Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive computer assisted

  1. Adaptive Decision Aiding in Computer-Assisted Instruction: Adaptive Computerized Training System (ACTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopf-Weichel, Rosemarie; And Others

    This report describes results of the first year of a three-year program to develop and evaluate a new Adaptive Computerized Training System (ACTS) for electronics maintenance training. (ACTS incorporates an adaptive computer program that learns the student's diagnostic and decision value structure, compares it to that of an expert, and adapts the…

  2. The Effect of Adaptive Confidence Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction on Learning and Learner Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Richard Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of including adaptive confidence strategies in instructionally sound computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on learning and learner confidence. Seventy-one general educational development (GED) learners recruited from various GED learning centers at community colleges in the southeast United…

  3. Promoting Contextual Vocabulary Learning through an Adaptive Computer-Assisted EFL Reading System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Y.-H.

    2016-01-01

    The study developed an adaptive computer-assisted reading system and investigated its effect on promoting English as a foreign language learner-readers' contextual vocabulary learning performance. Seventy Taiwanese college students were assigned to two reading groups. Participants in the customised reading group read online English texts, each of…

  4. Usability of an Adaptive Computer Assistant that Improves Self-care and Health Literacy of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blanson Henkemans, O. A.; Rogers, W. A.; Fisk, A. D.; Neerincx, M. A.; Lindenberg, J.; van der Mast, C. A. P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives We developed an adaptive computer assistant for the supervision of diabetics’ self-care, to support limiting illness and need for acute treatment, and improve health literacy. This assistant monitors self-care activities logged in the patient’s electronic diary. Accordingly, it provides context-aware feedback. The objective was to evaluate whether older adults in general can make use of the computer assistant and to compare an adaptive computer assistant with a fixed one, concerning its usability and contribution to health literacy. Methods We conducted a laboratory experiment in the Georgia Tech Aware Home wherein 28 older adults participated in a usability evaluation of the computer assistant, while engaged in scenarios reflecting normal and health-critical situations. We evaluated the assistant on effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, and educational value. Finally, we studied the moderating effects of the subjects’ personal characteristics. Results Logging self-care tasks and receiving feedback from the computer assistant enhanced the subjects’ knowledge of diabetes. The adaptive assistant was more effective in dealing with normal and health-critical situations, and, generally, it led to more time efficiency. Subjects’ personal characteristics had substantial effects on the effectiveness and efficiency of the two computer assistants. Conclusions Older adults were able to use the adaptive computer assistant. In addition, it had a positive effect on the development of health literacy. The assistant has the potential to support older diabetics’ self care while maintaining quality of life. PMID:18213433

  5. Application of Adaptive Decision Aiding Systems to Computer-Assisted Instruction. Final Report, January-December 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Donald M.; And Others

    The minicomputer-based Computerized Diagnostic and Decision Training (CDDT) system described combines the principles of artificial intelligence, decision theory, and adaptive computer assisted instruction for training in electronic troubleshooting. The system incorporates an adaptive computer program which learns the student's diagnostic and…

  6. Adaptive hybrid brain-computer interaction: ask a trainer for assistance!

    PubMed

    Müller-Putz, Gernot R; Steyrl, David; Faller, Josef

    2014-01-01

    In applying mental imagery brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) to end users, training is a key part for novice users to get control. In general learning situations, it is an established concept that a trainer assists a trainee to improve his/her aptitude in certain skills. In this work, we want to evaluate whether we can apply this concept in the context of event-related desynchronization (ERD) based, adaptive, hybrid BCIs. Hence, in a first session we merged the features of a high aptitude BCI user, a trainer, and a novice user, the trainee, in a closed-loop BCI feedback task and automatically adapted the classifier over time. In a second session the trainees operated the system unassisted. Twelve healthy participants ran through this protocol. Along with the trainer, the trainees achieved a very high overall peak accuracy of 95.3 %. In the second session, where users operated the BCI unassisted, they still achieved a high overall peak accuracy of 83.6%. Ten of twelve first time BCI users successfully achieved significantly better than chance accuracy. Concluding, we can say that this trainer-trainee approach is very promising. Future research should investigate, whether this approach is superior to conventional training approaches. This trainer-trainee concept could have potential for future application of BCIs to end users.

  7. Adaptive Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on various adaptive technology resources available to people with disabilities. (Contains 19 references, an annotated list of 129 websites, and 12 additional print resources.) (JOW)

  8. Comparative Analysis of Classifiers for Developing an Adaptive Computer-Assisted EEG Analysis System for Diagnosing Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jamil, Mohsin; Omer Gillani, Syed; Imran, Muhammad; Khan, Nadeem Ahmed; Majeed, Waqas

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) has a tremendous potential to assist clinicians during the diagnosis of epilepsy. These systems are trained to classify the EEG based on the ground truth provided by the neurologists. So, there should be a mechanism in these systems, using which a system's incorrect markings can be mentioned and the system should improve its classification by learning from them. We have developed a simple mechanism for neurologists to improve classification rate while encountering any false classification. This system is based on taking discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of the signals epochs which are then reduced using principal component analysis, and then they are fed into a classifier. After discussing our approach, we have shown the classification performance of three types of classifiers: support vector machine (SVM), quadratic discriminant analysis, and artificial neural network. We found SVM to be the best working classifier. Our work exhibits the importance and viability of a self-improving and user adapting computer-assisted EEG analysis system for diagnosing epilepsy which processes each channel exclusive to each other, along with the performance comparison of different machine learning techniques in the suggested system. PMID:25834822

  9. Comparative analysis of classifiers for developing an adaptive computer-assisted EEG analysis system for diagnosing epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Malik Anas; Ayaz, Yasar; Jamil, Mohsin; Omer Gillani, Syed; Rasheed, Muhammad Babar; Imran, Muhammad; Khan, Nadeem Ahmed; Majeed, Waqas; Javaid, Nadeem

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted analysis of electroencephalogram (EEG) has a tremendous potential to assist clinicians during the diagnosis of epilepsy. These systems are trained to classify the EEG based on the ground truth provided by the neurologists. So, there should be a mechanism in these systems, using which a system's incorrect markings can be mentioned and the system should improve its classification by learning from them. We have developed a simple mechanism for neurologists to improve classification rate while encountering any false classification. This system is based on taking discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of the signals epochs which are then reduced using principal component analysis, and then they are fed into a classifier. After discussing our approach, we have shown the classification performance of three types of classifiers: support vector machine (SVM), quadratic discriminant analysis, and artificial neural network. We found SVM to be the best working classifier. Our work exhibits the importance and viability of a self-improving and user adapting computer-assisted EEG analysis system for diagnosing epilepsy which processes each channel exclusive to each other, along with the performance comparison of different machine learning techniques in the suggested system.

  10. Issues in Adapting a Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System for Use in Another Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokan, Jan; Fleming, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    An extensive adaptation exercise was undertaken by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) when it was decided to modify the 1998 version of the American "SIGI Plus" (System for Interactive Guidance, plus more) for Australian conditions. Although the same language was involved, there are substantial differences in education systems…

  11. Computer Assisted Bioreview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Walter E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Documentation and complete listing are provided for an Apple computer program designed to assist students in reviewing biology course content. All questions and answers are contained in data statements which are read into two separate question/answer arrays. (JN)

  12. Computer-assisted psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jesse H.; Wright, Andrew S.

    1997-01-01

    The rationale for using computers in psychotherapy includes the possibility that therapeutic software could improve the efficiency of treatment and provide access for greater numbers of patients. Computers have not been able to reliably duplicate the type of dialogue typically used in clinician-administered therapy. However, computers have significant strengths that can be used to advantage in designing treatment programs. Software developed for computer-assisted therapy generally has been well accepted by patients. Outcome studies have usually demonstrated treatment effectiveness for this form of therapy. Future development of computer tools may be influenced by changes in health care financing and rapid growth of new technologies. An integrated care delivery model incorporating the unique attributes of both clinicians and computers should be adopted for computer-assisted therapy. PMID:9292446

  13. Computer Assisted Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Cosío, F.; Padilla Castañeda, M. A.

    2003-09-01

    Computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems can provide different levels of assistance to a surgeon during training and execution of a surgical procedure. This is done through the integration of : measurements taken on medical images; computer graphics techniques; and positioning or tracking mechanisms which accurately locate the surgical instruments inside the operating site. According to the type of assistance that is provided to the surgeon, CAS systems can be classified as: Image guided surgery systems; Assistant robots for surgery; and Training simulators for surgery. In this work are presented the main characteristics of CAS systems. It is also described the development of a computer simulator for training on Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) based on a computer model of the prostate gland which is able to simulate, in real time, deformations and resections of tissue. The model is constructed as a 3D mesh with physical properties such as elasticity. We describe the main characteristics of the prostate model and its performance. The prostate model will also be used in the development of a CAS system designed to assist the surgeon during a real TURP procedure. The system will provide 3D views of the shape of the prostate of the patient, and the position of the surgical instrument during the operation. The development of new computer graphics models which are able to simulate, in real time, the mechanical behavior of an organ during a surgical procedure, can improve significantly the training and execution of other minimally invasive surgical procedures such as laparoscopic gall bladder surgery.

  14. Computer-assisted instruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a project of research and development on strategies for optimizing the instructional process, and dissemination of information about the applications of such research to the instructional medium of computer-assisted instruction. Accomplishments reported include construction of the author language INSTRUCT, construction of a practical CAI course in the area of computer science, and a number of investigations into the individualization of instruction, using the course as a vehicle.

  15. [Computer-assisted implantology].

    PubMed

    Davarpanah, K; Demurashvili, G; Daas, M; Rajzbaum, P; Capelle-Ouadah, N; Szmukler-Moncler, S; Davarpanah, M

    2012-09-01

    We had for aim to present the three applications of computer-assisted implantology: preoperative exploration of the surgery site, guided surgery, and preparation of the temporization prosthesis before surgery. Cases are presented for each indication and their clinical relevance is discussed.

  16. Computer Assisted Instruction for Equilibrium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Gifford L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes two computer assisted tutorials, one on acid ionization constants (Ka), and the other on solubility product constants (Ksp). Discusses framework to be used in writing computer assisted instruction programs. Lists topics covered in the programs. (MVL)

  17. Reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coxe, Robin L. (Inventor); Galica, Gary E. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Described are methods and apparatus, including computer program products, for reconfigurable environmentally adaptive computing technology. An environmental signal representative of an external environmental condition is received. A processing configuration is automatically selected, based on the environmental signal, from a plurality of processing configurations. A reconfigurable processing element is reconfigured to operate according to the selected processing configuration. In some examples, the environmental condition is detected and the environmental signal is generated based on the detected condition.

  18. Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment (aCe) is a software system that includes a language, compiler, and run-time library for parallel computing. aCe was developed to enable programmers to write programs, more easily than was previously possible, for a variety of parallel computing architectures. Heretofore, it has been perceived to be difficult to write parallel programs for parallel computers and more difficult to port the programs to different parallel computing architectures. In contrast, aCe is supportable on all high-performance computing architectures. Currently, it is supported on LINUX clusters. aCe uses parallel programming constructs that facilitate writing of parallel programs. Such constructs were used in single-instruction/multiple-data (SIMD) programming languages of the 1980s, including Parallel Pascal, Parallel Forth, C*, *LISP, and MasPar MPL. In aCe, these constructs are extended and implemented for both SIMD and multiple- instruction/multiple-data (MIMD) architectures. Two new constructs incorporated in aCe are those of (1) scalar and virtual variables and (2) pre-computed paths. The scalar-and-virtual-variables construct increases flexibility in optimizing memory utilization in various architectures. The pre-computed-paths construct enables the compiler to pre-compute part of a communication operation once, rather than computing it every time the communication operation is performed.

  19. Computer-Assisted Learning: Design and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Glyn; Kidd, Marilyn E.

    1980-01-01

    Issues related to design and implementation of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) programs on the university level are discussed. First, three points are noted that affect the way materials are conceived: the type of user and the way of giving choices regarding exercises, the fact that the computer is primarily a medium adapted to the written word,…

  20. Computer Assisted Learning in Numeracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollin, Freda

    Computer-assisted learning in numeracy for adults is far less developed than computer-assisted learning in literacy. Although a great many software programs exist, few are suitable for adults and many offer only drill and practice exercises instead of teaching genuine computer skills. One approach instructors can take is to have their students use…

  1. Computer-Assisted Programmed Instruction in Textiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Rita C.; Laughlin, Joan

    Students in an introductory textiles course at the University of Nebraska's College of Home Economics actively participate in the learning experience through a self-paced instructional technique. Specific learning packets were developed adapting programmed instructional learning materials to computer assisted instruction (CAI). A study booklet…

  2. Computer-assisted Crystallization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semeister, Joseph J., Jr.; Dowden, Edward

    1989-01-01

    To avoid a tedious task for recording temperature, a computer was used for calculating the heat of crystallization for the compound sodium thiosulfate. Described are the computer-interfacing procedures. Provides pictures of laboratory equipment and typical graphs from experiments. (YP)

  3. Computer Assisted Learning Feature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter; Minogue, Claire

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the Computer Working Party in Great Britain, presenting their assessment of current computer hardware and the market for economics software. Examines "Running the British Economy," a macroeconomic policy simulation that investigates the links between values and policy objectives and encourages questioning of economic models.…

  4. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  5. Computer-Assisted Organizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, David James

    2009-01-01

    Organizing refers to methods of distributing physical and symbolic tasks among multiple agents in order to achieve goals. My dissertation investigates the dynamics of organizing in hybrid information processing systems that incorporate both humans and computers. To explain the behavior of these hybrid systems, I develop and partially test a theory…

  6. Implications Of Computer Assisted Radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Heinz U.

    1989-10-01

    Within the field of radiology, assistance with computer and communication systems may be applied to generation, storing, transmission, viewing, analyzing and interpreting of images. As a result, digital image management and communication systems will be applied at various levels in the health care system. Four groups of people are somehow involved or affected by this process. These are, first of all, the patients and the medical personnel, but also the scientific-engineering community and the group of professions involved with financing and/or administering these systems. Each group approaches computer assisted radiology from a particular point of view. The paper outlines some aspects as regards the different perceptions of these groups, which need to be clarified in order to successfully realise computer assisted radiology.

  7. Adaptable Learning Assistant for Item Bank Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuntiyagul, Atorn; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Wongsawang, Damras

    2008-01-01

    We present PKIP, an adaptable learning assistant tool for managing question items in item banks. PKIP is not only able to automatically assist educational users to categorize the question items into predefined categories by their contents but also to correctly retrieve the items by specifying the category and/or the difficulty level. PKIP adapts…

  8. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2014-01-14

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  9. Computer Assisted Virtual Environment - CAVE

    ScienceCinema

    Erickson, Phillip; Podgorney, Robert; Weingartner, Shawn; Whiting, Eric

    2016-07-12

    Research at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies is taking on another dimension with a 3-D device known as a Computer Assisted Virtual Environment. The CAVE uses projection to display high-end computer graphics on three walls and the floor. By wearing 3-D glasses to create depth perception and holding a wand to move and rotate images, users can delve into data.

  10. Two Computer-Assisted Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Two computer-assisted experiments are described: (i) determination of the speed of ultrasound waves in water and (ii) measurement of the thermal expansion of an aluminum-based alloy. A new data-acquisition system developed by PASCO scientific is used. In both experiments, the "Keep" mode of recording data is employed: the data are…

  11. Computer-Assisted Instruction Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entelek, Inc., Newburyport, MA.

    Provided is a compilation of abstracts of currently available computer-assisted instructional (CAI) programs. The guide contains the specifications of all operational CAI programs that have come under the surveillance of ENTELEK's CAI Information Exchange since its establishment in 1965. A total of 226 CAI programs by 160 authors at 38 CAI centers…

  12. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    The computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects described in this index are listed by subject matter. The index gives the program name, author, source, description, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student, average completion time, logic and program, purpose for which program was designed, supplementary…

  13. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    This index contains information on 456 computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects developed by 51 organizations. The information was obtained from correspondence, annual reports, technical reports, and questionnaires which were sent to the producers of the program. The material is organized to list: the name of each program or…

  14. Computer-Assisted Laboratory Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, William J., Hanyak, Michael E.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the advantages and features of computer-assisted laboratory stations for use in a chemical engineering program. Also describes a typical experiment at such a station: determining the response times of a solid state humidity sensor at various humidity conditions and developing an empirical model for the sensor. (JN)

  15. Adaptive Dialogue Systems for Assistive Living Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papangelis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive Dialogue Systems (ADS) are intelligent systems, able to interact with users via multiple modalities, such as speech, gestures, facial expressions and others. Such systems are able to make conversation with their users, usually on a specific, narrow topic. Assistive Living Environments are environments where the users are by definition not…

  16. Precise adaptation in chemotaxis through ``assistance neighborhoods"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, Robert; Wingreen, Ned

    2006-03-01

    The chemotaxis network in Escherichia coli is remarkable for its sensitivity to small relative changes in the concentrations of multiple chemical signals over a broad range of ambient concentrations. Key to this sensitivity is an adaptation system that relies on methylation and demethylation/deamidation of specific modification sites of the chemoreceptors by the enzymes CheR and CheB, respectively. These enzymes can access 5-7 receptors once tethered to a particular receptor. Based on these ``assistance neighborhoods'', we present a model for precise adaptation of mixed clusters of two-state chemoreceptors. In agreement with experiment the response of adapted cells to addition/removal of attractant scales with the free-energy change at fixed ligand affinity. Our model further predicts two possible limits of precise adaptation: either the response to further addition of attractant stops through saturation of the receptors, or receptors fully methylate before they saturate and therefore stop adapting.

  17. Computer-assisted orbital surgery.

    PubMed

    Klimek, L; Wenzel, M; Mösges, R

    1993-06-01

    In orbital surgery, deep lesions must be operated on through extremely small approaches. We developed a method (Computer Assisted Surgery or CAS) designed to achieve safer and more precise surgery by providing highly accurate intraoperative information regarding the location of the surgical instrument. The device involved consists of a high-capacity computer that processes computed tomographic (CT) data in real time, connected to a mechanical measuring arm attached to the surgical instrument. From the CT data, the computer calculates a three-dimensional reconstruction and displays the tip of the instrument as a reticle in this model. Using the CAS system, the surgeon is continuously apprised of the precise position of the surgical instrument vis-a-vis all relevant anatomical structures. We have used CAS successfully in 21 cases of orbital surgery. We have found the system especially useful in dealing with deep-seated tumors, either for biopsy or surgery; in performing orbital and optic nerve decompression; in localizing deep-seated foreign bodies; and in all cases of impaired orientation due to severe bleeding, tumor-destroyed landmarks, or preoperated anatomy. Although the number of patients is too small to yield statistically significant data allowing a comparison of patient outcomes with and without using the system, we have just begun a large prospective clinical trial designed to provide such data. PMID:8336894

  18. Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Introduces the field of intelligent computer assisted language learning (ICALL) and relates them to current practice in computer assisted language learning (CALL) and second language learning. Points out that ICALL applies expertise from artificial intelligence and the computer and cognitive sciences to the development of language learning…

  19. An Adaptive Evaluation Structure for Computer-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, William A.

    Adaptive Evaluation Structure (AES) is a set of linked computer programs designed to increase the effectiveness of interactive computer-assisted instruction at the college level. The package has four major features, the first of which is based on a prior cognitive inventory and on the accuracy and pace of student responses. AES adjusts materials…

  20. Computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing systems: A revolution in restorative dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Arbaz

    2016-01-01

    For the better part of the past 20 years, dentistry has seen the development of many new all-ceramic materials and restorative techniques fueled by the desire to capture the ever elusive esthetic perfection. This has resulted in the fusion of the latest in material science and the pen ultimate in computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. This case report describes the procedure for restoring the esthetic appearance of both the left and right maxillary peg-shaped lateral incisors with a metal-free sintered finely structured feldspar ceramic material using the latest laboratory CAD/CAM system. The use of CAD/CAM technology makes it possible to produce restorations faster with precision- fit and good esthetics overcoming the errors associated with traditional ceramo-metal technology. The incorporation of this treatment modality would mean that the dentist working procedures will have to be adapted in the methods of CAD/CAM technology.

  1. A Computer-Assisted Method of Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parente, Frederick J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted method of counseling was applied to cases of stuttering and hypertension. Although both symptom complexes had previously resisted therapy, results indicated that computer-assisted counseling eliminated the stuttering and reduced diastolic blood pressure to normal levels. (Author)

  2. Sample Computer Assisted Instruction Student Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.; And Others

    To convey to those who have had no experience with computer-assisted instruction an impression of the experience that students have in a CAI course, this report presents in print the sequence of instruction that one student received from one chapter of the course, Computer Assisted Remedial Education (CARE 1): Introduction to the Education of…

  3. Computer-Assisted College Administration. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punga, V.

    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute of Connecticut offered a part-time training program "Computer-Assisted-College-Administration" during the academic year 1969-70. Participants were trained in the utilization of computer-assisted methods in dealing with the common tasks of college administration, the problems of college development and promotion,…

  4. Computer Assisted Instruction at Rhode Island Junior College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubert, Sylvia; Masi, Anthony

    1975-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction is an excellent medium for humanizing the teaching-learning process not only by providing a patient, helpful, readily available source of information that is adaptable to the individual's needs, but also by freeing teachers to enable them to re-personalize the educational process. (Author/NHM)

  5. Computer assisted robotic examination swab sampling (CARESS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Shawn; Witus, Gary; Ellis, Darin

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes progress toward robotic arm system to collect swab samples for trace chemical analysis. Collecting a swab sample requires bringing the swab in contact with the target object, maintaining adequate pressure against the object while dragging the swab tip across the surface, conforming to the surface compliance, curvature and irregularities. It also requires detecting when the swipe motion is blocked, when it has reached the end or edge of the object, and when the normal swipe excursion has been completed. Remote or robotic swab sample collection is complicated by the fact that key physical properties of the target object, e.g., its location, surface contour, compliance, friction, are unknown or, at best, uncertain. We are pursuing a two-fold approach to computer assisted robotic examination swab sampling. We are developing a force-feedback master-slave puppet arm control system in which the operator manipulates and receives force feedback through a scale model of the remote arm. We are also developing adaptive motion behaviors for autonomous swab sample collection, in which the arm feels its way over the surface, adjusting its configuration to conform to the surface contour, while maintaining pressure and keeping the swab tip in the desired orientation with respect to the surface as it drags the swab across the target object. Experiments with the master-slave system will provide data on human operator adaptive motion behaviors, and provide a baseline for evaluation of the automatic system. This paper describes the force-feedback master-slave puppet arm control system, presents example teleoperated swab dynamics data, describes the emerging framework for analysis of adaptive motion behaviors in swab sample collection, and describes our approach to autonomous swab sampling adaptive behavior and control.

  6. Color in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Esther R.

    Color monitors are in wide use in computer systems. Thus, it is important to understand how to apply color effectively in computer assisted instruction (CAI) and computer based training (CBT). Color can enhance learning, but it does not automatically do so. Indiscriminate application of color can mislead a student and thereby even interfere with…

  7. An Adaptive Dynamic Pointing Assistance Program to Help People with Multiple Disabilities Improve Their Computer Pointing Efficiency with Hand Swing through a Standard Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Wu, Hsiao-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest research adopted software technology to redesign the mouse driver, and turned a mouse into a useful pointing assistive device for people with multiple disabilities who cannot easily or possibly use a standard mouse, to improve their pointing performance through a new operation method, Extended Dynamic Pointing Assistive Program (EDPAP),…

  8. Computer Vision Assisted Virtual Reality Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, W.

    1999-01-01

    A computer vision assisted semi-automatic virtual reality (VR) calibration technology has been developed that can accurately match a virtual environment of graphically simulated three-dimensional (3-D) models to the video images of the real task environment.

  9. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Possibilities and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Fortune, Ronald F.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews possibilities of computer-assisted instruction in specialized technical courses, math and science, foreign languages, and basic skills. Reviews problems associated with change and new theories of learning and instruction. Includes reference list. (MD)

  10. Future Prospects for Computer-Assisted Mathematics

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2005-10-26

    The recent rise of ''computer-assisted'' and ''experimental'' mathematics raises intriguing questions as to the future role of computation in mathematics. These results also draw into question the traditional distinctions that have been drawn between formal proof and computationally-assisted proof. This article explores these questions in the context of the growing consensus among computer technologists that Moore's Law is likely to continue unabated for quite some time into the future, producing hardware and software much more powerful than what is available today.

  11. Computer Assisted Teaching of FORTRAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balman, T.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses an interactive programing system (FCN) developed to assist the teaching of FORTRAN. The educational advantages drawn from incremental compilation of FORTRAN programs, specialized subsystems that can be used for intensive training, the intended role of this programing system, and its contribution to the curriculum are described. (CHC)

  12. Computer Assisted Rehabilitation Service Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Rehabilitation Research and Training Center, Dunbar.

    This volume consisting of state of the art reviews, suggestions and guidelines for practitioners, and program descriptions deals with the current and potential applications of computers in the delivery of services for vocational rehabilitation (VR). Discussed first are current applications of computer technology in rehabilitative service delivery.…

  13. Adaptive computing for people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Merrow, S L; Corbett, C D

    1994-01-01

    Adaptive computing is a relatively new area, and little has been written in the nursing literature on the topic. "Adaptive computing" refers to the professional services and the technology (both hardware and software) that make computing technology accessible for persons with disabilities. Nurses in many settings such as schools, industry, rehabilitation facilities, and the community, can use knowledge of adaptive computing as they counsel, advise, and advocate for people with disabilities. Nurses with an awareness and knowledge of adaptive computing will be better able to promote high-level wellness for individuals with disabilities, thus maximizing their potential for an active fulfilling life. People with different types of disabilities, including visual, mobility, hearing, learning, communication disorders and acquired brain injuries may benefit from computer adaptations. Disabled people encounter barriers to computing in six major areas: 1) the environment, 2) data entry, 3) information output, 4) technical documentation, 5) support, and 6) training. After a discussion of these barriers, the criteria for selecting appropriate adaptations and selected examples of adaptations are presented. Several cases studies illustrate the evaluation process and the development of adaptive computer solutions. PMID:8082064

  14. Computer assisted uroflowmetry diagnostic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makal, Jarosław; Idźkowski, Adam; Walendziuk, Wojciech

    2006-10-01

    In this paper an original uroflowmeter (called Adalbertus) has been presented. The device draws the flow chart and measures the parameters of urine flow. It is used in urological surgeries as an assistance in diagnosis of lower urinary track diseases like Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). The measuring track and its main part - weight sensor have been described. Also the way of uncertainty calculation is mentioned. An example flow chart has been shown and the achieved results have been compared with a commercial product.

  15. Competency Reference for Computer Assisted Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Vocational Technical Education.

    This guide, developed in Oregon, lists competencies essential for students in computer-assisted drafting (CAD). Competencies are organized in eight categories: computer hardware, file usage and manipulation, basic drafting techniques, mechanical drafting, specialty disciplines, three dimensional drawing/design, plotting/printing, and advanced CAD.…

  16. Computer-Assisted Discovery and Proof

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2007-12-10

    With the advent of powerful, widely-available mathematical software, combined with ever-faster computer hardware, we are approaching a day when both the discovery and proof of mathematical facts can be done in a computer-assisted manner. his article presents several specific examples of this new paradigm in action.

  17. Computer-Assisted Instruction. Special Double Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Glyn, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This booklet presents evidence to support the idea that distinctions between the instructional and research applications of the computer are becoming blurred. The issue includes contributions from authors who are at the forefront of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) development in their respective fields. An attempt is made to represent most…

  18. Prospects in Computer Assisted Language Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Joan; Chapelle, Carol

    Some prospects for development of computer-assisted language instruction in six language skill areas (grammar, communication, reading, listening, speaking, and writing) are presented. In grammar instruction, a current challenge is to improve judging of student answers, and "intelligent" computer programs that try to identify the student's…

  19. Computer-assisted cartography: an overview.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guptill, S.C.; Starr, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    An assessment of the current status of computer-assisted cartography, in part, is biased by one's view of the cartographic process as a whole. From a traditional viewpoint we are concerned about automating the mapping process; from a progressive viewpoint we are concerned about using the tools of computer science to convey spatial information. On the surface these viewpoints appear to be in opposition. However, it is postulated that in the final analysis, they face the same goal. This overview uses the perspectives from two viewpoints to depict the current state of computer-assisted cartography and speculate on future goals, trends, and challenges.-Authors

  20. Computer Assisted Introduction to Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha R.

    These six chapters provide an introduction to Newtonian mechanics, based on a coordinated use of text material, laboratory work, and the computer. The material is essentially self-contained so that it can serve as a short text on mechanics or as a text supplement in a regular physics course. Chapter 1 is a brief introduction to the computer…

  1. Computer assisted orthopaedic surgery. Image guided and robotic assistive technologies.

    PubMed

    DiGioia, A M; Jaramaz, B; Colgan, B D

    1998-09-01

    Technologies are emerging that will influence the way in which orthopaedic surgery is planned, simulated, and performed. Recent advances in the fields of medical imaging, computer vision, and robotics have provided the enabling technologies to permit computer aided surgery to become an established area which can address clinical needs. Although these technologies have been applied in industry for more than 20 years, the field of computer assisted orthopaedic surgery is still in its infancy. Image guided and surgical navigation systems, robotic assistive devices, and surgical simulators have begun to emerge from the laboratory and hold the potential to improve current surgical practice and patients' outcomes. The goals of these new clinically focused technologies are to develop interactive, patient specific preoperative planners to optimize the performance of surgery and the postoperative biologic response, and develop more precise and less invasive interactive smart tools and sensors to assist in the accurate and precise performance of surgery. The medical community is beginning to see the benefit of these enabling technologies which can be realized only through the collaboration and combined expertise of engineers, roboticists, computer scientists, and surgeons.

  2. QPSO-based adaptive DNA computing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Karakose, Mehmet; Cigdem, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) computing that is a new computation model based on DNA molecules for information storage has been increasingly used for optimization and data analysis in recent years. However, DNA computing algorithm has some limitations in terms of convergence speed, adaptability, and effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach for improvement of DNA computing is proposed. This new approach aims to perform DNA computing algorithm with adaptive parameters towards the desired goal using quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO). Some contributions provided by the proposed QPSO based on adaptive DNA computing algorithm are as follows: (1) parameters of population size, crossover rate, maximum number of operations, enzyme and virus mutation rate, and fitness function of DNA computing algorithm are simultaneously tuned for adaptive process, (2) adaptive algorithm is performed using QPSO algorithm for goal-driven progress, faster operation, and flexibility in data, and (3) numerical realization of DNA computing algorithm with proposed approach is implemented in system identification. Two experiments with different systems were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach with comparative results. Experimental results obtained with Matlab and FPGA demonstrate ability to provide effective optimization, considerable convergence speed, and high accuracy according to DNA computing algorithm.

  3. Adopting and Adapting Computer-Assisted Learning Strategies: A Practitioner Brief. Right from the Start: An Institutional Perspective on Developmental Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Leslie; Parcell, Abby

    2014-01-01

    Three community colleges--El Paso Community College, Bunker Hill Community College, and Patrick Henry Community College--incorporated technology into the curriculum to support student progress in mathematics through developmental education. Each college took its own path: El Paso developed a self-accelerated emporium-style computer lab, Patrick…

  4. Giraffe, a Computer Assisted Instruction Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekhorst, Albert K.; Groot, Tineke

    In 1989 a two year collaborative project, CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) & Humanities, was initiated between the Faculty of Arts and IBM Netherlands during which General Information Retrieval All Faculties For Bibliographic Education (GIRAFFE), a program for the retrieval of information on general bibliographies, was developed. The program,…

  5. Computer Assisted Instruction in English Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Lester S.

    The changes expected to take place in the professional education of English teachers are discussed. Within the next decade, computer-assisted instructional English teacher education programs will be available in the following areas: (1) eliciting textual response to literature, (2) grammar, usage, and spelling, (3) composition skills to…

  6. Evaluating Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumboltz, John D.

    1990-01-01

    Finds the Sampson et al. guidelines for computer-assisted career guidance systems (CE 521 972) comprehensive and self-explanatory, but states that user judgment is still required. Suggests revision of existing standards to take into account the feature-cost analysis method. (SK)

  7. Computer Assistance for Writing Interactive Programs: TICS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplow, Roy; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Investigators developed an on-line, interactive programing system--the Teacher-Interactive Computer System (TICS)--to provide assistance to those who were not programers, but nevertheless wished to write interactive instructional programs. TICS had two components: an author system and a delivery system. Underlying assumptions were that…

  8. Introduction: Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailin, Alan; Levin, Lori

    1989-01-01

    Presents an overview of intelligent computer-assisted language instruction (ICALI) research as a type of artificial intelligence research. Outlines the components and kinds of ICALI systems. Examines practical research considerations such as personnel needs for development of ICALI software. (Author/LS)

  9. Computer-Assisted Language Learning Authoring Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Sue E. K.; Pusack, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) authoring refers to a wide variety of creative development activities using software tools that run the gamut from simple templates (easy-to-use predefined forms into which content is typed) to complex authoring environments (flexible but harder-to-use systems, requiring advanced skills and a great deal…

  10. Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William F.; Forristall, Dorothy Z.

    The Computer-Assisted Study Skills Improvement Program (CASSIP) is designed to help students develop effective study skills and academic attitudes, thus increasing their potential for scholastic success. The program contains four integrated items: Study Skills Surveys; Study Skills Modules, Study Skills Notebook; and Study Skills Test. The surveys…

  11. Computer-Assisted Instruction at Stanford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    Programs for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) which were developed at Stanford University from 1963-70 are described, and prospects for CAI in the 1970's are considered briefly. The programs include ones in arithmetic, logic, and reading for elementary grades and in basic Russian and remedial algebra for college students. Of these, the logic…

  12. A Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmel, M. I.

    This series of working papers represents early stages in the development of a versatile and economical Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS) for special educators, a system capable of providing immediate visual feedback of data relevant to teacher-pupil interaction in a classroom setting. Part 1 discusses the problem of existing…

  13. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Programming: AID.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Jamesine; Atkinson, R. C.

    A computer-assisted course on programing, consisting of a set of 50 lessons, was developed for and is now being used by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) personnel. The course is intended for students at about the junior college level with no experience in mathematics beyond high school algebra and with no previous introduction…

  14. Adaptation to walking with an exoskeleton that assists ankle extension.

    PubMed

    Galle, S; Malcolm, P; Derave, W; De Clercq, D

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate adaptation to walking with bilateral ankle-foot exoskeletons with kinematic control that assisted ankle extension during push-off. We hypothesized that subjects would show a neuromotor and metabolic adaptation during a 24min walking trial with a powered exoskeleton. Nine female subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.36±0.04ms(-1) during 24min with a powered exoskeleton and 4min with an unpowered exoskeleton. Subjects showed a metabolic adaptation after 18.5±5.0min, followed by an adapted period. Metabolic cost, electromyography and kinematics were compared between the unpowered condition, the beginning of the adaptation and the adapted period. In the beginning of the adaptation (4min), a reduction in metabolic cost of 9% was found compared to the unpowered condition. This reduction was accompanied by reduced muscular activity in the plantarflexor muscles, as the powered exoskeleton delivered part of the necessary ankle extension moment. During the adaptation this metabolic reduction further increased to 16%, notwithstanding a constant exoskeleton assistance. This increased reduction is the result of a neuromotor adaptation in which subjects adapt to walking with the exoskeleton, thereby reducing muscular activity in all leg muscles. Because of the fast adaptation and the significant reductions in metabolic cost we want to highlight the potential of an ankle-foot exoskeleton with kinematic control that assists ankle extension during push-off. PMID:23465319

  15. Adaptation to walking with an exoskeleton that assists ankle extension.

    PubMed

    Galle, S; Malcolm, P; Derave, W; De Clercq, D

    2013-07-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate adaptation to walking with bilateral ankle-foot exoskeletons with kinematic control that assisted ankle extension during push-off. We hypothesized that subjects would show a neuromotor and metabolic adaptation during a 24min walking trial with a powered exoskeleton. Nine female subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.36±0.04ms(-1) during 24min with a powered exoskeleton and 4min with an unpowered exoskeleton. Subjects showed a metabolic adaptation after 18.5±5.0min, followed by an adapted period. Metabolic cost, electromyography and kinematics were compared between the unpowered condition, the beginning of the adaptation and the adapted period. In the beginning of the adaptation (4min), a reduction in metabolic cost of 9% was found compared to the unpowered condition. This reduction was accompanied by reduced muscular activity in the plantarflexor muscles, as the powered exoskeleton delivered part of the necessary ankle extension moment. During the adaptation this metabolic reduction further increased to 16%, notwithstanding a constant exoskeleton assistance. This increased reduction is the result of a neuromotor adaptation in which subjects adapt to walking with the exoskeleton, thereby reducing muscular activity in all leg muscles. Because of the fast adaptation and the significant reductions in metabolic cost we want to highlight the potential of an ankle-foot exoskeleton with kinematic control that assists ankle extension during push-off.

  16. Robotics and computer-assisted orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Specht, L M; Koval, K J

    These are just a few representative applications of the synergistic use of computer and robotic technology assisting the orthopaedic surgeon. While the individual systems are certain to change over time, the basic principles of correlating radiographic and anatomic data through a registration process, and displaying additional instrument or implant information through smart tools and surgical navigation are certain to become an increasingly important aspect of joint arthroplasty, deformity correction, and spinal and trauma surgery. Only the orthopaedic surgeon who clearly understands the goals, applications, and limitations of these systems can decide which are appropriate for his patients, his hospital, and his practice. Determining the cost and time benefits, both before and after an obligatory "learning curve" requires a complex interaction of capital investments, time savings, and outcome research on both safety and efficacy issues. The orthopaedist who understands and applies these technologies will help his patients to achieve the best possible care. Excellent resources in the literature on this topic include the September, 1998, issue of Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, a symposium on "Computer-Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery: Medical Robots and Image Guided Surgery"; Guest editor, Anthony M. DiGioia, III, MD. Also, the January, 2000, issue of Operative Techniques in Orthopaedics, "Medical Robotics and Computer-Assisted Orthopaedic Surgery. Guest editors: Anthony M. DiGioia, III, M.D. and Branislav Jaramaz, Ph.D. Additional Internet based information is available from the Journal of Computer Aided Surgery (formerly: Journal of Image Guided Surgery), at http://journals.wiley.com/.

  17. Computer-Assisted Surgery Using Telemanipulators

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of computer-assisted surgery with telemanipulators. The Technology The technology for computer-assisted surgery with telemanipulators is a robotic arm that carries an endoscope while two other manipulator arms carry interchangeable tools, such as scissors and grippers. In a master-slave telemanipulator system, the master may consist of a joystick input system, or for surgery, may mimic the motion of the slave robot, such as the da Vinci and ZEUS surgical systems. These systems are capable of telerobotic surgery, or surgery from remote locations. Review Strategy The Cochrane and INAHTA databases yielded 4 health technology assessments or systematic reviews on computer-assisted surgery using telemanipulators. A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE January 1, 2001 to November 24, 2003 was conducted. This search produced 448 studies, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. Summary of Findings Published health technology assessments indicate that there are limited data from studies, although there is initial evidence of the safety and efficacy of telemanipulators in some procedures when they are used at large academic centres for surgery on selected patients. Most studies are Level 3 and 4 observational studies and assess a wide variety of surgical procedures. Limited studies indicate the promise of telemanipulators, but their efficacy is not fully established. In some procedures, the advantages that telemanipulators may offer may also be achieved by non-robotic minimally invasive/laparoscopic techniques. To date, cost-effectiveness has not been demonstrated. Patients who have undergone robotic surgery must be followed to further define outcomes (e.g., long-term quality of the graft after coronary arterial bypass graft [CABG] surgery). The exact role of computer-assisted surgery with telemanipulators has not been fully defined

  18. Computer assisted biopsy of breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Arambula Cosio, Fernando; Lira Berra, Eric; Hevia Montiel, Nidiyare; Garcia Segundo, Cresencio; Garduno, Edgar; Alvarado Gonzalez, Montserrat; Quispe Siccha, Rosa Ma; Reyes Ramirez, Bartolome; Hazan Lasri, Eric

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report our preliminary results of the development of a computer assisted system for breast biopsy. The system is based on tracked ultrasound images of the breast. A three dimensional ultrasound volume is constructed from a set of tracked B-scan images acquired with a calibrated probe. The system has been designed to assist a radiologist during breast biopsy, and also as a training system for radiology residents. A semiautomatic classification algorithm was implemented to assist the user with the annotation of the tumor on an ultrasound volume. We report the development of the system prototype, tested on a physical phantom of a breast with a tumor, made of polivinil alcohol. PMID:21097108

  19. Adaptive multiclass classification for brain computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Llera, A; Gómez, V; Kappen, H J

    2014-06-01

    We consider the problem of multiclass adaptive classification for brain-computer interfaces and propose the use of multiclass pooled mean linear discriminant analysis (MPMLDA), a multiclass generalization of the adaptation rule introduced by Vidaurre, Kawanabe, von Bünau, Blankertz, and Müller (2010) for the binary class setting. Using publicly available EEG data sets and tangent space mapping (Barachant, Bonnet, Congedo, & Jutten, 2012) as a feature extractor, we demonstrate that MPMLDA can significantly outperform state-of-the-art multiclass static and adaptive methods. Furthermore, efficient learning rates can be achieved using data from different subjects.

  20. Computer assisted surgery for total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nizard, R

    2002-06-01

    The author has attempted to assess the value of computer-assisted surgery in arthroplasty of the knee. Basic requisites in TKR include adequate alignment and ligament balance. These requisites have become easier to meet as ancillary instrumentations have improved over time. Numerical tools are now available; they are sometimes presented as an essential technical step. The author reviews the various available options, with their advantages and disadvantages. Satisfactory alignment in the three planes classically relies on anatomic landmarks, the reliability of which is limited, and on ligament tension. Targeting systems, intra- or extramedullary, all have a margin of error. Computer-assisted surgery aims at increasing the precision of implant positioning and achieving optimal ligament balance. Among the systems currently available, a distinction must be made between active and passive systems. The former correspond to the "surgical robots", which are capable of performing the various parts of the operation following adequate preparation, at least regarding the bone cuts. Passive systems remain under control from the surgeon and assist him in positioning the cutting jigs. Among localization systems, a distinction must be made between optical and magnetic systems. Certain systems require preoperative imaging--usually CT scan--in order to first reconstruct a 3-D model of the knee. This step is time-consuming, but this will likely improve in the future. Image matching requires the use of a software, with specific landmarks defined preoperatively by the surgeon. Such systems may be used in cases with major deformities; their main drawback is the need for preoperative imaging. Other systems do not require preoperative imaging: a few points are identified by kinematic analysis of the hip, knee and ankle; they are used for 2-D or 3-D reconstruction. Computer-assisted systems may improve the precision in defining anatomic landmarks and achieving accurate location and

  1. Computer-assisted percutaneous scaphoid fixation: concepts and evolution.

    PubMed

    Smith, Erin J; Ellis, Randy E; Pichora, David R

    2013-11-01

    Background The treatment for undisplaced scaphoid waist fractures has evolved from conventional cast immobilization to percutaneous screw insertion. Percutaneous fixation reduces some of the risks of open surgery, but can be technically demanding and carries the risk of radiation exposure. Recently, computer-assisted percutaneous scaphoid fixation (CAPSF) has been gaining interest. Materials and Methods Conventional percutaneous scaphoid fixation is performed under fluoroscopic guidance and involves insertion of a guide wire along the length of the scaphoid to facilitate placement of a cannulated screw. Adapting computer-assisted techniques for scaphoid fixation poses several unique challenges including patient tracking and registration. Results To date, five groups have successfully implemented systems for CAPSF. These systems have implemented wrist immobilization strategies to resolve the issue of patient tracking and have developed unique guidance techniques incorporating 2D fluoroscope, cone-beam CT, and ultrasound, to circumvent patient-based registration. Conclusions Computer-aided percutaneous pinning of scaphoid waist fractures can significantly reduce radiation exposure and has the potential to improve the accuracy of this procedure. This article reviews the rationale for, and the evolution of, CAPSF and describes the key principles of computer-assisted technology.

  2. Computer Assisted Language Learning. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid to the presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including a substantial interactive element. This books provides an up-to date and comprehensive overview of…

  3. Reference Device-Assisted Adaptive Location Fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongjin; Xia, Linyuan

    2016-01-01

    Location fingerprinting suffers in dynamic environments and needs recalibration from time to time to maintain system performance. This paper proposes an adaptive approach for location fingerprinting. Based on real-time received signal strength indicator (RSSI) samples measured by a group of reference devices, the approach applies a modified Universal Kriging (UK) interpolant to estimate adaptive temporal and environmental radio maps. The modified UK can take the spatial distribution characteristics of RSSI into account. In addition, the issue of device heterogeneity caused by multiple reference devices is further addressed. To compensate the measuring differences of heterogeneous reference devices, differential RSSI metric is employed. Extensive experiments were conducted in an indoor field and the results demonstrate that the proposed approach not only adapts to dynamic environments and the situation of changing APs’ positions, but it is also robust toward measuring differences of heterogeneous reference devices. PMID:27258284

  4. Computer-Assisted Exposure Treatment for Flight Phobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortella-Feliu, Miguel; Bornas, Xavier; Llabres, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    This review introduces the state of the art in computer-assisted treatment for behavioural disorders. The core of the paper is devoted to describe one of these interventions providing computer-assisted exposure for flight phobia treatment, the Computer-Assisted Fear of Flying Treatment (CAFFT). The rationale, contents and structure of the CAFFT…

  5. Evaluation Parameters for Computer-Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiadou, Elisabeth; Triantafillou, Evangelos; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2006-01-01

    With the proliferation of computers in test delivery today, adaptive testing has become quite popular, especially when examinees must be classified into two categories (passfail, master nonmaster). Several well-established organisations have provided standards and guidelines for the design and evaluation of educational and psychological testing.…

  6. Parallel computations and control of adaptive structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, K. C.; Alvin, Kenneth F.; Belvin, W. Keith; Chong, K. P. (Editor); Liu, S. C. (Editor); Li, J. C. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The equations of motion for structures with adaptive elements for vibration control are presented for parallel computations to be used as a software package for real-time control of flexible space structures. A brief introduction of the state-of-the-art parallel computational capability is also presented. Time marching strategies are developed for an effective use of massive parallel mapping, partitioning, and the necessary arithmetic operations. An example is offered for the simulation of control-structure interaction on a parallel computer and the impact of the approach presented for applications in other disciplines than aerospace industry is assessed.

  7. Authoring options for computer assisted nursing instruction.

    PubMed

    Gerheim, S M

    1990-01-01

    Nurse educators who want to control the content of computer assisted instructional courseware may want to write their own programs. Traditional programming languages, authoring systems, and authoring languages are the three principal approaches to coding courseware, and each approach has advantages and disadvantages. The use of an authoring language or an authoring system may be the easiest courseware development method for the nurse educator who is unfamiliar with programming techniques. Whatever approach is chosen, it is important that the approach support the instructional strategy of the lesson. PMID:2405963

  8. [Computer assisted neuropsychological testing of children].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, U; Dahl, R; White, R F; Grandjean, P

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility of a computer-assisted neuro-psychological test program, the Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES), in six to seven year-old children. We administered three NES tests, Finger Tapping (FT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Hand-Eye Coordination (HEC) to Faroese and Danish children. The FT and CPT were of appropriate difficulty, while the HE was too difficult for the majority of the children. Boys obtained better scores than the girls, and children who were familiar with computers and video games performed better than those without such experience. Older children also obtained better scores than younger ones, especially in the Faroese group. The Danish children performed better than the Faroese in FT and CPT. In HE there was no difference. The NES tests are feasible for children at this age, but appropriate comparison groups must be secured. PMID:9641043

  9. [The foundations of computer assisted surgery].

    PubMed

    Langlotz, F; Nolte, L-P; Tannast, M

    2006-10-01

    Using navigation systems in general orthopaedic surgery and, in particular, knee replacement is becoming more and more accepted. This paper describes the basic technological concepts of modern computer assisted surgical systems. It explains the variation in currently available systems and outlines research activities that will potentially influence future products. In general, each navigation system is defined by three components: (1) the therapeutic object is the anatomical structure that is operated on using the navigation system, (2) the virtual object represents an image of the therapeutic object, with radiological images or computer generated models potentially being used, and (3) last but not least, the navigator acquires the spatial position and orientation of instruments and anatomy thus providing the necessary data to replay surgical action in real-time on the navigation system's screen. PMID:16924446

  10. Adaptive computation algorithm for RBF neural network.

    PubMed

    Han, Hong-Gui; Qiao, Jun-Fei

    2012-02-01

    A novel learning algorithm is proposed for nonlinear modelling and identification using radial basis function neural networks. The proposed method simplifies neural network training through the use of an adaptive computation algorithm (ACA). In addition, the convergence of the ACA is analyzed by the Lyapunov criterion. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages. First, the model performance can be significantly improved through ACA, and the modelling error is uniformly ultimately bounded. Secondly, the proposed ACA can reduce computational cost and accelerate the training speed. The proposed method is then employed to model classical nonlinear system with limit cycle and to identify nonlinear dynamic system, exhibiting the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Computational complexity analysis and simulation results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  11. An Expert Assistant for Computer Aided Parallelization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Chun, Robert; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit

    2004-01-01

    The prototype implementation of an expert system was developed to assist the user in the computer aided parallelization process. The system interfaces to tools for automatic parallelization and performance analysis. By fusing static program structure information and dynamic performance analysis data the expert system can help the user to filter, correlate, and interpret the data gathered by the existing tools. Sections of the code that show poor performance and require further attention are rapidly identified and suggestions for improvements are presented to the user. In this paper we describe the components of the expert system and discuss its interface to the existing tools. We present a case study to demonstrate the successful use in full scale scientific applications.

  12. Computer-Assisted Photo Interpretation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzwiadek, Harry A.

    1981-11-01

    A computer-assisted photo interpretation research (CAPIR) system has been developed at the U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories (ETL), Fort Belvoir, Virginia. The system is based around the APPS-IV analytical plotter, a photogrammetric restitution device that was designed and developed by Autometric specifically for interactive, computerized data collection activities involving high-resolution, stereo aerial photographs. The APPS-IV is ideally suited for feature analysis and feature extraction, the primary functions of a photo interpreter. The APPS-IV is interfaced with a minicomputer and a geographic information system called AUTOGIS. The AUTOGIS software provides the tools required to collect or update digital data using an APPS-IV, construct and maintain a geographic data base, and analyze or display the contents of the data base. Although the CAPIR system is fully functional at this time, considerable enhancements are planned for the future.

  13. Precise Adaptation in Bacterial Chemotaxis through ``Assistance Neighborhoods''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endres, Robert

    2007-03-01

    The chemotaxis network in Escherichia coli is remarkable for its sensitivity to small relative changes in the concentrations of multiple chemical signals over a broad range of ambient concentrations. Key to this sensitivity is an adaptation system that relies on methylation and demethylation (or deamidation) of specific modification sites of the chemoreceptors by the enzymes CheR and CheB, respectively. It was recently discovered that these enzymes can access five to seven receptors when tethered to a particular receptor. We show that these ``assistance neighborhoods'' (ANs) are necessary for precise and robust adaptation in a model for signaling by clusters of chemoreceptors: (1) ANs suppress fluctuations of the receptor methylation level; (2) ANs lead to robustness with respect to biochemical parameters. We predict two limits of precise adaptation at large attractant concentrations: either receptors reach full methylation and turn off, or receptors become saturated and cease to respond to attractant but retain their adapted activity.

  14. Adaptable Computing Environment/Self-Assembling Software

    SciTech Connect

    Osbourn, Gordon C.; Bouchard, Ann M.; Bartholomew, John W.

    2007-09-25

    Complex software applications are difficult to learn to use and to remember how to use. Further, the user has no control over the functionality available in a given application. The software we use can be created and modified only by a relatively small group of elite, highly skilled artisans known as programmers. "Normal users" are powerless to create and modify software themselves, because the tools for software development, designed by and for programmers, are a barrier to entry. This software, when completed, will be a user-adaptable computing environment in which the user is really in control of his/her own software, able to adapt the system, make new parts of the system interactive, and even modify the behavior of the system itself. Som key features of the basic environment that have been implemented are (a) books in bookcases, where all data is stored, (b) context-sensitive compass menus (compass, because the buttons are located in compass directions relative to the mouose cursor position), (c) importing tabular data and displaying it in a book, (d) light-weight table querying/sorting, (e) a Reach&Get capability (sort of a "smart" copy/paste that prevents the user from copying invalid data), and (f) a LogBook that automatically logs all user actions that change data or the system itself. To bootstrap toward full end-user adaptability, we implemented a set of development tools. With the development tools, compass menus can be made and customized.

  15. [Computer-assisted 3D phonetography].

    PubMed

    Neuschaefer-Rube, C; Klajman, S

    1996-10-01

    Profiles of fundamental frequency sound pressure levels and voice duration are measured separately in clinical practice. It was the aim of the present study to combine the two examinations, in order to estimate the relationship between pitch, sound pressure level and voice duration and to develop a new computer-assisted graph. A three-dimensional (3D) wireframe phonogram was constructed based on SPL profiles to obtain a general view of the parameters recorded. We have termed this "phonetography". Variable further projections were selected for the analysis of different aspects of parametric relationships. The results in 21 healthy volunteers and 4 patients with hyperfunctional dysphonias demonstrated that there were three typical figures of the 3D phonograms produced, depending on the relationship between voice duration when soft ("piano") compared to loud ("forte"). In one-third of the healthy volunteers, the values of the piano voice duration were greater than those of forte for almost all pitches examined. In two-thirds of the healthy subjects the values of forte voice duration were partly greater, as were those of piano voice duration. All of the patients showed voice duration values greater for forte than for piano. The results of the study demonstrate that the 3D phonogram is a useful tool for obtaining new insights into various relationships of voice parameters.

  16. Computer-assisted surgery in orthopedic oncology

    PubMed Central

    Gerbers, Jasper G; Stevens, Martin; Ploegmakers, Joris JW; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Jutte, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose — In orthopedic oncology, computer-assisted surgery (CAS) can be considered an alternative to fluoroscopy and direct measurement for orientation, planning, and margin control. However, only small case series reporting specific applications have been published. We therefore describe possible applications of CAS and report preliminary results in 130 procedures. Patients and methods — We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all oncological CAS procedures in a single institution from November 2006 to March 2013. Mean follow-up time was 32 months. We categorized and analyzed 130 procedures for clinical parameters. The categories were image-based intralesional treatment, image-based resection, image-based resection and reconstruction, and imageless resection and reconstruction. Results — Application to intralesional treatment showed 1 inadequate curettage and 1 (other) recurrence in 63 cases. Image-based resections in 42 cases showed 40 R0 margins; 16 in 17 pelvic resections. Image-based reconstruction facilitated graft creation with a mean reconstruction accuracy of 0.9 mm in one case. Imageless CAS was helpful in resection planning and length- and joint line reconstruction for tumor prostheses. Interpretation — CAS is a promising new development. Preliminary results show a high number of R0 resections and low short-term recurrence rates for curettage. PMID:25140984

  17. Computer vision for driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handmann, Uwe; Kalinke, Thomas; Tzomakas, Christos; Werner, Martin; von Seelen, Werner

    1998-07-01

    Systems for automated image analysis are useful for a variety of tasks and their importance is still increasing due to technological advances and an increase of social acceptance. Especially in the field of driver assistance systems the progress in science has reached a level of high performance. Fully or partly autonomously guided vehicles, particularly for road-based traffic, pose high demands on the development of reliable algorithms due to the conditions imposed by natural environments. At the Institut fur Neuroinformatik, methods for analyzing driving relevant scenes by computer vision are developed in cooperation with several partners from the automobile industry. We introduce a system which extracts the important information from an image taken by a CCD camera installed at the rear view mirror in a car. The approach consists of a sequential and a parallel sensor and information processing. Three main tasks namely the initial segmentation (object detection), the object tracking and the object classification are realized by integration in the sequential branch and by fusion in the parallel branch. The main gain of this approach is given by the integrative coupling of different algorithms providing partly redundant information.

  18. Computer-Assisted Behavioral Health Counseling for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Kent E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared computer-assisted behavioral health counseling intervention for high school students (N=45) with a health tip educational intervention (N=17) and an assessment only group (N=15). Found significant dietary improvement among computer-assisted counseling group and lesser improvement among two control groups. (Author/CM)

  19. CARLOS: Computer-Assisted Instruction in Spanish at Dartmouth College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ronald C.

    The computer-assisted instruction project in review Spanish, Computer-Assisted Review Lessons on Syntax (CARLOS), initiated at Dartmouth College in 1967-68, is described here. Tables are provided showing the results of the experiment on the basis of aptitude and achievement tests, and the procedure for implementing CARLOS as well as its place in…

  20. Proactive Guidance in Computer-Assisted Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    A discussion of computer-assisted language learning focuses on management of individual learning processes. As distinct from a reference package, a computer-assisted teaching program has to assure that the student acquires and retains the complete information in the most efficient way, provide accurate and useful material, and pique the student's…

  1. Program in Computer-Assisted Instruction. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Richard C.; Suppes, Patrick

    Applications of basic elements in a theory of individualized instruction to computer-assisted programs in mathematics, reading, and spelling are described and recent results obtained in an existing elementary school facility are reported. To optimize learning in computer-assisted instruction (CAI) a program model is provided in which content,…

  2. Computer Assisted Psychomotor Training in a Specialized Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Computer assisted psychomotor training is recognized as an appropriate tool in motor skill acquisition in adults with and without physical limitations. In specialized populations of individuals with physical deficits such as Parkinson's disease, previous researchers have examined the application of computer assisted training during upper extremity…

  3. Applications and Problems of Computer Assisted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usun, Salih

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey; reviews of the related literature; examines the projects, applications and problems on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey compares with the World; exposes the positive and negative aspects of the projects; a number of the suggestion presents on the effective use of…

  4. Computer-assisted trauma care prototype.

    PubMed

    Holzman, T G; Griffith, A; Hunter, W G; Allen, T; Simpson, R J

    1995-01-01

    accurately used in urban, rural, and military field settings. his demonstration will focus on the user interfaces for the hand-held computer device included in TCIMS, the Field Medic Associate (FMA). The FMA prototype is a ruggedized, water-resistant personal computer, weighing approximately 5 lbs. It has an LCD graphical user interface display for patient record input and output, pen-based and audio input, audio output, and wireless communications capabilities. Automatic recording and dynamic, graphical display of time-stamped trends in patient vital signs will be simulated during the demonstration. Means for accessing existing patient record information (e.g., allergies to particular medications) and updating the record with the nature of the injury, its cause, and the treatments that were administered will be shown. These will include use of an electronic pen to mark up anatoglyphs (standard drawings of human body appearing on computer screen) to show where injuries occurred and where treatments were applied, and to input textual descriptions of the nature of the injury, its cause, what treatments were administered, etc. Computer recognition of handwritten inputs will be shown. Likewise, voice annotation and audio playback of patient record information by medics and hospital personnel will be illustrated. These latter technologies free the care providers' hands to treat the patient; they can therefore provide inputs to the patient record while information is fresh in their minds. The audio playback option allows hospital personnel to select more detailed voice annotations of specific portions of the patient record by simply touching the electronic pen to a particular place where an electronic pen marking was made by a medic in the field and then listening to the medic's corresponding audio commentary. Finally, the FMA's means for assisting the medic in simultaneously managing several injured patients will be shown. (abstract truncated) PMID:8591545

  5. Computer-assisted trauma care prototype.

    PubMed

    Holzman, T G; Griffith, A; Hunter, W G; Allen, T; Simpson, R J

    1995-01-01

    accurately used in urban, rural, and military field settings. his demonstration will focus on the user interfaces for the hand-held computer device included in TCIMS, the Field Medic Associate (FMA). The FMA prototype is a ruggedized, water-resistant personal computer, weighing approximately 5 lbs. It has an LCD graphical user interface display for patient record input and output, pen-based and audio input, audio output, and wireless communications capabilities. Automatic recording and dynamic, graphical display of time-stamped trends in patient vital signs will be simulated during the demonstration. Means for accessing existing patient record information (e.g., allergies to particular medications) and updating the record with the nature of the injury, its cause, and the treatments that were administered will be shown. These will include use of an electronic pen to mark up anatoglyphs (standard drawings of human body appearing on computer screen) to show where injuries occurred and where treatments were applied, and to input textual descriptions of the nature of the injury, its cause, what treatments were administered, etc. Computer recognition of handwritten inputs will be shown. Likewise, voice annotation and audio playback of patient record information by medics and hospital personnel will be illustrated. These latter technologies free the care providers' hands to treat the patient; they can therefore provide inputs to the patient record while information is fresh in their minds. The audio playback option allows hospital personnel to select more detailed voice annotations of specific portions of the patient record by simply touching the electronic pen to a particular place where an electronic pen marking was made by a medic in the field and then listening to the medic's corresponding audio commentary. Finally, the FMA's means for assisting the medic in simultaneously managing several injured patients will be shown. (abstract truncated)

  6. The Utilization of a Computer Assisted Guidance System in Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfautz, Charles Van Vleck

    2010-01-01

    Computer assisted guidance systems may adapt well to various models of academic advising, and they have the ability to address the challenge of meeting the diverse advising needs of community college students without sacrificing the integrity of academic advising (Fowkes & McWhirter, 2007). The purpose of this qualitative case study was to assess…

  7. Adaptable Computing Environment/Self-Assembling Software

    2007-09-25

    Complex software applications are difficult to learn to use and to remember how to use. Further, the user has no control over the functionality available in a given application. The software we use can be created and modified only by a relatively small group of elite, highly skilled artisans known as programmers. "Normal users" are powerless to create and modify software themselves, because the tools for software development, designed by and for programmers, are amore » barrier to entry. This software, when completed, will be a user-adaptable computing environment in which the user is really in control of his/her own software, able to adapt the system, make new parts of the system interactive, and even modify the behavior of the system itself. Som key features of the basic environment that have been implemented are (a) books in bookcases, where all data is stored, (b) context-sensitive compass menus (compass, because the buttons are located in compass directions relative to the mouose cursor position), (c) importing tabular data and displaying it in a book, (d) light-weight table querying/sorting, (e) a Reach&Get capability (sort of a "smart" copy/paste that prevents the user from copying invalid data), and (f) a LogBook that automatically logs all user actions that change data or the system itself. To bootstrap toward full end-user adaptability, we implemented a set of development tools. With the development tools, compass menus can be made and customized.« less

  8. Shape threat detection via adaptive computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoudi, Ahmad; Thamvichai, Ratchaneekorn; Neifeld, Mark A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is used widely for screening purposes. Conventional x-ray threat detection systems employ image reconstruction and segmentation algorithms prior to making threat/no-threat decisions. We find that in many cases these pre-processing steps can degrade detection performance. Therefore in this work we will investigate methods that operate directly on the CT measurements. We analyze a fixed-gantry system containing 25 x-ray sources and 2200 photon counting detectors. We present a new method for improving threat detection performance. This new method is a so-called greedy adaptive algorithm which at each time step uses information from previous measurements to design the next measurement. We utilize sequential hypothesis testing (SHT) in order to derive both the optimal "next measurement" and the stopping criterion to insure a target probability of error Pe. We find that selecting the next x-ray source according to such a greedy adaptive algorithm, we can reduce Pe by a factor of 42.4× relative to the conventional measurement sequence employing all 25 sources in sequence.

  9. Computer Assisted Mechanical Axis and Kinematic TKA

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Peter; Mahoharan, Varaguna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has traditionally been and largely continues to be aligned mechanically, that being with a neutral coronal plane mechanical tibiofemoral axis and a joint line orientated at 900 to this axis. Femoral component rotation is set by gap balancing or by externally rotating 30 from any of a number femoral reference lines. This produces a rectangular flexion gap and relaxes patellar tracking. Kinematic alignment (KA) is an alternative technique that aims to restore premorbid alignment, joint orientation and ligament tension. The basic premise for this technique is based on evidence that the medial and lateral femoral condyles consistently equate to cylinders of equal or near equal size and that therefore with a fixed radius, cruciate retaining implant, matched distal femoral, posterior femoral and proximal tibial resections, accounting for bone and cartilage already lost will reproduce the premorbid joint line and restore native premorbid kinematics. Femoral rotation is therefore referenced off the prearthritic posterior condylar axis (PCA) that is on average internally rotated to the AP axis. Kinematic alignment therefore has the potential to challenge patellar tracking, increase patellar load and potentially increase patellar complications. Method: Case control study – level of evidence III-2. Between November 2012 and June 2013 the senior author completed 104 consecutive computer assisted (CAS) kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasties (TKA) with a cruciate retaining, fixed bearing, single radius implant. The results of these surgeries were compared with the results of 91 consecutive CAS mechanically aligned TKA done between November 2011 and October 2012 using the same navigation system and implant Implant sizing and positioning as well as gap measurement and ligament balance was done with computer assistance in all cases. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively. Results: The Oxford Knee Score

  10. Adapting mobile beacon-assisted localization in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Teng, Guodong; Zheng, Kougen; Dong, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The ability to automatically locate sensor nodes is essential in many Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications. To reduce the number of beacons, many mobile-assisted approaches have been proposed. Current mobile-assisted approaches for localization require special hardware or belong to centralized localization algorithms involving some deterministic approaches due to the fact that they explicitly consider the impreciseness of location estimates. In this paper, we first propose a range-free, distributed and probabilistic Mobile Beacon-assisted Localization (MBL) approach for static WSNs. Then, we propose another approach based on MBL, called Adapting MBL (A-MBL), to increase the efficiency and accuracy of MBL by adapting the size of sample sets and the parameter of the dynamic model during the estimation process. Evaluation results show that the accuracy of MBL and A-MBL outperform both Mobile and Static sensor network Localization (MSL) and Arrival and Departure Overlap (ADO) when both of them use only a single mobile beacon for localization in static WSNs.

  11. Case Studies in Computer Adaptive Test Design through Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eignor, Daniel R.; And Others

    The extensive computer simulation work done in developing the computer adaptive versions of the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) Board General Test and the College Board Admissions Testing Program (ATP) Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is described in this report. Both the GRE General and SAT computer adaptive tests (CATs), which are fixed length…

  12. LIFT: analysis of performance in a laser assisted adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plantet, Cedric; Meimon, Serge; Conan, Jean-Marc; Neichel, Benoît; Fusco, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Laser assisted adaptive optics systems rely on Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wave-Front Sensors (WFS) for high order aberration measurements, and rely on Natural Guide Stars (NGS) WFS to complement the measurements on low orders such as tip-tilt and focus. The sky-coverage of the whole system is therefore related to the limiting magnitude of the NGS WFS. We have recently proposed LIFT, a novel phase retrieval WFS technique, that allows a 1 magnitude gain over the usually used 2×2 Shack-Hartmann WFS. After an in-lab validation, LIFT's concept has been demonstrated on sky in open loop on GeMS (the Gemini Multiconjugate adaptive optics System at Gemini South). To complete its validation, LIFT now needs to be operated in closed loop in a laser assisted adaptive optics system. The present work gives a detailed analysis of LIFT's behavior in presence of high order residuals and how to limit aliasing effects on the tip/tilt/focus estimation. Also, we study the high orders' impact on noise propagation. For this purpose, we simulate a multiconjugate adaptive optics loop representative of a GeMS-like 5 LGS configuration. The residual high orders are derived from a Fourier based simulation. We demonstrate that LIFT keeps a high performance gain over the Shack-Hartmann 2×2 whatever the turbulence conditions. Finally, we show the first simulation of a closed loop with LIFT estimating turbulent tip/tilt and focus residuals that could be induced by sodium layer's altitude variations.

  13. Dental outcomes in computer-assisted orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Travis; Markiewicz, Michael R; Jarman, Joseph; Bell, R Bryan

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of computer-aided orthognathic surgery in reducing incisal overjet and establishing class I occlusion in subjects with dentofacial deformities. To address the research purpose, the investigators initiated a retrospective cohort study and enrolled a sample of subjects who underwent computer-assisted orthognathic surgery for dentofacial deformities. Two examiners assessed preoperative and postoperative lateral cephalometric radiographs for change in overjet after computer-assisted orthognathic surgery. Preoperative and postoperative occlusal photographs were then reviewed to assess for establishment of class I occlusion after computer-assisted orthognathic surgery. Cohen κ coefficient was used to assess for interrater agreement. A matched-pairs t-test was used to assess reduction in incisal overjet after computer-assisted orthognathic surgery. The sample was composed of 9 subjects who underwent computer-assisted surgery for dentofacial deformities. There was good interrater consistency for preoperative measurement of overjet (κ = 0.7, P ≤ 0.001). There was fair interrater consistency for postoperative measurement of overjet (κ = 0.4, P = 0 .02). Both examiners agreed on preoperative and postoperative assessments of occlusal photographs. There was a 3.4-mm reduction in incisal overjet after computer-assisted orthognathic surgery (P ≤ 0.001). Mean postoperative absolute overjet was 1.3 mm. In subjects with dentofacial deformities, computer-aided orthognathic surgery was effective in reducing incisal overjet and establishing class I occlusion.

  14. Computer Assisted Thermography And Its Application In Ovulation Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, K. H.; Shah, A. V.

    1984-08-01

    Hardware and software of a computer-assisted image analyzing system used for infrared images in medical applications are discussed. The application of computer-assisted thermography (CAT) as a complementary diagnostic tool in centralized diagnostic management is proposed. The authors adopted 'Computer Assisted Thermography' to study physiological changes in the breasts related to the hormones characterizing the menstrual cycle of a woman. Based on clinical experi-ments followed by thermal image analysis, they suggest that 'differential skin temperature (DST)1 be measured to detect the fertility interval in the menstrual cycle of a woman.

  15. ICAN Computer Code Adapted for Building Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in developing composite micromechanics and macromechanics theories over the last three decades. These activities have resulted in several composite mechanics theories and structural analysis codes whose applications range from material behavior design and analysis to structural component response. One of these computer codes, the Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN), is designed primarily to address issues related to designing polymer matrix composites and predicting their properties - including hygral, thermal, and mechanical load effects. Recently, under a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with a Fortune 500 corporation, Master Builders Inc., ICAN was adapted to analyze building materials. The high costs and technical difficulties involved with the fabrication of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites sometimes limit their use. Particulate-reinforced composites can be thought of as a viable alternative. They are as easily processed to near-net shape as monolithic materials, yet have the improved stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness that is characteristic of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. For example, particlereinforced metal-matrix composites show great potential for a variety of automotive applications, such as disk brake rotors, connecting rods, cylinder liners, and other hightemperature applications. Building materials, such as concrete, can be thought of as one of the oldest materials in this category of multiphase, particle-reinforced materials. The adaptation of ICAN to analyze particle-reinforced composite materials involved the development of new micromechanics-based theories. A derivative of the ICAN code, ICAN/PART, was developed and delivered to Master Builders Inc. as a part of the cooperative activity.

  16. Computer-Assisted Synthesis of Psychometric Data in Vocational Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    This paper proposes computer assistance in the synthesis operation of vocational counseling. The goal of vocational counseling is to match the client with a vocation in which he will be both satisfied and satisfactory. The computer would, through its rapid scanning and computation, produce probabilities of satisfactoriness based on (1) the…

  17. Computer-Assisted Assessment: Suggested Guidelines for an Institutional Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Derek; Bull, Joanna; Wade, Winnie

    1998-01-01

    Reviews lessons learned from experience with computer-aided learning that can inform the use of computers in student assessment in college teaching, describes the experience of two institutions with computer-assisted student assessment, and makes recommendations for developing and implementing effective institution-wide systems. (Author/MSE)

  18. Computer Assisted Operations: Registration Records, Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and University, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Proceedings of AACRAO's 63rd annual meeting cover: computer networking in small colleges; continuous registration; computer logic; computerized academic record overview; on-line registration systems; and analysis of registration and records systems. (LBH)

  19. ISAARE: Information System for Adaptive, Assistive, and Recreational Equipment: Volume I: Existence; Volume II, Communication; Volume V, Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melichar, Joseph F.

    Described as part of the Information System for Adaptive, Assistive and Recreational Equipment are equipment items for physically handicapped pupils in the functional areas of existence, equipment and adaptation. Reviewed in the existence section are such items as assistive food containers and container stabilizers, feeder accessories, bowel and…

  20. A Hybrid Segmentation Framework for Computer-Assisted Dental Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosntalab, Mohammad; Aghaeizadeh Zoroofi, Reza; Abbaspour Tehrani-Fard, Ali; Shirani, Gholamreza; Reza Asharif, Mohammad

    Teeth segmentation in computed tomography (CT) images is a major and challenging task for various computer assisted procedures. In this paper, we introduced a hybrid method for quantification of teeth in CT volumetric dataset inspired by our previous experiences and anatomical knowledge of teeth and jaws. In this regard, we propose a novel segmentation technique using an adaptive thresholding, morphological operations, panoramic re-sampling and variational level set algorithm. The proposed method consists of several steps as follows: first, we determine the operation region in CT slices. Second, the bony tissues are separated from other tissues by utilizing an adaptive thresholding technique based on the 3D pulses coupled neural networks (PCNN). Third, teeth tissue is classified from other bony tissues by employing panorex lines and anatomical knowledge of teeth in the jaws. In this case, the panorex lines are estimated using Otsu thresholding and mathematical morphology operators. Then, the proposed method is followed by calculating the orthogonal lines corresponding to panorex lines and panoramic re-sampling of the dataset. Separation of upper and lower jaws and initial segmentation of teeth are performed by employing the integral projections of the panoramic dataset. Based the above mentioned procedures an initial mask for each tooth is obtained. Finally, we utilize the initial mask of teeth and apply a variational level set to refine initial teeth boundaries to final contour. In the last step a surface rendering algorithm known as marching cubes (MC) is applied to volumetric visualization. The proposed algorithm was evaluated in the presence of 30 cases. Segmented images were compared with manually outlined contours. We compared the performance of segmentation method using ROC analysis of the thresholding, watershed and our previous works. The proposed method performed best. Also, our algorithm has the advantage of high speed compared to our previous works.

  1. A Computer Assisted Learning Project in Engineering Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheesewright, R.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A British project in engineering science is described. Computer assisted instruction packages are being developed to provide students with experience with models or systems of models related to lecture material on electrical, electronic, nuclear, and mechanical engineering. (SD)

  2. Research on the Use of Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, C. O.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews recent research studies related to computer assisted instruction (CAI). The studies concerned program effectiveness, teaching of psychomotor skills, tool availability, and factors affecting the adoption of CAI. (CT)

  3. Computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation for BPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Gideon; Barrett, Adrian R. W.; Ng, Wan S.; Lim, Liam G.; Cheng, Wai S.

    2001-06-01

    Interstitial laser thermotherapy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that utilizes laser to coagulate and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. This study explores the use of a computer-assisted interstitial laser coagulation system to aid surgeons in performing this procedure.

  4. Rules for Authoring Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitler, C. Douglas; Corgan, Virginia E.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions for writing computer-assisted instructional programs are offered through an examination of the goals and structure of these programs. Discussed are problems one may encounter in creating such programs. (RAO)

  5. Simple and Time-saving Computer Programs for Chairside Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birn, Herluf; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A study to test the hypothesis that computer assisted instruction used at low cognitive levels is as effective and motivating as conventional teaching, while requiring fewer teacher resources is described. (Author/MLW)

  6. Test Anxiety, Computer-Adaptive Testing and the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colwell, Nicole Makas

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the current findings and issues regarding the role of computer-adaptive testing in test anxiety. The computer-adaptive test (CAT) proposed by one of the Common Core consortia brings these issues to the forefront. Research has long indicated that test anxiety impairs student performance. More recent research indicates that…

  7. Computer Assisted Writing Instruction. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simic, Marjorie

    Two factors contributing to the change in writing instruction have been (1) the research investigating the way writing is taught and (2) the computer. Proponents of the various writing models endorse writing as an ongoing, multi-stage process, with equal emphasis given to each of the stages. Educational computing has undergone a change of focus…

  8. Operation Storefront. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Component of the Reading Assistance Program (RAP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco County District School Board, Land O'Lakes, FL.

    This document contains teacher's materials that accompany Operation Storefront, the computer-assisted instruction package used in the Reading Assistance Program (RAP) that serves nonreading adults in Pasco County, Florida, who are 16 years or older and not in school. The target population for Operation Storefront is adults reading at or below the…

  9. Implementation of Multispectral Image Classification on a Remote Adaptive Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueiredo, Marco A.; Gloster, Clay S.; Stephens, Mark; Graves, Corey A.; Nakkar, Mouna

    1999-01-01

    As the demand for higher performance computers for the processing of remote sensing science algorithms increases, the need to investigate new computing paradigms its justified. Field Programmable Gate Arrays enable the implementation of algorithms at the hardware gate level, leading to orders of m a,gnitude performance increase over microprocessor based systems. The automatic classification of spaceborne multispectral images is an example of a computation intensive application, that, can benefit from implementation on an FPGA - based custom computing machine (adaptive or reconfigurable computer). A probabilistic neural network is used here to classify pixels of of a multispectral LANDSAT-2 image. The implementation described utilizes Java client/server application programs to access the adaptive computer from a remote site. Results verify that a remote hardware version of the algorithm (implemented on an adaptive computer) is significantly faster than a local software version of the same algorithm implemented on a typical general - purpose computer).

  10. An Overview of Computer-Assisted Instruction for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Walter

    After a detailed history and definition of Computer-Assisted Instruction (which identifies drill and practice, tutorial, and problem-solving activities as comprising CAI), the development and implementation of a college level computer based multimedia physics course is described as an example of tutorial activities in CAI for those interested in…

  11. Computer-Assisted Intervention for Children with Low Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasanen, Pekka; Salminen, Jonna; Wilson, Anna J.; Aunio, Pirjo; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a computer-assisted intervention (CAI) study on number skills in kindergarten children. Children with low numeracy skill (n = 30) were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. The first group played a computer game (The Number Race) which emphasized numerical comparison and was designed to train number sense, while the…

  12. Teaching Reading through Computer-Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Tariq Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    To study the role of reading in secondary schools and how it may be improved through computers, a year-long study was conducted to examine which of two methods of teaching reading skills, an instructor-led class vs. computer-assisted language learning (CALL), aided secondary students in improving the literal, inferential, and evaluative levels of…

  13. Computers in Post-Secondary Developmental Education and Learning Assistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Frank L.; McLaughlin, Richard C.

    This update on computer technology--as it affects learning assistance directors and developmental education personnel--begins by reporting on new developments and changes that have taken place during the past two years in five areas: (1) hardware (microcomputer systems, low cost PC clones, combination Apple/PC machines, lab computer controllers…

  14. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Authoring Languages. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    One of the most perplexing tasks in producing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is the authoring process. Authoring is generally defined as the process of turning the flowcharts, control algorithms, format sheets, and other documentation of a CAI program's design into computer code that will operationalize the simulation on the delivery system.…

  15. THE LEARNING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER'S COMPUTER ASSISTED LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAGSDALE, RONALD G.

    THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE OPERATION AND PLANNED APPLICATIONS OF A COMPUTER ASSISTED LABORATORY FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH. THE LAB CENTERS AROUND AN 8K PDP-7 COMPUTER AND ITS SPECIAL PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT. SPECIAL DEVICES INCLUDE RANDOM ACCESS AUDIO AND VIDEO, GRAPHICAL INPUT, AND TOUCH-SENSITIVE AND BLOCK-MANIPULATION INPUTS. THE SYSTEM MAY BE…

  16. Students' Attitudes towards Control Methods in Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintze, Hanne; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes study designed to investigate dental students' attitudes toward computer-assisted teaching as applied in programs for oral radiology in Denmark. Programs using personal computers and slide projectors with varying degrees of learner and teacher control are described, and differences in attitudes between male and female students are…

  17. Wired Students: Computer-Assisted Research and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawamoto, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of library automation and changes in research methodology focuses on computer-assisted research curricula. Topics addressed include public access to government information; the information superhighway; commercialization of government documents that may restrict public access; computer literacy; and a proposed curriculum plan for a…

  18. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Diversity in Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockwell, Glenn, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning languages that uses computers and other technologies to present, reinforce, and assess material to be learned, or to create environments where teachers and learners can interact with one another and the outside world. This book provides a much-needed overview of the…

  19. An Infrastructure for Web-Based Computer Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Mike; Muzykantskii, Boris; Rawles, Simon; Evans, Michael

    2002-01-01

    We describe an initiative under way at Warwick to provide a technical foundation for computer aided learning and computer-assisted assessment tools, which allows a rich dialogue sensitive to individual students' response patterns. The system distinguishes between dialogues for individual problems and the linking of problems. This enables a subject…

  20. Computer-assisted warehouse personnel scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Sandra C.; Malstrom, Eric J.; Usmani, Tariq

    1992-02-01

    A decision support system is developed for personnel scheduling in a multiple warehouse environment. The system incorporates current manpower level, historical data of workers used, empirical load distributions, and performance standards to generate manpower requirements for a specified planning horizon. The software has been developed to be easily adaptable to varying situational details, therefore is widely applicable in different warehouse settings. The system offers personnel managers a valuable tool for evaluating alternative schedules and making intelligent decisions regarding personnel scheduling in warehouses.

  1. Electromagnetic Induction: A Computer-Assisted Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, J. E.; Moreland, L.

    1972-01-01

    By using minimal equipment it is possible to demonstrate Faraday's Law. An electronic desk calculator enables sophomore students to solve a difficult mathematical expression for the induced EMF. Polaroid pictures of the plot of induced EMF, together with the computer facility, enables students to make comparisons. (PS)

  2. Computer-Assisted Advising for Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, William R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Detailed descriptions are given of the five computer-generated reports of the Student Advising Information Package provided to advisors for each advisee: (1) Family of Patients; (2) Clinic Activity and Patient Management; (3) Student Procedure Progress by American Dental Association Code; (4) Delinquent Appointments; and (5) Student-Patient…

  3. CATS--Computer Assisted Teaching in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Marcelline A.

    This document contains the listings for 46 computer programs which are designed to teach various concepts in chemistry and physics. Significant time was spent in writing programs in which students would input chemical and physical data from their laboratory experiments. No significant time was spent writing drill and practice programs other than…

  4. Terrace Layout Using a Computer Assisted System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of a web-based terrace design tool based on the MOTERR program is presented, along with representative layouts for conventional and parallel terrace systems. Using digital elevation maps and geographic information systems (GIS), this tool utilizes personal computers to rapidly construct ...

  5. Computer Assisted Instruction in the Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolurow, Lawrence M.; And Others

    Introductory remarks by staff members at Ohio State University College of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, U.S. Naval Medical School, Harvard School of Public Health, and Michigan State University explore the educational requirements of the health professions and the ways in which the computer can aid in fulfilling these requirements. Programs…

  6. Computer-assisted hydrodynamic gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Suda, Takeshi; Suda, Kieko; Liu, Dexi

    2008-06-01

    The recently developed hydrodynamic delivery method makes it possible to deliver DNA and RNA into parenchyma cells by intravascular injection of nucleic acid-containing solution. While this procedure is effective in rodents, it is difficult to perform in large animals, because manual control while delivering the injection cannot be sufficiently reliable for achieving a just-right hydrodynamic pressure in targeted tissue. In order to overcome this problem, we have developed a computer-controlled injection device that uses real-time intravascular pressure as a regulator. Using the new injection device, and mouse liver as the model organ, we demonstrated continuous injection at a single pressure and different pressures, and also serial (repeated) injections at intervals of 250 ms, by programming the computer according to the need. When assessed by reporter plasmids, the computer-controlled injection device exhibits gene delivery efficiency similar to that of conventional hydrodynamic injection. The device is also effective in gene delivery to kidney and muscle cells in rats, with plasmids or adenoviral vectors as gene carriers. Successful gene delivery to liver and kidney was also demonstrated in pigs, with the computer-controlled injection being combined with image-guided catheterization. These results represent a significant advance in in vivo gene delivery research, with potential for use in gene therapy in humans.

  7. Computer assisted blast design and assessment tools

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, A.R.; Kleine, T.H.; Forsyth, W.W.

    1995-12-31

    In general the software required by a blast designer includes tools that graphically present blast designs (surface and underground), can analyze a design or predict its result, and can assess blasting results. As computers develop and computer literacy continues to rise the development of and use of such tools will spread. An example of the tools that are becoming available includes: Automatic blast pattern generation and underground ring design; blast design evaluation in terms of explosive distribution and detonation simulation; fragmentation prediction; blast vibration prediction and minimization; blast monitoring for assessment of dynamic performance; vibration measurement, display and signal processing; evaluation of blast results in terms of fragmentation; and risk and reliability based blast assessment. The authors have identified a set of criteria that are essential in choosing appropriate software blasting tools.

  8. A web ontology for brain trauma patient computer-assisted rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Zikos, Dimitrios; Galatas, George; Metsis, Vangelis; Makedon, Fillia

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe CABROnto, which is a web ontology for the semantic representation of the computer assisted brain trauma rehabilitation. This is a novel and emerging domain, since it employs the use of robotic devices, adaptation software and machine learning to facilitate interactive and adaptive rehabilitation care. We used Protégé 4.2 and Protégé-Owl schema editor. The primary goal of this ontology is to enable the reuse of the domain knowledge. CABROnto has nine main classes, more than 50 subclasses, existential and cardinality restrictions. The ontology can be found online at Bioportal.

  9. A Guide to Computer Adaptive Testing Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Some brand names are used generically to describe an entire class of products that perform the same function. "Kleenex," "Xerox," "Thermos," and "Band-Aid" are good examples. The term "computerized adaptive testing" (CAT) is similar in that it is often applied uniformly across a diverse family of testing methods. Although the various members of…

  10. Computer-assisted design of organic synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaminaka, H.

    1986-01-01

    The computer programs to design synthetic pathways of organic compounds have been utilized throughout the world since the first system was reported by Corey in 1969, and the LHASA was reported in1972 to become the predominant system. Many programs have been reported mainly in the United States and Europe, and groups of corporations, especially chemical companies, have been trying to improve programs and increase the efficiency of research. In Japan, unfortunately, no concrete movement in this area has been seen. Of course, it goes without saying that these kinds of programs are effective for efficient research, but the remarkable aspect is that these can present unexpected data to the researchers to stimulate them to develop new ideas.

  11. Solution-adaptive finite element method in computational fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Bass, J. M.; Spradley, L. W.

    1993-01-01

    Some recent results obtained using solution-adaptive finite element method in linear elastic two-dimensional fracture mechanics problems are presented. The focus is on the basic issue of adaptive finite element method for validating the applications of new methodology to fracture mechanics problems by computing demonstration problems and comparing the stress intensity factors to analytical results.

  12. SuperPILOT: A Comprehensive Computer-Assisted Instruction Programming Language for the Apple II Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falleur, David M.

    This presentation describes SuperPILOT, an extended version of Apple PILOT, a programming language for developing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with the Apple II computer that includes the features of its early PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching) ancestors together with new features that make use of the Apple computer's advanced…

  13. Computer-assisted cognitive-behavior therapy for depression.

    PubMed

    Eells, Tracy D; Barrett, Marna S; Wright, Jesse H; Thase, Michael

    2014-06-01

    This article reviews the use of computer technology in treating depression as a substitute or adjunct for standard therapy. It discusses advantages and disadvantages of introducing computer technology as a treatment option, problems and barriers to expanded use, the varieties of computer-assisted psychotherapy for major depression, and relevant research. Three specific Internet-based programs are described, assessed and compared: Good Days Ahead, Beating the Blues, and MoodGYM. The authors conclude that these and similar programs are promising. Preliminary outcome studies suggest that these programs produce outcome similar to standard therapy, although methodological shortcomings limit confidence in these findings. Suggestions are offered for practitioners considering the addition of computer assistance to their treatment of depression. PMID:24059735

  14. Computer-assisted experiments with oscillatory circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, J. C.; Ferraz, A.; Rogalski, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    A basic setup for data acquisition and analysis from an oscillatory circuit is described, with focus on its application as either low-pass, high-pass, band-pass or band-reject frequency filter. A homemade board containing the RLC elements allows for the interchange of some of them, in particular, for the easy change of the R value, and this makes apparent for the student its influence on the damping factor. The function generator operates in the swap frequency mode over a suitable frequency range and all the circuit parameters are chosen to provide a reasonable set of data for all the electronic filters studied. The output data are acquired through a commercially available DAQ board and data analysis is performed using a graphing and fitting workspace. The main objective is to develop a methodology of teaching the laboratory material through a computer-based environment devised to help students to appreciate how the governing equations work and to visualize their practical applications.

  15. Computer-assisted venous thrombosis volume quantification.

    PubMed

    Puentes, John; Dhibi, Mounir; Bressollette, Luc; Guias, Bruno; Solaiman, Basel

    2009-03-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT) volume assessment, by verifying its risk of progression when anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapies are prescribed, is often necessary to screen life-threatening complications. Commonly, VT volume estimation is done by manual delineation of few contours in the ultrasound (US) image sequence, assuming that the VT has a regular shape and constant radius, thus producing significant errors. This paper presents and evaluates a comprehensive functional approach based on the combination of robust anisotropic diffusion and deformable contours to calculate VT volume in a more accurate manner when applied to freehand 2-D US image sequences. Robust anisotropic filtering reduces image speckle noise without generating incoherent edge discontinuities. Prior knowledge of the VT shape allows initializing the deformable contour, which is then guided by the noise-filtering outcome. Segmented contours are subsequently used to calculate VT volume. The proposed approach is integrated into a system prototype compatible with existing clinical US machines that additionally tracks the acquired images 3-D position and provides a dense Delaunay triangulation required for volume calculation. A predefined robust anisotropic diffusion and deformable contour parameter set enhances the system usability. Experimental results pertinence is assessed by comparison with manual and tetrahedron-based volume computations, using images acquired by two medical experts of eight plastic phantoms and eight in vitro VTs, whose independently measured volume is the reference ground truth. Results show a mean difference between 16 and 35 mm(3) for volumes that vary from 655 to 2826 mm(3). Two in vivo VT volumes are also calculated to illustrate how this approach could be applied in clinical conditions when the real value is unknown. Comparative results for the two experts differ from 1.2% to 10.08% of the smallest estimated value when the image acquisition cadences are similar.

  16. Client Anticipations about Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, Debra S.; Peterson, Gary W.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Reardon, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    This study describes how 55 clients from a career center at a large, southeastern university anticipated using computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) systems to help in their career decision making and problem solving. Responses to a cued and a free response survey indicated that clients' most frequent anticipations included increased career…

  17. Computer-Assisted Registration and Student Statistics Reporting System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G. Robert

    This report describes the development and evaluation of a computer-assisted, student-interactive registration program that was designed for a community school in southeastern Florida which offers courses in the curricular areas of adult basic education, GED, adult high school, business and office education, home economics, industrial education,…

  18. A Model for Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Instruction (MICALI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farghaly, Ali

    1989-01-01

    States that Computer Assisted Language Instruction (CALI) software should be developed as an interactive natural language processing system. Describes artificial intelligence and proposes a model for intelligent CALI software (MICALI). Discusses MICALI's potential and current limitations due to the present state of the art. (Author/LS)

  19. Applications of Parsing Theory to Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markosian, Lawrence Z.; Ager, Tryg A.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of an LR-1 parsing algorithm to intelligent programs for computer assisted instruction in symbolic logic and foreign languages are discussed. The system has been adequately used for diverse instructional applications, including analysis of student input, generation of pattern drills, and modeling the student's understanding of the…

  20. Technical Aspects of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chin-Chaun; Sherwood, Bruce

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in Chinese is considered in relation to the design and recognition of Chinese characters, speech synthesis of the standard Chinese language, and the identification of Chinese tone. The PLATO work has shifted its orientation from provision of supplementary courseware to implementation of independent lessons and…

  1. The MUPET Lab: Computer Assisted Management of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Thomas D.

    Project Computer-Assisted Instructional Management (C-AIM) is being pilot tested on third grade mathematics students in the Jonesboro Public schools (Jonesboro, Arkansas). Each elementary building operates a MUPET Lab equipped with at least six Commodore Model 4016/4032 microcomputers, one Commodore Model 4040 dual disc drive, and one Commodore…

  2. Computer-Assisted Periodical Routing and Renewal Audit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerkey, A. Neil

    1973-01-01

    A computer-assisted periodical control system was designed to reduce clerical time required to maintain records in three areas: renewal audit, routing, and records-keeping. The renewal audit features are unusual and are described in detail. (3 references) (Author/DH)

  3. Computer Assisted Financial Aid Disbursement and Loan Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry K.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the computer assisted system in use at Washington State University. It controls and reports funds requested by students, offered to students, and disbursed to students, writes financial aid checks, prepares fiscal year-end statements and performs loan collection processes according to federal government regulations, and provides internal…

  4. Computer Assisted Language Learning: A Shortcut to Proficiency?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Kathleen K.

    A study investigated the attitudes of language program students, teachers, and administrators concerning the effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) instruction for adults, and specifically concerning EXITO courseware, a Spanish language program developed by the Central Intelligence Agency. Interviews with an adult language…

  5. A Topical Bibliography on Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilickaya, Ferit

    2009-01-01

    This bibliography aims to serve the language teacher educators who are working in the field of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) by making a collection of 1732 bibliographic entries, which stem from mainly books and journal articles in English that date back to 1980 and provide good discussions on the theory of technology in language…

  6. Social Choice in a Computer-Assisted Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thavikulwat, Precha

    2009-01-01

    Pursuing a line of inquiry suggested by Crookall, Martin, Saunders, and Coote, the author applied, within the framework of design science, an optimal-design approach to incorporate into a computer-assisted simulation two innovative social choice processes: the multiple period double auction and continuous voting. Expectations that the…

  7. A Computer-Assisted Instructional Approach to Teaching Applied Therapeutics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jim, Lucia K.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction to conduct pharmacy therapeutics case analysis exercises was compared with the traditional conference format. Pre- and posttest scores were compared statistically within and between groups to determine knowledge gained and comparative effectivness of teaching. (Author/MLW)

  8. Computer-assisted design in perceptual-motor skills research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, C. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A categorization was made of independent variables previously found to be potent in simple perceptual-motor tasks. A computer was then used to generate hypothetical factorial designs. These were evaluated in terms of literature trends and pragmatic criteria. Potential side-effects of machine-assisted research strategy were discussed.

  9. System/360 Computer Assisted Network Scheduling (CANS) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Computer assisted scheduling techniques that produce conflict-free and efficient schedules have been developed and implemented to meet needs of the Manned Space Flight Network. CANS system provides effective management of resources in complex scheduling environment. System is automated resource scheduling, controlling, planning, information storage and retrieval tool.

  10. How to Develop Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poston, Iona

    1993-01-01

    Advice for developing computer-assisted instruction includes (1) narrow the topic focus; (2) select appropriate hardware and software for goals; (3) develop instructional design by mapping software features; and (4) consider the instructional, aesthetic, operational, and curricular adequacy of the program. (SK)

  11. A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Tolga

    2010-01-01

    Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…

  12. Fifth Generation Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Andrew D.; Cartwright, Glenn F.

    1997-01-01

    Emerging "fifth-generation" computer-assisted career guidance systems include Internet-based resources such as listservs and Web sites. Obstacles to fifth-generation systems include confidentiality, counselor resistance, and lack of training. Counselors can aid their development by authoring, collaborating, evaluating, and advocating for equal…

  13. A Computer Assisted Problem Solving Method for Beginning Chemistry Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a problem-solving method for beginning chemistry students that utilizes specific, concrete steps as well as computer-assisted tutorials. The method involves an approach referred to as the Factor-Unit Method coupled with a graphical "road map" which allows students to trace problems from start to finish. (JN)

  14. Computer-Assisted Law Instruction: Clinical Education's Bionic Sibling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Harry G.; Platt, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI), like clinical education, has considerable potential for legal training. As an initial Cornell Law School experiment, a lesson in applying different corporate statutory dividend formulations, with a cross-section of balance sheets and other financial data, was used to supplement regular class assignments.…

  15. Renal Diet Therapy--A Computer-Assisted Instruction Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Lois; Thiele, Victoria F.

    1981-01-01

    A computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit was designed to teach renal diet therapy. Utilizing this unit, differences in performance and attitudes between traditionally taught and CAI taught students (N=34), and differences in achievement between students in two nutrition fields were assessed. (DS)

  16. An Instructional Model for Computer Assisted Instruction. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizenko, Albert J; Evans, Allyn A.

    An instructional model suitable for the implementation of the tutorial mode of a computer-assisted instruction program is described in this report. The general guidelines for the design of the model are presented. Course organization, instructional strategies, and learning paths are discussed. The model provided for the accommodation of high,…

  17. Perceptions of University Students regarding Computer Assisted Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamil, Mubashrah

    2012-01-01

    Computer assisted assessment (CAA) is a common technique of assessment in higher educational institutions in Western countries, but a relatively new concept for students and teachers in Pakistan. It was therefore interesting to investigate students' perceptions about CAA practices from different universities of Pakistan. Information was collected…

  18. Computer-Assisted Microscopy in Science Teaching and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radice, Gary P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a technological approach to teaching the relationships between biological form and function. Computer-assisted image analysis was integrated into a microanatomy course. Students spend less time memorizing and more time observing, measuring, and interpreting, building technical and analytical skills. Appendices list hardware and software…

  19. Optimizing Computer Assisted Instruction By Applying Principles of Learning Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas O.

    The development of learning theory and its application to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are described. Among the early theoretical constructs thought to be important are E. L. Thorndike's concept of learning connectisms, Neal Miller's theory of motivation, and B. F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. Early devices incorporating those…

  20. Computer Assisted Drafting (CNC) Drawings. Drafting Module 6. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Missouri Vocational Instruction Management System instructor's drafting guide has been keyed to the drafting competency profile developed by state industry and education professionals. This unit contains information on computer-assisted drafting drawings. The guide contains a cross-reference table of instructional materials and 20 worksheets.…

  1. Computer-Assisted Language Learning: From Vision to Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Learning a second language is a challenging endeavor, and, for decades now, proponents of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) have declared that help is on the horizon. As documented not only in the "CALICO Journal" over its 25-year history but also in other scholarly venues, research has demonstrated the value of CALL. Nevertheless,…

  2. Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Bin; Xing, Minjie; Wang, Yuping; Sun, Mingyu; Xiang, Catherine H.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Foreign Language Teaching and Learning: Technological Advances highlights new research and an original framework that brings together foreign language teaching, experiments and testing practices that utilize the most recent and widely used e-learning resources. This comprehensive collection of research will offer linguistic…

  3. Engineering Students' Use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huczynski, Andrzej; Johnston, Scott Paul

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) by undergraduate engineering students studying a business and management course. Discussing both the relationship between management and engineering and CAL applied to engineering education, this study is based on a survey of 82 undergraduates and adopts a quantitative research…

  4. Strategies in Computer-Assisted Instruction: A Selective Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Karen K.

    The history of some computer-assisted instruction (CAI) strategies is traced. A number of components of computerized instruction systems are described and explanations provided on the influence these components have in the development and production of a CAI system. A description of the interaction between a student and a CAI system is presented…

  5. Evaluation of Three Computer-Assisted Instruction Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Morningstar, Mona

    This technical report is concerned with the evaluation of three Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Programs - The Drill-and practice Program in Elementary School Mathematics, The Brentwood Tutorial Mathematics Program, and the Russian Program. Among the results reported were (1) the drill-and-practice mathematics program used in Mississippi and…

  6. Computer-Assisted Instruction: Stanford's 1965-66 Arithmetic Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    A review of the possibilities and challenges of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), and a brief history of CAI projects at Stanford serve to give the reader the context of the particular program described and analyzed in this book. The 1965-66 arithmetic drill-and-practice program is described, summarizing the curriculum and project operation. An…

  7. Computer-Assisted, Outcomes-Based Evaluation for School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wentling, Tim L.; Roegge, Chris A.

    1991-01-01

    An outcomes-based model was developed to evaluate vocational education programs in Illinois. The model, which evaluates programs based on six vital signs of program quality, uses a series of computer technology expert systems to give local personnel assistance in exploring program problems and improvement. (SLD)

  8. An Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning System for Arabic Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaalan, Khaled F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an intelligent computer-assisted language learning (ICALL) system for learning Arabic. This system could be used for learning Arabic by students at primary schools or by learners of Arabic as a second or foreign language. It explores the use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques for learning…

  9. Ethical and Professional Issues in Computer-Assisted Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, B. Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ethical and professional issues in psychology regarding computer-assisted therapy (CAT). Topics addressed include an explanation of CAT; whether CAT is psychotherapy; software, including independent use, validation of effectiveness, and restricted access; clinician resistance; client acceptance; the impact on ethical standards; and a…

  10. Successes, Failures, and Dropouts in Computer-Assisted Language Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Joan; And Others

    This report attempts to profile students who participated in a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) research and development project. The researchers hoped to find some pattern or common denominator within each group i.e., the successes, the failures, and the dropouts, that would identify group membership and distinguish one group from…

  11. Computer-Assisted Dieting: Effects of a Randomized Nutrition Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Kerstin E. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of a computer-assisted dieting intervention (CAD) with and without self-management training on dieting among 55 overweight and obese adults. Methods: Random assignment to a single-session nutrition intervention (CAD-only) or a combined CAD plus self-management group intervention (CADG). Dependent variables were…

  12. Audio Utilization Conventions and Techniques for Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Signal Center and School, Fort Monmouth, NJ.

    A set of guidelines has been developed for the implementation of the audio mode in computer assisted instruction (CAI). The manual contains a collection of conventions and techniques synthesized from recent publications in areas pertinent to multi-media audiovisual presentation. These areas include audio message placement, positioning, frequency,…

  13. Computer Assisted Laboratory Problems for Teaching Business and Economic Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles N.

    A computer-based Statistical Program to Assist in Teaching Statistics (SPATS) has been successfully developed to aid the teaching of statistics to undergraduates with business and economics majors. SPATS simplifies the problem of experimentally creating and analyzing a variety of populations and of selecting and analyzing different kinds of random…

  14. Computer-assisted coding and clinical documentation: first things first.

    PubMed

    Tully, Melinda; Carmichael, Angela

    2012-10-01

    Computer-assisted coding tools have the potential to drive improvements in seven areas: Transparency of coding. Productivity (generally by 20 to 25 percent for inpatient claims). Accuracy (by improving specificity of documentation). Cost containment (by reducing overtime expenses, audit fees, and denials). Compliance. Efficiency. Consistency.

  15. Implementing Computer-Assisted Instruction: The Garland Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Eli; Bryant, Deborah G.

    1985-01-01

    After much study, administrators at the Garland Independent School District (Texas) adopted a minicomputer-based system which provides curriculum development for kindergarten through grade 12. The process of implementing computer-assisted instruction in this district is described. Results after the first year and teacher training are examined. (JN)

  16. Computer-Assisted Analysis of Qualitative Gerontological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiemstra, Roger; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Asserts that qualitative research has great potential for use in gerontological research. Describes QUALOG, a computer-assisted, qualitative data analysis scheme using logic programming developed at Syracuse University. Reviews development of QUALOG and discusses how QUALOG was used to analyze data from a qualitative study of older adult learners.…

  17. The Effectiveness of a Computer-Assisted Math Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, K.; Haelermans, C.; Rogge, N.

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs are considered as a way to improve learning outcomes of students. However, little is known on the schools who implement such programs as well as on the effectiveness of similar information and communication technology programs. We provide a literature review that pays special attention to the existing…

  18. Integrating Computer-Assisted Translation Tools into Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Parra, María

    2016-01-01

    Although Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT) tools play an important role in the curriculum in many university translator training programmes, they are seldom used in the context of learning a language, as a good command of a language is needed before starting to translate. Since many institutions often have translator-training programmes as well…

  19. Computer Assisted Teaching Comparisons with Handicapped. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, JoDell K.

    A project was conducted to see if computer-assisted instruction could be used successfully with the low-level, non-reading adult. The experimental classroom group consisted of mentally handicapped and other educationally handicapped adults in adult basic education (ABE) programs. (Long-range implementation is aimed at ABE students who have a…

  20. Detection of microcalcification in computer-assisted mammogram analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghdy, Golshah A.; Naghdy, Fazel; Yue, L.; Drijarkara, A. P.

    1999-07-01

    The latest trend in computer assisted mammogram analysis is reviewed and two new methods developed by the authors for automatic detection of microcalcifications (MCs) are presented. The first method is based on wavelet neurone feature detectors and ART classifiers while the second method utilized fuzzy rules for detection and grading of MCs.

  1. Framework for Computer Assisted Instruction Courseware: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betlach, Judith A.

    1987-01-01

    Systematically investigates, defines, and organizes variables related to production of internally designed and implemented computer assisted instruction (CAI) courseware: special needs of users; costs; identification and definition of realistic training needs; CAI definition and design methodology; hardware and software requirements; and general…

  2. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Medicine: A German View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Gunnar; And Others

    The following seven American programs of Computer Assisted Instruction in Medicine are among 20 implemented at the University of Bonn: OPHTHA and FUNDUS (programs of the tutorial mode), CARDI (presents information via three media on the clinical alterations of Mitral and Aortic Stenosis as well as Mitral and Aortal Incompetence), CARDIOPULMONARY…

  3. Adaptive classification on brain-computer interfaces using reinforcement signals.

    PubMed

    Llera, A; Gómez, V; Kappen, H J

    2012-11-01

    We introduce a probabilistic model that combines a classifier with an extra reinforcement signal (RS) encoding the probability of an erroneous feedback being delivered by the classifier. This representation computes the class probabilities given the task related features and the reinforcement signal. Using expectation maximization (EM) to estimate the parameter values under such a model shows that some existing adaptive classifiers are particular cases of such an EM algorithm. Further, we present a new algorithm for adaptive classification, which we call constrained means adaptive classifier, and show using EEG data and simulated RS that this classifier is able to significantly outperform state-of-the-art adaptive classifiers.

  4. Multithreaded Model for Dynamic Load Balancing Parallel Adaptive PDE Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrisochoides, Nikos

    1995-01-01

    We present a multithreaded model for the dynamic load-balancing of numerical, adaptive computations required for the solution of Partial Differential Equations (PDE's) on multiprocessors. Multithreading is used as a means of exploring concurrency in the processor level in order to tolerate synchronization costs inherent to traditional (non-threaded) parallel adaptive PDE solvers. Our preliminary analysis for parallel, adaptive PDE solvers indicates that multithreading can be used an a mechanism to mask overheads required for the dynamic balancing of processor workloads with computations required for the actual numerical solution of the PDE's. Also, multithreading can simplify the implementation of dynamic load-balancing algorithms, a task that is very difficult for traditional data parallel adaptive PDE computations. Unfortunately, multithreading does not always simplify program complexity, often makes code re-usability not an easy task, and increases software complexity.

  5. Adaptive DNA Computing Algorithm by Using PCR and Restriction Enzyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kon, Yuji; Yabe, Kaoru; Rajaee, Nordiana; Ono, Osamu

    In this paper, we introduce an adaptive DNA computing algorithm by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction enzyme. The adaptive algorithm is designed based on Adleman-Lipton paradigm[3] of DNA computing. In this work, however, unlike the Adleman- Lipton architecture a cutting operation has been introduced to the algorithm and the mechanism in which the molecules used by computation were feedback to the next cycle devised. Moreover, the amplification by PCR is performed in the molecule used by feedback and the difference concentration arisen in the base sequence can be used again. By this operation the molecules which serve as a solution candidate can be reduced down and the optimal solution is carried out in the shortest path problem. The validity of the proposed adaptive algorithm is considered with the logical simulation and finally we go on to propose applying adaptive algorithm to the chemical experiment which used the actual DNA molecules for solving an optimal network problem.

  6. Simple and Effective Algorithms: Computer-Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linacre, John Michael

    Computer-adaptive testing (CAT) allows improved security, greater scoring accuracy, shorter testing periods, quicker availability of results, and reduced guessing and other undesirable test behavior. Simple approaches can be applied by the classroom teacher, or other content specialist, who possesses simple computer equipment and elementary…

  7. Adapting Grids For Computing Two-Dimensional Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1992-01-01

    SAGE2D is two-dimensional implementation of Self Adaptive Grid Evolution computer program that intelligently redistributes initial grid points on basis of initial flow-field solution. Grids modified according to initial computed flows enabling recomputation at greater accuracy. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. Computation as an emergent feature of adaptive synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanin, M.; Papo, D.; Sendiña-Nadal, I.; Boccaletti, S.

    2011-12-01

    We report on the spontaneous emergence of computation from adaptive synchronization of networked dynamical systems. The fundamentals are nonlinear elements, interacting in a directed graph via a coupling that adapts itself to the synchronization level between two input signals. These units can emulate different Boolean logics, and perform any computational task in a Turing sense, each specific operation being associated with a given network's motif. The resilience of the computation against noise is proven, and the general applicability is demonstrated with regard to periodic and chaotic oscillators, and excitable systems mimicking neural dynamics.

  9. Parallel computation of geometry control in adaptive truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramesh, A. V.; Utku, S.; Wada, B. K.

    1992-01-01

    The fast computation of geometry control in adaptive truss structures involves two distinct parts: the efficient integration of the inverse kinematic differential equations that govern the geometry control and the fast computation of the Jacobian, which appears on the right-hand-side of the inverse kinematic equations. This paper present an efficient parallel implementation of the Jacobian computation on an MIMD machine. Large speedup from the parallel implementation is obtained, which reduces the Jacobian computation to an O(M-squared/n) procedure on an n-processor machine, where M is the number of members in the adaptive truss. The parallel algorithm given here is a good candidate for on-line geometry control of adaptive structures using attached processors.

  10. Adapting Inspection Data for Computer Numerical Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, E. E.

    1986-01-01

    Machining time for repetitive tasks reduced. Program converts measurements of stub post locations by coordinate-measuring machine into form used by numerical-control computer. Work time thus reduced by 10 to 15 minutes for each post. Since there are 600 such posts on each injector, time saved per injector is 100 to 150 hours. With modifications this approach applicable to machining of many precise holes on large machine frames and similar objects.

  11. Adaptive computational methods for aerothermal heating analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, John M.; Oden, J. Tinsley

    1988-01-01

    The development of adaptive gridding techniques for finite-element analysis of fluid dynamics equations is described. The developmental work was done with the Euler equations with concentration on shock and inviscid flow field capturing. Ultimately this methodology is to be applied to a viscous analysis for the purpose of predicting accurate aerothermal loads on complex shapes subjected to high speed flow environments. The development of local error estimate strategies as a basis for refinement strategies is discussed, as well as the refinement strategies themselves. The application of the strategies to triangular elements and a finite-element flux-corrected-transport numerical scheme are presented. The implementation of these strategies in the GIM/PAGE code for 2-D and 3-D applications is documented and demonstrated.

  12. Errors and Intelligence in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: Parsers and Pedagogues. Routledge Studies in Computer Assisted Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude; Schulze, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This book provides the first comprehensive overview of theoretical issues, historical developments and current trends in ICALL (Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning). It assumes a basic familiarity with Second Language Acquisition (SLA) theory and teaching, CALL and linguistics. It is of interest to upper undergraduate and/or graduate…

  13. Adaptive Fuzzy Systems in Computational Intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in computational intelligence techniques, which currently includes neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary programming, has grown significantly and a number of their applications have been developed in the government and industry. In future, an essential element in these systems will be fuzzy systems that can learn from experience by using neural network in refining their performances. The GARIC architecture, introduced earlier, is an example of a fuzzy reinforcement learning system which has been applied in several control domains such as cart-pole balancing, simulation of to Space Shuttle orbital operations, and tether control. A number of examples from GARIC's applications in these domains will be demonstrated.

  14. From Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) to Mobile Assisted Language Use (MALU)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Huw; Achilleos, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by critiquing the long-established acronym CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning). We then go on to report on a small-scale study which examines how student non-native speakers of English use a range of digital devices beyond the classroom in both their first (L1) and second (L2) languages. We look also at the extent to…

  15. Computer-Assisted Evaluation of Student Papers: I Can Write Anything You Can Write - Faster and Better.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Elray L.

    1983-01-01

    A computer program in BASIC developed to assist in grading college English compositions is discussed and presented. The program allows rapid recording and printing of instructor comments, providing more praise and feedback than otherwise feasible. Teachers are encouraged to adapt the program to their own needs and preferences. (MSE)

  16. ICCE/ICCAI 2000 Full & Short Papers (Computer-Assisted Language Learning).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This document contains the following full and short papers on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) from ICCE/ICCAI 2000 (International Conference on Computers in Education/International Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction): (1) "A Computer-Assisted English Abstract Words Learning Environment on the Web" (Wenli Tsou and others); (2)…

  17. An Adaptive Sensor Mining Framework for Pervasive Computing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashidi, Parisa; Cook, Diane J.

    Analyzing sensor data in pervasive computing applications brings unique challenges to the KDD community. The challenge is heightened when the underlying data source is dynamic and the patterns change. We introduce a new adaptive mining framework that detects patterns in sensor data, and more importantly, adapts to the changes in the underlying model. In our framework, the frequent and periodic patterns of data are first discovered by the Frequent and Periodic Pattern Miner (FPPM) algorithm; and then any changes in the discovered patterns over the lifetime of the system are discovered by the Pattern Adaptation Miner (PAM) algorithm, in order to adapt to the changing environment. This framework also captures vital context information present in pervasive computing applications, such as the startup triggers and temporal information. In this paper, we present a description of our mining framework and validate the approach using data collected in the CASAS smart home testbed.

  18. Role of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in an Introductory Computer Concepts Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in undergraduate education via a survey of related literature and specific applications. Describes an undergraduate computer concepts course and includes appendices of instructions, flowcharts, programs, sample student work in accounting, COBOL instructional model, decision logic in a…

  19. Mechanical Design Technology--Modified. (Computer Assisted Drafting, Computer Aided Design). Curriculum Grant 84/85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoolcraft Coll., Livonia, MI.

    This document is a curriculum guide for a program in mechanical design technology (computer-assisted drafting and design developed at Schoolcraft College, Livonia, Michigan). The program helps students to acquire the skills of drafters and to interact with electronic equipment, with the option of becoming efficient in the computer-aided…

  20. Computer Assisted Project-Based Instruction: The Effects on Science Achievement, Computer Achievement and Portfolio Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Yavuz; Dede, Dinçer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of computer assisted project-based instruction on learners' achievement in a science and technology course, in a computer course and in portfolio development. With this aim in mind, a quasi-experimental design was used and a sample of 70 seventh grade secondary school students from Org. Esref…

  1. Interactive Computer-Assisted Instruction in Acid-Base Physiology for Mobile Computer Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmuir, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ~20 screens of information, on the subjects…

  2. Electrooptical adaptive switching network for the hypercube computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, E.; Peterson, J.

    1988-01-01

    An all-optical network design for the hyperswitch network using regular free-space interconnects between electronic processor nodes is presented. The adaptive routing model used is described, and an adaptive routing control example is presented. The design demonstrates that existing electrooptical techniques are sufficient for implementing efficient parallel architectures without the need for more complex means of implementing arbitrary interconnection schemes. The electrooptical hyperswitch network significantly improves the communication performance of the hypercube computer.

  3. Computational issue in the analysis of adaptive control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosut, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Adaptive systems under slow parameter adaption can be analyzed by the method of averaging. This provides a means to assess stability (and instability) properties of most adaptive systems, either continuous-time or (more importantly for practice) discrete-time, as well as providing an estimate of the region of attraction. Although the method of averaging is conceptually straightforward, even simple examples are well beyond hand calculations. Specific software tools are proposed which can provide the basis for user-friendly environment to perform the necessary computations involved in the averaging analysis.

  4. Computer-assisted navigation in knee arthroplasty: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Muralidharan; Mahadevan, Devendra; Ashford, Robert U

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this review was to appraise the use of computer-assisted navigation in total knee arthroplasty and to assess whether this technology has improved clinical outcomes. Studies were identified through searches in MEDLINE, Embase, and PubMed. Numerous studies have shown improved leg and component alignment using navigation systems. However, the better alignment achieved in navigated knee arthroplasty has not been shown to lead to better clinical outcomes. Navigated knee arthroplasty had lower calculated blood loss and lower incidence of fat embolism compared with conventional knee arthroplasty using intramedullary jigs. It may be most valued when dealing with complex knee deformities, revision surgery, or minimally invasive surgery. Navigated knee arthroplasty, however, is only cost-effective in centers with a high volume of joint replacements. Overall, computer-assisted navigated knee arthroplasty provides some advantages over conventional surgery, but its clinical benefits to date are unclear and remain to be defined on a larger scale.

  5. Computer-Assisted Detection of Infectious Lung Diseases: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Ulas; Bray, Mike; Caban, Jesus; Yao, Jianhua; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections are a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Although radiology serves as a primary diagnostic method for assessing respiratory tract infections, visual analysis of chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans is restricted by low specificity for causal infectious organisms and a limited capacity to assess severity and predict patient outcomes. These limitations suggest that computer-assisted detection (CAD) could make a valuable contribution to the management of respiratory tract infections by assisting in the early recognition of pulmonary parenchymal lesions, providing quantitative measures of disease severity and assessing the response to therapy. In this paper, we review the most common radiographic and CT features of respiratory tract infections, discuss the challenges of defining and measuring these disorders with CAD, and propose some strategies to address these challenges. PMID:21723090

  6. Stress intensity estimates by a computer assisted photoelastic method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Following an introductory history, the frozen stress photoelastic method is reviewed together with analytical and experimental aspects of cracks in photoelastic models. Analytical foundations are then presented upon which a computer assisted frozen stress photoelastic technique is based for extracting estimates of stress intensity factors from three-dimensional cracked body problems. The use of the method is demonstrated for two currently important three-dimensional crack problems.

  7. Computer-assisted volumetric resections of intracranial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Moure, Federico; Zamorano, Lucia J.

    1993-09-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies reconstructed in a stereotactic space can be used for accurate localization of intracranial lesions located in deep or eloquent regions in the brain, and for optimization of subsequent surgical removal. We describe our experience with 163 patients who underwent computer-assisted volumetric resection. The planning for the stereotactic volumetric neurosurgical methodology utilized the Zamarano-Dujovny localizing unit, the neurosurgical planning software (NSPS) system, which generates 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional views of the area of surgical interest, the arc setting parameters, and reconstructed CT images corresponding to the surgeon's eye-view perspective.

  8. Computer-Assisted Management of the Hospital Clinical Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Glen L.; Miller, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    Computer systems in hospital clinical laboratories historically have been used largely to manage medically-oriented patient data, particularly laboratory test requests and results. At The Johns Hopkins Hospital, effort has been devoted to the development of computer-assisted laboratory management applications in addition to routine medical data processing. This paper describes these development efforts in four areas: Workload Measurement and Reporting, Measurement of Personnel Productivity, Control of Expenses, and Laboratory Performance Measurement. Sample reports from each management subsystem are included, along with a discussion of the purpose and benefits of each application.

  9. CASS: A Program for Computer Assisted Stereotaxic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Tyrone L.; Koch, Jay

    1981-01-01

    A program for computer assisted stereotaxic surgery is presented. This program aids the stereotaxic surgeon by presenting an on-line graphic display of stereotaxic probes and electrodes superimposed on cross sections of the human thalamus. It, therefore, simulates an otherwise blind surgical procedure on a CRT screen for viewing during surgery. The programs are written in FORTRAN IV for use on a DEC MINC-11BA computer with dual RX02 floppy disks. Additional required hardware is a Tektronix 4012 graphics display terminal. In addition, response data can be recorded during surgery and redisplayed later on the same maps. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  10. A qualitative model for computer-assisted instruction in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Julen, N; Siregar, P; Sinteff, J P; Le Beux, P

    1998-01-01

    CARDIOLAB is an interactive computational framework dedicated to teaching and computer-aided diagnosis in cardiology. The framework embodies models that simulate the heart's electrical activity. They constitute the core of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) program intended to teach, in a multimedia environment, the concepts underlying rhythmic disorders and cardiac diseases. The framework includes a qualitative model (QM) which is described in this paper. During simulation using QM, dynamic sequences representing impulse formation and conduction processes are produced along with the corresponding qualitative descriptions. The corresponding electrocardiogram (ECG) and ladder diagram are also produced, and thus, both qualitative notions and quantitative facts can be taught via the model. We discuss how qualitative models in particular, and computational models in general can enhance the teaching capability of CAI programs.

  11. A qualitative model for computer-assisted instruction in cardiology.

    PubMed Central

    Julen, N.; Siregar, P.; Sinteff, J. P.; Le Beux, P.

    1998-01-01

    CARDIOLAB is an interactive computational framework dedicated to teaching and computer-aided diagnosis in cardiology. The framework embodies models that simulate the heart's electrical activity. They constitute the core of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) program intended to teach, in a multimedia environment, the concepts underlying rhythmic disorders and cardiac diseases. The framework includes a qualitative model (QM) which is described in this paper. During simulation using QM, dynamic sequences representing impulse formation and conduction processes are produced along with the corresponding qualitative descriptions. The corresponding electrocardiogram (ECG) and ladder diagram are also produced, and thus, both qualitative notions and quantitative facts can be taught via the model. We discuss how qualitative models in particular, and computational models in general can enhance the teaching capability of CAI programs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9929258

  12. Estimating Skin Cancer Risk: Evaluating Mobile Computer-Adaptive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Djaja, Ngadiman; Janda, Monika; Olsen, Catherine M; Whiteman, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background Response burden is a major detriment to questionnaire completion rates. Computer adaptive testing may offer advantages over non-adaptive testing, including reduction of numbers of items required for precise measurement. Objective Our aim was to compare the efficiency of non-adaptive (NAT) and computer adaptive testing (CAT) facilitated by Partial Credit Model (PCM)-derived calibration to estimate skin cancer risk. Methods We used a random sample from a population-based Australian cohort study of skin cancer risk (N=43,794). All 30 items of the skin cancer risk scale were calibrated with the Rasch PCM. A total of 1000 cases generated following a normal distribution (mean [SD] 0 [1]) were simulated using three Rasch models with three fixed-item (dichotomous, rating scale, and partial credit) scenarios, respectively. We calculated the comparative efficiency and precision of CAT and NAT (shortening of questionnaire length and the count difference number ratio less than 5% using independent t tests). Results We found that use of CAT led to smaller person standard error of the estimated measure than NAT, with substantially higher efficiency but no loss of precision, reducing response burden by 48%, 66%, and 66% for dichotomous, Rating Scale Model, and PCM models, respectively. Conclusions CAT-based administrations of the skin cancer risk scale could substantially reduce participant burden without compromising measurement precision. A mobile computer adaptive test was developed to help people efficiently assess their skin cancer risk. PMID:26800642

  13. The Importance of Formalizing Computational Models of Face Adaptation Aftereffects

    PubMed Central

    Ross, David A.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Face adaptation is widely used as a means to probe the neural representations that support face recognition. While the theories that relate face adaptation to behavioral aftereffects may seem conceptually simple, our work has shown that testing computational instantiations of these theories can lead to unexpected results. Instantiating a model of face adaptation not only requires specifying how faces are represented and how adaptation shapes those representations but also specifying how decisions are made, translating hidden representational states into observed responses. Considering the high-dimensionality of face representations, the parallel activation of multiple representations, and the non-linearity of activation functions and decision mechanisms, intuitions alone are unlikely to succeed. If the goal is to understand mechanism, not simply to examine the boundaries of a behavioral phenomenon or correlate behavior with brain activity, then formal computational modeling must be a component of theory testing. To illustrate, we highlight our recent computational modeling of face adaptation aftereffects and discuss how models can be used to understand the mechanisms by which faces are recognized. PMID:27378960

  14. Decision making and problem solving with computer assistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraiss, F.

    1980-01-01

    In modern guidance and control systems, the human as manager, supervisor, decision maker, problem solver and trouble shooter, often has to cope with a marginal mental workload. To improve this situation, computers should be used to reduce the operator from mental stress. This should not solely be done by increased automation, but by a reasonable sharing of tasks in a human-computer team, where the computer supports the human intelligence. Recent developments in this area are summarized. It is shown that interactive support of operator by intelligent computer is feasible during information evaluation, decision making and problem solving. The applied artificial intelligence algorithms comprehend pattern recognition and classification, adaptation and machine learning as well as dynamic and heuristic programming. Elementary examples are presented to explain basic principles.

  15. X-Y plotter adapter developed for SDS-930 computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Graphical Display Adapter provides a real time display for digital computerized experiments. This display uses a memory oscilloscope which records a single trace until erased. It is a small hardware unit which interfaces with the J-box feature of the SDS-930 computer to either an X-Y plotter or a memory oscilloscope.

  16. Computer Adaptive Testing for Small Scale Programs and Instructional Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Guo, Fanmin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates measurement decision theory (MDT) as an underlying model for computer adaptive testing when the goal is to classify examinees into one of a finite number of groups. The first analysis compares MDT with a popular item response theory model and finds little difference in terms of the percentage of correct classifications. The…

  17. Computer-assisted skull identification system using video superimposition.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Matsuda, H; Kubota, S; Imaizumi, K; Miyasaka, S; Seta, S

    1997-12-01

    This system consists of two main units, namely a video superimposition system and a computer-assisted skull identification system. The video superimposition system is comprised of the following five parts: a skull-positioning box having a monochrome CCD camera, a photo-stand having a color CCD camera, a video image mixing device, a TV monitor and a videotape recorder. The computer-assisted skull identification system is composed of a host computer including our original application software, a film recorder and a color printer. After the determination of the orientation and size of the skull to those of the facial photograph using the video superimposition system, the skull and facial photograph images are digitized and stored within the computer, and then both digitized images are superimposed on the monitor. For the assessment of anatomical consistency between the digitized skull and face, the distance between the landmarks and the thickness of soft tissue of the anthropometrical points are semi-automatically measured on the monitor. The wipe images facilitates the comparison of positional relationships between the digitized skull and face. The software includes the polynomial functions and Fourier harmonic analysis for evaluating the match of the outline such as the forehead and mandibular line in both the digitized images.

  18. Adaptive-mesh algorithms for computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Kenneth G.; Roe, Philip L.; Quirk, James

    1993-01-01

    The basic goal of adaptive-mesh algorithms is to distribute computational resources wisely by increasing the resolution of 'important' regions of the flow and decreasing the resolution of regions that are less important. While this goal is one that is worthwhile, implementing schemes that have this degree of sophistication remains more of an art than a science. In this paper, the basic pieces of adaptive-mesh algorithms are described and some of the possible ways to implement them are discussed and compared. These basic pieces are the data structure to be used, the generation of an initial mesh, the criterion to be used to adapt the mesh to the solution, and the flow-solver algorithm on the resulting mesh. Each of these is discussed, with particular emphasis on methods suitable for the computation of compressible flows.

  19. Sequential decision making in computational sustainability via adaptive submodularity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andreas Krause,; Daniel Golovin,; Converse, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Many problems in computational sustainability require making a sequence of decisions in complex, uncertain environments. Such problems are generally notoriously difficult. In this article, we review the recently discovered notion of adaptive submodularity, an intuitive diminishing returns condition that generalizes the classical notion of submodular set functions to sequential decision problems. Problems exhibiting the adaptive submodularity property can be efficiently and provably near-optimally solved using simple myopic policies. We illustrate this concept in several case studies of interest in computational sustainability: First, we demonstrate how it can be used to efficiently plan for resolving uncertainty in adaptive management scenarios. Secondly, we show how it applies to dynamic conservation planning for protecting endangered species, a case study carried out in collaboration with the US Geological Survey and the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

  20. Unstructured Adaptive Grid Computations on an Array of SMPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Pramanick, Ira; Sohn, Andrew; Simon, Horst D.

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic load balancing is necessary for parallel adaptive methods to solve unsteady CFD problems on unstructured grids. We have presented such a dynamic load balancing framework called JOVE, in this paper. Results on a four-POWERnode POWER CHALLENGEarray demonstrated that load balancing gives significant performance improvements over no load balancing for such adaptive computations. The parallel speedup of JOVE, implemented using MPI on the POWER CHALLENCEarray, was significant, being as high as 31 for 32 processors. An implementation of JOVE that exploits 'an array of SMPS' architecture was also studied; this hybrid JOVE outperformed flat JOVE by up to 28% on the meshes and adaption models tested. With large, realistic meshes and actual flow-solver and adaption phases incorporated into JOVE, hybrid JOVE can be expected to yield significant advantage over flat JOVE, especially as the number of processors is increased, thus demonstrating the scalability of an array of SMPs architecture.

  1. Design Principles for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deniz, Hasan; Cakir, Hasan

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the development process and the key components of a computer-assisted histology material. Computer-assisted histology material is designed to supplement traditional histology education in a large Midwestern university. Usability information of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) material was obtained…

  2. 45 CFR 233.24 - Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility and computing the assistance payment in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and computing the assistance payment in the initial one or two months. 233.24 Section 233.24 Public... computing the assistance payment in the initial one or two months. (a) States which make assistance payments within 25 days of the close of the budget month shall determine eligibility and compute the amount of...

  3. Computer-assisted pathology encoding and reporting system (CAPER).

    PubMed

    Aller, R D; Robboy, S J; Poitras, J W; Altshuler, B S; Cameron, M; Prior, M C; Miao, S; Barnett, G O

    1977-12-01

    An on-line computer-assisted pathology encoding and reportying system (CAPER) has been developed by the Department of Pathology and Laboratory of Computer Science of the Massachusetts General Hospital for a department of surgical pathology that processes more than 25,000 specimens yearly. CAPER performs clerical functions, including the accessioning of specimens, monitoring their state of completion, production of log books, billing, statistics, and transfer of diagnoses to other hospital departments. It also permits instantaneous display of all diagnoses rendered within two years, printout within 24 hours of all older diagnoses for any patient, and retrieval of all specimens with any given diagnosis, further defined by any data item (e.g., age) stored in the computer file.

  4. Two-cloud-servers-assisted secure outsourcing multiparty computation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Wen, Qiaoyan; Zhang, Yudong; Zhang, Hua; Jin, Zhengping; Li, Wenmin

    2014-01-01

    We focus on how to securely outsource computation task to the cloud and propose a secure outsourcing multiparty computation protocol on lattice-based encrypted data in two-cloud-servers scenario. Our main idea is to transform the outsourced data respectively encrypted by different users' public keys to the ones that are encrypted by the same two private keys of the two assisted servers so that it is feasible to operate on the transformed ciphertexts to compute an encrypted result following the function to be computed. In order to keep the privacy of the result, the two servers cooperatively produce a custom-made result for each user that is authorized to get the result so that all authorized users can recover the desired result while other unauthorized ones including the two servers cannot. Compared with previous research, our protocol is completely noninteractive between any users, and both of the computation and the communication complexities of each user in our solution are independent of the computing function.

  5. Computer assistance in hazards analyses and emergency planning

    SciTech Connect

    Bare, J.C.

    1988-04-01

    This paper discusses computer assistance in hazards analysis and emergency planning. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986--Title III of the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA)--requires facilities handling any of the designated chemicals--Extremely Hazardous Substances (EHSs)--in quantities greater than the Threshold Planning Quantities (TPQs) to submit information to their State Emergency Response Commissions (SERCs). Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) engage these facilities in planning and request information from the facilities that is necessary for planning. A user-friendly Macintosh computerized system was developed that allows LEPCs to handle the large quantities of data and assists them in analyzing the potential hazard of each chemical by assessing the severity of the consequences of a pre-planned release. The paper concentrates on hazards analysis for emergency planning for accidental releases of EHSs.

  6. Effects of a test taking strategy on postsecondary computer assisted chemistry assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manco, Sharon Ann

    Metacognitive test taking strategies have proven advantageous in improving content-based test scores in a wide variety of disciplines and age/grade levels using traditional paper-and-pencil tests. However, despite the increase in computer assisted assessment (CAA), little research has examined whether these test taking strategies are effective for computer assisted tests. Research was conducted to determine if learning a proven test taking strategy would improve the online quiz scores of six university students in an introductory chemistry course intended for science, technology, engineering and math majors. Participants completed six to ten chemistry quizzes prior to intervention---learning the test taking strategy---and four to eight chemistry quizzes after intervention. Results indicated that, while students learned the strategy, it had little effect on their online chemistry quiz scores. Additionally, at the end of the semester, participants completed a satisfaction survey indicating general satisfaction with having learned the test taking strategy and generalization to other courses and types of tests. Furthermore, results suggest that adaptations to the on-line delivery method of the quizzes and to the test taking strategies may improve the robustness of the effect. Due to the increased use of computer assisted assessment, additional research is warranted to determine appropriate test taking strategies for online tests.

  7. Exoskeleton control for lower-extremity assistance based on adaptive frequency oscillators: adaptation of muscle activation and movement frequency.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Ollinger, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyze a novel strategy for assisting the lower extremities based on adaptive frequency oscillators. Our aim is to use the control algorithm presented here as a building block for the control of powered lower-limb exoskeletons. The algorithm assists cyclic movements of the human extremities by synchronizing actuator torques with the estimated net torque exerted by the muscles. Synchronization is produced by a nonlinear dynamical system combining an adaptive frequency oscillator with a form of adaptive Fourier analysis. The system extracts, in real time, the fundamental frequency component of the net muscle torque acting on a specific joint. Said component, nearly sinusoidal in shape, is the basis for the assistive torque waveform delivered by the exoskeleton. The action of the exoskeleton can be interpreted as a virtual reduction in the mechanical impedance of the leg. We studied the ability of human subjects to adapt their muscle activation to the assistive torque. Ten subjects swung their extended leg while coupled to a stationary hip joint exoskeleton. The experiment yielded a significant decrease, with respect to unassisted movement, of the activation levels of an agonist/antagonist pair of muscles controlling the hip joint's motion, which suggests the exoskeleton control has potential for assisting human gait. A moderate increase in swing frequency was observed as well. We theorize that the increase in frequency can be explained by the impedance model of the assisted leg. Per this model, subjects adjust their swing frequency in order to control the amount of reduction in net muscle torque.

  8. Exoskeleton control for lower-extremity assistance based on adaptive frequency oscillators: adaptation of muscle activation and movement frequency.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Ollinger, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyze a novel strategy for assisting the lower extremities based on adaptive frequency oscillators. Our aim is to use the control algorithm presented here as a building block for the control of powered lower-limb exoskeletons. The algorithm assists cyclic movements of the human extremities by synchronizing actuator torques with the estimated net torque exerted by the muscles. Synchronization is produced by a nonlinear dynamical system combining an adaptive frequency oscillator with a form of adaptive Fourier analysis. The system extracts, in real time, the fundamental frequency component of the net muscle torque acting on a specific joint. Said component, nearly sinusoidal in shape, is the basis for the assistive torque waveform delivered by the exoskeleton. The action of the exoskeleton can be interpreted as a virtual reduction in the mechanical impedance of the leg. We studied the ability of human subjects to adapt their muscle activation to the assistive torque. Ten subjects swung their extended leg while coupled to a stationary hip joint exoskeleton. The experiment yielded a significant decrease, with respect to unassisted movement, of the activation levels of an agonist/antagonist pair of muscles controlling the hip joint's motion, which suggests the exoskeleton control has potential for assisting human gait. A moderate increase in swing frequency was observed as well. We theorize that the increase in frequency can be explained by the impedance model of the assisted leg. Per this model, subjects adjust their swing frequency in order to control the amount of reduction in net muscle torque. PMID:25655955

  9. General purpose computer-assisted clustering and conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Grimmer, Justin; King, Gary

    2011-01-01

    We develop a computer-assisted method for the discovery of insightful conceptualizations, in the form of clusterings (i.e., partitions) of input objects. Each of the numerous fully automated methods of cluster analysis proposed in statistics, computer science, and biology optimize a different objective function. Almost all are well defined, but how to determine before the fact which one, if any, will partition a given set of objects in an “insightful” or “useful” way for a given user is unknown and difficult, if not logically impossible. We develop a metric space of partitions from all existing cluster analysis methods applied to a given dataset (along with millions of other solutions we add based on combinations of existing clusterings) and enable a user to explore and interact with it and quickly reveal or prompt useful or insightful conceptualizations. In addition, although it is uncommon to do so in unsupervised learning problems, we offer and implement evaluation designs that make our computer-assisted approach vulnerable to being proven suboptimal in specific data types. We demonstrate that our approach facilitates more efficient and insightful discovery of useful information than expert human coders or many existing fully automated methods. PMID:21292983

  10. Modeling the behavior of the computer-assisted instruction user

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The field of computer-assisted instruction CAI contains abundant studies on effectiveness of particular programs or systems. However, the nature of the field is such that the computer is the focus of research, not the users. Few research studies have focused on the behavior of the individual CAI user. Morgan (1981) stated that descriptive studies are needed to clarify what the important phenomena of user behavior are. The need for such studies is particularly acute in computer-assisted instruction. Building a behavioral model would enable us to understand problem-solving strategies and rules applied by the user during a CAI experience. Also, courseware developers could use this information to design tutoring systems that are more responsive to individual differences than our present CAI is. This paper proposes a naturalistic model for evaluating both affective and cognitive characteristics of the CAI user. It begins with a discussion of features of user behavior, followed by a description of evaluation methodology that can lead to modeling user behavior. The paper concludes with a discussion of how implementation of this model can contribute to the fields of CAI and cognitive psychology.

  11. Probabilistic co-adaptive brain-computer interfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Matthew J.; Martin, Stefan A.; Cheung, Willy; Rao, Rajesh P. N.

    2013-12-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are confronted with two fundamental challenges: (a) the uncertainty associated with decoding noisy brain signals, and (b) the need for co-adaptation between the brain and the interface so as to cooperatively achieve a common goal in a task. We seek to mitigate these challenges. Approach. We introduce a new approach to brain-computer interfacing based on partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs). POMDPs provide a principled approach to handling uncertainty and achieving co-adaptation in the following manner: (1) Bayesian inference is used to compute posterior probability distributions (‘beliefs’) over brain and environment state, and (2) actions are selected based on entire belief distributions in order to maximize total expected reward; by employing methods from reinforcement learning, the POMDP’s reward function can be updated over time to allow for co-adaptive behaviour. Main results. We illustrate our approach using a simple non-invasive BCI which optimizes the speed-accuracy trade-off for individual subjects based on the signal-to-noise characteristics of their brain signals. We additionally demonstrate that the POMDP BCI can automatically detect changes in the user’s control strategy and can co-adaptively switch control strategies on-the-fly to maximize expected reward. Significance. Our results suggest that the framework of POMDPs offers a promising approach for designing BCIs that can handle uncertainty in neural signals and co-adapt with the user on an ongoing basis. The fact that the POMDP BCI maintains a probability distribution over the user’s brain state allows a much more powerful form of decision making than traditional BCI approaches, which have typically been based on the output of classifiers or regression techniques. Furthermore, the co-adaptation of the system allows the BCI to make online improvements to its behaviour, adjusting itself automatically to the user’s changing

  12. Computer-assisted LAD bypass grafting at the open heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Christine; Gnahm, Claudia; Friedl, Reinhard; Hoffmann, Martin; Dietmayer, Klaus

    2009-02-01

    Open heart bypass surgery is the standard treatment in advanced coronary heart diseases. For an effective revascularization procedure, optimal placement of the bypass is very important. To accelerate the intraoperative localization of the anastomosis site and to increase the precision of the procedure, a concept for computer assistance in open heart bypass surgery has been developed comprising the following steps: 1. Preprocedural planning: A patient-specific coronary map with information on vessel paths and wall plaque formations is extracted from a multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT). On this basis, the heart surgeon and the cardiac radiologist define the optimal anastomosis site prior to surgery. 2. Intraoperative navigation: During surgery, data are recorded at the beating heart using a stereo camera system. After registering the pre- and intraoperative data sets, preprocedural information can be transferred to the surgical site by overlaying the coronary map and the planned anastomosis site on the live video stream. With this visual guidance system, the surgeon can navigate to the planned anastomosis site. In this work, the proposed surgical assistance system has been validated for the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). The accuracy of the registration mechanism has been evaluated in retrospective on patient data sets and the effects of breathing motion were quantified. The promising results of the retrospective evaluation led to the in-vivo application of the computer assistance system during several bypass grafting procedures. Intraoperative navigation has been performed successfully and postoperative evaluation confirms that the bypass grafts were accurately positioned to the preoperatively planned anastomosis sites.

  13. Overview of adaptive finite element analysis in computational geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, D. A.; Schellart, W. P.; Moresi, L.

    2013-10-01

    The use of numerical models to develop insight and intuition into the dynamics of the Earth over geological time scales is a firmly established practice in the geodynamics community. As our depth of understanding grows, and hand-in-hand with improvements in analytical techniques and higher resolution remote sensing of the physical structure and state of the Earth, there is a continual need to develop more efficient, accurate and reliable numerical techniques. This is necessary to ensure that we can meet the challenge of generating robust conclusions, interpretations and predictions from improved observations. In adaptive numerical methods, the desire is generally to maximise the quality of the numerical solution for a given amount of computational effort. Neither of these terms has a unique, universal definition, but typically there is a trade off between the number of unknowns we can calculate to obtain a more accurate representation of the Earth, and the resources (time and computational memory) required to compute them. In the engineering community, this topic has been extensively examined using the adaptive finite element (AFE) method. Recently, the applicability of this technique to geodynamic processes has started to be explored. In this review we report on the current status and usage of spatially adaptive finite element analysis in the field of geodynamics. The objective of this review is to provide a brief introduction to the area of spatially adaptive finite analysis, including a summary of different techniques to define spatial adaptation and of different approaches to guide the adaptive process in order to control the discretisation error inherent within the numerical solution. An overview of the current state of the art in adaptive modelling in geodynamics is provided, together with a discussion pertaining to the issues related to using adaptive analysis techniques and perspectives for future research in this area. Additionally, we also provide a

  14. Providing Assistive Technology Applications as a Service Through Cloud Computing.

    PubMed

    Mulfari, Davide; Celesti, Antonio; Villari, Massimo; Puliafito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Users with disabilities interact with Personal Computers (PCs) using Assistive Technology (AT) software solutions. Such applications run on a PC that a person with a disability commonly uses. However the configuration of AT applications is not trivial at all, especially whenever the user needs to work on a PC that does not allow him/her to rely on his / her AT tools (e.g., at work, at university, in an Internet point). In this paper, we discuss how cloud computing provides a valid technological solution to enhance such a scenario.With the emergence of cloud computing, many applications are executed on top of virtual machines (VMs). Virtualization allows us to achieve a software implementation of a real computer able to execute a standard operating system and any kind of application. In this paper we propose to build personalized VMs running AT programs and settings. By using the remote desktop technology, our solution enables users to control their customized virtual desktop environment by means of an HTML5-based web interface running on any computer equipped with a browser, whenever they are.

  15. Providing Assistive Technology Applications as a Service Through Cloud Computing.

    PubMed

    Mulfari, Davide; Celesti, Antonio; Villari, Massimo; Puliafito, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Users with disabilities interact with Personal Computers (PCs) using Assistive Technology (AT) software solutions. Such applications run on a PC that a person with a disability commonly uses. However the configuration of AT applications is not trivial at all, especially whenever the user needs to work on a PC that does not allow him/her to rely on his / her AT tools (e.g., at work, at university, in an Internet point). In this paper, we discuss how cloud computing provides a valid technological solution to enhance such a scenario.With the emergence of cloud computing, many applications are executed on top of virtual machines (VMs). Virtualization allows us to achieve a software implementation of a real computer able to execute a standard operating system and any kind of application. In this paper we propose to build personalized VMs running AT programs and settings. By using the remote desktop technology, our solution enables users to control their customized virtual desktop environment by means of an HTML5-based web interface running on any computer equipped with a browser, whenever they are. PMID:26132225

  16. Reinforcement learning for adaptive threshold control of restorative brain-computer interfaces: a Bayesian simulation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Robert; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Restorative brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are increasingly used to provide feedback of neuronal states in a bid to normalize pathological brain activity and achieve behavioral gains. However, patients and healthy subjects alike often show a large variability, or even inability, of brain self-regulation for BCI control, known as BCI illiteracy. Although current co-adaptive algorithms are powerful for assistive BCIs, their inherent class switching clashes with the operant conditioning goal of restorative BCIs. Moreover, due to the treatment rationale, the classifier of restorative BCIs usually has a constrained feature space, thus limiting the possibility of classifier adaptation. In this context, we applied a Bayesian model of neurofeedback and reinforcement learning for different threshold selection strategies to study the impact of threshold adaptation of a linear classifier on optimizing restorative BCIs. For each feedback iteration, we first determined the thresholds that result in minimal action entropy and maximal instructional efficiency. We then used the resulting vector for the simulation of continuous threshold adaptation. We could thus show that threshold adaptation can improve reinforcement learning, particularly in cases of BCI illiteracy. Finally, on the basis of information-theory, we provided an explanation for the achieved benefits of adaptive threshold setting. PMID:25729347

  17. Reinforcement learning for adaptive threshold control of restorative brain-computer interfaces: a Bayesian simulation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Robert; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Restorative brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are increasingly used to provide feedback of neuronal states in a bid to normalize pathological brain activity and achieve behavioral gains. However, patients and healthy subjects alike often show a large variability, or even inability, of brain self-regulation for BCI control, known as BCI illiteracy. Although current co-adaptive algorithms are powerful for assistive BCIs, their inherent class switching clashes with the operant conditioning goal of restorative BCIs. Moreover, due to the treatment rationale, the classifier of restorative BCIs usually has a constrained feature space, thus limiting the possibility of classifier adaptation. In this context, we applied a Bayesian model of neurofeedback and reinforcement learning for different threshold selection strategies to study the impact of threshold adaptation of a linear classifier on optimizing restorative BCIs. For each feedback iteration, we first determined the thresholds that result in minimal action entropy and maximal instructional efficiency. We then used the resulting vector for the simulation of continuous threshold adaptation. We could thus show that threshold adaptation can improve reinforcement learning, particularly in cases of BCI illiteracy. Finally, on the basis of information-theory, we provided an explanation for the achieved benefits of adaptive threshold setting.

  18. Reinforcement learning for adaptive threshold control of restorative brain-computer interfaces: a Bayesian simulation

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Robert; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Restorative brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are increasingly used to provide feedback of neuronal states in a bid to normalize pathological brain activity and achieve behavioral gains. However, patients and healthy subjects alike often show a large variability, or even inability, of brain self-regulation for BCI control, known as BCI illiteracy. Although current co-adaptive algorithms are powerful for assistive BCIs, their inherent class switching clashes with the operant conditioning goal of restorative BCIs. Moreover, due to the treatment rationale, the classifier of restorative BCIs usually has a constrained feature space, thus limiting the possibility of classifier adaptation. In this context, we applied a Bayesian model of neurofeedback and reinforcement learning for different threshold selection strategies to study the impact of threshold adaptation of a linear classifier on optimizing restorative BCIs. For each feedback iteration, we first determined the thresholds that result in minimal action entropy and maximal instructional efficiency. We then used the resulting vector for the simulation of continuous threshold adaptation. We could thus show that threshold adaptation can improve reinforcement learning, particularly in cases of BCI illiteracy. Finally, on the basis of information-theory, we provided an explanation for the achieved benefits of adaptive threshold setting. PMID:25729347

  19. Cartographic Modeling: Computer-assisted Analysis of Spatially Defined Neighborhoods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, J. K.; Tomlin, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Cartographic models addressing a wide variety of applications are composed of fundamental map processing operations. These primitive operations are neither data base nor application-specific. By organizing the set of operations into a mathematical-like structure, the basis for a generalized cartographic modeling framework can be developed. Among the major classes of primitive operations are those associated with reclassifying map categories, overlaying maps, determining distance and connectivity, and characterizing cartographic neighborhoods. The conceptual framework of cartographic modeling is established and techniques for characterizing neighborhoods are used as a means of demonstrating some of the more sophisticated procedures of computer-assisted map analysis. A cartographic model for assessing effective roundwood supply is briefly described as an example of a computer analysis. Most of the techniques described have been implemented as part of the map analysis package developed at the Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.

  20. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut). Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome). In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs) are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures. PMID:27127510

  1. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut). Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome). In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs) are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures. PMID:27127510

  2. Computer-assisted ground control management system. Information circular/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.P.; McDonnell, J.P.; Hanna, K.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) has developed a computer-assisted Ground Control Management System (GCMS) for near real-time evaluation of underground coal mine ground conditions. The GCMS combines existing mine monitoring system and sensor technology with automated computer analysis techniques to enhance the acquisition, analysis, and display of geostructural data. The GCMS, which combines mine structure data with other information, such as geologic conditions and mine layout, has provided information on mining-induced stress transfer and pressure buildup associated with several ground control events. Real-time collection, processing, and analysis of mine structure and shield pressure information has proven to be an effective method for assessing near-face ground conditions while mining progresses. The GCMS provides the mine operator with information to rapidly identify and manage potentially hazardous ground conditions while mining is in progress.

  3. Promoting Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Chemistry Students Using Computer-Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambari, Isiaka A.; Gbodi, Bimpe E.; Olakanmi, Eyitao U.; Abalaka, Eneojo N.

    2016-01-01

    The role of computer-assisted instruction in promoting intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among Nigerian secondary school chemistry students was investigated in this study. The study employed two modes of computer-assisted instruction (computer simulation instruction and computer tutorial instructional packages) and two levels of gender (male and…

  4. Video Adaptation Model Based on Cognitive Lattice in Ubiquitous Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Svetlana; Yoon, Yong-Ik

    The multimedia service delivery chain poses today many challenges. There are an increasing terminal diversity, network heterogeneity and a pressure to satisfy the user preferences. The situation encourages the need for the personalized contents to provide the user in the best possible experience in ubiquitous computing. This paper introduces a personalized content preparation and delivery framework for multimedia service. The personalized video adaptation is expected to satisfy individual users' need in video content. Cognitive lattice plays a significant role of video annotation to meet users' preference on video content. In this paper, a comprehensive solution for the PVA (Personalized Video Adaptation) is proposed based on Cognitive lattice concept. The PVA is implemented based on MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation framework. One of the challenges is how to quantify users' preference on video content.

  5. Techniques for grid manipulation and adaptation. [computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Yung K.; Eisemann, Peter R.; Lee, Ki D.

    1992-01-01

    Two approaches have been taken to provide systematic grid manipulation for improved grid quality. One is the control point form (CPF) of algebraic grid generation. It provides explicit control of the physical grid shape and grid spacing through the movement of the control points. It works well in the interactive computer graphics environment and hence can be a good candidate for integration with other emerging technologies. The other approach is grid adaptation using a numerical mapping between the physical space and a parametric space. Grid adaptation is achieved by modifying the mapping functions through the effects of grid control sources. The adaptation process can be repeated in a cyclic manner if satisfactory results are not achieved after a single application.

  6. Computer Assisted Learning in Geographical Education. Papers Presented at an International Conference on Computer Assisted Learning in Geographical Education (13th, London, England, April 10, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    Containing papers presented at a multinational conference, this document examines the development of computer assisted learning (CAL) in geography, and describes program and curriculum development, teacher education, and experiences and problems of countries using CAL. Specific papers include: "Computer Assisted Learning in Geographical Education…

  7. Computation emerges from adaptive synchronization of networking neurons.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Massimiliano; Del Pozo, Francisco; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The activity of networking neurons is largely characterized by the alternation of synchronous and asynchronous spiking sequences. One of the most relevant challenges that scientists are facing today is, then, relating that evidence with the fundamental mechanisms through which the brain computes and processes information, as well as with the arousal (or progress) of a number of neurological illnesses. In other words, the problem is how to associate an organized dynamics of interacting neural assemblies to a computational task. Here we show that computation can be seen as a feature emerging from the collective dynamics of an ensemble of networking neurons, which interact by means of adaptive dynamical connections. Namely, by associating logical states to synchronous neuron's dynamics, we show how the usual Boolean logics can be fully recovered, and a universal Turing machine can be constructed. Furthermore, we show that, besides the static binary gates, a wider class of logical operations can be efficiently constructed as the fundamental computational elements interact within an adaptive network, each operation being represented by a specific motif. Our approach qualitatively differs from the past attempts to encode information and compute with complex systems, where computation was instead the consequence of the application of control loops enforcing a desired state into the specific system's dynamics. Being the result of an emergent process, the computation mechanism here described is not limited to a binary Boolean logic, but it can involve a much larger number of states. As such, our results can enlighten new concepts for the understanding of the real computing processes taking place in the brain. PMID:22073167

  8. Stability Outcomes following Computer-Assisted ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Christino, Melissa A.; Vopat, Bryan G.; Matson, Andrew P.; Reinert, Steven E.; Shalvoy, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intraoperative prereconstruction stability measurements and/or patient characteristics were associated with final knee stability after computer-assisted ACL reconstruction. Methods. This was a retrospective review of all patients who underwent computer-assisted single-bundle ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon. Prereconstruction intraoperative stability measurements were correlated with patient characteristics and postreconstruction stability measurements. 143 patients were included (87 male and 56 female). Average age was 29.8 years (SD ± 11.8). Results. Females were found to have significantly more pre- and postreconstruction internal rotation than males (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, resp.). Patients with additional intra-articular injuries demonstrated more prereconstruction anterior instability than patients with isolated ACL tears (P < 0.001). After reconstruction, these patients also had higher residual anterior translation (P = 0.01). Among all patients with ACL reconstructions, the percent of correction of anterior translation was found to be significantly higher than the percent of correction for internal or external rotation (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Anterior translation was corrected the most using a single-bundle ACL reconstruction. Females had higher pre- and postoperative internal rotation. Patients with additional injuries had greater original anterior translation and less operative correction of anterior translation compared to patients with isolated ACL tears. PMID:25883804

  9. A string matching computer-assisted system for dolphin photoidentification.

    PubMed

    Araabi, B N; Kehtarnavaz, N; McKinney, T; Hillman, G; Würsig, B

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a syntactic/semantic string representation scheme as well as a string matching method as part of a computer-assisted system to identify dolphins from photographs of their dorsal fins. A low-level string representation is constructed from the curvature function of a dolphin's fin trailing edge, consisting of positive and negative curvature primitives. A high-level string representation is then built over the low-level string via merging appropriate groupings of primitives in order to have a less sensitive representation to curvature fluctuations or noise. A family of syntactic/semantic distance measures between two strings is introduced. A composite distance measure is then defined and used as a dissimilarity measure for database search, highlighting both the syntax (structure or sequence) and semantic (attribute or feature) differences. The syntax consists of an ordered sequence of significant protrusions and intrusions on the edge, while the semantics consist of seven attributes extracted from the edge and its curvature function. The matching results are reported for a database of 624 images corresponding to 164 individual dolphins. The identification results indicate that the developed string matching method performs better than the previous matching methods including dorsal ratio, curvature, and curve matching. The developed computer-assisted system can help marine mammalogists in their identification of dolphins, since it allows them to examine only a handful of candidate images instead of the currently used manual searching of the entire database. PMID:11144987

  10. Foreign accent conversion in computer assisted pronunciation training

    PubMed Central

    Felps, Daniel; Bortfeld, Heather; Gutierrez-Osuna, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Learners of a second language practice their pronunciation by listening to and imitating utterances from native speakers. Recent research has shown that choosing a well-matched native speaker to imitate can have a positive impact on pronunciation training. Here we propose a voice-transformation technique that can be used to generate the (arguably) ideal voice to imitate: the own voice of the learner with a native accent. Our work extends previous research, which suggests that providing learners with prosodically corrected versions of their utterances can be a suitable form of feedback in computer assisted pronunciation training. Our technique provides a conversion of both prosodic and segmental characteristics by means of a pitch-synchronous decomposition of speech into glottal excitation and spectral envelope. We apply the technique to a corpus containing parallel recordings of foreign-accented and native-accented utterances, and validate the resulting accent conversions through a series of perceptual experiments. Our results indicate that the technique can reduce foreign accentedness without significantly altering the voice quality properties of the foreign speaker. Finally, we propose a pedagogical strategy for integrating accent conversion as a form of behavioral shaping in computer assisted pronunciation training. PMID:21124807

  11. Method and system for environmentally adaptive fault tolerant computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copenhaver, Jason L. (Inventor); Jeremy, Ramos (Inventor); Wolfe, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Brenner, Dean (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method and system for adapting fault tolerant computing. The method includes the steps of measuring an environmental condition representative of an environment. An on-board processing system's sensitivity to the measured environmental condition is measured. It is determined whether to reconfigure a fault tolerance of the on-board processing system based in part on the measured environmental condition. The fault tolerance of the on-board processing system may be reconfigured based in part on the measured environmental condition.

  12. Adaptive optics assisted Fourier domain OCT with balanced detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadway, A.; Bradu, A.; Hathaway, M.; Van der Jeught, S.; Rosen, R. B.; Podoleanu, A. Gh.

    2011-03-01

    Two factors are of importance to optical coherence tomography (OCT), resolution and sensitivity. Adaptive optics improves the resolution of a system by correcting for aberrations causing distortions in the wave-front. Balanced detection has been used in time domain OCT systems by removing excess photon noise, however it has not been used in Fourier domain systems, as the cameras used in the spectrometers saturated before excess photon noise becomes a problem. Advances in camera technology mean that this is no longer the case and balanced detection can now be used to improve the signal to noise ratio in a Fourier domain (FD) OCT system. An FD-OCT system, enhanced with adaptive optics, is presented and is used to show the improvement that balanced detection can provide. The signal to noise ratios of single camera detection and balanced detection are assessed and in-vivo retinal images are acquired to demonstrate better image quality when using balance detection.

  13. Computer assisted audit techniques for UNIX (UNIX-CAATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    Federal and DOE regulations impose specific requirements for internal controls of computer systems. These controls include adequate separation of duties and sufficient controls for access of system and data. The DOE Inspector General's Office has the responsibility to examine internal controls, as well as efficient use of computer system resources. As a result, DOE supported NIST development of computer assisted audit techniques to examine BSD UNIX computers (UNIX-CAATS). These systems were selected due to the increasing number of UNIX workstations in use within DOE. This paper describes the design and development of these techniques, as well as the results of testing at NIST and the first audit at a DOE site. UNIX-CAATS consists of tools which examine security of passwords, file systems, and network access. In addition, a tool was developed to examine efficiency of disk utilization. Test results at NIST indicated inadequate password management, as well as weak network resource controls. File system security was considered adequate. Audit results at a DOE site indicated weak password management and inefficient disk utilization. During the audit, we also found improvements to UNIX-CAATS were needed when applied to large systems. NIST plans to enhance the techniques developed for DOE/IG in future work. This future work would leverage currently available tools, along with needed enhancements. These enhancements would enable DOE/IG to audit large systems, such as supercomputers.

  14. Computer assisted audit techniques for UNIX (UNIX-CAATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, W.T.

    1991-12-31

    Federal and DOE regulations impose specific requirements for internal controls of computer systems. These controls include adequate separation of duties and sufficient controls for access of system and data. The DOE Inspector General`s Office has the responsibility to examine internal controls, as well as efficient use of computer system resources. As a result, DOE supported NIST development of computer assisted audit techniques to examine BSD UNIX computers (UNIX-CAATS). These systems were selected due to the increasing number of UNIX workstations in use within DOE. This paper describes the design and development of these techniques, as well as the results of testing at NIST and the first audit at a DOE site. UNIX-CAATS consists of tools which examine security of passwords, file systems, and network access. In addition, a tool was developed to examine efficiency of disk utilization. Test results at NIST indicated inadequate password management, as well as weak network resource controls. File system security was considered adequate. Audit results at a DOE site indicated weak password management and inefficient disk utilization. During the audit, we also found improvements to UNIX-CAATS were needed when applied to large systems. NIST plans to enhance the techniques developed for DOE/IG in future work. This future work would leverage currently available tools, along with needed enhancements. These enhancements would enable DOE/IG to audit large systems, such as supercomputers.

  15. Adaptive kinetic-fluid solvers for heterogeneous computing architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabelok, Sergey; Arslanbekov, Robert; Kolobov, Vladimir

    2015-12-01

    We show feasibility and benefits of porting an adaptive multi-scale kinetic-fluid code to CPU-GPU systems. Challenges are due to the irregular data access for adaptive Cartesian mesh, vast difference of computational cost between kinetic and fluid cells, and desire to evenly load all CPUs and GPUs during grid adaptation and algorithm refinement. Our Unified Flow Solver (UFS) combines Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) with automatic cell-by-cell selection of kinetic or fluid solvers based on continuum breakdown criteria. Using GPUs enables hybrid simulations of mixed rarefied-continuum flows with a million of Boltzmann cells each having a 24 × 24 × 24 velocity mesh. We describe the implementation of CUDA kernels for three modules in UFS: the direct Boltzmann solver using the discrete velocity method (DVM), the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) solver, and a mesoscopic solver based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), all using adaptive Cartesian mesh. Double digit speedups on single GPU and good scaling for multi-GPUs have been demonstrated.

  16. Perfusion computed tomography to assist decision making for stroke thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Bivard, Andrew; Levi, Christopher; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; McElduff, Patrick; Miteff, Ferdi; Spratt, Neil J; Bateman, Grant; Donnan, Geoffrey; Davis, Stephen; Parsons, Mark

    2015-07-01

    The use of perfusion imaging to guide selection of patients for stroke thrombolysis remains controversial because of lack of supportive phase three clinical trial evidence. We aimed to measure the outcomes for patients treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) at a comprehensive stroke care facility where perfusion computed tomography was routinely used for thrombolysis eligibility decision assistance. Our overall hypothesis was that patients with 'target' mismatch on perfusion computed tomography would have improved outcomes with rtPA. This was a prospective cohort study of consecutive ischaemic stroke patients who fulfilled standard clinical/non-contrast computed tomography eligibility criteria for treatment with intravenous rtPA, but for whom perfusion computed tomography was used to guide the final treatment decision. The 'real-time' perfusion computed tomography assessments were qualitative; a large perfusion computed tomography ischaemic core, or lack of significant perfusion lesion-core mismatch were considered relative exclusion criteria for thrombolysis. Specific volumetric perfusion computed tomography criteria were not used for the treatment decision. The primary analysis compared 3-month modified Rankin Scale in treated versus untreated patients after 'off-line' (post-treatment) quantitative volumetric perfusion computed tomography eligibility assessment based on presence or absence of 'target' perfusion lesion-core mismatch (mismatch ratio >1.8 and volume >15 ml, core <70 ml). In a second analysis, we compared outcomes of the perfusion computed tomography-selected rtPA-treated patients to an Australian historical cohort of non-contrast computed tomography-selected rtPA-treated patients. Of 635 patients with acute ischaemic stroke eligible for rtPA by standard criteria, thrombolysis was given to 366 patients, with 269 excluded based on visual real-time perfusion computed tomography assessment. After off-line quantitative

  17. Computer-Assisted Synthetic Planning: The End of the Beginning.

    PubMed

    Szymkuć, Sara; Gajewska, Ewa P; Klucznik, Tomasz; Molga, Karol; Dittwald, Piotr; Startek, Michał; Bajczyk, Michał; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2016-05-10

    Exactly half a century has passed since the launch of the first documented research project (1965 Dendral) on computer-assisted organic synthesis. Many more programs were created in the 1970s and 1980s but the enthusiasm of these pioneering days had largely dissipated by the 2000s, and the challenge of teaching the computer how to plan organic syntheses earned itself the reputation of a "mission impossible". This is quite curious given that, in the meantime, computers have "learned" many other skills that had been considered exclusive domains of human intellect and creativity-for example, machines can nowadays play chess better than human world champions and they can compose classical music pleasant to the human ear. Although there have been no similar feats in organic synthesis, this Review argues that to concede defeat would be premature. Indeed, bringing together the combination of modern computational power and algorithms from graph/network theory, chemical rules (with full stereo- and regiochemistry) coded in appropriate formats, and the elements of quantum mechanics, the machine can finally be "taught" how to plan syntheses of non-trivial organic molecules in a matter of seconds to minutes. The Review begins with an overview of some basic theoretical concepts essential for the big-data analysis of chemical syntheses. It progresses to the problem of optimizing pathways involving known reactions. It culminates with discussion of algorithms that allow for a completely de novo and fully automated design of syntheses leading to relatively complex targets, including those that have not been made before. Of course, there are still things to be improved, but computers are finally becoming relevant and helpful to the practice of organic-synthetic planning. Paraphrasing Churchill's famous words after the Allies' first major victory over the Axis forces in Africa, it is not the end, it is not even the beginning of the end, but it is the end of the beginning for the

  18. Computer-Assisted Synthetic Planning: The End of the Beginning.

    PubMed

    Szymkuć, Sara; Gajewska, Ewa P; Klucznik, Tomasz; Molga, Karol; Dittwald, Piotr; Startek, Michał; Bajczyk, Michał; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2016-05-10

    Exactly half a century has passed since the launch of the first documented research project (1965 Dendral) on computer-assisted organic synthesis. Many more programs were created in the 1970s and 1980s but the enthusiasm of these pioneering days had largely dissipated by the 2000s, and the challenge of teaching the computer how to plan organic syntheses earned itself the reputation of a "mission impossible". This is quite curious given that, in the meantime, computers have "learned" many other skills that had been considered exclusive domains of human intellect and creativity-for example, machines can nowadays play chess better than human world champions and they can compose classical music pleasant to the human ear. Although there have been no similar feats in organic synthesis, this Review argues that to concede defeat would be premature. Indeed, bringing together the combination of modern computational power and algorithms from graph/network theory, chemical rules (with full stereo- and regiochemistry) coded in appropriate formats, and the elements of quantum mechanics, the machine can finally be "taught" how to plan syntheses of non-trivial organic molecules in a matter of seconds to minutes. The Review begins with an overview of some basic theoretical concepts essential for the big-data analysis of chemical syntheses. It progresses to the problem of optimizing pathways involving known reactions. It culminates with discussion of algorithms that allow for a completely de novo and fully automated design of syntheses leading to relatively complex targets, including those that have not been made before. Of course, there are still things to be improved, but computers are finally becoming relevant and helpful to the practice of organic-synthetic planning. Paraphrasing Churchill's famous words after the Allies' first major victory over the Axis forces in Africa, it is not the end, it is not even the beginning of the end, but it is the end of the beginning for the

  19. 25 CFR 20.313 - How will the Bureau compute financial assistance payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Determining Need and Income § 20.313 How will the Bureau compute financial assistance payments? (a) The social services worker will compute...); and (4) Rounding the result down to the next lowest dollar. (b) The social services worker...

  20. 25 CFR 20.313 - How will the Bureau compute financial assistance payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Determining Need and Income § 20.313 How will the Bureau compute financial assistance payments? (a) The social services worker will compute...); and (4) Rounding the result down to the next lowest dollar. (b) The social services worker...

  1. 25 CFR 20.313 - How will the Bureau compute financial assistance payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Determining Need and Income § 20.313 How will the Bureau compute financial assistance payments? (a) The social services worker will compute...); and (4) Rounding the result down to the next lowest dollar. (b) The social services worker...

  2. 25 CFR 20.313 - How will the Bureau compute financial assistance payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Determining Need and Income § 20.313 How will the Bureau compute financial assistance payments? (a) The social services worker will compute...); and (4) Rounding the result down to the next lowest dollar. (b) The social services worker...

  3. Computational Flow Analysis of a Left Ventricular Assist Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; Benkowski, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics has been developed to a level where it has become an Indispensable part of aerospace research and design. Technology developed foe aerospace applications am also be utilized for the benefit of human health. For example, a flange-to-flange rocket engine fuel-pump simulation includes the rotating and non-rotating components: the flow straighteners, the impeller, and diffusers A Ventricular Assist Device developed by NASA Johnson Space Center and Baylor College of Medicine has a design similar to a rocket engine fuel pump in that it also consists of a flow straightener, an impeller, and a diffuser. Accurate and detailed knowledge of the flowfield obtained by incompressible flow calculations can be greatly beneficial to designers in their effort to reduce the cost and improve the reliability of these devices. In addition to the geometric complexities, a variety of flow phenomena are encountered in biofluids Then include turbulent boundary layer separation, wakes, transition, tip vortex resolution, three-dimensional effects, and Reynolds number effects. In order to increase the role of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the design process the CFD analysis tools must be evaluated and validated so that designers gain Confidence in their use. The incompressible flow solver, INS3D, has been applied to flow inside of a liquid rocket engine turbopump components and extensively validated. This paper details how the computational flow simulation capability developed for liquid rocket engine pump component analysis has bean applied to the Left Ventricular Assist Device being developed jointly by NASA JSC and Baylor College of Medicine.

  4. Accuracy of computer-assisted implant placement with insertion templates

    PubMed Central

    Naziri, Eleni; Schramm, Alexander; Wilde, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of computer-assisted implant insertion based on computed tomography and template-guided implant placement. Material and methods: A total of 246 implants were placed with the aid of 3D-based transfer templates in 181 consecutive partially edentulous patients. Five groups were formed on the basis of different implant systems, surgical protocols and guide sleeves. After virtual implant planning with the CoDiagnostiX Software, surgical guides were fabricated in a dental laboratory. After implant insertion, the actual implant position was registered intraoperatively and transferred to a model cast. Deviations between the preoperative plan and postoperative implant position were measured in a follow-up computed tomography of the patient’s model casts and image fusion with the preoperative computed tomography. Results: The median deviation between preoperative plan and postoperative implant position was 1.0 mm at the implant shoulder and 1.4 mm at the implant apex. The median angular deviation was 3.6º. There were significantly smaller angular deviations (P=0.000) and significantly lower deviations at the apex (P=0.008) in implants placed for a single-tooth restoration than in those placed at a free-end dental arch. The location of the implant, whether in the upper or lower jaw, did not significantly affect deviations. Increasing implant length had a significant negative influence on deviations from the planned implant position. There was only one significant difference between two out of the five implant systems used. Conclusion: The data of this clinical study demonstrate the accuracy and predictable implant placement when using laboratory-fabricated surgical guides based on computed tomography. PMID:27274440

  5. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Luka; Noda, Tomoyuki; Petrič, Tadej; Ude, Aleš; Morimoto, Jun; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion.

  6. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation.

    PubMed

    Peternel, Luka; Noda, Tomoyuki; Petrič, Tadej; Ude, Aleš; Morimoto, Jun; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion. PMID:26881743

  7. Adaptive Control of Exoskeleton Robots for Periodic Assistive Behaviours Based on EMG Feedback Minimisation

    PubMed Central

    Peternel, Luka; Noda, Tomoyuki; Petrič, Tadej; Ude, Aleš; Morimoto, Jun; Babič, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an exoskeleton control method for adaptive learning of assistive joint torque profiles in periodic tasks. We use human muscle activity as feedback to adapt the assistive joint torque behaviour in a way that the muscle activity is minimised. The user can then relax while the exoskeleton takes over the task execution. If the task is altered and the existing assistive behaviour becomes inadequate, the exoskeleton gradually adapts to the new task execution so that the increased muscle activity caused by the new desired task can be reduced. The advantage of the proposed method is that it does not require biomechanical or dynamical models. Our proposed learning system uses Dynamical Movement Primitives (DMPs) as a trajectory generator and parameters of DMPs are modulated using Locally Weighted Regression. Then, the learning system is combined with adaptive oscillators that determine the phase and frequency of motion according to measured Electromyography (EMG) signals. We tested the method with real robot experiments where subjects wearing an elbow exoskeleton had to move an object of an unknown mass according to a predefined reference motion. We further evaluated the proposed approach on a whole-arm exoskeleton to show that it is able to adaptively derive assistive torques even for multiple-joint motion. PMID:26881743

  8. Computer-assisted individual osteotomy design for mandibular reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian U.; Sader, Robert; Horch, Hans-Henning; Wunderlich, Arthur P.; Kirsten, Rainer; Gerhardt, H. C. P.

    1994-04-01

    The complex structure and functional capacity of the mandible places high demands on the design for mandibular reconstructions for graft or transplant purposes. When using the crista iliac as a basis for grafts to bridge large defects, the graft is empirically shaped by the operator according to this experience, whereby it is often necessary to dissect and reconstruct it numerous times. A 3-D computer tomogram of the lower jaw and ilium is carried out on patients undergoing a planned mandible reconstruction. The 3-D CT data are processed in a workstation using a medical image analysis system. The ala of the ilium is superimposed over the region of the lower jaw which is to be replaced. This enables a coincidence of the structure of the lower jaw and the structure of the ilium crest to be formed to within an accuracy of one voxel - despite the complex three dimensional structure and distortions in all three spatial planes. In accordance with the computer simulation, the applicably shaped ilium crest is placed on the individually calculated donor site and transplanted in the resected section of the lower jaw. An exact reconstruction of the lower jaw bone is made possible using computer assisted individual osteotomy design, resulting in complete restoration regarding shape and functionality.

  9. Is Computer-assisted Distance Learning Possible in Nematology?

    PubMed Central

    Francl, Leonard J.

    1998-01-01

    In many institutions of higher education, introductory nematology is taught to small numbers of students. Nematology and other low-enrollment courses may be placed under scrutiny, reformatted, or dropped from the curriculum to cut costs and improve faculty efficiency. Computer-assisted distance education (CADE) offers a way to increase faculty productivity and job satisfaction, student learning and socialization, and cost-effectiveness. Participating institutions gain by sharing resources with other schools and may retain or even increase enrollments through broadened educational opportunities. CADE ranges from complete course offerings and video interaction to supplemental materials on a personal computer for independent learning. A modular approach to course development is the most successfuI model because of the flexibility it offers. While an entire hematology course through CADE is not possible without substantial institutional and faculty investment, supplemental materials can help remotely located students gain an appreciation for hematology. Nematological images, text, computer programs, and other resources can easily be placed on Internet web pages. Nematologists in all sectors need to continue to reach out to the next generation of leaders to tell them what nematologists do and why nematodes are important. The Society of Nematologists can be a leader in the systematic development of CADE in nematology. PMID:19274217

  10. Individual differences in gains from computer-assisted remedial reading.

    PubMed

    Wise, B W; Ring, J; Olson, R K

    2000-11-01

    Two hundred second- to fifth-grade students (aged approximately 7 to 11 years) spent 29 h in a computer-assisted remedial reading program that compared benefits from accurate, speech-supported reading in context, with and without explicit phonological training. Children in the "accurate-reading-in-context" condition spent 22 individualized computer hours reading stories and 7 small-group hours learning comprehension strategies. Children in the "phonological-analysis" condition learned phonological strategies in 7 small-group hours, and divided their computer time between phonological exercises and story reading. Phonologically trained children gained more in phonological skills and untimed word reading; children with more contextual reading gained more in time-limited word reading. Lower level readers gained more, and benefited more from phonological training, than higher level readers. In follow-up testing, most children maintained or improved their levels, but not their rates, of training gains. Phonologically trained children scored higher on phonological decoding, but children in both conditions scored equivalently on word reading.

  11. Topology and grid adaption for high-speed flow computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of grid topology and grid adaptation on numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. In the first part of this study, a general procedure is presented for computation of high-speed flow over complex three-dimensional configurations. The flow field is simulated on the surface of a Butler wing in a uniform stream. Results are presented for Mach number 3.5 and a Reynolds number of 2,000,000. The O-type and H-type grids have been used for this study, and the results are compared together and with other theoretical and experimental results. The results demonstrate that while the H-type grid is suitable for the leading and trailing edges, a more accurate solution can be obtained for the middle part of the wing with an O-type grid. In the second part of this study, methods of grid adaption are reviewed and a method is developed with the capability of adapting to several variables. This method is based on a variational approach and is an algebraic method. Also, the method has been formulated in such a way that there is no need for any matrix inversion. This method is used in conjunction with the calculation of hypersonic flow over a blunt-nose body. A movie has been produced which shows simultaneously the transient behavior of the solution and the grid adaption.

  12. Computer assisted screening, correction, and analysis of historical weather measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnette, Dorian J.; Stahle, David W.

    2013-04-01

    A computer program, Historical Observation Tools (HOB Tools), has been developed to facilitate many of the calculations used by historical climatologists to develop instrumental and documentary temperature and precipitation datasets and makes them readily accessible to other researchers. The primitive methodology used by the early weather observers makes the application of standard techniques difficult. HOB Tools provides a step-by-step framework to visually and statistically assess, adjust, and reconstruct historical temperature and precipitation datasets. These routines include the ability to check for undocumented discontinuities, adjust temperature data for poor thermometer exposures and diurnal averaging, and assess and adjust daily precipitation data for undercount. This paper provides an overview of the Visual Basic.NET program and a demonstration of how it can assist in the development of extended temperature and precipitation datasets using modern and early instrumental measurements from the United States.

  13. Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guoyan; Nolte, Lutz P

    2015-01-01

    Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined. PMID:26779486

  14. Computer-Assisted Orthopedic Surgery: Current State and Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoyan; Nolte, Lutz P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduced about two decades ago, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) has emerged as a new and independent area, due to the importance of treatment of musculoskeletal diseases in orthopedics and traumatology, increasing availability of different imaging modalities, and advances in analytics and navigation tools. The aim of this paper is to present the basic elements of CAOS devices and to review state-of-the-art examples of different imaging modalities used to create the virtual representations, of different position tracking devices for navigation systems, of different surgical robots, of different methods for registration and referencing, and of CAOS modules that have been realized for different surgical procedures. Future perspectives will also be outlined. PMID:26779486

  15. [3D computer-assisted ENT biopsies of the Iceman].

    PubMed

    Thumfart, W F; Freysinger, W; Gunkel, A R; Truppe, M J; Platzer, W

    1997-02-01

    The University of Innsbruck possesses a unique prehistoric, completely conserved 5300-year-old human cadaver. We report our experiences during which ENT specialists collected samples from various cavities inside the Iceman. Guidance of biopsy instruments was accomplished with computer-assisted navigation based on Interventional Video Tomography. This technology allows surgical guidance by interlinking currently available imaging modalities with live endoscopic video. The system operates without patient fixation and is practically free of external contact. Apart from sterility, special precautionary measures were necessary to avoid contamination with heavy metals or microorganisms. Visual inspection of the samples of mucosa from the nose, maxillary sinus and larynx revealed the typical patterns of a human cadaver without overt pathology.

  16. Mechatronics Interface for Computer Assisted Prostate Surgery Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamirano del Monte, Felipe; Padilla Castañeda, Miguel A.; Arámbula Cosío, Fernando

    2006-09-01

    In this work is presented the development of a mechatronics device to simulate the interaction of the surgeon with the surgical instrument (resectoscope) used during a Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP). Our mechatronics interface is part of a computer assisted system for training in TURP, which is based on a 3D graphics model of the prostate which can be deformed and resected interactively by the user. The mechatronics interface, is the device that the urology residents will manipulate to simulate the movements performed during surgery. Our current prototype has five degrees of freedom, which are enough to have a realistic simulation of the surgery movements. Two of these degrees of freedom are linear, to determinate the linear displacement of the resecting loop and the other three are rotational to determinate three directions and amounts of rotation.

  17. Adaptive scapula bone remodeling computational simulation: Relevance to regenerative medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Gulshan B.; Robertson, Douglas D.

    2013-07-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty success has been attributed to many factors including, bone quality, soft tissue balancing, surgeon experience, and implant design. Improved long-term success is primarily limited by glenoid implant loosening. Prosthesis design examines materials and shape and determines whether the design should withstand a lifetime of use. Finite element (FE) analyses have been extensively used to study stresses and strains produced in implants and bone. However, these static analyses only measure a moment in time and not the adaptive response to the altered environment produced by the therapeutic intervention. Computational analyses that integrate remodeling rules predict how bone will respond over time. Recent work has shown that subject-specific two- and three dimensional adaptive bone remodeling models are feasible and valid. Feasibility and validation were achieved computationally, simulating bone remodeling using an intact human scapula, initially resetting the scapular bone material properties to be uniform, numerically simulating sequential loading, and comparing the bone remodeling simulation results to the actual scapula’s material properties. Three-dimensional scapula FE bone model was created using volumetric computed tomography images. Muscle and joint load and boundary conditions were applied based on values reported in the literature. Internal bone remodeling was based on element strain-energy density. Initially, all bone elements were assigned a homogeneous density. All loads were applied for 10 iterations. After every iteration, each bone element’s remodeling stimulus was compared to its corresponding reference stimulus and its material properties modified. The simulation achieved convergence. At the end of the simulation the predicted and actual specimen bone apparent density were plotted and compared. Location of high and low predicted bone density was comparable to the actual specimen. High predicted bone density was greater than

  18. Adaptive scapula bone remodeling computational simulation: Relevance to regenerative medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Gulshan B.; Robertson, Douglas D.

    2013-07-01

    Shoulder arthroplasty success has been attributed to many factors including, bone quality, soft tissue balancing, surgeon experience, and implant design. Improved long-term success is primarily limited by glenoid implant loosening. Prosthesis design examines materials and shape and determines whether the design should withstand a lifetime of use. Finite element (FE) analyses have been extensively used to study stresses and strains produced in implants and bone. However, these static analyses only measure a moment in time and not the adaptive response to the altered environment produced by the therapeutic intervention. Computational analyses that integrate remodeling rules predict how bone will respond over time. Recent work has shown that subject-specific two- and three dimensional adaptive bone remodeling models are feasible and valid. Feasibility and validation were achieved computationally, simulating bone remodeling using an intact human scapula, initially resetting the scapular bone material properties to be uniform, numerically simulating sequential loading, and comparing the bone remodeling simulation results to the actual scapula's material properties. Three-dimensional scapula FE bone model was created using volumetric computed tomography images. Muscle and joint load and boundary conditions were applied based on values reported in the literature. Internal bone remodeling was based on element strain-energy density. Initially, all bone elements were assigned a homogeneous density. All loads were applied for 10 iterations. After every iteration, each bone element's remodeling stimulus was compared to its corresponding reference stimulus and its material properties modified. The simulation achieved convergence. At the end of the simulation the predicted and actual specimen bone apparent density were plotted and compared. Location of high and low predicted bone density was comparable to the actual specimen. High predicted bone density was greater than actual

  19. Filing Basics: A Computer-Assisted Instruction Program for Library Student Assistants in New York Institute of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aranov, Mildred

    A computer assisted instructional program was developed for teaching the rules of filing to library student assistants in the New York Institute of Technology. The procedure used in developing the program was based upon the Interservice Model of Instructional Systems Design (ISD) developed at Florida State University. The first of seven chapters…

  20. Adaptive quantum computation in changing environments using projective simulation

    PubMed Central

    Tiersch, M.; Ganahl, E. J.; Briegel, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information processing devices need to be robust and stable against external noise and internal imperfections to ensure correct operation. In a setting of measurement-based quantum computation, we explore how an intelligent agent endowed with a projective simulator can act as controller to adapt measurement directions to an external stray field of unknown magnitude in a fixed direction. We assess the agent’s learning behavior in static and time-varying fields and explore composition strategies in the projective simulator to improve the agent’s performance. We demonstrate the applicability by correcting for stray fields in a measurement-based algorithm for Grover’s search. Thereby, we lay out a path for adaptive controllers based on intelligent agents for quantum information tasks. PMID:26260263

  1. Adaptive quantum computation in changing environments using projective simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiersch, M.; Ganahl, E. J.; Briegel, H. J.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum information processing devices need to be robust and stable against external noise and internal imperfections to ensure correct operation. In a setting of measurement-based quantum computation, we explore how an intelligent agent endowed with a projective simulator can act as controller to adapt measurement directions to an external stray field of unknown magnitude in a fixed direction. We assess the agent’s learning behavior in static and time-varying fields and explore composition strategies in the projective simulator to improve the agent’s performance. We demonstrate the applicability by correcting for stray fields in a measurement-based algorithm for Grover’s search. Thereby, we lay out a path for adaptive controllers based on intelligent agents for quantum information tasks.

  2. A Very High Order, Adaptable MESA Implementation for Aeroacoustic Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dydson, Roger W.; Goodrich, John W.

    2000-01-01

    Since computational efficiency and wave resolution scale with accuracy, the ideal would be infinitely high accuracy for problems with widely varying wavelength scales. Currently, many of the computational aeroacoustics methods are limited to 4th order accurate Runge-Kutta methods in time which limits their resolution and efficiency. However, a new procedure for implementing the Modified Expansion Solution Approximation (MESA) schemes, based upon Hermitian divided differences, is presented which extends the effective accuracy of the MESA schemes to 57th order in space and time when using 128 bit floating point precision. This new approach has the advantages of reducing round-off error, being easy to program. and is more computationally efficient when compared to previous approaches. Its accuracy is limited only by the floating point hardware. The advantages of this new approach are demonstrated by solving the linearized Euler equations in an open bi-periodic domain. A 500th order MESA scheme can now be created in seconds, making these schemes ideally suited for the next generation of high performance 256-bit (double quadruple) or higher precision computers. This ease of creation makes it possible to adapt the algorithm to the mesh in time instead of its converse: this is ideal for resolving varying wavelength scales which occur in noise generation simulations. And finally, the sources of round-off error which effect the very high order methods are examined and remedies provided that effectively increase the accuracy of the MESA schemes while using current computer technology.

  3. Coarse-node computations with an adaptive node structure

    SciTech Connect

    Tzanos, C.P.

    1988-01-01

    The analysis with COMMIX of liquid metal reactor (LMR) intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) transients that are characterized by low flows, and especially imbalanced low flows, shows that if a coarse-node structure is used the predicted temperatures are significantly different than those given by a fine-node structure. If a fine-node structure is used, for problems that involve a large part of the plant, the computation time becomes excessive. This paper presents an improved version of an adaptive node structure. At this stage this version has been applied only to one-dimensional problems.

  4. Development of an Assistance Environment for Tutors Based on a Co-Adaptive Design Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavoue, Elise; George, Sebastien; Prevot, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a co-adaptive design approach named TE-Cap (Tutoring Experience Capitalisation) that we applied for the development of an assistance environment for tutors. Since tasks assigned to tutors in educational contexts are not well defined, we are developing an environment which responds to needs which are not precisely…

  5. Adaptive Web-Assisted Learning System for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities: A Needs Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Elif; Adiguzel, Tufan; Akgun, Ozcan Erkan

    2012-01-01

    Because there is, currently, no education system for primary school students in grades 1-3 who have specific learning disabilities in Turkey and because such students do not receive sufficient support from face-to-face counseling, a needs analysis was conducted in order to prepare an adaptive, web-assisted learning system according to variables…

  6. Computer-Assisted Transgenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans for Deep Phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Gilleland, Cody L; Falls, Adam T; Noraky, James; Heiman, Maxwell G; Yanik, Mehmet F

    2015-09-01

    A major goal in the study of human diseases is to assign functions to genes or genetic variants. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful tool because homologs of many human genes are identifiable, and large collections of genetic vectors and mutant strains are available. However, the delivery of such vector libraries into mutant strains remains a long-standing experimental bottleneck for phenotypic analysis. Here, we present a computer-assisted microinjection platform to streamline the production of transgenic C. elegans with multiple vectors for deep phenotyping. Briefly, animals are immobilized in a temperature-sensitive hydrogel using a standard multiwell platform. Microinjections are then performed under control of an automated microscope using precision robotics driven by customized computer vision algorithms. We demonstrate utility by phenotyping the morphology of 12 neuronal classes in six mutant backgrounds using combinations of neuron-type-specific fluorescent reporters. This technology can industrialize the assignment of in vivo gene function by enabling large-scale transgenic engineering.

  7. CASPER, a Computer ASsisted PERicardial puncture system: first clinical results.

    PubMed

    Marmignon, Christophe; Chavanon, Olivier; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2005-01-01

    Pericardial puncture is the percutaneous insertion of a needle into the pericardial space to drain a pathological pericardial effusion. The challenge for the operating surgeon is to reach percutaneously a target zone in the vicinity of the mobile heart, in a soft-tissue environment. The surgeon's ability to accomplish this depends on his own mental picture of the effusion. CASPER is a navigation software using an optical localizer which assists the surgeon by enhancing the representation of the effusion and guiding the needle's progress. Using a localized and calibrated echographic probe, the surgeon acquires a set of images in the region of interest. This zone is then manually segmented on each image, a common zone is computed, and the surgeon defines a trajectory for the needle. During the puncture procedure, the surgeon follows the position of the localized needle on a computer monitor. After initial validation on an experimental phantom, a feasibility study was performed using canine and porcine models. The optical localization device was changed from an Optotrak to a Polaris device for easier use in the clinical setting. Prior to clinical application, various tests were performed concerning the mobility of the thoracic cage, the reproducibility of the thoracic position over several apneas, and the stability of anatomic structures relative to the thoracic cage. Finally, a first clinical application was successfully performed using this system. The present paper reports on these last two stages. PMID:16199378

  8. Computer-Assisted Transgenesis of Caenorhabditis elegans for Deep Phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Gilleland, Cody L; Falls, Adam T; Noraky, James; Heiman, Maxwell G; Yanik, Mehmet F

    2015-09-01

    A major goal in the study of human diseases is to assign functions to genes or genetic variants. The model organism Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful tool because homologs of many human genes are identifiable, and large collections of genetic vectors and mutant strains are available. However, the delivery of such vector libraries into mutant strains remains a long-standing experimental bottleneck for phenotypic analysis. Here, we present a computer-assisted microinjection platform to streamline the production of transgenic C. elegans with multiple vectors for deep phenotyping. Briefly, animals are immobilized in a temperature-sensitive hydrogel using a standard multiwell platform. Microinjections are then performed under control of an automated microscope using precision robotics driven by customized computer vision algorithms. We demonstrate utility by phenotyping the morphology of 12 neuronal classes in six mutant backgrounds using combinations of neuron-type-specific fluorescent reporters. This technology can industrialize the assignment of in vivo gene function by enabling large-scale transgenic engineering. PMID:26163188

  9. The Application of Web-based Computer-assisted Instruction Courseware within Health Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiuyan, Guo

    Health assessment is a clinical nursing course and places emphasis on clinical skills. The application of computer-assisted instruction in the field of nursing teaching solved the problems in the traditional lecture class. This article stated teaching experience of web-based computer-assisted instruction, based upon a two-year study of computer-assisted instruction courseware use within the course health assessment. The computer-assisted instruction courseware could develop teaching structure, simulate clinical situations, create teaching situations and facilitate students study.

  10. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Computational Astrophysics -- Methods and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsara, D.

    2001-12-01

    The advent of robust, reliable and accurate higher order Godunov schemes for many of the systems of equations of interest in computational astrophysics has made it important to understand how to solve them in multi-scale fashion. This is so because the physics associated with astrophysical phenomena evolves in multi-scale fashion and we wish to arrive at a multi-scale simulational capability to represent the physics. Because astrophysical systems have magnetic fields, multi-scale magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) is of especial interest. In this paper we first discuss general issues in adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). We then focus on the important issues in carrying out divergence-free AMR-MHD and catalogue the progress we have made in that area. We show that AMR methods lend themselves to easy parallelization. We then discuss applications of the RIEMANN framework for AMR-MHD to problems in computational astophysics.

  11. PCCM2: A GCM adapted for scalable parallel computers

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, J.; Semeraro, B.D.; Worley, P.; Foster, I.; Michalakes, J.; Toonen, B.; Hack, J.J.; Williamson, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics (CHAMMP) program seeks to provide climate researchers with an advanced modeling capability for the study of global change issues. One of the more ambitious projects being undertaken in the CHAMMP program is the development of PCCM2, an adaptation of the Community Climate Model (CCM2) for scalable parallel computers. PCCM2 uses a message-passing, domain-decomposition approach, in which each processor is allocated responsibility for computation on one part of the computational grid, and messages are generated to communicate data between processors. Much of the research effort associated with development of a parallel code of this sort is concerned with identifying efficient decomposition and communication strategies. In PCCM2, this task is complicated by the need to support both semi-Lagrangian transport and spectral transport. Load balancing and parallel I/O techniques are also required. In this paper, the authors review the various parallel algorithms used in PCCM2 and the work done to arrive at a validated model.

  12. Toward unsupervised adaptation of LDA for brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Vidaurre, C; Kawanabe, M; von Bünau, P; Blankertz, B; Müller, K R

    2011-03-01

    There is a step of significant difficulty experienced by brain-computer interface (BCI) users when going from the calibration recording to the feedback application. This effect has been previously studied and a supervised adaptation solution has been proposed. In this paper, we suggest a simple unsupervised adaptation method of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier that effectively solves this problem by counteracting the harmful effect of nonclass-related nonstationarities in electroencephalography (EEG) during BCI sessions performed with motor imagery tasks. For this, we first introduce three types of adaptation procedures and investigate them in an offline study with 19 datasets. Then, we select one of the proposed methods and analyze it further. The chosen classifier is offline tested in data from 80 healthy users and four high spinal cord injury patients. Finally, for the first time in BCI literature, we apply this unsupervised classifier in online experiments. Additionally, we show that its performance is significantly better than the state-of-the-art supervised approach.

  13. Zap 'Em with Assistive Technology: Notetaking, Modified Materials, Assistive Writing Tools, References, Organizational Tools, Cognitive Assistance, Adapted Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahm, Elizabeth A.; Morrissette, Sandra K.

    This collection of materials describes different types of computer applications and software that can help students with disabilities. It contains information on: (1) Easy Access, a feature of the systems software on every Macintosh computer that allows use of the keypad instead of the mouse, options for slow keys, and options for sticky keys; (2)…

  14. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    PubMed

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in <2 minutes, store information for ≥ 30 frames and provide summary data for each spermatozoon and the population. A few systems evaluate sperm morphology concurrent with motion. CASA cannot accurately predict 'fertility' that will be obtained with a semen sample or subject. However, when carefully validated, current CASA systems provide information important for quality assurance of semen planned for marketing, and for the understanding of the diversity of sperm responses to changes in the microenvironment in research. The four take-home messages from this review are: (1) animal species, extender or medium, specimen chamber, intensity of illumination, imaging hardware and software, instrument settings, technician, etc., all affect accuracy and precision of output values; (2) semen production facilities probably do not need a substantially different CASA system whereas biology laboratories would benefit from systems capable of imaging and tracking sperm in deep chambers for a flexible

  15. Computer Assisted Design, Prediction, and Execution of Economical Organic Syntheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gothard, Nosheen Akber

    The synthesis of useful organic molecules via simple and cost-effective routes is a core challenge in organic chemistry. In industry or academia, organic chemists use their chemical intuition, technical expertise and published procedures to determine an optimal pathway. This approach, not only takes time and effort, but also is cost prohibitive. Many potential optimal routes scratched on paper fail to get experimentally tested. In addition, with new methods being discovered daily are often overlooked by established techniques. This thesis reports a computational technique that assist the discovery of economical synthetic routes to useful organic targets. Organic chemistry exists as a network where chemicals are connected by reactions, analogous to citied connected by roads in a geographic map. This network topology of organic reactions in the network of organic chemistry (NOC) allows the application of graph-theory to devise algorithms for synthetic optimization of organic targets. A computational approach comprised of customizable algorithms, pre-screening filters, and existing chemoinformatic techniques is capable of answering complex questions and perform mechanistic tasks desired by chemists such as optimization of organic syntheses. One-pot reactions are central to modern synthesis since they save resources and time by avoiding isolation, purification, characterization, and production of chemical waste after each synthetic step. Sometimes, such reactions are identified by chance or, more often, by careful inspection of individual steps that are to be wired together. Algorithms are used to discover one-pot reactions and validated experimentally. Which demonstrate that the computationally predicted sequences can indeed by carried out experimentally in good overall yields. The experimental examples are chosen to from small networks of reactions around useful chemicals such as quinoline scaffolds, quinoline-based inhibitors of phosphoinositide 3-kinase delta (PI3

  16. Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA): capabilities and potential developments.

    PubMed

    Amann, Rupert P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems have evolved over approximately 40 years, through advances in devices to capture the image from a microscope, huge increases in computational power concurrent with amazing reduction in size of computers, new computer languages, and updated/expanded software algorithms. Remarkably, basic concepts for identifying sperm and their motion patterns are little changed. Older and slower systems remain in use. Most major spermatology laboratories and semen processing facilities have a CASA system, but the extent of reliance thereon ranges widely. This review describes capabilities and limitations of present CASA technology used with boar, bull, and stallion sperm, followed by possible future developments. Each marketed system is different. Modern CASA systems can automatically view multiple fields in a shallow specimen chamber to capture strobe-like images of 500 to >2000 sperm, at 50 or 60 frames per second, in clear or complex extenders, and in <2 minutes, store information for ≥ 30 frames and provide summary data for each spermatozoon and the population. A few systems evaluate sperm morphology concurrent with motion. CASA cannot accurately predict 'fertility' that will be obtained with a semen sample or subject. However, when carefully validated, current CASA systems provide information important for quality assurance of semen planned for marketing, and for the understanding of the diversity of sperm responses to changes in the microenvironment in research. The four take-home messages from this review are: (1) animal species, extender or medium, specimen chamber, intensity of illumination, imaging hardware and software, instrument settings, technician, etc., all affect accuracy and precision of output values; (2) semen production facilities probably do not need a substantially different CASA system whereas biology laboratories would benefit from systems capable of imaging and tracking sperm in deep chambers for a flexible

  17. Mobile robotic assistive balance trainer - an intelligent compliant and adaptive robotic balance assistant for daily living.

    PubMed

    Tiseo, Carlo; Lim, Zhen Yi; Shee, Cheng Yap; Ang, Wei Tech

    2014-01-01

    Balance control probably has the greatest impact on independence in activities of daily living (ADL), because it is a fundamental motor skill and prerequisite to the maintenance of a myriad of postures and mobile activities. We propose a new rehabilitation therapy to administer standing and mobile balance control training, enabled by a Mobile Robotic Assistive Balance Trainer (MRABT). The targeted group for this initial work is post stroke patients, although it can be extended to subjects with other neurological insults in the future. The proposed system consists of a mobile base and a parallel robotic arm which provides support to the patient at the hip. The compliant robotic arm with intelligent control algorithm will only provide support and assistance to the patient when the center of mass of the body deviates beyond the predefined safety boundary, mimicking the helping hands of a parent when a toddler learns to walk. In this paper, we present our initial work in the design and kinematic analysis of the system. PMID:25571190

  18. Mobile robotic assistive balance trainer - an intelligent compliant and adaptive robotic balance assistant for daily living.

    PubMed

    Tiseo, Carlo; Lim, Zhen Yi; Shee, Cheng Yap; Ang, Wei Tech

    2014-01-01

    Balance control probably has the greatest impact on independence in activities of daily living (ADL), because it is a fundamental motor skill and prerequisite to the maintenance of a myriad of postures and mobile activities. We propose a new rehabilitation therapy to administer standing and mobile balance control training, enabled by a Mobile Robotic Assistive Balance Trainer (MRABT). The targeted group for this initial work is post stroke patients, although it can be extended to subjects with other neurological insults in the future. The proposed system consists of a mobile base and a parallel robotic arm which provides support to the patient at the hip. The compliant robotic arm with intelligent control algorithm will only provide support and assistance to the patient when the center of mass of the body deviates beyond the predefined safety boundary, mimicking the helping hands of a parent when a toddler learns to walk. In this paper, we present our initial work in the design and kinematic analysis of the system.

  19. 45 CFR 233.25 - Retrospective budgeting; computing the assistance payment after the initial one or two months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retrospective budgeting; computing the assistance... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.25 Retrospective budgeting; computing the assistance payment after the initial one... assistance under § 233.24, the amount of each subsequent month's payment shall be computed retrospectively,...

  20. Role of computer-assisted visual search in mammographic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodine, Calvin F.; Kundel, Harold L.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Weinstein, Susan P.

    2001-06-01

    We used eye-position data to develop Computer-Assisted Visual Search (CAVS) as an aid to mammographic interpretation. CAVS feeds back regions of interest that receive prolonged visual dwell (greater than or equal to 1000 ms) by highlighting them on the mammogram. These regions are then reevaluated for possible missed breast cancers. Six radiology residents and fellows interpreted a test set of 40 mammograms twice, once with CAVS feedback (FB), and once without CAVS FB in a crossover, repeated- measures design. Eye position was monitored. LROC performance (area) was compared with and without CAVS FB. Detection and localization of malignant lesions improved 12% with CAVS FB. This was not significant. The test set contained subtle malignant lesions. 65% (176/272) of true lesions were fixated. Of those fixated, 49% (87/176) received prolonged attention resulting in CAVS FB, and 54% (47/87) of FBs resulted in TPs. Test-set difficulty and the lack of reading experience of the readers may have contributed to the relatively low overall performance, and may have also limited the effectiveness of CAVS FB which could only play a role in localizing potential lesions if the reader fixated and dwelled on them.

  1. Computer assisted sperm morphometry in mammals: a review.

    PubMed

    Yániz, J L; Soler, C; Santolaria, P

    2015-05-01

    Computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASMA or ASMA) systems were developed to reduce the subjectivity of sperm morphology assessement. This review focuses on a complete description of the CASMA technique, including recent developments, factors of variation, results in the different species and possible applications. Techniques to study sperm morphometry include light microscopy, phase-contrast microscopy and, more recently, fluorescence microscopy. Most published studies on sperm morphometry have been centered on the whole sperm heads, although some of them also measured other parts of the sperm structure, such as the nucleus, acrosome, midpiece or flagellum. The independent study of sperm components may be more informative than the traditional assessment of the whole sperm head. Morphometric data provided by the CASMA system may be analyzed using classical statistics although, given the heterogeneity of spermatozoa in the ejaculates, the study of sperm subpopulations using clustering procedures may be more informative. Morphometric results may vary depending on factors intrinsic and extrinsic to the semen donor. Intrinsic factors may include, among others, genetic factors, age and sexual maturity. Extrinsic factors may include those related to the influence of environment on the donor, as well as those related with sample processing and the morphometric analysis itself. Once standardized, this technique may provide relevant information in studies focused on evolutionary biology, sperm formation, sperm quality assessment, including prediction of the potential fertility, semen cryopreservation, or the effect of reprotoxicants. PMID:25802026

  2. Computer-assisted learning lessons in drug disposition and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Aarons, L; Foster, R W; Hollingsworth, M; Morgan, C H; Smith, A

    1988-09-01

    A suite of 18 computer-assisted learning (C.A.L.) lessons has been developed in drug disposition covering processes, concepts and techniques, and pharmacokinetics. Development of lesions and implementation (using CDC's PLATO Programmerless Courseware Development authoring language (Advanced Tutorial Model) for delivery on IBM-PC clones (some also using NPL's Microtext on BBC model B microcomputers) and evaluation by questionnaire proceeded in stages. Staff assessed the authoring system and library lessons for their potential usefulness. Students assessed the importance to their own learning of the features that good quality C.A.L. lessons should display. Finally, our lessons were assessed by students for the presence of these features, comparison with other forms of presentation, their teaching performance, and integration into the curriculum. The use of a programmerless authoring language allowed the authors to concentrate on lesson subject content. The students appreciated the ability to go at their own pace and that their active involvement was required. Lessons scored well in relation to private reading and lectures but less well in comparison with practical work and tutorials. Appropriate integration of C.A.L. into the curriculum was found to be important. Evaluation by questionnaire at each stage of development was valuable. PMID:3065577

  3. Simple and Computer-assisted Olfactory Testing for Mice.

    PubMed

    Brai, Emanuele; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is highly conserved among species and is required for reproduction and survival. In humans, olfaction is also one of the senses that is affected with aging and is a strong predictor of neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, olfaction testing is used as a non-invasive diagnostic method to detect neurological deficits early on. In order to understand the mechanisms underlying olfactory network susceptibility, olfactory research in rodents has gained momentum in the past decade. Here, we present a very simple, time efficient and reproducible olfactory testing method of innate odor perception and sensitivity in mice without the need of any prior food or water restriction. The tests are performed in a familiar environment to the mice, require only the scents and a 2 min session of odorant exposure. The analysis is performed, post-hoc, using computer-assisted commands on ImageJ and can be, therefore, carried out from start to end by one researcher. This protocol does not require any special hardware or setup and is indicated for any laboratory interested in testing olfactory perception and sensitivity.

  4. Computer-assisted education system for arrhythmia (CAESAR).

    PubMed

    Fukushima, M; Inoue, M; Fukunami, M; Ishikawa, K; Inada, H; Abe, H

    1984-08-01

    A computer-assisted education system for arrhythmia (CAESAR) was developed for students to acquire the ability to logically diagnose complicated arrhythmias. This system has a logical simulator of cardiac rhythm using a mathematical model of the impulse formation and conduction system of the heart. A simulated arrhythmia (ECG pattern) is given on a graphic display unit with simulated series of the action potential of five pacemaker centers and the "ladder diagram" of impulse formation and conduction, which show the mechanism of that arrhythmia. For the purpose of the evaluation of this system, 13 medical students were given two types of tests concerning arrhythmias before and after 2-hr learning with this system. The scores they obtained after learning increased significantly from 73.3 +/- 11.9 to 93.2 +/- 3.0 (P less than 0.001) in one test and from 47.2 +/- 17.9 to 64.9 +/- 19.6 (P less than 0.001) in another one. These results proved that this CAI system is useful and effective for training ECG interpretation of arrhythmias.

  5. Development of an Interactive Computer-Based Learning Strategy to Assist in Teaching Water Quality Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigic, Sasha; Lemckert, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    The following paper presents a computer-based learning strategy to assist in introducing and teaching water quality modelling to undergraduate civil engineering students. As part of the learning strategy, an interactive computer-based instructional (CBI) aid was specifically developed to assist students to set up, run and analyse the output from a…

  6. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Teaching on Remedying Misconceptions: The Case of the Subject "Probability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurbuz, Ramazan; Birgin, Osman

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of computer-assisted teaching (CAT) on remedying misconceptions students often have regarding some probability concepts in mathematics. Toward this aim, computer-assisted teaching materials were developed and used in the process of teaching. Within the true-experimental research method, a pre- and…

  7. A Descriptive Analysis of Computer-Assisted Teaching and Learning in Molecular Biological Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Guangxing; Yin, Jiechao; Ren, Yudong; Wang, Binjie; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2006-01-01

    The role and importance of computer-assisted teaching and learning in molecular biological-related education and research has been emphasized and pinpointed. In this study, some benefit viewpoints and discussion are provided for applying the computer-assisted teaching and learning more efficiently in the process of knowledge acquisition and…

  8. A Study of the Effects of Learning Style on Computer-Assisted Discovery Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jon-Chao; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined relationships between learning style and computer-assisted discovery learning. Secondary students used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to learn biology under three discovery learning circumstances. The main factor affecting the effectiveness of learning was students' initial acquisition of biology. Learning style and type…

  9. Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) over Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Seda; Basol, Gülsah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine the overall effects of Computer-Assisted Mathematics Education (CAME) on academic achievement. After an extensive review of the literature, studies using Turkish samples and observing the effects of Computer-Assisted Education (CAE) on mathematics achievement were examined. As a result of this…

  10. CHEMEX; Understanding and Solving Problems in Chemistry. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Program for General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    A brief overview of CHEMEX--a problem-solving, tutorial style computer-assisted instructional course--is provided and sample problems are offered. In CHEMEX, students receive problems in advance and attempt to solve them before moving through the computer program, which assists them in overcoming difficulties and serves as a review mechanism.…

  11. Learner Control Commands for Computer-Assisted Instruction Systems. Technical Report 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Stephen Ronald

    Student control of computer-assisted instruction has a number of pragmatic advantages due to difficulties in providing a general program which is truly individualized. The attempt here has been to define and describe the commands which could be modified to provide learner control in any computer-assisted instruction course. Some of the commands…

  12. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Treble Clef Note Reading for Gifted, Primary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Patricia D.

    A program was developed using computer-assisted instruction to enable gifted primary-level students to learn the basic elements of note reading in the treble clef at individual speeds and without stress of competition. The target group was selected from students enrolled in beginning and advanced ukulele classes. The computer-assisted instruction…

  13. Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2012-01-01

    Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

  14. A Computer-Assisted Instruction Program for Exercises on Finding Axioms. Technical Report Number 186.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Adele; Suppes, Patrick

    An interactive computer-assisted system for teaching elementary logic is described, which was designed to handle formalizations of first-order theories suitable for presentation in a computer-assisted instruction environment. The system provides tools with which the user can develop and then study a nonlogical axiomatic theory along whatever lines…

  15. Applications of NLP Techniques to Computer-Assisted Authoring of Test Items for Elementary Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chao-Lin; Lin, Jen-Hsiang; Wang, Yu-Chun

    2010-01-01

    The authors report an implemented environment for computer-assisted authoring of test items and provide a brief discussion about the applications of NLP techniques for computer assisted language learning. Test items can serve as a tool for language learners to examine their competence in the target language. The authors apply techniques for…

  16. Computer-assisted instruction for medicine and nursing: sources and programs.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, V; McCorkel, J

    1987-01-01

    A list of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) vendors and programs was compiled as a resource for medical librarians who are building a nonprint collection. It includes only computer-assisted instruction for clinical education in medicine and nursing. The very brief description of each program is followed by price, audience, and hardware requirements. PMID:3297219

  17. 25 CFR 20.313 - How will the Bureau compute financial assistance payments?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will the Bureau compute financial assistance payments? 20.313 Section 20.313 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES... will the Bureau compute financial assistance payments? (a) The social services worker will...

  18. Perceptions of the Computer-Assisted Writing Program among EFL College Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Yuehchiu

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the perceptions of a computer-assisted writing program among EFL learners in a college composition class. A mixed method research design was employed combining both qualitative and qualitative techniques. Forty-five junior students in a Taiwanese college writing class were introduced to the computer-assisted writing…

  19. Computer-Assisted Diagnostic Decision Support: History, Challenges, and Possible Paths Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a brief history of computer-assisted diagnosis, including challenges and future directions. Some ideas presented in this article on computer-assisted diagnostic decision support systems (CDDSS) derive from prior work by the author and his colleagues (see list in Acknowledgments) on the INTERNIST-1 and QMR projects. References…

  20. Computer-Assisted Assessment in Higher Education. Staff and Educational Development Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sally, Ed.; Race, Phil, Ed.; Bull, Joanna, Ed.

    This book profiles how computer-assisted assessment can help both staff and students by drawing on the experience and expertise of practitioners, in the United Kingdom and internationally, who are already using computer-assisted assessment. The publication is organized into three main sections--"Pragmatics and Practicalities of CAA,""Using CAA for…

  1. The Development of a Computer Assisted Distribution and Assignment (CADA) System for Navy Enlisted Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Randall F.; And Others

    This report describes the development of a computerized system to assist Navy personnel managers in carrying out the functions associated with the distribution and assignment of enlisted personnel. This Computer Assisted Distribution and Assignment (CADA) System is aimed at the most efficient interaction between the computer and human manager to…

  2. The Effects of Computer-Assisted Feedback Strategies in Technology Education: A Comparison of Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ruifang Hope; Strickland, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted feedback strategies that have been utilized by university students in a technology education curriculum. Specifically, the study examined the effectiveness of the computer-assisted feedback strategy "Knowledge of Response feedback" (KOR), and the "Knowledge of Correct Responses feedback"…

  3. Does Computer-Assisted Instruction Reduce Individual Differences? Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flammer, August

    The interrelationship of computer assisted instruction and individual differences was investigated. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) Bloom's hypothesis of decreasing individual differences under a mastery-learning strategy, and (2) the random walk interpretation of simplicial correlation matrices. Stanford's Computer-Assisted Instruction Math…

  4. A Multiscale Computational Framework to Understand Vascular Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Garbey, Marc; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berceli, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The failure rate for vascular interventions (vein bypass grafting, arterial angioplasty/stenting) remains unacceptably high. Over the past two decades, researchers have applied a wide variety of approaches to investigate the primary failure mechanisms, neointimal hyperplasia and aberrant remodeling of the wall, in an effort to identify novel therapeutic strategies. Despite incremental progress, specific cause/effect linkages among the primary drivers of the pathology, (hemodynamic factors, inflammatory biochemical mediators, cellular effectors) and vascular occlusive phenotype remain lacking. We propose a multiscale computational framework of vascular adaptation to develop a bridge between theory and experimental observation and to provide a method for the systematic testing of relevant clinical hypotheses. Cornerstone to our model is a feedback mechanism between environmental conditions and dynamic tissue plasticity described at the cellular level with an agent based model. Our implementation (i) is modular, (ii) starts from basic mechano-biology principle at the cell level and (iii) facilitates the agile development of the model. PMID:25977733

  5. Electronic Quality of Life Assessment Using Computer-Adaptive Testing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) questionnaires are desirable for clinical practice but can be time-consuming to administer and interpret, making their widespread adoption difficult. Objective Our aim was to assess the performance of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-100 questionnaire as four item banks to facilitate adaptive testing using simulated computer adaptive tests (CATs) for physical, psychological, social, and environmental QoL. Methods We used data from the UK WHOQOL-100 questionnaire (N=320) to calibrate item banks using item response theory, which included psychometric assessments of differential item functioning, local dependency, unidimensionality, and reliability. We simulated CATs to assess the number of items administered before prespecified levels of reliability was met. Results The item banks (40 items) all displayed good model fit (P>.01) and were unidimensional (fewer than 5% of t tests significant), reliable (Person Separation Index>.70), and free from differential item functioning (no significant analysis of variance interaction) or local dependency (residual correlations < +.20). When matched for reliability, the item banks were between 45% and 75% shorter than paper-based WHOQOL measures. Across the four domains, a high standard of reliability (alpha>.90) could be gained with a median of 9 items. Conclusions Using CAT, simulated assessments were as reliable as paper-based forms of the WHOQOL with a fraction of the number of items. These properties suggest that these item banks are suitable for computerized adaptive assessment. These item banks have the potential for international development using existing alternative language versions of the WHOQOL items. PMID:27694100

  6. Configurable multiplier modules for an adaptive computing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfänder, O. A.; Pfleiderer, H.-J.; Lachowicz, S. W.

    2006-09-01

    The importance of reconfigurable hardware is increasing steadily. For example, the primary approach of using adaptive systems based on programmable gate arrays and configurable routing resources has gone mainstream and high-performance programmable logic devices are rivaling traditional application-specific hardwired integrated circuits. Also, the idea of moving from the 2-D domain into a 3-D design which stacks several active layers above each other is gaining momentum in research and industry, to cope with the demand for smaller devices with a higher scale of integration. However, optimized arithmetic blocks in course-grain reconfigurable arrays as well as field-programmable architectures still play an important role. In countless digital systems and signal processing applications, the multiplication is one of the critical challenges, where in many cases a trade-off between area usage and data throughput has to be made. But the a priori choice of word-length and number representation can also be replaced by a dynamic choice at run-time, in order to improve flexibility, area efficiency and the level of parallelism in computation. In this contribution, we look at an adaptive computing system called 3-D-SoftChip to point out what parameters are crucial to implement flexible multiplier blocks into optimized elements for accelerated processing. The 3-D-SoftChip architecture uses a novel approach to 3-dimensional integration based on flip-chip bonding with indium bumps. The modular construction, the introduction of interfaces to realize the exchange of intermediate data, and the reconfigurable sign handling approach will be explained, as well as a beneficial way to handle and distribute the numerous required control signals.

  7. Computer-Assisted Instruction and the Teaching of Mathematics. Proceedings of a National Conference on Computer-Assisted Instruction (The Pennsylvania State University, September 24-26, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimer, Ralph T., Ed.

    The preface to this book notes the relationship of its contents to the 1968 conference "to appraise mathematics educators of the present status and future prospects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and its implications for the teaching of mathematics." The introduction, "Computers in Mathematics and Other Education," was the keynote address…

  8. Learners' Perceptions and Illusions of Adaptivity in Computer-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewaetere, Mieke; Vandercruysse, Sylke; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    Research on computer-based adaptive learning environments has shown exemplary growth. Although the mechanisms of effective adaptive instruction are unraveled systematically, little is known about the relative effect of learners' perceptions of adaptivity in adaptive learning environments. As previous research has demonstrated that the learners'…

  9. Combining Brain–Computer Interfaces and Assistive Technologies: State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Millán, J. d. R.; Rupp, R.; Müller-Putz, G. R.; Murray-Smith, R.; Giugliemma, C.; Tangermann, M.; Vidaurre, C.; Cincotti, F.; Kübler, A.; Leeb, R.; Neuper, C.; Müller, K.-R.; Mattia, D.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, new research has brought the field of electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain–computer interfacing (BCI) out of its infancy and into a phase of relative maturity through many demonstrated prototypes such as brain-controlled wheelchairs, keyboards, and computer games. With this proof-of-concept phase in the past, the time is now ripe to focus on the development of practical BCI technologies that can be brought out of the lab and into real-world applications. In particular, we focus on the prospect of improving the lives of countless disabled individuals through a combination of BCI technology with existing assistive technologies (AT). In pursuit of more practical BCIs for use outside of the lab, in this paper, we identify four application areas where disabled individuals could greatly benefit from advancements in BCI technology, namely, “Communication and Control”, “Motor Substitution”, “Entertainment”, and “Motor Recovery”. We review the current state of the art and possible future developments, while discussing the main research issues in these four areas. In particular, we expect the most progress in the development of technologies such as hybrid BCI architectures, user–machine adaptation algorithms, the exploitation of users’ mental states for BCI reliability and confidence measures, the incorporation of principles in human–computer interaction (HCI) to improve BCI usability, and the development of novel BCI technology including better EEG devices. PMID:20877434

  10. Quantitative error analysis for computer assisted navigation: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Güler, Ö.; Perwög, M.; Kral, F.; Schwarm, F.; Bárdosi, Z. R.; Göbel, G.; Freysinger, W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The benefit of computer-assisted navigation depends on the registration process, at which patient features are correlated to some preoperative imagery. The operator-induced uncertainty in localizing patient features – the User Localization Error (ULE) - is unknown and most likely dominating the application accuracy. This initial feasibility study aims at providing first data for ULE with a research navigation system. Methods Active optical navigation was done in CT-images of a plastic skull, an anatomic specimen (both with implanted fiducials) and a volunteer with anatomical landmarks exclusively. Each object was registered ten times with 3, 5, 7, and 9 registration points. Measurements were taken at 10 (anatomic specimen and volunteer) and 11 targets (plastic skull). The active NDI Polaris system was used under ideal working conditions (tracking accuracy 0.23 mm root mean square, RMS; probe tip calibration was 0.18 mm RMS. Variances of tracking along the principal directions were measured as 0.18 mm2, 0.32 mm2, and 0.42 mm2. ULE was calculated from predicted application accuracy with isotropic and anisotropic models and from experimental variances, respectively. Results The ULE was determined from the variances as 0.45 mm (plastic skull), 0.60 mm (anatomic specimen), and 4.96 mm (volunteer). The predicted application accuracy did not yield consistent values for the ULE. Conclusions Quantitative data of application accuracy could be tested against prediction models with iso- and anisotropic noise models and revealed some discrepancies. This could potentially be due to the facts that navigation and one prediction model wrongly assume isotropic noise (tracking is anisotropic), while the anisotropic noise prediction model assumes an anisotropic registration strategy (registration is isotropic in typical navigation systems). The ULE data are presumably the first quantitative values for the precision of localizing anatomical landmarks and implanted fiducials

  11. Computer-assisted initial diagnosis of rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Piñol, Marc; Vilaplana, Jordi; Teixidó, Ivan; Cruz, Joaquim; Comas, Jorge; Vilaprinyo, Ester; Sorribas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Most documented rare diseases have genetic origin. Because of their low individual frequency, an initial diagnosis based on phenotypic symptoms is not always easy, as practitioners might never have been exposed to patients suffering from the relevant disease. It is thus important to develop tools that facilitate symptom-based initial diagnosis of rare diseases by clinicians. In this work we aimed at developing a computational approach to aid in that initial diagnosis. We also aimed at implementing this approach in a user friendly web prototype. We call this tool Rare Disease Discovery. Finally, we also aimed at testing the performance of the prototype. Methods. Rare Disease Discovery uses the publicly available ORPHANET data set of association between rare diseases and their symptoms to automatically predict the most likely rare diseases based on a patient’s symptoms. We apply the method to retrospectively diagnose a cohort of 187 rare disease patients with confirmed diagnosis. Subsequently we test the precision, sensitivity, and global performance of the system under different scenarios by running large scale Monte Carlo simulations. All settings account for situations where absent and/or unrelated symptoms are considered in the diagnosis. Results. We find that this expert system has high diagnostic precision (≥80%) and sensitivity (≥99%), and is robust to both absent and unrelated symptoms. Discussion. The Rare Disease Discovery prediction engine appears to provide a fast and robust method for initial assisted differential diagnosis of rare diseases. We coupled this engine with a user-friendly web interface and it can be freely accessed at http://disease-discovery.udl.cat/. The code and most current database for the whole project can be downloaded from https://github.com/Wrrzag/DiseaseDiscovery/tree/no_classifiers. PMID:27547534

  12. Computer-assisted initial diagnosis of rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rui; Piñol, Marc; Vilaplana, Jordi; Teixidó, Ivan; Cruz, Joaquim; Comas, Jorge; Vilaprinyo, Ester; Sorribas, Albert; Solsona, Francesc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Most documented rare diseases have genetic origin. Because of their low individual frequency, an initial diagnosis based on phenotypic symptoms is not always easy, as practitioners might never have been exposed to patients suffering from the relevant disease. It is thus important to develop tools that facilitate symptom-based initial diagnosis of rare diseases by clinicians. In this work we aimed at developing a computational approach to aid in that initial diagnosis. We also aimed at implementing this approach in a user friendly web prototype. We call this tool Rare Disease Discovery. Finally, we also aimed at testing the performance of the prototype. Methods. Rare Disease Discovery uses the publicly available ORPHANET data set of association between rare diseases and their symptoms to automatically predict the most likely rare diseases based on a patient's symptoms. We apply the method to retrospectively diagnose a cohort of 187 rare disease patients with confirmed diagnosis. Subsequently we test the precision, sensitivity, and global performance of the system under different scenarios by running large scale Monte Carlo simulations. All settings account for situations where absent and/or unrelated symptoms are considered in the diagnosis. Results. We find that this expert system has high diagnostic precision (≥80%) and sensitivity (≥99%), and is robust to both absent and unrelated symptoms. Discussion. The Rare Disease Discovery prediction engine appears to provide a fast and robust method for initial assisted differential diagnosis of rare diseases. We coupled this engine with a user-friendly web interface and it can be freely accessed at http://disease-discovery.udl.cat/. The code and most current database for the whole project can be downloaded from https://github.com/Wrrzag/DiseaseDiscovery/tree/no_classifiers. PMID:27547534

  13. Reliability analysis framework for computer-assisted medical decision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Habas, Piotr A.; Zurada, Jacek M.; Elmaghraby, Adel S.; Tourassi, Georgia D.

    2007-02-15

    We present a technique that enhances computer-assisted decision (CAD) systems with the ability to assess the reliability of each individual decision they make. Reliability assessment is achieved by measuring the accuracy of a CAD system with known cases similar to the one in question. The proposed technique analyzes the feature space neighborhood of the query case to dynamically select an input-dependent set of known cases relevant to the query. This set is used to assess the local (query-specific) accuracy of the CAD system. The estimated local accuracy is utilized as a reliability measure of the CAD response to the query case. The underlying hypothesis of the study is that CAD decisions with higher reliability are more accurate. The above hypothesis was tested using a mammographic database of 1337 regions of interest (ROIs) with biopsy-proven ground truth (681 with masses, 656 with normal parenchyma). Three types of decision models, (i) a back-propagation neural network (BPNN), (ii) a generalized regression neural network (GRNN), and (iii) a support vector machine (SVM), were developed to detect masses based on eight morphological features automatically extracted from each ROI. The performance of all decision models was evaluated using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The study showed that the proposed reliability measure is a strong predictor of the CAD system's case-specific accuracy. Specifically, the ROC area index for CAD predictions with high reliability was significantly better than for those with low reliability values. This result was consistent across all decision models investigated in the study. The proposed case-specific reliability analysis technique could be used to alert the CAD user when an opinion that is unlikely to be reliable is offered. The technique can be easily deployed in the clinical environment because it is applicable with a wide range of classifiers regardless of their structure and it requires neither additional

  14. Adaptive-projection intrinsically transformed multivariate empirical mode decomposition in cooperative brain-computer interface applications.

    PubMed

    Hemakom, Apit; Goverdovsky, Valentin; Looney, David; Mandic, Danilo P

    2016-04-13

    An extension to multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD), termed adaptive-projection intrinsically transformed MEMD (APIT-MEMD), is proposed to cater for power imbalances and inter-channel correlations in real-world multichannel data. It is shown that the APIT-MEMD exhibits similar or better performance than MEMD for a large number of projection vectors, whereas it outperforms MEMD for the critical case of a small number of projection vectors within the sifting algorithm. We also employ the noise-assisted APIT-MEMD within our proposed intrinsic multiscale analysis framework and illustrate the advantages of such an approach in notoriously noise-dominated cooperative brain-computer interface (BCI) based on the steady-state visual evoked potentials and the P300 responses. Finally, we show that for a joint cognitive BCI task, the proposed intrinsic multiscale analysis framework improves system performance in terms of the information transfer rate. PMID:26953174

  15. Interactive computer-assisted instruction in acid-base physiology for mobile computer platforms.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, Kenneth J

    2014-03-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ∼20 screens of information, on the subjects of the CO2-bicarbonate buffer system, other body buffer systems, and acid-base disorders. Five clinical case modules were also developed. For the learning modules, the interactive, active learning activities were primarily step-by-step learner control of explanations of complex physiological concepts, usually presented graphically. For the clinical cases, the active learning activities were primarily question-and-answer exercises that related clinical findings to the relevant basic science concepts. The student response was remarkably positive, with the interactive, active learning aspect of the instruction cited as the most important feature. Also, students cited the self-paced instruction, extensive use of interactive graphics, and side-by-side presentation of text and graphics as positive features. Most students reported that it took less time to study the subject matter with this online instruction compared with subject matter presented in the lecture hall. However, the approach to learning was highly examination driven, with most students delaying the study of the subject matter until a few days before the scheduled examination. Wider implementation of active learning computer-assisted instruction will require that instructors present subject matter interactively, that students fully embrace the responsibilities of independent learning, and that institutional administrations measure instructional effort by criteria other than scheduled hours of instruction.

  16. Interactive computer-assisted instruction in acid-base physiology for mobile computer platforms.

    PubMed

    Longmuir, Kenneth J

    2014-03-01

    In this project, the traditional lecture hall presentation of acid-base physiology in the first-year medical school curriculum was replaced by interactive, computer-assisted instruction designed primarily for the iPad and other mobile computer platforms. Three learning modules were developed, each with ∼20 screens of information, on the subjects of the CO2-bicarbonate buffer system, other body buffer systems, and acid-base disorders. Five clinical case modules were also developed. For the learning modules, the interactive, active learning activities were primarily step-by-step learner control of explanations of complex physiological concepts, usually presented graphically. For the clinical cases, the active learning activities were primarily question-and-answer exercises that related clinical findings to the relevant basic science concepts. The student response was remarkably positive, with the interactive, active learning aspect of the instruction cited as the most important feature. Also, students cited the self-paced instruction, extensive use of interactive graphics, and side-by-side presentation of text and graphics as positive features. Most students reported that it took less time to study the subject matter with this online instruction compared with subject matter presented in the lecture hall. However, the approach to learning was highly examination driven, with most students delaying the study of the subject matter until a few days before the scheduled examination. Wider implementation of active learning computer-assisted instruction will require that instructors present subject matter interactively, that students fully embrace the responsibilities of independent learning, and that institutional administrations measure instructional effort by criteria other than scheduled hours of instruction. PMID:24585467

  17. The management of endodontically treated teeth using a Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Assisted Manufacturing/Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing system.

    PubMed

    Foerster, J G; von Gonten, A S; Robert, G H

    1999-01-01

    This article introduces a new approach for restoring endodontically treated posterior teeth. Significantly reduced natural tooth structure often remains not only because of previous restorative measures but also because of endodontic procedures. Cast restorations for these teeth are almost universally recommended. The exception to this is the rare instance in which only conservative endodontic access openings exist in teeth presenting with no former existing restorations. Typically, multiple clinical appointments are required to complete the final cast restoration. This article presents Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Assisted Manufacturing/Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing applications for restorative dentistry that provide the necessary care in an expeditious manner.

  18. Computer-Assisted Handwriting Analysis: Interaction with Legal Issues in U.S. Courts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Kenneth A.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    Advances in the development of computer-assisted handwriting analysis have led to the consideration of a computational system by courts in the United States. Computer-assisted handwriting analysis has been introduced in the context of Frye or Daubert hearings conducted to determine the admissibility of handwriting testimony by questioned document examiners, as expert witnesses, in civil and criminal proceedings. This paper provides a comparison of scientific and judicial methods, and examines concerns over reliability of handwriting analysis expressed in judicial decisions. Recently, the National Research Council assessed that “the scientific basis for handwriting comparisons needs to be strengthened”. Recent studies involving computer-assisted handwriting analysis are reviewed in light of the concerns expressed by the judiciary and National Research Council. A future potential role for computer-assisted handwriting analysis in the courts is identified.

  19. Assisting People with Developmental Disabilities to Improve Computer Pointing Efficiency through Multiple Mice and Automatic Pointing Assistive Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study combines multi-mice technology (people with disabilities can use standard mice, instead of specialized alternative computer input devices, to achieve complete mouse operation) with an assistive pointing function (i.e. cursor-capturing, which enables the user to move the cursor to the target center automatically), to assess whether two…

  20. Computer Assisted Instruction in Schools: Achievements, Present Developments, and Projections for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallworth, H. J.; Brebner, Ann

    This overview of computer assisted instruction (CAI) traces the development and use of computers in learning and instruction and describes some current CAI projects including PLATO, CDC PLATO, TICCIT, and others at Stanford University and the Computer Curriculum Corporation, and in Chicago, Los Nietos (California), Minnesota, Europe, and Canada.…

  1. Generative Computer Assisted Instruction: An Application of Artificial Intelligence to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.

    Frame-oriented computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems dominate the field, but these mechanized programed texts utilize the computational power of the computer to a minimal degree and are difficult to modify. Newer, generative CAI systems which are supplied with a knowledge of subject matter can generate their own problems and solutions, can…

  2. MICA, Managed Instruction with Computer Assistance: Level Five. An Outline of the System's Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Thomas B.; And Others

    Computer technology has been used since 1972 in the Madison, Wisconsin, public schools to control the flow of information required to support individualized instruction. Madison's computer-managed instruction system, MICA (Managed Instruction with Computer Assistance), operates interactively within individualized instruction programs to provide…

  3. Computer-assisted instruction of arrhythmia for MS-windows.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, A; Nara, Y; Ikeda, N; Miyahara, H; Mitobe, H

    1995-01-01

    1. INTRODUCTION. Training in the diagnosis of arrhythmias is an important part of the curriculum for medical students, postgraduates, and paramedical staff. Although several CAI for arrhythmia have been developed [1-3], we could not get CAI software for arrhythmia for the MS-Windows environment. In this report, we present a newly-developed computer-assisted reference system for arrhythmia that functions in the Windows environment. 2. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM. The system consists of a program and two data files. An MS-Windows program (ECG9405.EXE, 180kB) was compiled using Borland's C++ v.3.1. A binary file (ECPAT.BAS 33kB) includes data of normal and abnormal wave segments of ECG: P wave, PQ interval segment, and QRs complex with/without T wave. A mother file (ECG9405.sys, 57kB) includes 85 data sets to generate ECG waveforms of arrhythmia. Each data set contains a sequence of wave form numbers, the text for questions and answers, and the commands strings. There are five major commands: 1) to create a new window as "wave window"; 2) to make electrocardiogram data; 3) to plot the data on the window; 4) to create a "dialog box" for questions and explanations; and 5) to check the answers. he program gets a data set from the data according to the user's choice. The program then interprets the data set and executes the commands. The wave segment data are plotted in a "wave window" at every 10 milliseconds; this is controlled by the MS-Windows' timer. The timer interval can be changed by selecting the speed button. The ECG waveforms are displayed on a window just like an ordinary ECG monitor with beat sound. Many windows can be created by the user and many ECG waves simultaneously plotted on CRT. 3. USAGE OF THE SYSTEM. The "main window" has a menu that has three items corresponding to the training course: BASIC, TRY, and TEST. Thirty-five types of arrythmias are listed in the "list box" of the windows in BASIC course e.g., sinus arrhythmia, atrial flutter, atrial

  4. Computer-adaptive test to measure community reintegration of Veterans.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Tian, Feng; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Community Reintegration of Injured Service Members (CRIS) measure consists of three scales measuring extent of, perceived limitations in, and satisfaction with community reintegration. Length of the CRIS may be a barrier to its widespread use. Using item response theory (IRT) and computer-adaptive test (CAT) methodologies, this study developed and evaluated a briefer community reintegration measure called the CRIS-CAT. Large item banks for each CRIS scale were constructed. A convenience sample of 517 Veterans responded to all items. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to identify the dimensionality within each domain, and IRT methods were used to calibrate items. Accuracy and precision of CATs of different lengths were compared with the full-item bank, and data were examined for differential item functioning (DIF). CFAs supported unidimensionality of scales. Acceptable item fit statistics were found for final models. Accuracy of 10-, 15-, 20-, and variable-item CATs for all three scales was 0.88 or above. CAT precision increased with number of items administered and decreased at the upper ranges of each scale. Three items exhibited moderate DIF by sex. The CRIS-CAT demonstrated promising measurement properties and is recommended for use in community reintegration assessment. PMID:22773259

  5. Computer-adaptive test to measure community reintegration of Veterans.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Tian, Feng; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Community Reintegration of Injured Service Members (CRIS) measure consists of three scales measuring extent of, perceived limitations in, and satisfaction with community reintegration. Length of the CRIS may be a barrier to its widespread use. Using item response theory (IRT) and computer-adaptive test (CAT) methodologies, this study developed and evaluated a briefer community reintegration measure called the CRIS-CAT. Large item banks for each CRIS scale were constructed. A convenience sample of 517 Veterans responded to all items. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to identify the dimensionality within each domain, and IRT methods were used to calibrate items. Accuracy and precision of CATs of different lengths were compared with the full-item bank, and data were examined for differential item functioning (DIF). CFAs supported unidimensionality of scales. Acceptable item fit statistics were found for final models. Accuracy of 10-, 15-, 20-, and variable-item CATs for all three scales was 0.88 or above. CAT precision increased with number of items administered and decreased at the upper ranges of each scale. Three items exhibited moderate DIF by sex. The CRIS-CAT demonstrated promising measurement properties and is recommended for use in community reintegration assessment.

  6. Adaptive Offset Correction for Intracortical Brain Computer Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Homer, Mark L.; Perge, János A.; Black, Michael J.; Harrison, Matthew T.; Cash, Sydney S.; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2014-01-01

    Intracortical brain computer interfaces (iBCIs) decode intended movement from neural activity for the control of external devices such as a robotic arm. Standard approaches include a calibration phase to estimate decoding parameters. During iBCI operation, the statistical properties of the neural activity can depart from those observed during calibration, sometimes hindering a user’s ability to control the iBCI. To address this problem, we adaptively correct the offset terms within a Kalman filter decoder via penalized maximum likelihood estimation. The approach can handle rapid shifts in neural signal behavior (on the order of seconds) and requires no knowledge of the intended movement. The algorithm, called MOCA, was tested using simulated neural activity and evaluated retrospectively using data collected from two people with tetraplegia operating an iBCI. In 19 clinical research test cases, where a nonadaptive Kalman filter yielded relatively high decoding errors, MOCA significantly reduced these errors (10.6 ±10.1%; p<0.05, pairwise t-test). MOCA did not significantly change the error in the remaining 23 cases where a nonadaptive Kalman filter already performed well. These results suggest that MOCA provides more robust decoding than the standard Kalman filter for iBCIs. PMID:24196868

  7. Adaptive offset correction for intracortical brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Homer, Mark L; Perge, Janos A; Black, Michael J; Harrison, Matthew T; Cash, Sydney S; Hochberg, Leigh R

    2014-03-01

    Intracortical brain-computer interfaces (iBCIs) decode intended movement from neural activity for the control of external devices such as a robotic arm. Standard approaches include a calibration phase to estimate decoding parameters. During iBCI operation, the statistical properties of the neural activity can depart from those observed during calibration, sometimes hindering a user's ability to control the iBCI. To address this problem, we adaptively correct the offset terms within a Kalman filter decoder via penalized maximum likelihood estimation. The approach can handle rapid shifts in neural signal behavior (on the order of seconds) and requires no knowledge of the intended movement. The algorithm, called multiple offset correction algorithm (MOCA), was tested using simulated neural activity and evaluated retrospectively using data collected from two people with tetraplegia operating an iBCI. In 19 clinical research test cases, where a nonadaptive Kalman filter yielded relatively high decoding errors, MOCA significantly reduced these errors ( 10.6 ± 10.1% ; p < 0.05, pairwise t-test). MOCA did not significantly change the error in the remaining 23 cases where a nonadaptive Kalman filter already performed well. These results suggest that MOCA provides more robust decoding than the standard Kalman filter for iBCIs.

  8. Text processing for technical reports (direct computer-assisted origination, editing, and output of text)

    SciTech Connect

    De Volpi, A.; Fenrick, M. R.; Stanford, G. S.; Fink, C. L.; Rhodes, E. A.

    1980-10-01

    Documentation often is a primary residual of research and development. Because of this important role and because of the large amount of time consumed in generating technical reports, particularly those containing formulas and graphics, an existing data-processing computer system has been adapted so as to provide text-processing of technical documents. Emphasis has been on accuracy, turnaround time, and time savings for staff and secretaries, for the types of reports normally produced in the reactor development program. The computer-assisted text-processing system, called TXT, has been implemented to benefit primarily the originator of technical reports. The system is of particular value to professional staff, such as scientists and engineers, who have responsibility for generating much correspondence or lengthy, complex reports or manuscripts - especially if prompt turnaround and high accuracy are required. It can produce text that contains special Greek or mathematical symbols. Written in FORTRAN and MACRO, the program TXT operates on a PDP-11 minicomputer under the RSX-11M multitask multiuser monitor. Peripheral hardware includes videoterminals, electrostatic printers, and magnetic disks. Either data- or word-processing tasks may be performed at the terminals. The repertoire of operations has been restricted so as to minimize user training and memory burden. Spectarial staff may be readily trained to make corrections from annotated copy. Some examples of camera-ready copy are provided.

  9. Staff and student perceptions of computer-assisted assessment for physiology practical classes.

    PubMed

    Sheader, Elizabeth; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Grady, Ruth

    2006-12-01

    Effective assessment of laboratory practicals is a challenge for large-size classes. To reduce the administrative burden of staff members without compromising the student learning experience, we utilized dedicated computer software for short-answer question assessment for nearly 300 students and compared it with the more traditional, paper-based method of assessment of the same student cohort. Students were generally favorably disposed toward computer-assisted assessment (CAA): 75% of the students responded that for future assignments, they either had no preference for the method of assessment or would prefer CAA. Advantages were perceived to be remote access to the questions and ease of submission. The most common disadvantage cited was lack of internet access. Various advantages of CAA were mentioned by staff members: notably, the reduction in marking time and reduction of paperwork as well as the potential for the software to detect plagiarism and to administer anonymous marking. Disadvantages to CAA were the need to tailor questions to the technology, having to adapt to reading answers and marking onscreen, and the quality of feedback to students. All of the disadvantages could be overcome by training and improved versions of CAA software, currently under development. The use of CAA has proved to be a welcome addition to the tools available to staff members for the assessment of practical classes, and future improved versions of the software will increase the utility of this assessment method. PMID:17108245

  10. STANFORD PROGRAM IN COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION, PROGRESS REPORT 7, FOR THE PERIOD APRIL 1, 1967 TO JUNE 30, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ATKINSON, RICHARD C.; SUPPES, PATRICK

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE PROJECTS IN COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION CONDUCTED AT THE STANFORD LABORATORY FOR COMPUTER-ASSISTED LEARNING AND TEACHING AND AT THE STANFORD-BRENTWOOD COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) LABORATORY. THE MAJOR ACTIVITIES, WHICH ARE REPORTED FOR THE PERIOD FROM APRIL 1 TO JUNE 30, 1967, ARE (1) READING AND MATHEMATICS AT…

  11. STANFORD PROGRAM IN COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION, PROGRESS REPORT 6, FOR THE PERIOD JANUARY 1, 1967 TO MARCH 31, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ATKINSON, RICHARD C.; SUPPES, PATRICK

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE PROJECTS IN COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION CONDUCTED AT THE STANFORD LABORATORY FOR COMPUTER-ASSISTED LEARNING AND TEACHING AND AT THE STANFORD-BRENTWOOD COMPUTER-ASSISTED INSTRUCTION (CAI) LABORATORY. THE MAJOR ACTIVITIES, WHICH ARE REPORTED FOR THE PERIOD FROM JANUARY 1 THROUGH MARCH 31, 1967, ARE RELATED TO (1) READING…

  12. 45 CFR 233.35 - Computing the assistance payment under retrospective budgeting after the initial one or two...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computing the assistance payment under... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.35 Computing the assistance payment under retrospective budgeting after... shall be computed retrospectively, i.e., shall be based on income and other relevant circumstances...

  13. Research Issues in Computer-Assisted Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacGregor, S. Kim

    This review of the research on concerns associated with the use of computers in school learning environments focuses primarily on issues related to the impact of computer technology on equity, especially the reasons for differential use of computers by boys and girls and the effects of economic disparities among schools and students; differences…

  14. Artificial Intelligence and Computer Assisted Instruction. CITE Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsom-Cook, Mark

    The purpose of the paper is to outline some of the major ways in which artificial intelligence research and techniques can affect usage of computers in an educational environment. The role of artificial intelligence is defined, and the difference between Computer Aided Instruction (CAI) and Intelligent Computer Aided Instruction (ICAI) is…

  15. Application of Computer-Assisted Learning Methods in the Teaching of Chemical Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayscough, P. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the application of computer-assisted learning methods to the interpretation of infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectra; and outlines extensions into the area of integrated spectroscopy. (Author/CMV)

  16. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Second-Language Learning: An Alberta Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    1977-01-01

    A computer-assisted instruction program in French is described. Preliminary analysis suggests the program was successful and has potential for use in a regular French course. Advantages to the student as a method of individualized instruction are noted. (CHK)

  17. Delivering Continuing Education to the Pharmacist: Correspondence Course versus Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, K. Richard; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of the effectiveness of two teaching methods, correspondence study and computer-assisted instruction, for professional continuing education in pharmacokinetics found that both were effective methods. (AUTHOR/MSE)

  18. Training Counselors to Use Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems More Effectively: A Model Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobek, Becky L.; Robbins, Steven B.; Gore, Paul A., Jr.; Harris-Bowlsbey, JoAnn; Lapan, Richard T.; Dahir, Carol A.; Jepsen, David A.

    2005-01-01

    A model graduate training curriculum that emphasizes the counselor's role in assisting clients in the effective use of computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) systems is described in this article. This 4-module graduate training program emphasizes client readiness and exploration using CACG systems, skill building and simulation exercises, and…

  19. 45 CFR 233.24 - Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility and computing the assistance payment in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility and computing the assistance payment in the initial one or two months. 233.24 Section 233.24 Public... ELIGIBILITY IN FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.24 Retrospective budgeting; determining eligibility...

  20. Computer-Assisted Reading Intervention in a Secondary School: An Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Lisa; Fawcett, Angela J.; Nicolson, Roderick I.

    2000-01-01

    RITA (Reader's Interactive Teaching Assistant) is a computer-based literacy support system that assists, rather than replaces, the teacher in providing support tailored to each child's profile of reading attainments. This study evaluated the effectiveness of RITA in secondary school with 8 children having very seriously disadvantaged literacy…

  1. Robot-Assisted Navigation versus Computer-Assisted Navigation in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: Efficiency and Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Clark, Tanner C; Schmidt, Frank H

    2013-01-01

    Background. Since the introduction of robot-assisted navigation in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA), there has been little research conducted examining the efficiency and accuracy of the system compared to computer-assisted navigation systems. Objective. To compare the efficiency and accuracy of Praxim robot-assisted navigation (RAN) and Stryker computer-assisted navigation (CAN) in primary TKA. Methods. This was a retrospective study consisting of 52 patients who underwent primary TKA utilizing RAN and 29 patients utilizing CAN. The primary outcome measure was navigation time. Secondary outcome measures included intraoperative final mechanical axis alignment, intraoperative robot-assisted bone cut accuracy, tourniquet time, and hospitalization length. Results. RAN navigation times were, on average, 9.0 minutes shorter compared to CAN after adjustment. The average absolute intraoperative malalignment was 0.5° less in the RAN procedures compared to the CAN procedures after adjustment. Patients in the RAN group tended to be discharged 0.6 days earlier compared to patients in the CAN group after adjustment. Conclusions. Among patients undergoing TKA, there was decreased navigation time, decreased final malalignment, and decreased hospitalization length associated with the use of RAN when compared to CAN independent of age, BMI, and pre-replacement alignment.

  2. Identifying Differential Item Functioning in Multi-Stage Computer Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis; Li, Johnson

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of CATSIB (Computer Adaptive Testing-Simultaneous Item Bias Test) for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) when items in the matching and studied subtest are administered adaptively in the context of a realistic multi-stage adaptive test (MST). MST was simulated using a 4-item…

  3. Computer Assisted Instruction. 1988-89. 353 Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granite School District, Salt Lake City, UT.

    The Granite School District (Utah) conducted a project to implement competency-based/technology-assisted instruction in all of its adult high schools. The district adopted the state's core curriculum in order to establish clearly defined instructional goals and objectives; revised and added to the instructional units; made the curriculum uniform…

  4. A Computer-Assisted Approach to Conducting Cooperative Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Jin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tseng, Judy C. R.; Hwang, Gwo-Haur

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning has been proven to be helpful in enhancing the learning performance of students. The goal of a cooperative learning group is to maximize all members' learning, which is accomplished via promoting each other's success, through assisting, sharing, mentoring, explaining, and encouragement. To achieve the goal of cooperative…

  5. The Role of Computer Assisted Fluid Balance in Critical Care

    PubMed Central

    Ciccolella, Sergio A.; Halloran, Mark J.; Brimm, John E.; O'Hara, Michael R.

    1978-01-01

    Computational, reporting, and data base management needs along with growth in sophistication have propelled the application of computers in medicine. These elements are satisfying specific clinical needs in the fluid balance program design that was undertaken. Significant potential exists for extending the computer's intervention by using available transducing techniques to obtain information that is currently manually derived. Thus, the design currently satisfies the goal of maximizing information while minimizing labor intensive overhead and will continue to evolve in that direction.

  6. Creative Applications of Computer Assisted Reading and Writing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Claire

    1988-01-01

    Describes an inservice workshop that shows teachers the difference between canned and creative classroom use of computers. Presents an exercise using freewriting, brainstorming, sequencing, and peer evaluation. (RAE)

  7. Condition Driven Adaptive Music Generation for Computer Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naushad, Alamgir; Muhammad, Tufail

    2013-02-01

    The video game industry has grown to a multi-billion dollar, worldwide industry. The background music tends adaptively in reference to the specific game content during the game length of the play. Adaptive music should be further explored by looking at the particular condition in the game; such condition is driven by generating a specific music in the background which best fits in with the active game content throughout the length of the gameplay. This research paper outlines the use of condition driven adaptive music generation for audio and video to dynamically incorporate adaptively.

  8. Use of Computer Assisted Assessment: Benefits to Students and Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Derek

    2001-01-01

    Compares the use of computers with traditional paper and pencil to deliver objective tests for summative assessment with undergraduates in the United Kingdom. Considers issues of gender differences, objective testing, computer anxiety, and benefits to staff and students, and recommends the need for pre-test preparation and practice testing.…

  9. Using Computer-Assisted Assessment Heuristics for Usability Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Gavin; Read, Janet C.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching practices within educational institutions have evolved through the increased adoption of technology to deliver the curriculum and the use of computers for assessment purposes. For educational technologists, there is a vast array of commercial computer applications available for the delivery of objective tests, and in some instances,…

  10. Computer simulation of the mechanically-assisted failing canine circulation.

    PubMed

    Barnea, O; Moore, T W; Jaron, D

    1990-01-01

    A model of the cardiovascular system is presented. The model includes representations of the left and right ventricles, a nonlinear multielement model of the aorta and its main branches, and lumped models of the systemic veins and the pulmonary circulation. A simulation of the intra-aortic balloon pump and representations of physiological compensatory mechanisms are also incorporated in the model. Parameters of the left ventricular model were set to simulate either the normal or failing canine circulation. Pressure and flow waveforms throughout the circulation as well as ventricular pressure and volume were calculated for the normal, failing, and assisted failing circulation. Cardiac oxygen supply and consumption were calculated from the model. They were used as direct indices of cardiac energy supply and utilization to assess the effects of cardiac assistance.

  11. 45 CFR 233.34 - Computing the assistance payment in the initial one or two months (AFDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computing the assistance payment in the initial... § 233.34 Computing the assistance payment in the initial one or two months (AFDC). A State shall compute...) If the initial month is computed prospectively as in paragraph (a) of this section, the second...

  12. 45 CFR 233.34 - Computing the assistance payment in the initial one or two months (AFDC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computing the assistance payment in the initial... § 233.34 Computing the assistance payment in the initial one or two months (AFDC). A State shall compute...) If the initial month is computed prospectively as in paragraph (a) of this section, the second...

  13. Pruning a decision tree for selecting computer-related assistive devices for people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Chi, Chia-Fen; Tseng, Li-Kai; Jang, Yuh

    2012-07-01

    Many disabled individuals lack extensive knowledge about assistive technology, which could help them use computers. In 1997, Denis Anson developed a decision tree of 49 evaluative questions designed to evaluate the functional capabilities of the disabled user and choose an appropriate combination of assistive devices, from a selection of 26, that enable the individual to use a computer. In general, occupational therapists guide the disabled users through this process. They often have to go over repetitive questions in order to find an appropriate device. A disabled user may require an alphanumeric entry device, a pointing device, an output device, a performance enhancement device, or some combination of these. Therefore, the current research eliminates redundant questions and divides Anson's decision tree into multiple independent subtrees to meet the actual demand of computer users with disabilities. The modified decision tree was tested by six disabled users to prove it can determine a complete set of assistive devices with a smaller number of evaluative questions. The means to insert new categories of computer-related assistive devices was included to ensure the decision tree can be expanded and updated. The current decision tree can help the disabled users and assistive technology practitioners to find appropriate computer-related assistive devices that meet with clients' individual needs in an efficient manner. PMID:22552588

  14. A more efficient anisotropic mesh adaptation for the computation of Lagrangian coherent structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, A.; Briffard, T.; Garon, A.

    2015-03-01

    The computation of Lagrangian coherent structures is more and more used in fluid mechanics to determine subtle fluid flow structures. We present in this paper a new adaptive method for the efficient computation of Finite Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) from which the coherent Lagrangian structures can be obtained. This new adaptive method considerably reduces the computational burden without any loss of accuracy on the FTLE field.

  15. A Computer-Assisted Laboratory Sequence for Petroleum Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, David N.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a competitive oil-play game for petroleum geology students. It is accompanied by a computer program written in interactive Fortran. The program, however, is not essential, but useful for adding more interest. (SA)

  16. Hearts and Rabbits: Computer-Assisted Language Experience Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Mary F.

    1993-01-01

    Describes how to use word processing with first graders in lessons exploring oral and written language via the computer. Suggests ways to use the language experience approach in whole-class as well as small-group instruction. (SR)

  17. Report on WRITE; A Computer Assisted Instruction Course in Written English Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunwell, Stephen; And Others

    A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) course, WRITE, was used at the Poughkeepsie, New York, Middle School to help 5th through 8th graders with spelling and word usage problems. The course used the Coursewriter III language and an IBM System/360 computer; students received self-paced instructional programs at typewriter terminals. All teaching…

  18. Some Factors in the Design of Systems for Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolurow, Lawrence M.

    Computer assisted instruction (CAI) can achieve its potential as a tool for individualizing instruction only if the flexible logic and memory capabilities of computers are utilized. An instructional program must be written in such a way that it can handle at least three variables: (a) who is being taught; (b) what is critical; and (c) how the…

  19. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Elementary Logic at the University Level. Technical Report No. 239.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Adele; Suppes, Patrick

    Earlier research by the authors in the design and use of computer-assisted instructional systems and curricula for teaching mathematical logic to gifted elementary school students has been extended to the teaching of university-level courses. This report is a description of the curriculum and problem types of a computer-based course offered at…

  20. Computer-Assisted Instruction Program: Tennessee State University. Technical Report Number 198.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searle, Barbara; And Others

    The computer-assisted instruction program at Tennessee State University in cooperation with the Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences at Stanford University during the spring and summer of 1972 is described in this report. Four courses in Basic English, Algebra, Computer Programing, and Symbolic Logic are described. Amount of…

  1. Views of Pre-Service Primary School Teachers Regarding Computer Assisted Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Ilhan

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to highlight the importance of computer assisted instruction in environmental education. Recently, the importance of environmental education in many countries has begun to increase in parallel with environmental problems. This has led to increased interest in environmental education. The fact that computers were the…

  2. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  3. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Latin and in English Vocabulary Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in Latin and in English vocabulary development, which is used at the University of Illinois-Urbana, is described. The computer portion of the beginning Latin course consists of 40 lessons which provide drill and practice in vocabulary, morphology, and syntax. The program can be used either as a classroom supplement or…

  4. Development and Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Assessment in Higher Education in Relation to BS7988

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry; Warburton, Bill; Maier, Pat; Warren, Adam

    2006-01-01

    A university-wide project team of academic and administrative staff worked together to prepare, deliver and evaluate a number of diagnostic, formative and summative computer-based assessments. The team also attempted to assess the University of Southampton's readiness to deliver computer-assisted assessment (CAA) within the "Code of practice for…

  5. Fabric of Life: The Design of a System for Computer-Assisted Instruction in Histology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, S. K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the establishment of a library of computer images of histological preparations and the use of this library for computer-assisted instruction. Images from various organ systems along with line diagrams are stored on a central file server which can be accessed from remote terminals. The Fabric of Life program allows testing on each image…

  6. Computer-Assisted Performance Evaluation for Navy Anti-Air Warfare Training: Concepts, Methods, and Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesler, David J.

    An improved general methodological approach for the development of computer-assisted evaluation of trainee performance in the computer-based simulation environment is formulated in this report. The report focuses on the Tactical Advanced Combat Direction and Electronic Warfare system (TACDEW) at the Fleet Anti-Air Warfare Training Center at San…

  7. Computer-Assisted Audiovisual Training Methods for Rural Staff Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeece, C. Aaron

    The state-of-the art review suggests that human services agencies in rural areas can provide adequate staff training through the use of high technology training systems. Training equipment discussed includes: videotapes, microcomputers for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) or computer-managed instruction (CMI), solenoid-operated videocassette…

  8. Using Computer-Assisted Instruction to Enhance Achievement of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Hussein, Farhan

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in English-Language environments offer practice time, motivates students, enhance student learning, increase authentic materials that students can study, and has the potential to encourage teamwork between students. The findings from this particular study suggested that students who used computer assisted…

  9. A Personal Application of Learning Theory to the Design of Computer Assisted Instruction in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Terry

    The application of behavioral and cognitive learning theories to the design of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) at the college level is discussed. A model of instructional design and the unique qualities of computers are also briefly reviewed. The general model of instruction, which is used for designing a curriculum, has five major components:…

  10. Integrating Computer-Assisted Language Learning in Saudi Schools: A Change Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alresheed, Saleh; Leask, Marilyn; Raiker, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) technology and pedagogy have gained recognition globally for their success in supporting second language acquisition (SLA). In Saudi Arabia, the government aims to provide most educational institutions with computers and networking for integrating CALL into classrooms. However, the recognition of CALL's…

  11. An Information and Technical Manual for the Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmel, Melvyn I.; And Others

    The manual presents technical information on the computer assisted teacher training system (CATTS) which aims at developing a versatile and economical computer based teacher training system with the capability of providing immediate analysis and feedback of data relevant to teacher pupil transactions in a classroom setting. The physical…

  12. Interactive Computer Assisted Instruction in Teaching of Process Analysis and Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Herbert E., Jr.; Himmelblau, David M.

    To improve the instructional process, time shared computer-assisted instructional methods were developed to teach upper division undergraduate chemical engineering students the concepts of process simulation and analysis. The interactive computer simulation aimed at enabling the student to learn the difficult concepts of process dynamics by…

  13. Review of Research on the Cognitive Effects of Computer-Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandinach, E.; And Others

    This review of the research on the cognitive effects of computer-assisted instruction begins with an overview of the ACCCEL (Assessing Cognitive Consequences of Computer Environments for Learning) research program at the University of California at Berkeley, which consists of several interrelated studies examining the acquisition of such higher…

  14. A Computer-Assisted Instruction in Teaching Abstract Statistics to Public Affairs Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Ali Osman

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to demonstrate the applicability of a computer-assisted instruction supported with simulated data in teaching abstract statistical concepts to political science and public affairs students in an introductory research methods course. The software is called the Elaboration Model Computer Exercise (EMCE) in that it takes a great…

  15. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Mathematics and Language Arts for Deaf Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; Fletcher, John Dexter

    The Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences at Stanford University has operated a three-year computer-assisted instruction (CAI) network for hearing-impaired or deaf students; the effectiveness of the two main curricula in the program, elementary mathematics and language arts, was evaluated. The computer network spans the United…

  16. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Mathematics and Language Arts for the Deaf. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, J. D.; Suppes, Patrick

    A three-year project supported research, development and evaluation of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for hearing impaired, or deaf, children. Over 4,000 students from 15 schools for the deaf in five states participated in the effort. Although students received CAI in algebra, logic, computer programing and basic English, the skill subjects…

  17. Can Computer-Assisted Instruction Make a Difference? An Analysis of Who Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavin, Bebe F.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluates benefits of computer-assisted instruction in an introductory sociology course on the college level. Findings indicated that students who used the self-testing computer program performed better than non-users on examinations covering course material. Additional research is suggested on student ability, pattern of use, and performance…

  18. Computer-Assisted Instruction for Students at Risk for ADHD, Mild Disabilities, or Academic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Renet L.; Bender, William N.

    This guide is intended to help teachers integrate computer-assisted instruction into classrooms which include students who are at risk for or students who have mild and moderate disabilities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. After an introductory chapter, Chapter 2 discusses how computer programs can help students with particular…

  19. Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Instruction in Elementary Mathematics for Hearing-Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    A sample of approximately 385 hearing-impaired elementary and secondary school students whose mathematical achievement ranged from second to sixth grades were examined to determine the effectiveness of a computer assisted elementary mathematics program on the acquisition of computational skills. The students selected were from a population of over…

  20. Using Computer Assisted Instruction in a Reading and Study Skills Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauch, Margaret

    Test wiseness programs and computer assisted study skills instruction (CASSI) were found to be valuable resources for college reading and study skills instructors and students at St. Cloud State University (Minnesota). Two booklets on test wiseness cues were reorganized and used as computer programs to allow the information to be presented outside…

  1. How Can We Assess Computer-Assisted Reading and Writing Instruction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauthamer, Helene

    This paper addresses the lack of evaluative resources for computer-assisted reading and writing instruction (CARWI). It begins by discussing the benefits, drawbacks, and effectiveness of computer-based instruction. It then describes types of CARWI packages, including: (1) writing process software; (2) electronic handbooks; (3) interactive…

  2. A Computer-Assisted Teaching System in Pharmacology for Health Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pazdernik, Thomas L.; Walaszek, Edward J.

    1983-01-01

    Experiences with a combined computer-assisted and computer-managed pharmacology course that allows both scheduled and individual pacing are described. Students with low aptitudes achieved significantly higher scores on the pharmacology portion of a national medical examination after participation. (Author/MSE)

  3. A Computer-Assisted Test Design and Diagnosis System for Use by Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Q.; Tymms, P.

    2005-01-01

    Computer-assisted assessment (CAA) has become increasingly important in education in recent years. A variety of computer software systems have been developed to help assess the performance of students at various levels. However, such systems are primarily designed to provide objective assessment of students and analysis of test items, and focus…

  4. Opinions and Experiences of Dental Students and Faculty Concerning Computer-Assisted Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plasschaert, Alphons J. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study investigated the experiences and attitudes of students and faculty in three dental schools in England, Netherlands, and the United States concerning computer-assisted learning (CAL), including their access to computers at home and at school, experience with interactive multimedia, and familiarity with the technique. Implications for use of…

  5. Adapting Animal-Assisted Therapy Trials to Prison-Based Animal Programs.

    PubMed

    Allison, Molly; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2016-09-01

    Prison-based animal programs have shown promise when it comes to increased sociability, responsibility, and levels of patience for inmates who participate in these programs. Yet there remains a dearth of scientific research that demonstrates the impact of prison-based animal programs on inmates' physical and mental health. Trials of animal-assisted therapy interventions, a form of human-animal interaction therapy most often used with populations affected by depression/anxiety, mental illness, and trauma, may provide models of how prison-based animal program research can have widespread implementation in jail and prison settings, whose populations have high rates of mental health problems. This paper reviews the components of prison-based animal programs most commonly practiced in prisons today, presents five animal-assisted therapy case studies, evaluates them based on their adaptability to prison-based animal programs, and discusses the institutional constraints that act as barriers for rigorous prison-based animal program research implementation. This paper can serve to inform the development of a research approach to animal-assisted therapy that nurses and other public health researchers can use in working with correctional populations. PMID:27302852

  6. Cortical response to psycho-physiological changes in auto-adaptive robot assisted gait training.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Herbert F; August, Katherine G; Imam, Md Hasan; Khandoker, Ahsan H; Koenig, Alexander; Riener, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Robot-assisted treadmill training improves motor function and walking ability in neurologically impaired patients. However, despite attention having been shown to play a role in training success, psychological responsiveness to task difficulty and motivational levels at task onset have not been measured. Seven healthy subjects participated in a robot-assist treadmill training task. Subjects engaged in a virtual task with varying difficulty levels that was shown to induce a feeling of being bored, excited and over-stressed. The participants' mental engagement was measured using the ECG-based heart rate variability in real time, during gait training as a proxy for EEG and psychological test batteries. Heart rate variability (HRV), which has been shown to reflect cortical engagement for both cognitive and physical tasks, was measured using nonlinear measures obtained from the Poincaré plot. We show that the cortical response to the task measured with HRV varies in relation to the level of mental engagement in response to the difficulty level of the virtual task. From these results we propose that nonlinear measures quantify cortical response / motivational level to robot-assist motor learning tasks and that the adaptation to the task is dependent on the level of motivation.

  7. Adapting Animal-Assisted Therapy Trials to Prison-Based Animal Programs.

    PubMed

    Allison, Molly; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2016-09-01

    Prison-based animal programs have shown promise when it comes to increased sociability, responsibility, and levels of patience for inmates who participate in these programs. Yet there remains a dearth of scientific research that demonstrates the impact of prison-based animal programs on inmates' physical and mental health. Trials of animal-assisted therapy interventions, a form of human-animal interaction therapy most often used with populations affected by depression/anxiety, mental illness, and trauma, may provide models of how prison-based animal program research can have widespread implementation in jail and prison settings, whose populations have high rates of mental health problems. This paper reviews the components of prison-based animal programs most commonly practiced in prisons today, presents five animal-assisted therapy case studies, evaluates them based on their adaptability to prison-based animal programs, and discusses the institutional constraints that act as barriers for rigorous prison-based animal program research implementation. This paper can serve to inform the development of a research approach to animal-assisted therapy that nurses and other public health researchers can use in working with correctional populations.

  8. Clean air, clear market. Making emissions trading work: The role of a computer-assisted auction

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, C.W.; Marron, D.B.; Lipsky, M.I.

    1993-06-15

    Creating a new commodity presents the chance to develop new markets in which to trade it. In many cases, existing markets can be adapted easily; in other cases it proves worthwhile to develop new forms that reflect special characteristics of the commodity and those who trade it. In the case of the sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emission allowances created by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, a number of standard market forms already have been adopted. While these will prove useful for handling some transactions, a new Market Clearing Auction (MCA) offers buyers and sellers a centralized marketplace for trading SO[sub 2] emission allowances. The MCA, which was developed by the brokerage firm Cantor Fitzgerald, is a computer-assisted [open quotes]smart[close quotes] auction designed to replicate the outcome of an efficient market in emission allowances, and accepts bids and offers for any possible combination of allowances. Orders can be submitted for streams of allowances. Orders can be submitted for streams of allowances covering more than one year. The auction then determines the combination of bids and offers that maximizes the gains from trades in the market, and establishes uniform market clearing prices for each allowance issue (1995, 1996, and so on). Once executed, trades are settled on a cash-forward basis; that is, allowances are delivered and payments are made at future dates.

  9. Computer-Assisted Identification of Protoplasts Responsible for Rare Division Events Reveals Guard-Cell Totipotency.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, R. D.; Verhoeven, H. A.; Krens, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    With the use of a computer-controlled microscope system to assist in the positioning and rapid relocation of large numbers of cultured cells, we were able to identify those protoplasts with the capacity to divide within a highly recalcitrant culture in which only a tiny fraction of the total population proceeds to produce viable microcalli. In the cultures used, comprising Beta vulgaris L. (sugar beet) leaf protoplasts, it was confirmed that these cells can be recognized solely on the basis of morphological characters. Therefore, a direct link exists between competence for cell division in vitro and cell type. Divergent callus morphologies and totipotent potential could also be ascribed to distinct protoplast types and hence to cells with a specific origin. The progenitors of the totipotent protoplasts in these cultures have been confirmed as being stomatal guard cells. Consequently, in plants even the most highly adapted living cells clearly retain and can reactivate all of the functional genetic information necessary to recreate the whole organism; an extreme degree of cytodifferentiation is, therefore, no hindrance to expressing totipotent potential. In addition to the considerable practical value of these findings, their implications concerning our understanding of both the control of gene expression and plant cell differentiation and its reversibility are of fundamental significance. PMID:12228442

  10. Computer-assisted generation of individual training concepts for advanced education in manufacturing metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Teresa; Weckenmann, Albert

    2010-05-01

    Due to increasing requirements on the accuracy and reproducibility of measurement results together with a rapid development of novel technologies for the execution of measurements, there is a high demand for adequately qualified metrologists. Accordingly, a variety of training offers are provided by machine manufacturers, universities and other institutions. Yet, for an interested learner it is very difficult to define an optimal training schedule for his/her individual demands. Therefore, a computer-based assistance tool is developed to support a demand-responsive scheduling of training. Based on the difference between the actual and intended competence profile and under consideration of amending requirements, an optimally customized qualification concept is derived. For this, available training offers are categorized according to different dimensions: regarding contents of the course, but also intended target groups, focus of the imparted competences, implemented methods of learning and teaching, expected constraints for learning and necessary preknowledge. After completing a course, the achieved competences and the transferability of gathered knowledge are evaluated. Based on the results, recommendations for amending measures of learning are provided. Thus, a customized qualification for manufacturing metrology is facilitated, adapted to the specific needs and constraints of each individual learner.

  11. 45 CFR 233.25 - Retrospective budgeting; computing the assistance payment after the initial one or two months.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retrospective budgeting; computing the assistance... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.25 Retrospective budgeting; computing the assistance payment after the initial one... in the payment month. (c) For the first month in which retrospective budgeting is used, a State...

  12. Surgical reconstruction of maxillary defects using a computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing-produced titanium mesh supporting a free flap.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Achille; Battaglia, Salvatore; Ciocca, Leonardo; Scotti, Roberto; Cipriani, Riccardo; Marchetti, Claudio

    2016-09-01

    The maxilla provides support to the overlying structures and contributes significantly to the overall facial appearance and to critical functions such as mastication, speech, and deglutition. Many different techniques have been used over the years to achieve this reconstructive goal. Modern computer-assisted surgery affords new methods for planning resections, as well as optimising reconstructive outcomes and functional rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to describe our experience with, and technique for, the functional, structural, and aesthetic reconstruction of maxillary bone defects using a computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM)-printed titanium mesh to provide structural support for free flap reconstruction. Four patients who underwent reconstruction with a CAD/CAM-printed titanium mesh were included in this study. The preoperative computed tomography (CT) data set used for virtual planning was superimposed onto the postoperative CT scan to calculate the difference between the virtually planned position and the postoperative position of the titanium mesh. The orbital floor and alveolus were the most frequent sites of deviation, and good reproducibility could be obtained with less than 1 mm of deviation between planning and results in most regions. Printed titanium meshes obtained with CAD/CAM technology and used to structurally support free flaps provide a valuable method for the achievement of good aesthetic, structural, and functional outcomes in maxillary reconstruction. Reconstructive accuracy using this technique is reasonably high. Further studies with a larger number of patients would be useful to confirm these results. PMID:27519658

  13. Practical use of computer-assisted EEG interpretation in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gotman, J

    1985-07-01

    Computer methods can automatically recognize interictal spikes and seizures quite reliably, but they still make a large number of false detections because of physiological or artifactual nonepileptiform transients. In the context of long-term monitoring, these methods can be used efficiently and safely despite their imperfection. They allow considerable data reduction, by selecting epileptiform activity and discarding the largest part of the recording. In addition to data reduction, computer methods can be useful in refining the analysis of epileptic seizures, revealing information not available from visual inspection of the paper tracing. Recent technological advances make these applications affordable in a clinical EEG laboratory.

  14. Health literacy and computer-assisted instruction: usability and patient preference.

    PubMed

    Duren-Winfield, Vanessa; Onsomu, Elijah O; Case, Douglas L; Pignone, Michael; Miller, David

    2015-04-01

    The authors investigated the feasibility of using computer-assisted instruction in patients of varying literacy levels by examining patients' preferences for learning and their ability to use 2 computer-based educational programs. A total of 263 participants 50-74 years of age with varying health literacy levels interacted with 1 of 2 educational computer programs as part of a randomized trial of a colorectal cancer screening decision aid. A baseline and postprogram evaluation survey were completed. More than half (56%) of the participants had limited health literacy. Regardless of literacy level, doctors were the most commonly used source of medical information-used frequently by 85% of limited and adequate literacy patients. In multivariate logistic regression, only those with health insurance (OR = 2.35, p = .06) and computer use experience (OR = 0.39, p = .03) predicted the ability to complete the programs without assistance compared with those without health insurance or prior computer use, respectively. Although patients with limited health literacy had less computer experience, the majority completed the programs without any assistance and stated that they learned more than they would have from a brochure. Future research should investigate ways that computer-assisted instruction can be incorporated in medical care to enhance patient understanding. PMID:25719814

  15. Health Literacy and Computer-Assisted Instruction: Usability and Patient Preference

    PubMed Central

    DUREN-WINFIELD, VANESSA; ONSOMU, ELIJAH O.; CASE, DOUGLAS L.; PIGNONE, MICHAEL; MILLER, DAVID

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated the feasibility of using computer-assisted instruction in patients of varying literacy levels by examining patients’ preferences for learning and their ability to use 2 computer-based educational programs. A total of 263 participants 50–74 years of age with varying health literacy levels interacted with 1 of 2 educational computer programs as part of a randomized trial of a colorectal cancer screening decision aid. A baseline and postprogram evaluation survey were completed. More than half (56%) of the participants had limited health literacy. Regardless of literacy level, doctors were the most commonly used source of medical information—used frequently by 85% of limited and adequate literacy patients. In multivariate logistic regression, only those with health insurance (OR = 2.35, p = .06) and computer use experience (OR = 0.39, p .03) predicted the ability to complete the programs without assistance compared with those without health insurance or prior computer use, respectively. Although patients with limited health literacy had less computer experience, the majority completed the programs without any assistance and stated that they learned more than they would have from a brochure. Future research should investigate ways that computer-assisted instruction can be incorporated in medical care to enhance patient understanding. PMID:25719814

  16. The Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale: Standardization and Norming of a Computer-Administered Measure of Hypnotic Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Carolyn D.; Nash, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    In a counterbalanced, within subjects, repeated measures design, 130 undergraduates were administered the Computer-Assisted Hypnosis Scale (CAHS) and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale and were hypnotized. The CAHS was shown to be a psychometrically sound instrument for measuring hypnotic ability. (SLD)

  17. Promoting Technology-Assisted Active Learning in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Jinzhu; Hargis, Jace

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes specific active learning strategies for teaching computer science, integrating both instructional technologies and non-technology-based strategies shown to be effective in the literature. The theoretical learning components addressed include an intentional method to help students build metacognitive abilities, as well as…

  18. The Utility of Computer-Assisted Power Analysis Lab Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrocelli, John V.

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 47), enrolled in 2 separate psychology research methods classes, evaluated a power analysis lab demonstration and homework assignment. Students attended 1 of 2 lectures that included a basic introduction to power analysis and sample size analysis. One lecture included a demonstration of how to use a computer-based power…

  19. Computer Assisted Reading Instruction: New Tools for New Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sponder, Barry

    A Language Experience Approach (LEA) to reading is based on the premise that a child's thinking naturally leads to talking, writing, and eventually reading. Information technologies offer powerful support for learning, but teachers and parents must learn to use these technologies effectively. Three types of computer applications that are…

  20. Writing at Century's End: Essays on Computer-Assisted Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Lisa, Ed.

    Most of the essays in this collection originated as presentations at the University of California, Los Angeles, Conference on Computers and Writing, held in May 1985. Issues addressed in the volume range from concrete, practical considerations (such as designing classroom exercises) to political and theoretical ones (such as the instructor's…

  1. Computer-Assisted Community Planning and Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME.

    The College of the Atlantic (COA) developed a broad-based, interdisciplinary curriculum in ecological policy and community planning and decision-making that incorporates two primary computer-based tools: ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS) and STELLA, a systems-dynamics modeling tool. Students learn how to use and apply these tools…

  2. Evaluation of a Computer Assisted Instruction Resource in Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herriot, Anne M.; Bishop, Jacki A.; Kelly, Mary; Murphy, Margaret; Truby, Helen

    2003-01-01

    Nine second-year and six final-year nursing students completed a questionnaire and participated in focus groups about STEP-DIET, a computer-based dietetics instructional tool. Students liked the design and content, perceived increased nutritional knowledge and understanding of dietitians' role. However, they were reluctant to accept…

  3. Using Computer-Assisted Multiple Representations in Learning Geometry Proofs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yin, Sheng-Kai; Yang, Hsi-Hsun; Cheng, Ying-Hao

    2011-01-01

    Geometry theorem proving involves skills that are difficult to learn. Instead of working with abstract and complicated representations, students might start with concrete, graphical representations. A proof tree is a graphical representation of a formal proof, with each node representing a proposition or given conditions. A computer-assisted…

  4. Computer-Assisted Instruction; How to Solve Drug Formulation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezei, Janos; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Computer simulation of drug formulation problems involves a database of pharmacological properties, chemical stability, and compatibility data on 20 active ingredients, physiological factors and requirements for parenteral solutions, and additives. The user gathers data from the database, formulates a stable and effective solution, and the drug is…

  5. An Introduction to Computer Assisted Analysis in the Biological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaugh, R. P.

    This set of notes is designed to introduce the student to the development and use of computer-based models, and to analyze quantitative phenomena in the life sciences. Only BASIC programming language is used. The ten chapter titles are: The Growth of a Single Species; The Association of Two Species; Parameter Determination; Automated Parameter…

  6. Computer-Assisted Rare Book Cataloguing: Problems and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Victoria

    This study proposes answers to questions of how and why computers can be used to catalog rare books. Divided into two parts, the first examines the nature of rare book cataloging needs and considers problems associated with machine-readable rare book cataloging. The question of how rare book cataloging differs from standard cataloging is analyzed…

  7. Computer-Assisted Mathematics--A Model Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G.

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of need for improved mathematics education of preservice teachers focuses on a model program, the Mathematics Fitness Project, that includes a computer-generated testing system, management system, and remediation system. Use of the system to improve mathematics skills and attitudes of college students and post high school adults is…

  8. Computer Assisted Instruction: The Game "Le Choc des Multinationales."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Hazel

    "Le Choc de Multinationales" is a microcomputer game for students in an upper-level commercial French couse, to be played by two opponents, one of whom may be another student or the computer itself as a direct business competitor. The game's requirements for language use and knowledge of business and economics theory and principles are moderate,…

  9. Enhancing the IMS QTI to Better Support Computer Assisted Marking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Damien; Baillie-de Byl, Penny

    2007-01-01

    Computer aided assessment is a common approach used by educational institutions. The benefits range into the design of teaching, learning, and instructional materials. While some such systems implement fully automated marking for multiple choice questions and fill-in-the-blanks, they are insufficient when human critiquing is required. Current…

  10. Computer Graphics For CT-Assisted Knee Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Michael L.; Jackson, Douglas W.; Azzawi, Yu-Ming; Glenn, William V.; Howland, Robert S.; Rothman, Stephen L.

    1984-08-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanners provide images of internal anatomy with unsurpassed spatial resolution. Since these images are inherently digital, computer systems can be used to simulate, plan, and guide surgical procedures to submillimeter precision. The combination of CT images, specially designed instruments, and the software to coordinate them results in improved accuracy for stereotactic surgery. This paper introduces per cutaneous cruciate ligament replacement as a new application for computer-aided ster eotaxi s. The procedure is described here with the knee firmly attached to a custom device. Twenty-five to thirty CT scans are performed to view the knee in detail, with special care taken to visualize the cruciate ligaments and their attachment to the tibia and femur. At the display console, two trajectories are chosen, using images delivered by the scanner and alternative views generated by software. These trajectories position two attachment shafts through skeletal structure in the knee to secure a replacement cruciate ligament. Interaction is illustrated that allows both the selection of the trajectories and the simulated surgery along their path. Anatomy intersected by the proposed trajectories can be reviewed in detail prior to actual surgery. Once reviewed, frame sittings are delivered by the computer system to drill the ligament attachment shafts. A replacement cruciate ligament can be passed through these two drill holes. Only an arthroscopic procedure is needed for later fixation of the ligament. In this manner, 4-6 hour open surgery of the knee is avoided and patient rehabilitation should be reduced from several months to 4-5 weeks. The frame, software, procedure, and computational aspects of the interaction are described. Test and patient results are given.

  11. Guided Discovery Learning with Computer-Based Simulation Games: Effects of Adaptive and Non-Adaptive Instructional Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leutner, Detlev

    1993-01-01

    System-initiated adaptive advice and learner-requested nonadaptive background information were investigated in computer simulation game experiments with 64 seventh graders, 38 college students, and 80 seventh and eighth graders in Germany. Results are discussed in terms of theories of problem solving, intelligence, memory, and information…

  12. A case study of evolutionary computation of biochemical adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, Paul; Siggia, Eric D.

    2008-06-01

    Simulations of evolution have a long history, but their relation to biology is questioned because of the perceived contingency of evolution. Here we provide an example of a biological process, adaptation, where simulations are argued to approach closer to biology. Adaptation is a common feature of sensory systems, and a plausible component of other biochemical networks because it rescales upstream signals to facilitate downstream processing. We create random gene networks numerically, by linking genes with interactions that model transcription, phosphorylation and protein-protein association. We define a fitness function for adaptation in terms of two functional metrics, and show that any reasonable combination of them will yield the same adaptive networks after repeated rounds of mutation and selection. Convergence to these networks is driven by positive selection and thus fast. There is always a path in parameter space of continuously improving fitness that leads to perfect adaptation, implying that the actual mutation rates we use in the simulation do not bias the results. Our results imply a kinetic view of evolution, i.e., it favors gene networks that can be learned quickly from the random examples supplied by mutation. This formulation allows for deductive predictions of the networks realized in nature.

  13. Assessment of Service Protocols Adaptability Using a Novel Path Computation Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhangbing; Bhiri, Sami; Haller, Armin; Zhuge, Hai; Hauswirth, Manfred

    In this paper we propose a new kind of adaptability assessment that determines whether service protocols of a requestor and a provider are adaptable, computes their adaptation degree, and identifies conditions that determine when they can be adapted. We also propose a technique that implements this adaptability assessment: (1) we construct a complete adaptation graph that captures all service interactions adaptable between these two service protocols. The emptiness or non-emptiness of this graph corresponds to the fact that whether or not they are adaptable; (2) we propose a novel path computation technique to generate all instance sub-protocols which reflect valid executions of a particular service protocol, and to derive all instance sub-protocol pairs captured by the complete adaptation graph. An adaptation degree is computed as a ratio between the number of instance sub-protocols captured by these instance sub-protocol pairs with respect to a service protocol and that of this service protocol; (3) and finally we identify a set of conditions based on these instance sub-protocol pairs. A condition is the conjunction of all conditions specified on the transitions of a given pair of instance sub-protocols. This assessment is a comprehensive means of selecting the suitable service protocol among functionally-equivalent candidates according to the requestor's business requirements.

  14. Classification of short-lived objects using an interactive adaptable assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bekri, Nadia; Angele, Susanne; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    "Although we know that it is not a familiar object, after a while we can say what it resembles". The core task of an aerial image analyst is to recognize different object types based on certain clearly classified characteristics from aerial or satellite images. An interactive recognition assistance system compares selected features with a fixed set of reference objects (core data set). Therefore it is mainly designed to evaluate durable single objects like a specific type of ship or vehicle. Aerial image analysts on missions realized a changed warfare over the time. The task was not anymore to classify and thereby recognize a single durable object. The problem was that they had to classify strong variable objects and the reference set did not match anymore. In order to approach this new scope we introduce a concept to a further development of the interactive assistance system to be able to handle also short-lived, not clearly classifiable and strong variable objects like for example dhows. Dhows are the type of ships that are often used during pirate attacks at the coast of West Africa. Often these ships were build or extended by the pirates themselves. They follow no particular pattern as the standard construction of a merchant ship. In this work we differ between short-lived and durable objects. The interactive adaptable assistance system is supposed to assist image analysts with the classification of objects, which are new and not listed in the reference set of objects yet. The human interaction and perception is an important factor in order to realize this task and achieve the goal of recognition. Therefore we had to model the possibility to classify short-lived objects with appropriate procedures taking into consideration all aspects of short-lived objects. In this paper we will outline suitable measures and the possibilities to categorize short-lived objects via simple basic shapes as well as a temporary data storage concept for shortlived objects. The

  15. An adaptable Boolean net trainable to control a computing robot

    SciTech Connect

    Lauria, F. E.; Prevete, R.; Milo, M.; Visco, S.

    1999-03-22

    We discuss a method to implement in a Boolean neural network a Hebbian rule so to obtain an adaptable universal control system. We start by presenting both the Boolean neural net and the Hebbian rule we have considered. Then we discuss, first, the problems arising when the latter is naively implemented in a Boolean neural net, second, the method consenting us to overcome them and the ensuing adaptable Boolean neural net paradigm. Next, we present the adaptable Boolean neural net as an intelligent control system, actually controlling a writing robot, and discuss how to train it in the execution of the elementary arithmetic operations on operands represented by numerals with an arbitrary number of digits.

  16. Computer-assisted Gran titration procedure for strong acid determination

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.F.; Gaffney, J.S.; Goodrich, R.W.; Tanner, R.L.

    1984-10-01

    An automated method for determining, by coulometric titration, small amounts of strong acid in the presence of weak acids is given. Essentially, a pH meter and a coulometer are coupled with a Tektronix 4052 mini-computer, and a two-step computer program then directs the titration and calculates the equivalence point by the method of Gran. A comparison of precision and accuracy of results for test solutions by manual and automated data reduction methods is presented. The method is being used successfully to analyze for the H/sup +/ content in ambient aerosol samples from aerometric field experiments, and can be used for cloud and rainwater samples as well. 3 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  17. A computer-assisted bacteriology reporting and information system.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchison, D A; Darrell, J H; Mitchison, R

    1978-01-01

    A computer system for reporting and recording all specimens processed by the routine bacteriology laboratory at the Royal Postgraduate Medical School is described. Features of interest are the method of input using a mixture of 3-character alphanumeric codes and numbers, cumulative reporting to the wards, and selective listing of relevant previous results for the patient, which is available to technical and supervisory staff during processing of the specimen. The relative value to the wards and the laboratory of each type of information transfer has been assessed. Overall the use of a computer has resulted in higher quality bench work and more accurate reporting. It seems little more expensive than a previous manual system, although it has transferred work from the technical to the clerical staff. PMID:670423

  18. [Computer-assisted control of a public health inventory].

    PubMed

    Beckmann, W; Dörr, M; Höhmann, J

    1989-04-01

    To cope with its tasks more efficiently, the Public Health Office of the "Märkische Kreis" in 1985 installed an information system on the basis of electronic data processing, the so-called "hygiene inventory". Initially, the introduction of this system into the local Public Health Office is described. The structure and organization of the programme and its performance are then discussed and exemplified by the control of drinking water supply plants. The disadvantages of computer use are by no means overlooked. The latter include the necessity to initially put in a considerable number of data and to constantly store new results, initial acceptance problems and the poor autonomy of the system. The most important advantages of computer-aided processing are optimum evaluation possibilities, centralised scheduling, automated production of letters, efficient drafting of the annual health report and the possibility of exchanging data media. PMID:2525684

  19. [Computer-assisted facial reconstruction: recent developments and trends].

    PubMed

    De Greef, Sven; Claes, Peter; Mollemans, Wouter; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Suetens, Paul; Willems, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) craniofacial reconstruction can be a useful tool in the identification of an unknown body. The progress in computer science and the improvement of medical imaging technologies during recent years has had a significant impact on this domain. New facial soft tissue depth data have been obtained. New guidelines for facial feature properties such as nose projection, eye protrusion or mouth width, have been suggested, but also older theories and "rules of thumbs" have been critically evaluated based on digital technology. New fast, flexible and objective 3D reconstruction computer-based programs are in full development. Employing the newer technologies and permanently evaluating the obtained results will hopefully lead to more accurate reconstructions.

  20. The research of computer multimedia assistant in college English listening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian

    2012-04-01

    With the technology development of network information, there exists more and more seriously questions to our education. Computer multimedia application breaks the traditional foreign language teaching and brings new challenges and opportunities for the education. Through the multiple media application, the teaching process is full of animation, image, voice, and characters. This can improve the learning initiative and objective with great development of learning efficiency. During the traditional foreign language teaching, people use characters learning. However, through this method, the theory performance is good but the practical application is low. During the long time computer multimedia application in the foreign language teaching, many teachers still have prejudice. Therefore, the method is not obtaining the effect. After all the above, the research has significant meaning for improving the teaching quality of foreign language.

  1. A Peer-Assisted Learning Experience in Computer Programming Language Learning and Developing Computer Programming Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altintas, Tugba; Gunes, Ali; Sayan, Hamiyet

    2016-01-01

    Peer learning or, as commonly expressed, peer-assisted learning (PAL) involves school students who actively assist others to learn and in turn benefit from an effective learning environment. This research was designed to support students in becoming more autonomous in their learning, help them enhance their confidence level in tackling computer…

  2. Application of a bi-directional associative memory (BAM) network in computer assisted learning in chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chau, F T; Cheung, B; Tam, K Y; Li, L K

    1994-12-01

    A computer assisted learning software based on a bi-directional associative memory (BAM) network was developed. The software was implemented to assist students in associating the names of the elements in the periodic table with their chemical symbols. The use of the BAM facilitates the analysis and interpretation of students' responses. The software package can be modified easily as an educational tool for other disciplines. PMID:7812638

  3. Molecular determinants of enzyme cold adaptation: comparative structural and computational studies of cold- and warm-adapted enzymes.

    PubMed

    Papaleo, Elena; Tiberti, Matteo; Invernizzi, Gaetano; Pasi, Marco; Ranzani, Valeria

    2011-11-01

    The identification of molecular mechanisms underlying enzyme cold adaptation is a hot-topic both for fundamental research and industrial applications. In the present contribution, we review the last decades of structural computational investigations on cold-adapted enzymes in comparison to their warm-adapted counterparts. Comparative sequence and structural studies allow the definition of a multitude of adaptation strategies. Different enzymes carried out diverse mechanisms to adapt to low temperatures, so that a general theory for enzyme cold adaptation cannot be formulated. However, some common features can be traced in dynamic and flexibility properties of these enzymes, as well as in their intra- and inter-molecular interaction networks. Interestingly, the current data suggest that a family-centered point of view is necessary in the comparative analyses of cold- and warm-adapted enzymes. In fact, enzymes belonging to the same family or superfamily, thus sharing at least the three-dimensional fold and common features of the functional sites, have evolved similar structural and dynamic patterns to overcome the detrimental effects of low temperatures.

  4. Molecular determinants of enzyme cold adaptation: comparative structural and computational studies of cold- and warm-adapted enzymes.

    PubMed

    Papaleo, Elena; Tiberti, Matteo; Invernizzi, Gaetano; Pasi, Marco; Ranzani, Valeria

    2011-11-01

    The identification of molecular mechanisms underlying enzyme cold adaptation is a hot-topic both for fundamental research and industrial applications. In the present contribution, we review the last decades of structural computational investigations on cold-adapted enzymes in comparison to their warm-adapted counterparts. Comparative sequence and structural studies allow the definition of a multitude of adaptation strategies. Different enzymes carried out diverse mechanisms to adapt to low temperatures, so that a general theory for enzyme cold adaptation cannot be formulated. However, some common features can be traced in dynamic and flexibility properties of these enzymes, as well as in their intra- and inter-molecular interaction networks. Interestingly, the current data suggest that a family-centered point of view is necessary in the comparative analyses of cold- and warm-adapted enzymes. In fact, enzymes belonging to the same family or superfamily, thus sharing at least the three-dimensional fold and common features of the functional sites, have evolved similar structural and dynamic patterns to overcome the detrimental effects of low temperatures. PMID:21827423

  5. Technology development for remote, computer-assisted operation of a continuous mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Schnakenberg, G.H.

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines was created to conduct research to improve the health, safety, and efficiency of the coal and metal mining industries. In 1986, the Bureau embarked on a new, major research effort to develop the technology that would enable the relocation of workers from hazardous areas to areas of relative safety. This effort is in contrast to historical efforts by the Bureau of controlling or reducing the hazardous agent or providing protection to the worker. The technologies associated with automation, robotics, and computer software and hardware systems had progressed to the point that their use to develop computer-assisted operation of mobile mining equipment appeared to be a cost-effective and accomplishable task. At the first International Symposium of Mine Mechanization and Automation, an overview of the Bureau`s computer-assisted mining program for underground coal mining was presented. The elements included providing computer-assisted tele-remote operation of continuous mining machines, haulage systems and roof bolting machines. Areas of research included sensors for machine guidance and for coal interface detection. Additionally, the research included computer hardware and software architectures which are extremely important in developing technology that is transferable to industry and is flexible enough to accommodate the variety of machines used in coal mining today. This paper provides an update of the research under the computer-assisted mining program.

  6. Implementation of Audio Computer-Assisted Interviewing Software in HIV/AIDS Research

    PubMed Central

    Pluhar, Erika; Yeager, Katherine A.; Corkran, Carol; McCarty, Frances; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Denzmore-Nwagbara, Pamela; Fielder, Bridget; DiIorio, Colleen

    2007-01-01

    Computer assisted interviewing (CAI) has begun to play a more prominent role in HIV/AIDS prevention research. Despite the increased popularity of CAI, particularly audio computer assisted self-interviewing (ACASI), some research teams are still reluctant to implement ACASI technology due to lack of familiarity with the practical issues related to using these software packages. The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of one particular ACASI software package, the Questionnaire Development System™ (QDS™), in several nursing and HIV/AIDS prevention research settings. We present acceptability and satisfaction data from two large-scale public health studies in which we have used QDS with diverse populations. We also address issues related to developing and programming a questionnaire, discuss practical strategies related to planning for and implementing ACASI in the field, including selecting equipment, training staff, and collecting and transferring data, and summarize advantages and disadvantages of computer assisted research methods. PMID:17662924

  7. [Computer assisted long-term ECG analysis: method and clinical importance (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Joskowicz, G; Glogar, D; Steinbach, K

    1982-01-01

    The basic principle of computer assisted analysis of Holter recordings is to store the whole ECG after data reduction and AD conversion in digitized form on random access medium like magnetic disks. In "Multipass Scanning" the linear segmentation techniques leads to highly reproducible ECG-data, which were analysed during multiple passes under continuous operator control. The field of clinical applications of such a highly sophisticated method reaches from supraventricular over ventricular to symptomatic arrhythmias. In combination with ECG-telefon-telemetry computer assisted LT-ECG analysis could be used in more than 75% of the patients successfully. The clinical expectations during routine could be fulfilled in more than 75%. Commonly a detailed numerical or graphical description of clinical relevant arrhythmias were necessary in the demand of the routine. So computer assisted LT-ECG analysis is not only a tool for research, but also valuable in the clinical routine.

  8. Visualization of the Newly Designed Jig and Fixture for Computer-Assisted Knee Replacement Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Intan Syaherra; Arshad, Haslina; Sulong, Abu Bakar; Mohd. Yahaya, Nor Hamdan; Che Haron, Che Hassan

    Surgical training systems based on virtual reality (VR) are highly desired as they offer a cost effective and efficient alternative compared to traditional training methods. Traditional surgical training methods require cadavers or plastic models which are costly. Cadavers cannot be used repeatedly and training with plastic models cannot provide the realistic experience. This paper describes a visualization to show the use of newly design jig and fixture for computer-assisted knee replacement surgery. Orthopedic surgeons found it difficult to align the existing jig with the computer-assisted device during the operation and it is time consuming to place it at the right position. A newly design jig and fixture has been proposed to solve this problem. Visualization is needed to show the surgeons on how it will be used in the computer-assisted knee replacement surgery. Virtual models used in this visualization are constructed from the actual equipment and real human dataset.

  9. Identifying Reading Problems with Computer-Adaptive Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, C.; Tymms, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an adaptive assessment called Interactive Computerised Assessment System (InCAS) that is aimed at children of a wide age and ability range to identify specific reading problems. Rasch measurement has been used to create the equal interval scales that form each part of the assessment. The rationale for the…

  10. Adjusting Computer Adaptive Test Starting Points To Conserve Item Pool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Daming; Fan, Meichu

    The convention for selecting starting points (that is, initial items) on a computerized adaptive test (CAT) is to choose as starting points items of medium difficulty for all examinees. Selecting a starting point based on prior information about an individual's ability was first suggested many years ago, but has been believed unimportant provided…

  11. Surface Modeling, Solid Modeling and Finite Element Modeling. Analysis Capabilities of Computer-Assisted Design and Manufacturing Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nee, John G.; Kare, Audhut P.

    1987-01-01

    Explores several concepts in computer assisted design/computer assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Defines, evaluates, reviews and compares advanced computer-aided geometric modeling and analysis techniques. Presents the results of a survey to establish the capabilities of minicomputer based-systems with the CAD/CAM packages evaluated. (CW)

  12. A Comparative Study of Two ESL Writing Environments: A Computer-Assisted Classroom and a Traditional Oral Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Nancy; Pratt, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    Compares students in two English-as-a-Second-Language writing environments: a networked computer-assisted classroom and a traditional oral classroom. Results indicate that while the writing environment has no effect on attitudes toward writing with computers or writing apprehension, writing quality improves in the computer-assisted classroom and…

  13. Magic in the machine: a computational magician's assistant.

    PubMed

    Williams, Howard; McOwan, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    A human magician blends science, psychology, and performance to create a magical effect. In this paper we explore what can be achieved when that human intelligence is replaced or assisted by machine intelligence. Magical effects are all in some form based on hidden mathematical, scientific, or psychological principles; often the parameters controlling these underpinning techniques are hard for a magician to blend to maximize the magical effect required. The complexity is often caused by interacting and often conflicting physical and psychological constraints that need to be optimally balanced. Normally this tuning is done by trial and error, combined with human intuitions. Here we focus on applying Artificial Intelligence methods to the creation and optimization of magic tricks exploiting mathematical principles. We use experimentally derived data about particular perceptual and cognitive features, combined with a model of the underlying mathematical process to provide a psychologically valid metric to allow optimization of magical impact. In the paper we introduce our optimization methodology and describe how it can be flexibly applied to a range of different types of mathematics based tricks. We also provide two case studies as exemplars of the methodology at work: a magical jigsaw, and a mind reading card trick effect. We evaluate each trick created through testing in laboratory and public performances, and further demonstrate the real world efficacy of our approach for professional performers through sales of the tricks in a reputable magic shop in London.

  14. Magic in the machine: a computational magician's assistant

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Howard; McOwan, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    A human magician blends science, psychology, and performance to create a magical effect. In this paper we explore what can be achieved when that human intelligence is replaced or assisted by machine intelligence. Magical effects are all in some form based on hidden mathematical, scientific, or psychological principles; often the parameters controlling these underpinning techniques are hard for a magician to blend to maximize the magical effect required. The complexity is often caused by interacting and often conflicting physical and psychological constraints that need to be optimally balanced. Normally this tuning is done by trial and error, combined with human intuitions. Here we focus on applying Artificial Intelligence methods to the creation and optimization of magic tricks exploiting mathematical principles. We use experimentally derived data about particular perceptual and cognitive features, combined with a model of the underlying mathematical process to provide a psychologically valid metric to allow optimization of magical impact. In the paper we introduce our optimization methodology and describe how it can be flexibly applied to a range of different types of mathematics based tricks. We also provide two case studies as exemplars of the methodology at work: a magical jigsaw, and a mind reading card trick effect. We evaluate each trick created through testing in laboratory and public performances, and further demonstrate the real world efficacy of our approach for professional performers through sales of the tricks in a reputable magic shop in London. PMID:25452736

  15. Computer assistance for intraoperative navigation in ENT surgery.

    PubMed

    Caversaccio; Freysinger

    2003-03-01

    The intraoperative need for exact orientation during interventions in the paranasal sinuses and the augmented need for navigational aids in lateral skull base surgery have lead to the development of computer-aided tools during the last fifteen years. These tools, which provide the position of a tool or a pointer in the patient's preoperative radiologic imaging, have quickly gained a wide acceptance for revision surgeries and the surgical treatment of complex pathologies in Ear-, Nose- and Throat (ENT-) surgery. Currently, the use of such systems is spreading from academic centers to smaller hospitals and will become a standard tool in the near future. We review the present state of computer-aided surgery (CAS) systems, based on our experience as clinical and research centers with a long experience in the field, provide some technological background information and, based on selected cases, show the merits of this technology. The systems we have been working with cover a wide variety of intraoperative navigational systems in ENT surgery (Easy Guide, MedScan II, MKM, SNN, STN, SurgiGATE ORL, Treon, VectorVision, Viewing Wand, [without claiming completeness]), and virtually the whole area of ENT surgeries: macroscopic, (video-)endoscopic and microscopic procedures. The 3D tracking technologies involved cover mechanical, optical (active and passive), magnetic and robotic principles. The visualization tools used are computer monitors, video monitors, head-up-displays and the microscope's oculars, thus spanning the area from pointer-systems to real navigators and a surgical telepresence demonstrator, implementing the majority of available patient-to-image referencing strategies. Clinically, the systems can be operated with an acceptable accuracy of around 1 mm, whereas in laboratory settings and in cadaver studies application accuracy may be pushed to its limits: the physical resolution of the radiologic imaging used for navigation.

  16. Computer-Assisted Search Of Large Textual Data Bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, James R.

    1995-01-01

    "QA" denotes high-speed computer system for searching diverse collections of documents including (but not limited to) technical reference manuals, legal documents, medical documents, news releases, and patents. Incorporates previously available and emerging information-retrieval technology to help user intelligently and rapidly locate information found in large textual data bases. Technology includes provision for inquiries in natural language; statistical ranking of retrieved information; artificial-intelligence implementation of semantics, in which "surface level" knowledge found in text used to improve ranking of retrieved information; and relevance feedback, in which user's judgements of relevance of some retrieved documents used automatically to modify search for further information.

  17. Computer assisted tendon tensioning operations on the Auger TLP

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, C.M. III

    1995-05-01

    One of the most critical phases of the tendon installation operation is the tension adjustment of the tendons. During these phases of the operation, length adjustments must be performed that result in correctly distributed tension loads, at the design platform draft, and without net platform inclination. Instrumentation integrated with an on-line computer advisory system accelerates the operation, thereby reducing spread time and risk associated with prolonged exposure. The paper includes a brief discussion of the instrumentation and data gathering and processing system on Auger, the advisory functions that use these data, and the step-by-step procedure to achieve an installed configuration consistent with the design premise.

  18. Adaptive finite element methods for two-dimensional problems in computational fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, J. B.; Bass, J. M.; Spradley, L. W.

    1994-01-01

    Some recent results obtained using solution-adaptive finite element methods in two-dimensional problems in linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented. The focus is on the basic issue of adaptive finite element methods for validating the new methodology by computing demonstration problems and comparing the stress intensity factors to analytical results.

  19. An Investigation on Computer-Adaptive Multistage Testing Panels for Multidimensional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xinrui

    2013-01-01

    The computer-adaptive multistage testing (ca-MST) has been developed as an alternative to computerized adaptive testing (CAT), and been increasingly adopted in large-scale assessments. Current research and practice only focus on ca-MST panels for credentialing purposes. The ca-MST test mode, therefore, is designed to gauge a single scale. The…

  20. Adaptive 3D single-block grids for the computation of viscous flows around wings

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmeijer, R.; Kok, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    A robust algorithm for the adaption of a 3D single-block structured grid suitable for the computation of viscous flows around a wing is presented and demonstrated by application to the ONERA M6 wing. The effects of grid adaption on the flow solution and accuracy improvements is analyzed. Reynolds number variations are studied.

  1. Adaptive optics-assisted optical coherence tomography for imaging of patients with age related macular degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, Kenta; Cense, Barry

    2013-03-01

    We developed an optical coherence tomography (OCT) prototype with a sample arm that uses a 3.4 mm beam, which is considerably larger than the 1.2 to 1.5 mm beam that is used in commercialized OCT systems. The system is equipped with adaptive optics (AO), and to distinguish it from traditional AO-OCT systems with a larger 6 mm beam we have coined this concept AO-assisted OCT. Compared to commercialized OCT systems, the 3.4 mm aperture combined with AO improves light collection efficiency and imaging lateral resolution. In this paper, the performance of the AOa-OCT system was compared to a standard OCT system and demonstrated for imaging of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Measurements were performed on the retinas of three human volunteers with healthy eyes and on one eye of a patient diagnosed with AMD. The AO-assisted OCT system imaged retinal structures of healthy human eyes and a patient eye affected by AMD with higher lateral resolution and a 9° by 9° field of view. This combination of a large isoplanatic patch and high lateral resolution can be expected to fill a gap between standard OCT with a 1.2 mm beam and conventional AO-OCT with a 6 mm beam and a 1.5° by 1.5° isoplanatic patch.

  2. Recognition of user's activity for adaptive cooperative assistance in robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Nessi, Federico; Beretta, Elisa; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; De Momi, Elena

    2015-01-01

    During hands-on robotic surgery it is advisable to know how and when to provide the surgeon with different assistance levels with respect to the current performed activity. Gesteme-based on-line classification requires the definition of a complete set of primitives and the observation of large signal percentage. In this work an on-line, gesteme-free activity recognition method is addressed. The algorithm models the guidance forces and the resulting trajectory of the manipulator with 26 low-level components of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). Temporal switching among the components is modeled with a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). Tests are performed in a simplified scenario over a pool of 5 non-surgeon users. Classification accuracy resulted higher than 89% after the observation of a 300 ms-long signal. Future work will address the use of the current detected activity to on-line trigger different strategies to control the manipulator and adapt the level of assistance. PMID:26737482

  3. Finite State Machine with Adaptive Electromyogram (EMG) Feature Extraction to Drive Meal Assistance Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu; Wang, Xingyu; Wang, Bei; Sugi, Takenao; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    Surface electromyogram (EMG) from elbow, wrist and hand has been widely used as an input of multifunction prostheses for many years. However, for patients with high-level limb deficiencies, muscle activities in upper-limbs are not strong enough to be used as control signals. In this paper, EMG from lower-limbs is acquired and applied to drive a meal assistance robot. An onset detection method with adaptive threshold based on EMG power is proposed to recognize different muscle contractions. Predefined control commands are output by finite state machine (FSM), and applied to operate the robot. The performance of EMG control is compared with joystick control by both objective and subjective indices. The results show that FSM provides the user with an easy-performing control strategy, which successfully operates robots with complicated control commands by limited muscle motions. The high accuracy and comfortableness of the EMG-control meal assistance robot make it feasible for users with upper limbs motor disabilities.

  4. Uphill walking with a simple exoskeleton: plantarflexion assistance leads to proximal adaptations.

    PubMed

    Galle, S; Malcolm, P; Derave, W; De Clercq, D

    2015-01-01

    While level walking with a pneumatic ankle-foot exoskeleton is studied extensively, less is known on uphill walking. The goals of this study were to get a better understanding of the biomechanical adaptations and the influence of actuation timing on metabolic cost during uphill walking with a plantarflexion assisting exoskeleton. Seven female subjects walked on a treadmill with 15% inclination at 1.36 ms(-1) in five conditions (4 min): one condition with an unpowered exoskeleton and four with a powered exoskeleton with onset of pneumatic muscle actuation at 19, 26, 34 and 41% of stride. During uphill walking the metabolic cost was more than 10% lower for all powered conditions compared to the unpowered condition. When actuation onset was in between 26 and 34% of the stride, metabolic cost was suggested to be minimal. While it was expected that exoskeleton assistance would reduce muscular activity of the plantarflexors during push-off, subjects used the additional power to raise the body centre of mass in the beginning of each step to a higher point compared to unpowered walking. This reduced the muscular activity in the m. vastus lateralis and the m. biceps femoris as less effort was necessary to reach the highest body centre of mass position in the single support phase. In conclusion, subjects can use plantarflexion assistance during the push-off to reduce muscular activity in more proximal joints in order to minimize energy cost during uphill locomotion. Kinetic data seem necessary to fully understand this mechanism, which highlights the complexity of human-exoskeleton interaction. PMID:25455436

  5. Uphill walking with a simple exoskeleton: plantarflexion assistance leads to proximal adaptations.

    PubMed

    Galle, S; Malcolm, P; Derave, W; De Clercq, D

    2015-01-01

    While level walking with a pneumatic ankle-foot exoskeleton is studied extensively, less is known on uphill walking. The goals of this study were to get a better understanding of the biomechanical adaptations and the influence of actuation timing on metabolic cost during uphill walking with a plantarflexion assisting exoskeleton. Seven female subjects walked on a treadmill with 15% inclination at 1.36 ms(-1) in five conditions (4 min): one condition with an unpowered exoskeleton and four with a powered exoskeleton with onset of pneumatic muscle actuation at 19, 26, 34 and 41% of stride. During uphill walking the metabolic cost was more than 10% lower for all powered conditions compared to the unpowered condition. When actuation onset was in between 26 and 34% of the stride, metabolic cost was suggested to be minimal. While it was expected that exoskeleton assistance would reduce muscular activity of the plantarflexors during push-off, subjects used the additional power to raise the body centre of mass in the beginning of each step to a higher point compared to unpowered walking. This reduced the muscular activity in the m. vastus lateralis and the m. biceps femoris as less effort was necessary to reach the highest body centre of mass position in the single support phase. In conclusion, subjects can use plantarflexion assistance during the push-off to reduce muscular activity in more proximal joints in order to minimize energy cost during uphill locomotion. Kinetic data seem necessary to fully understand this mechanism, which highlights the complexity of human-exoskeleton interaction.

  6. [Computer-assisted navigation in orthognathic surgery. Application to Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Benassarou, M; Benassarou, A; Meyer, C

    2013-08-01

    Computer-assisted navigation is a tool that allows the surgeon to reach intraoperatively a previously defined target. This technique can be applied to the positioning of bone fragments in orthognathic surgery. It is not used routinely yet because there are no specifically dedicated systems available on the market for this kind of surgery. The goal of our study was to describe the various systems that could be used in orthognathic surgery and to report our experience of computer-assisted surgery in the positioning of the maxilla during maxillomandibular osteotomies. PMID:23928252

  7. Flood damage assessment using computer-assisted analysis of color infrared photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Use of digitized aerial photographs for flood damage assessment in agriculture is new and largely untested. However, under flooding circumstances similar to the 1975 Red River Valley flood, computer-assisted techniques can be extremely useful, especially if detailed crop damage estimates are needed within a relatively short period of time. Airphoto interpretation techniques, manual or computer-assisted, are not intended to replace conventional ground survey and sampling procedures. But their use should be considered a valuable addition to the tools currently available for assessing agricultural flood damage.

  8. Novel Approaches to Adaptive Angular Approximations in Computational Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin L. Adams; Igor Carron; Paul Nelson

    2006-06-04

    The particle-transport equation is notoriously difficult to discretize accurately, largely because the solution can be discontinuous in every variable. At any given spatial position and energy E, for example, the transport solution  can be discontinuous at an arbitrary number of arbitrary locations in the direction domain. Even if the solution is continuous it is often devoid of smoothness. This makes the direction variable extremely difficult to discretize accurately. We have attacked this problem with adaptive discretizations in the angle variables, using two distinctly different approaches. The first approach used wavelet function expansions directly and exploited their ability to capture sharp local variations. The second used discrete ordinates with a spatially varying quadrature set that adapts to the local solution. The first approach is very different from that in today’s transport codes, while the second could conceivably be implemented in such codes. Both approaches succeed in reducing angular discretization error to any desired level. The work described and results presented in this report add significantly to the understanding of angular discretization in transport problems and demonstrate that it is possible to solve this important long-standing problem in deterministic transport. Our results show that our adaptive discrete-ordinates (ADO) approach successfully: 1) Reduces angular discretization error to user-selected “tolerance” levels in a variety of difficult test problems; 2) Achieves a given error with significantly fewer unknowns than non-adaptive discrete ordinates methods; 3) Can be implemented within standard discrete-ordinates solution techniques, and thus could generate a significant impact on the field in a relatively short time. Our results show that our adaptive wavelet approach: 1) Successfully reduces the angular discretization error to arbitrarily small levels in a variety of difficult test problems, even when using the

  9. Promoting psychosocial adaptation of youths in residential care through animal-assisted psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Balluerka, Nekane; Muela, Alexander; Amiano, Nora; Caldentey, Miguel A

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the influence of animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP) on the psychosocial adaptation of a group of adolescents in residential care who had suffered traumatic childhood experiences and who presented with mental health problems. This study recruited 63 youths (mean age=15.27, SD=1.63) who were divided into two groups: a treatment group of 39 youths (19 female and 20 male; mean age=15.03, SD=0.51) and a control group of 24 (five female and 19 male; mean age=15.67, SD=1.63). The youths who underwent the AAP program had higher school adjustment in comparison to their peers who did not receive treatment. Their hyperactive behavior decreased, and they showed better social skills, more leadership, and fewer attention problems. They also showed a more positive attitude toward their teachers in comparison to controls. No differences were observed in other variables associated with clinical symptoms or personal adjustment. These results suggest that AAP can be effective with teenagers who have suffered childhood traumas and who present with problems of psychosocial adaptation. PMID:26443670

  10. Promoting psychosocial adaptation of youths in residential care through animal-assisted psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Balluerka, Nekane; Muela, Alexander; Amiano, Nora; Caldentey, Miguel A

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the influence of animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP) on the psychosocial adaptation of a group of adolescents in residential care who had suffered traumatic childhood experiences and who presented with mental health problems. This study recruited 63 youths (mean age=15.27, SD=1.63) who were divided into two groups: a treatment group of 39 youths (19 female and 20 male; mean age=15.03, SD=0.51) and a control group of 24 (five female and 19 male; mean age=15.67, SD=1.63). The youths who underwent the AAP program had higher school adjustment in comparison to their peers who did not receive treatment. Their hyperactive behavior decreased, and they showed better social skills, more leadership, and fewer attention problems. They also showed a more positive attitude toward their teachers in comparison to controls. No differences were observed in other variables associated with clinical symptoms or personal adjustment. These results suggest that AAP can be effective with teenagers who have suffered childhood traumas and who present with problems of psychosocial adaptation.

  11. From computer-assisted intervention research to clinical impact: The need for a holistic approach.

    PubMed

    Ourselin, Sébastien; Emberton, Mark; Vercauteren, Tom

    2016-10-01

    The early days of the field of medical image computing (MIC) and computer-assisted intervention (CAI), when publishing a strong self-contained methodological algorithm was enough to produce impact, are over. As a community, we now have substantial responsibility to translate our scientific progresses into improved patient care. In the field of computer-assisted interventions, the emphasis is also shifting from the mere use of well-known established imaging modalities and position trackers to the design and combination of innovative sensing, elaborate computational models and fine-grained clinical workflow analysis to create devices with unprecedented capabilities. The barriers to translating such devices in the complex and understandably heavily regulated surgical and interventional environment can seem daunting. Whether we leave the translation task mostly to our industrial partners or welcome, as researchers, an important share of it is up to us. We argue that embracing the complexity of surgical and interventional sciences is mandatory to the evolution of the field. Being able to do so requires large-scale infrastructure and a critical mass of expertise that very few research centres have. In this paper, we emphasise the need for a holistic approach to computer-assisted interventions where clinical, scientific, engineering and regulatory expertise are combined as a means of moving towards clinical impact. To ensure that the breadth of infrastructure and expertise required for translational computer-assisted intervention research does not lead to a situation where the field advances only thanks to a handful of exceptionally large research centres, we also advocate that solutions need to be designed to lower the barriers to entry. Inspired by fields such as particle physics and astronomy, we claim that centralised very large innovation centres with state of the art technology and health technology assessment capabilities backed by core support staff and open

  12. Image editing and computer assisted bitemark analysis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wood, R E; Miller, P A; Blenkinsop, B R

    1994-12-01

    Bitemark evidence in a homicide usually involves a perpetrator biting the victim prior to or around the time of death. This paper presents a case in which a homicide victim bit his assailant. A suspect taken into custody was found to have what appeared to be a human bitemark on the proximal phalanx of his right thumb. Scale photographs of this injury were obtained and compared to the dentition of the decreased using digitized computer images for superimposition. Three different approaches for comparison with the bitemark photograph were utilized: comparison with radiographs of amalgam-filled impressions of dental casts, a transparent overlay technique and comparison with photographs of a simulated bitemark inked onto the hand of a volunteer. A review of these techniques as they apply to computerized bitemark analysis is presented.

  13. Image editing and computer assisted bitemark analysis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wood, R E; Miller, P A; Blenkinsop, B R

    1994-12-01

    Bitemark evidence in a homicide usually involves a perpetrator biting the victim prior to or around the time of death. This paper presents a case in which a homicide victim bit his assailant. A suspect taken into custody was found to have what appeared to be a human bitemark on the proximal phalanx of his right thumb. Scale photographs of this injury were obtained and compared to the dentition of the decreased using digitized computer images for superimposition. Three different approaches for comparison with the bitemark photograph were utilized: comparison with radiographs of amalgam-filled impressions of dental casts, a transparent overlay technique and comparison with photographs of a simulated bitemark inked onto the hand of a volunteer. A review of these techniques as they apply to computerized bitemark analysis is presented. PMID:9227063

  14. PACS workstation for computer-assisted image diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoba, Minoru; Horino, Masato; Takemura, Kunihiko; Wani, Hidenobu; Hidaka, Akinari; Hatabu, Hiroto; Kasagi, Kanji; Konishi, Junji

    1990-08-01

    Major two functions that a PACS workstation is considered to be equipped with are 1) efficient retrieval of image data and 2) supporting or consultation of writing reports, as radiologists have to diagnose increasing number of digital images in routine clinical studies. The authors developed a prototype PACS workstation with high speed image retrieving architecture and computer aided diagnosis and reporting function by using an artificial intelligence technology (AIPACS workstation). When physician selects the patient and his studies, the system performs feature extraction and generates diagnostic report by the inference engine with backward reasoning using the knowledge installed as production rules. Clinical application to the system for thyroid diagnosis showed good correlation with the diagnosis done by the physician.

  15. Computer assisted surgery with 3D robot models and visualisation of the telesurgical action.

    PubMed

    Rovetta, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the support of virtual reality computer action in the procedures of surgical robotics. Computer support gives a direct representation of the surgical theatre. The modelization of the procedure in course and in development gives a psychological reaction towards safety and reliability. Robots similar to the ones used by the manufacturing industry can be used with little modification as very effective surgical tools. They have high precision, repeatability and are versatile in integrating with the medical instrumentation. Now integrated surgical rooms, with computer and robot-assisted intervention, are operating. The computer is the element for a decision taking aid, and the robot works as a very effective tool.

  16. Computer-assisted versus unassisted analysis of the exercise electrocardiogram in patients without myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Detrano, R; Salcedo, E; Leatherman, J; Day, K

    1987-10-01

    Computer-assisted interpretation of the exercise electrocardiogram has been advocated to improve the accuracy of diagnosing coronary artery disease. Its accuracy was compared with a blinded visual interpretation of exercise-induced ST depression in 271 consecutive subjects without prior myocardial infarction who were referred for coronary angiography. The sensitivity of the visual and computer readings was 0.51 and 0.51, respectively, at a specificity of 0.87. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated for the visual and computer ST depression in lead V5. Analysis of the areas under these curves showed no significant difference between them, indicating that computer-assisted analysis was not superior to unmodified visual analysis. A similar analysis was applied to two other computer indexes reported to be superior to visual assessments (treadmill exercise score and ST index). These computer indexes were not superior to a conventional visual analysis of leads I, II, V2, V4 and V5 in predicting severe disease (greater than 50% luminal narrowing). These results suggest that computer-assisted interpretation does not improve the accuracy of exercise electrocardiography in diagnosing coronary artery disease in subjects without prior myocardial infarction.

  17. Computers and Collaborative Learning. Proceedings of the Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium (CALICO) Annual Symposium (Middlebury, Vermont, June 19-23, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borchardt, Frank L., Ed.; Johnson, Eleanor M. T., Ed.

    This conference proceeding presents abstracts, complete papers, and presenter biographies from the 1995 Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium (CALICO) annual symposium on computers and collaborative learning. Presented topics included courseware, preconference workshop reports, and conference papers presented, including guest speaker…

  18. Computing environment for the ASSIST data warehouse at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Shuk, K.

    1995-11-01

    The current computing environment for the ASSIST data warehouse at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is that of a central server that is accessed by a terminal or terminal emulator. The initiative to move to a client/server environment is strong, backed by desktop machines becoming more and more powerful. The desktop machines can now take on parts of tasks once run entirely on the central server, making the whole environment computationally more efficient as a result. Services are tasks that are repeated throughout the environment such that it makes sense to share them; tasks such as email, user authentication and file transfer are services. The new client/;server environment needs to determine which services must be included in the environment for basic functionality. These services then unify the computing environment, not only for the forthcoming ASSIST+, but for Administrative Information Systems as a whole, joining various server platforms with heterogeneous desktop computing platforms.

  19. Computer-assisted surgical techniques: can they really improve laser surgery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, Lou; Arango, Pablo; Howard, John G.; Mendenhall, Marcus H.; Ossoff, Robert H.

    1995-05-01

    As part of our Computer-Assisted Surgical Techniques (CAST) program, we use computers to guide surgical lasers, create minimal incision widths, regulate the rate of tissue ablation, monitor the types of tissue being ablated with photo-acoustic feedback, and track and compensate for patient motions due to respiration and heart beat. The union of the computer, robotics and lasers can assist the surgeon and permit several new applications. Although these advances in laser surgery appear to have obvious benefits, it is important to evaluate and quantify the clinical advantages. We have compared the CAST system to manually controlled laser surgery and studied the wound healing after laser incision. We have found definite advantages to the CAST system. However, the computer, alone, cannot compensate for the thermal damage lateral to the incision site. The results suggest the need for motion tracking and compensation to be a part of the CAST system.

  20. Computer assisted laboratory diagnosis: a ten-year experience.

    PubMed

    Zatti, M; Guidi, G; Marcolini, F

    1988-10-01

    An automated procedure to help general practitioners in clinical diagnosis and decision making is presented. The computer-based program is conceived to process results from laboratory tests performed on outpatients, providing general practitioners with possible causes of abnormal results. When only one or two abnormal tests are observed, a series of suggestions pertinent to each abnormality is printed. When there are more abnormal test results, the program performs a more complex procedure ending with the output of some diagnostic hypotheses. Messages are also printed to focus the physician's attention to particular aspects of patient pathology that were sometimes missed or disregarded and to suggest new investigations the laboratory can perform to improve diagnostic efficiency. Moreover some advice is supplied to allow a better evaluation of particular risk conditions, as those associated with the development of coronary heart disease. The program has been recently extended with the calculation of intraindividual reference intervals. The system described has been working since 1976 and appears particularly useful when the general practitioner is faced with a number of pathological results of difficult interpretation.