure in accordance with paired female body size as predicted for their first spawning event, but males overestimate or are unable to assess the quality of females beyond size and provide more sperm than they should in theory when paired with a female that spawned previously. Overall, the observed sperm allocation pattern in chum salmon appears to be adapted to maximize reproductive success assuming female size is an honest indicator of quality, although temporal changes in a female's quality during a reproductive season should be considered when examining sperm allocation strategies

  10. 77 FR 51825 - Certain Drill Bits and Products Containing Same; Determination To Review an Initial Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... COMMISSION Certain Drill Bits and Products Containing Same; Determination To Review an Initial Determination... importation of certain drill bits and products containing the same by reason of infringement of certain claims....A. of Santiago, Chile; Diamantina Christensen Trading Inc. of Panama; and Intermountain...

  11. High power laser-mechanical drilling bit and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Kolachalam, Sharath K.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Allen, Erik C.; Underwood, Lance D.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2017-02-07

    An apparatus with a high power laser-mechanical bit for use with a laser drilling system and a method for advancing a borehole. The laser-mechanical bit has a beam path and mechanical removal devices that provide for the removal of laser-affected rock to advance a borehole.

  12. The effect of drill bit, pin, and wire tip design on drilling.

    PubMed

    Fincham, Bryce M; Jaeblon, Todd

    2011-09-01

    Successful penetration of bone is dependent on several factors, including bone quality, drill bit and pin design, and drilling technique. Wires are also used in bone drilling, and the tip configuration can affect the efficiency of bone penetration. Incorrect use of drill bits, pins, and wires may result in complications such as thermal necrosis and hardware breakage.

  13. Designing the ejector pellet impact drill bit for hard and tough rock drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Aliev, F. R.; Gorbenko, M. V.; Strelnikova, A. B.

    2015-02-01

    There are many types of ejector pellet impact drill bit providing impact rock drilling. Basic types of drill strings have been regarded, the essential requirements for the most efficient facilities to drill hard and tough rocks are formulated. With regard to these requirements, the ejector pellet impact drill bit design appropriate for operating under given conditions has been proposed

  14. Least Reliable Bits Coding (LRBC) for high data rate satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderaar, Mark; Wagner, Paul; Budinger, James

    1992-01-01

    An analysis and discussion of a bandwidth efficient multi-level/multi-stage block coded modulation technique called Least Reliable Bits Coding (LRBC) is presented. LRBC uses simple multi-level component codes that provide increased error protection on increasingly unreliable modulated bits in order to maintain an overall high code rate that increases spectral efficiency. Further, soft-decision multi-stage decoding is used to make decisions on unprotected bits through corrections made on more protected bits. Using analytical expressions and tight performance bounds it is shown that LRBC can achieve increased spectral efficiency and maintain equivalent or better power efficiency compared to that of Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Bit error rates (BER) vs. channel bit energy with Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) are given for a set of LRB Reed-Solomon (RS) encoded 8PSK modulation formats with an ensemble rate of 8/9. All formats exhibit a spectral efficiency of 2.67 = (log2(8))(8/9) information bps/Hz. Bit by bit coded and uncoded error probabilities with soft-decision information are determined. These are traded with with code rate to determine parameters that achieve good performance. The relative simplicity of Galois field algebra vs. the Viterbi algorithm and the availability of high speed commercial Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) for block codes indicates that LRBC using block codes is a desirable method for high data rate implementations.

  15. Towards the generation of random bits at terahertz rates based on a chaotic semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanter, Ido; Aviad, Yaara; Reidler, Igor; Cohen, Elad; Rosenbluh, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Random bit generators (RBGs) are important in many aspects of statistical physics and crucial in Monte-Carlo simulations, stochastic modeling and quantum cryptography. The quality of a RBG is measured by the unpredictability of the bit string it produces and the speed at which the truly random bits can be generated. Deterministic algorithms generate pseudo-random numbers at high data rates as they are only limited by electronic hardware speed, but their unpredictability is limited by the very nature of their deterministic origin. It is widely accepted that the core of any true RBG must be an intrinsically non-deterministic physical process, e.g. measuring thermal noise from a resistor. Owing to low signal levels, such systems are highly susceptible to bias, introduced by amplification, and to small nonrandom external perturbations resulting in a limited generation rate, typically less than 100M bit/s. We present a physical random bit generator, based on a chaotic semiconductor laser, having delayed optical feedback, which operates reliably at rates up to 300Gbit/s. The method uses a high derivative of the digitized chaotic laser intensity and generates the random sequence by retaining a number of the least significant bits of the high derivative value. The method is insensitive to laser operational parameters and eliminates the necessity for all external constraints such as incommensurate sampling rates and laser external cavity round trip time. The randomness of long bit strings is verified by standard statistical tests.

  16. Purpose-built PDC bit successfully drills 7-in liner equipment and formation: An integrated solution

    SciTech Connect

    Puennel, J.G.A.; Huppertz, A.; Huizing, J.

    1996-12-31

    Historically, drilling out the 7-in, liner equipment has been a time consuming operation with a limited success ratio. The success of the operation is highly dependent on the type of drill bit employed. Tungsten carbide mills and mill tooth rock bits required from 7.5 to 11.5 hours respectively to drill the pack-off bushings, landing collar, shoe track and shoe. Rates of penetration dropped dramatically when drilling the float equipment. While conventional PDC bits have drilled the liner equipment successfully (averaging 9.7 hours), severe bit damage invariably prevented them from continuing to drill the formation at cost-effective penetration rates. This paper describes the integrated development and application of an IADC M433 Class PDC bit, which was designed specifically to drill out the 7-in. liner equipment and continue drilling the formation at satisfactory penetration rates. The development was the result of a joint investigation There the operator and bit/liner manufacturers shared their expertise in solving a drilling problem, The heavy-set bit was developed following drill-off tests conducted to investigate the drillability of the 7-in. liner equipment. Key features of the new bit and its application onshore The Netherlands will be presented and analyzed.

  17. Lossless compression of hyperspectral images using conventional recursive least-squares predictor with adaptive prediction bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fang; Guo, Shuxu

    2016-01-01

    An efficient lossless compression scheme for hyperspectral images using conventional recursive least-squares (CRLS) predictor with adaptive prediction bands is proposed. The proposed scheme first calculates the preliminary estimates to form the input vector of the CRLS predictor. Then the number of bands used in prediction is adaptively selected by an exhaustive search for the number that minimizes the prediction residual. Finally, after prediction, the prediction residuals are sent to an adaptive arithmetic coder. Experiments on the newer airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) images in the consultative committee for space data systems (CCSDS) test set show that the proposed scheme yields an average compression performance of 3.29 (bits/pixel), 5.57 (bits/pixel), and 2.44 (bits/pixel) on the 16-bit calibrated images, the 16-bit uncalibrated images, and the 12-bit uncalibrated images, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme obtains compression results very close to clustered differential pulse code modulation-with-adaptive-prediction-length, which achieves best lossless compression performance for AVIRIS images in the CCSDS test set, and outperforms other current state-of-the-art schemes with relatively low computation complexity.

  18. An Analysis and Allocation System for Library Collections Budgets: The Comprehensive Allocation Process (CAP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Lucy Eleonore; Blosser, John

    2012-01-01

    The "Comprehensive Allocation Process" (CAP) is a reproducible decision-making structure for the allocation of new collections funds, for the reallocation of funds within stagnant budgets, and for budget cuts in the face of reduced funding levels. This system was designed to overcome common shortcomings of current methods. Its philosophical…

  19. 76 FR 32392 - Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting Applications for the CY 2011 Allocation Round...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... Community Development Financial Institutions Fund Notice of Allocation Availability (NOAA) Inviting... (see Section IV.D. of this NOAA for more details). Applications must meet all eligibility and other requirements and deadlines, as applicable, set forth in this NOAA. Allocation applicants that are not...

  20. An 18-bit high performance audio σ-Δ D/A converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhang; Xiaowei, Huang; Yan, Han; Cheung, Ray C.; Xiaoxia, Han; Hao, Wang; Guo, Liang

    2010-07-01

    A multi-bit quantized high performance sigma-delta (σ-Δ) audio DAC is presented. Compared to its single-bit counterpart, the multi-bit quantization offers many advantages, such as simpler σ-Δ modulator circuit, lower clock frequency and smaller spurious tones. With the data weighted average (DWA) mismatch shaping algorithm, element mismatch errors induced by multi-bit quantization can be pushed out of the signal band, hence the noise floor inside the signal band is greatly lowered. To cope with the crosstalk between digital and analog circuits, every analog component is surrounded by a guard ring, which is an innovative attempt. The 18-bit DAC with the above techniques, which is implemented in a 0.18 μm mixed-signal CMOS process, occupies a core area of 1.86 mm2. The measured dynamic range (DR) and peak SNDR are 96 dB and 88 dB, respectively.

  1. Drilling of bone: a robust automatic method for the detection of drill bit break-through.

    PubMed

    Ong, F R; Bouazza-Marouf, K

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to devise a robust detection method for drill bit break-through when drilling into long bones using an automated drilling system that is associated with mechatronic assisted surgery. This investigation looks into the effects of system compliance and inherent drilling force fluctuation on the profiles of drilling force, drilling force, drilling between successive samples and drill bit rotational speed. It is shown that these effects have significant influences on the bone drilling related profiles and thus on the detection of drill bit break-through. A robust method, based on a Kalman filter, has been proposed. Using a modified Kalman filter, it is possible to convert the profiles of drilling force difference between successive samples and/or the drill bit rotational speed into easily recognizable and more consistent profiles, allowing a robust and repeatable detection of drill bit break-through.

  2. Multi-bit binary decoder based on Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhao, Xin

    2013-03-01

    It is known that Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction can be applied to chemical computation, e.g., image processing, computational geometry, logical computation, and so on. In the field of logical computation, some basic logic gates and basic combinational logic circuits, such as adder, counter, memory cell, have already been implemented in simulations or in chemical experiments. In this paper, we focus on another important combinational logic circuit, binary decoder. Integrating AND gate and NOT gate, we first design and implement a one-bit binary decoder through numerical simulation. Then we show that one-bit decoder can be extended to design two-bit, three-bit, or even higher bit binary decoders by a cascade method. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of these devices. The chemical realization of decoders can guide the construction of more sophisticated functions based on BZ reaction; meanwhile, the cascade method can facilitate the design of other combinational logic circuits.

  3. Changes realized from extended bit-depth and metal artifact reduction in CT

    SciTech Connect

    Glide-Hurst, C.; Chen, D.; Zhong, H.; Chetty, I. J.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: High-Z material in computed tomography (CT) yields metal artifacts that degrade image quality and may cause substantial errors in dose calculation. This study couples a metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithm with enhanced 16-bit depth (vs standard 12-bit) to quantify potential gains in image quality and dosimetry. Methods: Extended CT to electron density (CT-ED) curves were derived from a tissue characterization phantom with titanium and stainless steel inserts scanned at 90-140 kVp for 12- and 16-bit reconstructions. MAR was applied to sinogram data (Brilliance BigBore CT scanner, Philips Healthcare, v.3.5). Monte Carlo simulation (MC-SIM) was performed on a simulated double hip prostheses case (Cerrobend rods embedded in a pelvic phantom) using BEAMnrc/Dosxyz (400 000 0000 histories, 6X, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} beam traversing Cerrobend rod). A phantom study was also conducted using a stainless steel rod embedded in solid water, and dosimetric verification was performed with Gafchromic film analysis (absolute difference and gamma analysis, 2% dose and 2 mm distance to agreement) for plans calculated with Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm (AAA, Eclipse v11.0) to elucidate changes between 12- and 16-bit data. Three patients (bony metastases to the femur and humerus, and a prostate cancer case) with metal implants were reconstructed using both bit depths, with dose calculated using AAA and derived CT-ED curves. Planar dose distributions were assessed via matrix analyses and using gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm. Results: For 12-bit images, CT numbers for titanium and stainless steel saturated at 3071 Hounsfield units (HU), whereas for 16-bit depth, mean CT numbers were much larger (e.g., titanium and stainless steel yielded HU of 8066.5 {+-} 56.6 and 13 588.5 {+-} 198.8 for 16-bit uncorrected scans at 120 kVp, respectively). MC-SIM was well-matched between 12- and 16-bit images except downstream of the Cerrobend rod, where 16-bit dose was {approx}6

  4. A short impossibility proof of quantum bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard

    2013-06-01

    Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment-bindingness tradeoff (Lo and Chau, 1997 [1], Mayers, 1997 [2]). A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in D'Ariano et al. (2007) [3] in the Heisenberg picture and in a C*-algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged. In the present Letter we provide a new impossibility proof in the Schrödinger picture, greatly simplifying the classification of protocols and strategies using the mathematical formulation in terms of quantum combs (Chiribella et al., 2008 [4]), with each single-party strategy represented by a conditioned comb. We prove that assuming a stronger notion of concealment-for each classical communication history, not in average-allows Alice's cheat to pass also the worst-case Bob's test. The present approach allows us to restate the concealment-bindingness tradeoff in terms of the continuity of dilations of probabilistic quantum combs with the metric given by the comb discriminability-distance.

  5. A Complete Graphical Calculus for Spekkens' Toy Bit Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backens, Miriam; Duman, Ali Nabi

    2016-01-01

    While quantum theory cannot be described by a local hidden variable model, it is nevertheless possible to construct such models that exhibit features commonly associated with quantum mechanics. These models are also used to explore the question of ψ -ontic versus ψ -epistemic theories for quantum mechanics. Spekkens' toy theory is one such model. It arises from classical probabilistic mechanics via a limit on the knowledge an observer may have about the state of a system. The toy theory for the simplest possible underlying system closely resembles stabilizer quantum mechanics, a fragment of quantum theory which is efficiently classically simulable but also non-local. Further analysis of the similarities and differences between those two theories can thus yield new insights into what distinguishes quantum theory from classical theories, and ψ -ontic from ψ -epistemic theories. In this paper, we develop a graphical language for Spekkens' toy theory. Graphical languages offer intuitive and rigorous formalisms for the analysis of quantum mechanics and similar theories. To compare quantum mechanics and a toy model, it is useful to have similar formalisms for both. We show that our language fully describes Spekkens' toy theory and in particular, that it is complete: meaning any equality that can be derived using other formalisms can also be derived entirely graphically. Our language is inspired by a similar graphical language for quantum mechanics called the ZX-calculus. Thus Spekkens' toy bit theory and stabilizer quantum mechanics can be analysed and compared using analogous graphical formalisms.

  6. Advanced High-Speed 16-Bit Digitizer System

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    The fastest commercially available 16-bit ADC can only perform around 200 mega-samples per second (200 MS/s). Connecting ADC chips together in eight different time domains increases the quantity of samples taken by a factor of eight. This method of interleaving requires that the input signal being sampled is split into eight identical signals and arrives at each ADC chip at the same point in time. The splitting of the input signal is performed in the analog front end containing a wideband filter that impedance matches the input signal to the ADC chips. Each ADC uses a clock to tell it when to perform a conversion. Using eight unique clocks spaced in 45-degree increments is the method used to time shift when each ADC chip performs its conversion. Given that this control clock is a fixed frequency, the clock phase shifting is accomplished by tightly controlling the distance that the clock must travel, resulting in a time delay. The interleaved ADC chips will now generate digital data in eight different time domains. These data are processed inside a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) to move the data back into a single time domain and store it into memory. The FPGA also contains a Nios II processor that provides system control and data retrieval via Ethernet.

  7. High Bit-Depth Medical Image Compression with HEVC.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Saurin; Ruiz, Damian; Kalva, Hari; Fernandez-Escribano, Gerardo; Adzic, Velibor

    2017-01-27

    Efficient storing and retrieval of medical images has direct impact on reducing costs and improving access in cloud based health care services. JPEG 2000 is currently the commonly used compression format for medical images shared using the DICOM standard. However, new formats such as HEVC can provide better compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Furthermore, JPEG 2000 is not suitable for efficiently storing image series and 3D imagery. Using HEVC, a single format can support all forms of medical images. This paper presents the use of HEVC for diagnostically acceptable medical image compression, focusing on compression efficiency compared to JPEG 2000. Diagnostically acceptable lossy compression and complexity of high bit-depth medical image compression are studied. Based on an established medically acceptable compression range for JPEG 2000, this paper establishes acceptable HEVC compression range for medical imaging applications. Experimental results show that using HEVC can increase the compression performance, compared to JPEG 2000, by over 54%. Along with this, new method for reducing computational complexity of HEVC encoding for medical images is proposed. Results show that HEVC intra encoding complexity can be reduced by over 55% with negligible increase in file size.

  8. Simple bit-string model for lineage branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, P. M. C.; Sá Martins, J. S.; Stauffer, D.; Moss de Oliveira, S.

    2004-11-01

    We introduce a population dynamics model, where individual genomes are represented by bit strings. Selection is described by death probabilities which depend on these genomes, and new individuals continuously replace the ones that die, keeping the population constant. An offspring has the same genome as its (randomly chosen) parent, except for a small amount of (also random) mutations. Chance may thus generate a newborn with a genome that is better than that of its parent, and the newborn will have a smaller death probability. When this happens, this individual is a would-be founder of a new lineage. A new lineage is considered created if the number of its live descendants grows above a certain previously defined threshold. The time evolution of populations evolving under these rules is followed by computer simulations and the probability densities of lineage duration and size, among others, are computed. These densities show a scale-free behavior, in accordance with some conjectures in paleoevolution, and suggesting a simple mechanism as explanation for the ubiquity of these power laws.

  9. Transforming networking within the ESIP Federation using ResearchBit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, E.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists increasingly need interdisciplinary teams to solve their research problems. Currently, geoscientists use Research Networking (RN) systems to connect with each other and find people of similar and dissimilar interests. As we shift to digitally mediated scholarship, we need innovative methods for scholarly communication. Formal methods for scholarly communication are undergoing vast transformation owing to the open-access movement and reproducible research. However, informal scholarly communication that takes place at professional society meetings and conferences, like AGU, has received limited research attention relying primarily on serendipitous interaction. The ResearchBit project aims to fundamentally improve informal methods of scholarly communication by leveraging the serendipitous interactions of researchers and making them more aware of co-located potential collaborators with mutual interests. This presentation will describe our preliminary hardware testing done at the Federation for Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) Summer meeting this past July and the initial recommendation system design. The presentation will also cover the cultural shifts and hurdles to introducing new technology, the privacy concerns of tracking technology and how we are addressing those new issues.

  10. Healthcare resource allocation decisions affecting uninsured services

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Krista Lyn; Taylor, Holly A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using the example of community access programs (CAPs), the purpose of this paper is to describe resource allocation and policy decisions related to providing health services for the uninsured in the USA and the organizational values affecting these decisions. Design/methodology/approach The study used comparative case study methodology at two geographically diverse sites. Researchers collected data from program documents, meeting observations, and interviews with program stakeholders. Findings Five resource allocation or policy decisions relevant to providing healthcare services were described at each site across three categories: designing the health plan, reacting to funding changes, and revising policies. Organizational values of access to care and stewardship most frequently affected resource allocation and policy decisions, while economic and political pressures affect the relative prioritization of values. Research limitations/implications Small sample size, the potential for social desirability or recall bias, and the exclusion of provider, member or community perspectives beyond those represented among participating board members. Practical implications Program directors or researchers can use this study to assess the extent to which resource allocation and policy decisions align with organizational values and mission statements. Social implications The description of how healthcare decisions are actually made can be matched with literature that describes how healthcare resource decisions ought to be made, in order to provide a normative grounding for future decisions. Originality/value This study addresses a gap in literature regarding how CAPs actually make resource allocation decisions that affect access to healthcare services. PMID:27934550

  11. A Novel Uniform Discrete Multitone Transceiver with Power-Allocation for Digital Subscriber Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baig, Sobia; Junaid Mughal, Muhammad

    A novel Uniform Discrete Multitone (DMT) transceiver is proposed, utilizing a wavelet packet based filter bank transmultiplexer in conjunction with a DMT transceiver. The proposed transceiver decomposes the channel spectrum into subbands of equal bandwidth. The objective is to minimize the bit error rate (BER), which is increased by channel-noise amplification. This noise amplification is due to the Zero-Forcing equalization (ZFE) technique. Quantization of the channel-noise amplification is presented, based on post-equalization signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and probability of error in all subbands of the Uniform DMT system. A modified power loading algorithm is applied to allocate variable power according to subband gains. A BER performance comparison of the Uniform DMT with variable and uniform power-loading and with a conventional DMT system in a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) channel is presented.

  12. Non-Linear Control Allocation Using Piecewise Linear Functions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    A novel method is presented for the solution of the non- linear control allocation problem. Historically, control allocation has been performed by... linear control allocation problem to be cast as a piecewise linear program. The piecewise linear program is ultimately cast as a mixed-integer linear...piecewise linear control allocation method is shown to be markedly improved when compared to the performance of a more traditional control allocation approach that assumes linearity.

  13. Resource acquisition, allocation, and utilization in parasitoid reproductive strategies.

    PubMed

    Jervis, Mark A; Ellers, Jacintha; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    Parasitoids display remarkable inter- and intraspecific variation in their reproductive and associated traits. Adaptive explanations have been proposed for many of the between-trait relationships. We present an overview of the current knowledge of parasitoid reproductive biology, focusing on egg production strategies in females, by placing parasitoid reproduction within physiological and ecological contexts. Thus, we relate parasitoid reproduction both to inter- and intraspecific patterns of nutrient allocation, utilization, and acquisition, and to key aspects of host ecology, specifically abundance and dispersion pattern. We review the evidence that resource trade-offs underlie several key intertrait correlations and that reproductive and feeding strategies are closely integrated at both the physiological and the behavioral levels. The idea that parasitoids can be divided into capital-breeders or income-breeders is no longer tenable; such terminology is best restricted to the females' utilization of particular nutrients.

  14. Joint scheduling and resource allocation for multiple video decoding tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, Brian; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a joint resource allocation and scheduling algorithm for video decoding on a resource-constrained system. By decomposing a multimedia task into decoding jobs using quality-driven priority classes, we demonstrate using queuing theoretic analysis that significant power savings can be achieved under small video quality degradation without requiring the encoder to adapt its transmitted bitstream. Based on this scheduling algorithm, we propose an algorithm for maximizing the sum of video qualities in a multiple task environment, while minimizing system energy consumption, without requiring tasks to reveal information about their performances to the system or to other potentially exploitative applications. Importantly, we offer a method to optimize the performance of multiple video decoding tasks on an energy-constrained system, while protecting private information about the system and the applications.

  15. PDC Bit Testing at Sandia Reveals Influence of Chatter in Hard-Rock Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    RAYMOND,DAVID W.

    1999-10-14

    Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits have yet to be routinely applied to drilling the hard-rock formations characteristic of geothermal reservoirs. Most geothermal production wells are currently drilled with tungsten-carbide-insert roller-cone bits. PDC bits have significantly improved penetration rates and bit life beyond roller-cone bits in the oil and gas industry where soft to medium-hard rock types are encountered. If PDC bits could be used to double current penetration rates in hard rock geothermal well-drilling costs could be reduced by 15 percent or more. PDC bits exhibit reasonable life in hard-rock wear testing using the relatively rigid setups typical of laboratory testing. Unfortunately, field experience indicates otherwise. The prevailing mode of failure encountered by PDC bits returning from hard-rock formations in the field is catastrophic, presumably due to impact loading. These failures usually occur in advance of any appreciable wear that might dictate cutter replacement. Self-induced bit vibration, or ''chatter'', is one of the mechanisms that may be responsible for impact damage to PDC cutters in hard-rock drilling. Chatter is more severe in hard-rock formations since they induce significant dynamic loading on the cutter elements. Chatter is a phenomenon whereby the drillstring becomes dynamically unstable and excessive sustained vibrations occur. Unlike forced vibration, the force (i.e., weight on bit) that drives self-induced vibration is coupled with the response it produces. Many of the chatter principles derived in the machine tool industry are applicable to drilling. It is a simple matter to make changes to a machine tool to study the chatter phenomenon. This is not the case with drilling. Chatter occurs in field drilling due to the flexibility of the drillstring. Hence, laboratory setups must be made compliant to observe chatter.

  16. Operator versus computer control of adaptive automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburn, Brian; Molloy, Robert; Wong, Dick; Parasuraman, Raja

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive automation refers to real-time allocation of functions between the human operator and automated subsystems. The article reports the results of a series of experiments whose aim is to examine the effects of adaptive automation on operator performance during multi-task flight simulation, and to provide an empirical basis for evaluations of different forms of adaptive logic. The combined results of these studies suggest several things. First, it appears that either excessively long, or excessively short, adaptation cycles can limit the effectiveness of adaptive automation in enhancing operator performance of both primary flight and monitoring tasks. Second, occasional brief reversions to manual control can counter some of the monitoring inefficiency typically associated with long cycle automation, and further, that benefits of such reversions can be sustained for some time after return to automated control. Third, no evidence was found that the benefits of such reversions depend on the adaptive logic by which long-cycle adaptive switches are triggered.

  17. Practical scheme to share a secret key through a quantum channel with a 27.6% bit error rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, H. F.

    2002-12-01

    A secret key shared through quantum key distribution between two cooperative players is secure against any eavesdropping attack allowed by the laws of physics. Yet, such a key can be established only when the quantum channel error rate due to eavesdropping or imperfect apparatus is low. Here, a practical quantum key distribution scheme by making use of an adaptive privacy amplification procedure with two-way classical communication is reported. Then, it is proven that the scheme generates a secret key whenever the bit error rate of the quantum channel is less than 0.5-0.1(5)≈27.6%, thereby making it the most error resistant scheme known to date.

  18. Practical scheme to share a secret key through a quantum channel with a 27.6% bit error rate

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, H.F.

    2002-12-01

    A secret key shared through quantum key distribution between two cooperative players is secure against any eavesdropping attack allowed by the laws of physics. Yet, such a key can be established only when the quantum channel error rate due to eavesdropping or imperfect apparatus is low. Here, a practical quantum key distribution scheme by making use of an adaptive privacy amplification procedure with two-way classical communication is reported. Then, it is proven that the scheme generates a secret key whenever the bit error rate of the quantum channel is less than 0.5-0.1{radical}(5){approx_equal}27.6%, thereby making it the most error resistant scheme known to date.

  19. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  20. Resource allocation for efficient environmental management.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Michael A; Thompson, Colin J; Hauser, Cindy; Burgman, Mark A; Possingham, Hugh P; Moir, Melinda L; Tiensin, Thanawat; Gilbert, Marius

    2010-10-01

    Environmental managers must decide how to invest available resources. Researchers have previously determined how to allocate conservation resources among regions, design nature reserves, allocate funding to species conservation programs, design biodiversity surveys and monitoring programs, manage species and invest in greenhouse gas mitigation schemes. However, these issues have not been addressed with a unified theory. Furthermore, uncertainty is prevalent in environmental management, and needs to be considered to manage risks. We present a theory for optimal environmental management, synthesizing previous approaches to the topic and incorporating uncertainty. We show that the theory solves a diverse range of important problems of resource allocation, including distributing conservation resources among the world's biodiversity hotspots; surveillance to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus in Thailand; and choosing survey methods for the insect order Hemiptera. Environmental management decisions are similar to decisions about financial investments, with trade-offs between risk and reward.

  1. Biomass Resource Allocation among Competing End Uses

    SciTech Connect

    Newes, E.; Bush, B.; Inman, D.; Lin, Y.; Mai, T.; Martinez, A.; Mulcahy, D.; Short, W.; Simpkins, T.; Uriarte, C.; Peck, C.

    2012-05-01

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model developed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a tool to better understand the interaction of complex policies and their potential effects on the biofuels industry in the United States. However, it does not currently have the capability to account for allocation of biomass resources among the various end uses, which limits its utilization in analysis of policies that target biomass uses outside the biofuels industry. This report provides a more holistic understanding of the dynamics surrounding the allocation of biomass among uses that include traditional use, wood pellet exports, bio-based products and bioproducts, biopower, and biofuels by (1) highlighting the methods used in existing models' treatments of competition for biomass resources; (2) identifying coverage and gaps in industry data regarding the competing end uses; and (3) exploring options for developing models of biomass allocation that could be integrated with the BSM to actively exchange and incorporate relevant information.

  2. Visual Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems continuously mold themselves to the widely varying contexts in which they must operate. Studies of these adaptations have played a long and central role in vision science. In part this is because the specific adaptations remain a powerful tool for dissecting vision, by exposing the mechanisms that are adapting. That is, “if it adapts, it's there.” Many insights about vision have come from using adaptation in this way, as a method. A second important trend has been the realization that the processes of adaptation are themselves essential to how vision works, and thus are likely to operate at all levels. That is, “if it's there, it adapts.” This has focused interest on the mechanisms of adaptation as the target rather than the probe. Together both approaches have led to an emerging insight of adaptation as a fundamental and ubiquitous coding strategy impacting all aspects of how we see. PMID:26858985

  3. Competing Principles for Allocating Health Care Resources.

    PubMed

    Carter, Drew; Gordon, Jason; Watt, Amber M

    2016-10-01

    We clarify options for conceptualizing equity, or what we refer to as justice, in resource allocation. We do this by systematically differentiating, expounding, and then illustrating eight different substantive principles of justice. In doing this, we compare different meanings that can be attributed to "need" and "the capacity to benefit" (CTB). Our comparison is sharpened by two analytical tools. First, quantification helps to clarify the divergent consequences of allocations commended by competing principles. Second, a diagrammatic approach developed by economists Culyer and Wagstaff offers a visual and conceptual aid. Of the eight principles we illustrate, only two treat as relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended: (1) allocate resources so as to most closely equalize final health states and (2) allocate resources so as to equally restore health states to population norms. These allocative principles ought to be preferred to the alternatives if one deems relevant both a person's initial health state and a person's CTB per resource unit expended. Finally, we examine some possibilities for conceptualizing benefits as relative to how badly off someone is, extending Parfit's thought on Prioritarianism (a prioritizing of the worst off). Questions arise as to how much intervention effects accruing to the worse off count for more and how this changes with improving health. We explicate some recent efforts to answer these questions, including in Dutch and British government circles. These efforts can be viewed as efforts to operationalize need as an allocative principle. Each effort seeks to maximize in the aggregate quanta of effect that are differentially valued in favor of the worst off. In this respect, each effort constitutes one type of Prioritarianism, which Parfit failed to differentiate from other types.

  4. Allocation Rules for Sequential Clinical Trials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    AD-AIN 354 STANFORD UNIV CA DEPT OF STATISTICS F/V 12/1 ALLOCATION RULES FOR SEQUENTIAL CLINICAL TRIALS .(U) JUL 82 D SIEGMUND N00V11577-C-V306...UNCLASSIFIED TR 18 NL ALLOCATION RULES FOR SEQUENTIAL CLINICAL TRIALS BY D. SIEGMUND TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 18 JULY 1982 PREPARED UNDER CONTRACT N00014-77-C...at all. Rere me. discuss (I) and (11) or mes"s 9f a Monte Carlo experiment. The advantages of randomization in clinical trials has been discussed at

  5. The Allocation of Federal Expenditures Among States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Maw Lin

    1967-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with the allocation offederal expenditures by states and examines the implications of theseexpenditures on the state by state distribution of incomes. Theallocation of federal expenditures is functionally oriented toward theobjectives for which various government programs are set up. Thegeographical distribution of federal expenditures, therefore, washistorically considered to be a problem incidental to governmentactivity. Because of this, relatively little attention was given tothe question of why some states receive more federal allocation thanothers. In addition, the implications of this pattern of allocationamong the several states have not been intensively investigated.

  6. Image-adapted visually weighted quantization matrices for digital image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method for performing image compression that eliminates redundant and invisible image components is presented. The image compression uses a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and each DCT coefficient yielded by the transform is quantized by an entry in a quantization matrix which determines the perceived image quality and the bit rate of the image being compressed. The present invention adapts or customizes the quantization matrix to the image being compressed. The quantization matrix comprises visual masking by luminance and contrast techniques and by an error pooling technique all resulting in a minimum perceptual error for any given bit rate, or minimum bit rate for a given perceptual error.

  7. Entanglement of single-atom quantum bits at a distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehring, D. L.; Maunz, P.; Olmschenk, S.; Younge, K. C.; Matsukevich, D. N.; Duan, L.-M.; Monroe, C.

    2007-09-01

    Quantum information science involves the storage, manipulation and communication of information encoded in quantum systems, where the phenomena of superposition and entanglement can provide enhancements over what is possible classically. Large-scale quantum information processors require stable and addressable quantum memories, usually in the form of fixed quantum bits (qubits), and a means of transferring and entangling the quantum information between memories that may be separated by macroscopic or even geographic distances. Atomic systems are excellent quantum memories, because appropriate internal electronic states can coherently store qubits over very long timescales. Photons, on the other hand, are the natural platform for the distribution of quantum information between remote qubits, given their ability to traverse large distances with little perturbation. Recently, there has been considerable progress in coupling small samples of atomic gases through photonic channels, including the entanglement between light and atoms and the observation of entanglement signatures between remotely located atomic ensembles. In contrast to atomic ensembles, single-atom quantum memories allow the implementation of conditional quantum gates through photonic channels, a key requirement for quantum computing. Along these lines, individual atoms have been coupled to photons in cavities, and trapped atoms have been linked to emitted photons in free space. Here we demonstrate the entanglement of two fixed single-atom quantum memories separated by one metre. Two remotely located trapped atomic ions each emit a single photon, and the interference and detection of these photons signals the entanglement of the atomic qubits. We characterize the entangled pair by directly measuring qubit correlations with near-perfect detection efficiency. Although this entanglement method is probabilistic, it is still in principle useful for subsequent quantum operations and scalable quantum

  8. Autonomously stabilized entanglement between two superconducting quantum bits.

    PubMed

    Shankar, S; Hatridge, M; Leghtas, Z; Sliwa, K M; Narla, A; Vool, U; Girvin, S M; Frunzio, L; Mirrahimi, M; Devoret, M H

    2013-12-19

    Quantum error correction codes are designed to protect an arbitrary state of a multi-qubit register from decoherence-induced errors, but their implementation is an outstanding challenge in the development of large-scale quantum computers. The first step is to stabilize a non-equilibrium state of a simple quantum system, such as a quantum bit (qubit) or a cavity mode, in the presence of decoherence. This has recently been accomplished using measurement-based feedback schemes. The next step is to prepare and stabilize a state of a composite system. Here we demonstrate the stabilization of an entangled Bell state of a quantum register of two superconducting qubits for an arbitrary time. Our result is achieved using an autonomous feedback scheme that combines continuous drives along with a specifically engineered coupling between the two-qubit register and a dissipative reservoir. Similar autonomous feedback techniques have been used for qubit reset, single-qubit state stabilization, and the creation and stabilization of states of multipartite quantum systems. Unlike conventional, measurement-based schemes, the autonomous approach uses engineered dissipation to counteract decoherence, obviating the need for a complicated external feedback loop to correct errors. Instead, the feedback loop is built into the Hamiltonian such that the steady state of the system in the presence of drives and dissipation is a Bell state, an essential building block for quantum information processing. Such autonomous schemes, which are broadly applicable to a variety of physical systems, as demonstrated by the accompanying paper on trapped ion qubits, will be an essential tool for the implementation of quantum error correction.

  9. The Virtual Solar Observatory at Eight and a Bit!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davey, Alisdair R.; VSO Team

    2011-05-01

    The Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) was the first virtual observatory in the solar and heliophysics data space. It first saw the light of day in 2003 with a mission to serve the solar physics community by enabling homogenous access to heterogeneous data, and hiding the gory details of doing so from the user. The VSO pioneered what was to become the "Small Box" methodology, setting out to provide only the services required to navigate the user to the data and then letting them directly transferred the data from the data providers. After eight and a bit years the VSO now serves data from 72 different instruments covering a multitude of space and ground based observatories, including data from SDO. Dealing with the volume of data from SDO has proved to be our most difficult challenge, forcing us from the small box approach to one where the various VSO sites not only serve SDO data, but are central to the distribution of the data within the US and to Europe and other parts of the world. With SDO data serving mostly in place we are now working on integration with the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) and including a number of new solar data sets in the VSO family. We have a complete VSO search interface in IDL now, enabling searching, downloading and processing solar data, all be done without leaving the IDL command line, and will be releasing a brand new web interface providing users and data providers, with the ability to create far more detailed and instrument specific searches. Eight years on and the VSO has plenty of work in front of it.

  10. Random bit generation at tunable rates using a chaotic semiconductor laser under distributed feedback.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Zhou; Li, Song-Sui; Zhuang, Jun-Ping; Chan, Sze-Chun

    2015-09-01

    A semiconductor laser with distributed feedback from a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is investigated for random bit generation (RBG). The feedback perturbs the laser to emit chaotically with the intensity being sampled periodically. The samples are then converted into random bits by a simple postprocessing of self-differencing and selecting bits. Unlike a conventional mirror that provides localized feedback, the FBG provides distributed feedback which effectively suppresses the information of the round-trip feedback delay time. Randomness is ensured even when the sampling period is commensurate with the feedback delay between the laser and the grating. Consequently, in RBG, the FBG feedback enables continuous tuning of the output bit rate, reduces the minimum sampling period, and increases the number of bits selected per sample. RBG is experimentally investigated at a sampling period continuously tunable from over 16 ns down to 50 ps, while the feedback delay is fixed at 7.7 ns. By selecting 5 least-significant bits per sample, output bit rates from 0.3 to 100 Gbps are achieved with randomness examined by the National Institute of Standards and Technology test suite.

  11. Investigation of diamond-impregnated drill bit wear while drilling under Earth and Mars conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacny, K. A.; Cooper, G. A.

    2004-07-01

    Experiments conducted on a dry and a water-saturated rock under Martian and Earth atmospheric pressures revealed two different wear behaviors in diamond-impregnated drill bits. When the rock was saturated, drilling under Martian pressure caused the water in contact with the rotating bit to vaporize. Since the volumetric expansion of the liquid water or ice as it turned into a vapor was 170,000, the continuous flow of water vapor cleared the cuttings out of the hole. Thus the bit matrix was always exposed to abrasive wear by the rock cuttings and was continually wearing down and exposing new diamonds to the rock. When the rock was dry, an accumulation of rock cuttings protected the matrix from abrasive wear. Since fresh diamonds were not exposed in a timely manner, the rate of penetration dropped. Both rock conditions, namely, dry or water saturated, may exist on Mars. This adds to the complexity of the drill bit design as, ideally, a bit should penetrate the rock irrespective of whether it is dry or water saturated. The ``fail-safe'' bit would have a very soft matrix to always produce some rock penetration at the expense of potential excessive bit wear and shallower than anticipated hole depth.

  12. N-bits all-optical circular shift register based on semiconductor optical amplifier buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzeri, Emma; Berrettini, Gianluca; Meloni, Gianluca; Bogoni, Antonella; Potì, Luca

    2011-03-01

    In the perspective of a future all-optical communication network optical shift register will play an important role especially for what concerns several binary functions, such as serial to parallel conversion and cyclic operations, that are involved in techniques allowing error detection and correction as parity check, or cyclic redundancy check. During the last decades, several attempts of realizing circulating memories or shift register in the optical domain were made, with some limits in terms of functionality, number of bit to be stored (under three), scalability or photonic integrability. In this paper, we present a new approach to realize a circulating optical shift register consisting on an SOA-based optical buffer (OB) and a bit selecting circuit (BSC). The OB is potentially integrable and is able to store a finite number of bit at high bit rate. The BSC returns consecutive bits at a lower clock rate, achieving proper shift register function. The bit selection is realized by means of four wave mixing (FWM) in a Kerr medium, and the sequence cancellation is allowed to enable new sequence storing. Experimental validation of the scheme for fB=59MHz and fB=236MHz shows optical signal to noise ratio per bit penalty of 5.6dB at BER=10-9.

  13. A Model of Computation for Bit-Level Concurrent Computing and Programming: APEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajiro, Takashi; Tsuchida, Kensei

    A concurrent model of computation and a language based on the model for bit-level operation are useful for developing asynchronous and concurrent programs compositionally, which frequently use bit-level operations. Some examples are programs for video games, hardware emulation (including virtual machines), and signal processing. However, few models and languages are optimized and oriented to bit-level concurrent computation. We previously developed a visual programming language called A-BITS for bit-level concurrent programming. The language is based on a dataflow-like model that computes using processes that provide serial bit-level operations and FIFO buffers connected to them. It can express bit-level computation naturally and develop compositionally. We then devised a concurrent computation model called APEC (Asynchronous Program Elements Connection) for bit-level concurrent computation. This model enables precise and formal expression of the process of computation, and a notion of primitive program elements for controlling and operating can be expressed synthetically. Specifically, the model is based on a notion of uniform primitive processes, called primitives, that have three terminals and four ordered rules at most, as well as on bidirectional communication using vehicles called carriers. A new notion is that a carrier moving between two terminals can briefly express some kinds of computation such as synchronization and bidirectional communication. The model's properties make it most applicable to bit-level computation compositionally, since the uniform computation elements are enough to develop components that have practical functionality. Through future application of the model, our research may enable further research on a base model of fine-grain parallel computer architecture, since the model is suitable for expressing massive concurrency by a network of primitives.

  14. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  15. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment via pre- and post-selected quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Li, Zi-Chen; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ya-Tao

    2014-01-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment is a most important and realizable quantum bit commitment (QBC) protocol. By taking advantage of quantum mechanism, it can achieve higher security than classical bit commitment. In this paper, we propose a QBC schemes based on pre- and post-selected quantum states. The analysis indicates that both of the two participants' cheat strategies will be detected with non-zero probability. And the protocol can be implemented with today's technology as a long-term quantum memory is not needed.

  16. A study of high density bit transition requirements versus the effects on BCH error correcting coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, F.; Schoggen, W. O.

    1981-01-01

    Several methods for increasing bit transition densities in a data stream are summarized, discussed in detail, and compared against constraints imposed by the 2 MHz data link of the space shuttle high rate multiplexer unit. These methods include use of alternate pulse code modulation waveforms, data stream modification by insertion, alternate bit inversion, differential encoding, error encoding, and use of bit scramblers. The psuedo-random cover sequence generator was chosen for application to the 2 MHz data link of the space shuttle high rate multiplexer unit. This method is fully analyzed and a design implementation proposed.

  17. Implementation of 1-bit Image Correlator on the Space Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhao; Jin, Sheng-Zhen; Jiang, Ai-Min

    2007-06-01

    2-D image correlation tracking is a key factor for the Main Optical Telescope on the Space Solar Telescope to reach its 0.1" spatial resolution. In order to realize fast image correlation, 1-bit correlation arithmetic is proposed, and the hardware design of 1-bit correlator based on DSP and FPGA is given. Only 0.33 ms is needed to realize a 32 × 32 image correlation algorithm on XCV800 FPGA chip with 20 MHz clock. The FPGA resource consumption is only 1/9 that of FFT - based (12-bit data) correlator.

  18. Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Comandar, L. C.; Patel, K. A.; Fröhlich, B. Lucamarini, M.; Sharpe, A. W.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.

    2014-01-13

    We report room temperature operation of telecom wavelength single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution (QKD). Room temperature operation is achieved using InGaAs avalanche photodiodes integrated with electronics based on the self-differencing technique that increases avalanche discrimination sensitivity. Despite using room temperature detectors, we demonstrate QKD with record secure bit rates over a range of fiber lengths (e.g., 1.26 Mbit/s over 50 km). Furthermore, our results indicate that operating the detectors at room temperature increases the secure bit rate for short distances.

  19. Titanium carbide modified hardfacing for use on bearing surfaces of earth boring bits

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, E.C.; Barnard, L.H.

    1991-08-13

    This patent describes improvement in a method of manufacturing an earth boring bit of the type having a rotatable cutter secured to a bearing shaft on a head of the bit and at least one friction bearing surface. The improvement comprises; forming a hardfacing composition by combining a particulate titanium carbide with a hard metal alloy, the particulate titanium carbide having a particle size less than about 10 micron; applying the hardfacing composition to the friction bearing surface of a selected one of the bearing shaft and rotatable cut of the earth boring bit.

  20. Bit-parallel arithmetic in a massively-parallel associative processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherson, Isaac D.; Kramer, David A.; Alleyne, Brian D.

    1992-01-01

    A simple but powerful new architecture based on a classical associative processor model is presented. Algorithms for performing the four basic arithmetic operations both for integer and floating point operands are described. For m-bit operands, the proposed architecture makes it possible to execute complex operations in O(m) cycles as opposed to O(m exp 2) for bit-serial machines. A word-parallel, bit-parallel, massively-parallel computing system can be constructed using this architecture with VLSI technology. The operation of this system is demonstrated for the fast Fourier transform and matrix multiplication.