Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive coping responses

  1. Surviving the crisis: Adaptive wisdom, coping mechanisms and local responses to avian influenza threats in Haining, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Letian; Pan, Tianshu

    2008-04-01

    Based on ethnographic research conducted in the summer of 2006, this paper examines local responses to the imminent threat of avian flu in Haining County of Zhejiang Province. During our field investigation, we conducted interviews with officials from local medical institutions (including the hospitals, the animal husbandry and veterinary station, and health clinics), to bureaus of public health and agro-economy. We also visited chicken farms, restaurants and farming households. We address the following factors that commonly structured the perceptions and actions of different social actors in the area of study: The changing mode of information-sharing and communication practices in the local communities; the official drive to professionalize the emergency response management system in the county; and the coping mechanisms that helped the villagers and town residents to weather the storm of avian flu. Our field research suggests that collective survival consciousness was translated into a spirit of voluntarism during the crisis. One important practical lesson we have learned from this study is that the adaptive wisdom embedded in local memories demonstrated its operational worth as a resourceful knowledge base for ordinary farmers to deal with food shortage, famine, plague and future pandemics.

  2. Coping with drought: stress and adaptive responses in potato and perspectives for improvement

    PubMed Central

    Obidiegwu, Jude E.; Bryan, Glenn J.; Jones, Hamlyn G.; Prashar, Ankush

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is often considered as a drought sensitive crop and its sustainable production is threatened due to frequent drought episodes. There has been much research aiming to understand the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of drought tolerance in potato as a basis for improving production under drought conditions. The complex phenotypic response of potato plants to drought is conditioned by the interactive effects of the plant's genotypic potential, developmental stage, and environment. Effective crop improvement for drought tolerance will require the pyramiding of many disparate characters, with different combinations being appropriate for different growing environments. An understanding of the interaction between below ground water uptake by the roots and above ground water loss from the shoot system is essential. The development of high throughput precision phenotyping platforms is providing an exciting new tool for precision screening, which, with the incorporation of innovative screening strategies, can aid the selection and pyramiding of drought-related genes appropriate for specific environments. Outcomes from genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and bioengineering advances will undoubtedly compliment conventional breeding strategies and presents an alternative route toward development of drought tolerant potatoes. This review presents an overview of past research activity, highlighting recent advances with examples from other crops and suggesting future research directions. PMID:26257752

  3. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  4. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz de Rodríguez, Lucy; Ruiz de Cárdenas, Carmen Helena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the recourses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004), in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Processing, defines Coping as the ''behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands''. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986), a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that enhance this adaptation. Methods: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Synergy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services. PMID:24893059

  5. Contingency-based emotional resilience: effort-based reward training and flexible coping lead to adaptive responses to uncertainty in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Kelly G.; Hyer, Molly M.; Rzucidlo, Amanda A.; Bergeron, Timothy; Landis, Timothy; Bardi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Emotional resilience enhances an animal's ability to maintain physiological allostasis and adaptive responses in the midst of challenges ranging from cognitive uncertainty to chronic stress. In the current study, neurobiological factors related to strategic responses to uncertainty produced by prediction errors were investigated by initially profiling male rats as passive, active or flexible copers (n = 12 each group) and assigning to either a contingency-trained or non-contingency trained group. Animals were subsequently trained in a spatial learning task so that problem solving strategies in the final probe task, as well-various biomarkers of brain activation and plasticity in brain areas associated with cognition and emotional regulation, could be assessed. Additionally, fecal samples were collected to further determine markers of stress responsivity and emotional resilience. Results indicated that contingency-trained rats exhibited more adaptive responses in the probe trial (e.g., fewer interrupted grooming sequences and more targeted search strategies) than the noncontingent-trained rats; additionally, increased DHEA/CORT ratios were observed in the contingent-trained animals. Diminished activation of the habenula (i.e., fos-immunoreactivity) was correlated with resilience factors such as increased levels of DHEA metabolites during cognitive training. Of the three coping profiles, flexible copers exhibited enhanced neuroplasticity (i.e., increased dentate gyrus doublecortin-immunoreactivity) compared to the more consistently responding active and passive copers. Thus, in the current study, contingency training via effort-based reward (EBR) training, enhanced by a flexible coping style, provided neurobiological resilience and adaptive responses to prediction errors in the final probe trial. These findings have implications for psychiatric illnesses that are influenced by altered stress responses and decision-making abilities (e.g., depression). PMID:24808837

  6. Interactions between Adaptive Coping and Drinking to Cope in Predicting Naturalistic Drinking and Drinking Following a Lab-Based Psychosocial Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Thomas, Suzanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Using alcohol to cope (i.e., coping motivation) and general coping style both are theorized and demonstrated empirically to lead to problematic drinking. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these factors interact to predict alcohol use, both retrospectively reported and in the lab following a stressor task. Social drinkers (N=50, 50% women) received the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and then consumed beer under the guise of a taste-test. A Timeline Followback interview to assess past month alcohol use, the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ), and the COPE (to assess adaptive coping) were administered prior to the laboratory challenge. Multiple regression models were used to examine DMQ coping motives, adaptive coping, and their interaction as predictors of milliliters (mls) of beer consumed in a clinical laboratory setting. The association between coping motives and mls beer was positive at both high and low levels of adaptive coping, but at low levels of adaptive coping, this association was stronger. In contrast, there was no interaction between adaptive coping and coping motives in predicting quantity and frequency of drinking in the prior month. Findings suggest that stronger coping motives for drinking predict greater alcohol consumption following a stress provocation to a greater extent when an individual is lacking in adaptive coping strategies. As both general coping skills and coping motives for alcohol use are responsive to intervention, study of the conditions under which they exert unique and interactive effects is important. PMID:23254217

  7. Is academic buoyancy anything more than adaptive coping?

    PubMed

    Putwain, David W; Connors, Liz; Symes, Wendy; Douglas-Osborn, Erica

    2012-05-01

    Academic buoyancy refers to a positive, constructive, and adaptive response to the types of challenges and setbacks experienced in a typical and everyday academic setting. In this project we examined whether academic buoyancy explained any additional variance in test anxiety over and above that explained by coping. Two hundred and ninety-eight students in their final two years of compulsory schooling completed self-report measures of academic buoyancy, coping, and test anxiety. Results suggested that buoyancy was inversely related to test anxiety and unrelated to coping. With the exception of test-irrelevant thoughts, test anxiety was positively related to avoidance coping and social support. Test-irrelevant thoughts were inversely related to task focus, unrelated to social support, and positively related to avoidance. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that academic buoyancy explained a significant additional proportion of variance in test anxiety when the variance for coping had already been accounted for. These findings suggest that academic buoyancy can be considered as a distinct construct from that of adaptive coping.

  8. Establishing a Career: Developmental Tasks and Coping Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Janet E.; Savickas, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    The critical incidents technique was used with 50 workers successfully coping with career establishment. The workers identified behaviors used to cope with six tasks: organizational adaptation, position performance, work habits/attitudes, coworker relations, advancement, and career choice/plans. Responses were organized into patterns of coping…

  9. Adapting the Brief COPE for Chinese Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Li-fang; Li, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The present research pioneered the effort in assessing adolescents' coping with visual impairment through adapting the Brief COPE in an eastern context. The first study preliminarily explored the applicability of the Brief COPE to Chinese adolescent students with visual impairments. Based on the results, the Brief COPE was modified…

  10. Maladaptive Coping, Adaptive Coping, and Depressive Symptoms: Variations across Age and Depressive State

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Renee J.; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Rumination has consistently been found to be associated with the onset and duration of major depressive episodes. Little research, however, has examined factors that may weaken the association between maladaptive coping, such as rumination, and depressive symptoms. In three samples of participants, including 149 never-depressed adolescent girls, 41 never-depressed women, and 39 depressed women, we examined whether generally adaptive forms of coping interacted with generally maladaptive coping to predict depressive symptoms. Age-appropriate measures of coping and depression were administered to participants in each sample. In never-depressed females, maladaptive coping / rumination were more strongly related to depressive symptoms in the presence of lower levels of adaptive coping. The relation between depression and maladaptive coping / rumination was weaker in the context of higher levels of adaptive coping. In contrast, for the depressed females, we found main effects for rumination and adaptive coping, with higher levels of rumination and lower levels of adaptive coping being associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. The present findings highlight how adaptive coping and maladaptive coping, including rumination, differentially relate to each other and depressive symptoms depending on individuals’ current depressive state. PMID:20211463

  11. Patterns of Coping, Patterns of Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzen, Michael D.; Heffernan, William

    Both behavioral and cognitive coping strategies are determined by an individual's perception of the stressful stimuli. To investigate the relationship of an individual's usual coping style to differential responses to a behavioral or cognitive stressor in four response systems (heart rate, muscle tension, galvanic skin response, and subjective…

  12. Executive functioning and adaptive coping in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Villegas, Ana Lilia; Salvador Cruz, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Middle-aged individuals encounter multiple environmental demands to which they must develop efficient solutions, thus making the study of executive functions and coping strategies within this age group important. This study evaluated the relationship between the planning and flexible organization of executive function with adaptive coping strategies (ACS) in adults aged 43 to 52 years old. The study included 104 participants, including 52 men and 52 women, with no history of neurological or psychiatric illnesses, diabetes, or hypertension. The participants engaged in the Tower of London(DX) (TOL(DX)) test, the Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (WCST), and the Coping Strategies Inventory. A relationship was observed between the percentage of errors and conceptual-level responses (WCST) and the Problem Solving ACS. In a separate analysis performed on the men, a negative relationship was discovered between the WCST and the Emotional Expression ACS. In the female group, the dimensions of the WCST and the TOL(DX) were associated with the ACS Emotional Expression and Problem-Solving subscales and the maladaptive coping strategy Social Withdrawal subscale. The relationship between executive functioning and the ACS is multidimensional, complex, and different between men and women. This study adds a neuropsychological characterization of the relationship between executive functions and ACS with ecological validity. The study confirms a relationship between the flexible organization of executive function and the Problem-Solving ACS.

  13. Coping with a changing soundscape: avoidance, adjustments and adaptations.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Dominique A

    2017-01-01

    Since the industrial age, background anthropogenic noise has become a pervasive feature of many habitable environments. This relatively recent environmental feature can be particularly challenging for organisms that use acoustic forms of communication due to its propensity for masking and decreasing the potential acoustic space of signals. Furthermore, anthropogenic noise may affect biological processes including animal interactions, physiological and behavioural responses to stimuli and cognitive development. However, animals' cognitive abilities may enable them to cope with high levels of anthropogenic noise through learning, the employment of acoustic and behavioural flexibility as well as the use of multi-modal sensory systems. We are only just beginning to understand how neural structures, endocrine systems and behaviour are mechanistically linked in these scenarios, providing us with information we can use to mitigate deleterious effects of pervasive noise on wildlife, along with highlighting the remarkable adaptability of animals to an increasingly anthropogenic world. In this review, I will focus mainly on birds, due to the amount of literature on the topic, and survey recent advancements made in two main spheres: (1) how anthropogenic noise affects cognitive processes and (2) how cognition enables animals to cope with increasingly noisy environments. I will be highlighting current gaps in our knowledge, such as how noise might impact behavioural traits such as predation, as well as how noise causes physical damage to neurotransmitters and affects stress levels, in order to direct future studies on this topic.

  14. Cultural adaptation of the Brief COPE for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanraj, Rani; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Kumar, Shuba; Mani, Thenmozhi; Rao, Deepa; Murray, Katherine R.; Manhart, Lisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and psychological stressors of HIV infection demand adequate coping responses from persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and coping strategies may vary by cultural context. The Brief COPE is a well validated scale that has been used extensively to assess coping with cancer, depression, and HIV infection in other settings, but never in India. In this study we translated and validated the 28 item Brief COPE among 299 PLHA in South India, assessing reliability, validity, and cultural appropriateness. Although the original scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (alpha=0.70) and good convergent validity with depression, the test-retest reliability was marginal (test-retest=0.6) and the original factor structure demonstrated poor fit in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) yielded a 16 item scale with 5 factors (active planning, social support, avoidant emotions, substance use, religion). A second CFA demonstrated good model fit and acceptable reliability (alpha=0.61) of the adapted scale. PMID:25096895

  15. Cultural adaptation of the Brief COPE for persons living with HIV/AIDS in southern India.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Rani; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Kumar, Shuba; Mani, Thenmozhi; Rao, Deepa; Murray, Katherine R; Manhart, Lisa E

    2015-02-01

    Physical and psychological stressors of HIV infection demand adequate coping responses from persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and coping strategies may vary by cultural context. The Brief COPE is a well validated scale that has been used extensively to assess coping with cancer, depression, and HIV infection in other settings, but never in India. In this study we translated and validated the 28 item Brief COPE among 299 PLHA in South India, assessing reliability, validity, and cultural appropriateness. Although the original scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (alpha = 0.70) and good convergent validity with depression, the test-retest reliability was marginal (test-retest = 0.6) and the original factor structure demonstrated poor fit in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). An exploratory factor analysis yielded a 16 item scale with five factors (active planning, social support, avoidant emotions, substance use, religion). A second CFA demonstrated good model fit and acceptable reliability (alpha = 0.61) of the adapted scale.

  16. Adapting to and coping with the threat and impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Reser, Joseph P; Swim, Janet K

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the nature and challenge of adaptation in the context of global climate change. The complexity of "climate change" as threat, environmental stressor, risk domain, and impacting process with dramatic environmental and human consequences requires a synthesis of perspectives and models from diverse areas of psychology to adequately communicate and explain how a more psychological framing of the human dimensions of global environmental change can greatly inform and enhance effective and collaborative climate change adaptation and mitigation policies and research. An integrative framework is provided that identifies and considers important mediating and moderating parameters and processes relating to climate change adaptation, with particular emphasis given to environmental stress and stress and coping perspectives. This psychological perspective on climate change adaptation highlights crucial aspects of adaptation that have been neglected in the arena of climate change science. Of particular importance are intra-individual and social "psychological adaptation" processes that powerfully mediate public risk perceptions and understandings, effective coping responses and resilience, overt behavioral adjustment and change, and psychological and social impacts. This psychological window on climate change adaptation is arguably indispensable to genuinely multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research and policy initiatives addressing the impacts of climate change.

  17. Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Coping with the Forced Swim Stressor: Towards Understanding an Adaptive Mechanism.

    PubMed

    de Kloet, E R; Molendijk, M L

    2016-01-01

    In the forced swim test (FST) rodents progressively show increased episodes of immobility if immersed in a beaker with water from where escape is not possible. In this test, a compound qualifies as a potential antidepressant if it prevents or delays the transition to this passive (energy conserving) behavioural style. In the past decade however the switch from active to passive "coping" was used increasingly to describe the phenotype of an animal that has been exposed to a stressful history and/or genetic modification. A PubMed analysis revealed that in a rapidly increasing number of papers (currently more than 2,000) stress-related immobility in the FST is labeled as a depression-like phenotype. In this contribution we will examine the different phases of information processing during coping with the forced swim stressor. For this purpose we focus on the action of corticosterone that is mediated by the closely related mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the limbic brain. The evidence available suggests a model in which we propose that the limbic MR-mediated response selection operates in complementary fashion with dopaminergic accumbens/prefrontal executive functions to regulate the transition between active and passive coping styles. Upon rescue from the beaker the preferred, mostly passive, coping style is stored in the memory via a GR-dependent action in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. It is concluded that the rodent's behavioural response to a forced swim stressor does not reflect depression. Rather the forced swim experience provides a unique paradigm to investigate the mechanistic underpinning of stress coping and adaptation.

  19. How groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems: Symbolic coping and collective emotions.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, Sabine; Bonnot, Virginie; Ratiu, Eugenia; Krauth-Gruber, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the way groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems. The social representations approach was adopted, and the collective symbolic coping model was used as a frame of analysis, integrating collective emotions to enhance the understanding of coping processes. The original feature of this study is that the analysis is at group level. Seven focus groups were conducted with French students. An original use of focus groups was proposed: Discussions were structured to induce feelings of collective responsibility and enable observation of how groups cope with such feelings at various levels (social knowledge; social identities; group dynamics). Two analyses were conducted: Qualitative analysis of participants' use of various kinds of knowledge, social categories and the group dynamics, and lexicometric analysis to reveal how emotions varied during the different discussion phases. Results showed that groups' emotional states moved from negative to positive: They used specific social categories and resorted to shared stereotypes to cope with collective responsibility and maintain the integrity of their worldview. Only then did debate become possible again; it was anchored in the nature-culture dichotomy such that groups switched from group-based to system-based emotions.

  20. Adaptive response modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campa, Alessandro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Belli, Mauro

    Cellular response to radiation is often modified by a previous delivery of a small "priming" dose: a smaller amount of damage, defined by the end point being investigated, is observed, and for this reason the effect is called adaptive response. An improved understanding of this effect is essential (as much as for the case of the bystander effect) for a reliable radiation risk assessment when low dose irradiations are involved. Experiments on adaptive response have shown that there are a number of factors that strongly influence the occurrence (and the level) of the adaptation. In particular, priming doses and dose rates have to fall in defined ranges; the same is true for the time interval between the delivery of the small priming dose and the irradiation with the main, larger, dose (called in this case challenging dose). Different hypotheses can be formulated on the main mechanism(s) determining the adaptive response: an increased efficiency of DNA repair, an increased level of antioxidant enzymes, an alteration of cell cycle progression, a chromatin conformation change. An experimental clearcut evidence going definitely in the direction of one of these explanations is not yet available. Modelling can be done at different levels. Simple models, relating the amount of damage, through elementary differential equations, to the dose and dose rate experienced by the cell, are relatively easy to handle, and they can be modified to account for the priming irradiation. However, this can hardly be of decisive help in the explanation of the mechanisms, since each parameter of these models often incorporates in an effective way several cellular processes related to the response to radiation. In this presentation we show our attempts to describe adaptive response with models that explicitly contain, as a dynamical variable, the inducible adaptive agent. At a price of a more difficult treatment, this approach is probably more prone to give support to the experimental studies

  1. Coping and cognitive factors in adaptation to in vitro fertilization failure.

    PubMed

    Litt, M D; Tennen, H; Affleck, G; Klock, S

    1992-04-01

    Characteristics were identified that predict adaptation following an unsuccessful attempt at in vitro fertilization (IVF). Forty-one women and their husbands were interviewed and administered questionnaires prior to IVF and 2 weeks after notice of a positive or negative pregnancy test. Of the 36 couples who failed to conceive as a result of IVF, 6 of the women studied developed clinical depressive symptoms. Those women who reported poorest adaptation to IVF failure were more likely to have reported depressive symptoms prior to IVF, were more likely to have reported feeling a general loss of control over their lives as a result of infertility, tended to use escape as a coping strategy, and reported having felt some responsibility for their IVF failure. Dispositional optimism, as well as a sense of being partially responsible for the infertility, was protective of distress following IVF failure.

  2. Integration of coping and social support perspectives: implications for the study of adaptation to chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Schreurs, K M; de Ridder, D T

    1997-01-01

    In this article, empirical studies dealing with the relationship between coping and social support are discussed in order to identify promising themes for research on adaptation to chronic diseases. Although only few studies deal with this issue explicitly, the review reveals that four ways to study the relationship between coping and social support can be distinguished: (a) seeking social support as a coping strategy; (b) social support as a coping resource; (c) social support as dependent on the way individual patients cope; and (d) coping by a social system. It is argued that all four ways of integrating coping and social support contribute to a better understanding of adaptation to chronic diseases. However, exploring the interrelatedness of both concepts by studying social support as a coping resource and social support as dependent on the patient's own coping behavior appear to be especially fruitful in the short term, as they: (a) provide a better insight in the social determinants of coping, and (b) may help to clarify the way social support affects health and well-being.

  3. Effects of Self-Statements and Coping Strategies on Adaptational Outcomes of Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlemann, Max R.; Plater, Sharon A.

    1989-01-01

    Examined effects of self-statements and coping strategies on adaptational outcomes of stress in female subjects (N=62). Results indicated self-statements did not discriminate significantly between individuals who effectively or ineffectively handled stressful encounters. Only information-seeking coping strategy showed a trend toward a significant…

  4. Coping with the Forced Swim Stressor: Towards Understanding an Adaptive Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    de Kloet, E. R.; Molendijk, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    In the forced swim test (FST) rodents progressively show increased episodes of immobility if immersed in a beaker with water from where escape is not possible. In this test, a compound qualifies as a potential antidepressant if it prevents or delays the transition to this passive (energy conserving) behavioural style. In the past decade however the switch from active to passive “coping” was used increasingly to describe the phenotype of an animal that has been exposed to a stressful history and/or genetic modification. A PubMed analysis revealed that in a rapidly increasing number of papers (currently more than 2,000) stress-related immobility in the FST is labeled as a depression-like phenotype. In this contribution we will examine the different phases of information processing during coping with the forced swim stressor. For this purpose we focus on the action of corticosterone that is mediated by the closely related mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the limbic brain. The evidence available suggests a model in which we propose that the limbic MR-mediated response selection operates in complementary fashion with dopaminergic accumbens/prefrontal executive functions to regulate the transition between active and passive coping styles. Upon rescue from the beaker the preferred, mostly passive, coping style is stored in the memory via a GR-dependent action in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. It is concluded that the rodent's behavioural response to a forced swim stressor does not reflect depression. Rather the forced swim experience provides a unique paradigm to investigate the mechanistic underpinning of stress coping and adaptation. PMID:27034848

  5. Preservice Teachers' Coping Styles and Their Responses to Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jeffrey H.; Jones, Jayme L.; Wieland, Amy L.

    2012-01-01

    The literature suggests that teacher responses to bullying are a function of the type of aggression (overt vs. relational), the gender of the children involved, and characteristics of the teacher. We extended the literature by examining teachers' dispositional coping styles as a predictor of their responses to bullying. Preservice teachers (N =…

  6. Determinants of Coping Responses among Mexican American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship of perceived stress, self-esteem, acculturation, and gender to the coping response of Mexican American adolescents. Data from self-report surveys indicated that adolescents had relatively high perceived stress levels, low acculturation, and a moderate self-esteem, with no significant gender differences. Self-esteem was…

  7. Family Adaptation and Coping among Siblings of Cancer Patients, Their Brothers and Sisters, and Nonclinical Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan-Swain, Avi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined coping and family adaptation in siblings (n=32) of cancer patients, their ill brothers and sisters (n=19), and control group of nonclinical children (n=10) with healthy siblings. Gender and age of sibling, birth order, and number of siblings were examined. Found better adaptation in larger families and decreased family involvement among…

  8. The possibility of nuclear war: Appraisal, coping and emotional response

    SciTech Connect

    Kanofsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses.

  9. Effects of single cortisol administrations on human affect reviewed: Coping with stress through adaptive regulation of automatic cognitive processing.

    PubMed

    Putman, Peter; Roelofs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The human stress hormone cortisol may facilitate effective coping after psychological stress. In apparent agreement, administration of cortisol has been demonstrated to reduce fear in response to stressors. For anxious patients with phobias or posttraumatic stress disorder this has been ascribed to hypothetical inhibition of retrieval of traumatic memories. However, such stress-protective effects may also work via adaptive regulation of early cognitive processing of threatening information from the environment. This paper selectively reviews the available literature on effects of single cortisol administrations on affect and early cognitive processing of affectively significant information. The concluded working hypothesis is that immediate effects of high concentration of cortisol may facilitate stress-coping via inhibition of automatic processing of goal-irrelevant threatening information and through increased automatic approach-avoidance responses in early emotional processing. Limitations in the existing literature and suggestions for future directions are briefly discussed.

  10. Bibliography of Selected Literature in the 1970s Related to Crises, Family Stress, Coping and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Barbara

    This bibliography of literature from the 1970s related to crises, family stress, coping, and adaptation contains references of particular interest to professionals in the areas of counseling, education, and family social, psychological and health services. The bibliography is divided into 26 categories; references are classified according to major…

  11. The Sense of Self-Continuity as a Resource in Adaptive Coping with Job Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeh, Noa; Karniol, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the sense of self-continuity, defined as the ability to perceive oneself as extending temporally backwards into the past and forwards into the future, and the adaptiveness of strategies of coping with job loss. We created a web site that was linked to several Israeli web sites dealing with unemployment in…

  12. Coping with Information Overload as Adaptive Behavior in Competitive Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.

    When the amount of available information exceeds the ability of the user to process it, "information overload" is created. In an attempt to maintain some control over the quantity of arguments they may face, debaters have developed adaptive behavior, primarily through the generic argument--any argument within a "deliverative"…

  13. The adolescent Religious Coping Questionnaire. Translation and cultural adaptation of Pargament's RCOPE Scale for Polish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Talik, Elżbieta B

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents the process of translation and cultural adaptation of the Religious Coping Questionnaire (the RCOPE) by Pargament et al. (2000) for Polish adolescents. The work was driven by the necessity to obtain a structural and measurement equivalence between the American and Polish versions of the instrument. The Polish version was created at the Department of Clinical Psychology of Children and Adolescents at The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland. The exploratory factor analysis with the Oblimin oblique rotation was carried out. The principal components method was used as an extraction method of common factors. The results provided input for constructing the scales. The Adolescent Religious Coping Questionnaire consists of 105 items, grouped in 16 scales, which reflects positive and negative religious coping strategies.

  14. Multi-type Childhood Abuse, Strategies of Coping, and Psychological Adaptations in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sesar, Kristina; Šimić, Nataša; Barišić, Marijana

    2010-01-01

    Aim To retrospectively analyze the rate of multi-type abuse in childhood and the effects of childhood abuse and type of coping strategies on the psychological adaptation of young adults in a sample form the student population of the University of Mostar. Methods The study was conducted on a convenience sample of 233 students from the University of Mostar (196 female and 37 male), with a median age of 20 (interquartile range, 2). Exposure to abuse was determined using the Child Maltreatment Scales for Adults, which assesses emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect, and witnessing family violence. Psychological adaptation was explored by the Trauma Symptom Checklist, which assesses anxiety/depression, sexual problems, trauma symptoms, and somatic symptoms. Strategies of coping with stress were explored by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Results Multi-type abuse in childhood was experienced by 172 participants (74%) and all types of abuse by 11 (5%) participants. Emotional and physical maltreatment were the most frequent types of abuse and mostly occurred together with other types of abuse. Significant association was found between all types of abuse (r = 0.436-0.778, P < 0.050). Exposure to sexual abuse in childhood and coping strategies were significant predictors of anxiety/depression (R2 = 0.3553), traumatic symptoms (R2 = 0.2299), somatic symptoms (R2 = 0.2173), and sexual problems (R2 = 0.1550, P < 0.001). Conclusion Exposure to multi-type abuse in childhood is a traumatic experience with long-term negative effects. Problem-oriented coping strategies ensure a better psychosocial adaptation than emotion-oriented strategies. PMID:20960590

  15. Fight, Flight or Freeze: Common Responses for Follower Coping with Toxic Leadership.

    PubMed

    Webster, Vicki; Brough, Paula; Daly, Kathleen

    2016-10-01

    Sustained destructive leadership behaviours are associated with negative outcomes that produce serious workplace problems, yet there is scant research into how followers effectively cope with toxic leader behaviours. Despite numerous attempts to develop typologies of coping behaviours, there remains much to learn, especially in relation to this specific workplace stressor. This mixed method research investigates the coping strategies reported by 76 followers to cope with the psychological, emotional and physical consequences of their leader's adverse behaviour. Coping instances were categorized using two existing theoretical coping frameworks, and the ability of these frameworks to explain responses to real-world experiences with toxic leadership are discussed. Common coping strategies reported included assertively challenging the leader, seeking social support, ruminating, taking leave and leaving the organization. Organizational interventions to increase effectiveness of follower coping with the impact of toxic leadership are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Does peer mentoring work? Dental students assess its benefits as an adaptive coping strategy.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Naty; Johnson, Sara; Black, Nicki

    2010-11-01

    Dental students deal with various stressors while in dental school. While some develop adaptive coping skills, others may suffer from damaging effects of constant and increasing levels of stress. This study evaluated a peer mentoring program at a dental school in the Midwest to determine student perceptions of its benefits and to identify areas for improvement. Data were collected through a survey sent out to all dental classes online. The twenty-five-item survey was based on student responses during two focus groups held to elicit student assessment of the peer mentoring program. Sixty-six percent of the student body participated with representation from all four classes. Students find their peer mentoring program an effective tool in helping them deal with stress especially during transition phases of their curriculum, first into dental school and later from preclinic to the clinics. Having a mentor means easy access to an available person who can help students relieve anxieties about dental school. Experiencing dental school enables a student to serve as a mentor, so a non-dental student is seen as not effective. Peer mentoring needs to be loosely structured and flexible and should cover all years in the dental curriculum.

  17. Adaptive Capacity in Tanzanian Maasailand: Changing strategies to cope with drought in fragmented landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Riosmena, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which the adaptive capacity of households to climatic events varies within communities and is mediated by institutional and landscape changes. We present qualitative and quantitative data from two Maasai communities differentially exposed to the devastating drought of 2009 in Northern Tanzania. We show how rangeland fragmentation combined with the decoupling of institutions and landscapes are affecting pastoralists ability to cope with drought. Our data highlight that mobility remains a key coping mechanism for pastoralists to avoid cattle loss during a drought. However, mobility is now happening in new ways that require not only large amounts of money but new forms of knowledge and connections outside of customary reciprocity networks. Those least affected by the drought, in terms of cattle lost, were those with large herds who were able to sell some of their cattle and to pay for private access to pastures outside of Maasai areas. Drawing on an entitlements framework, we argue that the new coping mechanisms are not available to all, could be making some households more vulnerable to climate change, and reduce the adaptive capacity of the overall system as reciprocity networks and customary institutions are weakened. As such, we posit that adaptive capacity to climate change is uneven within and across communities, is scale-dependent, and is intimately tied to institutional and landscape changes. PMID:25400331

  18. Coping, acculturation, and psychological adaptation among migrants: a theoretical and empirical review and synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ben C H

    2014-01-01

    Given the continuous, dynamic demographic changes internationally due to intensive worldwide migration and globalization, the need to more fully understand how migrants adapt and cope with acculturation experiences in their new host cultural environment is imperative and timely. However, a comprehensive review of what we currently know about the relationship between coping behavior and acculturation experience for individuals undergoing cultural changes has not yet been undertaken. Hence, the current article aims to compile, review, and examine cumulative cross-cultural psychological research that sheds light on the relationships among coping, acculturation, and psychological and mental health outcomes for migrants. To this end, this present article reviews prevailing literature pertaining to: (a) the stress and coping conceptual perspective of acculturation; (b) four theoretical models of coping, acculturation and cultural adaptation; (c) differential coping pattern among diverse acculturating migrant groups; and (d) the relationship between coping variabilities and acculturation levels among migrants. In terms of theoretical understanding, this review points to the relative strengths and limitations associated with each of the four theoretical models on coping-acculturation-adaptation. These theories and the empirical studies reviewed in this article further highlight the central role of coping behaviors/strategies in the acculturation process and outcome for migrants and ethnic populations, both conceptually and functionally. Moreover, the review shows that across studies culturally preferred coping patterns exist among acculturating migrants and migrant groups and vary with migrants' acculturation levels. Implications and limitations of the existing literature for coping, acculturation, and psychological adaptation research are discussed and recommendations for future research are put forth.

  19. An Analysis of Attitudes and Coping Strategies of High School Youth: Response to Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, James Albert

    The purpose of this research study was to develop and test new instruments for assessing attitudes and coping responses to air pollution, and to gain insight into the factors influencing these attitudes and coping responses. Concern for air pollution was measured by two instruments a forced choice questionnaire which paired air pollution control…

  20. A comparison of the marginal adaptation of cathode-arc vapor-deposited titanium and cast base metal copings

    PubMed Central

    Wu, JC; Lai, LC; Sheets, CG; Earthman, J; Newcomb, R

    2011-01-01

    Statement of problem A new fabrication process has been developed where a titanium coping, which has a gold colored titanium nitride outer layer can be reliably fused to porcelain, but the marginal adaptation characteristics are still undetermined. Purpose The primary purpose of this study is to compare the rate of Clinically Acceptable Marginal Adaptation (CAMA-defined as a marginal gap mean ≤60 μm) of cathode-arc vapor-deposited titanium with the CAMA rate for the cast base metal copings. In addition, the study will evaluate the marginal gap scores themselves to assess their mean difference between the two study groups. Finally, the study will present two analyses of group differences in variability to support the contention that the titanium copings perform more consistently than their base metal counterparts. Material and methods Thirty-seven cathode-arc vapor-deposited titanium copings and 40 cast base metal copings were evaluated by computer-based image analysis using an optical microscope. The conventional lost wax technique was used to fabricate the 40 cast base metal copings that were 0.3 mm thick. The titanium copings were 0.3 mm thick and were formed by a collection of atomic titanium vapor onto a refractory die duplicate in a high vacuum chamber. Fifty vertical marginal gap measurements were collected from each of the 77 copings and the mean of these measurements was computed to form a gap score for each coping. Next, the gap score was compared to the 60 μm criterion to classify each coping as to whether it did or did not achieve Clinically Acceptable Marginal Adaption (CAMA). A comparison of the CAMA rates for each type of coping was used to address the primary purpose of this study. In addition, the gap scores themselves were used to test the (one-sided) hypothesis that the mean of the titanium gap scores is smaller than the mean of the base metal gap scores. Finally, the assertion that the titanium copings provide more consistency in their

  1. Personality and illness adaptation in adults with type 1 diabetes: the intervening role of illness coping and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Klimstra, Theo A; Moons, Philip; Groven, Chris; Weets, Ilse

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by the common sense model, the present cross-sectional study examined illness perceptions and coping as intervening mechanisms in the relationship between Big Five personality traits and illness adaptation in adults with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 368 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (18-35 years old) completed questionnaires on personality, diabetes-related problems, illness perceptions, and illness coping. First, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted patients' illness adaptation, above and beyond the effects of sex, age, and illness duration. Second, illness coping was found to be an important mediating mechanism in the relationship between the Big Five and illness adaptation. Finally, perceived consequences and perceived personal control partially mediated the relationship between the Big Five and illness coping. These findings underscore the importance of examining patients' personality to shed light on their daily functioning and, hence, call for tailored intervention programs which take into account the personality of the individual patient.

  2. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    PubMed Central

    Mhaidat, Fatin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades) enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure) and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. PMID:27175098

  3. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    welfare can be very good when it is occurring. Other adaptation is difficult and may involve lower or higher level emergency physiological responses or abnormal behaviour, often with bad feelings such as pain or fear. In that case, welfare is poor or very poor even if complete adaptation eventually occurs and there is no long-term threat to the life of the individual. In some circumstances, adaptation may be unsuccessful, the individual is not able to cope, stress occurs and welfare is ultimately very poor.

  4. Maternal Coping Adaptations, Social Support and Transition Difficulties to Parenthood of First-Time Civilian and Military Mothers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Social support and adaptation to the parent role in first-time adolescent mothers. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 18(4), 327...NOV1𔄁s uS Maternal Coping Adaptations, Social Support and Transition Difficulties to Parenthood of First-time Civilian and Military Mothers 6. AUI HOr...Unlimited MICHAEL M. BRL.7KER, SMSgt, USAF Chief Administration S ELECTE JUN07 1993 A k 93-12634 97 !f C MATERNAL COPING ADAPTATIONS. SOCIAL SUPPORT AND

  5. Adaptive Coping under Conditions of Extreme Stress: Multilevel Influences on the Determinants of Resilience in Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2009-01-01

    The study of resilience in maltreated children reveals the possibility of coping processes and resources on multiple levels of analysis as children strive to adapt under conditions of severe stress. In a maltreating context, aspects of self-organization, including self-esteem, self-reliance, emotion regulation, and adaptable yet reserved…

  6. [Adaptation and psychometric proprieties study for the Portuguese version of the Adolescent Coping Scale - Escala de Coping para Adolescentes].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Cruz, Diana; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Sampaio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O coping é um processo psicológico que leva ao ajustamento individual perante situações de stress. A Adolescent Coping Scale é um instrumento de investigação e uma ferramenta clínica, amplamente utilizada. O presente estudo tem como objectivos desenvolver uma versão Portuguesa da Adolescent Coping Scale e analisar as estratégias e estilos de coping dos jovens da nossa amostra.Material e Métodos: Um questionário anónimo compreendendo a Adolescent Coping Scale obteve respostas de 1 713 alunos (56% do sexo feminino, com idades compreendidas entre os 12 e os 20 anos e uma média etária de 16). O estudo de validade da escala contemplou: análise em componentes principais e avaliação da consistência interna; análise confirmatória através de modelo de equações estruturais. Posteriormente, foram comparadas por género as estratégias e estilos de coping da amostra (testes t para amostras independentes).Resultados: A estrutura final da adaptação da Adolescent Coping Scale reteve 70 itens, que avaliam 16 estratégias de coping agrupadas em três estilos distintos. As escalas apresentaram bons valores de consistência interna (alfas de Cronbach compreendidos entre 0,63 e 0,86, com a exceção de uma dimensão que apresentou um valor de 0,55) e o modelo confirmatório demonstrou bom fit (goodness of fit index compreendidos entre 0,94 e 0,96). Foram eliminadas duas estratégias de coping por motivos estatísticos (ausência de saturação de itens suficientes nas dimensões correspondentes). Verificámos que o estilo de coping focado na resolução do problema é aquele maioritariamente utilizado pelos adolescentes da nossa amostra, em ambos os sexos. No sexo feminino observaram-se valores médios mais elevados nos estilos de coping não produtivo e de referência a outros.Discussão: A versão adaptada apresenta elevada semelhança com a escala original, com alterações minor espectáveis tendo em conta que o coping é influenciado por

  7. Cultivating Resilience in Families Who Foster: Understanding How Families Cope and Adapt Over Time.

    PubMed

    Lietz, Cynthia A; Julien-Chinn, Francie J; Geiger, Jennifer M; Hayes Piel, Megan

    2016-12-01

    Families who foster offer essential care for children and youth when their own parents are unable to provide for their safety and well-being. Foster caregivers face many challenges including increased workload, emotional distress, and the difficulties associated with health and mental health problems that are more common in children in foster care. Despite these stressors, many families are able to sustain fostering while maintaining or enhancing functioning of their unit. This qualitative study applied an adaptational process model of family resilience that emerged in previous studies to examine narratives of persistent, long-term, and multiple fostering experiences. Data corroborated previous research in two ways. Family resilience was again described as a transactional process of coping and adaptation that evolves over time. This process was cultivated through the activation of 10 family strengths that are important in different ways, during varied phases.

  8. Adaptive and Maladaptive Coping Strategies in Adult Pathological Gamblers and Their Mediating Role with Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Onaindia, Jaione; Estévez, Ana

    2017-02-08

    Coping plays a central role in the appearance and persistence of pathological gambling. Anxious and depressive symptomatology also influence pathological gambling and are related to coping. This study aimed to analyze pathological gamblers' coping strategies and styles, as well as associated anxious and depressive symptomatology. The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Measures of gambling, coping, and anxious and depressive symptomatology were used. Results showed that pathological gamblers' scored higher in all the maladaptive coping strategies, problem- and emotion-focused disengagement, and disengagement subscales. These subscales also correlated with pathological gambling, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Pathological gamblers also scored higher in emotional expression and emotion-focused engagement, with no differences in the rest of the adaptive coping strategies. Coping was also found to predict pathological gambling and anxious and depressive symptomatology. It was found that coping mediated the relationship between pathological gambling and anxious symptomatology when controlling for the effect of age. Specifically, social withdrawal and disengagement stood out as mediators. These results provide practical information for use in clinical settings with people diagnosed with pathological gambling.

  9. Promoting Adaptive Coping by Persons with HIV Disease: Evaluation of a Patient/Partner Intervention Model

    PubMed Central

    Fife, Betsy L.; Scott, Linda L.; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Zwickl, Beth E.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention to facilitate adaptive coping by persons living with HIV (PLWH), with the participation of their cohabiting partners as a dimension of the intervention. An experimental design with randomization was used, and 84 PLWH and their partners were recruited. The intervention was based on a psychosocial educational model that incorporated 4 two-hour sessions focused on communication, stress appraisal, adaptive coping strategies, and building social support. Both members of the dyad were included in each session. The comparison control included four supportive phone calls to the PLWH alone. Data were collected from both the PLWH and their partners in each of the two groups at baseline, immediately following the intervention, and 3 months and 6 months post-treatment. Data were analyzed using RM ANOVA, with change scores from the partner data being covariates. Findings indicated that the design was a feasible model, which demonstrated potential for the management of stress, and possibly problems such as adherence, in PLWH. A manual was developed as a part of this intervention and is currently available. PMID:18191771

  10. Mixed-gender groups: coping strategies and factors of psychological adaptation in a polar environment.

    PubMed

    Rosnet, Elisabeth; Jurion, Sylvie; Cazes, Geneviève; Bachelard, Claude

    2004-07-01

    The polar environment is often seen as a good analog for long-term space missions in terms of isolation and confinement. This paper focuses on the psychological adaptation of both the men and women in mixed-gender groups in the French polar station Dumont d'Urville. The first 49 expeditions to this station were composed of men only in groups of 25-30. In 2000, two women were included in the first mixed-gender wintering group, followed by five women in 2001. This study on coping strategies and psychological adaptation was included in an end-of-mission debriefing performed by a psychologist. Data were collected using a few quantitative tools and a semi-structured interview, and focused on adaptation to wintering, coping strategies, and information on interpersonal relationships. Including women in a wintering group seems to have had positive effects on the general climate of the group by reducing men's rude behavior, but it also seems to be an important stressor for both men and women when the females' average age is close to the males' because seduction behaviors appear and rivalry, frustration, and sexual harassment frequently result. The use of problem-oriented strategies helps women to adapt. There are strong arguments indicating that living in an isolated and confined environment magnifies the usual difficulties that arise in mixed-gender relationships. Difficulties may be magnified in space since the group size is smaller and the confinement more extreme. This implies the need for rigorous select-in criteria for both men and women, especially for relational criteria, and for group training after selection.

  11. Coping With Cleft: A Conceptual Framework of Caregiver Responses to Nasoalveolar Molding

    PubMed Central

    Sischo, Lacey; Broder, Hillary L.; Phillips, Ceib

    2014-01-01

    Objective To present a conceptual framework of caregiver coping and adaptation to early cleft care using nasoalveolar molding. Design In-depth interviews were conducted at three time points with caregivers of infants with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate whose children had nasoalveolar molding to treat their cleft. Qualitative data were analyzed using modified grounded theory. Results Most caregivers expressed initial apprehension and anxiety about the responsibilities of care associated with nasoalveolar molding (e.g., changing and positioning tapes, cleaning the appliance). In subsequent interviews, caregivers often reported positive feelings related to their active participation in their child’s treatment for cleft. These positive feelings were associated with increased self-esteem and feelings of empowerment for the caregivers. Although caregivers also identified burdens associated with nasoalveolar molding (e.g., stress related to lip taping, concerns about the appliance causing sores in their child’s mouth, travel to weekly appointments), they tended to minimize the impact of these issues in comparison with the perceived benefits of nasoalveolar molding. Conclusions Despite the increased burden of care, many caregivers of infants with cleft used nasoalveolar molding as a problem-focused coping strategy to deal with their child’s cleft. Completing nasoalveolar molding was often associated with positive factors such as increased empowerment, self-esteem, and bonding with their infant. PMID:25225840

  12. Supportive Dyadic Coping and Psychological Adaptation in Couples Parenting Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Relationship Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar; Recio, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    In couples parenting children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), the partner becomes a primary source of support for addressing the additional parenting demands. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between supportive dyadic coping and parental adaptation, and to assess the mediating role of relationship satisfaction between them. Seventy-six couples parenting children with ASD participated. Data were gathered through self-report questionnaires and an Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Model was used. Mothers' and fathers' supportive dyadic coping was related to both their own and partner's relationship satisfaction and parental adaptation. Findings also revealed the mediation role of relationship satisfaction, in the association between supportive dyadic coping and parental adaptation. The implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  13. Aesthetic Response as Coping Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David E.

    1982-01-01

    Far from being peripheral to human functioning, aesthetic activity is fundamental to the process of coping. It is distinguished from other cultural activity, like religion and science, because its raw materials are formal properties--line, form, color, texture--derived from the external world. (Author/CS)

  14. The Stress and Coping Responses of Certified Graduate Athletic Training Students

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sources of stress and coping responses of certified graduate athletic training students. Design and Setting: We interviewed certified graduate athletic training students 3 times over a 9-month period. We transcribed the interviews verbatim and used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. Subjects: Three male and 3 female certified graduate athletic training students from a postcertification graduate athletic training program volunteered to participate in this investigation. The participants were full-time graduate students, with a mean age of 23 years, who had worked an average of 1.5 years as certified athletic trainers at the time of the first interview. Measurements: We used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. Results: A total of 6 general sources of stress and 11 coping dimensions were revealed. The stress dimensions were labeled athletic training duties, comparing job duties, responsibilities as student, time management, social evaluation, and future concerns. The coping responses were planning, instrumental social support, adjusting to job responsibilities, positive evaluations, emotional social support, humor, wishful thinking, religion, mental or behavioral disengagement, activities outside the profession, and other outcomes. Conclusions: Certified graduate athletic training students should be encouraged to use problem-focused (eg, seeking advice, planning) and emotion-focused (eg, positive evaluations, humor) forms of coping with stress. PMID:15173872

  15. The Stress and Coping Responses of Certified Graduate Athletic Training Students.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sarah; Giacobbi, Peter R.

    2004-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the sources of stress and coping responses of certified graduate athletic training students. DESIGN AND SETTING: We interviewed certified graduate athletic training students 3 times over a 9-month period. We transcribed the interviews verbatim and used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. SUBJECTS: Three male and 3 female certified graduate athletic training students from a postcertification graduate athletic training program volunteered to participate in this investigation. The participants were full-time graduate students, with a mean age of 23 years, who had worked an average of 1.5 years as certified athletic trainers at the time of the first interview. MEASUREMENTS: We used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. RESULTS: A total of 6 general sources of stress and 11 coping dimensions were revealed. The stress dimensions were labeled athletic training duties, comparing job duties, responsibilities as student, time management, social evaluation, and future concerns. The coping responses were planning, instrumental social support, adjusting to job responsibilities, positive evaluations, emotional social support, humor, wishful thinking, religion, mental or behavioral disengagement, activities outside the profession, and other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Certified graduate athletic training students should be encouraged to use problem-focused (eg, seeking advice, planning) and emotion-focused (eg, positive evaluations, humor) forms of coping with stress.

  16. Behavioral coping strategies in response to social stress are associated with distinct neuroendocrine, monoaminergic and immune response profiles in mice.

    PubMed

    De Miguel, Zurine; Vegas, Oscar; Garmendia, Larraitz; Arregi, Amaia; Beitia, Garikoitz; Azpiroz, Arantza

    2011-12-01

    Individual variation in behavioral coping strategies to stress implies that animals may have a distinct physiological adaptation to stress; these differences may underlie differences in vulnerability to stress-related diseases. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that different behavioral coping strategies (active vs. passive) are stable over time and that they would be associated with differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adreno-medular (SAM) axes, and monoaminergic and immune activity. Male mice were subjected to social stress. Twelve days after the first social interaction, mice were subjected to a second identical social stress interaction. Behavior was videotaped and assessed during both sessions. One hour after the final social interaction, serum was collected for corticosterone and adrenaline concentrations and brains were collected for hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression. Monoaminergic system activity was determined by mRNA expression of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline synthetic enzymes in the brain stem. Immune system activity was determined by mRNA expression of hypothalamic interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and splenic IL-1β and interleukin-2 (IL-2). Mice engaging in a passive strategy had higher serum corticosterone and lower serum adrenaline concentrations than the active group. The passive group showed lower hypothalamic mRNA expression of IL-1β and CRH and lower splenic mRNA expression of IL-2 and IL-1β relative to mice in the active group. An active strategy was associated with higher expression of the dopaminergic synthetic enzyme, while a passive strategy was associated with decreased expression of the serotonergic synthetic enzyme. These findings indicate that individual coping strategies are stable over time and are related to differences in the physiological stress response and immune activity.

  17. Mental Health, Substance Use, and Adaptive Coping among Social Work Students in the Aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Catherine M.; Plummer, Carol A.; Richardson, Roslyn; Simon, Cassandra E.; Ai, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined mental health symptomology, substance use, and adaptive coping among 416 social work students following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Among participants, 47% scored at or above the clinical level for depression, with 6% of students showing clinical PTSD-like symptoms, and 16.9% reporting substance use. Two thirds (66.9%)…

  18. Pre-Attack Stress-Load, Appraisals, and Coping in Children's Responses to the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children's post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific…

  19. Population differentiation in a Mediterranean relict shrub: the potential role of local adaptation for coping with climate change.

    PubMed

    Lázaro-Nogal, Ana; Matesanz, Silvia; Hallik, Lea; Krasnova, Alisa; Traveset, Anna; Valladares, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Plants can respond to climate change by either migrating, adapting to the new conditions or going extinct. Relict plant species of limited distribution can be especially vulnerable as they are usually composed of small and isolated populations, which may reduce their ability to cope with rapidly changing environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the vulnerability of Cneorum tricoccon L. (Cneoraceae), a Mediterranean relict shrub of limited distribution, to a future drier climate. We evaluated population differentiation in functional traits related to drought tolerance across seven representative populations of the species' range. We measured morphological and physiological traits in both the field and the greenhouse under three water availability levels. Large phenotypic differences among populations were found under field conditions. All populations responded plastically to simulated drought, but they differed in mean trait values as well as in the slope of the phenotypic response. Particularly, dry-edge populations exhibited multiple functional traits that favored drought tolerance, such as more sclerophyllous leaves, strong stomatal control but high photosynthetic rates, which increases water use efficiency (iWUE), and an enhanced ability to accumulate sugars as osmolytes. Although drought decreased RGR in all populations, this reduction was smaller for populations from the dry edge. Our results suggest that dry-edge populations of this relict species are well adapted to drought, which could potentially mitigate the species' extinction risk under drier scenarios. Dry-edge populations not only have a great conservation value but can also change expectations from current species' distribution models.

  20. Water management to cope with and adapt to climate variability and change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, A.; Trisorio-Liuzzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In many parts of the world, variability in climatic conditions is already resulting in major impacts. These impacts are wide ranging and the link to water management problems is obvious and profound. The know-how and the available information undoubtedly indicate that climate change will lead to an intensification of the global hydrological cycle and can have major impacts on regional water resources, affecting both ground and surface water supply for sectorial water uses and, in particular, the irrigation field imposing notable negative effects on food security and poverty alleviation programs in most arid and semi-arid developing countries. At the United Nations Millennium Summit, in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Declaration. From this declaration, the IWRM was recognised as the key concept the water sector should be using for water related development and measures and, hence, for achieving the water related MDG's. However, the potential impacts of climate change and increasing climate variability are not sufficiently addressed in the IWRM plans. Indeed, only a very limited IWRM national plans have been prepared, coping with climate variability and changes. This is mainly due to the lack of operational instruments to deal with climate change and climate variability issues. This is particularly true in developing countries where the financial, human and ecological impacts are potentially greatest and where water resources may be already highly stressed, but the capacity to cope and adapt is weakest. Climate change has now brought realities including mainly rising temperatures and increasing frequency of floods and droughts that present new challenges to be addressed by the IWRM practice. There are already several regional and international initiatives underway that focus on various aspects of water resources management those to be linked with climate changes and vulnerability issues. This is the way where the water resources

  1. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Tahira M.; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities. PMID:26999186

  2. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions.

    PubMed

    Probst, Tahira M; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-03-18

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities.

  3. Maternal coping adaptations, social support, and transition difficulties to parenthood of first-time civilian and military mothers.

    PubMed

    Splonskowski, J M; Twiss, J J

    1995-01-01

    There is little research on whether the transient nature of the military family contributes to transition difficulty to parenthood or to the type of social supports utilized. Data were collected by mailed survey from a convenience sample of military and civilian mothers at 3 months after delivery. No significant differences were found in transition difficulty, maternal coping adaptations, or social support. Military mothers showed a trend toward utilizing more internal coping resources than did the civilian population. Military nurses may utilize the studies using civilian populations when considering nursing interventions to assist their military clients with transition difficulty to parenthood.

  4. Adaptive Responses Limited by Intrinsic Noise.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Prabhat; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems have mechanisms to respond to the external environment and adapt to them. Such adaptive responses are effective for a wide dynamic range of sensing and perception of temporal change in stimulus. However, noise generated by the adaptation system itself as well as extrinsic noise in sensory inputs may impose a limit on the ability of adaptation systems. The relation between response and noise is well understood for equilibrium systems in the form of fluctuation response relation. However, the relation for nonequilibrium systems, including adaptive systems, are poorly understood. Here, we systematically explore such a relation between response and fluctuation in adaptation systems. We study the two network motifs, incoherent feedforward loops (iFFL) and negative feedback loops (nFBL), that can achieve perfect adaptation. We find that the response magnitude in adaption systems is limited by its intrinsic noise, implying that higher response would have higher noise component as well. Comparing the relation of response and noise in iFFL and nFBL, we show that whereas iFFL exhibits adaptation over a wider parameter range, nFBL offers higher response to noise ratio than iFFL. We also identify the condition that yields the upper limit of response for both network motifs. These results may explain the reason of why nFBL seems to be more abundant in nature for the implementation of adaption systems.

  5. Adaptive Responses Limited by Intrinsic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Prabhat; Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Shibata, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems have mechanisms to respond to the external environment and adapt to them. Such adaptive responses are effective for a wide dynamic range of sensing and perception of temporal change in stimulus. However, noise generated by the adaptation system itself as well as extrinsic noise in sensory inputs may impose a limit on the ability of adaptation systems. The relation between response and noise is well understood for equilibrium systems in the form of fluctuation response relation. However, the relation for nonequilibrium systems, including adaptive systems, are poorly understood. Here, we systematically explore such a relation between response and fluctuation in adaptation systems. We study the two network motifs, incoherent feedforward loops (iFFL) and negative feedback loops (nFBL), that can achieve perfect adaptation. We find that the response magnitude in adaption systems is limited by its intrinsic noise, implying that higher response would have higher noise component as well. Comparing the relation of response and noise in iFFL and nFBL, we show that whereas iFFL exhibits adaptation over a wider parameter range, nFBL offers higher response to noise ratio than iFFL. We also identify the condition that yields the upper limit of response for both network motifs. These results may explain the reason of why nFBL seems to be more abundant in nature for the implementation of adaption systems. PMID:26305221

  6. Coping with Spatial Heterogeneity and Temporal Variability in Resources and Risks: Adaptive Movement Behaviour by a Large Grazing Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jodie; Benhamou, Simon; Yoganand, K.; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Movement is a key mean for mobile species to cope with heterogeneous environments. While in herbivorous mammals large-scale migration has been widely investigated, fine-scale movement responses to local variations in resources and predation risk remain much less studied, especially in savannah environments. We developed a novel approach based on complementary movement metrics (residence time, frequency of visits and regularity of visits) to relate movement patterns of a savannah grazer, the blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, to fine-scale variations in food availability, predation risk and water availability in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Wildebeests spent more time in grazing lawns where the grass is of higher quality but shorter than in seep zones, where the grass is of lower quality but more abundant. Although the daily distances moved were longer during the wet season compared to the dry season, the daily net displacement was lower, and the residence time higher, indicating a more frequent occurrence of area-concentred searching. In contrast, during the late dry season the foraging sessions were more fragmented and wildebeests moved more frequently between foraging areas. Surprisingly, predation risk appeared to be the second factor, after water availability, influencing movement during the dry season, when resources are limiting and thus expected to influence movement more. Our approach, using complementary analyses of different movement metrics, provided an integrated view of changes in individual movement with varying environmental conditions and predation risk. It makes it possible to highlight the adaptive behavioral decisions made by wildebeest to cope with unpredictable environmental variations and provides insights for population conservation. PMID:25719494

  7. Interpretation of illness in cancer survivors is associated with health-related variables and adaptive coping styles

    PubMed Central

    Büssing, Arndt; Fischer, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Background A patient's interpretation of illness may have an influence on the choice of coping strategies and decision making. We intended to analyze the meaning German cancer survivors would attribute to their disease, and investigated intercorrelations between the respective interpretations, health-related variables and adaptive coping strategies. Methods In an anonymous cross-sectional survey, we analyzed the interpretations of disease (according to Lipowski's eight 'meaning of illness' categories) in 387 patients with cancer (81% breast cancer). To make statements about their conceptual relationships with health-related variables, we correlated the 8 items of the 'Interpretation of Illness' questionnaire (IIQ) with health-related quality of life, anxiety/depression, fatigue, life satisfaction, and adaptive coping strategies. Results Most cancer survivors regarded their disease as a challenge (52%), others as value (38%) or even an interruption of life (irreparable loss; 35%); weakness/failure (5%) and punishment (3%) were rated the lowest. The fatalistic negative interpretations 'interruption/loss' and 'enemy/threat' were inversely correlated with mental health-related quality of life and life satisfaction, and positively with an escape-avoidance strategy, depression and anxiety. In contrast, positive disease interpretations (i.e., 'challenge' and 'value') correlated only with adaptive coping strategies. Physical health correlated with none of the disease interpretations. Conclusion Despite conceptual limitations, the 8-item schema could be regarded as a useful screening approach to identify patients at risk for reduced psychosocial functioning. PMID:19178733

  8. Effects of appraisal and coping on the neuroendocrine response to extreme stress.

    PubMed

    Olff, Miranda; Langeland, Willie; Gersons, Berthold P R

    2005-05-01

    Although many people are exposed to extreme stress, only some of them develop psychobiological disturbances that can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or other posttrauma psychopathology. This paper examines the effects of different types of appraisal and coping to find clues to how individuals differ in their neuroendocrine responses to extreme stress. It proposes a conceptual model for components of the adult response to stressors. Threat appraisal and defensive coping may play crucial roles in determining the neuroendocrine response to trauma with potential mental health consequences, particularly PTSD.

  9. Traditional Coping Strategies and Disaster Response: Examples from the South Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie M.; Kuruppu, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific Islands are vulnerable to climate change and increased risk of disasters not only because of their isolated and often low lying geographical setting but because of their economic status which renders them reliant on donor support. In a qualitative study exploring the adaptive capacity of Pacific Island Countries (PICs) across four countries, Cook Islands, Fiji, Samoa, and Vanuatu, it was clear that traditional coping strategies are consistently being applied as part of response to disasters and climate changes. This paper describes five common strategies employed in PICs as understood through this research: recognition of traditional methods; faith and religious beliefs; traditional governance and leadership; family and community involvement; and agriculture and food security. While this study does not trial the efficacy of these methods, it provides an indication of what methods are being used and therefore a starting point for further research into which of these traditional strategies are beneficial. These findings also provide important impetus for Pacific Island governments to recognise traditional approaches in their disaster preparedness and response processes. PMID:24454413

  10. Measurement of Post-War Coping and Stress Responses: A Study of Bosnian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Molly A.; Compas, Bruce E.; Layne, Christopher M.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pasalic, Hafiza; Katalinksi, Ranka; Pynoos, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Responses to Stress Questionnaire (RSQ; Connor-Smith, Compas, Saltzman, Thomsen, & Wadsworth, 2000) in a sample of Bosnian youth (N = 665; age = 15 to 20 years) five years post-war. Participants reported on their coping and involuntary responses to post-war stressors including trauma reminders,…

  11. An examination of stress, coping, and adaptation in nurses in a recovery and monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Marie Katherine; Taylor, Kathleen P; Marcus-Aiyeku, Ulanda; Krause-Parello, Cheryl A

    2012-10-01

    Addiction rates in nurses are higher than in the general population. The relationship between stress, coping, and adaptation in nurses (N = 82) enrolled in a recovery and monitoring program in the state of New Jersey was examined. Social support, a variable tested as a mediator of this relationship, was also examined. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Psychological General Well-Being Index. Negative relationships were found between stress and social support and stress and well-being, and a positive relationship was found between social support and well-being (all ps < .05). The direct relationship between stress and well-being was decreased in the presence of social support. The findings of this research suggest that, to assist nurses, an increased awareness of stress and its injurious effects on overall well-being must be identified so proactive measures can be implemented to prevent potential untoward consequences. Ultimately, methods to strengthen social support and social networks will enhance the probability of sustained recovery, relapse prevention, and safe reentry into nursing practice. Implications for behavioral health providers and health care practitioners are discussed.

  12. Pre-adaptations and the evolution of pollination by sexual deception: Cope's rule of specialization revisited.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, Nicolas J; Wilson, Carol A; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Banketov, Sergey A; Mardulyn, Patrick

    2012-12-07

    Pollination by sexual deception is arguably one of the most unusual liaisons linking plants and insects, and perhaps the most illustrative example of extreme floral specialization in angiosperms. While considerable progress has been made in understanding the floral traits involved in sexual deception, less is known about how this remarkable mimicry system might have arisen, the role of pre-adaptations in promoting its evolution and its extent as a pollination mechanism outside the few groups of plants (primarily orchids) where it has been described to date. In the Euro-Mediterranean region, pollination by sexual deception is traditionally considered to be the hallmark of the orchid genus Ophrys. Here, we introduce two new cases outside of Ophrys, in plant groups dominated by generalized, shelter-mimicking species. On the basis of phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral pollination strategies, we provide evidence for independent and bidirectional evolutionary transitions between generalized (shelter mimicry) and specialized (sexual deception) pollination strategies in three groups of flowering plants, and suggest that pseudocopulation has evolved from pre-adaptations (floral colours, shapes and odour bouquets) that selectively attract male pollinators through shelter mimicry. These findings, along with comparative analyses of floral traits (colours and scents), shed light on particular phenotypic changes that might have fuelled the parallel evolution of these extraordinary pollination strategies. Collectively, our results provide the first substantive insights into how pollination sexual deception might have evolved in the Euro-Mediterranean region, and demonstrate that even the most extreme cases of pollinator specialization can reverse to more generalized interactions, breaking 'Cope's rule of specialization'.

  13. Financial Adaptation among College Students: Helping Students Cope with Financial Strain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serido, Joyce; Shim, Soyeon; Xiao, Jing Jian; Tang, Chuanyi; Card, Noel A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the recent financial crisis on co-occurring patterns of change in financial strain and financial coping behaviors of college students (N = 748) using two-timed, longitudinal data collected prior to the 2008 financial crisis and again one year later. Using a stress and coping framework, we found that different…

  14. Coping Repertoires of Families Adapting to Prolonged War-Induced Separations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbin, Hamilton I.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Coping with husband absence, an enigma of family life in the military, stimulated questions as to how wives endure hardships engendered by war-induced separations. The investigators studied the adjustment of 47 families of servicemen missing in action. Findings are explained in terms of psychological and sociological theories of coping. (Author)

  15. Perceived Educational Barriers, Cultural Fit, Coping Responses, and Psychological Well-Being of Latina Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Orozco, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    Given the unique educational experiences and disproportional representation of Latinas in higher education, this study examined how Latinas' perception of educational barriers and cultural fit influenced their coping responses and subsequent well-being in college. Participants (N = 98) were primarily second-generation Mexican heritage women who…

  16. Appraisal, Coping, Task Performance, and Cardiovascular Responses during the Evaluated Speaking Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggett, H. Lane; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Appraisal, coping, task performance, and cardiovascular responses were examined among men high and low in speech anxiety who prepared and performed a speech under evaluative conditions. Speech-anxious men saw the task as more threatening. They were more stressed, anxious, distracted, and aware of their emotions, focused on the passage of time, and…

  17. Membrane vesicle production by Chlamydia trachomatis as an adaptive response

    PubMed Central

    Frohlich, Kyla M.; Hua, Ziyu; Quayle, Alison J.; Wang, Jin; Lewis, Maria E.; Chou, Chau-wen; Luo, Miao; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved specific adaptive responses to cope with changing environments. These adaptations include stress response phenotypes with dynamic modifications of the bacterial cell envelope and generation of membrane vesicles (MVs). The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, typically has a biphasic lifestyle, but can enter into an altered growth state typified by morphologically aberrant chlamydial forms, termed persistent growth forms, when induced by stress in vitro. How C. trachomatis can adapt to a persistent growth state in host epithelial cells in vivo is not well understood, but is an important question, since it extends the host-bacterial relationship in vitro and has thus been indicated as a survival mechanism in chronic chlamydial infections. Here, we review recent findings on the mechanistic aspects of bacterial adaptation to stress with a focus on how C. trachomatis remodels its envelope, produces MVs, and the potential important consequences of MV production with respect to host-pathogen interactions. Emerging data suggest that the generation of MVs may be an important mechanism for C. trachomatis intracellular survival of stress, and thus may aid in the establishment of a chronic infection in human genital epithelial cells. PMID:24959424

  18. What Constitutes Effective Coping and Efficient Physiologic Regulation following Psychosocial Stress Depends on Involuntary Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Bendezú, Jason J.; Perzow, Sarah E. D.; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2017-01-01

    This study utilized a random-assignment experimental design to examine the interactive contributions of youth-reported trait involuntary stress responses (ISRs) and effortful coping on physiologic reactivity and recovery patterns in preadolescent boys and girls. Fourth- and fifth-grade child-parent dyads (N=126) participated in this study. Children were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-C) and then to one of two randomly-assigned experimental coping conditions: behavioral distraction and cognitive avoidance. Children’s ISRs were examined as predictors of salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) reactivity as well as moderators of the effect of coping condition on cortisol and sAA recovery trajectories. Multi-level modeling analyses did not link ISRs to physiologic reactivity patterning. ISRs and coping condition interacted to predict differential physiologic recovery trajectories. In the distraction condition, children reporting high ISR levels displayed less efficient cortisol and sAA recovery than children reporting low ISR levels. Surprisingly, the opposite was found for children reporting high ISR levels in the avoidance condition. These children displayed more efficient physiologic recovery relative to their high ISR level peers in the distraction condition. Findings suggest that the efficiency of preadolescents’ physiologic recovery following stress may depend on regulatory fit between children’s ISR levels and cues from their coping environment. PMID:27448527

  19. Child sexual abuse, coping responses, self-blame, posttraumatic stress disorder, and adult sexual revictimization.

    PubMed

    Filipas, Henrietta H; Ullman, Sarah E

    2006-05-01

    The present study examined the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors that contributed to revictimization in the form of adult sexual assault (ASA) using a survey of 577 female college students. CSA characteristics, maladaptive coping in response to CSA, degree of self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were examined as predictors of revictimization. Results indicated that individuals who reported both CSA and ASA had more PTSD symptoms, were more likely to use drugs or alcohol to cope, act out sexually, withdraw from people, and seek therapy services. In addition, the revictimized group reported more self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently. The only factor that predicted revictimization in this study was the number of maladaptive coping strategies used. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Child-care chaos and teachers' responsiveness: The indirect associations through teachers' emotion regulation and coping.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Lieny; Hur, Eunhye; Buettner, Cynthia K

    2016-12-01

    Teachers in early child-care settings are key contributors to children's development. However, the role of teachers' emotional abilities (i.e., emotion regulation and coping skills) and the role of teacher-perceived environmental chaos in relation to their responsiveness to children are understudied. The current study explored the direct and indirect associations between teachers' perceptions of child-care chaos and their self-reported contingent reactions towards children's negative emotions and challenging social interactions via teachers' emotional regulation and coping strategies. The sample consisted of 1129 preschool-aged classroom teachers in day care and public pre-K programs across the US. We first found that child-care chaos was directly associated with teachers' non-supportive reactions after controlling for multiple program and teacher characteristics. In addition, teachers in more chaotic child-care settings had less reappraisal and coping skills, which in turn, was associated with lower levels of positive responsiveness to children. Teachers reporting a higher degree of chaos used more suppression strategies, which in turn, was associated with teachers' non-supportive reactions and fewer expressive encouragement reactions to children's emotions. Results of this exploratory study suggest that it is important to prepare teachers to handle chaotic environments with clear guidelines and rules. In order to encourage teachers' supportive responses to children, intervention programs are needed to address teachers' coping and emotion regulation strategies in early childhood education.

  1. Evaluation of marginal fit and internal adaptation of zirconia copings fabricated by two CAD - CAM systems: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Balaji N; Jayaraman, Srinivasan; Kandhasamy, Baburajan; Rajakumaran, Ilangkumaran

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Three main factors which determine the success of an All-ceramic restoration are esthetic value, resistance to fracture and third being the marginal fit. Marginal fit and internal adaptation are crucial factors in increasing the longevity of the restoration. Newer and economical CAD CAM systems have been introduced claiming better marginal fit and adaptation of All ceramic crowns. CAD CAM systems involves scanning of the die or the tooth preparation and milling of the restoration, which may have variations among the systems available. Aim of the Study: Our study intended to check the marginal fit and internal adaptation of commonly used CAD CAM systems namely CERAMILL and CEREC -In Lab MC XL. Materials and Methods: Two groups of typodont teeth (n = 10) were prepared using a standardized protocol to receive All ceramic copings. 10 samples of Group A were used for fabrication of copings using CERAMILL system and 10 samples of Group B were used for fabrication of copings using CEREC -In Lab MC XL system. They were then luted with glass ionomer cement under mild finger pressure. Samples were embedded in resin and sliced longitudinally. They were then viewed under stereomicroscope and readings were measured along 15 points using ImageScope software. The P value was set at 0.05 at 95% confidence interval with 80% power. The data were checked for normality and unpaired t-test was used to evaluate the results of the two groups. Results: The overall internal adaptation was 61.5 ± 5.2 μm for CERAMILL and 56.9 ± 5.7 μm for CEREC -In Lab MC XL (P < 0.05). The marginal fit for CERAMILL was 83 μm and for CEREC -In Lab MC XL was 68 μm (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The marginal adaptation of CEREC -In Lab MC XL (68 μm) was found to be superior to CERAMILL (83 μm) (P < 0.05). Both the CEREC -In Lab MC XL and CERAMILL copings demonstrated internal adaptation and marginal fit within acceptable discrepancy range. When corroborating both the internal adaptation

  2. Immune and stress responses in oysters with insights on adaptation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ximing; He, Yan; Zhang, Linlin; Lelong, Christophe; Jouaux, Aude

    2015-09-01

    Oysters are representative bivalve molluscs that are widely distributed in world oceans. As successful colonizers of estuaries and intertidal zones, oysters are remarkably resilient against harsh environmental conditions including wide fluctuations in temperature and salinity as well as prolonged air exposure. Oysters have no adaptive immunity but can thrive in microbe-rich estuaries as filter-feeders. These unique adaptations make oysters interesting models to study the evolution of host-defense systems. Recent advances in genomic studies including sequencing of the oyster genome have provided insights into oyster's immune and stress responses underlying their amazing resilience. Studies show that the oyster genomes are highly polymorphic and complex, which may be key to their resilience. The oyster genome has a large gene repertoire that is enriched for immune and stress response genes. Thousands of genes are involved in oyster's immune and stress responses, through complex interactions, with many gene families expanded showing high sequence, structural and functional diversity. The high diversity of immune receptors and effectors may provide oysters with enhanced specificity in immune recognition and response to cope with diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Some members of expanded immune gene families have diverged to function at different temperatures and salinities or assumed new roles in abiotic stress response. Most canonical innate immunity pathways are conserved in oysters and supported by a large number of diverse and often novel genes. The great diversity in immune and stress response genes exhibited by expanded gene families as well as high sequence and structural polymorphisms may be central to oyster's adaptation to highly stressful and widely changing environments.

  3. Coping with the cold: the cold shock response in the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Michael H W; Marahiel, Mohamed A

    2002-01-01

    All organisms examined to date, respond to a sudden change in environmental temperature with a specific cascade of adaptation reactions that, in some cases, have been identified and monitored at the molecular level. According to the type of temperature change, this response has been termed heat shock response (HSR) or cold shock response (CSR). During the HSR, a specialized sigma factor has been shown to play a central regulatory role in controlling expression of genes predominantly required to cope with heat-induced alteration of protein conformation. In contrast, after cold shock, nucleic acid structure and proteins interacting with the biological information molecules DNA and RNA appear to play a major cellular role. Currently, no cold-specific sigma factor has been identified. Therefore, unlike the HSR, the CSR appears to be organized as a complex stimulon rather than resembling a regulon. This review has been designed to draw a refined picture of our current understanding of the CSR in Bacillus subtilis. Important processes such as temperature sensing, membrane adaptation, modification of the translation apparatus, as well as nucleoid reorganization and some metabolic aspects, are discussed in brief. Special emphasis is placed on recent findings concerning the nucleic acid binding cold shock proteins, which play a fundamental role, not only during cold shock adaptation but also under optimal growth conditions. PMID:12171653

  4. Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species’ capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system – Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. Results We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses – notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Conclusions Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity. PMID:25038588

  5. The relationship between coping style and loneliness in adolescents: can "sad passivity" be adaptive?

    PubMed

    Van Buskirk, A M; Duke, M P

    1991-06-01

    The authors' purpose in this paper was to examine how the use of the "sad passive" coping style may be related to adolescent self-reported loneliness. Subjects were asked to complete the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980) to determine self-reported loneliness and the Coping with Loneliness Questionnaire (CLQ; Rubenstein & Shaver, 1980) in order to examine coping styles. We hypothesized that those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into the category of sad passivity described by Rubenstein and Shaver would indicate greater loneliness than those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into other categories. Results indicated that sad passivity was used by both lonely and nonlonely adolescents, but that nonlonely youngsters resorted to this method only temporarily and in preparation for a more active coping style. Lonely teens, on the other hand, appeared to remain in the sad-passive mode to a maladaptive degree. These results were discussed in terms of their importance for theories of adolescent loneliness and for possible intervention strategies.

  6. Individual and Public-Program Adaptation: Coping with Heat Waves in Five Cities in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Alberini, Anna; Gans, Will; Alhassan, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    Heat Alert and Response Systems (HARS) are currently undergoing testing and implementation in Canada. These programs seek to reduce the adverse health effects of heat waves on human health by issuing weather forecasts and warnings, informing individuals about possible protections from excessive heat, and providing such protections to vulnerable subpopulations and individuals at risk. For these programs to be designed effectively, it is important to know how individuals perceive the heat, what their experience with heat-related illness is, how they protect themselves from excessive heat, and how they acquire information about such protections. In September 2010, we conducted a survey of households in 5 cities in Canada to study these issues. At the time of the survey, these cities had not implemented heat outreach and response systems. The study results indicate that individuals’ recollections of recent heat wave events were generally accurate. About 21% of the sample reported feeling unwell during the most recent heat spell, but these illnesses were generally minor. Only in 25 cases out of 243, these illnesses were confirmed or diagnosed by a health care professional. The rate at which our respondents reported heat-related illnesses was higher among those with cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, was higher among younger respondents and bore no relationship with the availability of air conditioning at home. Most of the respondents indicated that they would not dismiss themselves as “not at risk” and that they would cope with excessive heat by staying in air conditioned environments and keeping well hydrated. Despite the absence of heat outreach and education programs in their city, our respondents at least a rough idea of how to take care of themselves. The presence of air conditioning and knowledge of cooling centers is location-specific, which provides opportunities for targeting HARS interventions. PMID:22408596

  7. Lessons learned in developing a culturally adapted intervention for African-American families coping with parental cancer.

    PubMed

    Davey, Maureen P; Kissil, Karni; Lynch, Laura; Harmon, La-Rhonda; Hodgson, Nancy

    2012-12-01

    Prior clinical research supports the effectiveness of cancer support groups for cancer patients and their families, yet African-American families continue to be underrepresented in cancer support groups and in cancer clinical research studies. In order to fill this gap, we developed and evaluated a culturally adapted family support group for African-American families coping with parental cancer. We encountered unexpected challenges in overcoming barriers to recruitment, partnering with oncology providers, and building trust with the African-American community and African-American families coping with parental cancer. We describe actions taken during the two phases of this study and lessons learned along the way about recruiting and engaging African-American families in cancer support group studies, partnering with oncology providers, networking with the African-American community, and the importance of demonstrating cultural sensitivity to overcome the understandable historical legacy of mistrust.

  8. Coping with an Acute Psychosocial Challenge: Behavioral and Physiological Responses in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Villada, Carolina; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Mastorci, Francesca; Sgoifo, Andrea; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the relevance of behavior in understanding individual differences in the strategies used to cope with stressors, behavioral responses and their relationships with psychobiological changes have received little attention. In this study on young women, we aimed at analyzing the associations among different components of the stress response and behavioral coping using a laboratory psychosocial stressor. The Ethological Coding System for Interviews, as well as neuroendocrine, autonomic and mood parameters, were used to measure the stress response in 34 young women (17 free-cycling women in their early follicular phase and 17 oral contraceptive users) subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. No significant differences in cardiac autonomic, negative mood and anxiety responses to the stressor were observed between the two groups of women. However, women in the follicular phase showed a higher cortisol response and a larger decrease in positive mood during the social stress episode, as well as greater anxiety overall. Interestingly, the amount of displacement behavior exhibited during the speaking task of the TSST was positively related to anxiety levels preceding the test, but negatively related to baseline and stress response values of heart rate. Moreover, the amount of submissive behavior was negatively related to basal cortisol levels. Finally, eye contact and low-aggressiveness behaviors were associated with a worsening in mood. Overall, these findings emphasize the close relationship between coping behavior and psychobiological reactions, as well as the role of individual variations in the strategy of coping with a psychosocial stressor. PMID:25489730

  9. Stress Response and Perinatal Reprogramming: Unraveling (Mal)adaptive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Musazzi, Laura; Marrocco, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stressors induce coping strategies in the majority of individuals. The stress response, involving the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and the consequent release of corticosteroid hormones, is indeed aimed at promoting metabolic, functional, and behavioral adaptations. However, behavioral stress is also associated with fast and long-lasting neurochemical, structural, and behavioral changes, leading to long-term remodeling of glutamate transmission, and increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders. Of note, early-life events, both in utero and during the early postnatal life, trigger reprogramming of the stress response, which is often associated with loss of stress resilience and ensuing neurobehavioral (mal)adaptations. Indeed, adverse experiences in early life are known to induce long-term stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Here, we discuss recent findings about stress remodeling of excitatory neurotransmission and brain morphology in animal models of behavioral stress. These changes are likely driven by epigenetic factors that lie at the core of the stress-response reprogramming in individuals with a history of perinatal stress. We propose that reprogramming mechanisms may underlie the reorganization of excitatory neurotransmission in the short- and long-term response to stressful stimuli. PMID:27057367

  10. Mobbing vocalizations as a coping response in the common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Cross, N; Rogers, L J

    2006-02-01

    Using a non-invasive method of sampling saliva followed by assay for cortisol levels, we found that common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) show a decrease in cortisol levels after seeing a snake-model stimulus that reliably elicits mobbing (tsik) calls. In fact, there was a significant positive correlation between the number of tsik vocalizations made and the magnitude of the decrease in the cortisol concentrations. Furthermore, marmosets with higher levels of cortisol prior to being exposed to the stimulus produce more tsik calls than those with lower levels of cortisol. Subsequent experiments showed that, in response to 15 min of isolation with no visual or auditory contact with conspecifics (a traditional stressor), cortisol levels increased significantly. However, playback of the mobbing calls of a familiar conspecific to individual isolated marmosets not only prevented the rise in cortisol, but also actually caused a decrease in the levels of this hormone. This suggests that the mobbing calls serve to calm the marmoset after experiencing a stressful situation. This finding results in a greater understanding as to the role of physiological responses during communication in this species and could have implications for the welfare of marmosets in captivity.

  11. Inducing adaptive coping self-statements in children with learning disabilities through self-instruction training.

    PubMed

    Kamann, M P; Wong, B Y

    1993-11-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a coping strategy in reducing math anxiety in children with learning disabilities (LD). The coping strategy was based on cognitive behavior modification (CBM). Twenty children from Grades 4 to 7 participated in the study. Half of them were children with LD and the remaining were normally achieving children. The dependent measures were self-talk data and performance data on math (fraction) problems. Pretest data indicated that normally achieving children produced substantially more positive self-talk than children with learning disabilities. Subsequent to training in the use of the CBM-based coping strategy, children with LD produced a comparable amount of positive self-talk at posttest as found in normally achieving children. Moreover, there was a moderate, positive correlation between increased positive self-talk and math performance among the children with LD. The results clearly indicated that the children with LD had learned to cope with their math anxiety via a CBM-based strategy. More generally, the results of the study suggest that CBM strategies can be effectively applied to the affective domain. This broader implication and the limitations of the study are discussed.

  12. [Strategies of Adaption, coping reactions and attempts of self-cure in Schizophrenes].

    PubMed

    Lange, H U

    1981-07-01

    Though already Kraepelin started to consider coping behavior, there has not been much interest in it. Besides a summary of the literature, evidence of the study of 616 patient histories and the exploration of 94 schizophrenes is reported. Whereas often speculative interpretations of the patients' behaviour from the sight of the therapists have predominated in publications as yet, here it is preferred - with the danger of listing rationalizations - to outline defense reactions the patients themselves mention. The coping behaviour is classified in groups of symptoms: global strategies, disorders of perception, delusion, disorders of self-awareness, cognitive, affective, and motorial disorders. The discrimination of primary psychotic and "defect" symptoms, however, is often difficult. Some problems of the evaluation of coping behaviour are discussed. Defense reactions are presumably present in all schizophrenic types at least sometimes in the course of the illness. The more abrupt the disease starts, the more inadequate the coping behaviour seems to be. A further investigation of these strategies might be worth while for theoretical und therapeutical reasons.

  13. Adaptive tracking of narrowband HF channel response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, F.; Arikan, O.

    2003-12-01

    Estimation of channel impulse response constitutes a first step in computation of scattering function, channel equalization, elimination of multipath, and optimum detection and identification of transmitted signals through the HF channel. Due to spatial and temporal variations, HF channel impulse response has to be estimated adaptively. Based on developed state-space and measurement models, an adaptive Kalman filter is proposed to track the HF channel variation in time. Robust methods of initialization and adaptively adjusting the noise covariance in the system dynamics are proposed. In simulated examples under good, moderate and poor ionospheric conditions, it is observed that the adaptive Kalman filter based channel estimator provides reliable channel estimates and can track the variation of the channel in time with high accuracy.

  14. Dispositional optimism, trait anxiety, and coping: unique or shared effects on biological response to fertility treatment?

    PubMed

    Lancastle, Deborah; Boivin, Jacky

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the unique and shared predictive power of psychological variables on reproductive physical health. Three months before fertility treatment, 97 women completed measures of dispositional optimism, trait anxiety, and coping. Information about biological response to treatment (e.g., estradiol level) was collected from medical charts after treatment. Structural equation modeling showed that measured psychological variables were all significant indicators of a single latent construct and that this construct was a better predictor of biological response to treatment than was any individual predictor. This research contributes to evidence suggesting that the health benefits of dispositional optimism are due to its shared variance with neuroticism.

  15. Adapt, move or die - how will tropical coral reef fishes cope with ocean warming?

    PubMed

    Habary, Adam; Johansen, Jacob L; Nay, Tiffany J; Steffensen, John F; Rummer, Jodie L

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies hailed thermal tolerance and the capacity for organisms to acclimate and adapt as the primary pathways for species survival under climate change. Here we challenge this theory. Over the past decade, more than 365 tropical stenothermal fish species have been documented moving poleward, away from ocean warming hotspots where temperatures 2-3 °C above long-term annual means can compromise critical physiological processes. We examined the capacity of a model species - a thermally sensitive coral reef fish, Chromis viridis (Pomacentridae) - to use preference behaviour to regulate its body temperature. Movement could potentially circumvent the physiological stress response associated with elevated temperatures and may be a strategy relied upon before genetic adaptation can be effectuated. Individuals were maintained at one of six temperatures (23, 25, 27, 29, 31 and 33 °C) for at least 6 weeks. We compared the relative importance of acclimation temperature to changes in upper critical thermal limits, aerobic metabolic scope and thermal preference. While acclimation temperature positively affected the upper critical thermal limit, neither aerobic metabolic scope nor thermal preference exhibited such plasticity. Importantly, when given the choice to stay in a habitat reflecting their acclimation temperatures or relocate, fish acclimated to end-of-century predicted temperatures (i.e. 31 or 33 °C) preferentially sought out cooler temperatures, those equivalent to long-term summer averages in their natural habitats (~29 °C). This was also the temperature providing the greatest aerobic metabolic scope and body condition across all treatments. Consequently, acclimation can confer plasticity in some performance traits, but may be an unreliable indicator of the ultimate survival and distribution of mobile stenothermal species under global warming. Conversely, thermal preference can arise long before, and remain long after, the harmful effects of elevated

  16. Adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans infection

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Jonathan P; Moyes, David L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are becoming increasingly prevalent in the human population and contribute to morbidity and mortality in healthy and immunocompromised individuals respectively. Candida albicans is the most commonly encountered fungal pathogen of humans, and is frequently found on the mucosal surfaces of the body. Host defense against C. albicans is dependent upon a finely tuned implementation of innate and adaptive immune responses, enabling the host to neutralise the invading fungus. Central to this protection are the adaptive Th1 and Th17 cellular responses, which are considered paramount to successful immune defense against C. albicans infections, and enable tissue homeostasis to be maintained in the presence of colonising fungi. This review will highlight the recent advances in our understanding of adaptive immunity to Candida albicans infections. PMID:25607781

  17. The regulating role of negative emotions in children's coping with peer rejection.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kimberly L; Southam-Gerow, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the role of emotions as predictors of children's coping responses to peer rejection experiences. Children ages 7-12 (N = 79) completed questionnaires to assess emotional and coping responses to peer rejection scenarios. This study examined three coping factors specific to peer rejection (positive reappraisal, ruminative coping, and aggressive coping) and examined results separately for two negative peer experiences (teasing and exclusion). Children's emotions predicted coping responses after controlling for peer experiences. Specifically, anger was associated with aggressive coping, whereas sadness was associated with ruminative coping, supporting theory that emotions have distinct motivational-behavioral properties. Peer experiences were also important, as victimization was associated with aggressive coping, and receipt of prosocial peer behaviors was associated with positive reappraisal. These findings provide an empirical foundation for future research and the development of interventions to facilitate adaptive reactions to peer rejection.

  18. Adaptive neural control of aeroelastic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenwalner, Peter F.; Little, Gerald R.; Scott, Robert C.

    1996-05-01

    The Adaptive Neural Control of Aeroelastic Response (ANCAR) program is a joint research and development effort conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) under a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA). The purpose of the MOA is to cooperatively develop the smart structure technologies necessary for alleviating undesirable vibration and aeroelastic response associated with highly flexible structures. Adaptive control can reduce aeroelastic response associated with buffet and atmospheric turbulence, it can increase flutter margins, and it may be able to reduce response associated with nonlinear phenomenon like limit cycle oscillations. By reducing vibration levels and loads, aircraft structures can have lower acquisition cost, reduced maintenance, and extended lifetimes. Phase I of the ANCAR program involved development and demonstration of a neural network-based semi-adaptive flutter suppression system which used a neural network for scheduling control laws as a function of Mach number and dynamic pressure. This controller was tested along with a robust fixed-gain control law in NASA's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) utilizing the Benchmark Active Controls Testing (BACT) wing. During Phase II, a fully adaptive on-line learning neural network control system has been developed for flutter suppression which will be tested in 1996. This paper presents the results of Phase I testing as well as the development progress of Phase II.

  19. Coping responses in the midst of terror: the July 22 terror attack at Utøya Island in Norway.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tine K; Thoresen, Siri; Dyb, Grete

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the peri-trauma coping responses of 325 survivors, mostly youth, after the July 22, 2011 terror attack on Utøya Island in Norway. The aim was to understand peri-trauma coping responses and their relation to subsequent post-traumatic stress (PTS) reactions. Respondents were interviewed face-to-face 4-5 months after the shooting, and most were interviewed at their homes. Peri-trauma coping was assessed using ten selected items from the "How I Cope Under Pressure Scale" (HICUPS), covering the dimensions of problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, avoidance, support seeking, seeking understanding, and religious coping. PTS reactions were assessed with the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index. The participants reported using a wide variety of coping strategies. Problem solving, positive cognitive restructuring, and seeking understanding strategies were reported most often. Men reported using more problem-solving strategies, whereas women reported more emotion-focused strategies. There were no significant associations between age and the use of coping strategies. Problem solving and positive cognitive restructuring were significantly associated with fewer PTS reactions. The results are discussed in light of previous research and may help to inform early intervention efforts for survivors of traumatic events.

  20. Substance abuse, coping strategies, adaptive skills and behavioral and emotional problems in clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability admitted to a treatment facility: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who did not. There were no differences in adaptive skills between groups. However, compared to clients without substance abuse, those who abused substances showed a more palliative coping style, and had more severe emotional and behavior problems such as anxiety/depression and intrusive thoughts and aggressive and antisocial behaviors. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  1. The Response of the Root Apex in Plant Adaptation to Iron Heterogeneity in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangjie; Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Shi, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development, and is frequently limiting. By contrast, over-accumulation of Fe in plant tissues leads to toxicity. In soils, the distribution of Fe is highly heterogeneous. To cope with this heterogeneity, plant roots engage an array of adaptive responses to adjust their morphology and physiology. In this article, we review root morphological and physiological changes in response to low- and high-Fe conditions and highlight differences between these responses. We especially focus on the role of the root apex in dealing with the stresses resulting from Fe shortage and excess. PMID:27047521

  2. Individual differences in response conflict adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Keye, Doris; Wilhelm, Oliver; Oberauer, Klaus; Stürmer, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    Conflict-monitoring theory argues for a general cognitive mechanism that monitors for conflicts in information-processing. If that mechanism detects conflict, it engages cognitive control to resolve it. A slow-down in response to incongruent trials (conflict effect), and a modulation of the conflict effect by the congruence of the preceding trial (Gratton or context effect) have been taken as indicators of such a monitoring system. The present study (N = 157) investigated individual differences in the conflict and the context effect in a horizontal and a vertical Simon task, and their correlation with working memory capacity (WMC). Strength of conflict was varied by proportion of congruent trials. Coherent factors could be formed representing individual differences in speeded performance, conflict adaptation, and context adaptation. Conflict and context factors were not associated with each other. Contrary to theories assuming a close relation between working memory and cognitive control, WMC showed no relation with any factors representing adaptation to conflict. PMID:24385971

  3. HIV stigma and physical health symptoms: do social support, adaptive coping, and/or identity centrality act as resilience resources?

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lang, Shawn M; Lippitt, Margaret; Jin, Harry; Chaudoir, Stephenie R

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate it at the societal level, HIV stigma persists and continues to threaten the health of people living with HIV (PLWH). We tested whether social support, adaptive coping, and/or HIV identity centrality act as resilience resources by buffering people from the negative impact of enacted and/or anticipated stigma on stress and ultimately HIV symptoms. Ninety-three PLWH completed a survey, and data analyses tested for evidence of mediation and moderation. Results demonstrated that instrumental social support, perceived community support, and HIV identity centrality buffered participants from the association between anticipated stigma and HIV symptoms. That is, anticipated stigma was associated with HIV symptoms via stress only at low levels of these resources. No resources buffered participants from the impact of enacted stigma. Identifying and enhancing resilience resources among PLWH is critical for protecting PLWH from the harmful effects of stigma.

  4. Green light signaling and adaptive response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Folta, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    To a plant, the sun's light is not exclusively energy for photosynthesis, it also provides information about time and prevailing conditions. The plant's surroundings may dampen or filter solar energies, presenting plants with different spectral profiles of their light environment. Plants use this information to adjust form and physiology, tailoring gene expression to best match ambient conditions. Extensive literature exists on how blue, red and far-red light contribute to plant adaptive responses. A growing body of work identifies effects of green light (500-565 nm) that also shape plant biology. Green light responses are known to be either mediated through, or independent of, the cryptochrome blue light receptors. Responses to green light share a general tendency to oppose blue- or red-light-induced responses, including stem growth rate inhibition, anthocyanin accumulation and chloroplast gene expression. Recent evidence demonstrates a role for green light in sensing a shaded environment, independent from far-red shade responses.

  5. The Adaptive Calibration Model of stress responsivity

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Adaptive Calibration Model (ACM), an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in the functioning of the stress response system. The stress response system has three main biological functions: (1) to coordinate the organism’s allostatic response to physical and psychosocial challenges; (2) to encode and filter information about the organism’s social and physical environment, mediating the organism’s openness to environmental inputs; and (3) to regulate the organism’s physiology and behavior in a broad range of fitness-relevant areas including defensive behaviors, competitive risk-taking, learning, attachment, affiliation and reproductive functioning. The information encoded by the system during development feeds back on the long-term calibration of the system itself, resulting in adaptive patterns of responsivity and individual differences in behavior. Drawing on evolutionary life history theory, we build a model of the development of stress responsivity across life stages, describe four prototypical responsivity patterns, and discuss the emergence and meaning of sex differences. The ACM extends the theory of biological sensitivity to context (BSC) and provides an integrative framework for future research in the field. PMID:21145350

  6. Effect of Roy’s Adaptation Model-Guided Education on Coping Strategies of the Veterans with Lower Extremities Amputation: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Farsi, Zahra; Azarmi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Any defect in the extremities of the body can affect different life aspects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Roy’s adaptation model-guided education on coping strategies of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Methods: In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 veterans with lower extremities amputation referring to Kowsar Orthotics and Prosthetics Center of Veterans Clinic in Tehran, Iran were recruited using convenience method and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups in 2013-2014. Lazarus and Folkman coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect the data. After completing the questionnaires in both groups, maladaptive behaviours were determined in the intervention group and an education program based on Roy’s adaptation model was implemented. After 2 months, both groups completed the questionnaires again. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Independent T-test showed that the score of the dimensions of coping strategies did not have a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the pre-intervention stage (P>0.05). This test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the post-intervention stage in terms of the scores of different dimensions of coping strategies (P>0.05), except in dimensions of social support seeking and positive appraisal (P>0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this research indicated that the Roy’s adaptation model-guided education improved the majority of coping strategies in veterans with lower extremities amputation. It is recommended that further interventions based on Roy’s adaptation model should be performed to improve the coping of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014081118763N1 PMID:27218110

  7. Substance Abuse, Coping Strategies, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Clients with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Admitted to a Treatment Facility: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…

  8. Adaptive immune responses to Acanthamoeba cysts.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Kathy; Howard, Kevin; Mayhew, Elizabeth; Niederkorn, Jerry; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2002-09-01

    Acanthamoeba cysts are not eliminated from the corneas of human subjects or experimentally infected animals. The persistence of Acanthamoeba cysts in the cornea indicates that either the cysts escape immunological elimination or are not recognized by the host's immunological elements. The aim of this study was to determine the immunogenicity and antigenicity of the Acanthamoeba cyst. Mice were immunized intraperitoneally and serum anti-Acanthamoeba IgG was measured by ELISA. Lymphoproliferative assay and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to Acanthamoeba castellanii cyst and trophozoite antigens were used to determine the cell mediated immune responses against Acanthamoeba cysts. A. castellanii cysts were both immunogenic and antigenic, producing anti-Acanthamoeba serum IgG, T lymphocyte proliferation, and delayed type hypersensitivity responses. These results indicate that Acanthamoeba cysts are recognized by the immune system. The persistence of the organism in the human cornea means that these adaptive immune responses fail to kill Acanthamoeba cysts.

  9. The Role of Esteem and Coping in Response to a Threat Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, T. John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relations among self-esteem, perceived competency to cope, and actual coping behaviors following a threat communication. Manipulated threat level of a tetanus communication and fear level of an antismoking film. Results indicated low-esteem subjects showed coping deficits in both experiments, with positive feedback reversing the…

  10. Development of the Coping Flexibility Scale: Evidence for the Coping Flexibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    "Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese…

  11. The adaptive response in radiobiology: evolving insights and implications.

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, S

    1998-01-01

    The first of the regularly reproducible experiments to show that very low doses of ionizing radiation, like very low doses of chemical agents, could induce mechanisms whereby cells become better fit to cope with subsequent exposures to high doses were carried out on the induction of chromosome aberrations in cultures of human lymphocytes. If cells that had been exposed to a very low dose (1 cGy) of X rays were subsequently exposed to a relatively high dose (1 Gy), approximately half as many chromosome breaks were induced. Subsequent experiments showed that this adaptive response to low doses requires a certain minimal dose before it becomes active; occurs only within a relatively small window of dose; is dose-rate dependent; and depends on the genetic constitution of the people or animals exposed, with some being unresponsive. It was further shown that the response to the low-dose preexposure was not instantaneous but took approximately 4 to 6 hr to become fully active, and could be prevented if during this period protein synthesis was inhibited, i.e., a necessary protein (enzyme) was being induced. In fact, subsequent experiments with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed new proteins in cells irradiated with 1 to 2 cGy. The adaptation induced by low doses of radiation was therefore attributed to the induction of a novel efficient chromosome break repair mechanism that if active at the time of challenge with high doses would lead to less residual damage. This hypothesis was strengthened by a series of experiments in which it was found that inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase, an enzyme implicated in DNA strand break rejoining, could prevent the adaptive response. Although the phenomenon is well established in cellular systems, it is still problematical as to whether or not it will have any utility in establishing risks of ionizing radiation to humans. Newer experiments have now been carried out on the mechanisms underlying the effect and whether or not

  12. Adaptive immune cells temper initial innate responses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Dong; Zhao, Jie; Auh, Sogyong; Yang, Xuanming; Du, Peishuang; Tang, Hong; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2008-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved microbial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Signaling from TLRs leads to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules for better priming of T cells and secretion of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells1–4. Lymphocytedeficient hosts often die of acute infection, presumably owing to their lack of an adaptive immune response to effectively clear pathogens. However, we show here that an unleashed innate immune response due to the absence of residential T cells can also be a direct cause of death. Viral infection or administration of poly(I:C), a ligand for TLR3, led to cytokine storm in T-cell- or lymphocyte-deficient mice in a fashion dependent on NK cells and tumor necrosis factor. We have further shown, through the depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in wild-type mice and the transfer of T lymphocytes into Rag-1–deficient mice, respectively, that T cells are both necessary and sufficient to temper the early innate response. In addition to the effects of natural regulatory T cells, close contact of resting CD4+CD25−Foxp3− or CD8+ T cells with innate cells could also suppress the cytokine surge by various innate cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Therefore, adaptive immune cells have an unexpected role in tempering initial innate responses. PMID:17891146

  13. Adaptive immune cells temper initial innate responses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Dong; Zhao, Jie; Auh, Sogyong; Yang, Xuanming; Du, Peishuang; Tang, Hong; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2007-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved microbial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Signaling from TLRs leads to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules for better priming of T cells and secretion of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells. Lymphocyte-deficient hosts often die of acute infection, presumably owing to their lack of an adaptive immune response to effectively clear pathogens. However, we show here that an unleashed innate immune response due to the absence of residential T cells can also be a direct cause of death. Viral infection or administration of poly(I:C), a ligand for TLR3, led to cytokine storm in T-cell- or lymphocyte-deficient mice in a fashion dependent on NK cells and tumor necrosis factor. We have further shown, through the depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells in wild-type mice and the transfer of T lymphocytes into Rag-1-deficient mice, respectively, that T cells are both necessary and sufficient to temper the early innate response. In addition to the effects of natural regulatory T cells, close contact of resting CD4+CD25-Foxp3- or CD8+ T cells with innate cells could also suppress the cytokine surge by various innate cells in an antigen-independent fashion. Therefore, adaptive immune cells have an unexpected role in tempering initial innate responses.

  14. [The impact of religious coping on adaptation strategy among the sick].

    PubMed

    Debout, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    The influence of religious practice on sick people's adaptation processes has been demonstrated in many studies. It is important for the clinical reasoning implemented by caregivers to integrate this aspect in a context defined by the principle of "laïcité" as understood in France.

  15. Adapting to and Coping with the Threat and Impacts of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reser, Joseph P.; Swim, Janet K.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the nature and challenge of adaptation in the context of global climate change. The complexity of "climate change" as threat, environmental stressor, risk domain, and impacting process with dramatic environmental and human consequences requires a synthesis of perspectives and models from diverse areas of psychology to…

  16. Resistance Training: Physiological Responses and Adaptations (Part 3 of 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Steven J.; Kraemer, William J.

    1988-01-01

    The physiological responses and adaptations which occur as a result of resistance training, such as cardiovascular responses, serum lipid count, body composition, and neural adaptations are discussed. Changes in the endocrine system are also described. (JL)

  17. The adaptive immune response in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Iversen, Rasmus; Ráki, Melinda; Sollid, Ludvig M

    2012-07-01

    Compared to other human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-associated diseases such as type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, fundamental aspects of the pathogenesis in celiac disease are relatively well understood. This is mostly because the causative antigen in celiac disease-cereal gluten proteins-is known and the culprit HLA molecules are well defined. This has facilitated the dissection of the disease-relevant CD4+ T cells interacting with the disease-associated HLA molecules. In addition, celiac disease has distinct antibody responses to gluten and the autoantigen transglutaminase 2, which give strong handles to understand all sides of the adaptive immune response leading to disease. Here we review recent developments in the understanding of the role of T cells, B cells, and antigen-presenting cells in the pathogenic immune response of this instructive disorder.

  18. REM Sleep Rebound as an Adaptive Response to Stressful Situations

    PubMed Central

    Suchecki, Deborah; Tiba, Paula Ayako; Machado, Ricardo Borges

    2011-01-01

    Stress and sleep are related to each other in a bidirectional way. If on one hand poor or inadequate sleep exacerbates emotional, behavioral, and stress-related responses, on the other hand acute stress induces sleep rebound, most likely as a way to cope with the adverse stimuli. Chronic, as opposed to acute, stress impairs sleep and has been claimed to be one of the triggering factors of emotional-related sleep disorders, such as insomnia, depressive- and anxiety-disorders. These outcomes are dependent on individual psychobiological characteristics, conferring even more complexity to the stress-sleep relationship. Its neurobiology has only recently begun to be explored, through animal models, which are also valuable for the development of potential therapeutic agents and preventive actions. This review seeks to present data on the effects of stress on sleep and the different approaches used to study this relationship as well as possible neurobiological underpinnings and mechanisms involved. The results of numerous studies in humans and animals indicate that increased sleep, especially the rapid eye movement phase, following a stressful situation is an important adaptive behavior for recovery. However, this endogenous advantage appears to be impaired in human beings and rodent strains that exhibit high levels of anxiety and anxiety-like behavior. PMID:22485105

  19. Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus have Evolved Different Adaptive Mechanisms to Cope with Light and UV Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mella-Flores, Daniella; Six, Christophe; Ratin, Morgane; Partensky, Frédéric; Boutte, Christophe; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Marie, Dominique; Blot, Nicolas; Gourvil, Priscillia; Kolowrat, Christian; Garczarek, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, which numerically dominate vast oceanic areas, are the two most abundant oxygenic phototrophs on Earth. Although they require solar energy for photosynthesis, excess light and associated high UV radiations can induce high levels of oxidative stress that may have deleterious effects on their growth and productivity. Here, we compared the photophysiologies of the model strains Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511 and Synechococcus sp. WH7803 grown under a bell-shaped light/dark cycle of high visible light supplemented or not with UV. Prochlorococcus exhibited a higher sensitivity to photoinactivation than Synechococcus under both conditions, as shown by a larger drop of photosystem II (PSII) quantum yield at noon and different diel patterns of the D1 protein pool. In the presence of UV, the PSII repair rate was significantly depressed at noon in Prochlorococcus compared to Synechococcus. Additionally, Prochlorococcus was more sensitive than Synechococcus to oxidative stress, as shown by the different degrees of PSII photoinactivation after addition of hydrogen peroxide. A transcriptional analysis also revealed dramatic discrepancies between the two organisms in the diel expression patterns of several genes involved notably in the biosynthesis and/or repair of photosystems, light-harvesting complexes, CO2 fixation as well as protection mechanisms against light, UV, and oxidative stress, which likely translate profound differences in their light-controlled regulation. Altogether our results suggest that while Synechococcus has developed efficient ways to cope with light and UV stress, Prochlorococcus cells seemingly survive stressful hours of the day by launching a minimal set of protection mechanisms and by temporarily bringing down several key metabolic processes. This study provides unprecedented insights into understanding the distinct depth distributions and dynamics of these two picocyanobacteria in the field. PMID:23024637

  20. Ionizing Radiation: how fungi cope, adapt, and exploit with the help of melanin

    PubMed Central

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY OF RECENT ADVANCES Life on Earth has always existed in the flux of ionizing radiation. However, fungi seem to interact with the ionizing radiation differently from other Earth’s inhabitants. Recent data show that melanized fungal species like those from Chernobyl’s reactor respond to ionizing radiation with enhanced growth. Fungi colonize space stations and adapt morphologically to extreme conditions. Radiation exposure causes upregulation of many key genes, and an inducible microhomology-mediated recombination pathway could be a potential mechanism of adaptive evolution in eukaryotes. The discovery of melanized organisms in high radiation environments, the space stations, Antarctic mountains, and in the reactor cooling water combined with phenomenon of ‘radiotropism’ raises the tantalizing possibility that melanins have functions analogous to other energy harvesting pigments such as chlorophylls. PMID:18848901

  1. Improving Adaptive Learning Technology through the Use of Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mettler, Everett; Massey, Christine M.; Kellman, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive learning techniques have typically scheduled practice using learners' accuracy and item presentation history. We describe an adaptive learning system (Adaptive Response Time Based Sequencing--ARTS) that uses both accuracy and response time (RT) as direct inputs into sequencing. Response times are used to assess learning strength and…

  2. Estimating and coping with public response to radioactive waste repository siting

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, B.A.

    1984-02-07

    The siting and construction of a radioactive waste disposal operation is likely to be controversial in the communities being considered, and at the state and national levels as well. Public response can be conceptualized at two levels: individual, and group or organizational. At the individual level, public response is the behavior of people motivated by their attitudes, knowledge, and perceptions of radioactive waste and its hazards and risks. On the group or organizational level, public response is the organized activity of individuals. Organizations provide the ability to pool resources and talents, set up a division of labor, hire experts, develop a skilled leadership, take legal action, and so on. A broad range of organizations is possible: ad hoc, existing community groups with an added purpose, nationally-recognized organizations, or government offices and agencies. Two cases of response to radioactive waste disposal sites illustrate these sources and kinds of response and lead to indicators to estimate the nature and level of response. Finally, drawing from the theoretical discussion of the sources and levels of public response, on the estimation techniques, and on the examples, specific coping strategies are developed. These strategies take different forms, based on the nature and level of response (either supporting or opposing) to the proposed siting, and the past experience of the community members with similar projects, with other federal requirements, and with citizens' action groups, as well as sources and accuracy of information individuals and groups have. However, all strategies are based on a policy of honesty and straight-forwardness, with a sincere effort on the part of site evaluators and decision-makers to be attentive and responsive to the public's concerns. 10 references.

  3. Local adaptation in transgenerational responses to predators

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Matthew R.; Castoe, Todd; Holmes, Julian; Packer, Michelle; Biles, Kelsey; Walsh, Melissa; Munch, Stephan B.; Post, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental signals can induce phenotypic changes that span multiple generations. Along with phenotypic responses that occur during development (i.e. ‘within-generation’ plasticity), such ‘transgenerational plasticity’ (TGP) has been documented in a diverse array of taxa spanning many environmental perturbations. New theory predicts that temporal stability is a key driver of the evolution of TGP. We tested this prediction using natural populations of zooplankton from lakes in Connecticut that span a large gradient in the temporal dynamics of predator-induced mortality. We reared more than 120 clones of Daphnia ambigua from nine lakes for multiple generations in the presence/absence of predator cues. We found that temporal variation in mortality selects for within-generation plasticity while consistently strong (or weak) mortality selects for increased TGP. Such results provide us the first evidence for local adaptation in TGP and argue that divergent ecological conditions select for phenotypic responses within and across generations. PMID:26817775

  4. Formation and Regulation of Adaptive Response in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y.-L.; Wang, D.-Y.

    2012-01-01

    All organisms respond to environmental stresses (e.g., heavy metal, heat, UV irradiation, hyperoxia, food limitation, etc.) with coordinated adjustments in order to deal with the consequences and/or injuries caused by the severe stress. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans often exerts adaptive responses if preconditioned with low concentrations of agents or stressor. In C. elegans, three types of adaptive responses can be formed: hormesis, cross-adaptation, and dietary restriction. Several factors influence the formation of adaptive responses in nematodes, and some mechanisms can explain their response formation. In particular, antioxidation system, heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, glutathione, signaling transduction, and metabolic signals may play important roles in regulating the formation of adaptive responses. In this paper, we summarize the published evidence demonstrating that several types of adaptive responses have converged in C. elegans and discussed some possible alternative theories explaining the adaptive response control. PMID:22997543

  5. Adaptive acidification tolerance response of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Foster, J W; Hall, H K

    1990-02-01

    Salmonella typhimurium can encounter a wide variety of environments during its life cycle. One component of the environment which will fluctuate widely is pH. In nature, S. typhimurium can experience and survive dramatic acid stresses that occur in diverse ecological niches ranging from pond water to phagolysosomes. However, in vitro the organism is very sensitive to acid. To provide an explanation for how this organism survives acid in natural environments, the adaptive ability of S. typhimurium to become acid tolerant was tested. Logarithmically grown cells (pH 7.6) shifted to mild acid (pH 5.8) for one doubling as an adaptive procedure were 100 to 1,000 times more resistant to subsequent strong acid challenge (pH 3.3) than were unadapted cells shifted directly from pH 7.6 to 3.3. This acidification tolerance response required protein synthesis and appears to be a specific defense mechanism for acid. No cross protection was noted for hydrogen peroxide, SOS, or heat shock. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis of acid-regulated polypeptides revealed 18 proteins with altered expression, 6 of which were repressed while 12 were induced by mild acid shifts. An avirulent phoP mutant was 1,000-fold more sensitive to acid than its virulent phoP+ parent, suggesting a correlation between acid tolerance and virulence. The Mg2(+)-dependent proton-translocating ATPase was also found to play an important role in acid tolerance. Mutants (unc) lacking this activity were unable to mount an acid tolerance response and were extremely acid sensitive. In contrast to these acid-sensitive mutants, a constitutively acid-tolerant mutant (atr) was isolated from wild-type LT2 after prolonged acid exposure. This mutant overexpressed several acidification tolerance response polypeptides. The data presented reveal an important acidification defense modulon with broad significance toward survival in biologically hostile environments.

  6. Plant Cell Adaptive Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordyum, Elizabeth; Kozeko, Liudmyla; Talalaev, Alexandr

    simulated microgravity and temperature elevation have different effects on the small HSP genes belonging to subfamilies with different subcellular localization: cytosol/nucleus - PsHSP17.1-СІІ and PsHSP18.1-СІ, cloroplasts - PsHSP26.2-Cl, endoplasmatic reticulum - PsHSP22.7-ER and mitochondria - PsHSP22.9-M: unlike high temperature, clinorotation does not cause denaturation of cell proteins, that confirms the sHSP chaperone function. Dynamics of investigated gene expression in pea seedlings growing 5 days after seed germination under clinorotation was similar to that in the stationary control. Similar patterns in dynamics of sHSP gene expression in the stationary control and under clinorotation may be one of mechanisms providing plant adaptation to simulated microgravity. It is pointed that plant cell responses in microgravity and under clinorotation vary according to growth phase, physiological state, and taxonomic position of the object. At the same time, the responses have, to some degree, a similar character reflecting the changes in cell organelle functional load. Thus, next certain changes in the structure and function of plant cells may be considered as adaptive: 1) an increase in the unsaturated fatty acid content in the plasmalemma, 2) rearrangements of organelle ultrastructure and an increase in their functional load, 3) an increase in cortical F-actin under destabilization of tubulin microtubules, 4) the level of gene expression and synthesis of heat shock proteins, 5) alterations of the enzyme and antioxidant system activity. The dynamics of these patterns demonstrated that the adaptation occurs on the principle of self-regulating systems in the limits of physiological norm reaction. The very importance of changed expression of genes involved in different cellular processes, especially HSP genes, in cell adaptation to altered gravity is discussed.

  7. Coping style and stress hormone responses in genetically heterogeneous rats: comparison with the Roman rat strains.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morán, Sira; Palència, Marta; Mont-Cardona, Carme; Cañete, Toni; Blázquez, Gloria; Martínez-Membrives, Esther; López-Aumatell, Regina; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate for the first time the stress-induced hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone and prolactin responses of the National Institutes of Health genetically heterogeneous rat stock (N/Nih-HS rats) in comparison with responses of the relatively high and low stress-prone Roman Low- (RLA-I) and High-Avoidance (RHA-I) rat strains. The same rats were also compared (experiment 1) with respect to their levels of unconditioned anxiety (elevated zero-maze test), novelty-induced exploratory behavior, conditioned fear and two-way active avoidance acquisition. In experiment 2, naive rats from these three strains/stocks were evaluated for "depressive-like" behavior in the forced swimming test. N/Nih-HS and RLA-I rats showed significantly higher post-stress ACTH, corticosterone and prolactin levels than RHA-I rats. N/Nih-HS rats also presented the highest context-conditioned freezing responses, extremely poor two-way avoidance acquisition and very low novelty-induced exploratory behavior. Experiment 2 showed that, compared to RHA-I rats, N/Nih-HS and RLA-I rats displayed significantly less struggling (escape-directed) and increased immobility responses in the forced swimming test. Factor analysis of data from experiment 1 showed associations among behavioral and hormonal responses, with a first factor comprising high loadings of elevated zero-maze variables and lower loadings of conditioned fear, two-way avoidance acquisition and hormonal measures, while a second factor mainly grouped conditioned fear and two-way avoidance acquisition with novelty-induced exploration and post-stress prolactin. Thus, regarding their anxiety/fearfulness, passive coping style, "depressive-like" and stress-induced hormonal responses the N/Nih-HS rats resemble the phenotype profiles of the relatively high-anxious and stress-prone RLA-I rat strain.

  8. Radio-Adaptive Responses of Mouse Myocardiocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seawright, John W.; Westby, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most significant occupational hazards to an astronaut is the frequent exposure to radiation. Commonly associated with increased risk for cancer related morbidity and mortality, radiation is also known to increase the risk for cardiovascular related disorders including: pericarditis, hypertension, and heart failure. It is believed that these radiation-induced disorders are a result of abnormal tissue remodeling. It is unknown whether radiation exposure promotes remodeling through fibrotic changes alone or in combination with programmed cell death. Furthermore, it is not known whether it is possible to mitigate the hazardous effects of radiation exposure. As such, we assessed the expression and mechanisms of radiation-induced tissue remodeling and potential radio-adaptive responses of p53-mediated apoptosis and fibrosis pathways along with markers for oxidative stress and inflammation in mice myocardium. 7 week old, male, C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 6Gy (H) or 5cGy followed 24hr later with 6Gy (LH) Cs-137 gamma radiation. Mice were sacrificed and their hearts extirpated 4, 24, or 72hr after final irradiation. Real Time - Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to evaluate target genes. Pro-apoptotic genes Bad and Bax, pro-cell survival genes Bcl2 and Bcl2l2, fibrosis gene Vegfa, and oxidative stress genes Sod2 and GPx4 showed a reduced fold regulation change (Bad,-6.18; Bax,-6.94; Bcl2,-5.09; Bcl2l2,-4.03; Vegfa, -11.84; Sod2,-5.97; GPx4*,-28.72; * = Bonferroni adjusted p-value . 0.003) 4hr after H, but not after 4hr LH when compared to control. Other p53-mediated apoptosis genes Casp3, Casp9, Trp53, and Myc exhibited down-regulation but did not achieve a notable level of significance 4hr after H. 24hr after H, genetic down-regulation was no longer present compared to 24hr control. These data suggest a general reduction in genetic expression 4hrs after a high dose of gamma radiation. However, pre-exposure to 5cGy gamma radiation appears to facilitate a radio-adaptive

  9. Corticosterone responses and personality in birds: Individual variation and the ability to cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

    PubMed

    Cockrem, John F

    2013-09-01

    Birds can respond to an internal or external stimulus with activation of the HPA axis and secretion of corticosterone. There is considerable individual variation in corticosterone responses, and individual responses can be very different from the mean response for a group of birds. Corticosterone responses and behavioural responses to environmental stimuli are determined by individual characteristics called personality. It is proposed that birds with low corticosterone responses and proactive personalities are likely to be more successful (have greater fitness) in constant or predictable conditions, whilst birds with reactive personalities and high corticosterone responses will be more successful in changing or unpredictable conditions. The relationship between corticosterone responses and fitness thus depends on the prevailing environmental conditions, so birds with either low or high corticosterone responses can have the greatest fitness and be most successful, but in different situations. It is also proposed that birds with reactive personalities and high corticosterone responses will be better able to cope with environmental changes due to climate change than birds with proactive personalities and relatively low corticosterone responses. Phenotypic plasticity in corticosterone responses can be quantified using a reaction norm approach, and reaction norms can be used to determine the degree of plasticity in corticosterone responses of individual birds, and mean levels of plasticity in responses of species of birds. Individual corticosterone responses and personality, and reaction norms for corticosterone responses, can in future be used to predict the ability of birds to cope with environmental changes due to climate change.

  10. SAMCO: Society Adaptation for coping with Mountain risks in a global change COntext

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Bernardie, Severine; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Puissant, Anne; Houet, Thomas; Berger, Frederic; Fort, Monique; Pierre, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The SAMCO project aims to develop a proactive resilience framework enhancing the overall resilience of societies on the impacts of mountain risks. The project aims to elaborate methodological tools to characterize and measure ecosystem and societal resilience from an operative perspective on three mountain representative case studies. To achieve this objective, the methodology is split in several points with (1) the definition of the potential impacts of global environmental changes (climate system, ecosystem e.g. land use, socio-economic system) on landslide hazards, (2) the analysis of these consequences in terms of vulnerability (e.g. changes in the location and characteristics of the impacted areas and level of their perturbation) and (3) the implementation of a methodology for quantitatively investigating and mapping indicators of mountain slope vulnerability exposed to several hazard types, and the development of a GIS-based demonstration platform. The strength and originality of the SAMCO project will be to combine different techniques, methodologies and models (multi-hazard assessment, risk evolution in time, vulnerability functional analysis, and governance strategies) and to gather various interdisciplinary expertises in earth sciences, environmental sciences, and social sciences. The multidisciplinary background of the members could potentially lead to the development of new concepts and emerging strategies for mountain hazard/risk adaptation. Research areas, characterized by a variety of environmental, economical and social settings, are severely affected by landslides, and have experienced significant land use modifications (reforestation, abandonment of traditional agricultural practices) and human interferences (urban expansion, ski resorts construction) over the last century.

  11. Loose-Coupled Responses to External Constraints: An Analysis of Public Educators' Coping Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Y. L. Jack

    1997-01-01

    Examines superintendents', principals', and teachers' coping strategies for dealing with externally imposed problems or disruptive change in four Manitoba school divisions. Identifies seven major coping strategies and analyzes them in terms of strategic choice theory versus environmental determinist theory. Contains 30 references. (SV)

  12. Gender differences in delayed-type hypersensitivity response: effects of stress and coping in first-year law students.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Sarah McQueary; Schipper, Lindsey J; Roach, Abbey R; Segerstrom, Suzanne C

    2009-07-01

    Law students show significant deficits in emotional and physical well-being compared with groups of students in other areas of higher education. Furthermore, evidence suggests that these effects may be worse for women than for men. The use of active coping can positively affect immunity under stress, but this may be most true for men in the context of law school. The current study examined the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin responses of first-year law students (n=121) and a comparison group (n=30). Students' health behaviors, self-evaluative emotions, and coping strategies were also reported. Male law students had larger DTH responses than females, but this gender effect was not present in the comparison group. Endorsement of perseverance under stress (n=19), an active coping strategy, moderated the gender effect on immunity. Perseverance associated with larger DTH responses and more positive self-evaluative emotion, but only among men. These results indicate that active coping may be less efficacious for women than for men in law school, which in turn may limit women's opportunities to attenuate negative effects of law school.

  13. Auditory brainstem responses in Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis): effects of frequency, level, sex and size

    PubMed Central

    Schrode, Katrina M.; Buerkle, Nathan P.; Brittan-Powell, Elizabeth F.; Bee, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge of the hearing abilities of frogs and toads is largely defined by work with a few well-studied species. One way to further advance comparative work on anuran hearing would be greater use of minimally invasive electrophysiological measures, such as the auditory brainstem response (ABR). This study used the ABR evoked by tones and clicks to investigate hearing in Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis). The objectives were to characterize the effects of sound frequency, sound pressure level, and subject sex and body size on ABRs. The ABR in gray treefrogs bore striking resemblance to ABRs measured in other animals. As stimulus level increased, ABR amplitude increased and latency decreased, and for responses to tones, these effects depended on stimulus frequency. Frequency-dependent differences in ABRs were correlated with expected differences in the tuning of two sensory end organs in the anuran inner ear (the amphibian and basilar papillae). The ABR audiogram indicated two frequency regions of increased sensitivity corresponding to the expected tuning of the two papillae. Overall, there was no effect of subject size and only small effects related to subject sex. Together, these results indicate the ABR is an effective method to study audition in anurans. PMID:24442647

  14. Adaptive responses to antibody based therapy.

    PubMed

    Rodems, Tamara S; Iida, Mari; Brand, Toni M; Pearson, Hannah E; Orbuch, Rachel A; Flanigan, Bailey G; Wheeler, Deric L

    2016-02-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) represent a large class of protein kinases that span the cellular membrane. There are 58 human RTKs identified which are grouped into 20 distinct families based upon their ligand binding, sequence homology and structure. They are controlled by ligand binding which activates intrinsic tyrosine-kinase activity. This activity leads to the phosphorylation of distinct tyrosines on the cytoplasmic tail, leading to the activation of cell signaling cascades. These signaling cascades ultimately regulate cellular proliferation, apoptosis, migration, survival and homeostasis of the cell. The vast majority of RTKs have been directly tied to the etiology and progression of cancer. Thus, using antibodies to target RTKs as a cancer therapeutic strategy has been intensely pursued. Although antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have shown promise in the clinical arena, the development of both intrinsic and acquired resistance to antibody-based therapies is now well appreciated. In this review we provide an overview of the RTK family, the biology of EGFR and HER2, as well as an in-depth review of the adaptive responses undertaken by cells in response to antibody based therapies directed against these receptors. A greater understanding of these mechanisms and their relevance in human models will lead to molecular insights in overcoming and circumventing resistance to antibody based therapy.

  15. Pre-attack stress-load, appraisals, and coping in children’s responses to the 9/11 terrorist attacks

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Long, Anna C.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Appraisal and coping following a disaster are important factors in children’s post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. However, little is known about predictors of disaster coping responses. This study examined stress-load, appraisals and coping styles measured prior to the September 11 terrorist attacks as predictors of 9/11-specific appraisals, coping and PTS. Methods A community sample of children and parents (N = 143) participating in an ongoing study were interviewed by phone approximately 1 month following 9/11. Results Pre-attack stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predicted children’s 9/11-specific appraisals, coping, and PTS. 9/11-specific threat appraisals and avoidant coping predicted higher PTS and mediated the effects of pre-attack stress-load and threat appraisal. Conclusions Pre-disaster stress-load, appraisal and coping styles predict disaster-specific appraisal and coping, which in turn, contribute to PTS. Coping interventions might mitigate PTS symptoms following a disaster. PMID:17176377

  16. Managing Expectations: Results from Case Studies of US Water Utilities on Preparing for, Coping with, and Adapting to Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller-Simms, N.; Metchis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Water utilities, reeling from increased impacts of successive extreme events such as floods, droughts, and derechos, are taking a more proactive role in preparing for future incursions. A recent study by Federal and water foundation investigators, reveals how six US water utilities and their regions prepared for, responded to, and coped with recent extreme weather and climate events and the lessons they are using to plan future adaptation and resilience activities. Two case studies will be highlighted. (1) Sonoma County, CA, has had alternating floods and severe droughts. In 2009, this area, home to competing water users, namely, agricultural crops, wineries, tourism, and fisheries faced a three-year drought, accompanied at the end by intense frosts. Competing uses of water threatened the grape harvest, endangered the fish industry and resulted in a series of regulations, and court cases. Five years later, new efforts by partners in the entire watershed have identified mutual opportunities for increased basin sustainability in the face of a changing climate. (2) Washington DC had a derecho in late June 2012, which curtailed water, communications, and power delivery during a record heat spell that impacted hundreds of thousands of residents and lasted over the height of the tourist-intensive July 4th holiday. Lessons from this event were applied three months later in anticipation of an approaching Superstorm Sandy. This study will help other communities in improving their resiliency in the face of future climate extremes. For example, this study revealed that (1) communities are planning with multiple types and occurrences of extreme events which are becoming more severe and frequent and are impacting communities that are expanding into more vulnerable areas and (2) decisions by one sector can not be made in a vacuum and require the scientific, sectoral and citizen communities to work towards sustainable solutions.

  17. DNA damage response in peripheral nervous system: coping with cancer therapy-induced DNA lesions.

    PubMed

    Englander, Ella W

    2013-08-01

    In the absence of blood brain barrier (BBB) the DNA of peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons is exposed to a broader spectrum of endogenous and exogenous threats compared to that of the central nervous system (CNS). Hence, while CNS and PNS neurons cope with many similar challenges inherent to their high oxygen consumption and vigorous metabolism, PNS neurons are also exposed to circulating toxins and inflammatory mediators due to relative permeability of PNS blood nerve barrier (BNB). Consequently, genomes of PNS neurons incur greater damage and the question awaiting investigation is whether specialized repair mechanisms for maintenance of DNA integrity have evolved to meet the additional needs of PNS neurons. Here, I review data showing how PNS neurons manage collateral DNA damage incurred in the course of different anti-cancer treatments designed to block DNA replication in proliferating tumor cells. Importantly, while PNS neurotoxicity and concomitant chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) are among major dose limiting barriers in achieving therapy goals, CIPN is partially reversible during post-treatment nerve recovery. Clearly, cell recovery necessitates mobilization of the DNA damage response and underscores the need for systematic investigation of the scope of DNA repair capacities in the PNS to help predict post-treatment risks to recovering neurons.

  18. The Dynamics of Mood and Coping in Bipolar Disorder: Longitudinal Investigations of the Inter-Relationship between Affect, Self-Esteem and Response Styles

    PubMed Central

    Pavlickova, Hana; Varese, Filippo; Smith, Angela; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Turnbull, Oliver H.; Emsley, Richard; Bentall, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study – an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. Methods In order to maximize ecological validity, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 48) reported mood, self-esteem and response styles to depression, together with contextual information, up to 60 times over a period of six days, using experience sampling diaries. Entries were cued by quasi-random bleeps from digital watches. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated, with mood and self-esteem as predictors of subsequent response styles. Similar models were then estimated with response styles as predictors of subsequent mood and self-esteem. Cross-sectional associations of daily-life correlates with symptoms were also examined. Results Cross-sectionally, symptoms of depression as well as mania were significantly related to low mood and self-esteem, and their increased fluctuations. Longitudinally, low mood significantly predicted rumination, and engaging in rumination dampened mood at the subsequent time point. Furthermore, high positive mood (marginally) instigated high risk-taking, and in turn engaging in risk-taking resulted in increased positive mood. Adaptive coping (i.e. problem-solving and distraction) was found to be an effective coping style in improving mood and self-esteem. Conclusions This study is the first to directly test the relevance of response style theory, originally developed to explain unipolar depression, to understand symptom changes in bipolar disorder patients. The findings show that response styles significantly impact on subsequent mood

  19. Endocrine and Cognitive Adaptations to Cope with Stress in Immature Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Sex and Age Matter

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Galvão, Ana Cecília de Menezes; Sales, Carla Jéssica Rodrigues; de Castro, Dijenaide Chaves; Galvão-Coelho, Nicole Leite

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This species is an important experimental model in psychiatry, and we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from juvenile to subadult, with females showing higher levels. Immature males and females at 6 and 9 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation with respect to range and duration of response. Additional evidence showed that at 12 months of age, males and females buffered the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis during chronic stress. Moreover, chronic stressed juvenile marmoset males showed better cognitive performance in working memory tests and motivation when compared to those submitted to short-term stress living in family groups. Thus, as cortisol profile seems to be sexually dimorphic before adulthood, age and sex are critical variables to consider in approaches that require immature marmosets in their experimental protocols. Moreover, available cognitive tests should be scrutinized to allow better investigation of cognitive traits in this species. PMID:26648876

  20. Linear ubiquitination signals in adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2015-07-01

    Ubiquitin can form eight different linkage types of chains using the intrinsic Met 1 residue or one of the seven intrinsic Lys residues. Each linkage type of ubiquitin chain has a distinct three-dimensional topology, functioning as a tag to attract specific signaling molecules, which are so-called ubiquitin readers, and regulates various biological functions. Ubiquitin chains linked via Met 1 in a head-to-tail manner are called linear ubiquitin chains. Linear ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of cellular signaling, including the best-characterized tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Linear ubiquitin chains are specifically generated by an E3 ligase complex called the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and hydrolyzed by a deubiquitinase (DUB) called ovarian tumor (OTU) DUB with linear linkage specificity (OTULIN). LUBAC linearly ubiquitinates critical molecules in the TNF pathway, such as NEMO and RIPK1. The linear ubiquitin chains are then recognized by the ubiquitin readers, including NEMO, which control the TNF pathway. Accumulating evidence indicates an importance of the LUBAC complex in the regulation of apoptosis, development, and inflammation in mice. In this article, I focus on the role of linear ubiquitin chains in adaptive immune responses with an emphasis on the TNF-induced signaling pathways.

  1. A novel adaptation of a parent–child observational assessment tool for appraisals and coping in children exposed to acute trauma

    PubMed Central

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    following a PTE. More research should examine the relationships of appraisals, coping, and parent–child processes assessed by the TAST with traumatic stress outcomes. Highlights of the article The Trauma Ambiguous Situations Tool (TAST) is a promising method to assess children’s appraisals and coping solutions and how parents influence these following a potentially traumatic event. The use of open-ended and forced-choice response sets yielded different results regarding child’s appraisals of events as either neutral or threatening. More research is needed to determine how the TAST assessment aligns with child health outcomes (e.g., current or subsequent traumatic stress reactions). PMID:27652595

  2. Extratropical Transitions in Atlantic Canada: Impacts and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Athena; Catto, Norm

    2013-04-01

    . Storm surge damage occurred along the north shore of the Bonavista Peninsula. Similar effects, differing only in the size of the affected areas, have resulted from several extratropical transitions which have impacted Atlantic Canada since July 1989. Extratropical transition "Leslie" impacted Newfoundland on 10-11 September 2012. Although the area affected was comparable to "Igor", wind velocities and rainfall totals were less, fortunately limiting damage. Preparation, advance warning to the population, proaction, and response efforts all showed significant improvement, however, indicating that the experience gained from coping with "Igor" had been successfully applied in adaptation to "Leslie". Extratropical transitions pose a significantly different set of challenges for adaptation in comparison to purely tropical hurricanes, and responses and adaptation strategies should be tailored to address these specific events. Calculating the frequency, magnitude and intensity of potential shifts is important for accurate forecasting and public awareness, safety management, preparedness, and adaptation. Available data indicate an increase in extratropical frequency and severity in Atlantic Canada since 1991, but there are difficulties in establishing the extent and nature of transition for previous storm events. A cautionary policy would assume no significant changes in extratropical transition frequency for Atlantic Canada, but would also acknowledge that large events remain probable.

  3. The Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAPs) in Adaptive Response to Cellular Stress

    PubMed Central

    Marivin, Arthur; Berthelet, Jean; Plenchette, Stéphanie; Dubrez, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous cellular injuries. They cope with stressful stimuli by adapting their metabolism and activating various “guardian molecules.” These pro-survival factors protect essential cell constituents, prevent cell death, and possibly repair cellular damages. The Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAPs) proteins display both anti-apoptotic and pro-survival properties and their expression can be induced by a variety of cellular stress such as hypoxia, endoplasmic reticular stress and DNA damage. Thus, IAPs can confer tolerance to cellular stress. This review presents the anti-apoptotic and survival functions of IAPs and their role in the adaptive response to cellular stress. The involvement of IAPs in human physiology and diseases in connection with a breakdown of cellular homeostasis will be discussed. PMID:24710527

  4. Increased skin conductance responses and neural activity during fear conditioning are associated with a repressive coping style

    PubMed Central

    Klucken, Tim; Kruse, Onno; Schweckendiek, Jan; Stark, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of individual differences in coping styles in response to fear conditioning is an important issue for a better understanding of the etiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. It has been assumed that an avoidant (repressive) coping style is characterized by increased emotion regulation efforts in context of fear stimuli as compared to a more vigilant coping style. However, no study so far has investigated the neural correlates of fear conditioning of repressors and sensitizers. In the present fMRI study, 76 participants were classified as repressors or as sensitizers and were exposed to a fear conditioning paradigm, in which the CS+ predicted electrical stimulation, while another neutral stimulus (CS−) did not. In addition, skin conductance responses (SCRs) were measured continuously. As the main findings, we found increased neural activity in repressors as compared to sensitizers in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during fear conditioning. In addition, elevated activity to the CS+ in amygdala, insula, occipital, and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as elevated conditioned SCRs were found in repressors. The present results demonstrate increased neural activations in structures linked to emotion down-regulation mechanisms like the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which may reflect the increased coping effort in repressors. At the same time, repressors showed increased activations in arousal and evaluation-associated structures like the amygdala, the occipital cortex (OCC), and the OFC, which was mirrored in increased SCRs. The present results support recent assumptions about a two-process model of repression postulating a fast vigilant response to fear stimuli, and a second process associated with the down-regulation of emotional responses. PMID:26082695

  5. Repeated social defeat increases reactive emotional coping behavior and alters functional responses in serotonergic neurons in the rat dorsal raphe nucleus.

    PubMed

    Paul, Evan D; Hale, Matthew W; Lukkes, Jodi L; Valentine, McKenzie J; Sarchet, Derek M; Lowry, Christopher A

    2011-08-03

    Chronic stress is a vulnerability factor for a number of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and affective disorders. Social defeat in rats has proven to be a useful paradigm to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying physiologic and behavioral adaptation to acute and chronic stress. Previous studies suggest that serotonergic systems may contribute to the physiologic and behavioral adaptation to chronic stress, including social defeat in rodent models. In order to test the hypothesis that repeated social defeat alters the emotional behavior and the excitability of brainstem serotonergic systems implicated in control of emotional behavior, we exposed adult male rats either to home cage control conditions, acute social defeat, or social defeat followed 24h later by a second social defeat encounter. We then assessed behavioral responses during social defeat as well as the excitability of serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus using immunohistochemical staining of tryptophan hydroxylase, a marker of serotonergic neurons, and the protein product of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. Repeated social defeat resulted in a shift away from proactive emotional coping behaviors, such as rearing (explorative escape behavior), and toward reactive emotional coping behaviors such as freezing. Both acute and repeated defeat led to widespread increases in c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Changes in behavior following a second exposure to social defeat, relative to acute defeat, were associated with decreased c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons within the dorsal and ventral parts of the mid-rostrocaudal dorsal raphe nucleus, regions that have been implicated in 1) serotonergic modulation of fear- and anxiety-related behavior and 2) defensive behavior in conspecific aggressive encounters, respectively. These data support the hypothesis that serotonergic systems play a role in physiologic and behavioral responses to both

  6. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  7. [Mechanism of cytogenetic adaptive response induced by low dose radiation].

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Liu, S

    1990-11-01

    Cytogenetic observation on human lymphocytes indicated that pre-exposure of 10, 50 and 75 mGy X-rays could induced the adaptive response. Experimental results with different temperature treatment showed that the adaptive response induced by low dose radiation could be enhanced by 41 degrees C and 43 degrees C, but inhibited by 4 degrees C in addition the treatment by 41 degrees C for one hour could also cause the adaptive response as did low dose radiation. Results showed that adaptive response induced by low dose radiation (10 or 50 mGy X-rays) could be eliminated by the protein synthesis inhibitor, implying that the adaptive response is related with the metabolism of cells, especially with the production of certain protective proteins.

  8. The Mechanism by Which Interpersonal Coping Flexibility Influences Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Yiqun; Liu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to conceptualize interpersonal coping flexibility and to explore how it influences personal adaptation. Two hundred sixty two university students were classified based on their responses to prompts about their degree of prioritizing harmony and the number of coping strategies they employed when dealing with…

  9. Passive coping response to depressive symptoms among low-income homebound older adults: does it affect depression severity and treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; Hegel, Mark T; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Bruce, Martha L

    2012-11-01

    Due to their homebound state, lack of financial resources, and/or other life demands, a significant proportion of depressed, low-income homebound older adults experience depression. Because of their limited access to psychotherapy, most of these older adults self-manage their depressive symptoms. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the relationship between homebound older adults' coping responses to depressed mood and the severity of their depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 121), and (2) the moderating effect of passive coping responses on the relationship between participation in problem-solving therapy (PST: in-person or telehealth delivery) and depressive symptoms at 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Controlling for the effects of demographic and disability characteristics, cognitive passive coping was significantly associated with baseline depressive symptoms, while behavioral passive coping was not. The main effect of baseline cognitive passive coping response was also significant in mixed-effects regression analysis, but the interaction between coping pattern and group was not significant. The results point to a possibility that cognitive passive copers may have benefited as much from PST as the rest of the PST participants. Further research needs to examine the moderating effect of coping responses to depressive symptoms on treatment efficacy of PST and other psychosocial interventions for late-life depression.

  10. Passive Coping Response to Depressive Symptoms among Low-Income Homebound Older Adults: Does It Affect Depression Severity and Treatment Outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Namkee G.; Hegel, Mark T.; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Bruce, Martha L.

    2012-01-01

    Due to their homebound state, lack of financial resources, and/or other life demands, a significant proportion of depressed, low-income homebound older adults experience depression. Because of their limited access to psychotherapy, most of these older adults self-manage their depressive symptoms. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the relationship between homebound older adults’ coping responses to depressed mood and the severity of their depressive symptoms at baseline (n =121), and (2) the moderating effect of passive coping responses on the relationship between participation in problem-solving therapy (PST: in-person or telehealth delivery) and depressive symptoms at 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Controlling for the effects of demographic and disability characteristics, cognitive passive coping was significantly associated with baseline depressive symptoms, while behavioral passive coping was not. The main effect of baseline cognitive passive coping response was also significant in mixed-effects regression analysis, but the interaction between coping pattern and group was not significant. The results point to a possibility that cognitive passive copers may have benefited as much from PST as the rest of the PST participants. Further research needs to examine the moderating effect of coping responses to depressive symptoms on treatment efficacy of PST and other psychosocial interventions for late-life depression. PMID:22982081

  11. Coping self-efficacy perceptions as a mediator between acute stress response and long-term distress following natural disasters.

    PubMed

    Benight, Charles C; Harper, Michelle L

    2002-06-01

    The mediating effect of coping self-efficacy (CSE) perceptions between acute stress responses (ASR) and 1-year distress following two disasters was tested. Between 3 and 8 weeks after the second disaster and again at 1 year, 46 residents completed questionnaires. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms and global distress served as outcomes. Multiple regression demonstrated that ASR and Time I CSE were significant predictors of both Time 1 outcomes. Time 1 PTSD symptoms and Time 2 CSE were significant factors for Time 2 PTSD symptoms. Gender was significant for Time 2 PTSD symptoms, but not for Time 2 global distress. Longitudinally, Time 1 CSE predicted Time 2 PTSD symptoms, but not general distress. CSE mediated between ASR and both psychological outcomes at Time 2. Coping self-efficacy perceptions provide a possible intervention target.

  12. Role of sensitivity to anxiety symptoms in responsiveness to mindfulness versus suppression strategies for coping with smoking cravings.

    PubMed

    Rogojanski, Jenny; Vettese, Lisa C; Antony, Martin M

    2011-04-01

    Mindfulness strategies for managing cravings involve present-moment, nonjudgmental awareness of cravings without acting on them, while suppression involves pushing cravings out of awareness. Few studies have investigated individual differences in responding to these strategies. The current study examined whether individual differences in anxiety sensitivity moderate responsiveness to mindfulness versus suppression for coping with smoking cravings. Participants (N=61) utilized a mindfulness or suppression strategy to manage cravings during cue exposure to cigarettes and were evaluated for self-efficacy 7 days later. Greater anxiety sensitivity after cue exposure was associated with increased self-efficacy in the suppression condition. This suggests that anxiety-sensitive individuals who utilize suppression may cope better with cravings, at least in the early days after learning these strategies.

  13. Light-adaptation in the photophobic response by Stentor coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Hong, C B; Prusti, R K; Song, P S

    1987-03-01

    Effects of preillumination on photophobic response (light-adaptation) and recovery of the photophobic sensitivity in the dark (dark-adaptation) in Stentor coeruleus were examined. When the cells were preilluminated with white light of 7.80 W/m2 for 2 min, the fluence-rate response curve of photophobic response was shifted toward higher light intensities by half an order of magnitude compared to the one without preillumination. Preillumination with a higher light intensity resulted in a further shift of the fluence-rate response curve. An action spectrum for light-adaptation showed a primary peak at 610 nm and secondary peaks at 540 and 480 nm which are almost identical to the peaks observed in the photophobic action spectrum. The light-adapted cells showed a recovery of their photophobic sensing ability following dark treatment. Dark-adaptation resulted in total recovery of photophobic sensing ability in 8 minutes for the most cases examined.

  14. Victims' Responses to Stalking: An Examination of Fear Levels and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Podaná, Zuzana; Imríšková, Romana

    2016-03-01

    Fear for the stalking victim's own safety or the safety of people close to them is of primary research interest due to the fact that fear is often required as a necessary condition for repetitive intrusive behavior to be defined as stalking. This study examines factors that increase levels of fear in stalking victims and analyzes their coping strategies, making use of data from a victimization survey among citizens of the Czech Republic (N = 2,503). Overall, 147 stalking victims were identified in the sample. Results show that female victims, those stalked by male offenders, and victims pursued over a long period of time, are most fearful. Higher levels of fear are elicited by strangers as opposed to partners or acquaintances. Among stalking practices, only direct aggression is significantly associated with fear, whereas monitoring the victim (comprising typical stalking behavior such as following the victim) increases the perception of the seriousness of stalking, but does not influence the victim's fear. In addition, three behavioral coping strategies have been identified: proactive behavior (47% of victims), avoidance (30%), and passivity (23%). The examination of the association between these coping strategies and victims' fear reveals that female victims, whose behavior is proactive, express higher levels of fear than male victims and than those choosing avoidance or passivity strategies. Overall, the study confirms gender differences in both the level of fear and coping strategies, and lends further support to appeals for eliminating the fear requirement from the stalking definition.

  15. Adolescent Girls' Cognitive Appraisals of Coping Responses to Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears; Ayres, Melanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Peer sexual harassment is a stressor for many girls in middle and high school. Prior research indicates that approach strategies (seeking support or confronting) are generally more effective than avoidance strategies in alleviating stress. However, the deployment of effective coping behaviors depends partly on how individuals evaluate different…

  16. A Qualitative Examination of Multiracial Students' Coping Responses to Experiences with Prejudice and Discrimination in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Sariñana, Susan A. Lambe; Ryan, Tasha Kawamata

    2015-01-01

    National data indicate that multiracial individuals comprise a substantial and growing proportion of the US population, but this community is often invisible in higher education research and discourse. This study aims to increase knowledge of mixed-race students in higher education by examining the ways in which they cope with experienced…

  17. The Global Economic Crisis and Educational Development: Responses and Coping Strategies in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Ka Ho

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines how Asian countries have responded to the global economic crisis which started in late 2008, with particular reference to explore what major coping strategies have been adopted by these Asian governments to continue educational development. This comparative study highlights the significant role of the state in…

  18. Gender Roles and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship of gender-role orientation and specific behavioral coping responses of wives (N=82) experiencing a long-term separation from their military spouses. Results showed that an androgynous gender-role orientation was significantly associated with four of the five coping patterns identified as helpful to wives managing a…

  19. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  20. Implementing Coping Power Adapted as a Universal Prevention Program in Italian Primary Schools: a Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Nocentini, Annalaura; Lochman, John E

    2016-09-24

    Behavioral problems in schools can cause serious harm to the emotional and social well-being of students and limit their ability to achieve their full academic potential. A prior pilot study on the universal application of Coping Power showed a significant decrease in the hyperactivity behaviors of five classes. The next step was to test whether Coping Power Universal could be successfully implemented by teachers in a variety of Italian schools. The sample involved 40 third- and fourth-grade classes (901 students) from public schools located in three Italian cities. Twenty classes were randomly assigned to Coping Power Universal, and 20 classes were randomly assigned to the control group, which received the strictly standard academic curriculum of Italian elementary schools. At each assessment period, the teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The findings showed a significant reduction in hyperactive and inattention behaviors and conduct problems and emotional symptoms in the intervention classes compared with the control classes. This study suggests that Coping Power model can be delivered in school settings at both universal and targeted prevention levels and that in this multi-tiered prevention model, teachers can learn a set of intervention skills which can be delivered with flexibility, thus reducing some of the complexity and costs of schools using multiple interventions.

  1. A Sharing Item Response Theory Model for Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segall, Daniel O.

    2004-01-01

    A new sharing item response theory (SIRT) model is presented that explicitly models the effects of sharing item content between informants and test takers. This model is used to construct adaptive item selection and scoring rules that provide increased precision and reduced score gains in instances where sharing occurs. The adaptive item selection…

  2. Responsiveness-to-Intervention: A "Systems" Approach to Instructional Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2016-01-01

    Classroom research on adaptive teaching indicates few teachers modify instruction for at-risk students in a manner that benefits them. Responsiveness-To-Intervention, with its tiers of increasingly intensive instruction, represents an alternative approach to adaptive instruction that may prove more workable in today's schools.

  3. Coping with grief responses among African American family members of homicide victims.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Tanya L; Osteen, Philip; Frey, Jodi Jacobson; Michalopoulos, Lynn Murphy

    2014-01-01

    Research relevant to coping with grief for African American family members of homicide victims is limited. This retrospective study was conducted to determine the effects of gender, length of time since death, the traumatic impact of experiencing the homicide of a loved one, and the use of coping strategies to current grief reactions of African American family members of homicide victims (N = 44). Multiple regression analysis results suggest that gender and level of traumatic stress, related to posttraumatic stress symptomatology, predict current symptoms of grief. Women reported higher levels of current grief symptoms than men. Family members of homicide victims who reported higher levels of posttraumatic stress symptomology reported higher levels of current grief. Implications for research and recommendations for practitioners are discussed.

  4. Impaired Adaptive Response to Mechanical Overloading in Dystrophic Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Joanne, Pierre; Hourdé, Christophe; Ochala, Julien; Caudéran, Yvain; Medja, Fadia; Vignaud, Alban; Mouisel, Etienne; Hadj-Said, Wahiba; Arandel, Ludovic; Garcia, Luis; Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Mounier, Rémi; Zibroba, Daria; Sakamato, Kei; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Agbulut, Onnik; Ferry, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Dystrophin contributes to force transmission and has a protein-scaffolding role for a variety of signaling complexes in skeletal muscle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the muscle adaptive response following mechanical overloading (ML) would be decreased in MDX dystrophic muscle lacking dystrophin. We found that the gains in muscle maximal force production and fatigue resistance in response to ML were both reduced in MDX mice as compared to healthy mice. MDX muscle also exhibited decreased cellular and molecular muscle remodeling (hypertrophy and promotion of slower/oxidative fiber type) in response to ML, and altered intracellular signalings involved in muscle growth and maintenance (mTOR, myostatin, follistatin, AMPKα1, REDD1, atrogin-1, Bnip3). Moreover, dystrophin rescue via exon skipping restored the adaptive response to ML. Therefore our results demonstrate that the adaptive response in response to ML is impaired in dystrophic MDX muscle, most likely because of the dystrophin crucial role. PMID:22511986

  5. Exposure to stressful environments - Strategy of adaptive responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Stresses such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure can produce strains in more than a single organ system, in turn stimulating the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups: (1) conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, (2) stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products such as CO2 and heat, and (3) environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of microenvironment, is often favored by the animal.

  6. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.

  7. Assessing Coping Responses within Specific Faith Traditions: Suffering in Silence, Stress, and Depressive Symptoms Among Older Catholics.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study is empirically evaluate a coping response that is thought to be unique among older Catholics - suffering in silence. Two hypotheses are examined. The first predicts that older Catholics will be more likely than older Protestants to suffer in silence when ongoing economic difficulty is encountered. The second hypothesis specifies that the potentially deleterious effects of financial problems on depressive symptoms will be offset for older adults who prefer to suffer in silence. Data from an ongoing nationwide survey of older people in the United States provide support for both hypotheses.

  8. Oxidative stress, radiation-adaptive responses, and aging.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yuri

    2004-09-01

    Organisms living in an aerobic environment were forced to evolve effective cellular strategies to detoxify reactive oxygen species. Besides diverse antioxidant enzymes and compounds, DNA repair enzymes, and disassembly systems, which remove damaged proteins, regulation systems that control transcription, translation, and activation have also been developed. The adaptive responses, especially those to radiation, are defensive regulation mechanisms by which oxidative stress (conditioning irradiation) elicits a response against damage because of subsequent stress (challenging irradiation). Although many researchers have investigated these molecular mechanisms, they remain obscure because of their complex signaling pathways and the involvement of various proteins. This article reviews the factors concerned with radiation-adaptive response, the signaling pathways activated by conditioning irradiation, and the effects of aging on radiation-adaptive response. The proteomics approach is also introduced, which is a useful method for studying stress response in cells.

  9. Coping Styles of Female Adolescent Cancer Patients with Potential Fertility Loss

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Devin; Knapp, Caprice A.; Christie, Juliette; Phares, Vicky; Wells, Kristen J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the coping styles of female adolescent cancer patients regarding potential loss of fertility. Expectations and desires for the future, coping styles in typical adolescence, and coping styles when faced with potential loss of fertility due to cancer treatment are discussed. Methods Female adolescents diagnosed with cancer aged 12–18 years at study (N=14) were administered a 10-item values clarification tool to pilot test the readability and relevance of the items on reproductive concerns, followed by a cognitive debriefing interview asking participants how they would respond to each item. These qualitative responses were assessed for coping style type using the constant comparative approach. Results All adolescent participants reported having a strong desire for biological children in the future. Reactions to questions regarding the loss of fertility fell into two categories of coping styles: emotion-focused coping or problem-focused (engagement) coping. Within emotion-focused coping, there were three distinct styles: externalizing attribution style, internalizing attribution style, and repressive adaptation. Problem-focused coping adolescents displayed optimism. Conclusion Successful interventions aimed at promoting adaptive coping styles should seek to uncover adolescents' values about future parenthood and reproduction. Development of an age-appropriate assessment to stimulate dialogue regarding fertility and initiate an adolescent's cognitive processing of potential fertility loss is warranted. PMID:23781403

  10. The Social Milieu of the Church and Religious Coping Responses: A Longitudinal Investigation of Older Whites and Older Blacks.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if the social environment of the church influences the use of religious coping responses over time. The following theoretical relationships were embedded in the conceptual model that was developed to evaluate this issue: (1) people who go to church more often are more likely to feel their congregation is highly cohesive (e.g., share the same values and beliefs); (2) individuals who worship in highly cohesive congregations are more likely to receive spiritual support (i.e., encouragement to adopt religious teachings and principles) from their fellow church members; (3) people who receive more spiritual support will be more likely to adopt religious coping responses. In the process of evaluating this model, tests were performed to examine the influence of racial culture. Data from a nationwide longitudinal survey of older adults provide support for each link in the conceptual model. Pervasive racial cultural differences were also found: Older blacks were more likely to be deeply involved in each facet of religion than older whites.

  11. Incorporating adaptive responses into future projections of coral bleaching.

    PubMed

    Logan, Cheryl A; Dunne, John P; Eakin, C Mark; Donner, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    Climate warming threatens to increase mass coral bleaching events, and several studies have projected the demise of tropical coral reefs this century. However, recent evidence indicates corals may be able to respond to thermal stress though adaptive processes (e.g., genetic adaptation, acclimatization, and symbiont shuffling). How these mechanisms might influence warming-induced bleaching remains largely unknown. This study compared how different adaptive processes could affect coral bleaching projections. We used the latest bias-corrected global sea surface temperature (SST) output from the NOAA/GFDL Earth System Model 2 (ESM2M) for the preindustrial period through 2100 to project coral bleaching trajectories. Initial results showed that, in the absence of adaptive processes, application of a preindustrial climatology to the NOAA Coral Reef Watch bleaching prediction method overpredicts the present-day bleaching frequency. This suggests that corals may have already responded adaptively to some warming over the industrial period. We then modified the prediction method so that the bleaching threshold either permanently increased in response to thermal history (e.g., simulating directional genetic selection) or temporarily increased for 2-10 years in response to a bleaching event (e.g., simulating symbiont shuffling). A bleaching threshold that changes relative to the preceding 60 years of thermal history reduced the frequency of mass bleaching events by 20-80% compared with the 'no adaptive response' prediction model by 2100, depending on the emissions scenario. When both types of adaptive responses were applied, up to 14% more reef cells avoided high-frequency bleaching by 2100. However, temporary increases in bleaching thresholds alone only delayed the occurrence of high-frequency bleaching by ca. 10 years in all but the lowest emissions scenario. Future research should test the rate and limit of different adaptive responses for coral species across latitudes and

  12. Prevalence of PTSD Symptoms and Depression and Level of Coping among the Victims of the Kashmir Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaswi, Arooj; Haque, Amber

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, and coping mechanisms among the adult civilian population in Indian Kashmir. The Everstine Trauma Response Index-Adapted, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Coping Resources Inventory were used to assess the three domains. Independent-sample t…

  13. Rapid warming in Tibet, China: public perception, response and coping resources in urban Lhasa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tibet, average altitude more than 4,000 meters, is warming faster than anywhere else in China. The increase in temperatures may aggravate existing health problems and lead to the emergence of new risks. However, there are no actions being taken at present to protect population health due to limited understanding about the range and magnitude of health effects of climate change. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of 619 respondents from urban Lhasa, Tibet in August 2012 with the aim to investigate public perceptions of risk, heat experiences, and coping resources. Results Respondents are aware of the warming that has occurred in Lhasa in recent years. Over 78% reported that rising temperature is either a “very” or “somewhat” serious threat to their own health, and nearly 40% reported they had experienced heat-related symptoms. Sex, age, education and income influenced perceived risks, health status, and heat experience. The vast majority of respondents reported that they had altered their behaviour on hot summer days. Bakuo, a sub-district at the city center, is considered especially vulnerable to heat because of sparse vegetation, high population density, poor dwelling conditions and a high proportion of low-income population. However, neighborhood social ties were stronger in Bakuo than other study locations. Conclusions The study suggests that actions are needed now to minimize downside effects of rapid warming in Tibet, because of increasing human exposure to high temperatures and uneven distribution of the resources needed to cope. PMID:24103412

  14. Family socioeconomic status modulates the coping-related neural response of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Masui, Keita; Furutani, Kaichiro; Nomura, Michio; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Substantial research links economic adversity to poor coping in stressful or threatening environments. Neuroimaging studies suggest that activation of the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) plays a key role in self-control, and it seems that individual differences in neurocognitive systems underlying self-control are determined in part by subjective childhood socioeconomic status (SES). The present study used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate whether subjective childhood SES moderates rVLPFC activity during one form of threatening environment: social exclusion. Twenty-five undergraduates participated in a NIRS session in which they were socially included and then excluded during an online ball-tossing game. Lower subjective childhood SES was associated with higher levels of social distress and lower levels of rVLPFC activity during social exclusion. The present findings suggest that early family environments are reliably associated with deficits in offspring coping resources and processes, as well as with difficulties in regulating interpersonal circumstances. PMID:22446300

  15. Exposure to Stressful Environments: Strategy of Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Any new natural environment may generate a number of stresses (such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure), each of which can produce strains in more than a single organ system. Every strain may in turn stimulate the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups. The first category includes conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, while the second is made up by those stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products, such as CO2 and heat. In both classes, there is a small number of responses, similar in principle, regardless of the specific situation. The third unit is created by environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of micro-environment, is often favored by the animal.

  16. Individual Differences in the Psychobiological Response to Psychosocial Stress (Trier Social Stress Test): The Relevance of Trait Anxiety and Coping Styles.

    PubMed

    Villada, Carolina; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Salvador, Alicia

    2016-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of some personality traits to the physiological and psychological response to a standardized laboratory psychosocial stressor (trier social stress test). Cortisol and affective response (anxiety and mood) were analysed in a mixed-sex group composed of 35 young adults who participated in a crossover design (18 men and 17 women). After verifying a statistically significant response to the trier social stress test in all parameters studied in both sex groups, exploratory cluster analyses were carried out to identify sub-groups based on their psychophysiological responses. These analyses showed two different groups: subjects displaying lower psychological response along with higher cortisol response (cluster 1) compared with the group with high affective reactivity along with lower cortisol response (cluster 2). Interestingly, we also found significant differences in trait anxiety and coping styles when the two clusters were compared. Subjects in cluster 1 showed lower scores on trait anxiety and higher scores on active coping, whereas the subjects in the second cluster obtained higher scores on anxiety and on coping focused on emotions and mental disengagement. These findings support the importance of personality traits and coping styles in understanding the overall integrative psychobiological responsiveness to social stress.

  17. Mast cells in allergy: innate instructors of adaptive responses.

    PubMed

    Stelekati, Erietta; Orinska, Zane; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2007-01-01

    The function of mast cells as effector cells in allergy has been extensively studied. However, increasing insight into mast cell physiology has revealed new mast cell functions and has introduced mast cells as key players in the regulation of innate as well as adaptive immunity. For example, mast cells have recently been found to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which enable them to participate in the innate immune response against pathogens. Furthermore, mast cells have been reported to interact with B cells, dendritic cells and T cells and thereby modulate the direction of an adaptive immune response. Finally, recent documentation that mast cells express functional MHC class II and costimulatory molecules and release immunologically active exosomes, has raised the possibility that mast cells also engage in (as yet) poorly understood antigen presentation functions. In this review, we explore the hypothesis that mast cells serve as central mediators between innate and adaptive immunity, rather as pure effector cells, during allergic innate responses.

  18. Readapting the adaptive immune response - therapeutic strategies for atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sage, Andrew P; Mallat, Ziad

    2017-01-04

    Cardiovascular diseases remain a major global health issue, with the development of atherosclerosis as a major underlying cause. Our treatment of cardiovascular disease has improved greatly over the past three decades, but much remains to be done reduce disease burden. Current priorities include reducing atherosclerosis advancement to clinically significant stages and preventing plaque rupture or erosion. Inflammation and involvement of the adaptive immune system influences all these aspects and therefore is one focus for future therapeutic development. The atherosclerotic vascular wall is now recognized to be invaded from both sides (arterial lumen and adventitia), for better or worse, by the adaptive immune system. Atherosclerosis is also affected at several stages by adaptive immune responses, overall providing many opportunities to target these responses and to reduce disease progression. Protective influences that may be defective in diseased individuals include humoral responses to modified LDL and regulatory T cell responses. There are many strategies in development to boost these pathways in humans, including vaccine-based therapies. The effects of various existing adaptive immune targeting therapies, such as blocking critical co-stimulatory pathways or B cell depletion, on cardiovascular disease are beginning to emerge with important consequences for both autoimmune disease patients and the potential for wider use of such therapies. Entering the translation phase for adaptive immune targeting therapies is an exciting and promising prospect.

  19. Adaptive shaping of cortical response selectivity in the vibrissa pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, He J. V.; Wang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    One embodiment of context-dependent sensory processing is bottom-up adaptation, where persistent stimuli decrease neuronal firing rate over hundreds of milliseconds. Adaptation is not, however, simply the fatigue of the sensory pathway, but shapes the information flow and selectivity to stimulus features. Adaptation enhances spatial discriminability (distinguishing stimulus location) while degrading detectability (reporting presence of the stimulus), for both the ideal observer of the cortex and awake, behaving animals. However, how the dynamics of the adaptation shape the cortical response and this detection and discrimination tradeoff is unknown, as is to what degree this phenomenon occurs on a continuum as opposed to a switching of processing modes. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging in anesthetized rats to capture the temporal and spatial characteristics of the cortical response to tactile inputs, we showed that the suppression of the cortical response, in both magnitude and spatial spread, is continuously modulated by the increasing amount of energy in the adapting stimulus, which is nonuniquely determined by its frequency and velocity. Single-trial ideal observer analysis demonstrated a tradeoff between detectability and spatial discriminability up to a moderate amount of adaptation, which corresponds to the frequency range in natural whisking. This was accompanied by a decrease in both detectability and discriminability with high-energy adaptation, which indicates a more complex coupling between detection and discrimination than a simple switching of modes. Taken together, the results suggest that adaptation operates on a continuum and modulates the tradeoff between detectability and discriminability that has implications for information processing in ethological contexts. PMID:25787959

  20. Adaptation responses of crops to climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Seino, Hiroshi

    1993-12-31

    Appreciable global climatic responses to increasing levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and other trace gases are expected to take place over the next 50 to 80 years. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases are producing or will produce changes in the climate of the Earth. In particular, numerous efforts of climate modeling project very substantial increase of surface air temperature. In addition to a general warming of the atmosphere, the possibility of increased summer dryness in the continental mid-latitudes has been suggested on the basis of both historical analogues and some General Circulation Model (GCM) studies. There are three types of effect of climatic change on agriculture: (1) the physiological (direct) effect of elevated levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} on crop plants and weeds, (2) the effect of changes in parameters of climate (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation) on plants and animals, and (3) the effects of climate-related rises in sea-level on land use. The direct effects of elevated CO{sub 2} are on photosynthesis and respiration and thereby on growth, and there are additional effects of increased CO{sub 2} on development, yield quality and stomatal aperture and water use. A doubling of CO{sub 2} increases the instantaneous photosynthetic rate by 30% to 100%, depending on the other environmental conditions, and reduce water requirements of plants by reducing transpiration (per unit leaf area) through reductions in stomatal aperture. A doubling of CO{sub 2} causes partial stomatal closure on both C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} plants (approximately a 40% decrease in aperture). In many experiments this results in reductions of transpiration of about 23% to 46%. However. there is considerable uncertainty over the magnitude of this in natural conditions.

  1. Stimuli-Responsive Mechanically Adaptive Polymer Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Shanmuganathan, Kadhiravan; Capadona, Jeffrey R.; Rowan, Stuart J.; Weder, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    A new series of biomimetic stimuli-responsive nanocomposites, which change their mechanical properties upon exposure to physiological conditions, was prepared and investigated. The materials were produced by introducing percolating networks of cellulose nanofibers or “whiskers” derived from tunicates into poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc), poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA), and blends of these polymers, with the objective of determining how the hydrophobicity and glass-transition temperature (Tg) of the polymer matrix affect the water-induced mechanically dynamic behavior. Below the Tg (~60–70 °C), the incorporation of whiskers (15.1 – 16.5% v/v) modestly increased the tensile storage moduli (E′) of the neat polymers from 0.6 to 3.8 GPa (PBMA) and from 2 to 5.2 GPa (PVAc). The reinforcement was much more dramatic above Tg, where E′ increased from 1.2 to 690 MPa (PVAc) and ~1 to 1.1 GPa (PBMA). Upon exposure to physiological conditions (immersion in artificial cerebrospinal fluid, ACSF, at 37 °C) all materials displayed a decrease of E′. The most significant contrast was seen in PVAc; for example the E′ of a 16.5% v/v PVAc/whisker nanocomposite decreased from 5.2 GPa to 12.7 MPa. Only a modest modulus decrease was measured for PBMA/whisker nanocomposite; here the E′ of a 15.1% v/v PBMA/whisker nanocomposite decreased from 3.8 to 1.2 GPa. A systematic investigation revealed that the magnitude of the mechanical contrast was related to the degree of swelling with ACSF, which was shown to increase with whisker content, temperature, and polarity of the matrix (PVAc > PBMA). The mechanical morphing of the new materials can be described in the framework of both the percolation and Halpin-Kardos models for nanocomposite reinforcement, and is the result of changing interactions among the nanoparticles and plasticization of the matrix upon swelling. PMID:20305827

  2. Genetic erosion impedes adaptive responses to stressful environments

    PubMed Central

    Bijlsma, R; Loeschcke, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity is increasingly subjected to human-induced changes of the environment. To persist, populations continually have to adapt to these often stressful changes including pollution and climate change. Genetic erosion in small populations, owing to fragmentation of natural habitats, is expected to obstruct such adaptive responses: (i) genetic drift will cause a decrease in the level of adaptive genetic variation, thereby limiting evolutionary responses; (ii) inbreeding and the concomitant inbreeding depression will reduce individual fitness and, consequently, the tolerance of populations to environmental stress. Importantly, inbreeding generally increases the sensitivity of a population to stress, thereby increasing the amount of inbreeding depression. As adaptation to stress is most often accompanied by increased mortality (cost of selection), the increase in the ‘cost of inbreeding’ under stress is expected to severely hamper evolutionary adaptive processes. Inbreeding thus plays a pivotal role in this process and is expected to limit the probability of genetically eroded populations to successfully adapt to stressful environmental conditions. Consequently, the dynamics of small fragmented populations may differ considerably from large nonfragmented populations. The resilience of fragmented populations to changing and deteriorating environments is expected to be greatly decreased. Alleviating inbreeding depression, therefore, is crucial to ensure population persistence. PMID:25568035

  3. Adaptation responses to climate change differ between global megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgeson, Lucien; Maslin, Mark; Poessinouw, Martyn; Howard, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Urban areas are increasingly at risk from climate change, with negative impacts predicted for human health, the economy and ecosystems. These risks require responses from cities to improve their resilience. Policymakers need to understand current adaptation spend to plan comprehensively and effectively. Through the measurement of spend in the newly defined `adaptation economy', we analyse current climate change adaptation efforts in ten megacities. In all cases, the adaptation economy remains a small part of the overall economy, representing a maximum of 0.33% of a city's gross domestic product (here referred to as GDPc). Differences in total spend are significant between cities in developed, emerging and developing countries, ranging from #15 million to #1,600 million. Comparing key subsectors, we demonstrate the differences in adaptation profiles. Developing cities have higher proportional spend on health and agriculture, whereas developed cities have higher spend on energy and water. Spend per capita and percentage of GDPc comparisons more clearly show disparities between cities. Developing country cities spend half the proportion of GDPc and significantly less per capita, suggesting that adaptation spend is driven by wealth rather than the number of vulnerable people. This indicates that current adaptation activities are insufficient in major population centres in developing and emerging economies.

  4. Replicated evolution of integrated plastic responses during early adaptive divergence.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Kevin J; Robinson, Beren W

    2006-04-01

    Colonization of a novel environment is expected to result in adaptive divergence from the ancestral population when selection favors a new phenotypic optimum. Local adaptation in the new environment occurs through the accumulation and integration of character states that positively affect fitness. The role played by plastic traits in adaptation to a novel environment has generally been ignored, except for variable environments. We propose that if conditions in a relatively stable but novel environment induce phenotypically plastic responses in many traits, and if genetic variation exists in the form of those responses, then selection may initially favor the accumulation and integration of functionally useful plastic responses. Early divergence between ancestral and colonist forms will then occur with respect to their plastic responses across the gradient bounded by ancestral and novel environmental conditions. To test this, we compared the magnitude, integration, and pattern of plastic character responses in external body form induced by shallow versus open water conditions between two sunfish ecomorphs that coexist in four postglacial lakes. The novel sunfish ecomorph is present in the deeper open water habitat, whereas the ancestral ecomorph inhabits the shallow waters along the lake margin. Plastic responses by open water ecomorphs were more correlated than those of their local shallow water ecomorph in two of the populations, whereas equal levels of correlated plastic character responses occurred between ecomorphs in the other two populations. Small but persistent differences occurred between ecomorph pairs in the pattern of their character responses, suggesting a recent divergence. Open water ecomorphs shared some similarities in the covariance among plastic responses to rearing environment. Replication in the form of correlated plastic responses among populations of open water ecomorphs suggests that plastic character states may evolve under selection

  5. Beyond Adapting to Climate Change: Embedding Adaptation in Responses to Multiple Threats and Stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Kates, Dr. Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Climate change impacts are already being experienced in every region of the United States and every part of the world most severely in Arctic regions and adaptation is needed now. Although climate change adaptation research is still in its infancy, significant adaptation planning in the United States has already begun in a number of localities. This article seeks to broaden the adaptation effort by integrating it with broader frameworks of hazards research, sustainability science, and community and regional resilience. To extend the range of experience, we draw from ongoing case studies in the Southeastern United States and the environmental history of New Orleans to consider the multiple threats and stresses that all communities and regions experience. Embedding climate adaptation in responses to multiple threats and stresses helps us to understand climate change impacts, themselves often products of multiple stresses, to achieve community acceptance of needed adaptations as co-benefits of addressing multiple threats, and to mainstream the process of climate adaptation through the larger envelope of social relationships, communication channels, and broad-based awareness of needs for risk management that accompany community resilience.

  6. Neural Basis of Adaptive Response Time Adjustment during Saccade Countermanding

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Pierre; Logan, Gordon D.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Boucher, Leanne; Paré, Martin; Schall, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Humans and macaque monkeys adjust their response time adaptively in stop signal (countermanding) tasks, responding slower after stop-signal trials than after control trials with no stop signal. We investigated the neural mechanism underlying this adaptive response time adjustment in macaque monkeys performing a saccade countermanding task. Earlier research showed that movements are initiated when the random accumulation of presaccadic movement-related activity reaches a fixed threshold. We found that a systematic delay in response time after stop signal trials was accomplished not through a change of threshold, baseline, or accumulation rate, but instead through a change in the time when activity first began to accumulate. The neurons underlying movement initiation have been identified with mathematical accumulator models of response time performance. Therefore, this new result provides surprising new insights into the neural instantiation of stochastic accumulator models and the mechanisms through which executive control can be exerted. PMID:21880921

  7. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary-developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern…

  8. An Examination of the Role of Social Support, Coping Strategies, and Individual Characteristics in Students' Adaptation to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bejerano, Arleen R.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation, or adjustment, is a psycho-social process that occurs when an individual accepts and integrates into his or her life a transition from one situation to another situation (Schlossberg, 1981). Many individuals struggle with transitions because transitions involve changes in the environment, roles, routines, and/or ways of looking at the…

  9. Bayesian optimal response-adaptive design for binary responses using stopping rule.

    PubMed

    Komaki, Fumiyasu; Biswas, Atanu

    2016-05-02

    Response-adaptive designs are used in phase III clinical trials to allocate a larger number of patients to the better treatment arm. Optimal designs are explored in the recent years in the context of response-adaptive designs, in the frequentist view point only. In the present paper, we propose some response-adaptive designs for two treatments based on Bayesian prediction for phase III clinical trials. Some properties are studied and numerically compared with some existing competitors. A real data set is used to illustrate the applicability of the proposed methodology where we redesign the experiment using parameters derived from the data set.

  10. The Dose Window for Radiation-Induced Protective Adaptive Responses

    PubMed Central

    Mitchel, Ronald E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive responses to low doses of low LET radiation occur in all organisms thus far examined, from single cell lower eukaryotes to mammals. These responses reduce the deleterious consequences of DNA damaging events, including radiation-induced or spontaneous cancer and non-cancer diseases in mice. The adaptive response in mammalian cells and mammals operates within a certain window that can be defined by upper and lower dose thresholds, typically between about 1 and 100 mGy for a single low dose rate exposure. However, these thresholds for protection are not a fixed function of total dose, but also vary with dose rate, additional radiation or non-radiation stressors, tissue type and p53 functional status. Exposures above the upper threshold are generally detrimental, while exposures below the lower threshold may or may not increase either cancer or non-cancer disease risk. PMID:20585438

  11. The stress-coping (mis)match hypothesis for nature × nurture interactions.

    PubMed

    Homberg, Judith R

    2012-01-13

    There is high consensus that stress-related disorders like depression are shaped by nature×nurture interactions. However, the complexity appears larger than envisaged and nature×nurture research is progressing too slowly. An important reason is that mainstream research is focussing on the idea that a combination of genotypic stress-sensitivity and stress exposure inevitably leads to maladaptive stress-coping responses, and thereby stress-related disorders. However, stress-coping responses can also be adaptive and adhere to the expected norm. Here I elaborate the 'environment' mismatch hypothesis proposed by Mathias Schmidt (Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 330-338, 2011) to the stress-coping (mis)match (SCM) hypothesis postulating that stress-coping responses-as programmed by nature×age-dependent nurture interactions-are adaptive when they match current stress conditions, but maladaptive when they mismatch current stress conditions. For instance, acquisition of an active stress-coping response during nurture may lead to the programmed release of active coping responses in current life. This is adaptive when current stress is escapable, but maladaptive when current stress is inescapable, leading to agitation. A model par example for nature×nurture interactions is the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism, which will be discussed in the framework of the SCM hypothesis. The potential role of the prefrontal-amygdala circuit and the therapeutic implications of the SCM hypothesis will also be discussed.

  12. An Exploratory Study of Differences in Self-Esteem, Kinship Social Support, and Coping Responses among African American ACOAs and Non-ACOAs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, J. Camille

    2007-01-01

    The author sought to identify differences in kinship social support, self-esteem, and coping responses between African American college students who identify themselves as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of nonalcoholics (non-ACOAs) at 2 separate universities. The results indicate that there were no differences in levels of…

  13. The Influence of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses on Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Witztum, Joseph L.; Lichtman, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Both the chronic development of atherosclerotic lesions and the acute changes in lesion phenotype that lead to clinical cardiovascular events are significantly influenced by the innate and adaptive immune responses to lipoprotein deposition and oxidation in the arterial wall. The rapid pace of discovery of mechanisms of immunologic recognition, effector functions, and regulation has significantly influenced the study of atherosclerosis, and our new knowledge is beginning to affect how we treat this ubiquitous disease. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how innate and adaptive immunity contribute to atherosclerosis, as well as therapeutic opportunities that arise from this knowledge. PMID:23937439

  14. Stress response in Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 under starvation conditions: adaptive reactions at a low population density.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Olga; Gorshkov, Vladimir; Daminova, Amina; Ageeva, Marina; Moleleki, Lucy N; Gogolev, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive reactions of plant pathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 under starvation conditions were studied. The main emphasis was given to the peculiarities of stress responses depending on the bacterial population densities. When bacteria were subjected to starvation at high population densities (10(7)-10(9) CFU ml(-1)), their adaptive reactions conformed to the conventional conception of bacterial adaptation related to autolysis of part of the population, specific modification of cell ultrastructure, activation of expression of stress responsive genes and acquiring cross protection against other stress factors. In contrast, at low initial population densities (10(3)-10(5) CFU ml(-1)), as described in our recent work, the cell density increased due to multiple cell division despite the absence of exogenous growth substrate. Here we present data that demonstrate that such unconventional behavior is part of a stress response, which provides increased stress tolerance while retaining virulence. Cell morphology and gene expression in high- and low-cell-density starving Pba cultures were compared. Our investigation demonstrates the existence of alternative adaptive strategies enabling pathogenic bacteria to cope with a variety of stress factors, including starvation, especially necessary when residing outside of their host.

  15. Interferon regulatory factor 3 in adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ysebrant de Lendonck, Laure; Martinet, Valerie; Goriely, Stanislas

    2014-10-01

    Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 plays a key role in innate responses against viruses. Indeed, activation of this transcription factor triggers the expression of type I interferons and downstream interferon-stimulated genes in infected cells. Recent evidences indicate that this pathway also modulates adaptive immune responses. This review focuses on the different mechanisms that are implicated in this process. We discuss the role of IRF3 within antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in the polarization of the cellular immune response and its implication in the pathogenesis of immune disorders.

  16. BYSTANDERS, ADAPTIVE RESPONSES AND GENOMIC INSTABILITY - POTENTIAL MODIFIERS OF LOW-DOSE CANCER RESPONSES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bystanders, Adaptive Responses and Genomic Instability -Potential Modifiers ofLow-Dose
    Cancer Responses
    .
    There has been a concerted effort in the field of radiation biology to better understand cellular
    responses that could have an impact on the estin1ation of cancer...

  17. Coping with historic drought in California rangelands: Developing a more effective institutional response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought response is widely varied, depending on both the characteristics of the drought and the ability of individual ranchers to respond. Assistance from institutions during drought has not typically considered preemptive, during and post-drought response as a strategic approach which recognizes b...

  18. Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor

    2004-11-01

    The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

  19. The adaptive response of jaw muscles to varying functional demands.

    PubMed

    Grünheid, Thorsten; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Korfage, Joannes A M; Zentner, Andrej; van Eijden, Theo M G J

    2009-12-01

    Jaw muscles are versatile entities that are able to adapt their anatomical characteristics, such as size, cross-sectional area, and fibre properties, to altered functional demands. The dynamic nature of muscle fibres allows them to change their phenotype to optimize the required contractile function while minimizing energy use. Changes in these anatomical parameters are associated with changes in neuromuscular activity as the pattern of muscle activation by the central nervous system plays an important role in the modulation of muscle properties. This review summarizes the adaptive response of jaw muscles to various stimuli or perturbations in the orofacial system and addresses general changes in muscles as they adapt, specific adaptive changes in jaw muscles under various physiologic and pathologic conditions, and their adaptive response to non-surgical and surgical therapeutic interventions. Although the jaw muscles are used concertedly in the masticatory system, their adaptive changes are not always uniform and vary with the nature, intensity, and duration of the stimulus. In general, stretch, increases neuromuscular activity, and resistance training result in hypertrophy, elicits increases in mitochondrial content and cross-sectional area of the fibres, and may change the fibre-type composition of the muscle towards a larger percentage of slow-type fibres. In contrast, changes in the opposite direction occur when neuromuscular activity is reduced, the muscle is immobilized in a shortened position, or paralysed. The broad range of stimuli that affect the properties of jaw muscles might help explain the large variability in the anatomical and physiological characteristics found among individuals, muscles, and muscle portions.

  20. The Protective Role of Religious Coping in Adolescents' Responses to Poverty and Sexual Decision-Making in Rural Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puffer, Eve S.; Watt, Melissa H.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we explored how adolescents in rural Kenya apply religious coping in sexual decision-making in the context of high rates of poverty and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 adolescents. One-third (13) reported religious coping related to economic stress, HIV, or sexual…

  1. Seed Pubescence and Shape Modulate Adaptive Responses to Fire Cues.

    PubMed

    Gómez-González, Susana; Ojeda, Fernando; Torres-Morales, Patricio; Palma, Jazmín E

    2016-01-01

    Post-fire recruitment by seeds is regarded as an adaptive response in fire-prone ecosystems. Nevertheless, little is known about which heritable seed traits are functional to the main signals of fire (heat and smoke), thus having the potential to evolve. Here, we explored whether three seed traits (pubescence, dormancy and shape) and fire regime modulate seed response to fire cues(heat and smoke). As a model study system, we used Helenium aromaticum (Asteraceae), a native annual forb from the Chilean matorral, where fires are anthropogenic. We related seed trait values with fitness responses (germination and survival) after exposure to heat-shock and smoke experimental treatments on seeds from 10 H. aromaticum wild populations. We performed a phenotypic selection experiment to examine the relationship of seed traits with post-treatment fitness within a population (adaptive hypothesis). We then explored whether fire frequency in natural habitats was associated with trait expression across populations, and with germination and survival responses to experimental fire-cues. We found that populations subjected to higher fire frequency had, in average, more rounded and pubescent seeds than populations from rarely burned areas. Populations with more rounded and pubescent seeds were more resistant to 80°C heat-shock and smoke treatments.There was correlated selection on seed traits: pubescent-rounded or glabrouscent-elongated seeds had the highest probability of germinating after heat-shock treatments. Seed pubescence and shape in H. aromaticum are heritable traits that modulate adaptive responses to fire. Our results provide new insights into the process of plant adaptation to fire and highlight the relevance of human-made fires as a strong evolutionary agent in the Anthropocene.

  2. Adaptive thermoregulation in endotherms may alter responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Boyles, Justin G; Seebacher, Frank; Smit, Ben; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2011-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major issues facing natural populations and thus a focus of recent research has been to predict the responses of organisms to these changes. Models are becoming more complex and now commonly include physiological traits of the organisms of interest. However, endothermic species have received less attention than have ectotherms in these mechanistic models. Further, it is not clear whether responses of endotherms to climate change are modified by variation in thermoregulatory characteristics associated with phenotypic plasticity and/or adaptation to past selective pressures. Here, we review the empirical data on thermal adaptation and acclimatization in endotherms and discuss how those factors may be important in models of responses to climate change. We begin with a discussion of why thermoregulation and thermal sensitivity at high body temperatures should be co-adapted. Importantly, we show that there is, in fact, considerable variation in the ability of endotherms to tolerate high body temperatures and/or high environmental temperatures, but a better understanding of this variation will likely be critical for predicting responses to future climatic scenarios. Next, we discuss why variation in thermoregulatory characteristics should be considered when modeling the effects of climate change on heterothermic endotherms. Finally, we review some biophysical and biochemical factors that will limit adaptation and acclimation in endotherms. We consider both long-term, directional climate change and short-term (but increasingly common) anomalies in climate such as extreme heat waves and we suggest areas of important future research relating to both our basic understanding of endothermic thermoregulation and the responses of endotherms to climate change.

  3. Seed Pubescence and Shape Modulate Adaptive Responses to Fire Cues

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-González, Susana; Ojeda, Fernando; Torres-Morales, Patricio; Palma, Jazmín E.

    2016-01-01

    Post-fire recruitment by seeds is regarded as an adaptive response in fire-prone ecosystems. Nevertheless, little is known about which heritable seed traits are functional to the main signals of fire (heat and smoke), thus having the potential to evolve. Here, we explored whether three seed traits (pubescence, dormancy and shape) and fire regime modulate seed response to fire cues(heat and smoke). As a model study system, we used Helenium aromaticum (Asteraceae), a native annual forb from the Chilean matorral, where fires are anthropogenic. We related seed trait values with fitness responses (germination and survival) after exposure to heat-shock and smoke experimental treatments on seeds from 10 H. aromaticum wild populations. We performed a phenotypic selection experiment to examine the relationship of seed traits with post-treatment fitness within a population (adaptive hypothesis). We then explored whether fire frequency in natural habitats was associated with trait expression across populations, and with germination and survival responses to experimental fire-cues. We found that populations subjected to higher fire frequency had, in average, more rounded and pubescent seeds than populations from rarely burned areas. Populations with more rounded and pubescent seeds were more resistant to 80°C heat-shock and smoke treatments.There was correlated selection on seed traits: pubescent-rounded or glabrouscent-elongated seeds had the highest probability of germinating after heat-shock treatments. Seed pubescence and shape in H. aromaticum are heritable traits that modulate adaptive responses to fire. Our results provide new insights into the process of plant adaptation to fire and highlight the relevance of human-made fires as a strong evolutionary agent in the Anthropocene. PMID:27438267

  4. Global relationships in fluctuation and response in adaptive evolution

    PubMed Central

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2015-01-01

    Cells change their internal state to adapt to environmental changes, and evolve in response to the new conditions. The phenotype changes first via adaptation in response to environmental changes, and then through mutational changes in the genomic sequence, followed by selection in evolution. Here, we analysed simulated adaptive evolution using a simple cell model consisting of thousands of intracellular components, and found that the changes in their concentrations by adaptation are proportional to those by evolution across all the components, where the proportion coefficient between the two agreed well with the change in the growth rate of a cell. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the phenotypic variance in concentrations of cellular components due to (non-genetic) noise and to genomic alternations is proportional across all components. This implies that the specific phenotypes that are highly evolvable were already given by non-genetic fluctuations. These global relationships in cellular states were also supported by phenomenological theory based on steady reproduction and transcriptome analysis of laboratory evolution in Escherichia coli. These findings demonstrate that a possible evolutionary change in phenotypic state is highly restricted. Our results provide a basis for the development of a quantitative theory of plasticity and robustness in phenotypic evolution. PMID:26202686

  5. Higher Plants in Space: Microgravity Perception, Response, and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hui Qiong; Han, Fei; Le, Jie

    2015-11-01

    Microgravity is a major abiotic stress in space. Its effects on plants may depend on the duration of exposure. We focused on two different phases of microgravity responses in space. When higher plants are exposed to short-term (seconds to hours) microgravity, such as on board parabolic flights and sounding rockets, their cells usually exhibit abiotic stress responses. For example, Ca 2+-, lipid-, and pH-signaling are rapidly enhanced, then the production of reactive oxygen species and other radicals increase dramatically along with changes in metabolism and auxin signaling. Under long-term (days to months) microgravity exposure, plants acclimatize to the stress by changing their metabolism and oxidative response and by enhancing other tropic responses. We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of regulatory networks at the molecular level of higher plants is needed to understand the molecular signals in the distinct phases of the microgravity response and adaptation.

  6. Direction of post-prandial ghrelin response associated with cortisol response, perceived stress and anxiety, and self-reported coping and hunger in obese women.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Marjana R; Franks, Susan; Caffrey, James

    2013-11-15

    The neurobiological mechanisms modulating stress may share common pathways with appetite regulation and consequent obesity. The orexigenic hormone, ghrelin may moderate anxiety and stress-related eating behavior. This study was designed to investigate humoral (ghrelin, cortisol) and psychological/behavioral characteristics (subjective hunger, anxiety, and stress; eating behavior; coping ability) among obese subjects in a fasting state and after eating a standard meal. Subjects included 18 obese but otherwise healthy adult women. Subjects were divided into two groups based on the relative direction of ghrelin response to a standard meal. A meal mediated suppression in serum ghrelin (post/pre<.94) was defined as a normal ghrelin response (NG) (n=9) and failure to suppress (post/pre>1.0) was designated as faulty ghrelin response (FG) (n=9). Ghrelin and cortisol responses were correlated, r(18)=0.558, p=.016. FG subjects had lower ratings of coping ability [t(2,16)=2.437, p=.027 and higher ratings of hunger cues in the expected direction [t(2,16)=-2.061, p=.056] compared to NG subjects. Meal mediated declines in subjective hunger were observed for both NG [t(1,8)=4.141, p=.003] and FG [t(1,8)=2.718, p=.026]. NG also showed declines in subjective anxiety [t(1,8)=2.977, p=.018], subjective stress [t(1,8)=2.321, p=.049], and cortisol [t(1,8)=4.214, p=.003]. In conclusion, changes in ghrelin, cortisol and selected psychological and behavioral indices are closely associated with one another suggesting that ghrelin may influence stress related eating and thus, the consequent observed relationship among stress, mood and obesity.

  7. Landowner response to wildfire risk: Adaptation, mitigation or doing nothing.

    PubMed

    Gan, Jianbang; Jarrett, Adam; Johnson Gaither, Cassandra

    2015-08-15

    Wildfire has brought about ecological, economic, and social consequences that engender human responses in many parts of the world. How to respond to wildfire risk is a common challenge across the globe particularly in areas where lands are controlled by many small private owners because effective wildfire prevention and protection require coordinated efforts of neighboring stakeholders. We explore (i) wildfire response strategies adopted by family forestland owners in the southern United States, one of the most important and productive forest regions in the world, through a landowner survey; and (ii) linkages between the responses of these landowners and their characteristics via multinomial logistic regression. We find that landowners used diverse strategies to respond to wildfire risk, with the most popular responses being "doing nothing" and combined adaptation and mitigation, followed by adaptation or mitigation alone. Landowners who had lost properties to wildfire, lived on their forestlands, had a forest management plan, and were better educated were more likely to proactively respond to wildfire risk. Our results indicate the possibility to enhance the effectiveness of collective action of wildfire risk response by private forestland owners and to coordinate wildfire response with forest conservation and certification efforts. These findings shed new light on engaging private landowners in wildfire management in the study region and beyond.

  8. Adaptive Responses to Tissue Injury: Role of Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Anupam; Bolisetty, Subhashini

    2013-01-01

    Tissue injury may result as a consequence of a physical, chemical, or biological insult. Such injury recruits an adaptive response to restore homeostasis and protect against further injury. One of the most prompt protective and adaptive responses by all tissues is the robust activation of the highly inducible, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-apoptotic protein, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1, a microsomal enzyme, catalyzes the breakdown of pro-oxidant heme, which is released from heme proteins to equimolar quantities of iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin. Biliverdin is converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. The beneficial effects of HO-1 expression are not merely due to heme degradation but are also attributed to the cytoprotective properties of the byproducts of the reaction. Manipulation of this enzymatic system in a myriad of disease models has provided substantial evidence to support its role as a cytoprotective enzyme and is therefore an emerging therapeutic molecule. PMID:23874015

  9. Biological Bases for Radiation Adaptive Responses in the Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Bobby R.; Lin, Yong; Wilder, Julie; Belinsky, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Our main research objective was to determine the biological bases for low-dose, radiation-induced adaptive responses in the lung and use the knowledge gained to produce an improved risk model for radiation-induced lung cancer that accounts for activated natural protection, genetic influences, and the role of epigenetic regulation (epiregulation). Currently, low-dose radiation risk assessment is based on the linear-no-threshold hypothesis which now is known to be unsupported by a large volume of data.

  10. Plasticity in reproduction and growth among 52 range-wide populations of a Mediterranean conifer: adaptive responses to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Santos-Del-Blanco, L; Bonser, S P; Valladares, F; Chambel, M R; Climent, J

    2013-09-01

    A plastic response towards enhanced reproduction is expected in stressful environments, but it is assumed to trade off against vegetative growth and efficiency in the use of available resources deployed in reproduction [reproductive efficiency (RE)]. Evidence supporting this expectation is scarce for plants, particularly for long-lived species. Forest trees such as Mediterranean pines provide ideal models to study the adaptive value of allocation to reproduction vs. vegetative growth given their among-population differentiation for adaptive traits and their remarkable capacity to cope with dry and low-fertility environments. We studied 52 range-wide Pinus halepensis populations planted into two environmentally contrasting sites during their initial reproductive stage. We investigated the effect of site, population and their interaction on vegetative growth, threshold size for female reproduction, reproductive-vegetative size relationships and RE. We quantified correlations among traits and environmental variables to identify allocation trade-offs and ecotypic trends. Genetic variation for plasticity was high for vegetative growth, whereas it was nonsignificant for reproduction. Size-corrected reproduction was enhanced in the more stressful site supporting the expectation for adverse conditions to elicit plastic responses in reproductive allometry. However, RE was unrelated with early reproductive investment. Our results followed theoretical predictions and support that phenotypic plasticity for reproduction is adaptive under stressful environments. Considering expectations of increased drought in the Mediterranean, we hypothesize that phenotypic plasticity together with natural selection on reproductive traits will play a relevant role in the future adaptation of forest tree species.

  11. Adaptive immune response during hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Larrubia, Juan Ramón; Moreno-Cubero, Elia; Lokhande, Megha Uttam; García-Garzón, Silvia; Lázaro, Alicia; Miquel, Joaquín; Perna, Cristian; Sanz-de-Villalobos, Eduardo

    2014-04-07

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects about 170 million people worldwide and it is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV is a hepatotropic non-cytopathic virus able to persist in a great percentage of infected hosts due to its ability to escape from the immune control. Liver damage and disease progression during HCV infection are driven by both viral and host factors. Specifically, adaptive immune response carries out an essential task in controlling non-cytopathic viruses because of its ability to recognize infected cells and to destroy them by cytopathic mechanisms and to eliminate the virus by non-cytolytic machinery. HCV is able to impair this response by several means such as developing escape mutations in neutralizing antibodies and in T cell receptor viral epitope recognition sites and inducing HCV-specific cytotoxic T cell anergy and deletion. To impair HCV-specific T cell reactivity, HCV affects effector T cell regulation by modulating T helper and Treg response and by impairing the balance between positive and negative co-stimulatory molecules and between pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins. In this review, the role of adaptive immune response in controlling HCV infection and the HCV mechanisms to evade this response are reviewed.

  12. Adaptive Changes of the Insig1/SREBP1/SCD1 Set Point Help Adipose Tissue to Cope With Increased Storage Demands of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carobbio, Stefania; Hagen, Rachel M.; Lelliott, Christopher J.; Slawik, Marc; Medina-Gomez, Gema; Tan, Chong-Yew; Sicard, Audrey; Atherton, Helen J.; Barbarroja, Nuria; Bjursell, Mikael; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Virtue, Sam; Tuthill, Antoinette; Lefai, Etienne; Laville, Martine; Wu, Tingting; Considine, Robert V.; Vidal, Hubert; Langin, Dominique; Oresic, Matej; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Griffin, Julian L.; Sethi, Jaswinder K.; López, Miguel; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity imposes unprecedented challenges on human adipose tissue (WAT) storage capacity that may benefit from adaptive mechanisms to maintain adipocyte functionality. Here, we demonstrate that changes in the regulatory feedback set point control of Insig1/SREBP1 represent an adaptive response that preserves WAT lipid homeostasis in obese and insulin-resistant states. In our experiments, we show that Insig1 mRNA expression decreases in WAT from mice with obesity-associated insulin resistance and from morbidly obese humans and in in vitro models of adipocyte insulin resistance. Insig1 downregulation is part of an adaptive response that promotes the maintenance of SREBP1 maturation and facilitates lipogenesis and availability of appropriate levels of fatty acid unsaturation, partially compensating the antilipogenic effect associated with insulin resistance. We describe for the first time the existence of this adaptive mechanism in WAT, which involves Insig1/SREBP1 and preserves the degree of lipid unsaturation under conditions of obesity-induced insulin resistance. These adaptive mechanisms contribute to maintain lipid desaturation through preferential SCD1 regulation and facilitate fat storage in WAT, despite on-going metabolic stress. PMID:23919961

  13. Universal response-adaptation relation in bacterial chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Krembel, Anna K; Neumann, Silke; Sourjik, Victor

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial strategy of chemotaxis relies on temporal comparisons of chemical concentrations, where the probability of maintaining the current direction of swimming is modulated by changes in stimulation experienced during the recent past. A short-term memory required for such comparisons is provided by the adaptation system, which operates through the activity-dependent methylation of chemotaxis receptors. Previous theoretical studies have suggested that efficient navigation in gradients requires a well-defined adaptation rate, because the memory time scale needs to match the duration of straight runs made by bacteria. Here we demonstrate that the chemotaxis pathway of Escherichia coli does indeed exhibit a universal relation between the response magnitude and adaptation time which does not depend on the type of chemical ligand. Our results suggest that this alignment of adaptation rates for different ligands is achieved through cooperative interactions among chemoreceptors rather than through fine-tuning of methylation rates for individual receptors. This observation illustrates a yet-unrecognized function of receptor clustering in bacterial chemotaxis.

  14. Stress and adaptation responses to repeated acute acceleration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Study in which groups of adult male chickens (single-comb white leghorn) were exposed daily to acceleration (centrifugation) of 2 or 3 G for 10 min, 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 hr (continuously), or 0 time (controls). After approximately five months of this intermittent treatment (training), the birds were exposed to continuous accelerations of the same G force (intensity). The degree of stress and adaptation of each bird was determined by survival and relative lymphocyte count criteria. Intermittent training exposures of 2 G developed levels of adaptation in birds directly proportional to the duration of their daily exposure. Intermittent training periods at 3 G, however, produced a physiological deterioration in birds receiving daily exposures of 8 hr or more. Adaptive benefits were found only in the 1- and 4-hr-daily intermittent 3-G exposure groups. Exposure to 3 G produced an immediate stress response as indicated by a low relative lymphocyte count which returned to control (preexposed) values prior to the next daily acceleration period in the 10-min, 1-hr, and 4-hr groups. This daily recovery period from stress appeared to be necessary for adaptation as opposed to deterioration for the more severe environmental (3 G) alteration.

  15. Bayesian response-adaptive designs for basket trials.

    PubMed

    Ventz, Steffen; Barry, William T; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Trippa, Lorenzo

    2017-02-17

    We develop a general class of response-adaptive Bayesian designs using hierarchical models, and provide open source software to implement them. Our work is motivated by recent master protocols in oncology, where several treatments are investigated simultaneously in one or multiple disease types, and treatment efficacy is expected to vary across biomarker-defined subpopulations. Adaptive trials such as I-SPY-2 (Barker et al., 2009) and BATTLE (Zhou et al., 2008) are special cases within our framework. We discuss the application of our adaptive scheme to two distinct research goals. The first is to identify a biomarker subpopulation for which a therapy shows evidence of treatment efficacy, and to exclude other subpopulations for which such evidence does not exist. This leads to a subpopulation-finding design. The second is to identify, within biomarker-defined subpopulations, a set of cancer types for which an experimental therapy is superior to the standard-of-care. This goal leads to a subpopulation-stratified design. Using simulations constructed to faithfully represent ongoing cancer sequencing projects, we quantify the potential gains of our proposed designs relative to conventional non-adaptive designs.

  16. Adaptive Responses to Prochloraz Exposure That Alter Dose-Response and Time-Course Behaviors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose response and time-course (DRTC) are, along with exposure, the major determinants of health risk. Adaptive changes within exposed organisms in response to environmental stress are common, and alter DRTC behaviors to minimize the effects caused by stressors. In this project, ...

  17. Nutritional strategies to modulate the adaptive response to endurance training.

    PubMed

    Hawley, John A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, advances in molecular biology have allowed scientists to elucidate how endurance exercise training stimulates skeletal muscle remodeling (i.e. promotes mitochondrial biogenesis). A growing field of interest directly arising from our understanding of the molecular bases of training adaptation is how nutrient availability can alter the regulation of many contraction-induced events in muscle in response to endurance exercise. Acutely manipulating substrate availability can exert profound effects on muscle energy stores and patterns of fuel metabolism during exercise, as well as many processes activating gene expression and cell signaling. Accordingly, such interventions when repeated over weeks and months have the potential to modulate numerous adaptive processes in skeletal muscle that ultimately drive the phenotype-specific characteristics observed in highly trained athletes. In this review, the molecular and cellular events that occur in skeletal muscle during and after endurance exercise are discussed and evidence provided to demonstrate that nutrient availability plays an important role in modulating many of the adaptive responses to training. Emphasis is on human studies that have determined the regulatory role of muscle glycogen availability on cell metabolism, endurance training capacity and performance.

  18. Conceptualization and Measurement of Coping During Adolescence: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review was to examine the conceptualization and measurement of coping in adolescent research. Design A review of the literature published and abstracted in four scientific databases was undertaken between July 2008 and June 2009 with the following key words: adolescent(s), cope/coping, stress(ors), and adaptation/psychological. Methods A total of 367 articles were initially identified, and review of published abstracts yielded 104 empirical articles to retrieve and examine more closely for inclusion. Criteria for inclusion in the review were that the study (a) measured coping, (b) presented original data, (c) primarily targeted adolescent participants, (d) was reported in English, and (e) was published between 1998 and June 2009. Fifty-nine subsequent articles were organized using a matrix approach that facilitated cross-study comparisons of purpose, sample, and dependent variables. Findings Fewer than half of the studies reviewed included a specific statement defining coping. Instead, many authors described coping in the context of stress response by identifying particular types or ways of coping or naming specific coping strategies used. The theoretical frameworks guiding examination of coping varied across studies. A range of measures, congruent with adolescent developmental processes, were used to assess adolescent coping. A wide range of stress-related risks or conditions were examined, including psychological stressors such as eating disorders, suicidal ideation, and depression; physical stressors such as chronic illness, HIV infection, sports participation, violence, or sexual abuse; familial stressors such as domestic violence or interparental conflict; social stressors such as romantic relationships or difficulties in settings such as school, prison, or a homeless shelter; and societal stressors such as discrimination. Conclusions Coping is an important construct in understanding how adolescents react to the extensive stressors

  19. The protective role of religious coping in adolescents’ responses to poverty and sexual decision-making in rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Melissa H.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A.; Broverman, Sherryl A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we explored how adolescents in rural Kenya apply religious coping in sexual decision-making in the context of high rates of poverty and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 adolescents. One-third (13) reported religious coping related to economic stress, HIV, or sexual decision-making; the majority (29) reported religious coping with these or other stressors. Adolescents reported praying for God to partner with them to engage in positive behaviors, praying for strength to resist unwanted behaviors, and passive strategies characterized by waiting for God to provide resources or protection from HIV. Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa may benefit from HIV prevention interventions that integrate and build upon their use of religious coping. PMID:22505794

  20. The protective role of religious coping in adolescents' responses to poverty and sexual decision-making in rural Kenya.

    PubMed

    Puffer, Eve S; Watt, Melissa H; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Ogwang-Odhiambo, Rose A; Broverman, Sherryl A

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we explored how adolescents in rural Kenya apply religious coping in sexual decision-making in the context of high rates of poverty and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 adolescents. One-third (13) reported religious coping related to economic stress, HIV, or sexual decision-making; the majority (29) reported religious coping with these or other stressors. Adolescents reported praying for God to partner with them to engage in positive behaviors, praying for strength to resist unwanted behaviors, and passive strategies characterized by waiting for God to provide resources or protection from HIV. Adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa may benefit from HIV prevention interventions that integrate and build upon their use of religious coping.

  1. Imbalanced adaptive responses associated with microsatellite instability in cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Loilome, Watcharin; Kadsanit, Sasithorn; Muisook, Kanha; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Namwat, Nisana; Techasen, Anchalee; Puapairoj, Anucha; Khuntikeo, Narong; Phonjit, Pichai

    2017-01-01

    The adaptive response of the genome protection mechanism occurs in cells when exposed to genotoxic stress due to the overproduction of free radicals via inflammation and infection. In such circumstances, cells attempt to maintain health via several genome protection mechanisms. However, evidence is increasing that this adaptive response may have deleterious effect; a reduction of antioxidant enzymes and/or imbalance in the DNA repair system generates microsatellite instability (MSI), which has procarcinogenic implications. Therefore, the present study hypothesized that MSI caused by imbalanced responses of antioxidant enzymes and/or DNA repair enzymes as a result of oxidative/nitrative stress arising from the inflammatory response is involved in liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinogenesis. The present study investigated this hypothesis by identifying the expression patterns of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT), and DNA repair enzymes, including alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG), apurinic endonuclease (APE) and DNA polymerase β (DNA pol β). In addition, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, SOD2 and CAT, were examined in human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) tissues using immunohistochemical staining. MSI was also analyzed in human CCA tissues. The resulting data demonstrated that the expression levels of the SOD2 and CAT enzymes decreased. The activities of SOD2 and CAT decreased significantly in the CCA tissues, compared with the hepatic tissue of cadaveric donors. In the DNA repairing enzymes, it was found that the expression levels of AAG and DNA pol β enzymes increased, whereas the expression of APE decreased. In addition, it was found that MSI-high was present in 69% of patients, whereas MSI-low was present in 31% of patients, with no patients classified as having microsatellite stability. In the patients, a MSI-high was correlated with poor prognosis, indicated by a shorter survival rate. These results

  2. Response and adaptation of bone cells to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lifang; Li, Runzhi; Su, Peihong; Arfat, Yasir; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-11-01

    Bone loss induced by microgravity during space flight is one of the most deleterious factors on astronaut's health and is mainly attributed to an unbalance in the process of bone remodeling. Studies from the space microgravity have demonstrated that the disruption of bone remodeling is associated with the changes of four main functional bone cells, including osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, and mesenchymal stem cells. For the limited availability, expensive costs and confined experiment conditions for conducting space microgravity studies, the mechanism of bone cells response and adaptation to microgravity is still unclear. Therefore, some ground-based simulated microgravity methods have been developed to investigate the bioeffects of microgravity and the mechanisms. Here, based on our studies and others, we review how bone cells (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and mesenchymal stem cells) respond and adapt to simulated microgravity.

  3. Introduction to "coping with environmental risk and uncertainty: individual and cultural responses".

    PubMed

    Ember, Carol R

    2013-03-01

    The papers in this special issue of Human Nature collectively consider societal and individual responses to a wide variety of environmental and social risks. The first paper considers societal level effects of pathogen risk on collectivism and conformity, avoidance of outsiders, and in-group loyalty in a worldwide cross-cultural sample. The second deals with societal-level effects of resource unpredictability on the nature and conduct of warfare in eastern Africa. The third deals with effects of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes and mediating factors on individual perceptions of risk in Mexico and Ecuador. The final paper deals with effects of various types of father absence on women's reproductive life histories in Bangladesh.

  4. Adaptive Patterns of Stress Responsivity: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Del Giudice, Marco; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Ellis, Bruce J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive calibration model (ACM) is an evolutionary–developmental theory of individual differences in stress responsivity. In this article, we tested some key predictions of the ACM in a middle childhood sample (N = 256). Measures of autonomic nervous system activity across the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches validated the 4-pattern taxonomy of the ACM via finite mixture modeling. Moreover, the 4 patterns of responsivity showed the predicted associations with family stress levels but no association with measures of ecological stress. Our hypotheses concerning sex differences in responsivity were only partly confirmed. This preliminary study provides initial support for the key predictions of the ACM and highlights some of the methodological challenges that will need to be considered in future research on this topic. PMID:22148947

  5. Exposure of two Eutrema salsugineum (Thellungiella salsuginea) accessions to water deficits reveals different coping strategies in response to drought.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Mitchell J R; Dedrick, Jeff; Ashton, Claire; Sung, Wilson W L; Champigny, Marc J; Weretilnyk, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Eutrema salsugineum is an extremophile related to Arabidopsis. Accessions from Yukon, Canada and Shandong, China, were evaluated for their tolerance to water deficits. Plants were exposed to two periods of water deficit separated by an interval of re-watering and recovery. All plants took the same time to wilt during the first drought exposure but Yukon plants took 1 day longer than Shandong plants following the second drought treatment. Following re-watering and turgor recovery, solute potentials of Shandong leaves returned to predrought values while those of Yukon leaves were lower than predrought levels consistent with having undergone osmotic adjustment. Polar metabolites profiled in re-watered plants showed that different metabolites are accumulated by Yukon and Shandong plants recovering from a water deficit with glucose more abundant in Yukon and fructose in Shandong leaves. The drought-responsive expression of dehydrin genes RAB18, ERD1, RD29A and RD22 showed greater changes in transcript abundance in Yukon relative to Shandong leaves during both water deficits and recovery with the greatest difference in expression appearing during the second drought. We propose that the initial exposure of Yukon plants to drought renders them more resilient to water loss during a subsequent water deficit leading to delayed wilting. Yukon plants also established a high leaf water content and increased specific leaf area during the second deficit. Shandong plants undergoing the same treatment regime do not show the same beneficial drought tolerance responses and likely use drought avoidance to cope with water deficits.

  6. Improving crop simulation models to cope with crop responses to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizaso, Jon I.; Boote, Keneth J.; Jones, James W.; Tesfaye, Kassahum; Di Matteo, Javier; Koo, Jawoo; Cenacchi, Nicola; Andrade, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    One of the most common risks to crop production is drought. Many National and International efforts are devoted to early forecast and management of drought. However, crop simulation models used to assess the impact of soil water deficit on crop growth, development, and yield many times are not sufficiently accurate. We modified CERES-Maize, one of the maize simulation models in DSSAT v4.5, to incorporate the anthesis-silking interval (ASI). Under stressful conditions, especially under drought, the emergence of silks in maize is delayed respect to pollen shed, resulting in reduced pollinated female flowers and therefore, decreased grain yield. To simulate the ASI component, two new cultivar-specific parameters are required controlling the non-stress ASI response, and the genotype sensitivity to drought. The new model was tested against field data collected under stress and non-stress conditions in Argentina and Zimbabwe, yielding good results. We compared the results of rainfed maize simulations using the CERES-Maize model equipped with and without the ASI component showing major differences in some drought-prone areas. The new model will be a useful tool to better assess the impact of drought on maize production, and the potential gains from drought-tolerant cultivars.

  7. Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses.

    PubMed

    Ferl, Robert J; Schuerger, Andrew C; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Gurley, William B; Corey, Kenneth; Bucklin, Ray

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that it may be impossible to attain Earth normal atmospheric pressures in orbital, lunar, or Martian greenhouses, simply because the construction materials do not exist to meet the extraordinary constraints imposed by balancing high engineering requirements against high lift costs. This equation essentially dictates that NASA have in place the capability to grow plants at reduced atmospheric pressure. Yet current understanding of plant growth at low pressures is limited to just a few experiments and relatively rudimentary assessments of plant vigor and growth. The tools now exist, however, to make rapid progress toward understanding the fundamental nature of plant responses and adaptations to low pressures, and to develop strategies for mitigating detrimental effects by engineering the growth conditions or by engineering the plants themselves. The genomes of rice and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have recently been sequenced in their entirety, and public sector and commercial DNA chips are becoming available such that thousands of genes can be assayed at once. A fundamental understanding of plant responses and adaptation to low pressures can now be approached and translated into procedures and engineering considerations to enhance plant growth at low atmospheric pressures. In anticipation of such studies, we present here the background arguments supporting these contentions, as well as informed speculation about the kinds of molecular physiological responses that might be expected of plants in low-pressure environments.

  8. Plant adaptation to low atmospheric pressures: potential molecular responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert J.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Paul, Anna-Lisa; Gurley, William B.; Corey, Kenneth; Bucklin, Ray

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing realization that it may be impossible to attain Earth normal atmospheric pressures in orbital, lunar, or Martian greenhouses, simply because the construction materials do not exist to meet the extraordinary constraints imposed by balancing high engineering requirements against high lift costs. This equation essentially dictates that NASA have in place the capability to grow plants at reduced atmospheric pressure. Yet current understanding of plant growth at low pressures is limited to just a few experiments and relatively rudimentary assessments of plant vigor and growth. The tools now exist, however, to make rapid progress toward understanding the fundamental nature of plant responses and adaptations to low pressures, and to develop strategies for mitigating detrimental effects by engineering the growth conditions or by engineering the plants themselves. The genomes of rice and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have recently been sequenced in their entirety, and public sector and commercial DNA chips are becoming available such that thousands of genes can be assayed at once. A fundamental understanding of plant responses and adaptation to low pressures can now be approached and translated into procedures and engineering considerations to enhance plant growth at low atmospheric pressures. In anticipation of such studies, we present here the background arguments supporting these contentions, as well as informed speculation about the kinds of molecular physiological responses that might be expected of plants in low-pressure environments.

  9. Aeroelastic Response of the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Transtition Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Claudia Y.; Spivey, Natalie D.; Lung, Shun-fat

    2016-01-01

    The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge demonstrator was a joint task under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in partnership with the Air Force Research Laboratory and FlexSys, Inc. (Ann Arbor, Michigan), chartered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration to develop advanced technologies that enable environmentally friendly aircraft, such as continuous mold-line technologies. The Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge demonstrator encompassed replacing the Fowler flaps on the SubsoniC Aircraft Testbed, a Gulfstream III (Gulfstream Aerospace, Savannah, Georgia) aircraft, with control surfaces developed by FlexSys, Inc., a pair of uniquely-designed, unconventional flaps to be used as lifting surfaces during flight-testing to substantiate their structural effectiveness. The unconventional flaps consisted of a main flap section and two transition sections, inboard and outboard, which demonstrated the continuous mold-line technology. Unique characteristics of the transition sections provided a challenge to the airworthiness assessment for this part of the structure. A series of build-up tests and analyses were conducted to ensure the data required to support the airworthiness assessment were acquired and applied accurately. The transition sections were analyzed both as individual components and as part of the flight-test article assembly. Instrumentation was installed in the transition sections based on the analysis to best capture the in-flight aeroelastic response. Flight-testing was conducted and flight data were acquired to validate the analyses. This paper documents the details of the aeroelastic assessment and in-flight response of the transition sections of the unconventional Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge flaps.

  10. Neural Mechanisms Behind Identification of Leptokurtic Noise and Adaptive Behavioral Response

    PubMed Central

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Bossaerts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale human interaction through, for example, financial markets causes ceaseless random changes in outcome variability, producing frequent and salient outliers that render the outcome distribution more peaked than the Gaussian distribution, and with longer tails. Here, we study how humans cope with this evolutionary novel leptokurtic noise, focusing on the neurobiological mechanisms that allow the brain, 1) to recognize the outliers as noise and 2) to regulate the control necessary for adaptive response. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging, while participants tracked a target whose movements were affected by leptokurtic noise. After initial overreaction and insufficient subsequent correction, participants improved performance significantly. Yet, persistently long reaction times pointed to continued need for vigilance and control. We ran a contrasting treatment where outliers reflected permanent moves of the target, as in traditional mean-shift paradigms. Importantly, outliers were equally frequent and salient. There, control was superior and reaction time was faster. We present a novel reinforcement learning model that fits observed choices better than the Bayes-optimal model. Only anterior insula discriminated between the 2 types of outliers. In both treatments, outliers initially activated an extensive bottom-up attention and belief network, followed by sustained engagement of the fronto-parietal control network. PMID:26850528

  11. Protein phosphorylation and regulation of adaptive responses in bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Stock, J B; Ninfa, A J; Stock, A M

    1989-01-01

    Bacteria continuously adapt to changes in their environment. Responses are largely controlled by signal transduction systems that contain two central enzymatic components, a protein kinase that uses adenosine triphosphate to phosphorylate itself at a histidine residue and a response regulator that accepts phosphoryl groups from the kinase. This conserved phosphotransfer chemistry is found in a wide range of bacterial species and operates in diverse systems to provide different regulatory outputs. The histidine kinases are frequently membrane receptor proteins that respond to environmental signals and phosphorylate response regulators that control transcription. Four specific regulatory systems are discussed in detail: chemotaxis in response to attractant and repellent stimuli (Che), regulation of gene expression in response to nitrogen deprivation (Ntr), control of the expression of enzymes and transport systems that assimilate phosphorus (Pho), and regulation of outer membrane porin expression in response to osmolarity and other culture conditions (Omp). Several additional systems are also examined, including systems that control complex developmental processes such as sporulation and fruiting-body formation, systems required for virulent infections of plant or animal host tissues, and systems that regulate transport and metabolism. Finally, an attempt is made to understand how cross-talk between parallel phosphotransfer pathways can provide a global regulatory curcuitry. PMID:2556636

  12. Biological and Theoretical Studies of Adaptive Networks: The Conditioned Response.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-30

    Eichenbaum , H. and Butter, C.M., The role of frontalcortex-reticular interactions in performance and extinction of Recordings of multiple-unit activity in...such a way that they are appropriate to the ’task demands’ imposed by training parameters (Levey and Martin , 1968). The main evidence for this adaptive...8217 Science 237, 1445-1452. 12. Levey, A. B. and Martin , I. (1968) ’Shape of the conditioned eyelid response,’ Psychological Review 75, 398-408. 13. Millenson

  13. Deciphering the Adaptive Immune Response to Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Weinstein JN, Collisson EA, Mills GB, Shaw KR, Ozenberger BA, Ellrott K, Shmulevich I, Sander C, Stuart JM. The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis...Holt, Ph.D., John Webb Ph.D., Peter Watson, M.D. Title of Project: Deciphering the Adaptive Immune Response to Ovarian Cancer INTRODUCTION...Cherniack AD, Akbani R, Liu Y, Shen H, Robertson AG, Pashtan I, Shen R, Benz CC, Yau C, Laird PW, Ding L, Zhang W, Mills GB, Kucherlapati R, Mardis ER

  14. Nitric oxide evokes an adaptive response to oxidative stress by arresting respiration.

    PubMed

    Husain, Maroof; Bourret, Travis J; McCollister, Bruce D; Jones-Carson, Jessica; Laughlin, James; Vázquez-Torres, Andrés

    2008-03-21

    Aerobic metabolism generates biologically challenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the endogenous autooxidation of components of the electron transport chain (ETC). Basal levels of oxidative stress can dramatically rise upon activation of the NADPH oxidase-dependent respiratory burst. To minimize ROS toxicity, prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms express a battery of low-molecular-weight thiol scavengers, a legion of detoxifying catalases, peroxidases, and superoxide dismutases, as well as a variety of repair systems. We present herein blockage of bacterial respiration as a novel strategy that helps the intracellular pathogen Salmonella survive extreme oxidative stress conditions. A Salmonella strain bearing mutations in complex I NADH dehydrogenases is refractory to the early NADPH oxidase-dependent antimicrobial activity of IFNgamma-activated macrophages. The ability of NADH-rich, complex I-deficient Salmonella to survive oxidative stress is associated with resistance to peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Inhibition of respiration with nitric oxide (NO) also triggered a protective adaptive response against oxidative stress. Expression of the NDH-II dehydrogenase decreases NADH levels, thereby abrogating resistance of NO-adapted Salmonella to H(2)O(2). NADH antagonizes the hydroxyl radical (OH(.)) generated in classical Fenton chemistry or spontaneous decomposition of peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), while fueling AhpCF alkylhydroperoxidase. Together, these findings identify the accumulation of NADH following the NO-mediated inhibition of Salmonella's ETC as a novel antioxidant strategy. NO-dependent respiratory arrest may help mitochondria and a plethora of organisms cope with oxidative stress engendered in situations as diverse as aerobic respiration, ischemia reperfusion, and inflammation.

  15. Glassy Dynamics in the Adaptive Immune Response Prevents Autoimmune Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Earl, David J.; Deem, Michael W.

    2005-09-01

    The immune system normally protects the human host against death by infection. However, when an immune response is mistakenly directed at self-antigens, autoimmune disease can occur. We describe a model of protein evolution to simulate the dynamics of the adaptive immune response to antigens. Computer simulations of the dynamics of antibody evolution show that different evolutionary mechanisms, namely, gene segment swapping and point mutation, lead to different evolved antibody binding affinities. Although a combination of gene segment swapping and point mutation can yield a greater affinity to a specific antigen than point mutation alone, the antibodies so evolved are highly cross reactive and would cause autoimmune disease, and this is not the chosen dynamics of the immune system. We suggest that in the immune system’s search for antibodies, a balance has evolved between binding affinity and specificity.

  16. Innate and adaptive immune responses in neurodegeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    Amor, Sandra; Woodroofe, M Nicola

    2014-03-01

    Emerging evidence suggests important roles of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS) in neurodegenerative diseases. In this special review issue, five leading researchers discuss the evidence for the beneficial as well as the detrimental impact of the immune system in the CNS in disorders including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and CNS injury. Several common pathological mechanisms emerge indicating that these pathways could provide important targets for manipulating the immune reposes in neurodegenerative disorders. The articles highlight the role of the traditional resident immune cell of the CNS - the microglia - as well as the role of other glia astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in immune responses and their interplay with other immune cells including, mast cells, T cells and B cells. Future research should lead to new discoveries which highlight targets for therapeutic interventions which may be applicable to a range of neurodegenerative diseases.

  17. Glycerol stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Cellular responses and evolved adaptations.

    PubMed

    Mattenberger, Florian; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Hallsworth, John E; Fares, Mario A

    2017-03-01

    Glycerol synthesis is key to central metabolism and stress biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet the cellular adjustments needed to respond and adapt to glycerol stress are little understood. Here, we determined impacts of acute and chronic exposures to glycerol stress in S. cerevisiae. Glycerol stress can result from an increase of glycerol concentration in the medium due to the S. cerevisiae fermenting activity or other metabolic activities. Acute glycerol-stress led to a 50% decline in growth rate and altered transcription of more than 40% of genes. The increased genetic diversity in S. cerevisiae population, which had evolved in the standard nutrient medium for hundreds of generations, led to an increase in growth rate and altered transcriptome when such population was transferred to stressful media containing a high concentration of glycerol; 0.41 M (0.990 water activity). Evolution of S. cerevisiae populations during a 10-day period in the glycerol-containing medium led to transcriptome changes and readjustments to improve control of glycerol flux across the membrane, regulation of cell cycle, and more robust stress response; and a remarkable increase of growth rate under glycerol stress. Most of the observed regulatory changes arose in duplicated genes. These findings elucidate the physiological mechanisms, which underlie glycerol-stress response, and longer-term adaptations, in S. cerevisiae; they also have implications for enigmatic aspects of the ecology of this otherwise well-characterized yeast.

  18. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Fungal Products and Allergens.

    PubMed

    Williams, P Brock; Barnes, Charles S; Portnoy, Jay M

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fungi and their products is practically ubiquitous, yet most of this is of little consequence to most healthy individuals. This is because there are a number of elaborate mechanisms to deal with these exposures. Most of these mechanisms are designed to recognize and neutralize such exposures. However, in understanding these mechanisms it has become clear that many of them overlap with our ability to respond to disruptions in tissue function caused by trauma or deterioration. These responses involve the innate and adaptive immune systems usually through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and the production of cytokines that are considered inflammatory accompanied by other factors that can moderate these reactivities. Depending on different genetic backgrounds and the extent of activation of these mechanisms, various pathologies with resulting symptoms can ensue. Complicating this is the fact that these mechanisms can bias toward type 2 innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, to understand what we refer to as allergens from fungal sources, we must first understand how they influence these innate mechanisms. In doing so it has become clear that many of the proteins that are described as fungal allergens are essentially homologues of our own proteins that signal or cause tissue disruptions.

  19. Autophagy is an adaptive response in desmin-related cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tannous, Paul; Zhu, Hongxin; Johnstone, Janet L.; Shelton, John M.; Rajasekaran, Namakkal S.; Benjamin, Ivor J.; Nguyen, Lan; Gerard, Robert D.; Levine, Beth; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    A missense mutation in the αB-crystallin (CryAB) gene triggers a severe form of desmin-related cardiomyopathy (DRCM) characterized by accumulation of misfolded proteins. We hypothesized that autophagy increases in response to protein aggregates and that this autophagic activity is adaptive. Mutant CryAB (CryABR120G) triggered a >2-fold increase in cardiomyocyte autophagic activity, and blunting autophagy increased the rate of aggregate accumulation and the abundance of insoluble CryABR120G-associated aggregates. Cardiomyocyte-restricted overexpression of CryABR120G in mice induced intracellular aggregate accumulation and systolic heart failure by 12 months. As early as 2 months (well before the earliest declines in cardiac function), we detected robust autophagic activity. To test the functional significance of autophagic activation, we crossed CryABR120G mice with animals harboring heterozygous inactivation of beclin 1, a gene required for autophagy. Blunting autophagy in vivo dramatically hastened heart failure progression with a 3-fold increase in interstitial fibrosis, greater accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins, larger and more extensive intracellular aggregates, accelerated ventricular dysfunction, and early mortality. This study reports activation of autophagy in DRCM. Further, our findings point to autophagy as an adaptive response in this proteotoxic form of heart disease. PMID:18621691

  20. Acute psychosocial challenge and cardiac autonomic response in women: the role of estrogens, corticosteroids, and behavioral coping styles.

    PubMed

    Pico-Alfonso, M Angeles; Mastorci, Francesca; Ceresini, Graziano; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Manghi, Massimo; Pino, Olimpia; Troisi, Alfonso; Sgoifo, Andrea

    2007-06-01

    can be predictive of cardiac autonomic activity and stress responsiveness. They also highlight the modulating role of the individual style of behavioral coping in cardiac sympathovagal stress reactivity. Therefore, the objective assessment of the individual behavioral profile via the analysis of non-verbal communication patterns might represent a powerful tool for identifying subjects with higher risk of cardiac events.

  1. Testing of the coping flexibility hypothesis based on the dual-process theory: Relationships between coping flexibility and depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-12-15

    According to the dual-process theory of coping flexibility (Kato, 2012), coping flexibility is the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping process) and implement an alternative strategy (i.e., adaptive coping process). The coping flexibility hypothesis (CFH) proposes that the ability to engage in flexible coping is related to better psychological functioning and physical health, including less depression. I the present study, participants were 393 American Whites, 429 Australian Whites, and 496 Chinese, selected from the data pool of the 2013 Coping and Health Survey (see Kato, 2014b). They completed both the Coping Flexibility Scale (Kato, 2012), which is based on the dual-process theory of coping flexibility, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). For all nationalities and genders, evaluation coping and adaptive coping were significantly correlated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that evaluation coping was associated with lower depressive symptoms for all nationalities and genders, whereas no significant relationships between adaptive coping and depressive symptoms were found for any nationalities. Our results partially supported that the CFH fits with the dual-process theory of coping flexibility.

  2. How integrated are behavioral and endocrine stress response traits? A repeated measures approach to testing the stress-coping style model

    PubMed Central

    Boulton, Kay; Couto, Elsa; Grimmer, Andrew J; Earley, Ryan L; Canario, Adelino V M; Wilson, Alastair J; Walling, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    It is widely expected that physiological and behavioral stress responses will be integrated within divergent stress-coping styles (SCS) and that these may represent opposite ends of a continuously varying reactive–proactive axis. If such a model is valid, then stress response traits should be repeatable and physiological and behavioral responses should also change in an integrated manner along a major axis of among-individual variation. While there is some evidence of association between endocrine and behavioral stress response traits, few studies incorporate repeated observations of both. To test this model, we use a multivariate, repeated measures approach in a captive-bred population of Xiphophorus birchmanni. We quantify among-individual variation in behavioral stress response to an open field trial (OFT) with simulated predator attack (SPA) and measure waterborne steroid hormone levels (cortisol, 11-ketotestosterone) before and after exposure. Under the mild stress stimulus (OFT), (multivariate) behavioral variation among individuals was consistent with a strong axis of personality (shy–bold) or coping style (reactive–proactive) variation. However, behavioral responses to a moderate stressor (SPA) were less repeatable, and robust statistical support for repeatable endocrine state over the full sampling period was limited to 11-ketotestosterone. Although post hoc analysis suggested cortisol expression was repeatable over short time periods, qualitative relationships between behavior and glucocorticoid levels were counter to our a priori expectations. Thus, while our results clearly show among-individual differences in behavioral and endocrine traits associated with stress response, the correlation structure between these is not consistent with a simple proactive–reactive axis of integrated stress-coping style. Additionally, the low repeatability of cortisol suggests caution is warranted if single observations (or indeed repeat measures over short

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis: Protective Adaptive Responses and Prospects for a Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Poston, Taylor B; Darville, Toni

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection globally. These infections translate to a significant public health burden, particularly women's healthcare costs due to serious disease sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and ectopic pregnancy. There is no evidence that natural immunity can provide complete, long-term protection necessary to prevent chronic pathology, making human vaccine development critical. Vaccine design will require careful consideration of protective versus pathological host-response mechanisms in concert with elucidation of optimal antigens and adjuvants. Evidence suggests that a Th1 response, facilitated by IFN-γ-producing CD4 T cells, will be instrumental in generating long-term, sterilizing immunity. Although the role of antibodies is not completely understood, they have exhibited a protective effect by enhancing chlamydial clearance. Future work will require investigation of broadly neutralizing antibodies and antibody-augmented cellular immunity to successfully design a vaccine that potently elicits both arms of the immune response. Sterilizing immunity is the ultimate goal. However, vaccine-induced partial immunity that prevents upper genital tract infection and inflammation would be cost-effective compared to current screening and treatment strategies. In this chapter, we examine evidence from animal and human studies demonstrating protective adaptive immune responses to Chlamydia and discuss future challenges and prospects for vaccine development.

  4. Autophagy orchestrates adaptive responses to targeted therapy in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Eritja, Núria; Chen, Bo-Juen; Rodríguez-Barrueco, Ruth; Santacana, Maria; Gatius, Sònia; Vidal, August; Martí, Maria Dolores; Ponce, Jordi; Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Encinas, Mario; Ribera, Joan; Reventós, Jaume; Boyd, Jeff; Villanueva, Alberto; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier; Llobet-Navàs, David

    2017-01-05

    Targeted therapies in endometrial cancer (EC) using kinase inhibitors rarely result in complete tumor remission and are frequently challenged by the appearance of refractory cell clones, eventually resulting in disease relapse. Dissecting adaptive mechanisms is of vital importance to circumvent clinical drug resistance and improve the efficacy of targeted agents in EC. Sorafenib is an FDA-approved multitarget tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase inhibitor currently used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, advanced renal carcinoma and radioactive iodine-resistant thyroid carcinoma. Unfortunately, sorafenib showed very modest effects in a multi-institutional phase II trial in advanced uterine carcinoma patients. Here, by leveraging RNA-sequencing data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and cell survival studies from compound-based high-throughput screenings we have identified the lysosomal pathway as a potential compartment involved in the resistance to sorafenib. By performing additional functional biology studies we have demonstrated that this resistance could be related to macroautophagy/autophagy. Specifically, our results indicate that sorafenib triggers a mechanistic MAPK/JNK-dependent early protective autophagic response in EC cells, providing an adaptive response to therapeutic stress. By generating in vivo subcutaneous EC cell line tumors, lung metastatic assays and primary EC orthoxenografts experiments, we demonstrate that targeting autophagy enhances sorafenib cytotoxicity and suppresses tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis progression. In conclusion, sorafenib induces the activation of a protective autophagic response in EC cells. These results provide insights into the unopposed resistance of advanced EC to sorafenib and highlight a new strategy for therapeutic intervention in recurrent EC.

  5. PD-1 blockade induces responses by inhibiting adaptive immune resistance

    PubMed Central

    Tumeh, Paul C.; Harview, Christina L.; Yearley, Jennifer H.; Shintaku, I. Peter; Taylor, Emma J. M.; Robert, Lidia; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Spasic, Marko; Henry, Gina; Ciobanu, Voicu; West, Alisha N.; Carmona, Manuel; Kivork, Christine; Seja, Elizabeth; Cherry, Grace; Gutierrez, Antonio; Grogan, Tristan R.; Mateus, Christine; Tomasic, Gorana; Glaspy, John A.; Emerson, Ryan O.; Robins, Harlan; Pierce, Robert H.; Elashoff, David A.; Robert, Caroline; Ribas, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Therapies that target the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor have shown unprecedented rates of durable clinical responses in patients with various cancer types.1–5 One mechanism by which cancer tissues limit the host immune response is via upregulation of PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) and its ligation to PD-1 on antigen-specific CD8 T-cells (termed adaptive immune resistance).6,7 Here we show that pre-existing CD8 T-cells distinctly located at the invasive tumour margin are associated with expression of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune inhibitory axis and may predict response to therapy. We analyzed samples from 46 patients with metastatic melanoma obtained before and during anti-PD1 therapy (pembrolizumab) using quantitative immunohistochemistry, quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence, and next generation sequencing for T-cell receptors (TCR). In serially sampled tumours, responding patients showed proliferation of intratumoural CD8+ T-cells that directly correlated with radiographic reduction in tumour size. Pre-treatment samples obtained from responding patients showed higher numbers of CD8, PD1, and PD-L1 expressing cells at the invasive tumour margin and inside tumours, with close proximity between PD-1 and PD-L1, and a more clonal TCR repertoire. Using multivariate analysis, we established a predictive model based on CD8 expression at the invasive margin and validated the model in an independent cohort of 15 patients. Our findings indicate that tumour regression following therapeutic PD-1 blockade requires pre-existing CD8+ T cells that are negatively regulated by PD-1/PD-L1 mediated adaptive immune resistance. PMID:25428505

  6. Autophagy orchestrates adaptive responses to targeted therapy in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eritja, Núria; Chen, Bo-Juen; Rodríguez-Barrueco, Ruth; Santacana, Maria; Gatius, Sònia; Vidal, August; Martí, Maria Dolores; Ponce, Jordi; Bergadà, Laura; Yeramian, Andree; Encinas, Mario; Ribera, Joan; Reventós, Jaume; Boyd, Jeff; Villanueva, Alberto; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Dolcet, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Targeted therapies in endometrial cancer (EC) using kinase inhibitors rarely result in complete tumor remission and are frequently challenged by the appearance of refractory cell clones, eventually resulting in disease relapse. Dissecting adaptive mechanisms is of vital importance to circumvent clinical drug resistance and improve the efficacy of targeted agents in EC. Sorafenib is an FDA-approved multitarget tyrosine and serine/threonine kinase inhibitor currently used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma, advanced renal carcinoma and radioactive iodine-resistant thyroid carcinoma. Unfortunately, sorafenib showed very modest effects in a multi-institutional phase II trial in advanced uterine carcinoma patients. Here, by leveraging RNA-sequencing data from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and cell survival studies from compound-based high-throughput screenings we have identified the lysosomal pathway as a potential compartment involved in the resistance to sorafenib. By performing additional functional biology studies we have demonstrated that this resistance could be related to macroautophagy/autophagy. Specifically, our results indicate that sorafenib triggers a mechanistic MAPK/JNK-dependent early protective autophagic response in EC cells, providing an adaptive response to therapeutic stress. By generating in vivo subcutaneous EC cell line tumors, lung metastatic assays and primary EC orthoxenografts experiments, we demonstrate that targeting autophagy enhances sorafenib cytotoxicity and suppresses tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis progression. In conclusion, sorafenib induces the activation of a protective autophagic response in EC cells. These results provide insights into the unopposed resistance of advanced EC to sorafenib and highlight a new strategy for therapeutic intervention in recurrent EC. PMID:28055301

  7. Issues in the Assessment of Children's Coping in the Context of Mass Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Wind, Leslie H.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to mass trauma has contributed to increasing concern about the well-being of children, families, and communities. In spite of global awareness of the dramatic impact of mass trauma on youth, little is known about how children and adolescents cope with and adapt to disasters and terrorism. While coping has yet to be fully conceptualized as a unified construct, the process of responding to stress includes recognized cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components. Unfortunately, research on the complex process of adaptation in the aftermath of mass trauma is a relatively recent focus. Further study is needed to build consensus in terminology, theory, methods, and assessment techniques to assist researchers and clinicians in measuring children's coping, both generally and within the context of mass trauma. Advancements are needed in the area of coping assessment to identify internal and external factors affecting children's stress responses. Additionally, enhanced understanding of children's disaster coping can inform the development of prevention and intervention programs to promote resilience in the aftermath of traumatic events. This article examines the theoretical and practical issues in assessing coping in children exposed to mass trauma, and includes recommendations to guide assessment and research of children's coping within this specialized context. PMID:22691268

  8. Transcriptional Analysis of The Adaptive Digestive System of The Migratory Locust in Response to Plant Defensive Protease Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Spit, Jornt; Holtof, Michiel; Badisco, Liesbet; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vogel, Elise; Knapen, Dries; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    Herbivorous insects evolved adaptive mechanisms to compensate for the presence of plant defensive protease inhibitors (PI) in their food. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of these compensatory responses remain largely elusive. In the current study, we investigated the initiation of this adaptive response in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, via microarray analysis of gut tissues. Four hours after dietary uptake of PIs, 114 and 150 transcripts were respectively found up- or downregulated. The results suggest a quick trade-off between compensating for potential loss of digestive activity on the one hand, and stress tolerance, defense, and structural integrity of the gut on the other hand. We additionally addressed the role of a group of related upregulated hexamerin-like proteins in the PI-induced response. Simultaneous knockdown of corresponding transcripts by means of RNA interference resulted in a reduced capacity of the locust nymphs to cope with the effects of PI. Moreover, since insect hexamerins have been shown to bind Juvenile Hormone (JH), we also investigated the effect of JH on the proteolytic digestion in L. migratoria. Our results indicate that JH has a stimulatory effect on the expression of three homologous chymotrypsin genes, while knocking down the JH receptor (methoprene tolerant) led to opposite effects.

  9. Transcriptional Analysis of The Adaptive Digestive System of The Migratory Locust in Response to Plant Defensive Protease Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spit, Jornt; Holtof, Michiel; Badisco, Liesbet; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vogel, Elise; Knapen, Dries; vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    Herbivorous insects evolved adaptive mechanisms to compensate for the presence of plant defensive protease inhibitors (PI) in their food. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of these compensatory responses remain largely elusive. In the current study, we investigated the initiation of this adaptive response in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, via microarray analysis of gut tissues. Four hours after dietary uptake of PIs, 114 and 150 transcripts were respectively found up- or downregulated. The results suggest a quick trade-off between compensating for potential loss of digestive activity on the one hand, and stress tolerance, defense, and structural integrity of the gut on the other hand. We additionally addressed the role of a group of related upregulated hexamerin-like proteins in the PI-induced response. Simultaneous knockdown of corresponding transcripts by means of RNA interference resulted in a reduced capacity of the locust nymphs to cope with the effects of PI. Moreover, since insect hexamerins have been shown to bind Juvenile Hormone (JH), we also investigated the effect of JH on the proteolytic digestion in L. migratoria. Our results indicate that JH has a stimulatory effect on the expression of three homologous chymotrypsin genes, while knocking down the JH receptor (methoprene tolerant) led to opposite effects.

  10. Adaptive immune response in JAM-C-deficient mice: normal initiation but reduced IgG memory.

    PubMed

    Zimmerli, Claudia; Lee, Boris P L; Palmer, Gaby; Gabay, Cem; Adams, Ralf; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Imhof, Beat A

    2009-04-15

    We have recently shown that junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C-deficient mice have leukocytic pulmonary infiltrates, disturbed neutrophil homeostasis, and increased postnatal mortality. This phenotype was partially rescued when mice were housed in ventilated isolators, suggesting an inability to cope with opportunistic infections. In the present study, we further examined the adaptive immune responses in JAM-C(-/-) mice. We found that murine conventional dendritic cells express in addition to Mac-1 and CD11c also JAM-B as ligand for JAM-C. By in vitro adhesion assay, we show that murine DCs can interact with recombinant JAM-C via Mac-1. However, this interaction does not seem to be necessary for dendritic cell migration and function in vivo, even though JAM-C is highly expressed by lymphatic sinuses of lymph nodes. Nevertheless, upon immunization and boosting with a protein Ag, JAM-C-deficient mice showed decreased persistence of specific circulating Abs although the initial response was normal. Such a phenotype has also been observed in a model of Ag-induced arthritis, showing that specific IgG2a Ab titers are reduced in the serum of JAM-C(-/-) compared with wild-type mice. Taken together, these data suggest that JAM-C deficiency affects the adaptive humoral immune response against pathogens, in addition to the innate immune system.

  11. Transcriptional Analysis of The Adaptive Digestive System of The Migratory Locust in Response to Plant Defensive Protease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Spit, Jornt; Holtof, Michiel; Badisco, Liesbet; Vergauwen, Lucia; Vogel, Elise; Knapen, Dries; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Herbivorous insects evolved adaptive mechanisms to compensate for the presence of plant defensive protease inhibitors (PI) in their food. The underlying regulatory mechanisms of these compensatory responses remain largely elusive. In the current study, we investigated the initiation of this adaptive response in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, via microarray analysis of gut tissues. Four hours after dietary uptake of PIs, 114 and 150 transcripts were respectively found up- or downregulated. The results suggest a quick trade-off between compensating for potential loss of digestive activity on the one hand, and stress tolerance, defense, and structural integrity of the gut on the other hand. We additionally addressed the role of a group of related upregulated hexamerin-like proteins in the PI-induced response. Simultaneous knockdown of corresponding transcripts by means of RNA interference resulted in a reduced capacity of the locust nymphs to cope with the effects of PI. Moreover, since insect hexamerins have been shown to bind Juvenile Hormone (JH), we also investigated the effect of JH on the proteolytic digestion in L. migratoria. Our results indicate that JH has a stimulatory effect on the expression of three homologous chymotrypsin genes, while knocking down the JH receptor (methoprene tolerant) led to opposite effects. PMID:27581362

  12. Innate and adaptive immune responses against Staphylococcus aureus skin infections.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Sheila; Miller, Lloyd S

    2012-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that is responsible for the vast majority of bacterial skin and soft tissue infections in humans. S. aureus can also become more invasive and cause life-threatening infections such as bacteremia, pneumonia, abscesses of various organs, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and sepsis. These infections represent a major public health threat due to the enormous numbers of these infections and the widespread emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. MSRA is endemic in hospitals worldwide and is rapidly spreading throughout the normal human population in the community. The increasing frequency of MRSA infections has complicated treatment as these strains are more virulent and are increasingly becoming resistant to multiple different classes of antibiotics. The important role of the immune response against S. aureus infections cannot be overemphasized as humans with certain genetic and acquired immunodeficiency disorders are at an increased risk for infection. Understanding the cutaneous immune responses against S. aureus is essential as most of these infections occur or originate from a site of infection or colonization of the skin and mucosa. This review will summarize the innate immune responses against S. aureus skin infections, including antimicrobial peptides that have direct antimicrobial activity against S. aureus as well as pattern recognition receptors and proinflammatory cytokines that promote neutrophil abscess formation in the skin, which is required for bacterial clearance. Finally, we will discuss the recent discoveries involving IL-17-mediated responses, which provide a key link between cutaneous innate and adaptive immune responses against S. aureus skin infections.

  13. The Development of a New Sport-Specific Classification of Coping and a Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Different Coping Strategies and Moderators on Sporting Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Adam R.; Taylor, Natalie J.; Carroll, Sean; Perry, John L.

    2016-01-01

    There is an ever growing coping and sports performance literature, with researchers using many different methods to assess performance and different classifications of coping. As such, it makes it difficult to compare studies and therefore identify how coping is related to performance. Furthermore, there are no quantitative syntheses of the results from these studies. A quantitative synthesis would facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of how coping is associated with athletic performance. In order to accurately compare studies, our first aim was to develop a new coping classification that would make this possible. Firstly, we reviewed the strengths and limitations of the different coping classifications and then identified the commonalities and differences between such classifications. We opted for a three-factor classification of coping, because the evidence suggests that a three-factor classification provides a superior model fit to two-factor approaches. Our new classification of coping was based on an existing model from the developmental literature, which received an excellent model fit. We made some adaptations, however, as our classification was intended for an athletic population. As such, we classified coping as mastery (i.e., controlling the situation and eliminating the stressor), internal regulation (i.e., managing internal stress responses), or goal withdrawal (i.e., ceasing efforts toward goal attainment). Undertaking a meta-analysis, our second aim was to identify which coping strategies correlated with sports performance and whether this relationship varied according to moderator variables. Articles were sourced from online electronic databases and manual journal searches. PRISMA guidelines were used to search, select, and synthesize relevant studies. Random effects meta-analyses were performed to identify associations between coping classification and sport performance. Q, I2, and R2 values assessed heterogeneity. Eighteen published

  14. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J; Bachmann, Kenneth A; Bailer, A John; Bolger, P Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M George; Chiueh, Chuang C; Clarkson, Thomas W; Cook, Ralph R; Diamond, David M; Doolittle, David J; Dorato, Michael A; Duke, Stephen O; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E; Hart, Ronald W; Hastings, Kenneth L; Hayes, A Wallace; Hoffmann, George R; Ives, John A; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E; Jonas, Wayne B; Kaminski, Norbert E; Keller, John G; Klaunig, James E; Knudsen, Thomas B; Kozumbo, Walter J; Lettieri, Teresa; Liu, Shu-Zheng; Maisseu, Andre; Maynard, Kenneth I; Masoro, Edward J; McClellan, Roger O; Mehendale, Harihara M; Mothersill, Carmel; Newlin, David B; Nigg, Herbert N; Oehme, Frederick W; Phalen, Robert F; Philbert, Martin A; Rattan, Suresh I S; Riviere, Jim E; Rodricks, Joseph; Sapolsky, Robert M; Scott, Bobby R; Seymour, Colin; Sinclair, David A; Smith-Sonneborn, Joan; Snow, Elizabeth T; Spear, Linda; Stevenson, Donald E; Thomas, Yolene; Tubiana, Maurice; Williams, Gary M; Mattson, Mark P

    2007-07-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.

  15. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, Edward J. . E-mail: edwardc@schoolph.umass.edu; Bachmann, Kenneth A.; Bailer, A. John; Bolger, P. Michael; Borak, Jonathan; Cai, Lu; Cedergreen, Nina; Cherian, M. George; Chiueh, Chuang C.; Clarkson, Thomas W.; Cook, Ralph R.; Diamond, David M.; Doolittle, David J.; Dorato, Michael A.; Duke, Stephen O.; Feinendegen, Ludwig; Gardner, Donald E.; Hart, Ronald W.; Hastings, Kenneth L.; Hayes, A. Wallace; Hoffmann, George R.; Ives, John A.; Jaworowski, Zbigniew; Johnson, Thomas E.; Jonas, Wayne B.; Kaminski, Norbert E.

    2007-07-01

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines.

  16. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tassé, Marc J.; Schalock, Robert L.; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry, Jr.; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A.; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F.; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT…

  17. Smart plants, smart models? On adaptive responses in vegetation-soil systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Teuling, Ryan; van Dam, Nicole; de Rooij, Gerrit

    2015-04-01

    Hydrological models that will be able to cope with future precipitation and evapotranspiration regimes need a solid base describing the essence of the processes involved [1]. The essence of emerging patterns at large scales often originates from micro-behaviour in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. A complicating factor in capturing this behaviour is the constant interaction between vegetation and geology in which water plays a key role. The resilience of the coupled vegetation-soil system critically depends on its sensitivity to environmental changes. To assess root water uptake by plants in a changing soil environment, a direct indication of the amount of energy required by plants to take up water can be obtained by measuring the soil water potential in the vicinity of roots with polymer tensiometers [2]. In a lysimeter experiment with various levels of imposed water stress the polymer tensiometer data suggest maize roots regulate their root water uptake on the derivative of the soil water retention curve, rather than the amount of moisture alone. As a result of environmental changes vegetation may wither and die, or these changes may instead trigger gene adaptation. Constant exposure to environmental stresses, biotic or abiotic, influences plant physiology, gene adaptations, and flexibility in gene adaptation [3-7]. To investigate a possible relation between plant genotype, the plant stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the soil water potential, a proof of principle experiment was set up with Solanum Dulcamare plants. The results showed a significant difference in ABA response between genotypes from a dry and a wet environment, and this response was also reflected in the root water uptake. Adaptive responses may have consequences for the way species are currently being treated in models (single plant to global scale). In particular, model parameters that control root water uptake and plant transpiration are generally assumed to be a property of the plant

  18. Mental Health Status and Coping Behaviors of the Guangxi Baiku Yao Population in Response to Life Events

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junduan; Liu, Jianbo; Qin, Jian; Lan, Cairong; Yang, Hanjun; Yang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Background Ethnic minorities present specific mental health characteristics that are based on their unique cultural background. We aimed to investigate the mental health status and coping behaviors in the Guangxi Baiku Yao population, an ethnic minority in China. Material/Methods A total of 121 Baiku Yao, 149 Zhuang, and 141 Han from Nandan Guangxi were enrolled in a survey using stratified random cluster sampling. The questionnaires included general information, a simplified mental symptom checklist, life events, coping behaviors, and social support. Results The number of stimulating life events in Baiku Yao, particularly in males, was higher than that in the other two groups. Anxiety, depression, and mental symptom scores in Baiku Yao were higher than those in the other two groups. After adjusting for demographic variables, variation in mental health that could be explained by negative coping and life events increased by 40.5% and 7.6%, respectively. All path coefficients were significant (P<0.01); the ratio of the fitting value and the degree of freedom was 1.496, and the root mean square error of approximation was 0.035. Conclusions Mental symptoms of the Baiku Yao population in Nandan (Guangxi) were more severe than those in other Chinese ethnic groups. Life events affected mental symptoms through negative coping. PMID:28144026

  19. "Desafios y Bendiciones": A Multiperspective Examination of the Educational Experiences and Coping Responses of First-Generation College Latina Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett

    2012-01-01

    Taking a multiperspective approach, seven Latina students, two student services personnel, and one mental health service provider are interviewed to gain different stakeholder perspectives regarding Latina first-generation college educational and coping experiences. Familial involvement and connections with family, peers, and university personnel…

  20. Perceptions of wellness to monitor adaptive responses to training and competition in elite Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean

    2013-09-01

    Perceptions of wellness are often used by athletes and coaches to assess adaptive responses to training. The purpose of this research was to describe how players were coping with the demands of elite level Australian football over a competitive season using subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness and to assess the ecological validity of such a monitoring approach. Twenty-seven players completed ratings for 9 items (fatigue, general muscle, hamstring, quadriceps, pain/stiffness, power, sleep quality, stress, well-being). Players subjectively rated each item as they arrived at the training or competition venue on a 1-5 visual analog scale, with 1 representing the positive end of the continuum. A total of 2,583 questionnaires were analyzed from completions on 183 days throughout the season (92 ± 24 per player, 103 ± 20 per week; mean ± SD). Descriptive statistics and multilevel modelling were used to understand how player ratings of wellness varied over the season and during the week leading into game day and whether selected player characteristics moderated these relationships. Results indicated that subjective ratings of physical and psychological wellness were sensitive to weekly training manipulations (i.e., improve steadily throughout the week to a game day low, p < 0.001), to periods of unloading during the season (i.e., a week of no competition, p < 0.05) and to individual player characteristics (e.g., muscle strain after a game was poorer in players with high maximum speed, p < 0.01). It is concluded that self-reported player ratings of wellness provide a useful tool for coaches and practitioners to monitor player responses to the rigorous demands of training, competition, and life as a professional athlete.

  1. Growth responses and adaptations of Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings to flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Sena Gomes, A.R.; Kozlowski, T.T.

    1980-01-01

    Flooding induced several physiological and morphological changes in Fraxinus pennsylvanica seedlings, with stomatal closure among the earliest responses. Subsequent changes included: reduction in dry weight increment of roots, stems, and leaves; formation of hypertrophied lenticles and production of adventitious roots on submerged portions of the stem above the soil line; leaf necrosis; and leaf abscission. After 15 days of stomatal closure as a results of flooding, stomata began to reopen progressively until stomata aperture was similar in flooded and unflooded plants. Adventitious roots began to form at about the time stomatal reopening began. As more adventitious roots formed, elongated, and branched, the stomata opened further. The formation of adventitious roots was in important adaptation for flooding tolerance as shown by the high efficiency of adventitious roots in absorption of water and in high correlation between the production of adventitious roots and stomatal reopening. 6 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Development and Standardization of the Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale: Application of Item Response Theory to the Assessment of Adaptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Tassé, Marc J; Schalock, Robert L; Thissen, David; Balboni, Giulia; Bersani, Henry Hank; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon A; Spreat, Scott; Widaman, Keith F; Zhang, Dalun; Navas, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    The Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) was developed using item response theory (IRT) methods and was constructed to provide the most precise and valid adaptive behavior information at or near the cutoff point of making a decision regarding a diagnosis of intellectual disability. The DABS initial item pool consisted of 260 items. Using IRT modeling and a nationally representative standardization sample, the item set was reduced to 75 items that provide the most precise adaptive behavior information at the cutoff area determining the presence or not of significant adaptive behavior deficits across conceptual, social, and practical skills. The standardization of the DABS is described and discussed.

  3. Coping with Demotivation: EFL Learners' Remotivation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falout, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    When foreign language education is compulsory, competitive, or coercive, how learners cope with stress can determine outcomes, including value of the subject, persistence on task, and level of proficiency. The development of adaptive or maladaptive coping processes toward situated learning goals is influenced by learners' beliefs about themselves…

  4. Parental Support, Coping Strategies, and Psychological Adjustment: An Integrative Model with Late Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Charles J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An integrative predictive model was applied to responses of 241 college freshmen to examine interrelationships among parental support, adaptive coping strategies, and psychological adjustment. Social support from both parents and a nonconflictual parental relationship were positively associated with adolescents' psychological adjustment. (SLD)

  5. Profiles of Psychological Well-being and Coping Strategies among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Carlos; Ferradás, María Del Mar; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C.; Vallejo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b) to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning). Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress. PMID:27790168

  6. Profiles of Psychological Well-being and Coping Strategies among University Students.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carlos; Ferradás, María Del Mar; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C; Vallejo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b) to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning). Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress.

  7. Glassy Dynamics in the Adaptive Immune Response Prevents Autoimmune Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Deem, Michael

    2006-03-01

    The immune system normally protects the human host against death by infection. However, when an immune response is mistakenly directed at self antigens, autoimmune disease can occur. We describe a model of protein evolution to simulate the dynamics of the adaptive immune response to antigens. Computer simulations of the dynamics of antibody evolution show that different evolutionary mechanisms, namely gene segment swapping and point mutation, lead to different evolved antibody binding affinities. Although a combination of gene segment swapping and point mutation can yield a greater affinity to a specific antigen than point mutation alone, the antibodies so evolved are highly cross-reactive and would cause autoimmune disease, and this is not the chosen dynamics of the immune system. We suggest that in the immune system a balance has evolved between binding affinity and specificity in the mechanism for searching the amino acid sequence space of antibodies. Our model predicts that chronic infection may lead to autoimmune disease as well due to cross-reactivity and suggests a broad distribution for the time of onset of autoimmune disease due to chronic exposure. The slow search of antibody sequence space by point mutation leads to the broad of distribution times.

  8. Adaptive strategies in nocturnally migrating insects and songbirds: contrasting responses to wind.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jason W; Nilsson, Cecilia; Lim, Ka S; Bäckman, Johan; Reynolds, Don R; Alerstam, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Animals that use flight as their mode of transportation must cope with the fact that their migration and orientation performance is strongly affected by the flow of the medium they are moving in, that is by the winds. Different strategies can be used to mitigate the negative effects and benefit from the positive effects of a moving flow. The strategies an animal can use will be constrained by the relationship between the speed of the flow and the speed of the animal's own propulsion in relation to the surrounding air. Here we analyse entomological and ornithological radar data from north-western Europe to investigate how two different nocturnal migrant taxa, the noctuid moth Autographa gamma and songbirds, deal with wind by analysing variation in resulting flight directions in relation to the wind-dependent angle between the animal's heading and track direction. Our results, from fixed locations along the migratory journey, reveal different global strategies used by moths and songbirds during their migratory journeys. As expected, nocturnally migrating moths experienced a greater degree of wind drift than nocturnally migrating songbirds, but both groups were more affected by wind in autumn than in spring. The songbirds' strategies involve elements of both drift and compensation, providing some benefits from wind in combination with destination and time control. In contrast, moths expose themselves to a significantly higher degree of drift in order to obtain strong wind assistance, surpassing the songbirds in mean ground speed, at the cost of a comparatively lower spatiotemporal migratory precision. Moths and songbirds show contrasting but adaptive responses to migrating through a moving flow, which are fine-tuned to the respective flight capabilities of each group in relation to the wind currents they travel within.

  9. Apnea stimulates the adaptive response to oxidative stress in elephant seal pups.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Tift, Michael S; Forman, Henry Jay; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2011-12-15

    Extended breath-hold (apnea) bouts are routine during diving and sleeping in seals. These apneas result in oxygen store depletion and blood flow redistribution towards obligatory oxygen-dependent tissues, exposing seals to critical levels of ischemia and hypoxemia. The subsequent reperfusion/reoxygenation has the potential to increase oxidant production and thus oxidative stress. The contributions of extended apnea to oxidative stress in adapted mammals are not well defined. To address the hypothesis that apnea in seals is not associated with increased oxidative damage, blood samples were collected from northern elephant seal pups (N=6) during eupnea, rest- and voluntary submersion-associated apneas, and post-apnea (recovery). Plasma 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), 8-isoprostanes (8-isoPGF(2α)), nitrotyrosine (NT), protein carbonyls, xanthine and hypoxanthine (HX) levels, along with xanthine oxidase (XO) activity, were measured. Protein content of XO, superoxide dismutase 1 (Cu,ZnSOD), catalase and myoglobin (Mb), as well as the nuclear content of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), were measured in muscle biopsies collected before and after the breath-hold trials. HNE, 8-iso PGF(2α), NT and protein carbonyl levels did not change among eupnea, apnea or recovery. XO activity and HX and xanthine concentrations were increased at the end of the apneas and during recovery. Muscle protein content of XO, CuZnSOD, catalase, Mb, HIF-1α and Nrf2 increased 25-70% after apnea. Results suggest that rather than inducing the damaging effects of hypoxemia and ischemia/reperfusion that have been reported in non-diving mammals, apnea in seals stimulates the oxidative stress and hypoxic hormetic responses, allowing these mammals to cope with the potentially detrimental effects associated with this condition.

  10. The Rodent Forced Swim Test Measures Stress-Coping Strategy, Not Depression-like Behavior.

    PubMed

    Commons, Kathryn G; Cholanians, Aram B; Babb, Jessica A; Ehlinger, Daniel G

    2017-03-22

    The forced swim test (FST) measures coping strategy to an acute inescapable stress and thus provides unique insight into the neural limb of the stress response. Stress, particularly chronic stress, is a contributing factor to depression in humans and depression is associated with altered response to stress. In addition, drugs that are effective antidepressants in humans typically promote active coping strategy in the FST. As a consequence, passive coping in the FST has become loosely equated with depression and is often referred to as "depression-like" behavior. This terminology oversimplifies complex biology and misrepresents both the utility and limitations of the FST. The FST provides little construct- or face-validity to support an interpretation as "depression-like" behavior. While stress coping and the FST are arguably relevant to depression, there are likely many factors that can influence stress coping strategy. Importantly, there are other neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by altered responses to stress and difficulty in adapting to change. One of these is autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and several mouse genetic models of ASD exhibit altered stress-coping strategies in the FST. Here we review evidence that argues a more thoughtful consideration of the FST, and more precise terminology, would benefit the study of stress and disorders characterized by altered response to stress, which include but are not limited to depression.

  11. Family Functionality and Coping Attitudes of Patients with Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Çuhadar, Döndü; Savaş, Haluk Asuman; Ünal, Ahmet; Gökpınar, Fatma

    2015-10-01

    The coping of patients with prodromal syndromes prevents relapses, and the differences in coping strategies affect the results of bipolar disorder. The various functionality levels of bipolar disorder patients such as work, marital relations, parental abilities and social presentation are significantly related with how well they cope. The objective of this study was to determine the family functionality and coping attitudes of bipolar disorder patients. The study planned as a descriptive one was carried with 81 bipolar disorder patients. Personal description form, family assessment device and Coping Attitudes Scale were used as data acquisition tools. It was determined that the adaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were religious coping, positive reinterpretation, active coping, problem-focused coping and emotional focused coping, beneficial social support use, emotional social support use, planning, suppression of competing activities and restraint coping; maladaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were "focusing on the problem and venting of emotions and mental disengagement." It was determined that family functions affected the coping attitudes of patients and that the patients who evaluated family functions in a healthy manner made use of adaptive coping strategies more at a statistically significant level.

  12. Adaptation or Malignant Transformation: The Two Faces of Epigenetically Mediated Response to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive response to stress is a fundamental property of living systems. At the cellular level, many different types of stress elicit an essentially limited repertoire of adaptive responses. Epigenetic changes are the main mechanism for medium- to long-term adaptation to accumulated (intense, long-term, or repeated) stress. We propose the adaptive deregulation of the epigenome in response to stress (ADERS) hypothesis which assumes that the unspecific adaptive stress response grows stronger with the increasing stress level, epigenetically activating response gene clusters while progressively deregulating other cellular processes. The balance between the unspecific adaptive response and the general epigenetic deregulation is critical because a strong response can lead to pathology, particularly to malignant transformation. The main idea of our hypothesis is the continuum traversed by a cell subjected to accumulated stress, which lies between an unspecific adaptive response and pathological deregulation—the two extremes sharing the same underlying cause, which is a manifestation of a unified epigenetically mediated adaptive response to stress. The evolutionary potential of epigenetic regulation in multigenerational adaptation is speculatively discussed in the light of neo-Lamarckism. Finally, an approach to testing the proposed hypothesis is presented, relying on either the publicly available datasets or on conducting new experiments. PMID:24187667

  13. Adaptation or malignant transformation: the two faces of epigenetically mediated response to stress.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Aleksandar; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive response to stress is a fundamental property of living systems. At the cellular level, many different types of stress elicit an essentially limited repertoire of adaptive responses. Epigenetic changes are the main mechanism for medium- to long-term adaptation to accumulated (intense, long-term, or repeated) stress. We propose the adaptive deregulation of the epigenome in response to stress (ADERS) hypothesis which assumes that the unspecific adaptive stress response grows stronger with the increasing stress level, epigenetically activating response gene clusters while progressively deregulating other cellular processes. The balance between the unspecific adaptive response and the general epigenetic deregulation is critical because a strong response can lead to pathology, particularly to malignant transformation. The main idea of our hypothesis is the continuum traversed by a cell subjected to accumulated stress, which lies between an unspecific adaptive response and pathological deregulation--the two extremes sharing the same underlying cause, which is a manifestation of a unified epigenetically mediated adaptive response to stress. The evolutionary potential of epigenetic regulation in multigenerational adaptation is speculatively discussed in the light of neo-Lamarckism. Finally, an approach to testing the proposed hypothesis is presented, relying on either the publicly available datasets or on conducting new experiments.

  14. An Investigation into the Role of Coping in Preventing Depression Associated with Perfectionism in Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Dry, Silja M.; Kane, Robert Thomas; Rooney, Rosanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) and maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies and their collective impact on depression symptoms were examined in the context of a randomized controlled universal trial of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program. Five hundred and forty-one children aged 8–12 completed a battery of self-reports, of which responses for measures of depression symptoms, perfectionism, and coping strategies were examined for the purposes of this study. Structural equation modeling tested whether coping mediated the effects of perfectionism on depression. Results indicated that SPP had both a direct and an indirect relationship with depression symptoms through a moderate association with maladaptive coping. Implications for prevention of depression were discussed and recommendations for future research were proposed. PMID:26301212

  15. Distributed adaptive diagnosis of sensor faults using structural response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragos, Kosmas; Smarsly, Kay

    2016-10-01

    The reliability and consistency of wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) systems can be compromised by sensor faults, leading to miscalibrations, corrupted data, or even data loss. Several research approaches towards fault diagnosis, referred to as ‘analytical redundancy’, have been proposed that analyze the correlations between different sensor outputs. In wireless SHM, most analytical redundancy approaches require centralized data storage on a server for data analysis, while other approaches exploit the on-board computing capabilities of wireless sensor nodes, analyzing the raw sensor data directly on board. However, using raw sensor data poses an operational constraint due to the limited power resources of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a new distributed autonomous approach towards sensor fault diagnosis based on processed structural response data is presented. The inherent correlations among Fourier amplitudes of acceleration response data, at peaks corresponding to the eigenfrequencies of the structure, are used for diagnosis of abnormal sensor outputs at a given structural condition. Representing an entirely data-driven analytical redundancy approach that does not require any a priori knowledge of the monitored structure or of the SHM system, artificial neural networks (ANN) are embedded into the sensor nodes enabling cooperative fault diagnosis in a fully decentralized manner. The distributed analytical redundancy approach is implemented into a wireless SHM system and validated in laboratory experiments, demonstrating the ability of wireless sensor nodes to self-diagnose sensor faults accurately and efficiently with minimal data traffic. Besides enabling distributed autonomous fault diagnosis, the embedded ANNs are able to adapt to the actual condition of the structure, thus ensuring accurate and efficient fault diagnosis even in case of structural changes.

  16. Adaptation responses in C4 photosynthesis of maize under salinity.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Eiji; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka; Miyake, Hiroshi

    2012-03-15

    The effect of salinity on C(4) photosynthesis was examined in leaves of maize, a NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) type C(4) species. Potted plants with the fourth leaf blade fully developed were treated with 3% NaCl solution for 5d. Under salt treatment, the activities of pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase), NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) and NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (NAD-MDH), which are derived mainly from mesophyll cells, increased, whereas those of NADP-ME and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, which are derived mainly from bundle sheath cells (BSCs), decreased. Immunocytochemical studies by electron microscopy revealed that PPDK protein increased, while the content of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase protein decreased under salinity. In salt-treated plants, the photosynthetic metabolites malate, pyruvate and starch decreased by 40, 89 and 81%, respectively. Gas-exchange analysis revealed that the net photosynthetic rate, the transpiration rate, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and the intercellular CO(2) concentration decreased strongly in salt-treated plants. The carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) in these plants was significantly lower than that in control. These findings suggest that the decrease in photosynthetic metabolites under salinity was induced by a reduction in gas-exchange. Moreover, in addition to the decrease in g(s), the decrease in enzyme activities in BSCs was responsible for the decline of C(4) photosynthesis. The increase of PPDK, PEPCase, NADP-MDH, and NAD-MDH activities and the decrease of NADP-ME activity are interpreted as adaptation responses to salinity.

  17. Cardiac adaptations of bullfrog tadpoles in response to chytrid infection.

    PubMed

    Salla, Raquel Fernanda; Gamero, Fernando Urban; Ribeiro, Larissa Rodrigues; Rizzi, Gisele Miglioranza; Medico, Samuel Espinosa Dal; Rissoli, Rafael Zanelli; Vieira, Conrado Augusto; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias; Leite, Domingos Silva; Abdalla, Fábio Camargo; Toledo, Luis Felipe; Costa, Monica Jones

    2015-08-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) can result in heart failure in Bd-susceptible species. Since Bd infection generally does not cause mortality in North American bullfrogs, the aim of this work was to verify whether this species presents any cardiac adaptation that could improve the tolerance to the fungus. Thus, we analyzed tadpoles' activity level, relative ventricular mass, ventricle morphology, in loco heart frequency, and in vitro cardiac function. The results indicate that infected animals present an increase in both ventricular relative mass and in myofibrils' incidence, which accompanied the increase in myocytes' diameter. Such morphological alterations enabled an increase in the in vitro twitch force that, in vivo, would result in elevation of the cardiac stroke volume. This response requires much less energy expenditure than an elevation in heart frequency, but still enables the heart to pump a higher volume of blood per minute (i.e., an increase in cardiac output). As a consequence, the energy saved in the regulation of the cardiac function of Bd-infected tadpoles can be employed in other homeostatic adjustments to avoid the lethal effect of the fungus. Whether other species present this ability, and to what extent, remains uncertain, but such possible interspecific variability might explain different mortality rates among different species of Bd-infected amphibians.

  18. Epigenetic memory for stress response and adaptation in plants.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Tetsu; Seki, Motoaki

    2014-11-01

    In contrast to the majority of animal species, plants are sessile organisms and are, therefore, constantly challenged by environmental perturbations. Over the past few decades, our knowledge of how plants perceive environmental stimuli has increased considerably, e.g. the mechanisms for transducing environmental stress stimuli into cellular signaling cascades and gene transcription networks. In addition, it has recently been shown that plants can remember past environmental events and can use these memories to aid responses when these events recur. In this mini review, we focus on recent progress in determination of the epigenetic mechanisms used by plants under various environmental stresses. Epigenetic mechanisms are now known to play a vital role in the control of gene expression through small RNAs, histone modifications and DNA methylation. These are inherited through mitotic cell divisions and, in some cases, can be transmitted to the next generation. They therefore offer a possible mechanism for stress memories in plants. Recent studies have yielded evidence indicating that epigenetic mechanisms are indeed essential for stress memories and adaptation in plants.

  19. Mitochondrial role in adaptive response to stress conditions in preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Vishnyakova, Polina A.; Volodina, Maria A.; Tarasova, Nadezhda V.; Marey, Maria V.; Tsvirkun, Daria V.; Vavina, Olga V.; Khodzhaeva, Zulfiya S.; Kan, Natalya E.; Menon, Ramkumar; Vysokikh, Mikhail Yu.; Sukhikh, Gennady T.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific syndrome, characterized in general by hypertension with proteinuria or other systemic disturbances. PE is the major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the etiology of PE still remains unclear. Our study involved 38 patients: 14 with uncomplicated pregnancy; 13 with early-onset PE (eoPE); and 11 with late-onset PE (loPE). We characterized the immunophenotype of cells isolated from the placenta and all biopsy samples were stained positive for Cytokeratin 7, SOX2, Nestin, Vimentin, and CD44. We obtained a significant increase in OPA1 mRNA and protein expression in the eoPE placentas. Moreover, TFAM expression was down-regulated in comparison to the control (p < 0.01). Mitochondrial DNA copy number in eoPE placentas was significantly higher than in samples from normal pregnancies. We observed an increase of maximum coupled state 3 respiration rate in mitochondria isolated from the placenta in the presence of complex I substrates in the eoPE group and an increase of P/O ratio, citrate synthase activity and decrease of Ca2+-induced depolarization rate in both PE groups. Our results suggest an essential role of mitochondrial activity changes in an adaptive response to the development of PE. PMID:27573305

  20. Distributed reinforcement learning for adaptive and robust network intrusion response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malialis, Kleanthis; Devlin, Sam; Kudenko, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks constitute a rapidly evolving threat in the current Internet. Multiagent Router Throttling is a novel approach to defend against DDoS attacks where multiple reinforcement learning agents are installed on a set of routers and learn to rate-limit or throttle traffic towards a victim server. The focus of this paper is on online learning and scalability. We propose an approach that incorporates task decomposition, team rewards and a form of reward shaping called difference rewards. One of the novel characteristics of the proposed system is that it provides a decentralised coordinated response to the DDoS problem, thus being resilient to DDoS attacks themselves. The proposed system learns remarkably fast, thus being suitable for online learning. Furthermore, its scalability is successfully demonstrated in experiments involving 1000 learning agents. We compare our approach against a baseline and a popular state-of-the-art throttling technique from the network security literature and show that the proposed approach is more effective, adaptive to sophisticated attack rate dynamics and robust to agent failures.

  1. Coping with unpredictability: dopaminergic and neurotrophic responses to omission of expected reward in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    PubMed

    Vindas, Marco A; Sørensen, Christina; Johansen, Ida B; Folkedal, Ole; Höglund, Erik; Khan, Uniza W; Stien, Lars H; Kristiansen, Tore S; Braastad, Bjarne O; Øverli, Øyvind

    2014-01-01

    Comparative studies are imperative for understanding the evolution of adaptive neurobiological processes such as neural plasticity, cognition, and emotion. Previously we have reported that prolonged omission of expected rewards (OER, or 'frustrative nonreward') causes increased aggression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Here we report changes in brain monoaminergic activity and relative abundance of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor mRNA transcripts in the same paradigm. Groups of fish were initially conditioned to associate a flashing light with feeding. Subsequently, the expected food reward was delayed for 30 minutes during two out of three meals per day in the OER treatment, while the previously established routine was maintained in control groups. After 8 days there was no effect of OER on baseline brain stem serotonin (5-HT) or dopamine (DA) activity. Subsequent exposure to acute confinement stress led to increased plasma cortisol and elevated turnover of brain stem DA and 5-HT in all animals. The DA response was potentiated and DA receptor 1 (D1) mRNA abundance was reduced in the OER-exposed fish, indicating a sensitization of the DA system. In addition OER suppressed abundance of BDNF in the telencephalon of non-stressed fish. Regardless of OER treatment, a strong positive correlation between BDNF and D1 mRNA abundance was seen in non-stressed fish. This correlation was disrupted by acute stress, and replaced by a negative correlation between BDNF abundance and plasma cortisol concentration. These observations indicate a conserved link between DA, neurotrophin regulation, and corticosteroid-signaling pathways. The results also emphasize how fish models can be important tools in the study of neural plasticity and responsiveness to environmental unpredictability.

  2. Preliminary Identification of Coping Profiles Relevant to Surrogate Decision Making in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Ramona O.; Wilson, Emily L.; Orme, James F.; Beesley, Sarah J.; Kuttler, Kathryn; Brown, Samuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a stressful environment for families of critically ill patients and these individuals are at risk to develop persistent psychological morbidity. Our study objective was to identify individual differences in coping with stress and information presentation preferences of respondents exposed to a simulated ICU experience. Methods Participants were recruited from a university and two community populations. Participants completed questionnaires that measured demographic information and characteristics that may be relevant to an individual’s ICU experience. Quality of life was measured by the EQ-5D, personality dimensions were examined with the abbreviated Big Five inventory, coping with stress was assessed with Brief COPE. Shared decision making preferences were assessed by the Degner Control Preferences Scale (CPS) and information seeking style was assessed with the Miller Behavioral Style Scale (MBSS). Social support was examined using an abbreviated version of the Social Relationship Index. Participants also completed a vignette-based simulated ICU experience, in which they made a surrogate decision on behalf of a loved one in the ICU. Results Three hundred forty-three participants completed the study. Three distinct coping profiles were identified: adaptive copers, maladaptive copers, and disengaged copers. Profiles differed primarily on coping styles, personality, quality of their closest social relationship, and history of anxiety and depression. Responses to the simulated ICU decision making experience differed across profiles. Disengaged copers (15%) were more likely to elect to refuse dialysis on behalf of an adult sibling compared to adaptive copers (7%) or maladaptive copers (5%) (p = 0.03). Notably, the MBSS and the CPS did not differ by coping profile. Conclusion Distinct coping profiles are associated with differences in responses to a simulated ICU experience. Tailoring communication and support to specific

  3. Personality and coping traits: A joint factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this paper is to explore the structural similarities between Eysenck's model of personality and the dimensions of the dispositional COPE. Costa et al. {Costa P., Somerfield, M., & McCrae, R. (1996). Personality and coping: A reconceptualisation. In (pp. 44-61) Handbook of coping: Theory, research and applications. New York: Wiley} suggest that personality and coping behaviour are part of a continuum based on adaptation. If this is the case, there should be structural similarities between measures of personality and coping behaviour. This is tested using a joint factor analysis of personality and coping measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The EPQ-R and the dispositional COPE were administered to 154 participants, and the data were analysed using joint factor analysis and bivariate associations. RESULTS: The joint factor analysis indicated that these data were best explained by a four-factor model. One factor was primarily unrelated to personality. There was a COPE-neurotic-introvert factor (NI-COPE) containing coping behaviours such as denial, a COPE-extroversion (E-COPE) factor containing behaviours such as seeking social support and a COPE-psychoticism factor (P-COPE) containing behaviours such as alcohol use. This factor pattern, especially for NI- and E-COPE, was interpreted in terms of Gray's model of personality {Gray, J. A. (1987) The psychology of fear and stress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press}. NI-, E-, and P-COPE were shown to be related, in a theoretically consistent manner, to perceived coping success and perceived coping functions. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there are indeed conceptual links between models of personality and coping. It is argued that future research should focus on identifying coping 'trait complexes'. Implications for practice are discussed.

  4. Collectivism and coping: current theories, evidence, and measurements of collective coping.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ben C H

    2013-01-01

    A burgeoning body of cultural coping research has begun to identify the prevalence and the functional importance of collective coping behaviors among culturally diverse populations in North America and internationally. These emerging findings are highly significant as they evidence culture's impacts on the stress-coping process via collectivistic values and orientation. They provide a critical counterpoint to the prevailing Western, individualistic stress and coping paradigm. However, current research and understanding about collective coping appear to be piecemeal and not well integrated. To address this issue, this review attempts to comprehensively survey, summarize, and evaluate existing research related to collective coping and its implications for coping research with culturally diverse populations from multiple domains. Specifically, this paper reviews relevant research and knowledge on collective coping in terms of: (a) operational definitions; (b) theories; (c) empirical evidence based on studies of specific cultural groups and broad cultural values/dimensions; (d) measurements; and (e) implications for future cultural coping research. Overall, collective coping behaviors are conceived as a product of the communal/relational norms and values of a cultural group across studies. They also encompass a wide array of stress responses ranging from value-driven to interpersonally based to culturally conditioned emotional/cognitive to religion- and spirituality-grounded coping strategies. In addition, this review highlights: (a) the relevance and the potential of cultural coping theories to guide future collective coping research; (b) growing evidence for the prominence of collective coping behaviors particularly among Asian nationals, Asian Americans/Canadians and African Americans/Canadians; (c) preference for collective coping behaviors as a function of collectivism and interdependent cultural value and orientation; and (d) six cultural coping scales. This

  5. Evolutionary responses of innate Immunity to adaptive immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innate immunity is present in all metazoans, whereas the evolutionarily more novel adaptive immunity is limited to jawed fishes and their descendants (gnathostomes). We observe that the organisms that possess adaptive immunity lack diversity in their innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), rais...

  6. Alkanols and chlorophenols cause different physiological adaptive responses on the level of cell surface properties and membrane vesicle formation in Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, Thomas; Vazquez, José; Bastisch, Christian; Veron, Wilfried; Feuilloley, Marc G J; Nietzsche, Sandor; Wick, Lukas Y; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2012-01-01

    In order to cope with the toxicity imposed by the exposure to environmental hydrocarbons, many bacteria have developed specific adaptive responses such as modifications in the cell envelope. Here we compared the influence of n-alkanols and chlorophenols on the surface properties of the solvent-tolerant bacterium Pseudomonas putida DOT-T1E. In the presence of toxic concentrations of n-alkanols, this strain significantly increased its cell surface charge and hydrophobicity with changes depending on the chain length of the added n-alkanols. The adaptive response occurred within 10 min after the addition of the solvent and was demonstrated to be of physiological nature. Contrary to that, chlorophenols of similar hydrophobicity and potential toxicity as the corresponding alkanols caused only minor effects in the surface properties. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of differences in the cellular adaptive response of bacteria to compound classes of quasi equal hydrophobicity and toxicity. The observed adaptation of the physico-chemical surface properties of strain DOT-T1E to the presence of alkanols was reversible and correlated with changes in the composition of the lipopolysaccharide content of the cells. The reaction is explained by previously described reactions allowing the release of membrane vesicles that was demonstrated for cells affected by 1-octanol and heat shock, whereas no membrane vesicles were released after the addition of chlorophenols.

  7. Are coping styles consistent in the teleost fish Sparus aurata through sexual maturation and sex reversal?

    PubMed

    Castanheira, Maria Filipa; Martínez Páramo, Sonia; Figueiredo, F; Cerqueira, Marco; Millot, Sandie; Oliveira, Catarina C V; Martins, Catarina I M; Conceição, Luís E C

    2016-10-01

    Individual differences in behaviour and physiological responses to stress are associated with evolutionary adaptive variation and thus raw material for evolution. In farmed animals, the interest in consistent trait associations, i.e. coping styles, has increased dramatically over the last years. However, one of limitations of the available knowledge, regarding the temporal consistency, is that it refers always to short-term consistency (usually few weeks). The present study used an escape response during a net restraining test, previously shown to be an indicative of coping styles in seabream, to investigate long-term consistency of coping styles both over time and during different life history stages. Results showed both short-term (14 days) consistency and long-term (8 months) consistency of escape response. However, we did not found consistency in the same behaviour after sexual maturation when the restraining test was repeated 16, 22 and 23 months after the first test was performed. In conclusion, this study showed consistent behaviour traits in seabream when juveniles, and a loss of this behavioural traits when adults. Therefore, these results underline that adding a life story approach to data interpretation as an essential step forward towards coping styles foreground. Furthermore, a fine-tuning of aquaculture rearing strategies to adapt to different coping strategies may need to be adjusted differently at early stages of development and adults to improve the welfare of farmed fish.

  8. Human adaptation genetic response suites: Toward new interventions and countermeasures for spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.

    2005-08-01

    Genetic response suites in human lymphocytes in response to microgravity are important to identify and further study in order to augment human physiological adaptation to novel environments. Emerging technologies, such as DNA micro array profiling, have the potential to identify novel genes that are involved in mediating adaptation to these environments. These genes may prove to be therapeutically valuable as new targets for countermeasures, or as predictive biomarkers of response to these new environments. Human lymphocytes cultured in 1g and microgravity analog culture were analyzed for their differential gene expression response. Different groups of genes related to the immune response, cardiovascular system and stress response were then analyzed. Analysis of cells from multiple donors reveals a small shared set that are likely to be essential to adaptation. These three groups focus on human adaptation to new environments. The shared set contains genes related to T cell activation, immune response and stress response to analog microgravity.

  9. Human Adaptation Genetic Response Suites: Toward New Interventions and Countermeasures for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.

    2005-01-01

    Genetic response suites in human lymphocytes in response to microgravity are important to identify and further study in order to augment human physiological adaptation to novel environments. Emerging technologies, such as DNA micro array profiling, have the potential to identify novel genes that are involved in mediating adaptation to these environments. These genes may prove to be therapeutically valuable as new targets for countermeasures, or as predictive biomarkers of response to these new environments. Human lymphocytes cultured in lg and microgravity analog culture were analyzed for their differential gene expression response. Different groups of genes related to the immune response, cardiovascular system and stress response were then analyzed. Analysis of cells from multiple donors reveals a small shared set that are likely to be essential to adaptation. These three groups focus on human adaptation to new environments. The shared set contains genes related to T cell activation, immune response and stress response to analog microgravity.

  10. Bioenergetic adaptation in response to autophagy regulators during rotenone exposure

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Samantha; Dodson, Matthew; Ravi, Saranya; Redmann, Matthew; Ouyang, Xiaosen; Usmar, Victor M Darley; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with both mitochondrial dysfunction and insufficient autophagy playing a key role in its pathogenesis. Among the risk factors, exposure to the environmental neurotoxin rotenone increases the probability of developing PD. We previously reported that in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, rotenone-induced cell death is directly related to inhibition of mitochondrial function. How rotenone at nM concentrations inhibits mitochondrial function, and whether it can engage the autophagy pathway necessary to remove damaged proteins and organelles, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that autophagy plays a protective role against rotenone toxicity in primary neurons. We found that rotenone (10–100 nM) immediately inhibited cellular bioenergetics. Concentrations that decreased mitochondrial function at 2 hr, caused cell death at 24 hr with an LD50 of 10 nM. Overall autophagic flux was decreased by 10 nM rotenone at both 2 and 24 hr, but surprisingly mitophagy, or autophagy of the mitochondria, was increased at 24 hr, suggesting that a mitochondrial-specific lysosomal degradation pathway may be activated. Upregulation of autophagy by rapamycin protected against cell death while inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) exacerbated cell death. Interestingly, while 3-MA exacerbated the rotenone-dependent effects on bioenergetics, rapamycin did not prevent rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, but caused reprogramming of mitochondrial substrate usage associated with both complex I and complex II activities. Taken together, these data demonstrate that autophagy can play a protective role in primary neuron survival in response to rotenone; moreover, surviving neurons exhibit bioenergetic adaptations to this metabolic stressor. PMID:25081478

  11. Dynamic neural activity during stress signals resilient coping

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Constable, R. Todd; Seo, Dongju

    2016-01-01

    Active coping underlies a healthy stress response, but neural processes supporting such resilient coping are not well-known. Using a brief, sustained exposure paradigm contrasting highly stressful, threatening, and violent stimuli versus nonaversive neutral visual stimuli in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we show significant subjective, physiologic, and endocrine increases and temporally related dynamically distinct patterns of neural activation in brain circuits underlying the stress response. First, stress-specific sustained increases in the amygdala, striatum, hypothalamus, midbrain, right insula, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) regions supported the stress processing and reactivity circuit. Second, dynamic neural activation during stress versus neutral runs, showing early increases followed by later reduced activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), left DLPFC, hippocampus, and left insula, suggested a stress adaptation response network. Finally, dynamic stress-specific mobilization of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VmPFC), marked by initial hypoactivity followed by increased VmPFC activation, pointed to the VmPFC as a key locus of the emotional and behavioral control network. Consistent with this finding, greater neural flexibility signals in the VmPFC during stress correlated with active coping ratings whereas lower dynamic activity in the VmPFC also predicted a higher level of maladaptive coping behaviors in real life, including binge alcohol intake, emotional eating, and frequency of arguments and fights. These findings demonstrate acute functional neuroplasticity during stress, with distinct and separable brain networks that underlie critical components of the stress response, and a specific role for VmPFC neuroflexibility in stress-resilient coping. PMID:27432990

  12. [The effect of coping and appraisal for coping on mental health and later coping].

    PubMed

    Takamoto, Masahiro; Aikawa, Atsushi

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the effect of coping and appraisal for coping on mental health and later coping in two longitudinal studies. In Study 1 (Time 1: n = 342, Time 2: n = 367) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and assumed coping. In Study 2 (Time 1: n = 161, Time 2: n = 154) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and later coping. The results indicated that coping and coping for appraisal affected mental health and later coping. However, the influence of the coping for appraisal was more limited than selected coping.

  13. Plasticity and stress tolerance override local adaptation in the responses of Mediterranean holm oak seedlings to drought and cold.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Pías, Beatriz; Lemos-Filho, José P; Valladares, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Plant populations of widely distributed species experience a broad range of environmental conditions that can be faced by phenotypic plasticity or ecotypic differentiation and local adaptation. The strategy chosen will determine a population's ability to respond to climate change. To explore this, we grew Quercus ilex (L.) seedlings from acorns collected at six selected populations from climatically contrasting localities and evaluated their response to drought and late season cold events. Maximum photosynthetic rate (A(max)), instantaneous water use efficiency (iWUE), and thermal tolerance to freeze and heat (estimated from chlorophyll fluorescence versus temperature curves) were measured in 5-month-old seedlings in control (no stress), drought (water-stressed), and cold (low suboptimal temperature) conditions. The observed responses were similar for the six populations: drought decreased A(max) and increased iWUE, and cold reduced A(max) and iWUE. All the seedlings maintained photosynthetic activity under adverse conditions (drought and cold), and rapidly increased their iWUE by closing stomata when exposed to drought. Heat and freeze tolerances were similarly high for seedlings from all the populations, and they were significantly increased by drought and cold, respectively; and were positively related to each other. Differences in seedling performance across populations were primarily induced by maternal effects mediated by seed size and to a lesser extent by idiosyncratic physiologic responses to drought and low temperatures. Tolerance to multiple stresses together with the capacity to physiologically acclimate to heat waves and cold snaps may allow Q. ilex to cope with the increasingly stressful conditions imposed by climate change. Lack of evidence of physiologic seedling adaptation to local climate may reflect opposing selection pressures to complex, multidimensional environmental conditions operating within the distribution range of this species.

  14. No Evidence for a Low Linear Energy Transfer Adaptive Response in Irradiated RKO Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sowa, Marianne B.; Goetz, Wilfried; Baulch, Janet E.; Lewis, Adam J.; Morgan, William F.

    2011-01-06

    It has become increasingly evident from reports in the literature that there are many confounding factors that are capable of modulating radiation induced non-targeted responses such as the bystander effect and the adaptive response. In this paper we examine recent data that suggest that the observation of non-targeted responses may not be universally observable for differing radiation qualities. We have conducted a study of the adaptive response following low LET exposures for human colon carcinoma cells and failed to observe adaption for the endpoints of clonogenic survival or micronucleus formation.

  15. A Review: Development of a Microdose Model for Analysis of Adaptive Response and Bystander Dose Response Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Bobby E.

    2008-01-01

    Prior work has provided incremental phases to a microdosimetry modeling program to describe the dose response behavior of the radio-protective adaptive response effect. We have here consolidated these prior works (Leonard 2000, 2005, 2007a, 2007b, 2007c) to provide a composite, comprehensive Microdose Model that is also herein modified to include the bystander effect. The nomenclature for the model is also standardized for the benefit of the experimental cellular radio-biologist. It extends the prior work to explicitly encompass separately the analysis of experimental data that is 1.) only dose dependent and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection, 2.) both dose and dose-rate dependent data and reflecting only adaptive response radio-protection for spontaneous and challenge dose damage, 3.) only dose dependent data and reflecting both bystander deleterious damage and adaptive response radio-protection (AR-BE model). The Appendix cites the various applications of the model. Here we have used the Microdose Model to analyze the, much more human risk significant, Elmore et al (2006) data for the dose and dose rate influence on the adaptive response radio-protective behavior of HeLa x Skin cells for naturally occurring, spontaneous chromosome damage from a Brachytherapy type 125I photon radiation source. We have also applied the AR-BE Microdose Model to the Chromosome inversion data of Hooker et al (2004) reflecting both low LET bystander and adaptive response effects. The micro-beam facility data of Miller et al (1999), Nagasawa and Little (1999) and Zhou et al (2003) is also examined. For the Zhou et al (2003) data, we use the AR-BE model to estimate the threshold for adaptive response reduction of the bystander effect. The mammogram and diagnostic X-ray induction of AR and protective BE are observed. We show that bystander damage is reduced in the similar manner as spontaneous and challenge dose damage as shown by the Azzam et al (1996) data. We cite

  16. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts.

  17. Adaptive response to hydrogen peroxide in yeast: induction, time course, and relationship to dose-response models.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, George R; Moczula, Andrew V; Laterza, Amanda M; Macneil, Lindsey K; Tartaglione, Jason P

    2013-07-01

    The assay for trp5 gene conversion and ilv1-92 reversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D7 was used to characterize the induction of an adaptive response by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Effects of a small priming dose on the genotoxic effects of a larger challenge dose were measured in exponential cultures and in early stationary phase. An adaptive response, indicated by smaller convertant and revertant frequencies after the priming dose, occurred at lower priming and challenge doses in young, well-aerated cultures. Closely spaced priming doses from 0.000975 to 2 mM, followed by a 1 mM challenge, showed that the induction of the adaptive response is biphasic. In exponential cultures it was maximal with a priming dose of 0.125-0.25 mM. Very small priming doses were insufficient to induce the adaptive response, whereas higher doses contributed to damage. A significant adaptive response was detected when the challenge dose was administered 10-20 min after the priming exposure. It was fully expressed within 45 min, and the yeast began to return to the nonadapted state after 4-6 hr. Because of the similarity of the biphasic induction to hormetic curves and the proposal that adaptive responses are a manifestation of hormesis, we evaluated whether the low doses of H(2)O(2) that induce the adaptive response show a clear hormetic response without a subsequent challenge dose. Hormesis was not evident, but there was an apparent threshold for genotoxicity at or slightly below 0.125 mM. The results are discussed with respect to linear, threshold, and hormesis dose-response models.

  18. The effect of prism adaptation on the response AC/A ratio.

    PubMed

    Rainey, B B

    2000-05-01

    Vergence adaptation, also known as prism adaptation, is a phenomenon in which a patient's heterophoria changes after prolonged viewing through prism. The effect of prism adaptation on the accommodation-convergence relationship, quantified by the AC/A ratio, is not known. Previous studies of AC/A ratio stability and alterability have used only stimulus AC/A ratio calculations, or have measured accommodative responses to only one or two stimuli. The ideal study of AC/A ratio stability and alterability would measure accommodative responses to several accommodative stimuli, and use these along with vergence responses to calculate response AC/A ratios, rather than stimulus AC/A ratios. In addition, the gradient method should be used to avoid any effect of proximal vergence resulting from changes in target distance. This paper describes a project which investigated the effect of vergence (prism) adaptation on the gradient response AC/A ratio, using accommodative responses measured for five different accommodative stimuli. The response AC/A ratio did not significantly change following a period of adaptation to base-in prism for six of the eight subjects in this study. In addition, the response AC/A ratio did not significantly change following a period of adaptation to base-out prism for six of the eight subjects.

  19. Peer victimization in middle childhood impedes adaptive responses to stress: a pathway to depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Rudolph, Karen D; Sugimura, Niwako; Little, Todd D

    2015-01-01

    Although associations between peer victimization in childhood and later psychopathology are well documented, surprisingly little research directly examines pathways accounting for these enduring effects. The present study addresses this issue by examining whether maladaptive responses to peer aggression (less effortful engagement coping and more involuntary responses) mediate associations between peer victimization and later depressive symptoms. Data were collected on 636 children (338 girls, 298 boys; M = 8.94 years, SD = .37) for three consecutive years beginning in 3rd grade. Findings supported the proposition that peer victimization predicts lower levels of effortful engagement coping and higher levels of involuntary engagement and disengagement responses to stress. Moreover, these responses to stress helped to explain the link between 3rd-grade peer victimization and 5th-grade depressive symptoms. No sex differences in these linkages emerged. These findings build on prior theory and research by providing a more nuanced understanding of how and why peer victimization serves as an early risk factor for depressive symptoms.

  20. Energy Sector Adaptation in Response to Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. A.; Fricko, O.; Parkinson, S.; Riahi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global energy systems models have largely ignored the impacts of water scarcity on the energy sector and the related implications for climate change mitigation. However, significant water is required in the production of energy, including for thermoelectric power plant cooling, hydropower generation, irrigation for bioenergy, and the extraction and refining of liquid fuels. With a changing climate and expectations of increasing competition for water from the agricultural and municipal sectors, it is unclear whether sufficient water will be available where needed to support water-intensive energy technologies in the future. Thus, it is important that water use and water constraints are incorporated into energy systems models to better understand energy sector adaptation to water scarcity. The global energy systems model, MESSAGE, has recently been updated to quantify the water consumption and withdrawal requirements of the energy sector and now includes several cooling technologies for addressing water scarcity. This study introduces water constraints into the model to examine whether and how the energy sector can adapt to water scarcity over the next century. In addition, the implications for climate mitigation are evaluated under a scenario in which warming is limited to 2˚C over the pre-industrial level. Given the difficulty of introducing meaningful water constraints into global models, we use a simplistic approach and evaluate a series of scenarios in which the water available to the energy sector is systematically reduced. This approach allows for the evaluation of energy sector adaptations under various levels of water scarcity and can provide insight into how water scarcity, whether from climate change or competing demands, may impact the energy sector in different world regions. This study will provide insight into the following questions: How does the energy sector adapt to water scarcity in different regions? What are the costs associated with adaptation

  1. Adaptability: Conceptual and Empirical Perspectives on Responses to Change, Novelty and Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.; Nejad, Harry; Colmar, Susan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptability is proposed as individuals' capacity to constructively regulate psycho-behavioral functions in response to new, changing, and/or uncertain circumstances, conditions and situations. The present investigation explored the internal and external validity of an hypothesised adaptability scale. The sample comprised 2,731 high school…

  2. The effect of repeated mild cold water immersions on the adaptation of the vasomotor responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Kuroki, Hideto; Lee, Joo-Young; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-07-01

    There are several types of cold adaptation based on the alteration of thermoregulatory response. It has been thought that the temperature of repeated cold exposures during the adaptation period is one of the factors affecting the type of cold adaptation developed. This study tested the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersions would induce an insulative cold adaptation but would not alter the metabolic response. Seven healthy male participants were immersed to their xiphoid process level repeatedly in 26°C water for 60 min, 3 days every week, for 4 weeks. During the first and last exposure of this cold acclimation period, the participants underwent body immersion tests measuring their thermoregulatory responses to cold. Separately, they conducted finger immersion into 5°C water for 30 min to assess their cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) response before and after cold acclimation. During the immersion to xiphoid process, participants showed significantly lower mean skin temperature and skin blood flow in the forearm post-acclimation, while no adaptation was observed in the metabolic response. Additionally, blunted CIVD responses were observed after cold acclimation. From these results, it was considered that the participants showed an insulative-type of cold acclimation after the repeated mild cold immersions. The major finding of this study was the acceptance of the hypothesis that repeated mild cold immersion was sufficient to induce insulative cold adaptation but did not alter the metabolic response. It is suggested that the adaptation in the thermoregulatory response is specific to the response which is repeatedly stimulated during the adaptation process.

  3. Clinal adaptation and adaptive plasticity in Artemisia californica: implications for the response of a foundation species to predicted climate change.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Jessica D; Mooney, Kailen A

    2013-08-01

    Local adaptation and plasticity pose significant obstacles to predicting plant responses to future climates. Although local adaptation and plasticity in plant functional traits have been documented for many species, less is known about population-level variation in plasticity and whether such variation is driven by adaptation to environmental variation. We examined clinal variation in traits and performance - and plastic responses to environmental change - for the shrub Artemisia californica along a 700 km gradient characterized (from south to north) by a fourfold increase in precipitation and a 61% decrease in interannual precipitation variation. Plants cloned from five populations along this gradient were grown for 3 years in treatments approximating the precipitation regimes of the north and south range margins. Most traits varying among populations did so clinally; northern populations (vs. southern) had higher water-use efficiencies and lower growth rates, C : N ratios and terpene concentrations. Notably, there was variation in plasticity for plant performance that was strongly correlated with source site interannual precipitation variability. The high-precipitation treatment (vs. low) increased growth and flower production more for plants from southern populations (181% and 279%, respectively) than northern populations (47% and 20%, respectively). Overall, precipitation variability at population source sites predicted 86% and 99% of variation in plasticity in growth and flowering, respectively. These striking, clinal patterns in plant traits and plasticity are indicative of adaptation to both the mean and variability of environmental conditions. Furthermore, our analysis of long-term coastal climate data in turn indicates an increase in interannual precipitation variation consistent with most global change models and, unexpectedly, this increased variation is especially pronounced at historically stable, northern sites. Our findings demonstrate the

  4. Drinking to cope with negative emotions moderates alcohol use disorder treatment response in patients with co-occurring anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anker, J.J.; Kushner, M.G.; Thuras, P.; Menk, J.; Unruh, A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies and theory implicate drinking to cope (DTC) with anxiety as a potent moderator of the association between anxiety disorder (AnxD) and problematic alcohol use. However, the relevance of DTC to the treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) in those with a co-occurring AnxD has not been well studied. To address this, we examined whether DTC moderates the impact of two therapies: (1) a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) designed to reduce DTC and anxiety symptoms; (2) a progressive muscle relaxation training (PMRT) program designed to reduce anxiety symptoms only. Methods Patients undergoing a standard AUD residential treatment with a co-occurring AnxD (N = 218) were randomly assigned to also receive either the CBT or PMRT. DTC in the 30 days prior to treatment was measured using the Unpleasant Emotions subscale of the Inventory of Drinking Situations. Results Confirming the predicted moderator model, the results indicated a significant interaction between treatment group and level of pre-treatment DTC behavior. Probing this interaction revealed that for those reporting more pre-treatment DTC behavior, 4-month alcohol outcomes were superior in the CBT group relative to the PMRT group. For those reporting less pre-treatment DTC behavior, however, 4-month alcohol outcomes were similar and relatively good in both treatment groups. Conclusions These findings establish a meaningful clinical distinction among those with co-occurring AUD-AnxD based on the degree to which the symptoms of the two disorders are functionally linked through DTC. Those whose co-occurring AUD-AnxD is more versus less strongly linked via DTC are especially likely to benefit from standard AUD treatment that is augmented by a brief CBT designed to disrupt this functional link. PMID:26718394

  5. Starvation stress during larval development facilitates an adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Kaftanoglu, Osman; Brent, Colin S; Page, Robert E; Amdam, Gro V

    2016-04-01

    Most organisms are constantly faced with environmental changes and stressors. In diverse organisms, there is an anticipatory mechanism during development that can program adult phenotypes. The adult phenotype would be adapted to the predicted environment that occurred during organism maturation. However, whether this anticipatory mechanism is present in eusocial species is questionable because eusocial organisms are largely shielded from exogenous conditions by their stable nest environment. In this study, we tested whether food deprivation during development of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), a eusocial insect model, can shift adult phenotypes to better cope with nutritional stress. After subjecting fifth instar worker larvae to short-term starvation, we measured nutrition-related morphology, starvation resistance, physiology, endocrinology and behavior in the adults. We found that the larval starvation caused adult honey bees to become more resilient toward starvation. Moreover, the adult bees were characterized by reduced ovary size, elevated glycogen stores and juvenile hormone (JH) titers, and decreased sugar sensitivity. These changes, in general, can help adult insects survive and reproduce in food-poor environments. Overall, we found for the first time support for an anticipatory mechanism in a eusocial species, the honey bee. Our results suggest that this mechanism may play a role in honey bee queen-worker differentiation and worker division of labor, both of which are related to the responses to nutritional stress.

  6. Involuntary coping mechanisms: a psychodynamic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Coping responses to stress can be divided into three broad categories. The first coping category involves voluntarily mobilizing social supports. The second category involves voluntary coping strategies like rehearsing responses to danger. The third coping category, like fever and leukocytosis, is involuntary. It entails deploying unconscious homeostatic mechanisms that reduce the disorganizing effects of sudden stress, DSM-5 offers a tentative hierarchy of defenses, from psychotic to immature to mature. The 70-year prospective Study of Development at Harvard provides a clinical validation of this hierarchy Maturity of coping predicted psychosocial adjustment to aging 25 years later, and was associated with not developing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder after very severe WWII combat. PMID:22034454

  7. The Stress Response Systems: Universality and Adaptive Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Jackson, Jenee James; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Biological reactivity to psychological stressors comprises a complex, integrated system of central neural and peripheral neuroendocrine responses designed to prepare the organism for challenge or threat. Developmental experience plays a role, along with heritable variation, in calibrating the response dynamics of this system. This calibration…

  8. Molecular characterization of an adaptive response to alkylating agents in the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    O’Hanlon, Karen A.; Margison, Geoffrey P.; Hatch, Amy; Fitzpatrick, David A.; Owens, Rebecca A.; Doyle, Sean; Jones, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    An adaptive response to alkylating agents based upon the conformational change of a methylphosphotriester (MPT) DNA repair protein to a transcriptional activator has been demonstrated in a number of bacterial species, but this mechanism appears largely absent from eukaryotes. Here, we demonstrate that the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus elicits an adaptive response to sub-lethal doses of the mono-functional alkylating agent N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). We have identified genes that encode MPT and O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) DNA repair proteins; deletions of either of these genes abolish the adaptive response and sensitize the organism to MNNG. In vitro DNA repair assays confirm the ability of MPT and AGT to repair methylphosphotriester and O6-methylguanine lesions respectively. In eukaryotes, the MPT protein is confined to a select group of fungal species, some of which are major mammalian and plant pathogens. The evolutionary origin of the adaptive response is bacterial and rooted within the Firmicutes phylum. Inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer between Firmicutes and Ascomycete ancestors introduced the adaptive response into the Fungal kingdom. Our data constitute the first detailed characterization of the molecular mechanism of the adaptive response in a lower eukaryote and has applications for development of novel fungal therapeutics targeting this DNA repair system. PMID:22669901

  9. Cardiovascular and organ responses and adaptation responses to hypogravity in an experimental animal model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, R.; Capodicasa, E.; Tassi, C.; Mezzasomal, L.; Benedetti, C.; Valiani, M.; Marconi, P.; Rossi, R.

    1995-10-01

    The head-down suspension (i.e antiorthostatic hypokinesia) rat is used to simulate weightlessness. However, little is known about cardiovascular and organ adaptation responses which, over a long time, can become pathologically significant. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate regional changes in the hematology parameters, Endotheline-1 (ET-1) concentration and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) (NAG) in an experimental antiorthostatic rat model. The data indicate significant variations in the plasma ET-1 level in time, in the superior and inferior cava vessel blood of animals maintained for 10 days in hypogravity with respect to controls. These changes do not seem to be due to hemoconcentration. The increase in urinary NAG was observed during the first 24h of experiment, indicating renal stress, probably due to adverse blood flow variations within the organ. We conclude that the plasma ET-1 level changes could be responsible, overall for the blood flow variations in the kidney and renal stress could be the consequence of extended antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The ET-1 behaviour and urinary NAG excretion in rats exposed to antiorthostatic hypokjnetic hydynamia offer possibilities for understanding if these changes might be reversible or when they become pathological. This could give some relevant information about the effects of prolonged hypogravity during the space voyage.

  10. Cardiovascular and organ responses and adaptation responses to hypogravity in an experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Biondi, R; Capodicasa, E; Tassi, C; Mezzasoma, L; Benedetti, C; Valiani, M; Marconi, P; Rossi, R

    1995-10-01

    The head-down suspension (i.e. antiorthostatic hypokinesia) rat is used to simulate weightlessness. However, little is known about cardiovascular and organ adaptation responses which, over a long time, can become pathologically significant. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate regional changes in the hematology parameters. Endotheline-1 (ET-1) concentration and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) (NAG) in an experimental antiorthostatic rat model. The data indicate significant variations in the plasma ET-1 level in time, in the superior and inferior cava vessel blood of animals maintained for 10 days in hypogravity with respect to controls. These changes do not seem to be due to hemoconcentration. The increase in urinary NAG was observed during the first 24h of experiment, indicating renal stress, probably due to adverse blood flow variations within the organ. We conclude that the plasma ET-1 level changes could be responsible, overall for the blood flow variations in the kidney and renal stress could be the consequence of extended antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The ET-1 behaviour and urinary NAG excretion in rats exposed to antiorthostatic hypokinetic hydynamia offer possibilities for understanding if these changes might be reversible or when they become pathological. This could give some relevant information about the effects of prolonged hypogravity during the space voyage.

  11. Coping with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Gerdenio M.; And Others

    Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly…

  12. Perceptions of coping with non-disease-related life stress for women with osteoarthritis: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Melissa L; Byles, Julie E; Townsend, Natalie; Loxton, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Objective Coping with arthritis-related stress has been extensively studied. However, limited evidence exists regarding coping with stress extraneous to the disease (life stress). This study explored life stress and coping in a subset of older women with osteoarthritis from a larger longitudinal study. Setting An Australian regional university. Design This qualitative study involved semistructured telephone interviews. Potential participants were mailed a letter of invitation/participant information statement by the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). Invitations were sent out in small batches (primarily 10). Interviews were conducted until data saturation was achieved using a systematic process (n=19). Digitally recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and deidentified. Data were thematically analysed. Participants Women who indicated being diagnosed or treated for arthritis in the previous 3 years in the fifth survey of the ALSWH (conducted in 2007) provided the sampling frame. Potential participants were randomly sampled by a blinded data manager using a random number generator. Results Coping with life stress involved both attitudinal coping processes developed early in life (ie, stoicism) and transient cognitive and support-based responses. Women also described a dualistic process involving a reduction in the ability to cope with ongoing stress over time, coupled with personal growth. Conclusions This is the first study to examine how individuals cope with non-arthritis-related stress. The findings add to the current understanding of stress and coping, and have implications regarding the prevention of arthritis in women. Importantly, this study highlighted the potential detrimental impact of persistent coping patterns developed early in life. Public health campaigns aimed at stress mitigation and facilitation of adaptive coping mechanisms in childhood and adolescence may assist with arthritis prevention. PMID:27188808

  13. Adaptive Benefits of Storage Strategy and Dual AMPK/TOR Signaling in Metabolic Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Pfeuty, Benjamin; Thommen, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Cellular metabolism must ensure that supply of nutrient meets the biosynthetic and bioenergetic needs. Cells have therefore developed sophisticated signaling and regulatory pathways in order to cope with dynamic fluctuations of both resource and demand and to regulate accordingly diverse anabolic and catabolic processes. Intriguingly, these pathways are organized around a relatively small number of regulatory hubs, such as the highly conserved AMPK and TOR kinase families in eukaryotic cells. Here, the global metabolic adaptations upon dynamic environment are investigated using a prototypical model of regulated metabolism. In this model, the optimal enzyme profiles as well as the underlying regulatory architecture are identified by combining perturbation and evolutionary methods. The results reveal the existence of distinct classes of adaptive strategies, which differ in the management of storage reserve depending on the intensity of the stress and in the regulation of ATP-producing reaction depending on the nature of the stress. The regulatory architecture that optimally implements these adaptive features is characterized by a crosstalk between two specialized signaling pathways, which bears close similarities with the sensing and regulatory properties of AMPK and TOR pathways. PMID:27505075

  14. Response and adaptation of Beagle dogs to hypergravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, J.

    1975-01-01

    Eight male Beagle dogs, five months old, were centrifuged continuously for three months at progressively increasing loads. Heart rate and deep body temperature were monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry. Initially, centrifuged dogs showed transient decreases in heart rate and body temperature along with changes in their diurnal rhythm patterns. Compared with normal gravity controls, exposed dogs showed a slower growth rate and a reduced amount of body fat. Blood protein, total lipids, cholesterol, calcium, packed cell volume, red blood cell count, and hemoglobin were also decreased significantly. Absolute weights of the leg bones of centrifuged dogs were significantly greater than controls. Photon absorptiometry revealed significant density increases in selective regions of the femur and humerus of centrifuged dogs. In spite of the various changes noted, results from this and other studies affirm the view that dogs can tolerate and adapt to sustained loads as high as 2.5 g without serious impairment of their body structure and function.

  15. Exercise training - Blood pressure responses in subjects adapted to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional endurance exercise training that involves daily workouts of 1-2 hr duration during exposure to microgravity has not proven completely effective in ameliorating postexposure orthostatic hypotension. Single bouts of intense exercise have been shown to increase plasma volume and baroreflex sensitivity in ambulatory subjects through 24 hr postexercise and to reverse decrements in maximal oxygen uptake and syncopal episodes following exposure to simulated microgravity. These physiological adaptations to acute intense exercise were opposite to those observed following exposure to microgravity. These results suggest that the 'exercise training' stimulus used to prevent orthostatic hypotension induced by microgravity may be specific and should be redefined to include single bouts of maximal exercise which may provide an acute effective countermeasure against postflight hypotension.

  16. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies.

  17. Converging concepts: adaptive response, preconditioning, and the Yerkes-Dodson Law are manifestations of hormesis.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2008-01-01

    The adaptive response in toxicology and environmental mutagenesis, preconditioning in biomedicine and the Yerkes-Dodson Law in psychology have dominating research themes with widespread and significant scientific and societal implications. This paper suggests that these apparently independent biological dose-response phenomena are manifestations of the common and more general biphasic dose-response relationship concept called hormesis. These three types of dose-response, as well as the hormesis concept, may represent the same general type of adaptation, which were discovered independently in different biological disciplines, amongst which there has been little communication. This intellectual isolation, due principally to progressively greater disciplinary specialization, resulted in the evolution of different terminologies for dose-response phenomena with strikingly similar quantitative features. This lack of recognition of converging dose-response concepts across disciplines has important implications since it limits the recognition of a common and basic biological concept while minimizing collaborations by investigators in related areas. The paper concludes that the broadly recognized biological adaptive responses, as described by the concepts of adaptive response, preconditioning and the Yerkes-Dodson Law, are special cases of the more general hormesis dose-response concept.

  18. Adaptation response of Arabidopsis thaliana to random positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittang, A.-I.; Winge, P.; van Loon, J. J. W. A.; Bones, A. M.; Iversen, T.-H.

    2013-10-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings were exposed on a Random Positioning Machine (RPM) under light conditions for 16 h and the samples were analysed using microarray techniques as part of a preparation for a space experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). The results demonstrated a moderate to low regulation of 55 genes (<0.2% of the analysed genes). Genes encoding proteins associated with the chaperone system (e.g. heat shock proteins, HSPs) and enzymes in the flavonoid biosynthesis were induced. Most of the repressed genes were associated with light and sugar responses. Significant up-regulation of selected HSP genes was found by quantitative Real-Time PCR in 1 week old plants after the RPM exposure both in light and darkness. Higher quantity of DPBA (diphenylboric acid 2-amino-ethyl ester) staining was observed in the whole root and in the root elongation zone of the seedlings exposed on the RPM by use of fluorescent microscopy, indicating higher flavonoid content. The regulated genes and an increase of flavonoids are related to several stresses, but increased occurrence of HSPs and flavonoids are also representative for normal growth (e.g. gravitropism). The response could be a direct stress response or an integrated response of the two signal pathways of light and gravity resulting in an overall light response.

  19. How to Cope with Bias While Adapting for Inclusion in Physical Education and Sports: A Judgment and Decision-Making Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Bar-Eli, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a theoretical model and practice examples of judgment and decision making bias within the context of inclusion in physical education and sports. After presenting the context of adapting for inclusion, the theoretical roots of judgment and decision are described, and are linked to the practice of physical…

  20. Adaptive response of human melanoma cells to methylglyoxal injury.

    PubMed

    Amicarelli, F; Bucciarelli, T; Poma, A; Aimola, P; Di Ilio, C; Ragnelli, A M; Miranda, M

    1998-03-01

    The effects of methylglyoxal on the growth of a line of human melanoma cells are investigated. Methylglyoxal inhibits cell growth in a dose-dependent manner and causes an increase in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glyoxalase 1 and glyoxalase 2 specific activities. The cellular response to increasing concentrations of methylglyoxal in the culture medium is also studied by measuring L-lactate production, reduced-oxidized glutathione levels and apoptotic cell death. Methylglyoxal seems to promote a change of cell population phenotypic repertoire toward a more monomorphic phenotype. In conclusion, methylglyoxal seems to induce an enzymatic cellular response that lowers methylglyoxal levels and selects the most resistant cells.

  1. Response-Adaptive Decision-Theoretic Trial Design: Operating Characteristics and Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Lipsky, Ari M.; Lewis, Roger J.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive randomization is used in clinical trials to increase statistical efficiency. In addition, some clinicians and researchers believe that using adaptive randomization leads necessarily to more ethical treatment of subjects in a trial. We develop Bayesian, decision-theoretic, clinical trial designs with response-adaptive randomization and a primary goal of estimating treatment effect, and then contrast these designs with designs that also include in their loss function a cost for poor subject outcome. When the loss function did not incorporate a cost for poor subject outcome, the gains in efficiency from response-adaptive randomization were accompanied by ethically concerning subject allocations. Conversely, including a cost for poor subject outcome demonstrated a more acceptable balance between the competing needs in the trial. A subsequent, parallel set of trials designed to control explicitly type I and II error rates showed that much of the improvement achieved through modification of the loss function was essentially negated. Therefore, gains in efficiency from the use of a decision-theoretic, response-adaptive design using adaptive randomization may only be assumed to apply to those goals which are explicitly included in the loss function. Trial goals, including ethical ones, which do not appear in the loss function are ignored and may even be compromised; it is thus inappropriate to assume that all adaptive trials are necessarily more ethical. Controlling type I and II error rates largely negates the benefit of including competing needs in favor of the goal of parameter estimation. PMID:23558674

  2. Variability in the adaptive acid tolerance response phenotype of Salmonella enterica strains.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Nychas, George-John E; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was the assessment of the stationary-phase, low-pH-inducible acid tolerance response (ATR) of different Salmonella enterica strains. For this purpose, 30 strains of the pathogen were grown in tryptone soy broth in the absence (non-adapted cultures) and presence (1% w/v; acid-adapted cultures) of glucose, and then subjected to 4-h acid challenge trials at pH 3.0. Surviving populations of each strain were determined at 1-h intervals, and the Weibull model was fitted to the derived microbiological data. Extensive variability in the acid stress responses of the tested S. enterica strains was observed, with the total population reductions (log CFU/ml) attained in 4 h of acid challenge ranging from 0.9 to 5.5 and from 0.6 to 7.0 for the non-adapted and acid-adapted cultures, respectively. As demonstrated by the model scale parameter δ and shape parameter p, the effect of acid adaptation on the inactivation curves was strain-specific. Although acid adaptation resulted in enhanced acid survival for the majority of the tested strains, there were strains exhibiting similar or decreased acid resistance compared to their non-adapted counterparts. Moreover, acid adaptation appeared to decrease the strain variability of δ whereas increasing the strain variability of p: the coefficient of variation of δ among the tested strains was 97.2 and 54.9% for the non-adapted and acid-adapted cultures, respectively, while the corresponding values for p were 12.7 and 48.1%. The data of the present study, which is the first one to systematically evaluate the adaptive ATR of multiple S. enterica strains, clearly demonstrate that this phenotype (attempted to be induced by growing the pathogen in the presence of glucose) is strain-dependent.

  3. Design of artificial genetic regulatory networks with multiple delayed adaptive responses*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Inoue, Masayo

    2016-06-01

    Genetic regulatory networks with adaptive responses are widely studied in biology. Usually, models consisting only of a few nodes have been considered. They present one input receptor for activation and one output node where the adaptive response is computed. In this work, we design genetic regulatory networks with many receptors and many output nodes able to produce delayed adaptive responses. This design is performed by using an evolutionary algorithm of mutations and selections that minimizes an error function defined by the adaptive response in signal shapes. We present several examples of network constructions with a predefined required set of adaptive delayed responses. We show that an output node can have different kinds of responses as a function of the activated receptor. Additionally, complex network structures are presented since processing nodes can be involved in several input-output pathways. Supplementary material in the form of one nets file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70172-9

  4. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Apoptotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, YuFeng; Martin, David A; Kenkel, Justin; Zhang, Kang; Ogden, Carol Anne; Elkon, Keith B.

    2007-01-01

    The immune system is constantly exposed to dying cells, most of which arise during central tolerance and from effete circulating immune cells. Under homeostatic conditions, phagocytes (predominantly macrophages and dendritic cells) belonging to the innate immune system, rapidly ingest cells and their debris. Apoptotic cell removal requires recognition of altered self on the apoptotic membrane, a process which is facilitated by natural antibodies and serum opsonins. Recognition, may be site and context specific. Uptake and ingestion of apoptotic cells promotes an immunosuppressive environment that avoids inflammatory responses to self antigens. However, it does not preclude a T cell response and it is likely that constant exposure to self antigen, particularly by immature dendritic cells, leads to T cell tolerance. Tolerance occurs by several different mechanisms including anergy and deletion (for CD8+ T cells) and induction of T regulatory cells (for CD4+ T cells). Failed apoptotic cell clearance promotes immune responses to self antigens, especially when the cellular contents are leaked from the cell (necrosis). Inflammatory responses may be induced by nucleic acid stimulation of toll like receptors and other immune sensors, specific intracellular proteins and non protein (uric acid) stimulation of inflammasomes. PMID:17888627

  5. Inhibiting ethylene perception with 1-methylcyclopropene triggers molecular responses aimed to cope with cell toxicity and increased respiration in citrus fruits.

    PubMed

    Establés-Ortiz, Beatriz; Romero, Paco; Ballester, Ana-Rosa; González-Candelas, Luis; Lafuente, María T

    2016-06-01

    The ethylene perception inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) has been critical in understanding the hormone's mode of action. However, 1-MCP may trigger other processes that could vary the interpretation of results related until now to ethylene, which we aim to understand by using transcriptomic analysis. Transcriptomic changes in ethylene and 1-MCP-treated 'Navelate' (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) oranges were studied in parallel with changes in ethylene production, respiration and peel damage. The effects of compounds modifying the levels of the ethylene co-product cyanide and nitric oxide (NO) on fruit physiology were also studied. Results suggested that: 1) The ethylene treatment caused sub-lethal stress since it induced stress-related responses and reduced peel damage; 2) 1-MCP induced ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent responsive networks; 3) 1-MCP triggered ethylene overproduction, stress-related responses and metabolic shifts aimed to cope with cell toxicity, which mostly affected to the inner part of the peel (albedo); 4) 1-MCP increased respiration and drove metabolism reconfiguration for favoring energy conservation but up-regulated genes related to lipid and protein degradation and triggered the over-expression of genes associated with the plasma membrane cellular component; 5) Xenobiotics and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) might act as signals for defense responses in the ethylene-treated fruit, while their uncontrolled generation would induce processes mimicking cell death and damage in 1-MCP-treated fruit; 6) ROS, the ethylene co-product cyanide and NO may converge in the toxic effects of 1-MCP.

  6. Analysis of differential immune responses induced by innate and adaptive immunity following transplantation

    PubMed Central

    He, Hongzhen; Stone, James R; Perkins, David L

    2003-01-01

    The roles of innate and adaptive immunity in allograft rejection remain incompletely understood. Previous studies analysing lymphocyte deficient or syngeneic graft recipients have identified subsets of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines induced by antigen independent mechanisms. In the current study, we analysed a panel of 60 inflammatory parameters including serum cytokines, intragraft chemokines and cytokines, receptors, and cellular markers. Our results confirmed the up-regulation of a subset of markers by innate mechanisms and also identified a subset of parameters up-regulated only in the context of an adaptive response. Thus, we successfully differentiated markers of the innate and adaptive phases of rejection. Current paradigms emphasize that innate signals can promote a subsequent adaptive response. Interestingly, in our studies, expression of the markers induced by innate mechanisms was markedly amplified in the allogeneic, but not syngeneic or lymphocyte deficient, recipients. These results suggest that inflammatory mediators can have functional overlap between the innate and adaptive responses, and that the adaptive component of the rejection process amplifies the innate response by positive feedback regulation. PMID:12757613

  7. Roles and Responsibilities of Adapted Physical Education Teachers in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akuffo, Patrick B.; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the roles and responsibilities of itinerant adapted physical education (APE) teachers at urban public schools. A second purpose is to determine how they execute their roles and responsibilities. Participants include six women with experience as itinerant APE teachers from the same urban school district. The…

  8. The innate and adaptive immune response to avian influenza virus infections and vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against viruses is mediated by the early innate immune responses and later on by the adaptive immune responses. The early innate immunity is designed to contain and limit virus replication in the host, primarily through cytokine and interferon production. Most all cells are cap...

  9. Adaptive response studies may help choose astronauts for long-term space travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, S.

    Long-term manned exploratory missions are planned for the next decades. Exposure to high-energy neutrons, protons and high charge and energy particles during a deep space mission, requires proper radiation protection planning against the detrimental effects of space radiation. It has been estimated that exposure to unpredictable extremely large solar particle events would kill the astronauts without massive shielding in interplanetary space. Recent findings concerning the induction of adaptive response by neutrons or high levels of external and internal exposures including radon in human cells have opened a new horizon for possible implications of adaptive response in radiation protection and especially in protection against detrimental effects of high levels of radiation during a long-term space journey. Significant adaptive response has been demonstrated in humans after exposure to high levels of natural radiation. It has been shown that in some individuals who fail to show an adaptive response, extraordinary synergism was observed. Interestingly, it was observed that even when the frequency of chromosome aberrations in cells exposed to adapting dose alone or challenge dose alone, were not different than those of other study participants, a severe synergism observed in the cells exposed to challenge dose after an adapting dose. Based on the results obtained in this experiment, due to possible interactions between a chronic low dose and an acute high dose, a common G2 radiosensitivity assay cannot predict radiation risk during a long-term space mission. It can be suggested that the magnitude of adaptive response in lymphocyte samples of potential crew for a deep space mission should be assessed in ground based laboratory studies. Selected space crew who show a high magnitude of adaptive response in ground experiments, will be exposed to adapting higher than normal background radiation doses during mission and they will be considerably more resistant to high doses

  10. Adaptive dose finding based on t-statistic for dose-response trials.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Anastasia; Bolognese, James A; Perevozskaya, Inna

    2008-05-10

    The goals of phase II dose-response studies are to prove that the treatment is effective and to choose the dose for further development. Randomized designs with equal allocation to either a high dose and placebo or to each of several doses and placebo are typically used. However, in trials where response is observed relatively quickly, adaptive designs might offer an advantage over equal allocation. We propose an adaptive design for dose-response trials that concentrates the allocation of subjects in one or more areas of interest, for example, near a minimum clinically important effect level, or near some maximal effect level, and also allows for the possibility to stop the trial early if needed. The proposed adaptive design yields higher power to detect a dose-response relationship, higher power in comparison with placebo, and selects the correct dose more frequently compared with a corresponding randomized design with equal allocation to doses.

  11. gammadelta T cells link innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Holtmeier, Wolfgang; Kabelitz, Dieter

    2005-01-01

    While most T cells use a CD3-associated alpha/beta T cell receptor as antigen recognition structure, a second population of T cells expresses the alternative gamma/delta T cell receptor. gamma/delta T cells are a minor population in the peripheral blood but constitute a major population among intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Most gamma/delta T cells recognize ligands which are fundamentally different from the short peptides that are seen by alpha/beta T cells in the context of MHC class I or class II molecules. Thus, human Vdelta2 T cells recognize small bacterial phosphoantigens, alkylamines and synthetic aminobisphosphonates, whereas Vdelta1 T cells recognize stress-inducible MHC-related molecules MICA/B as well as several other ligands. At the functional level, gamma/delta T cells rapidly produce a variety of cytokines and usually exert potent cytotoxic activity, also towards many tumor cells. In this article, we discuss the role of gamma/delta T cells as a bridge between the innate and the adaptive immune system, based on the interpretation that gamma/delta T cells use their T cell receptor as a pattern recognition receptor. Our increasing understanding of the ligand recognition and activation mechanisms of gamma/delta T cells also opens new perspectives for the development of gamma/delta T cell-based immunotherapies.

  12. Coping with the Sluggish Economy: State Responses to Revenue Shortfalls and Their Significance for Public Schools and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Gale

    Responses of southern states to revenue shortfalls and their significance for public schools and higher education are examined in this report. Many different actions have been take to address state fiscal problems: most strategies require changes in revenue polices that increase taxes and fees or reallocate funds, and many have mandated spending…

  13. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  14. Adaptive Control Responses to Behavioral Perturbation Based Upon the Insect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    autonomous robot Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 31: :176.110 Harley CM, Predina JD, Ritzmann RE (2006) Responses to incomplete sensory information in cockroach...climbing behavior. Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 32:449.412 Hess D, Buschges A (1999) Role of proprioceptive signals from an insect femur-tibia joint in...Altered joint reflexes in the cockroach may lead to 17 directional changes in leg extension. Soc Neuroci Abstr CD ROM 32:449.411 Pollack AJ

  15. Chemical Tools To Monitor and Manipulate Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Doran, Todd M; Sarkar, Mohosin; Kodadek, Thomas

    2016-05-18

    Methods to monitor and manipulate the immune system are of enormous clinical interest. For example, the development of vaccines represents one of the earliest and greatest accomplishments of the biomedical research enterprise. More recently, drugs capable of "reawakening" the immune system to cancer have generated enormous excitement. But, much remains to be done. All drugs available today that manipulate the immune system cannot distinguish between "good" and "bad" immune responses and thus drive general and systemic immune suppression or activation. Indeed, with the notable exception of vaccines, our ability to monitor and manipulate antigen-specific immune responses is in its infancy. Achieving this finer level of control would be highly desirable. For example, it might allow the pharmacological editing of pathogenic immune responses without restricting the ability of the immune system to defend against infection. On the diagnostic side, a method to comprehensively monitor the circulating, antigen-specific antibody population could provide a treasure trove of clinically useful biomarkers, since many diseases expose the immune system to characteristic molecules that are deemed foreign and elicit the production of antibodies against them. This Perspective will discuss the state-of-the-art of this area with a focus on what we consider seminal opportunities for the chemistry community to contribute to this important field.

  16. Maternal Coping Strategies in Response to a Child's Chronic and Oncological Disease: a Cross-Cultural Study in Italy and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Perricone, Giovanna; Guerra, Marina Prista; Cruz, Orlanda; Polizzi, Concetta; Lima, Lígia; Morales, Maria Regina; de Lemos, Marina Serra; Fontana, Valentina

    2013-06-13

    A child's oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the child's wellbeing and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a child's severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The study investigates differences and cross-cultural elements among the coping strategies used by Italian and Portuguese mothers of children with oncological or chronic disease. Two groups of mothers took part: 59 Italian mothers (average age 37.7 years; SD=4.5) and 36 Portuguese mothers (average age 39.3 years; SD=4.6). The tool used was the Italian and the Portuguese versions of the COPE inventory that measures five coping strategies: Social Support, Avoidance Coping, Positive Aptitude, Religious Faith and Humor, Active Coping. There were statistically significant differences between Portuguese and Italian mothers regarding Social Support (F(3, 94)=6.32, P=0.014, ɳ(2)=0.065), Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=20.06, P=0.001, ɳ(2)=0.18, higher values for Portuguese mothers) and Avoidance Coping (F(3, 94)=3.30, P=0.06, ɳ(2)=0.035, higher values for Italian mothers). Regarding child's disease, the only statistically significant difference was in Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=7.49, P=0.007, ɳ(2)=0.076, higher values for mothers of children with chronic disease). The findings of specific cultural transversalities provide the basis for reflection on important factors emerging on the relationship between physicians and parents. In fact, mothers' coping abilities may allow health workers involved in a child's care not only to understand how parents face a distressful event, but also to provide them with professional support.

  17. Gender differences in farmers' responses to climate change adaptation in Yongqiao District, China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jianjun; Wang, Xiaomin; Gao, Yiwei

    2015-12-15

    This study examines the gender differences in farmers' responses to climate change adaption in Yongqiao District, China. A random sampling technique was used to select 220 household heads, while descriptive statistics and binary logit models were used to analyze the data obtained from the households. We determine that male and female respondents are not significantly different in their knowledge and perceptions of climate change, but there is a gender difference in adopting climate change adaptation measures. Male-headed households are more likely to adopt new technology for water conservation and to increase investment in irrigation infrastructure. The research also indicates that the adaptation decisions of male and female heads are influenced by different sets of factors. The findings of this research help to elucidate the determinants of climate change adaptation decisions for male and female-headed households and the strategic interventions necessary for effective adaptation.

  18. Development and Validation of an Exploratory Measure to Assess Student Coping: The Student Coping Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boujut, Emile

    2013-01-01

    Students is a very specific population according to their manner to cope with stress. A coping questionnaire for students was developed and administered to 1100 French students at the beginning of the term (T1). Principal Component Analysis of responses, followed by varimax rotations, yielded three factors accounting for 50.5% of the total…

  19. Global transcriptional, physiological, and metabolite analyses of the responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris hildenborough to salt adaptation.

    PubMed

    He, Zhili; Zhou, Aifen; Baidoo, Edward; He, Qiang; Joachimiak, Marcin P; Benke, Peter; Phan, Richard; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hemme, Christopher L; Huang, Katherine; Alm, Eric J; Fields, Matthew W; Wall, Judy; Stahl, David; Hazen, Terry C; Keasling, Jay D; Arkin, Adam P; Zhou, Jizhong

    2010-03-01

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by performing physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. Salt adaptation was reflected by increased expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). The expression of genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell growth, and phage structures was decreased. Transcriptome profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation were compared with transcriptome profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure). Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine accumulated under salt adaptation conditions, suggesting that these amino acids may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. Addition of amino acids (glutamate, alanine, and tryptophan) or yeast extract to the growth medium relieved salt-related growth inhibition. A conceptual model that links the observed results to currently available knowledge is proposed to increase our understanding of the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl levels.

  20. The adaptive evolution of plasticity: phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance responses.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Johanna; Stinchcombe, John R; Heschel, M Shane; Huber, Heidrun

    2003-07-01

    Many plants display a characteristic suite of developmental "shade avoidance" responses, such as stem elongation and accelerated reproduction, to the low ratio of red to far-red wavelengths (R:FR) reflected or transmitted from green vegetation. This R:FR cue of crowding and vegetation shade is perceived by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. Phytochrome-mediated responses provide an ideal system for investigating the adaptive evolution of phenotypic plasticity in natural environments. The molecular and developmental mechanisms underlying shade avoidance responses are well studied, and testable ecological hypotheses exist for their adaptive significance. Experimental manipulation of phenotypes demonstrates that shade avoidance responses may be adaptive, resulting in phenotypes with high relative fitness in the environments that induce those phenotypes. The adaptive value of shade avoidance depends upon the competitive environment, resource availability, and the reliability of the R:FR cue for predicting the selective environment experienced by an induced phenotype. Comparative studies and a reciprocal transplant experiment with Impatiens capensis provide evidence of adaptive divergence in shade avoidance responses between woodland and clearing habitats, which may result from population differences in the frequency of selection on shade avoidance traits, as well as differences in the reliability of the R:FR cue. Recent rapid progress in elucidating phytochrome signaling pathways in the genetic model Arabidopsis thaliana and other species now provides the opportunity for studying how selection on shade avoidance traits in natural environments acts upon the molecular mechanisms underlying natural phenotypic variation.

  1. Understanding the adaptive response in vertebrates: the phenomenon of ease and ease response during post-stress acclimation.

    PubMed

    Subhash Peter, M C

    2013-01-15

    Vertebrates have evolved mechanisms to perceive stressors that arise either from their body or from the environment. Consequently, a state of stress and stress response occur in fish which is characterized by a disturbed physiological homeostasis. The pattern of stress response becomes complex as a result of neuroendocrine involvement and shows varied magnitudes in fishes depending on the nature and the severity of stressors. The integrated and compensatory physiological modifications in fishes during their early phase of adaptive response favor them to accommodate the imposed stressor through the process of stress acclimation. In contrast, with the direction of neuroendocrine signals, a phase of recovery often called post-stress acclimation occurs if the animal gets away from the stressor exposure. During this late phase of adaptive response, physiological modifications operate in favor of the animal that reduces the magnitude of stress response and finally to a phase of normality as animals possess the urge to correct its disrupted homeostasis. The phenomenon of ease and its response thus reduces the allostatic load, resets the homeostatic state through physiologic processes and corrects the stress-induced homeostatic disturbance with the aid of neuroendocrine signals. Ample evidences are now available to support this novel concept of ease and ease response where mitigation of the intensity of stress response occurs physiologically. Treatment of fish with melatonin or serotonin precursor tryptophan can modify the magnitude of stress response as evident in the pattern of tested physiological indices. In addition to cortisol, thyroid hormone as a major stress modifier hormone is involved in the regulation of ease response in fish probably due to the mechanisms involving inter-hormonal interference. Understanding the mechanisms of adaptive responses in vertebrates thus warranties more studies on the physiology of ease and its response.

  2. Quantifying Rates of Evolutionary Adaptation in Response to Ocean Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Sunday, Jennifer M.; Crim, Ryan N.; Harley, Christopher D. G.; Hart, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    The global acidification of the earth's oceans is predicted to impact biodiversity via physiological effects impacting growth, survival, reproduction, and immunology, leading to changes in species abundances and global distributions. However, the degree to which these changes will play out critically depends on the evolutionary rate at which populations will respond to natural selection imposed by ocean acidification, which remains largely unquantified. Here we measure the potential for an evolutionary response to ocean acidification in larval development rate in two coastal invertebrates using a full-factorial breeding design. We show that the sea urchin species Strongylocentrotus franciscanus has vastly greater levels of phenotypic and genetic variation for larval size in future CO2 conditions compared to the mussel species Mytilus trossulus. Using these measures we demonstrate that S. franciscanus may have faster evolutionary responses within 50 years of the onset of predicted year-2100 CO2 conditions despite having lower population turnover rates. Our comparisons suggest that information on genetic variation, phenotypic variation, and key demographic parameters, may lend valuable insight into relative evolutionary potentials across a large number of species. PMID:21857962

  3. Self-reported health and cortisol awakening response in parents of people with asperger syndrome: the role of trait anger and anxiety, coping and burden.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Robledillo, N; Moya-Albiol, L

    2013-11-01

    Caring for offspring with autism spectrum disorders entails high levels of stress for a long period of time and is associated with several types of health complaints. Few studies have focused on specific effects of particular disorders in the spectrum. This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the global health of parents of people with Asperger syndrome (N = 53) compared to those of typically developing children (N = 54) through self-reported measures (medication consumption and somatic symptoms) and biological markers (cortisol awakening response [CAR]). Additionally, we analysed various psychological variables as potential predictors of caregiver health. We found that caregivers take more medication and have worse self-reported health than controls, but there were no significant differences in CAR between the groups. However, after controlling for negative affect, differences between groups in CAR reached significance. With regards to predictor variables, anxiety trait, cognitive-coping style, burden and anger temperament were significantly associated with caregiver's self-reported health. These findings underline the need to develop interventions that foster improvements in the health of caregivers, reduce their burden and enhance their quality of life.

  4. Toxin ζ Reversible Induces Dormancy and Reduces the UDP-N-Acetylglucosamine Pool as One of the Protective Responses to Cope with Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tabone, Mariangela; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Toxins of the ζ/PezT family, found in the genome of major human pathogens, phosphorylate the peptidoglycan precursor uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG) leading to unreactive UNAG-3P. Transient over-expression of a PezT variant impairs cell wall biosynthesis and triggers autolysis in Escherichia coli. Conversely, physiological levels of ζ reversibly induce dormancy produce a sub-fraction of membrane-compromised cells, and a minor subpopulation of Bacillus subtilis cells become tolerant of toxin action. We report here that purified ζ is a strong UNAG-dependent ATPase, being GTP a lower competitor. In vitro, ζ toxin phosphorylates a fraction of UNAG. In vivo, ζ-mediated inactivation of UNAG by phosphorylation does not deplete the active UNAG pool, because expression of the toxin enhances the efficacy of genuine cell wall inhibitors (fosfomycin, vancomycin or ampicillin). Transient ζ expression together with fosfomycin treatment halt cell proliferation, but ε2 antitoxin expression facilitates the exit of ζ-induced dormancy, suggesting that there is sufficient UNAG for growth. We propose that ζ induces diverse cellular responses to cope with stress, being the reduction of the UNAG pool one among them. If the action of ζ is not inhibited, e.g., by de novo ε2 antitoxin synthesis, the toxin markedly enhances the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment without massive autolysis in Firmicutes. PMID:25238046

  5. Effects of local adaptation and interspecific competition on species' responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Bocedi, Greta; Atkins, Katherine E; Liao, Jishan; Henry, Roslyn C; Travis, Justin M J; Hellmann, Jessica J

    2013-09-01

    Local adaptation and species interactions have been shown to affect geographic ranges; therefore, we need models of climate impact that include both factors. To identify possible dynamics of species when including these factors, we ran simulations of two competing species using an individual-based, coupled map-lattice model using a linear climatic gradient that varies across latitude and is warmed over time. Reproductive success is governed by an individual's adaptation to local climate as well as its location relative to global constraints. In exploratory experiments varying the strength of adaptation and competition, competition reduces genetic diversity and slows range change, although the two species can coexist in the absence of climate change and shift in the absence of competitors. We also found that one species can drive the other to extinction, sometimes long after climate change ends. Weak selection on local adaptation and poor dispersal ability also caused surfing of cooler-adapted phenotypes from the expanding margin backwards, causing loss of warmer-adapted phenotypes. Finally, geographic ranges can become disjointed, losing centrally-adapted genotypes. These initial results suggest that the interplay between local adaptation and interspecific competition can significantly influence species' responses to climate change, in a way that demands future research.

  6. Teacher Stress and Coping Strategies: A National Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This national survey of 1,201 kindergarten through Grade-12-U.S. teachers focused on three related areas: (1) sources of teacher stress, (2) manifestations of stress, and (3) suggested coping strategies. The survey instrument was adapted from the Teacher Stress Inventory and the Coping Scale for Adults. Results indicated that teachers nationwide…

  7. A Qualitative Analysis of the Coping Strategies of Substitute Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorell, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    This study distinguishes whether substitute teachers enact coping strategies that mitigate the source of work-related stress (problem-centered) or coping strategies that enable them to adapt to stress created by work-related stressors (avoidance-centered). The author gathered data for this analysis by conducting 37 in-depth interviews with…

  8. Academic Resourcefulness, Coping Strategies and Doubting in University Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This study hypothesised that academic resourcefulness and coping strategies would predict doubting amongst university undergraduates. Doubting refers to the serious consideration of prematurely withdrawing from university. It was predicted that mature students would report higher levels of academic resourcefulness and adaptive coping strategies,…

  9. Control Beliefs, Coping Efforts, and Adjustment to Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mark P.; Karoly, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Examined adaptation to chronic pain in 118 patients. Control appraisals, ignoring pain, using coping self-statements, and increasing activities were positively related to psychological functioning. Control appraisals, diverting attention, ignoring pain, and using coping self-statements were positively related to activity level for patients…

  10. Optimism, Social Comparisons, and Coping with Vision Loss in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Debi, Zoharit

    2005-01-01

    This study of 90 adults (aged 55?80) who lost their vision assessed their dispositional optimism, social comparisons, coping strategies, and wellbeing. The findings suggest that optimism and positive social comparisons play an important role in stimulating the motivation to cope adaptively with vision loss and that enhancing optimism and social…

  11. Adaptive liquid microlenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liang; Agarwal, Abhishek K.; Beebe, David J.; Jiang, Hongrui

    2006-08-01

    Despite its compactness, the human eye can easily focus on different distances by adjusting the shape of its lens with the help of ciliary muscles. In contrast, traditional man-made optical systems achieve focusing by physical displacement of the lenses used. But in recent years, advances in miniaturization technology have led to optical systems that no longer require complicated mechanical systems to tune and adjust optical performance. These systems have found wide use in photonics, displays and biomedical systems. They are either based on arrays of microlenses with fixed focal lengths, or use external control to adjust the microlens focal length. An intriguing example is the tunable liquid lens, where electrowetting or external pressure manipulates the shape of a liquid droplet and thereby adjusts its optical properties. Here we demonstrate a liquid lens system that allows for autonomous focusing. The central component is a stimuli-responsive hydrogel integrated into a microfluidic system and serving as the container for a liquid droplet, with the hydrogel simultaneously sensing the presence of stimuli and actuating adjustments to the shape-and hence focal length-of the droplet. By working at the micrometre scale where ionic diffusion and surface tension scale favourably, we can use pinned liquid-liquid interfaces to obtain stable devices and realize response times of ten to a few tens of seconds. The microlenses, which can have a focal length ranging from -∞ to +∞ (divergent and convergent), are also readily integrated into arrays that may find use in applications such as sensing, medical diagnostics and lab-on-a-chip technologies.

  12. Weight-based victimization among adolescents in the school setting: emotional reactions and coping behaviors.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Weight-based victimization is a frequent experience for adolescents, but little is known about their emotional reactions and coping strategies in response to weight-based teasing and bullying. The present study examined the ways that adolescents cope with experiences of weight-based victimization at school. An initial sample of 1,555 students from two high schools in central Connecticut completed a comprehensive battery of self-report measures to assess their experiences of weight-based teasing and bullying at school, affective responses to these experiences, and coping strategies used to deal with incidents of weight-based victimization. Only those students who reported experiencing weight-based victimization (N = 394) were included for the purposes of the present study. Of this sub-sample, 56% were females, 84% were Caucasian, and the mean age was 16.4 years. Weight-based victimization resulted in 40-50% of adolescents feeling sad and depressed, worse about themselves, bad about their body, angry, and some feeling afraid. Gender differences emerged with respect to how boys and girls react to experiences of weight-based victimization. However, structural equation model estimates demonstrated that both boys and girls who reported negative affect in response to weight-based victimization were more likely to use coping strategies of avoidance (e.g., avoiding gym class), increased food consumption, and binge eating. Binary logistic regressions showed that the odds of students skipping school or reporting that their grades were harmed because of weight-based teasing increased by 5% per teasing incident, even after controlling for gender, age, race, grades, and weight status. To our knowledge, this study is the first systematic examination of affective reactions and coping strategies among overweight adolescents in response to weight-based victimization. These findings can inform efforts to assist overweight youth to cope adaptively with weight-based victimization.

  13. Adaptive response in animals exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: some underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Tong, Jian

    2014-04-22

    During the last few years, our research group has been investigating the phenomenon of adaptive response in animals exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields. The results from several separate studies indicated a significant increase in survival, decreases in genetic damage as well as oxidative damage and, alterations in several cellular processes in mice pre-exposed to radiofrequency fields and subsequently subjected to sub-lethal or lethal doses of γ-radiation or injected with bleomycin, a radiomimetic chemical mutagen. These observations indicated the induction of adaptive response providing the animals the ability to resist subsequent damage. Similar studies conducted by independent researchers in mice and rats have supported our observation on increased survival. In this paper, we have presented a brief review of all of our own and other independent investigations on radiofrequency fields-induced adaptive response and some underlying mechanisms discussed.

  14. Concluding remarks: nutritional strategies to support the adaptive response to prolonged exercise training.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C; Tipton, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition plays a key role in allowing the numerous training hours to be translated into useful adaptive responses of various tissues in the individual athlete. Research over the last decade has shown many examples of the impact of dietary interventions to modulate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Proper nutritional coaching should be applied throughout both training and competition, each with their specific requirements regarding nutrient provision. Such dietary support will improve exercise training efficiency and, as such, further increase performance capacity. Here, we provide an overview on the properties of various nutritional interventions that may be useful to support the adaptive response to exercise training and competition and, as such, to augment exercise training efficiency.

  15. Innate and adaptive antifungal immune responses: partners on an equal footing.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mawieh

    2012-05-01

    Adaptive immunity has long been regarded as the major player in protection against most fungal infections. Mounting evidence suggest however, that both innate and adaptive responses intricately collaborate to produce effective antifungal protection. Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in initiating and orchestrating antifungal immunity; neutrophils, macrophages and other phagocytes also participate in recognising and eliminating fungal pathogens. Adaptive immunity provides a wide range of effector and regulatory responses against fungal infections. Th1 responses protect against most forms of mycoses but they associate with significant inflammation and limited pathogen persistence. By contrast, Th2 responses enhance persistence of and tolerance to fungal infections thus permitting the generation of long-lasting immunological memory. Although the role of Th17 cytokines in fungal immunity is not fully understood, they can enhance proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses or play a regulatory role in fungal immunity all depending on the pathogen, site/phase of infection and host immunostatus. T regulatory cells balance the activities of various Th cell subsets thereby permitting inflammation and protection on the one hand and allowing for tolerance and memory on the other. Here, recent developments in fungal immunity research are reviewed as means of tracing the emergence of a refined paradigm where innate and adaptive responses are viewed in the same light.

  16. Ebola Virus Altered Innate and Adaptive Immune Response Signalling Pathways: Implications for Novel Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop

    2016-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) arise attention for their impressive lethality by the poor immune response and high inflammatory reaction in the patients. It causes a severe hemorrhagic fever with case fatality rates of up to 90%. The mechanism underlying this lethal outcome is poorly understood. In 2014, a major outbreak of Ebola virus spread amongst several African countries, including Leone, Sierra, and Guinea. Although infections only occur frequently in Central Africa, but the virus has the potential to spread globally. Presently, there is no vaccine or treatment is available to counteract Ebola virus infections due to poor understanding of its interaction with the immune system. Accumulating evidence indicates that the virus actively alters both innate and adaptive immune responses and triggers harmful inflammatory responses. In the literature, some reports have shown that alteration of immune signaling pathways could be due to the ability of EBOV to interfere with dendritic cells (DCs), which link innate and adaptive immune responses. On the other hand, some reports have demonstrated that EBOV, VP35 proteins act as interferon antagonists. So, how the Ebola virus altered the innate and adaptive immune response signaling pathways is still an open question for the researcher to be explored. Thus, in this review, I try to summarize the mechanisms of the alteration of innate and adaptive immune response signaling pathways by Ebola virus which will be helpful for designing effective drugs or vaccines against this lethal infection. Further, potential targets, current treatment and novel therapeutic approaches have also been discussed.

  17. Plasticity and genetic adaptation mediate amphibian and reptile responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Urban, Mark C; Richardson, Jonathan L; Freidenfelds, Nicole A

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation are predicted to mitigate some of the negative biotic consequences of climate change. Here, we evaluate evidence for plastic and evolutionary responses to climate variation in amphibians and reptiles via a literature review and meta-analysis. We included studies that either document phenotypic changes through time or space. Plasticity had a clear and ubiquitous role in promoting phenotypic changes in response to climate variation. For adaptive evolution, we found no direct evidence for evolution of amphibians or reptiles in response to climate change over time. However, we found many studies that documented adaptive responses to climate along spatial gradients. Plasticity provided a mixture of adaptive and maladaptive responses to climate change, highlighting that plasticity frequently, but not always, could ameliorate climate change. Based on our review, we advocate for more experiments that survey genetic changes through time in response to climate change. Overall, plastic and genetic variation in amphibians and reptiles could buffer some of the formidable threats from climate change, but large uncertainties remain owing to limited data.

  18. Plasticity and genetic adaptation mediate amphibian and reptile responses to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Mark C; Richardson, Jonathan L; Freidenfelds, Nicole A

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and genetic adaptation are predicted to mitigate some of the negative biotic consequences of climate change. Here, we evaluate evidence for plastic and evolutionary responses to climate variation in amphibians and reptiles via a literature review and meta-analysis. We included studies that either document phenotypic changes through time or space. Plasticity had a clear and ubiquitous role in promoting phenotypic changes in response to climate variation. For adaptive evolution, we found no direct evidence for evolution of amphibians or reptiles in response to climate change over time. However, we found many studies that documented adaptive responses to climate along spatial gradients. Plasticity provided a mixture of adaptive and maladaptive responses to climate change, highlighting that plasticity frequently, but not always, could ameliorate climate change. Based on our review, we advocate for more experiments that survey genetic changes through time in response to climate change. Overall, plastic and genetic variation in amphibians and reptiles could buffer some of the formidable threats from climate change, but large uncertainties remain owing to limited data. PMID:24454550

  19. Increased anterior cingulate cortex response precedes behavioural adaptation in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Daniel; Ritschel, Franziska; King, Joseph A.; Bernardoni, Fabio; Seidel, Maria; Boehm, Ilka; Runge, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Roessner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N.; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by increased self-control, cognitive rigidity and impairments in set-shifting, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural correlates of behavioural adaptation to changes in reward contingencies in young acutely ill AN patients. Thirty-six adolescent/young adult, non-chronic female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy females completed a well-established probabilistic reversal learning task during fMRI. We analysed hemodynamic responses in empirically-defined regions of interest during positive feedback and negative feedback not followed/followed by behavioural adaptation and conducted functional connectivity analyses. Although overall task performance was comparable between groups, AN showed increased shifting after receiving negative feedback (lose-shift behaviour) and altered dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) responses as a function of feedback. Specifically, patients had increased dACC responses (which correlated with perfectionism) and task-related coupling with amygdala preceding behavioural adaption. Given the generally preserved task performance in young AN, elevated dACC responses specifically during behavioural adaption is suggestive of increased monitoring for the need to adjust performance strategies. Higher dACC-amygdala coupling and increased adaptation after negative feedback underlines this interpretation and could be related to intolerance of uncertainty which has been suggested for AN. PMID:28198813

  20. Increased anterior cingulate cortex response precedes behavioural adaptation in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Daniel; Ritschel, Franziska; King, Joseph A; Bernardoni, Fabio; Seidel, Maria; Boehm, Ilka; Runge, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Roessner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2017-02-13

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by increased self-control, cognitive rigidity and impairments in set-shifting, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural correlates of behavioural adaptation to changes in reward contingencies in young acutely ill AN patients. Thirty-six adolescent/young adult, non-chronic female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy females completed a well-established probabilistic reversal learning task during fMRI. We analysed hemodynamic responses in empirically-defined regions of interest during positive feedback and negative feedback not followed/followed by behavioural adaptation and conducted functional connectivity analyses. Although overall task performance was comparable between groups, AN showed increased shifting after receiving negative feedback (lose-shift behaviour) and altered dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) responses as a function of feedback. Specifically, patients had increased dACC responses (which correlated with perfectionism) and task-related coupling with amygdala preceding behavioural adaption. Given the generally preserved task performance in young AN, elevated dACC responses specifically during behavioural adaption is suggestive of increased monitoring for the need to adjust performance strategies. Higher dACC-amygdala coupling and increased adaptation after negative feedback underlines this interpretation and could be related to intolerance of uncertainty which has been suggested for AN.

  1. Global transcriptional, physiological and metabolite analyses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough responses to salt adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    He, Z.; Zhou, A.; Baidoo, E.; He, Q.; Joachimiak, M. P.; Benke, P.; Phan, R.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Hemme, C.L.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.J.; Fields, M.W.; Wall, J.; Stahl, D.; Hazen, T.C.; Keasling, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Zhou, J.

    2009-12-01

    The response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to salt adaptation (long-term NaCl exposure) was examined by physiological, global transcriptional, and metabolite analyses. The growth of D. vulgaris was inhibited by high levels of NaCl, and the growth inhibition could be relieved by the addition of exogenous amino acids (e.g., glutamate, alanine, tryptophan) or yeast extract. Salt adaptation induced the expression of genes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, electron transfer, hydrogen oxidation, and general stress responses (e.g., heat shock proteins, phage shock proteins, and oxidative stress response proteins). Genes involved in carbon metabolism, cell motility, and phage structures were repressed. Comparison of transcriptomic profiles of D. vulgaris responses to salt adaptation with those of salt shock (short-term NaCl exposure) showed some similarity as well as a significant difference. Metabolite assays showed that glutamate and alanine were accumulated under salt adaptation, suggesting that they may be used as osmoprotectants in D. vulgaris. A conceptual model is proposed to link the observed results to currently available knowledge for further understanding the mechanisms of D. vulgaris adaptation to elevated NaCl.

  2. Theory of psychological adaptive modes.

    PubMed

    Lehti, Juha

    2016-05-01

    When an individual is facing a stressor and normal stress-response mechanism cannot guarantee sufficient adaptation, special emotional states, adaptive modes, are activated (for example a depressive reaction). Adaptive modes are involuntary states of mind, they are of comprehensive nature, they interfere with normal functioning, and they cannot be repressed or controlled the same way as many emotions. Their transformational nature differentiates them from other emotional states. The object of the adaptive mode is to optimize the problem-solving abilities according to the situation that has provoked the mode. Cognitions and emotions during the adaptive mode are different than in a normal mental state. These altered cognitions and emotional reactions guide the individual to use the correct coping skills in order to deal with the stressor. Successful adaptation will cause the adaptive mode to fade off since the adaptive mode is no longer necessary, and the process as a whole will lead to raised well-being. However, if the adaptation process is inadequate, then the transformation period is prolonged, and the adaptive mode will turn into a dysfunctional state. Many psychiatric disorders are such maladaptive processes. The maladaptive processes can be turned into functional ones by using adaptive skills that are used in functional adaptive processes.

  3. Immune adjuvants in early life: targeting the innate immune system to overcome impaired adaptive response.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Cyro Alves; Goldoni, Adriana Letícia; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2009-09-01

    The neonatal phase is a transitory period characterized by an absence of memory cells, favoring a slow adaptive response prone to tolerance effects and the development of Th2-type responses. However, when appropriately stimulated, neonates may achieve an immune response comparable with adult counterparts. One strategy to stimulate the immunological response of neonates or children in early infancy has been to explore natural or synthetic ligands of cell receptors to stimulate innate immunity. The use of adjuvants for activating different cell receptors may be the key to enhancing neonatal adaptive immunity. This review highlights recent advances in the emerging field of molecular adjuvants of innate immune response and their implications for the development of immunotherapies, with particular focus on the neonatal period.

  4. Evolution of taxis responses in virtual bacteria: non-adaptive dynamics.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Richard A; Soyer, Orkun S

    2008-05-23

    Bacteria are able to sense and respond to a variety of external stimuli, with responses that vary from stimuli to stimuli and from species to species. The best-understood is chemotaxis in the model organism Escherichia coli, where the dynamics and the structure of the underlying pathway are well characterised. It is not clear, however, how well this detailed knowledge applies to mechanisms mediating responses to other stimuli or to pathways in other species. Furthermore, there is increasing experimental evidence that bacteria integrate responses from different stimuli to generate a coherent taxis response. We currently lack a full understanding of the different pathway structures and dynamics and how this integration is achieved. In order to explore different pathway structures and dynamics that can underlie taxis responses in bacteria, we perform a computational simulation of the evolution of taxis. This approach starts with a population of virtual bacteria that move in a virtual environment based on the dynamics of the simple biochemical pathways they harbour. As mutations lead to changes in pathway structure and dynamics, bacteria better able to localise with favourable conditions gain a selective advantage. We find that a certain dynamics evolves consistently under different model assumptions and environments. These dynamics, which we call non-adaptive dynamics, directly couple tumbling probability of the cell to increasing stimuli. Dynamics that are adaptive under a wide range of conditions, as seen in the chemotaxis pathway of E. coli, do not evolve in these evolutionary simulations. However, we find that stimulus scarcity and fluctuations during evolution results in complex pathway dynamics that result both in adaptive and non-adaptive dynamics depending on basal stimuli levels. Further analyses of evolved pathway structures show that effective taxis dynamics can be mediated with as few as two components. The non-adaptive dynamics mediating taxis responses

  5. Evaluation of Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma (ALMA): a pilot promotora intervention focused on stress and coping among immigrant Latinas.

    PubMed

    Tran, Anh N; Ornelas, India J; Perez, Georgina; Green, Melissa A; Lyn, Michelle; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2014-04-01

    Recent immigrant Latinas are at increased risk of poor mental health due to stressors associated with adapting to life in the United States. This study evaluated Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma, a promotora intervention to reduce stress and promote health and coping among recent immigrant Latinas. Using a pre- and post-test design, we evaluated mental health outcomes, specifically, in promotoras. Promotoras' knowledge levels related to role of promotora and stress management increased, depressive symptoms and stress levels decreased, and coping responses and perceived social support increased as well. Results suggest that promotora programs may be an effective way to improve mental health in recent immigrant Latinas.

  6. Testing the efficacy of culturally adapted coping skills training for Chinese American immigrants with type 2 diabetes using community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Chesla, Catherine A; Chun, Kevin M; Kwan, Christine M L; Mullan, Joseph T; Kwong, Yulanda; Hsu, Lydia; Huang, Peggy; Strycker, Lisa A; Shum, Tina; To, Diana; Kao, Rudy; Waters, Catherine M

    2013-08-01

    Chinese Americans demonstrate greater prevalence of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites and find standard diabetes care disregards their cultural health beliefs. Academic researchers and Chinatown agencies collaborated to culturally adapt and test an efficacious cognitive-behavioral intervention using community-based participatory research. Using a delayed-treatment repeated-measures design, 145 adult Chinese immigrants with Type 2 diabetes completed treatment. Immediate benefits of treatment were evident in the improvement (p < .05) in diabetes self-efficacy, diabetes knowledge, bicultural efficacy, family emotional and instrumental support, diabetes quality of life, and diabetes distress. Prolonged benefits were evident in all changed variables 2 months post-intervention. The CBPR approach enabled the development of a culturally acceptable, efficacious behavioral intervention, and provides a model for working with communities that demonstrate health disparities.

  7. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate OFF responses in light-adapted ON bipolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Ji-Jie; Gao, Fan; Wu, Samuel M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that photoreceptor synaptic inputs to depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs or ON bipolar cells) are mediated by mGluR6 receptors and those to hyperpolarizing bipolar cells (HBCs or OFF bipolar cells) are mediated by AMPA/kainate receptors. Here we show that in addition to mGluR6 receptors which mediate the sign-inverting, depolarizing light responses, subpopulations of cone-dominated and rod/cone mixed DBCs use GluR4 AMPA receptors to generate a transient sign-preserving OFF response under light adapted conditions. These AMPA receptors are located at the basal junctions postsynaptic to rods and they are silent under dark-adapted conditions, as tonic glutamate release in darkness desensitizes these receptors. Light adaptation enhances rod-cone coupling and thus allows cone photocurrents with an abrupt OFF depolarization to enter the rods. The abrupt rod depolarization triggers glutamate activation of unoccupied AMPA receptors, resulting in a transient OFF response in DBCs. It has been widely accepted that the DNQX-sensitive, OFF transient responses in retinal amacrine cells and ganglion cells are mediated exclusively by HBCs. Our results suggests that this view needs revision as AMPA receptors in subpopulations of DBCs are likely to significantly contribute to the DNQX-sensitive OFF transient responses in light-adapted third- and higher-order visual neurons. PMID:22842089

  8. Adaptive responses reveal contemporary and future ecotypes in a desert shrub.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Bryce A; Kitchen, Stanley G; Pendleton, Rosemary L; Pendleton, Burton K; Germino, Matthew J; Rehfeldt, Gerald E; Meyer, Susan E

    2014-03-01

    Interacting threats to ecosystem function, including climate change, wildfire, and invasive species necessitate native plant restoration in desert ecosystems. However, native plant restoration efforts often remain unguided by ecological genetic information. Given that many ecosystems are in flux from climate change, restoration plans need to account for both contemporary and future climates when choosing seed sources. In this study we analyze vegetative responses, including mortality, growth, and carbon isotope ratios in two blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) common gardens that included 26 populations from a range-wide collection. This shrub occupies ecotones between the warm and cold deserts of Mojave and Colorado Plateau ecoregions in western North America. The variation observed in the vegetative responses of blackbrush populations was principally explained by grouping populations by ecoregions and by regression with site-specific climate variables. Aridity weighted by winter minimum temperatures best explained vegetative responses; Colorado Plateau sites were usually colder and drier than Mojave sites. The relationship between climate and vegetative response was mapped within the boundaries of the species-climate space projected for the contemporary climate and for the decade surrounding 2060. The mapped ecological genetic pattern showed that genetic variation could be classified into cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes, with populations often separated by steep dines. These transitions are predicted to occur in both the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. While under contemporary conditions the warm-adapted ecotype occupies the majority of climate space, climate projections predict that the cool-adapted ecotype could prevail as the dominant ecotype as the climate space of blackbrush expands into higher elevations and latitudes. This study provides the framework for delineating climate change-responsive seed transfer guidelines, which are needed

  9. Adaptive responses reveal contemporary and future ecotypes in a desert shrub

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, Bryce A.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Pendleton, Rosemary L.; Pendleton, Burton K.; Germino, Matthew J.; Rehfeldt, Gerald E.; Meyer, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Interacting threats to ecosystem function, including climate change, wildfire, and invasive species necessitate native plant restoration in desert ecosystems. However, native plant restoration efforts often remain unguided by ecological genetic information. Given that many ecosystems are in flux from climate change, restoration plans need to account for both contemporary and future climates when choosing seed sources. In this study we analyze vegetative responses, including mortality, growth, and carbon isotope ratios in two blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) common gardens that included 26 populations from a range-wide collection. This shrub occupies ecotones between the warm and cold deserts of Mojave and Colorado Plateau ecoregions in western North America. The variation observed in the vegetative responses of blackbrush populations was principally explained by grouping populations by ecoregions and by regression with site-specific climate variables. Aridity weighted by winter minimum temperatures best explained vegetative responses; Colorado Plateau sites were usually colder and drier than Mojave sites. The relationship between climate and vegetative response was mapped within the boundaries of the species–climate space projected for the contemporary climate and for the decade surrounding 2060. The mapped ecological genetic pattern showed that genetic variation could be classified into cool-adapted and warm-adapted ecotypes, with populations often separated by steep clines. These transitions are predicted to occur in both the Mojave Desert and Colorado Plateau ecoregions. While under contemporary conditions the warm-adapted ecotype occupies the majority of climate space, climate projections predict that the cool-adapted ecotype could prevail as the dominant ecotype as the climate space of blackbrush expands into higher elevations and latitudes. This study provides the framework for delineating climate change-responsive seed transfer guidelines, which are

  10. Population variability in biological adaptive responses to DNA damage and the shapes of carcinogen dose-response curves

    SciTech Connect

    Conolly, Rory B. . E-mail: Conolly.Rory@epa.gov; Gaylor, David W.; Lutz, Werner K.

    2005-09-01

    Carcinogen dose-response curves for both ionizing radiation and chemicals are typically assumed to be linear at environmentally relevant doses. This assumption is used to ensure protection of the public health in the absence of relevant dose-response data. A theoretical justification for the assumption has been provided by the argument that low dose linearity is expected when an exogenous agent adds to an ongoing endogenous process. Here, we use computational modeling to evaluate (1) how two biological adaptive processes, induction of DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, may affect the shapes of dose-response curves for DNA-damaging carcinogens and (2) how the resulting dose-response behaviors may vary within a population. Each model incorporating an adaptive process was capable of generating not only monotonic dose-responses but also nonmonotonic (J-shaped) and threshold responses. Monte Carlo analysis suggested that all these dose-response behaviors could coexist within a population, as the spectrum of qualitative differences arose from quantitative changes in parameter values. While this analysis is largely theoretical, it suggests that (a) accurate prediction of the qualitative form of the dose-response requires a quantitative understanding of the mechanism (b) significant uncertainty is associated with human health risk prediction in the absence of such quantitative understanding and (c) a stronger experimental and regulatory focus on biological mechanisms and interindividual variability would allow flexibility in regulatory treatment of environmental carcinogens without compromising human health.

  11. Modeling Light Adaptation in Circadian Clock: Prediction of the Response That Stabilizes Entrainment

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaga, Tetsuya; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Periods of biological clocks are close to but often different from the rotation period of the earth. Thus, the clocks of organisms must be adjusted to synchronize with day-night cycles. The primary signal that adjusts the clocks is light. In Neurospora, light transiently up-regulates the expression of specific clock genes. This molecular response to light is called light adaptation. Does light adaptation occur in other organisms? Using published experimental data, we first estimated the time course of the up-regulation rate of gene expression by light. Intriguingly, the estimated up-regulation rate was transient during light period in mice as well as Neurospora. Next, we constructed a computational model to consider how light adaptation had an effect on the entrainment of circadian oscillation to 24-h light-dark cycles. We found that cellular oscillations are more likely to be destabilized without light adaption especially when light intensity is very high. From the present results, we predict that the instability of circadian oscillations under 24-h light-dark cycles can be experimentally observed if light adaptation is altered. We conclude that the functional consequence of light adaptation is to increase the adjustability to 24-h light-dark cycles and then adapt to fluctuating environments in nature. PMID:21698191

  12. Adaptive response of single and binary Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli biofilms to benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Machado, Idalina; Lopes, Susana Patrícia; Sousa, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Maria Olívia

    2012-02-01

    The main goal of this work was to examine whether the continuous exposure of single and binary P. aeruginosa and E. coli biofilms to sub-lethal benzalkonium chloride (BC) doses can induce adaptive response of bacteria. Biofilms were formed during 24 h and then put continuously in contact with BC for more 5 days. The six-day-old adapted biofilms were then submitted to BC challenge, characterized and inspected by SEM. Both single and binary adapted biofilms have clearly more biomass, polysaccharides and proteins and less activity even though the number of cells was identical. After BC treatment, adapted biofilms maintained their mass and activity. SEM examination revealed that those adapted biofilms had a slimier and denser matrix that became thicker after BC treatment. Continuous exposure of bacteria to antimicrobials can lead to development of biofilms encompassing more virulent and tolerant bacteria. This adaptive resistance can be the result of a phenotypic adaptation, a genetic acquired resistance or both. Instead of eradicating biofilms and kill microorganisms, the use of a disinfectant can, favour biofilm formation and tolerance. This must be a genuine concern as it can happen in clinical environments, where the use of antimicrobials is unavoidable.

  13. Multiple species of Bacillus subtilis DNA alkyltransferase involved in the adaptive response to simple alkylating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Morohoshi, F.; Munakata, N.

    1987-02-01

    Three molecular species of methyl-accepting proteins exist in Bacillus subtilis cells, which collect methyl groups from methylated DNA. A 20-kilodalton (kDa) protein was constitutively present in the cells of the ada/sup +/ (proficient in adaptive response) strain as well as in those of six ada (deficient in adaptive response) mutant strains and was assigned to the O/sup 6/-methylguanine:DNA methyltransferase. Another species of O/sup 6/-methylguanine:DNA methyltransferase, which had a molecular size of 22 kDa, emerged after adaptive treatment of the ada/sup +/ but not any of the ada mutant cells. A 27-kDa methyl-accepting protein, which preferred methylated poly(dT) to methylated calf thymus DNA as a substrate, was assigned to the methylphosphotriester:DNA methyltransferase. It was produced, after adaptive treatment, in the cells of ada/sup +/, ada-3, ada-4, and ada-6 strains but not in the cells of ada-1, ada-2, or ada-5 strains. These results support and extend the authors proposition that ada mutants can be classified into two groups; one (the ada-4 group) is defective only in the inducible synthesis of O/sup 6/-methylguanine:DNA methyltransferase (22-kDa protein), and the other (the ada-1 group) is deficient in the adaptive response in toto.

  14. Natural variation in abiotic stress responsive gene expression and local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Jesse R; Des Marais, David L; Lowry, David B; Povolotskaya, Inna; McKay, John K; Richards, James H; Keitt, Timothy H; Juenger, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    Gene expression varies widely in natural populations, yet the proximate and ultimate causes of this variation are poorly known. Understanding how variation in gene expression affects abiotic stress tolerance, fitness, and adaptation is central to the field of evolutionary genetics. We tested the hypothesis that genes with natural genetic variation in their expression responses to abiotic stress are likely to be involved in local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, we compared genes with consistent expression responses to environmental stress (expression stress responsive, "eSR") to genes with genetically variable responses to abiotic stress (expression genotype-by-environment interaction, "eGEI"). We found that on average genes that exhibited eGEI in response to drought or cold had greater polymorphism in promoter regions and stronger associations with climate than those of eSR genes or genomic controls. We also found that transcription factor binding sites known to respond to environmental stressors, especially abscisic acid responsive elements, showed significantly higher polymorphism in drought eGEI genes in comparison to eSR genes. By contrast, eSR genes tended to exhibit relatively greater pairwise haplotype sharing, lower promoter diversity, and fewer nonsynonymous polymorphisms, suggesting purifying selection or selective sweeps. Our results indicate that cis-regulatory evolution and genetic variation in stress responsive gene expression may be important mechanisms of local adaptation to climatic selective gradients.

  15. Coping with Depression in Single Black Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2016-01-01

    Very little information exists in the literature about what black women do when they experience symptoms of depression. The purpose of this descriptive study was to analyze the responses of 208 community-residing black single mothers, aged 18 to 45, to an open-ended question asking, “What do you do to feel better when you are feeling down in the dumps?” The theoretical bases of the Ways of Coping Checklist, were used to facilitate categorizing their responses into a coping scale and then a particular coping profile. Percentages were used to categorize the frequency of the responses into the respective coping scale and to categorize the frequency of the combined responses of each woman into a respective coping profile. Of the 333 responses that the women provided, 327 were useable. Findings indicated that a majority of responses fell into the Escape-Avoidance category (n = 206; 63%), followed by the Seeking Social Support (n = 60, 18.3%), Positive Reappraisal (n = 40; 12.2%), Planful Problem Solving (n = 12; 3.7%), Distancing (n = 3; 1%), and Self-Controlling (n = 6; 1.8%) categories. No responses fit the Confrontive Coping or Accepting Responsibility categories and none of the responses indicated that the women sought professional help. Of the 176 women who provided answers to the study question, more than half (64.2%; n = 113) gave only emotion-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave only problem-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave mixed responses, and 30.2% (n = 53) reported social support seeking. Implications for future research, cultural theory, and nursing practice are addressed. PMID:26979572

  16. Coping with Depression in Single Black Mothers.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2016-01-01

    Very little information exists in the literature about what black women do when they experience symptoms of depression. The purpose of this descriptive study was to analyze the responses of 208 community-residing black single mothers, aged 18 to 45, to an open-ended question asking, "What do you do to feel better when you are feeling down in the dumps?" The theoretical bases of the Ways of Coping Checklist, were used to facilitate categorizing their responses into a coping scale and then a particular coping profile. Percentages were used to categorize the frequency of the responses into the respective coping scale and to categorize the frequency of the combined responses of each woman into a respective coping profile. Of the 333 responses that the women provided, 327 were useable. Findings indicated that a majority of responses fell into the Escape-Avoidance category (n = 206; 63%), followed by the Seeking Social Support (n = 60, 18.3%), Positive Reappraisal (n = 40; 12.2%), Planful Problem Solving (n = 12; 3.7%), Distancing (n = 3; 1%), and Self-Controlling (n = 6; 1.8%) categories. No responses fit the Confrontive Coping or Accepting Responsibility categories and none of the responses indicated that the women sought professional help. Of the 176 women who provided answers to the study question, more than half (64.2%; n = 113) gave only emotion-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave only problem-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave mixed responses, and 30.2% (n = 53) reported social support seeking. Implications for future research, cultural theory, and nursing practice are addressed.

  17. Coping Flexibility: Influencing Appraisals of Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-25

    have helped subjects focus their coping efforts and minimize the stress caused by the film (Speisman et al, 1964). Alternatively the soundtracks 12... film . various types of coping could be elicited (Speisman et al, 1964; Lazarus & Alfert , 1964). The film depicted a set of primitive manhood rites...harmless, and the third described the rites in an overly intellectualized way. The greatest stress response was seen to the film with the

  18. Coping with Academic Stressors: A Pilot Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-20

    responses. Subjects were also given practice in using these coping skills in mildly stressful situations. Coping skills subjects as compared to controls were...situations. Subjects were also given instructions In the use of relaxation. Homework for this section of the program involved practicing relaxation twice...all of the arithmetical operations. After this l.iodeled illustration, each subject was asked to complete a practice problem while verbalizing outloud

  19. Systematic identification of genes and transduction pathways involved in radio-adaptive response

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Honglu

    2015-05-22

    Low doses of radiation have been shown to protect against the biological effects of later exposure to toxic levels of radiation. In this study, we propose to identify the molecular mechanisms of this adaptive response by systematically identifying the genes that play a role in radio-protection. In the original proposal, a human cell line that is well-documented to exhibit the radio-adaptive effect was to be used. In this revised study plan, we will use a mouse model, C57BL/6, which has also been well investigated for radio-adaptation. The goal of the proposed study is to enhance our understanding of cellular responses to low doses of radiation exposure at the molecular level.

  20. Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2009-02-25

    Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

  1. Cold shock response and adaptation at near-freezing temperature in microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Masayori; Phadtare, Sangita

    2004-06-09

    Microorganisms that naturally encounter sharp temperature shifts must develop strategies for responding and adapting to these shifts. Escherichia coli, which are adapted to living at both warm temperatures inside animals and cooler ambient temperatures, respond to low temperatures (10 degrees to 15 degrees C) by adjusting membrane lipid composition and increasing the production of proteins that act as "RNA chaperones" required for transcription and translation and proteins that facilitate ribosomal assembly. In contrast, yeast, which are adapted to cooler temperatures, show a relatively minor cold shock response after temperature shifts from 30 degrees to 10 degrees C but respond with a dramatic increase in the synthesis of trehalose and a heat shock protein when exposed to freezing or near-freezing temperatures. This emphasizes the fact that different groups of microorganisms exhibit distinct types of cold shock responses.

  2. Integrating human responses to climate change into conservation vulnerability assessments and adaptation planning.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sean L; Venter, Oscar; Jones, Kendall R; Watson, James E M

    2015-10-01

    The impact of climate change on biodiversity is now evident, with the direct impacts of changing temperature and rainfall patterns and increases in the magnitude and frequency of extreme events on species distribution, populations, and overall ecosystem function being increasingly publicized. Changes in the climate system are also affecting human communities, and a range of human responses across terrestrial and marine realms have been witnessed, including altered agricultural activities, shifting fishing efforts, and human migration. Failing to account for the human responses to climate change is likely to compromise climate-smart conservation efforts. Here, we use a well-established conservation planning framework to show how integrating human responses to climate change into both species- and site-based vulnerability assessments and adaptation plans is possible. By explicitly taking into account human responses, conservation practitioners will improve their evaluation of species and ecosystem vulnerability, and will be better able to deliver win-wins for human- and biodiversity-focused climate adaptation.

  3. The Impact of Childhood Cancer: A Two-Factor Model of Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevon, Michael A.; Armstrong, Gordon D.

    A review of existing stress and coping models and an analysis of the distress caused by childhood cancer suggest that a broader conceptualization of coping that includes "pleasure management" is needed. Presently, successful coping is identified as the employment of strategies which allow the individual to adapt to stress. Traditional…

  4. Coping with stalking.

    PubMed

    Amar, Angela Frederick; Alexy, Eileen M

    2010-01-01

    Stalking is a serious public health and societal concern affecting the college population. Although numerous studies illustrate the physical and mental effects of stalking, literature addressing how individuals cope with this phenomenon is lacking. The purpose of this study was to describe stalking experiences of college students and the coping strategies used to manage stalking. In this descriptive study, 262 college students completed an online survey that included a stalking questionnaire and coping survey. Slightly more than one-fourth of the sample (n = 69) reported experiencing stalking victimization. Results indicated that the most common coping strategies employed were: ignoring the problem, minimizing the problem, distancing, detaching or depersonalizing, using verbal escape tactics, attempting to end the relationship, controlling the interaction, and restricting accessibility. Implications for refining current practice and research on coping strategies and stalking are suggested.

  5. Stability of adaptive cruise control systems taking account of vehicle response time and delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2012-08-01

    The region of string stability of a platoon of adaptive cruise control vehicles, taking into account the delay and response of the vehicle powertrain, is found. An upper bound on the explicit delay time as a function the first-order powertrain response time constant is determined. The system is characterized by a headway time constant, a sensitivity parameter, relative (to the vehicle immediately in front) velocity control, and delayed-velocity feedback or acceleration feedback.

  6. The Host Immune Response to Streptococcus pneumoniae: Bridging Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-06

    caused by penicillin -resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in rabbits. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 1760- 1765. Takeuchi, O., Hoshino, K., and...2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The host immune response to Streptococcus pneumoniae ...host immune response to Streptococcus pneumoniae : bridging innate and adaptive immunity Katherine Shi-Hui Lee Thesis directed by: Clifford M

  7. Untangling the neurobiology of coping styles in rodents: Towards neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Sietse F; Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2017-03-01

    Considerable individual differences exist in trait-like patterns of behavioral and physiological responses to salient environmental challenges. This individual variation in stress coping styles has an important functional role in terms of health and fitness. Hence, understanding the neural embedding of coping style variation is fundamental for biobehavioral neurosciences in probing individual disease susceptibility. This review outlines individual differences in trait-aggressiveness as an adaptive component of the natural sociobiology of rats and mice, and highlights that these reflect the general style of coping that varies from proactive (aggressive) to reactive (docile). We propose that this qualitative coping style can be disentangled into multiple quantitative behavioral domains, e.g., flexibility/impulse control, emotional reactivity and harm avoidance/reward processing, that each are encoded into selective neural circuitries. Since functioning of all these brain circuitries rely on fine-tuned serotonin signaling, autoinhibitory control mechanisms of serotonergic neuron (re)activity are crucial in orchestrating general coping style. Untangling the precise neuromolecular mechanisms of different coping styles will provide a roadmap for developing better therapeutic strategies of stress-related diseases.

  8. BYSTANDER EFFECTS GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIAION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    BYSTANDER EFFECTS, GENOMIC INSTABILITY, ADAPTIVE RESPONSE AND CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT FOR RADIATION AND CHEMICAL EXPOSURES

    R. Julian Preston
    Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. 27711, USA

    There ...

  9. Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronical epithelial cells exposed to zinc

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining adaptive and adverse oxidative stress responses in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to zincJenna M. Currier1,2, Wan-Yun Cheng1, Rory Conolly1, Brian N. Chorley1Zinc is a ubiquitous contaminant of ambient air that presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung...

  10. Operational Characteristics of Adaptive Testing Procedures Using the Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Barbara G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    General guidelines are developed to assist practitioners in devising operational computerized adaptive testing systems based on the graded response model. The effects of the following major variables were examined: item pool size; stepsize used along the trait continuum until maximum likelihood estimation could be calculated; and stopping rule…

  11. Item Response Theory and Computerized Adaptive Testing Conference Proceedings (Wayzata, Minnesota, July 27-30, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J., Ed.

    This report contains the Proceedings of the 1982 Item Response Theory and Computerized Adaptive Testing Conference. The papers and their discussions are organized into eight sessions: (1) "Developments in Latent Trait Theory," with papers by Fumiko Samejima and Michael V. Levine; (2) "Parameter Estimation," with papers by…

  12. {sub p}53-Dependent Adaptive Responses in Human Cells Exposed to Space Radiations

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Akihisa; Su Xiaoming; Suzuki, Hiromi; Omori, Katsunori; Seki, Masaya; Hashizume, Toko; Shimazu, Toru; Ishioka, Noriaki; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Ohnishi, Takeo

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: It has been reported that priming irradiation or conditioning irradiation with a low dose of X-rays in the range of 0.02-0.1 Gy induces a p53-dependent adaptive response in mammalian cells. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of space radiations on the adaptive response. Methods and Materials: Two human lymphoblastoid cell lines were used; one cell line bears a wild-type p53 (wtp53) gene, and another cell line bears a mutated p53 (mp53) gene. The cells were frozen during transportation on the space shuttle and while in orbit in the International Space Station freezer for 133 days between November 15, 2008 and March 29, 2009. After the frozen samples were returned to Earth, the cells were cultured for 6 h and then exposed to a challenging X-ray-irradiation (2 Gy). Cellular sensitivity, apoptosis, and chromosome aberrations were scored using dye-exclusion assays, Hoechst33342 staining assays, and chromosomal banding techniques, respectively. Results: In cells exposed to space radiations, adaptive responses such as the induction of radioresistance and the depression of radiation-induced apoptosis and chromosome aberrations were observed in wtp53 cells but not in mp53 cells. Conclusion: These results have confirmed the hypothesis that p53-dependent adaptive responses are apparently induced by space radiations within a specific range of low doses. The cells exhibited this effect owing to space radiations exposure, even though the doses in space were very low.

  13. Innate and adaptive immune responses to in utero infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of pregnant cows with noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV induces rapid innate and adaptive immune responses resulting in clearance of the virus in less than 3 weeks. Seven to 14 days after inoculation of the cow, ncpBVDV crosses the placenta and induces a fetal viremia. Establishment of persistent ...

  14. Microswitch Clusters Promote Adaptive Responses and Reduce Finger Mouthing in a Boy with Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Baccani, Simona; Groeneweg, Jop

    2006-01-01

    The authors assessed new microswitch clusters (i.e., combinations of two microswitches) and contingent stimulation to increase adaptive responses (i.e., foot and head movements) and reduce aberrant behavior (i.e., finger mouthing) in a boy with multiple disabilities. Initially, intervention was directed at increasing the frequency of each adaptive…

  15. Starvation stress during larval development reveals predictive adaptive response in adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of organisms exhibit developmental plasticity that results in differences in adult morphology, physiology or behavior. This variation in the phenotype, called “Predictive Adaptive Response (PAR),” gives a selective advantage in an adult's environment if the adult experiences environments s...

  16. Rhetorical Dissent as an Adaptive Response to Classroom Problems: A Test of Protection Motivation Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2016-01-01

    Protection motivation theory (PMT) explains people's adaptive behavior in response to personal threats. In this study, PMT was used to predict rhetorical dissent episodes related to 210 student reports of perceived classroom problems. In line with theoretical predictions, a moderated moderation analysis revealed that students were likely to voice…

  17. Adaptive response studies may help choose astronauts for long-term space travel.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, S M; Cameron, J R; Niroomand-rad, A

    2003-01-01

    Long-term manned exploratory missions are planned for the future. Exposure to high-energy neutrons, protons and high charge and energy particles during a deep space mission, needs protection against the detrimental effects of space radiation. It has been suggested that exposure to unpredictable extremely large solar particle events would kill the astronauts without massive shielding. To reduce this risk to astronauts and to minimize the need for shielding, astronauts with highest significant adaptive responses should be chosen. It has been demonstrated that some humans living in very high natural radiation areas have acquired high adaptive responses to external radiation. Therefore, we suggest that for a deep space mission the adaptive response of all potential crew members be measured and only those with high adaptive response be chosen. We also proclaim that chronic exposure to elevated levels of radiation can considerably decrease radiation susceptibility and better protect astronauts against the unpredictable exposure to sudden and dramatic increase in flux due to solar flares and coronal mass ejections.

  18. Firestar-"D": Computerized Adaptive Testing Simulation Program for Dichotomous Item Response Theory Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Seung W.; Podrabsky, Tracy; McKinney, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) enables efficient and flexible measurement of latent constructs. The majority of educational and cognitive measurement constructs are based on dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models. An integral part of developing various components of a CAT system is conducting simulations using both known and empirical…

  19. Coping with cancer: what do patients do.

    PubMed

    Zaza, Christine; Sellick, Scott M; Hillier, Loretta M

    2005-01-01

    Although psychosocial coping techniques and supportive care services have been shown to improve cancer patients' quality of life, there is evidence that many of these strategies have not been widely integrated into the routine care of cancer patients. This study examined: (1) the extent to which cancer patients use certain coping strategies; (2) reasons for non-use; (3) perceived effectiveness of the coping strategies; (4) participants' interest in trying the strategies; and (5) if the strategies were recommended to participants. At the Northwestern Ontario Regional Cancer Centre in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, 292 outpatients (98% response rate) completed an in-person interview with a research assistant concerning seven individual coping strategies (music, breathing exercises, meditation, prayer, muscle relaxation, visualization/imagery, hypnosis/self-hypnosis) and four coping strategies offered through supportive care services (individual counselling, family counselling, support groups, religious support). Of all the coping strategies presented, prayer was used by the highest number (n = 186) of participants (64%). Music was the next most commonly used strategy, used by 43% (n = 124) of participants, and all other strategies were used by less than 30%of participants. The individualized approaches that are used for disseminating disease and treatment information to cancer patients should also be used to provide them with information on effective coping strategies.

  20. Public policy response, aging in place, and big data platforms: Creating an effective collaborative system to cope with aging of the population.

    PubMed

    Song, Peipei; Chen, Yu

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rapid aging of the population is poised to become the next global public health challenge, as is apparent by the fact that 23.1% of the total global burden of disease is attributable to disorders in people aged 60 years and older. Aging of the population is the biggest driver of substantial increases in the prevalence of chronic conditions, and the prevalence of multi-morbidity is much higher in older age groups. This places a large burden on countries' health and long-term care systems. Many behavioral changes and public policy responses to aging of the population have been implemented to cope with these challenges. A system of "aging in place" has been implemented in some high-income countries in order to better provide coordinated and cost-effective health services for the elderly. This approach reduces institutional care while supporting home- or community-based care and other services. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT), assistive devices, medical diagnostics, and interventions offer many ways of more efficiently providing long-term care as part of aging in place. The use of big data on a web services platform in an effective collaborative system should promote systematic data gathering to integrate clinical and public health information systems to provide support across the continuum of care. However, the use of big data in collaborative system is a double-edged sword, as it also bring challenges for information sharing, standardized data gathering, and the security of personal information, that warrant full attention.

  1. The adaptive immune response does not influence hantavirus disease or persistence in the Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Robertson, Shelly; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-10-01

    Pathogenic New World hantaviruses cause severe disease in humans characterized by a vascular leak syndrome, leading to pulmonary oedema and respiratory distress with case fatality rates approaching 40%. Hantaviruses infect microvascular endothelial cells without conspicuous cytopathic effects, indicating that destruction of the endothelium is not a mechanism of disease. In humans, high levels of inflammatory cytokines are present in the lungs of patients that succumb to infection. This, along with other observations, suggests that disease has an immunopathogenic component. Currently the only animal model available to study hantavirus disease is the Syrian hamster, where infection with Andes virus (ANDV), the primary agent of disease in South America, results in disease that closely mimics that seen in humans. Conversely, inoculation of hamsters with a passaged Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the virus responsible for most cases of disease in North America, results in persistent infection with high levels of viral replication. We found that ANDV elicited a stronger innate immune response, whereas SNV elicited a more robust adaptive response in the lung. Additionally, ANDV infection resulted in significant changes in the blood lymphocyte populations. To determine whether the adaptive immune response influences infection outcome, we depleted hamsters of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells before infection with hantaviruses. Depletion resulted in inhibition of virus-specific antibody responses, although the pathogenesis and replication of these viruses were unaltered. These data show that neither hantavirus replication, nor pathogenesis caused by these viruses, is influenced by the adaptive immune response in the Syrian hamster.

  2. Adaptive plasticity and epigenetic variation in response to warming in an Alpine plant

    PubMed Central

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Segal, Deborah L; Hoyle, Gemma L; Schrey, Aaron W; Verhoeven, Koen J F; Richards, Christina L

    2015-01-01

    Environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity may be a critical component of response to changing environments. We examined local differentiation and adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to elevated temperature in half-sib lines collected across an elevation gradient for the alpine herb, Wahlenbergia ceracea. Using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), we found low but significant genetic differentiation between low- and high-elevation seedlings, and seedlings originating from low elevations grew faster and showed stronger temperature responses (more plasticity) than those from medium and high elevations. Furthermore, plasticity was more often adaptive for plants of low-elevation origin and maladaptive for plants of high elevation. With methylation sensitive-AFLP (MS-AFLP), we revealed an increase in epigenetic variation in response to temperature in low-elevation seedlings. Although we did not find significant direct correlations between MS-AFLP loci and phenotypes, our results demonstrate that adaptive plasticity in temperature response to warming varies over fine spatial scales and suggest the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms in this response. PMID:25691987

  3. 'Gun! Gun! Gun!': An exploration of law enforcement officers' decision-making and coping under stress during actual events.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kevin R; Eccles, David W; Freeman, Carlos; Ward, Paul

    2016-11-30

    Research on decision-making under stress has mainly involved laboratory-based studies with few contextual descriptions of decision-making under stress in the natural ecology. We examined how police officers prepared for, coped with and made decisions under threat-of-death stress during real events. A delayed retrospective report method was used to elicit skilled police officers' thoughts and feelings during attempts to resolve such events. Reports were analysed to identify experiences of stress and coping, and thought processes underpinning decision-making during the event. Officers experienced a wide range of events, coped with stress predominantly via problem-focused strategies, and adapted their decision-making under stress based on the available context. Future officer training should involve a greater variety of training scenarios than is involved in current training, and expose trainees to the possible variants of each situation to foster better situational representation and, thus, a more reliable and adaptive mental model for use in decision-making. Practitioner Summary: This study concerns decision-making and coping strategies used by skilled police officers during real threat-of-death situations. Officers' decision-making strategies differed according to the complexity of the situation and they coped with the stress of these situations via attempts to resolve the situations (e.g. by planning responses) and, to a lesser extent, via attempts to deal with their emotions.

  4. Secretome analysis revealed adaptive and non-adaptive responses of the Staphylococcus carnosus femB mutant.

    PubMed

    Nega, Mulugeta; Dube, Linda; Kull, Melanie; Ziebandt, Anne-Kathrin; Ebner, Patrick; Albrecht, Dirk; Krismer, Bernhard; Rosenstein, Ralf; Hecker, Michael; Götz, Friedrich

    2015-04-01

    FemABX peptidyl transferases are involved in non-ribosomal pentaglycine interpeptide bridge biosynthesis. Here, we characterized the phenotype of a Staphylococcus carnosus femB deletion mutant, which was affected in growth and showed pleiotropic effects such as enhanced methicillin sensitivity, lysostaphin resistance, cell clustering, and decreased peptidoglycan cross-linking. However, comparative secretome analysis revealed a most striking difference in the massive secretion or release of proteins into the culture supernatant in the femB mutant than the wild type. The secreted proteins can be categorized into typical cytosolic proteins and various murein hydrolases. As the transcription of the murein hydrolase genes was up-regulated in the mutant, they most likely represent an adaption response to the life threatening mutation. Even though the transcription of the cytosolic protein genes was unaltered, their high abundance in the supernatant of the mutant is most likely due to membrane leakage triggered by the weakened murein sacculus and enhanced autolysins.

  5. ADP ribosylation adapts an ER chaperone response to short-term fluctuations in unfolded protein load

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Kseniya; Tomba, Giulia; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression programs that regulate the abundance of the chaperone BiP adapt the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to unfolded protein load. However, such programs are slow compared with physiological fluctuations in secreted protein synthesis. While searching for mechanisms that fill this temporal gap in coping with ER stress, we found elevated levels of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)–ribosylated BiP in the inactive pancreas of fasted mice and a rapid decline in this modification in the active fed state. ADP ribosylation mapped to Arg470 and Arg492 in the substrate-binding domain of hamster BiP. Mutations that mimic the negative charge of ADP-ribose destabilized substrate binding and interfered with interdomain allosteric coupling, marking ADP ribosylation as a rapid posttranslational mechanism for reversible inactivation of BiP. A kinetic model showed that buffering fluctuations in unfolded protein load with a recruitable pool of inactive chaperone is an efficient strategy to minimize both aggregation and costly degradation of unfolded proteins. PMID:22869598

  6. Dialectical thinking and coping flexibility: a multimethod approach.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cecilia

    2009-04-01

    Coping flexibility refers to the formulation of flexible coping strategies that meet distinct demands under changing circumstances. Dialectical thinking was proposed to be related to flexible coping across situations. The hypothesized link between dialectical thinking and coping flexibility was explored by a multimethod approach. In Study 1, the association between dialectical thinking and coping flexibility was examined using a cross-sectional design. In Study 2, the hypothesized link was tested using an experimental paradigm in which dialectical thinking was manipulated by priming procedures. Participants' responses to different hypothetical stressful situations were assessed after priming. Study 3 adopted a prospective design in which dialectical thinking assessed at an initial phase was a predictor of changes in coping flexibility and state anxiety over a 12-month period. Results from the three studies consistently revealed a positive relationship between dialectical thinking and coping flexibility.

  7. Light adaptation increases response latency of alpha ganglion cells via a threshold-like nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Chang, L; He, S

    2014-01-03

    Adaptation is an important process of sensory systems to adjust sensitivity to ensure the appropriate information encoding. Sensitivity and kinetics of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) responses have been studied extensively using a brief flash superimposed on different but steady backgrounds. However, it is still unclear if light adaptation exerts any effect on more complex response properties, such as response nonlinearity. In this study, we found that the latency of spike responses to a repeated flashing spot stimulation increased by 30 ms in the mouse ON α RGCs (An ON-type RGC is excited when a spot is turned on in the center of its receptive field). A single dimming event preceding the test flash on a steady adapting background could also produce similar effect in increasing latency of light responses. A simple computational model with a linear transformation of the light stimulus and a threshold-like nonlinearity could account for the experimental data. Moreover, the strength of the measured nonlinearity and the response latency were affected by the duration of light adaptation. The possible biological processes underlying this nonlinearity were explored. Voltage clamp recording revealed the presence of the increase in latency and threshold-like nonlinearity in the excitatory input of RGCs. However, no comparable nonlinearity was observed in the light responses of the ON cone bipolar cells. We further excluded GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor rectification and voltage-gated Na(+) channels as potential sources of this nonlinearity by pharmacological experiments. Our results indicate the bipolar cell terminals as the potential site of nonlinearity. Computational modeling constrained by experimental data supports that conclusion and suggests the voltage-sensitive Ca(++) channels and Ca(++)-dependent vesicle release in the bipolar cell terminals as mechanistic basis.

  8. Context-Specific Adaptation of Gravity-Dependent Vestibular Reflex Responses (NSBRI Neurovestibular Project 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Goldberg, Jefim; Minor, Lloyd B.; Paloski, William H.; Young, Laurence R.; Zee, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Impairment of gaze and head stabilization reflexes can lead to disorientation and reduced performance in sensorimotor tasks such as piloting of spacecraft. Transitions between different gravitoinertial force (gif) environments - as during different phases of space flight - provide an extreme test of the adaptive capabilities of these mechanisms. We wish to determine to what extent the sensorimotor skills acquired in one gravity environment will transfer to others, and to what extent gravity serves as a context cue for inhibiting such transfer. We use the general approach of adapting a response (saccades, vestibuloocular reflex: VOR, or vestibulocollic reflex: VCR) to a particular change in gain or phase in one gif condition, adapting to a different gain or phase in a second gif condition, and then seeing if gif itself - the context cue - can recall the previously-learned adapted responses. Previous evidence indicates that unless there is specific training to induce context-specificity, reflex adaptation is sequential rather than simultaneous. Various experiments in this project investigate the behavioral properties, neurophysiological basis, and anatomical substrate of context-specific learning, using otolith (gravity) signals as a context cue. In the following, we outline the methods for all experiments in this project, and provide details and results on selected experiments.

  9. Coping profiles characterize individual flourishing, languishing, and depression.

    PubMed

    Faulk, Kathryn E; Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    According to the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, negative emotions narrow one's thought-action repertoire. In contrast, positive emotions have a broadening effect, expanding cognitive capacity, increasing potential coping strategies that come to mind, and enhancing decision-making, reaction, and adaptation to adversity. Fredrickson and Losada determined that a positivity ratio - the ratio of experienced positive to negative emotions - at or above 2.9 promotes human flourishing. A ratio below 2.9 is indicative of languishing individuals, whereas a ratio below 1.0 is a marker of depression. This study examined whether adaptive and maladaptive coping profiles differentiated those who flourish, languish, or are depressed in two convenience samples - military spouses (n =367) and public school teachers (n=267). Results were consistent with the theoretical predictions, as coping profiles of the groups differed significantly, with flourishing individuals favoring adaptive coping strategies more than those who were languishing or depressed. Conversely, depressed individuals reported greater use of maladaptive coping strategies than those who were languishing or flourishing. These results provide further empirical support for the mathematical model of Fredrickson and Losada, as the set of positivity criteria were predictive of coping profiles in two samples where successful coping and adaptation are important.

  10. Degree of adaptive response in urban tolerant birds shows influence of habitat-of-origin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Urban exploiters and adapters are often coalesced under a term of convenience as ‘urban tolerant’. This useful but simplistic characterisation masks a more nuanced interplay between and within assemblages of birds that are more or less well adapted to a range of urban habitats. I test the hypotheses that objectively-defined urban exploiter and suburban adapter assemblages within the broad urban tolerant grouping in Melbourne vary in their responses within the larger group to predictor variables, and that the most explanatory predictor variables vary between the two assemblages. A paired, partitioned analysis of exploiter and adapter preferences for points along the urban–rural gradient was undertaken to decompose the overall trend into diagnosable parts for each assemblage. In a similar way to that in which time since establishment has been found to be related to high urban densities of some bird species and biogeographic origin predictive of urban adaptation extent, habitat origins of members of bird assemblages influence the degree to which they become urban tolerant. Bird species that objectively classify as urban tolerant will further classify as either exploiters or adapters according to the degree of openness of their habitats-of-origin. PMID:24688881

  11. Can use of positive religious coping predict greater distress? An examination of Army soldiers on deployment.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Marilyn A; Lannin, Daniel G; Wade, Nathaniel G; Martinez, Melisa

    2017-04-01

    Although positive religious coping is generally viewed as an adaptive, functional coping pattern, some studies have actually found positive religious coping to be associated with more distress in military populations. In the current study, we examined the role of positive religious coping on distress across 2 time points. Participants in this study were 192 Army soldiers (men = 90.4%) who were stationed in Iraq for a 1-year deployment in 2005. Using structural equation modeling, we conducted a cross-lag analysis of positive religious coping and distress. Results indicated that greater use of positive religious coping significantly predicted greater distress 1 month later, whereas distress at T1 did not predict positive religious coping 1 month later. Combat exposure was also a significant predictor of distress 1 month later. Implications of these results include the need to inquire about clients' use of religious coping and whether such coping methods are having the desired effect for them. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Genome-wide transcriptional responses to a lipid hydroperoxide: adaptation occurs without induction of oxidant defenses.

    PubMed

    Alic, Nazif; Felder, Thomas; Temple, Mark D; Gloeckner, Christian; Higgins, Vincent J; Briza, Peter; Dawes, Ian W

    2004-07-01

    Free radicals can initiate the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cells through the process of lipid peroxidation. The genome-wide transcriptional changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after treatment with the toxic lipid peroxidation product linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LoaOOH) were identified. High-dose treatment led to a switch in transcription from biosynthetic to protective functions. This response encompassed a set of genes stimulated predominantly by LoaOOH, and not by other oxidants or heat shock, which contained components of the pleiotropic drug resistance system. The dose dependence of the transcriptional response revealed that large and widespread changes occur only in response to higher doses. Pretreatment of cells with sublethal doses of LoaOOH induces resistance to an otherwise lethal dose through the process of adaptation. Adaptive doses elicited a more subtle transcriptional response affecting metabolic functions, including an increase in the capacity for detoxification and downregulation of the rate of protein synthesis. Surprisingly, the cellular response to adaptive doses did not include induction of oxidative-stress defense enzymes nor of transcripts involved in general cellular defense systems.

  13. The development of coping.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Ellen A; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2007-01-01

    Research on coping during childhood and adolescence is distinguished by its focus on how children deal with actual stressors in real-life contexts. Despite burgeoning literatures within age groups, studies on developmental differences and changes have proven difficult to integrate. Two recent advances promise progress toward a developmental framework. First, dual-process models that conceptualize coping as "regulation under stress" establish links to the development of emotional, attentional, and behavioral self-regulation and suggest constitutional underpinnings and social factors that shape coping development. Second, analyses of the functions of higher-order coping families allow identification of corresponding lower-order ways of coping that, despite their differences, are developmentally graded members of the same family. This emerging framework was used to integrate 44 studies reporting age differences or changes in coping from infancy through adolescence. Together, these advances outline a systems perspective in which, as regulatory subsystems are integrated, general mechanisms of coping accumulate developmentally, suggesting multiple directions for future research.

  14. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) regulates sepsis but not the adaptive immune response

    PubMed Central

    Liliensiek, Birgit; Weigand, Markus A.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Nicklas, Werner; Kasper, Michael; Hofer, Stefan; Plachky, Jens; Gröne, Herman-Josef; Kurschus, Florian C.; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Yan, Shi Du; Martin, Eike; Schleicher, Erwin; Stern, David M.; Hämmerling, Günter J.; Nawroth, Peter P.; Arnold, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    While the initiation of the adaptive and innate immune response is well understood, less is known about cellular mechanisms propagating inflammation. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a transmembrane receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, leads to perpetuated cell activation. Using novel animal models with defective or tissue-specific RAGE expression, we show that in these animal models RAGE does not play a role in the adaptive immune response. However, deletion of RAGE provides protection from the lethal effects of septic shock caused by cecal ligation and puncture. Such protection is reversed by reconstitution of RAGE in endothelial and hematopoietic cells. These results indicate that the innate immune response is controlled by pattern-recognition receptors not only at the initiating steps but also at the phase of perpetuation. PMID:15173891

  15. An adaptive two-stage dose-response design method for establishing Proof of Concept

    PubMed Central

    Franchetti, Yoko; Anderson, Stewart J.; Sampson, Allan R.

    2013-01-01

    We propose an adaptive two-stage dose-response design where a pre-specified adaptation rule is used to add and/or drop treatment arms between the stages. We extend the multiple comparison procedures-modeling (MCP-Mod) approach into a two-stage design. In each stage, we use the same set of candidate dose-response models and test for a dose-response relationship or proof of concept (PoC) via model-associated statistics. The stage-wise test results are then combined to establish ‘global’ PoC using a conditional error function. Our simulation studies showed good and more robust power in our design method compared to conventional and fixed designs. PMID:23957520

  16. A cascade reaction network mimicking the basic functional steps of adaptive immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Da; Wu, Cuichen; You, Mingxu; Zhang, Tao; Wan, Shuo; Chen, Tao; Qiu, Liping; Zheng, Zheng; Liang, Hao; Tan, Weihong

    2015-10-01

    Biological systems use complex ‘information-processing cores’ composed of molecular networks to coordinate their external environment and internal states. An example of this is the acquired, or adaptive, immune system (AIS), which is composed of both humoral and cell-mediated components. Here we report the step-by-step construction of a prototype mimic of the AIS that we call an adaptive immune response simulator (AIRS). DNA and enzymes are used as simple artificial analogues of the components of the AIS to create a system that responds to specific molecular stimuli in vitro. We show that this network of reactions can function in a manner that is superficially similar to the most basic responses of the vertebrate AIS, including reaction sequences that mimic both humoral and cellular responses. As such, AIRS provides guidelines for the design and engineering of artificial reaction networks and molecular devices.

  17. Adaptive urn designs for estimating several percentiles of a dose--response curve.

    PubMed

    Mugno, Raymond; Zhus, Wei; Rosenberger, William F

    2004-07-15

    Dose--response experiments are crucial in biomedical studies. There are usually multiple objectives in such experiments and among the goals is the estimation of several percentiles on the dose--response curve. Here we present the first non-parametric adaptive design approach to estimate several percentiles simultaneously via generalized Pólya urns. Theoretical properties of these designs are investigated and their performance is gaged by the locally compound optimal designs. As an example, we re-investigated a psychophysical experiment where one of the goals was to estimate the three quartiles. We show that these multiple-objective adaptive designs are more efficient than the original single-objective adaptive design targeting the median only. We also show that urn designs which target the optimal designs are slightly more efficient than those which target the desired percentiles directly. Guidelines are given as to when to use which type of design. Overall we are pleased with the efficiency results and hope compound adaptive designs proposed in this work or their variants may prove to be a viable non-parametric alternative in multiple-objective dose--response studies.

  18. Adaptive all the way down: building responsive materials from hierarchies of chemomechanical feedback.

    PubMed

    Grinthal, Alison; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-09-07

    A living organism is a bundle of dynamic, integrated adaptive processes: not only does it continuously respond to constant changes in temperature, sunlight, nutrients, and other features of its environment, but it does so by coordinating hierarchies of feedback among cells, tissues, organs, and networks all continuously adapting to each other. At the root of it all is one of the most fundamental adaptive processes: the constant tug of war between chemistry and mechanics that interweaves chemical signals with endless reconfigurations of macromolecules, fibers, meshworks, and membranes. In this tutorial we explore how such chemomechanical feedback - as an inherently dynamic, iterative process connecting size and time scales - can and has been similarly evoked in synthetic materials to produce a fascinating diversity of complex multiscale responsive behaviors. We discuss how chemical kinetics and architecture can be designed to generate stimulus-induced 3D spatiotemporal waves and topographic patterns within a single bulk material, and how feedback between interior dynamics and surface-wide instabilities can further generate higher order buckling and wrinkling patterns. Building on these phenomena, we show how yet higher levels of feedback and spatiotemporal complexity can be programmed into hybrid materials, and how these mechanisms allow hybrid materials to be further integrated into multicompartmental systems capable of hierarchical chemo-mechano-chemical feedback responses. These responses no doubt represent only a small sample of the chemomechanical feedback behaviors waiting to be discovered in synthetic materials, and enable us to envision nearly limitless possibilities for designing multiresponsive, multifunctional, self-adapting materials and systems.

  19. Context-Specific Adaptation of Gravity-Dependent Vestibular Reflex Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Stabilization of the eyes and head during body movements is important for maintaining balance and keeping the images of objects stationary on our retinas. Impairment of this ability can lead to disorientation and reduced performance in sensorimotor tasks such as piloting of spacecraft. In the absence of a normal earth gravity field, the dynamics of head stabilization, and the interpretation of vestibular signals that sense gravity and linear acceleration, are subject to change. Transitions between different gravitoinertial force environments - as during different phases of space flight - provide an extreme test of the adaptive mechanisms that maintain these reflexive abilities. It is vitally important to determine human adaptive capabilities in such a circumstance, so that we can know to what extent the sensorimotor skills acquired in one gravity environment will transfer to others. Our work lays the foundation for understanding these capabilities, and for determining how we can aid the processes of adaptation and readaptation. An integrated set of experiments addresses this issue. We use the general approach of adapting some type of reflexive eye movement (saccades, the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (AVOR), the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR)), or the vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR), to a particular change in gain or phase in one condition of gravitoiner-tial force, and adapting to a different gain or phase (or asking for no change) in a second gravitoinertial force condition, and then seeing if the gravitoinertial force itself - the context cue - can recall the previously learned adapted responses. The majority of the experiments in the laboratory use the direction of vertical gaze or the direction of gravity (head tilt) as the context cue. This allows us to study context-specificity in a ground-based setting. One set of experiments, to be performed in parabolic flight, specifically uses the magnitude of gravitoinertial force as a context cue. This is a

  20. Adaptedness and coping in dysphagic students.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, B; Theorell, T

    1995-01-01

    Using a definition based on Bowlby and Pörn, an effort is made to interpret adaptedness and coping in 87 dysphagic students (corresponding to a prevalence of dysphagia in 9% of the boys and 12% of the girls) found in a screening study utilizing a questionnaire. Coping patterns and methods of adaptation were explored in a telephone interview with dysphagic students. Those who stated that their dysphagia influenced their daily living were classified as subjectively maladapted (S-maladapted; n = 9). Compared with the S-adapted students, the S-maladapted students reported more defects in ability to eat, more inappropriate beliefs about the causes and management of dysphagia, and greater desires regarding eating than S-adapted students (p < 0.05). The environmental conditions more often impaired the eating ability in S-maladapted students (p < 0.05). Anxiety at mealtime was reported more frequently than in S-adapted students (p < 0.05). Every second S-maladapted student had reduced self-esteem because of dysphagia (p < 0.05). The S-maladapted students had talked about their dysphagia with parents and/or friends and visited a school physician because of dysphagia more often than S-adapted students (p < 0.05). Two of 9 students felt confirmed by the physician and experienced help. There was concordance between the students' own beliefs regarding the causes of dysphagia and corresponding coping strategy.

  1. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version “COPE Breve”

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Mara R. C. A.; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  2. Pain-Coping Traits of Nontraditional Women Athletes: Relevance to Optimal Treatment and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Michael C.; Higgs, Robert; LeUnes, Arnold D.; Bourgeois, Anthony E.; Laurent, C. Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Context The primary goal of traditional treatment and rehabilitation programs is to safely return athletes to full functional capacity. Nontraditional activities such as rock climbing or rodeo are typically less training structured and coach structured; individualism, self-determination, and autonomy are more prevalent than observed in athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-sponsored sports. The limited research available on nontraditional athletes has provided the athletic trainer little insight into the coping skills and adaptations to stressors that these athletes may bring into the clinical setting, especially among the growing number of women participating in these types of activities. A better understanding of the pain-coping traits of nontraditional competitors would enhance insight and triage procedures while heading off potential athlete-related risk factors in the clinical setting. Objective To quantify and compare pain-coping traits among individual-sport women athletes participating in nontraditional versus traditional NCAA-structured competition, with relevance to optimal treatment and rehabilitation. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data collected during each participant's respective group meeting before seasonal activity. Participants or Other Participants A total of 298 athletes involved in either nontraditional, non-NCAA individual sports (n = 152; mean age = 20.2 ± 1.3 years; downhill skiing, martial arts, rock climbing, rodeo, skydiving, telemark skiing) or traditional NCAA sports (n = 146; mean age = 20.3 ± 1.4 years; equestrian, golf, swimming/diving, tennis, track). Main Outcome Measure(s) All participants completed the Sports Inventory for Pain, a sport-specific, self-report instrument that measures pain-coping traits relevant to competition, treatment, and rehabilitation. Trait measures were direct coping, cognitive, catastrophizing, avoidance, body awareness, and total coping response. Data were grouped for

  3. Adaptive changes in prey vulnerability shape the response of predator populations to mortality.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Peter A

    2009-11-21

    Simple models are used to explore how adaptive changes in prey vulnerability alter the population response of their predator to increased mortality. If the mortality is an imposed harvest, the change in prey vulnerability also influences the relationship between harvest effort and yield of the predator. The models assume that different prey phenotypes share a single resource, but have different vulnerabilities to the predator. Decreased vulnerability is assumed to decrease resource consumption rate. Adaptive change may occur by phenotypic changes in the traits of a single species or by shifts in the abundances of a pair of coexisting species or morphs. The response of the predator population is influenced by the shape of the predator's functional response, the shape of resource density dependence, and the shape of the tradeoff between vulnerability and food intake in the prey. Given a linear predator functional response, adaptive prey defense tends to produce a decelerating decline in predator population size with increased mortality. Prey defense may also greatly increase the range of mortality rates that allow predator persistence. If the predator has a type-2 response with a significant handling time, adaptive prey defense may have a greater variety of effects on the predator's response to mortality, sometimes producing alternative attractors, population cycles, or increased mean predator density. Situations in which there is disruptive selection on prey defense often imply a bimodal change in yield as a function of harvesting effort, with a minimum at intermediate effort. These results argue against using single-species models of density dependent growth to manage predatory species, and illustrate the importance of incorporating anti-predator behavior into models in applied population ecology.

  4. Adaptive response of vascular endothelial cells to an acute increase in shear stress frequency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Friedman, Morton H

    2013-09-15

    Local shear stress sensed by arterial endothelial cells is occasionally altered by changes in global hemodynamic parameters, e.g., heart rate and blood flow rate, as a result of normal physiological events, such as exercise. In a recently study (41), we demonstrated that during the adaptive response to increased shear magnitude, porcine endothelial cells exhibited an unique phenotype featuring a transient increase in permeability and the upregulation of a set of anti-inflammatory and antioxidative genes. In the present study, we characterize the adaptive response of these cells to an increase in shear frequency, another important hemodynamic parameter with implications in atherogenesis. Endothelial cells were preconditioned by a basal-level sinusoidal shear stress of 15 ± 15 dyn/cm(2) at 1 Hz, and the frequency was then elevated to 2 Hz. Endothelial permeability increased slowly after the frequency step-up, but the increase was relatively small. Using microarrays, we identified 37 genes that are sensitive to the frequency step-up. The acute increase in shear frequency upregulates a set of cell-cycle regulation and angiogenesis-related genes. The overall adaptive response to the increased frequency is distinctly different from that to a magnitude step-up. However, consistent with the previous study, our data support the notion that endothelial function during an adaptive response is different than that of fully adapted endothelial cells. Our studies may also provide insights into the beneficial effects of exercise on vascular health: transient increases in frequency may facilitate endothelial repair, whereas similar increases in shear magnitude may keep excessive inflammation and oxidative stress at bay.

  5. Recovering from Alcoholism: The Role of Coping with Stressful Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Andrew G.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    Although stressful life change events are thought to influence the development of alcoholism and to enhance the probability of relapse after treatment, the actual coping responses to specific events among alcoholics remain largely unexplored. Efforts were made to operationalize and classify coping responses and to explore their relationship to…

  6. Adolescent Coping Profiles Differentiate Reports of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Herres, Joanna; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N = 982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age =16.04, SD = .73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359

  7. Multiscale biomechanical responses of adapted bone-periodontal ligament-tooth fibrous joints

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Andrew T.; Merkle, Arno; Fahey, Kevin; Gansky, Stuart A.; Ho, Sunita P.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced functional loads cause adaptations in organs. In this study, temporal adaptations of bone-ligament-tooth fibrous joints to reduced functional loads were mapped using a holistic approach. Systematic studies were performed to evaluate organ-level and tissue-level adaptations in specimens harvested periodically from rats given powder food for 6 months (N = 60 over 8,12,16,20, and 24 weeks). Bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth fibrous joint adaptation was evaluated by comparing changes in joint stiffness with changes in functional space between the tooth and alveolar bony socket. Adaptations in tissues included mapping changes in the PDL and bone architecture as observed from collagen birefringence, bone hardness and volume fraction in rats fed soft foods (soft diet, SD) compared to those fed hard pellets as a routine diet (hard diet, HD). In situ biomechanical testing on harvested fibrous joints revealed increased stiffness in SD groups (SD:239-605 N/mm) (p<0.05) at 8 and 12 weeks. Increased joint stiffness in early development phase was due to decreased functional space (at 8wks change in functional space was −33 µm, at 12wks change in functional space was −30 µm) and shifts in tissue quality as highlighted by birefringence, architecture and hardness. These physical changes were not observed in joints that were well into function, that is, in rodents older than 12 weeks of age. Significant adaptations in older groups were highlighted by shifts in bone growth (bone volume fraction 24wks: Δ-0.06) and bone hardness (8wks: Δ−0.04 GPa, 16 wks: Δ−0.07 GPa, 24wks: Δ−0.06 GPa). The response rate (N/s) of joints to mechanical loads decreased in SD groups. Results from the study showed that joint adaptation depended on age. The initial form-related adaptation (observed change in functional space) can challenge strain-adaptive nature of tissues to meet functional demands with increasing age into adulthood. The coupled effect between functional space in

  8. Water Demands with Two Adaptation Responses to Climate Change in a Mexican Irrigation District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, W.; Iñiguez-Covarrubias, M.; Rojano, A.

    2012-12-01

    It is well documented that climate change is inevitable and that farmers need to adapt to changes in projected climate. Changes in water demands for a Mexican irrigation district were assessed using an irrigation scheduling model. The impact of two adaptations actions on water demands were estimated and compared with a baseline scenario. Wet and dry cropping plans were selected from the last 15 water years with actual climatology (1961-1990) taken as reference and three A1B climate change projection periods P1, P2 and P3 (2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2098). Projected precipitation and air temperature (medium, maximum and minimum) data were obtained through weighted averages of the best CGCM projections for Mexico, available at the IPCC data distribution center, using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging method (REA). Two adaptation farmers' responses were analyzed: use of longer season varieties and reduction of planting dates toward colder season as warming intensifies in the future. An annual accumulated ETo value of 1554 mm was estimated for the base period P0. Cumulative and Daily irrigations demands were generated for each agricultural season using the four climate projection series and considering adaptations actions. Figure 1 integrates in a unique net flow curve for the Fall-Winter season under selected adaptations actions. The simulation results indicated that for mid century (Period P2), the use of longer-season cultivars (AV) will have more pronounced effect in daily net flow based than the reduction of planting season (APS) as climate change intensifies during present century. Without adaptation (WA), the increase in temperature will shorten the growing season of all annual crops, generating a peak shift with respect to reference case (WA-P0). Combined adoptions of adaptation actions (AP+V) can generate higher, peak and cumulative, crop water requirements than actual values as Figure 1 shows. There are clear trends that without adaptations, water

  9. Multiscale biomechanical responses of adapted bone-periodontal ligament-tooth fibrous joints.

    PubMed

    Jang, Andrew T; Merkle, Arno P; Fahey, Kevin P; Gansky, Stuart A; Ho, Sunita P

    2015-12-01

    Reduced functional loads cause adaptations in organs. In this study, temporal adaptations of bone-ligament-tooth fibrous joints to reduced functional loads were mapped using a holistic approach. Systematic studies were performed to evaluate organ-level and tissue-level adaptations in specimens harvested periodically from rats (N=60) given powder food for 6 months over 8,12,16,20, and 24 weeks. Bone-periodontal ligament (PDL)-tooth fibrous joint adaptation was evaluated by comparing changes in joint stiffness with changes in functional space between the tooth and alveolar bony socket. Adaptations in tissues included mapping changes in the PDL and bone architecture as observed from collagen birefringence, bone hardness and volume fraction in rats fed soft foods (soft diet, SD) compared to those fed hard pellets as a routine diet (hard diet, HD). In situ biomechanical testing on harvested fibrous joints revealed increased stiffness in SD groups (SD:239-605 N/mm) (p<0.05) at 8 and 12 weeks. Increased joint stiffness in early development phase was due to decreased functional space (at 8 weeks change in functional space was -33 μm, at 12 weeks change in functional space was -30 μm) and shifts in tissue quality as highlighted by birefringence, architecture and hardness. These physical changes were not observed in joints that were well into function, that is, in rodents older than 12 weeks of age. Significant adaptations in older groups were highlighted by shifts in bone growth (bone volume fraction 24 weeks: Δ-0.06) and bone hardness (8 weeks: Δ-0.04 GPa, 16 weeks: Δ-0.07 GPa, 24 weeks: Δ-0.06 GPa). The response rate (N/s) of joints to mechanical loads decreased in SD groups. Results from the study showed that joint adaptation depended on age. The initial form-related adaptation (observed change in functional space) can challenge strain-adaptive nature of tissues to meet functional demands with increasing age into adulthood. The coupled effect between functional

  10. Increased rate of response of the pituitary-adrenal system in rats adapted to chronic stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakellaris, P. C.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.

    1975-01-01

    The response and adaptation of the pituitary-adrenal system to chronic stresses was investigated. These included individual caging, confinement, and exposure to cold for varying periods of time. Studies were carried out demonstrating that during the period of adaptation when plasma corticosterone concentrations returned toward their prestress level despite continued exposure to the stressor, the animals responded to additional stimuli of ether for 1 min, a saline injection, or release from confinement with a faster increase (within 2.5 min) in plasma corticosterone than controls (10 min). It is concluded that during adaptation to a chronic stress the pituitary-adrenal system is not inhibited by the circulating steroid level but is actually hypersensitive to additional stimuli.

  11. Principles of exercise physiology: responses to acute exercise and long-term adaptations to training.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Brown, Anita M; Frontera, Walter R

    2012-11-01

    Physical activity and fitness are associated with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, and diabetes. This review discusses the body's response to an acute bout of exercise and long-term physiological adaptations to exercise training with an emphasis on endurance exercise. An overview is provided of skeletal muscle actions, muscle fiber types, and the major metabolic pathways involved in energy production. The importance of adequate fluid intake during exercise sessions to prevent impairments induced by dehydration on endurance exercise, muscular power, and strength is discussed. Physiological adaptations that result from regular exercise training such as increases in cardiorespiratory capacity and strength are mentioned. The review emphasizes the cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations that lead to improvements in maximal oxygen capacity.

  12. The Process of Seeking Stress-Care: Coping as Experienced by Senior Baccalaureate Nursing Students in Response to Appraised Clinical Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipton, Sharon P.

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with 16 senior nursing students identified a primary problem as management of clinical stress. A three-stage process of coping with stress was found: encountering the changing self, losing self, and regaining the managed self. (Contains 60 references.) (SK)

  13. Food Self-Provisioning in Czechia: Beyond Coping Strategy of the Poor--A Response to Alber and Kohler's "Informal Food Production in the Enlarged European Union" (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehlicka, Petr; Kostelecky, Tomas; Smith, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Food systems are of increasing interest in both research and policy communities. Surveys of post-socialist countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) show high rates of food self-provisioning. These practices have been explained in terms of being "coping strategies of the poor". Alber and Kohler's "Informal Food Production in the…

  14. Enhanced Sleep Is an Evolutionarily Adaptive Response to Starvation Stress in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Slocumb, Melissa E; Regalado, Josue M; Yoshizawa, Masato; Neely, Greg G; Masek, Pavel; Gibbs, Allen G; Keene, Alex C

    2015-01-01

    Animals maximize fitness by modulating sleep and foraging strategies in response to changes in nutrient availability. Wild populations of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, display highly variable levels of starvation and desiccation resistance that differ in accordance with geographic location, nutrient availability, and evolutionary history. Further, flies potently modulate sleep in response to changes in food availability, and selection for starvation resistance enhances sleep, revealing strong genetic relationships between sleep and nutrient availability. To determine the genetic and evolutionary relationship between sleep and nutrient deprivation, we assessed sleep in flies selected for desiccation or starvation resistance. While starvation resistant flies have higher levels of triglycerides, desiccation resistant flies have enhanced glycogen stores, indicative of distinct physiological adaptations to food or water scarcity. Strikingly, selection for starvation resistance, but not desiccation resistance, leads to increased sleep, indicating that enhanced sleep is not a generalized consequence of higher energy stores. Thermotolerance is not altered in starvation or desiccation resistant flies, providing further evidence for context-specific adaptation to environmental stressors. F2 hybrid flies were generated by crossing starvation selected flies with desiccation selected flies, and the relationship between nutrient deprivation and sleep was examined. Hybrids exhibit a positive correlation between starvation resistance and sleep, while no interaction was detected between desiccation resistance and sleep, revealing that prolonged sleep provides an adaptive response to starvation stress. Therefore, these findings demonstrate context-specific evolution of enhanced sleep in response to chronic food deprivation, and provide a model for understanding the evolutionary relationship between sleep and nutrient availability.

  15. Coping with the Crunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Examines housing strategies several college facilities managers used to cope with the problem of overcrowded residence halls. Also highlighted are tips to help facilities managers determine if their solution is to build additional housing. (GR)

  16. Helping Teens Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jami I.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the role of school library media specialists in helping teens cope with developmental and emotional challenges. Discusses resiliency research, and opportunities to develop programs and services especially for middle school and high school at-risk teens. (LRW)

  17. Coping with Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendersky, Nora; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop for nine South American students at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The two-day session focussed on exploring coping behaviors that could help students adjust to transitions. (JAC)

  18. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescence Predicts Maladaptive Coping Styles in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (−.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581

  19. Adaptive Governance, Uncertainty, and Risk: Policy Framing and Responses to Climate Change, Drought, and Flood.

    PubMed

    Hurlbert, Margot; Gupta, Joyeeta

    2016-02-01

    As climate change impacts result in more extreme events (such as droughts and floods), the need to understand which policies facilitate effective climate change adaptation becomes crucial. Hence, this article answers the question: How do governments and policymakers frame policy in relation to climate change, droughts, and floods and what governance structures facilitate adaptation? This research interrogates and analyzes through content analysis, supplemented by semi-structured qualitative interviews, the policy response to climate change, drought, and flood in relation to agricultural producers in four case studies in river basins in Chile, Argentina, and Canada. First, an epistemological explanation of risk and uncertainty underscores a brief literature review of adaptive governance, followed by policy framing in relation to risk and uncertainty, and an analytical model is developed. Pertinent findings of the four cases are recounted, followed by a comparative analysis. In conclusion, recommendations are made to improve policies and expand adaptive governance to better account for uncertainty and risk. This article is innovative in that it proposes an expanded model of adaptive governance in relation to "risk" that can help bridge the barrier of uncertainty in science and policy.

  20. Non-climatic thermal adaptation: implications for species' responses to climate warming.

    PubMed

    Marshall, David J; McQuaid, Christopher D; Williams, Gray A

    2010-10-23

    There is considerable interest in understanding how ectothermic animals may physiologically and behaviourally buffer the effects of climate warming. Much less consideration is being given to how organisms might adapt to non-climatic heat sources in ways that could confound predictions for responses of species and communities to climate warming. Although adaptation to non-climatic heat sources (solar and geothermal) seems likely in some marine species, climate warming predictions for marine ectotherms are largely based on adaptation to climatically relevant heat sources (air or surface sea water temperature). Here, we show that non-climatic solar heating underlies thermal resistance adaptation in a rocky-eulittoral-fringe snail. Comparisons of the maximum temperatures of the air, the snail's body and the rock substratum with solar irradiance and physiological performance show that the highest body temperature is primarily controlled by solar heating and re-radiation, and that the snail's upper lethal temperature exceeds the highest climatically relevant regional air temperature by approximately 22°C. Non-climatic thermal adaptation probably features widely among marine and terrestrial ectotherms and because it could enable species to tolerate climatic rises in air temperature, it deserves more consideration in general and for inclusion into climate warming models.

  1. Non-climatic thermal adaptation: implications for species' responses to climate warming

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, David J.; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Williams, Gray A.

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in understanding how ectothermic animals may physiologically and behaviourally buffer the effects of climate warming. Much less consideration is being given to how organisms might adapt to non-climatic heat sources in ways that could confound predictions for responses of species and communities to climate warming. Although adaptation to non-climatic heat sources (solar and geothermal) seems likely in some marine species, climate warming predictions for marine ectotherms are largely based on adaptation to climatically relevant heat sources (air or surface sea water temperature). Here, we show that non-climatic solar heating underlies thermal resistance adaptation in a rocky–eulittoral-fringe snail. Comparisons of the maximum temperatures of the air, the snail's body and the rock substratum with solar irradiance and physiological performance show that the highest body temperature is primarily controlled by solar heating and re-radiation, and that the snail's upper lethal temperature exceeds the highest climatically relevant regional air temperature by approximately 22°C. Non-climatic thermal adaptation probably features widely among marine and terrestrial ectotherms and because it could enable species to tolerate climatic rises in air temperature, it deserves more consideration in general and for inclusion into climate warming models. PMID:20375046

  2. The human milk oligosaccharide 2′-fucosyllactose augments the adaptive response to extensive intestinal

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Jennifer A.; Ollberding, Nicholas J.; Karns, Rebekah; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Helmrath, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal resection resulting in short bowel syndrome (SBS) carries a heavy burden of long-term morbidity, mortality, and cost of care, which can be attenuated with strategies that improve intestinal adaptation. SBS infants fed human milk, compared with formula, have more rapid intestinal adaptation. We tested the hypothesis that the major noncaloric human milk oligosaccharide 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) contributes to the adaptive response after intestinal resection. Using a previously described murine model of intestinal adaptation, we demonstrated increased weight gain from 21 to 56 days (P < 0.001) and crypt depth at 56 days (P < 0.0095) with 2′-FL supplementation after ileocecal resection. Furthermore, 2′-FL increased small bowel luminal content microbial alpha diversity following resection (P < 0.005) and stimulated a bloom in organisms of the genus Parabacteroides (log2-fold = 4.1, P = 0.035). Finally, transcriptional analysis of the intestine revealed enriched ontologies and pathways related to antimicrobial peptides, metabolism, and energy processing. We conclude that 2′-FL supplementation following ileocecal resection increases weight gain, energy availability through microbial community modulation, and histological changes consistent with improved adaptation. PMID:26702137

  3. Radio-adaptive Response in Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Induced by Technetium-99m

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Mohammad Mehdi; Shabestani-Monfared, Ali; Shahidi, Maryam; Amiri, Mehrangiz; Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Gorji, Kourosh Ebrahim Nejad

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Low dose radiation will induce adaptation and following exposure to an adaptive dose, the cells are more resistance to following challenging doses. This phenomenon is known as radio-adaptive response. The aim of this study was to investigate the percentage of apoptotic cells in the peripheral blood samples of the patients which undergo myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) before thallium scan to assess the induction of radio-adaptive response. Materials and Methods: In this study, 97 samples from 74 patients, referred to nuclear medicine center of Mazandaran Heart Hospital for MPI, which had no history of diagnostic, therapeutic, occupational, and radioactive exposures during past 2 years, were provided. The participants were classified into four groups including control, patients which were scanned solely with technetium, the patients which examined by thallium and the last group were the patients that examined by technetium followed by thallium. Then 2 ml Peripheral blood samples were obtained, and after 24 h incubating, the samples were studied by neutral comet assay. Statistical analysis was carried out using Student's t-test along with one-way analysis of variance. Results: The mean percentage of apoptotic cells in the exposed groups were higher than the control. Furthermore, among exposed groups, the apoptotic cells in thallium group were more than others and this index was significantly lower in the group which was undergone technetium administration before thallium scan. Conclusions: These findings suggest that exposure to Tc-99m could induce a radio-adaptive response against the exposure of thallium-201. PMID:28242975

  4. Dendritic Cells in Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses against Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Summerfield, Artur; McCullough, Kenneth C.

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are major players in both innate and adaptive immune responses against influenza virus. These immune responses, as well as the important interface between the innate and adaptive systems, are orchestrated by specialized subsets of DC, including conventional steady-state DC, migratory DC and plasmacytoid DC. The characteristics and efficacy of the responses are dependent on the relative activity of these DC subsets, rendering DC crucial for the development of both naïve and memory immune responses. However, due to their critical role, DC also contribute to the immunopathological processes observed during acute influenza, such as that caused by the pathogenic H5N1 viruses. Therein, the role of different DC subsets in the induction of interferon type I, pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses is important for the outcome of interaction between the virus and host immune defences. The present review will present current knowledge on this area, relating to the importance of DC activity for the induction of efficacious humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. This will include the main viral elements associated with the triggering or inhibition of DC activation. Finally, the current knowledge on understanding how differences in various vaccines influence the manner of immune defence induction will be presented. PMID:21994580

  5. The stringent response regulates adaptation to darkness in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus

    PubMed Central

    Hood, Rachel D.; Higgins, Sean A.; Flamholz, Avi; Nichols, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus relies upon photosynthesis to drive metabolism and growth. During darkness, Synechococcus stops growing, derives energy from its glycogen stores, and greatly decreases rates of macromolecular synthesis via unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that the stringent response, a stress response pathway whose genes are conserved across bacteria and plant plastids, contributes to this dark adaptation. Levels of the stringent response alarmone guanosine 3′-diphosphate 5′-diphosphate (ppGpp) rise after a shift from light to dark, indicating that darkness triggers the same response in cyanobacteria as starvation in heterotrophic bacteria. High levels of ppGpp are sufficient to stop growth and dramatically alter many aspects of cellular physiology, including levels of photosynthetic pigments and polyphosphate, DNA content, and the rate of translation. Cells unable to synthesize ppGpp display pronounced growth defects after exposure to darkness. The stringent response regulates expression of a number of genes in Synechococcus, including ribosomal hibernation promoting factor (hpf), which causes ribosomes to dimerize in the dark and may contribute to decreased translation. Although the metabolism of Synechococcus differentiates it from other model bacterial systems, the logic of the stringent response remains remarkably conserved, while at the same time having adapted to the unique stresses of the photosynthetic lifestyle. PMID:27486247

  6. Resident memory CD8 T cells trigger protective innate and adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Schenkel, Jason M.; Fraser, Kathryn A.; Beura, Lalit K.; Pauken, Kristen E.; Vezys, Vaiva; Masopust, David

    2015-01-01

    The pathogen recognition theory dictates that upon viral infection, the innate immune system first detects microbial products, and then responds by providing instructions to adaptive CD8 T cells. Here, we show in mice that resident memory CD8 T cells (TRM), non-recirculating cells located at common sites of infection, can achieve near sterilizing immunity against viral infections by reversing this flow of information. Upon antigen re-sensitization within the mouse female reproductive mucosae, CD8+ TRM secrete cytokines that trigger rapid adaptive and innate immune responses including local humoral responses, maturation of local dendritic cells, and activation of natural killer cells. This provided near sterilizing immunity against an antigenically unrelated viral infection. Thus, CD8+ TRM rapidly trigger an antiviral state by amplifying receptor-derived signals from previously encountered pathogens. PMID:25170049

  7. Subverting the adaptive immune resistance mechanism to improve clinical responses to immune checkpoint blockade therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young J

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and clinical responsiveness to the PD-1 blocking antibody nivolumab implicates adaptive immune evasion mechanisms in cancer. We review our findings that tumor cell PD-L1 expression is induced by interferon γ (IFNγ) producing TILs. We provide a mechanistic rationale for combining IFNγ+ T helper type 1 (Th1)-inducing cancer vaccines with PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade. PMID:25964860

  8. Adaptive responses of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Brunton, P J; Russell, J A; Douglas, A J

    2008-06-01

    Over the past 40 years, it has been recognised that the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis undergoes adaptations through pregnancy and lactation that might contribute to avoidance of adverse effects of stress on the mother and offspring. The extent of the global adaptations in the HPA axis has been revealed and the underlying mechanisms investigated within the last 20 years. Both basal, including the circadian rhythm, and stress-induced adrenocorticotrophic hormone and glucocorticoid secretory patterns are altered. Throughout most of pregnancy, and in lactation, these changes predominantly reflect reduced drive by the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurones in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (pPVN). An accompanying profound attenuation of HPA axis responses to a wide variety of psychological and physical stressors emerges after mid-pregnancy and persists until the end of lactation. Central to this suppression of stress responsiveness is reduced activation of the pPVN CRF neurones. This is consequent on the reduced effectiveness of the stimulation of brainstem afferents to these CRF neurones (for physical stressors) and of altered processing by limbic structures (for emotional stressors). The mechanism of reduced CRF neurone responses to physical stressors in pregnancy is the suppression of noradrenaline release in the PVN by an up-regulated endogenous opioid mechanism, which is induced by neuroactive steroid produced from progesterone. By contrast, in lactation suckling the young provides a neural stimulus that dampens the HPA axis circadian rhythm and reduces stress responses. Reduced noradrenergic input activity is involved in reduced stress responses in lactation, although central prolactin action also appears important. Such adaptations limit the adverse effects of excess glucocorticoid exposure on the foetus(es) and facilitate appropriate metabolic and immune responses.

  9. Pre-Sleep Protein Ingestion to Improve the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise Training.

    PubMed

    Trommelen, Jorn; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-11-28

    Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery. When applied during a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, protein supplementation prior to sleep can further augment gains in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies investigating the impact of pre-sleep protein ingestion suggest that at least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in muscle protein synthesis rates throughout overnight sleep. Furthermore, prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep. In short, pre-sleep protein ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, thereby improving the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training.

  10. Phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution contribute to advancing flowering phenology in response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jill T.; Inouye, David W.; McKinney, Amy M.; Colautti, Robert I.; Mitchell-Olds, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has already altered the timing of major life-history transitions, such as the initiation of reproduction. Both phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution can underlie rapid phenological shifts in response to climate change, but their relative contributions are poorly understood. Here, we combine a continuous 38 year field survey with quantitative genetic field experiments to assess adaptation in the context of climate change. We focused on Boechera stricta (Brassicaeae), a mustard native to the US Rocky Mountains. Flowering phenology advanced significantly from 1973 to 2011, and was strongly associated with warmer temperatures and earlier snowmelt dates. Strong directional selection favoured earlier flowering in contemporary environments (2010–2011). Climate change could drive this directional selection, and promote even earlier flowering as temperatures continue to increase. Our quantitative genetic analyses predict a response to selection of 0.2 to 0.5 days acceleration in flowering per generation, which could account for more than 20 per cent of the phenological change observed in the long-term dataset. However, the strength of directional selection and the predicted evolutionary response are likely much greater now than even 30 years ago because of rapidly changing climatic conditions. We predict that adaptation will likely be necessary for long-term in situ persistence in the context of climate change. PMID:22787021

  11. Climatic variability in combination with eutrophication drives adaptive responses in the gills of Lake Victoria cichlids.

    PubMed

    van Rijssel, Jacco C; Hecky, Robert E; Kishe-Machumu, Mary A; Meijer, Saskia E; Pols, Johan; van Tienderen, Kaj M; Ververs, Jan D; Wanink, Jan H; Witte, Frans

    2016-12-01

    Textbook examples of adaptive radiation often show rapid morphological changes in response to environmental perturbations. East Africa's Lake Victoria, famous for its stunning adaptive radiation of cichlids, has suffered from human-induced eutrophication over the past decades. This cultural eutrophication is thought to be partly responsible for the dramatically reduced cichlid biodiversity, but climatic variability in itself might also have contributed to the eutrophication which resulted in low oxygen levels and decreased water transparency. To determine how recent environmental changes have influenced the lake and its cichlids over the past 50 years, we gathered environmental and meteorological variables and compared these with gill surface area of four cichlid species. We found that during the period of severe eutrophication and temperature increase (1980s), reduced wind speeds coincided with a reduction in oxygen levels and a decrease in both water temperature and transparency. The gill surface area in three out of the four cichlid species increased during this period which is consistent with adaptive change in response to increased hypoxia. During the 2000s, wind speeds, oxygen levels, water transparency and water temperature increased again, while cichlid gill surface area decreased. Our results imply that climatic changes and especially wind speed and direction might play a crucial role in tropical lake dynamics. The changes in Lake Victoria's water quality coincide with fluctuations in cichlid gill surface area, suggesting that these fish can respond rapidly to environmental perturbations, but also that climatic variability, together with continued eutrophication, might be detrimental to the lake's cichlid biodiversity.

  12. Pre-Sleep Protein Ingestion to Improve the Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Trommelen, Jorn; van Loon, Luc J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Protein ingestion following resistance-type exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates, and enhances the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. As the adaptive response to a single bout of resistance exercise extends well beyond the first couple of hours of post-exercise recovery, recent studies have begun to investigate the impact of the timing and distribution of protein ingestion during more prolonged recovery periods. Recent work has shown that overnight muscle protein synthesis rates are restricted by the level of amino acid availability. Protein ingested prior to sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, and thereby stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery. When applied during a prolonged period of resistance-type exercise training, protein supplementation prior to sleep can further augment gains in muscle mass and strength. Recent studies investigating the impact of pre-sleep protein ingestion suggest that at least 40 g of protein is required to display a robust increase in muscle protein synthesis rates throughout overnight sleep. Furthermore, prior exercise allows more of the pre-sleep protein-derived amino acids to be utilized for de novo muscle protein synthesis during sleep. In short, pre-sleep protein ingestion represents an effective dietary strategy to improve overnight muscle protein synthesis, thereby improving the skeletal muscle adaptive response to exercise training. PMID:27916799

  13. Phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution contribute to advancing flowering phenology in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jill T; Inouye, David W; McKinney, Amy M; Colautti, Robert I; Mitchell-Olds, Tom

    2012-09-22

    Anthropogenic climate change has already altered the timing of major life-history transitions, such as the initiation of reproduction. Both phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution can underlie rapid phenological shifts in response to climate change, but their relative contributions are poorly understood. Here, we combine a continuous 38 year field survey with quantitative genetic field experiments to assess adaptation in the context of climate change. We focused on Boechera stricta (Brassicaeae), a mustard native to the US Rocky Mountains. Flowering phenology advanced significantly from 1973 to 2011, and was strongly associated with warmer temperatures and earlier snowmelt dates. Strong directional selection favoured earlier flowering in contemporary environments (2010-2011). Climate change could drive this directional selection, and promote even earlier flowering as temperatures continue to increase. Our quantitative genetic analyses predict a response to selection of 0.2 to 0.5 days acceleration in flowering per generation, which could account for more than 20 per cent of the phenological change observed in the long-term dataset. However, the strength of directional selection and the predicted evolutionary response are likely much greater now than even 30 years ago because of rapidly changing climatic conditions. We predict that adaptation will likely be necessary for long-term in situ persistence in the context of climate change.

  14. Targeting the TLR9-MyD88 pathway in the regulation of adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2010-01-01

    IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune receptors critical in the innate immune defense against invading pathogens. Recent advances also reveal a crucial role for TLRs in shaping adaptive immune responses, conferring a potential therapeutic value to their modulation in the treatment of diseases. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW The aim of this review is to discuss TLR9, the TLR9-MyD88 signaling pathway and its role in regulation of adaptive immune responses, as well as potential therapeutic implications by targeting this pathway. WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN This review shows that the TLR9-MyD88 signaling pathway plays a critical role in promoting adaptive immune responses and that modulation of this pathway may have enormous therapeutic potential in enhancing vaccine potency, controlling autoimmunity, as well as improving the outcome of viral vector-mediated gene therapy. TAKE HOME MESSAGE Although TLR9 agonists have been used as adjuvants for enhancing vaccine potency, further exploitation of the TLR9-MyD88 pathway and its dynamic interaction with the immune system in vivo is needed to provide more effective therapeutic inventions in the design of vaccines for infectious diseases, allergies and cancer, in the control of autoimmunity, as well as in the improvement of viral vector-mediated gene therapy. PMID:20560798

  15. Anomalous signed passive fathometer impulse response when using adaptive beam forming (L).

    PubMed

    Harrison, Chris H

    2009-06-01

    The impulse response of the seabed can be extracted from sea surface ambient noise by cross-correlating the time series from an upward and a downward steered beam. When the steering for each beam is standard minimum variance adaptive beam forming it has been found that the impulse response for significant echoes appears to have the same amplitude but opposite sign. A mathematical explanation is offered for this strange phenomenon. Crucial contributing factors are that the cross-spectral density matrix for the vertical array typically consists of the sum of a Toeplitz matrix and a much weaker Hankel matrix and that it is ill-conditioned.

  16. A NAP-Family Histone Chaperone Functions in Abiotic Stress Response and Adaptation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Ashwani; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of gene expression is one of the most significant molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress response in plants. Via altering DNA accessibility, histone chaperones affect the transcriptional competence of genomic loci. However, in contrast to other factors affecting chromatin dynamics, the role of plant histone chaperones in abiotic stress response and adaptation remains elusive. Here, we studied the physiological function of a stress-responsive putative rice (Oryza sativa) histone chaperone of the NAP superfamily: OsNAPL6. We show that OsNAPL6 is a nuclear-localized H3/H4 histone chaperone capable of assembling a nucleosome-like structure. Utilizing overexpression and knockdown approaches, we found a positive correlation between OsNAPL6 expression levels and adaptation to multiple abiotic stresses. Results of comparative transcriptome profiling and promoter-recruitment studies indicate that OsNAPL6 functions during stress response via modulation of expression of various genes involved in diverse functions. For instance, we show that OsNAPL6 is recruited to OsRad51 promoter, activating its expression and leading to more efficient DNA repair and abrogation of programmed cell death under salinity and genotoxic stress conditions. These results suggest that the histone chaperone OsNAPL6 may serve a regulatory role in abiotic stress physiology possibly via modulating nucleosome dynamics at various stress-associated genomic loci. Taken together, our findings establish a hitherto unknown link between histone chaperones and abiotic stress response in plants. PMID:27342307

  17. Controlled Aeroelastic Response and Airfoil Shaping Using Adaptive Materials and Integrated Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkerton, Jennifer L.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Moses, Robert W.; Scott, Robert C.; Heeg, Jennifer

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of several activities of the Aeroelasticity Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center in the area of applying adaptive materials and integrated systems for controlling both aircraft aeroelastic response and airfoil shape. The experimental results of four programs are discussed: the Piezoelectric Aeroelastic Response Tailoring Investigation (PARTI); the Adaptive Neural Control of Aeroelastic Response (ANCAR) program; the Actively Controlled Response of Buffet Affected Tails (ACROBAT) program; and the Airfoil THUNDER Testing to Ascertain Characteristics (ATTACH) project. The PARTI program demonstrated active flutter control and significant rcductions in aeroelastic response at dynamic pressures below flutter using piezoelectric actuators. The ANCAR program seeks to demonstrate the effectiveness of using neural networks to schedule flutter suppression control laws. Th,e ACROBAT program studied the effectiveness of a number of candidate actuators, including a rudder and piezoelectric actuators, to alleviate vertical tail buffeting. In the ATTACH project, the feasibility of using Thin-Layer Composite-Uimorph Piezoelectric Driver and Sensor (THUNDER) wafers to control airfoil aerodynamic characteristics was investigated. Plans for future applications are also discussed.

  18. Bioanalytical evidence that chemicals in tattoo ink can induce adaptive stress responses.

    PubMed

    Neale, Peta A; Stalter, Daniel; Tang, Janet Y M; Escher, Beate I

    2015-10-15

    Tattooing is becoming increasingly popular, particularly amongst young people. However, tattoo inks contain a complex mixture of chemical impurities that may pose a long-term risk for human health. As a first step towards the risk assessment of these complex mixtures we propose to assess the toxicological hazard potential of tattoo ink chemicals with cell-based bioassays. Targeted modes of toxic action and cellular endpoints included cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and adaptive stress response pathways. The studied tattoo inks, which were extracted with hexane as a proxy for the bioavailable fraction, caused effects in all bioassays, with the red and yellow tattoo inks having the greatest response, particularly inducing genotoxicity and oxidative stress response endpoints. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the tested black tattoo ink at concentrations twice the recommended level. The detected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons only explained 0.06% of the oxidative stress response of the black tattoo ink, thus the majority of the effect was caused by unidentified components. The study indicates that currently available tattoo inks contain components that induce adaptive stress response pathways, but to evaluate the risk to human health further work is required to understand the toxicokinetics of tattoo ink chemicals in the body.

  19. Sex-related adaptive responses to interaction of drought and salinity in Populus yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lianghua; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Hongxia; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang

    2010-10-01

    We used Populus yunnanensis Dode., a native dioecious species in southwestern China, as a model species to study morphological, physiological, biochemical and ultrastructural responses to drought, salinity and their combination. Females exhibited more growth inhibition, gas exchange rate depression and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation; higher lipid peroxide levels, lower osmotic adjustment capacity and ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzyme activities; and more damage to cell organelles than did males under drought, salinity and especially under their combination. In addition, we found sex-specific responses in total chlorophyll content (TC), carotenoid concentration and carbon isotope composition under different osmotic stresses. Our results indicated that: (1) females are more sensitive and suffer from greater negative effects than do males under drought, salinity and especially under their combination; (2) sexual differences in adaptive responses to drought, salinity and their combination are context dependent; and (3) sex-specific reactions under a combination of stresses are distinct from single-stress responses. Thus, these results provide evidence for adaptive differentiation between sexes in responses to osmotic stresses and in the sensitivity to environmental change.

  20. Functional phase response curves: a method for understanding synchronization of adapting neurons.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianxia; Canavier, Carmen C; Butera, Robert J

    2009-07-01

    Phase response curves (PRCs) for a single neuron are often used to predict the synchrony of mutually coupled neurons. Previous theoretical work on pulse-coupled oscillators used single-pulse perturbations. We propose an alternate method in which functional PRCs (fPRCs) are generated using a train of pulses applied at a fixed delay after each spike, with the PRC measured when the phasic relationship between the stimulus and the subsequent spike in the neuron has converged. The essential information is the dependence of the recovery time from pulse onset until the next spike as a function of the delay between the previous spike and the onset of the applied pulse. Experimental fPRCs in Aplysia pacemaker neurons were different from single-pulse PRCs, principally due to adaptation. In the biological neuron, convergence to the fully adapted recovery interval was slower at some phases than that at others because the change in the effective intrinsic period due to adaptation changes the effective phase resetting in a way that opposes and slows the effects of adaptation. The fPRCs for two isolated adapting model neurons were used to predict the existence and stability of 1:1 phase-locked network activity when the two neurons were coupled. A stability criterion was derived by linearizing a coupled map based on the fPRC and the existence and stability criteria were successfully tested in two-simulated-neuron networks with reciprocal inhibition or excitation. The fPRC is the first PRC-based tool that can account for adaptation in analyzing networks of neural oscillators.

  1. Functional Phase Response Curves: A Method for Understanding Synchronization of Adapting Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jianxia; Canavier, Carmen C.; Butera, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Phase response curves (PRCs) for a single neuron are often used to predict the synchrony of mutually coupled neurons. Previous theoretical work on pulse-coupled oscillators used single-pulse perturbations. We propose an alternate method in which functional PRCs (fPRCs) are generated using a train of pulses applied at a fixed delay after each spike, with the PRC measured when the phasic relationship between the stimulus and the subsequent spike in the neuron has converged. The essential information is the dependence of the recovery time from pulse onset until the next spike as a function of the delay between the previous spike and the onset of the applied pulse. Experimental fPRCs in Aplysia pacemaker neurons were different from single-pulse PRCs, principally due to adaptation. In the biological neuron, convergence to the fully adapted recovery interval was slower at some phases than that at others because the change in the effective intrinsic period due to adaptation changes the effective phase resetting in a way that opposes and slows the effects of adaptation. The fPRCs for two isolated adapting model neurons were used to predict the existence and stability of 1:1 phase-locked network activity when the two neurons were coupled. A stability criterion was derived by linearizing a coupled map based on the fPRC and the existence and stability criteria were successfully tested in two-simulated-neuron networks with reciprocal inhibition or excitation. The fPRC is the first PRC-based tool that can account for adaptation in analyzing networks of neural oscillators. PMID:19420126

  2. Adaptation response surfaces from an ensemble of wheat projections under climate change in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita; Ferrise, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The uncertainty about climate change (CC) complicates impact adaptation and risk management evaluation at the regional level. Approaches for managing this uncertainty and for simulating and communicating climate change impacts and adaptation opportunities are required. Here we apply an ensemble of crop models for adapting rainfed winter wheat at Lleida (NE Spain), constructing adaptation response surfaces (ARS). Our methodology has been adapted from Pirttioja et al. (2015). Impact response surfaces (IRS) are plotted surfaces showing the response of an impact variable (here crop yield Y) to changes in two explanatory variables (here precipitation P and temperature T). By analyzing adaptation variables such as changes in crop yield (ΔY) when an adaptation option is simulated, these can be interpreted as the adaptation response to potential changes of P and T, i.e. ARS. To build these ARS, we explore the sensitivity of an ensemble of wheat models to changes in T and P. Baseline (1981-2010) T and P were modified using a delta change approach with changes in the seasonal patterns. Three levels of CO2 (representing future conditions until 2050) and two actual soil profiles are considered. Crop models were calibrated with field data from Abeledo et al. (2008) and Cartelle et al. (2006). Most promising adaptation options to be analyzed by the ARS approach are identified in a pilot stage with the models DSSAT4.5 and SiriusQuality v.2, subsequently simulating the selected adaptation combinations by the whole ensemble of 11 crop models. The adaptation options identified from pilot stage were: a cultivar with no vernalisation requirements, shortening or extending a 10 % the crop cycle of the standard cultivar, sowing 15 days earlier and 30 days later than the standard date, supplementary irrigation with 40 mm at flowering and full irrigation. These options and those of the standard cultivar and management resulted in 54 combinations and 450.000 runs per crop model. Our

  3. Radiation-induced bystander effect and adaptive response in mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, H.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Waldren, C. A.; Hei, T. K.

    2004-01-01

    Two conflicting phenomena, bystander effect and adaptive response, are important in determining the biological responses at low doses of radiation and have the potential to impact the shape of the dose-response relationship. Using the Columbia University charged-particle microbeam and the highly sensitive AL cell mutagenic assay, we show here that non-irradiated cells acquire mutagenesis through direct contact with cells whose nuclei have been traversed with a single alpha particle each. Pretreatment of cells with a low dose of X-rays four hours before alpha particle irradiation significantly decreased this bystander mutagenic response. Results from the present study address some of the fundamental issues regarding both the actual target and radiation dose effect and can contribute to our current understanding in radiation risk assessment. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Innate and adaptive immunologic functions of complement in the host response to Listeria monocytogenes infection

    PubMed Central

    Calame, Daniel G.; Mueller-Ortiz, Stacey L.; Wetsel, Rick A.

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a leading cause of foodborne-illness associated mortality that has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to several significant outbreaks. It has also served as a model organism for the study of intracellular pathogens. For these reasons the host response to L. monocytogenes has long been the subject of investigation. A potent innate and adaptive immune response is required for containment and clearance of L. monocytogenes. However, some elements of this response, such as type 1 interferons, can be detrimental to the host. Recent studies have revealed novel functions for the complement system, an ancient arm of innate immunity, in this process. Here we review the role of complement in the host response to L. monocytogenes. PMID:27476791

  5. Adapting Vocational Psychology To Cope with Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesketh, Beryl

    2001-01-01

    The interdisciplinary tradition of vocational psychology is a strength, but it has been slow to respond to technology. Strategic issues to be addressed include implications of human genome research, inclusion of goal setting and metacognition in career development, virtual work organizations, and time as an important dimension of career research.…

  6. Filipino Americans and racism: A multiple mediation model of coping.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Alvin N; Juang, Linda P

    2010-04-01

    Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of adults (N = 199). Two multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediating effects of active, avoidance, support-seeking, and forbearance coping on the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress and self-esteem, respectively. Separate analyses were also conducted for men and women given differences in coping utilization. For men, a bootstrap procedure indicated that active, support-seeking, and avoidance coping were mediators of the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress. Active coping was negatively associated with psychological distress, whereas both support seeking and avoidance were positively associated with psychological distress. A second bootstrap procedure for men indicated that active and avoidance coping mediated the relationship between perceived racism and self-esteem such that active coping was positively associated with self-esteem, and avoidance was negatively associated with self-esteem. For women, only avoidance coping had a significant mediating effect that was associated with elevations in psychological distress and decreases in self-esteem. The results highlight the importance of examining the efficacy of specific coping responses to racism and the need to differentiate between the experiences of men and women.

  7. PET-CT for staging and early response: results from the Response-Adapted Therapy in Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma study.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Sally F; Kirkwood, Amy A; Franceschetto, Antonella; Fulham, Michael J; Roberts, Thomas H; Almquist, Helén; Brun, Eva; Hjorthaug, Karin; Viney, Zaid N; Pike, Lucy C; Federico, Massimo; Luminari, Stefano; Radford, John; Trotman, Judith; Fosså, Alexander; Berkahn, Leanne; Molin, Daniel; D'Amore, Francesco; Sinclair, Donald A; Smith, Paul; O'Doherty, Michael J; Stevens, Lindsey; Johnson, Peter W

    2016-03-24

    International guidelines recommend that positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) should replace CT in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The aims of this study were to compare PET-CT with CT for staging and measure agreement between expert and local readers, using a 5-point scale (Deauville criteria), to adapt treatment in a clinical trial: Response-Adapted Therapy in Advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma (RATHL). Patients were staged using clinical assessment, CT, and bone marrow biopsy (RATHL stage). PET-CT was performed at baseline (PET0) and after 2 chemotherapy cycles (PET2) in a response-adapted design. PET-CT was reported centrally by experts at 5 national core laboratories. Local readers optionally scored PET2 scans. The RATHL and PET-CT stages were compared. Agreement among experts and between expert and local readers was measured. RATHL and PET0 stage were concordant in 938 (80%) patients. PET-CT upstaged 159 (14%) and downstaged 74 (6%) patients. Upstaging by extranodal disease in bone marrow (92), lung (11), or multiple sites (12) on PET-CT accounted for most discrepancies. Follow-up of discrepant findings confirmed the PET characterization of lesions in the vast majority. Five patients were upstaged by marrow biopsy and 7 by contrast-enhanced CT in the bowel and/or liver or spleen. PET2 agreement among experts (140 scans) with a κ (95% confidence interval) of 0.84 (0.76-0.91) was very good and between experts and local readers (300 scans) at 0.77 (0.68-0.86) was good. These results confirm PET-CT as the modern standard for staging HL and that response assessment using Deauville criteria is robust, enabling translation of RATHL results into clinical practice.

  8. Dark Adaptation at High Altitude: An Unexpected Pupillary Response to Chronic Hypoxia in Andean Highlanders.

    PubMed

    Healy, Katherine; Labrique, Alain B; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Danz, David; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Huicho, Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Checkley, William

    2016-09-01

    Healy, Katherine, Alain B. Labrique, J. Jaime Miranda, Robert H. Gilman, David Danz, Victor G. Davila-Roman, Luis Huicho, Fabiola León-Velarde, and William Checkley. Dark adaptation at high altitude: an unexpected pupillary response to chronic hypoxia in Andean highlanders. High Alt Med Biol. 17:208-213, 2016.-Chronic mountain sickness is a maladaptive response to high altitude (>2500 m above sea level) and is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis and hypoxemia resulting from long-term hypobaric hypoxia. There is no known early predictor of chronic mountain sickness and the diagnosis is based on the presence of excessive erythrocytosis and clinical features. Impaired dark adaptation, or an inability to visually adjust from high- to low-light settings, occurs in response to mild hypoxia and may serve as an early predictor of hypoxemia and chronic mountain sickness. We aimed to evaluate the association between pupillary response assessed by dark adaptometry and daytime hypoxemia in resident Andean highlanders aged ≥35 years living in Puno, Peru. Oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) was recorded using a handheld pulse oximeter. Dark adaptation was quantitatively assessed as the magnitude of pupillary contraction to light stimuli of varying intensities (-2.9 to 0.1 log-cd/m(2)) using a portable dark adaptometer. Individual- and stimulus-specific multilevel analyses were conducted using mixed-effect models to elicit the relationship between SpO2 and pupillary responsiveness. Among 93 participants, mean age was 54.9 ± 11.0 years, 48% were male, 44% were night blind, and mean SpO2 was 89.3% ± 3.4%. The magnitude of pupillary contraction was greater with lower SpO2 (p < 0.01), and this dose relationship remained significant in multiple variable analyses (p = 0.047). Pupillary responsiveness to light stimuli under dark-adapted conditions was exaggerated with hypoxemia and may serve as an early predictor of chronic mountain sickness. This unexpected

  9. Adaptive responses of cardiac function to fetal postural change as gestational age increases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Jin; Choi, Hye Jin; Yang, Sun Young; Koo, Boo Hae; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Hong, Soon Cheol; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The cardiovascular system maintains homeostasis through a series of adaptive responses to physiological requirements. However, little is known about the adaptation of fetal cardiac function to gravity, according to gestational age. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the adaptive responses of cardiac function to postural changes, using Tei index measurements. Methods Fetal echocardiography and Doppler examination were performed on 114 women with vertex singleton pregnancies at 19 to 40 weeks' gestation. Participants were placed in an upright seated position, and the Tei index for fetal left ventricular cardiac function was measured. The women were then moved into a supine position and the Tei index was re-measured. Results The mean Tei index when measured in an upright seated position was significantly lower than that measured in a supine positioning for all fetuses (0.528±0.103 vs. 0.555±0.106, P=0.014, respectively). This difference was also noted in fetuses with a gestational age of 28–40 weeks (0.539±0.107 vs. 0.574±0.102, P=0.011, respectively). However, there was no difference in the Tei index between an upright seated and a supine position among fetuses with a gestational age of <28 weeks (0.505±0.091 vs. 0.516±0.103, P=0.571, respectively). Conclusion Postural changes from an upright seated to a supine position result in an increased Tei index after a gestational age of 28 weeks. This appears to reflect maturation in the adaptive responses of the fetal cardiovascular system to postural changes. PMID:27896244

  10. Gene expression in closely related species mirrors local adaptation: consequences for responses to a warming world.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Shawn T; Dzurisin, Jason D K; Williams, Caroline M; Lobo, Neil F; Higgins, Jessica K; Deines, Jillian M; Carmichael, Rory D; Zeng, Erliang; Tan, John C; Wu, Grace C; Emrich, Scott J; Hellmann, Jessica J

    2014-06-01

    Local adaptation of populations could preclude or slow range expansions in response to changing climate, particularly when dispersal is limited. To investigate the differential responses of populations to changing climatic conditions, we exposed poleward peripheral and central populations of two Lepidoptera to reciprocal, common-garden climatic conditions and compared their whole-transcriptome expression. We found evidence of simple population differentiation in both species, and in the species with previously identified population structure and phenotypic local adaptation, we found several hundred genes that responded in a synchronized and localized fashion. These genes were primarily involved in energy metabolism and oxidative stress, and expression levels were most divergent between populations in the same environment in which we previously detected divergence for metabolism. We found no localized genes in the species with less population structure and for which no local adaptation was previously detected. These results challenge the assumption that species are functionally similar across their ranges and poleward peripheral populations are preadapted to warmer conditions. Rather, some taxa deserve population-level consideration when predicting the effects of climate change because they respond in genetically based, distinctive ways to changing conditions.

  11. [Quasi-adaptive response to alkylating agents in Escherichia coli and Ada-protein functions].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, S V; Moshkovskaia, E Iu; Terekhov, A S; Mikoian, V D; Vanin, A F

    2008-01-01

    In 2005 we have described in exponentially growing E. coli cells a new fundamental genetic phenomenon,--quasi-adaptive response to alkylating compounds (quasi-Ada). Phenotypic expression of quasi-Ada is similar to the true Ada response. However, in contrast to the letter, it develops in the course of pretreatment of the cells by a sublethal dose of nonalkylating agent, an NO-containing dinitrosyl iron complex with glutathione (DNICglu). To reveal the mechanisms of quasi-adaptation and its association with the function of the Ada regulatory protein, here we used a unique property of dual gene expression regulation of aidB1 gene, a part of the Ada-regulon, namely its relative independence from Ada protein in anaerobic conditions. Based on the results of aidB1 gene expression analysis an EPR spectra of E. coli MV2176 cells (aidB1::lacZ) in aerobic and anaerobic conditions after the corresponding treatments, we conclude that the function and the spatial structure of meAda and [(Cys-)2Fe+(NO+)2]Ada are identical and thus the nitrosylated protein represents a regulator of the Ada regulon gene expression during quasi-adaptation development.

  12. Effects of Adrenergic Blockade on Postpartum Adaptive Responses Induced by Labor Contractions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Mills, N. A.; Lam, K. P.; Hayes, L. E.; Bowley, Susan M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to labor contractions augments the expression of postnatal adaptive responses in newborn rats. Near-term rat fetuses exposed prenatally to simulated labor contractions and delivered by cesarean section breath and attach to nipples at greater frequencies than non-stimulated fetuses. Plasma NE (norepinephrine) and EPI (epinephrine) was significantly elevated in newborn rats exposed to vaginal birth or simulated labor contractions (compressions) with cesarean delivery as compared to non-compressed fetuses. In the present study, we investigated adrenergic mechanisms underlying labor-induced postnatal adaptive responses. Following spinal transection of late pregnant rat dams, fetuses were administered neurogenic or non-neurogenic adrenergic blockade: 1) bretylium (10 mg/kg sc) to prevent sympathetic neuronal release, 2) hexamethonium (30 mg/kg) to produce ganglionic blockade, 3) phenoxybenzanune (10mg/kg sc), an a- adrenergic receptor antagonist, 4) ICI-118551, 10 mg/kg sc), a b receptor antagonist, or 5) vehicle alone. Fetuses were either compressed (C) or non-compressed (NC) prior to cesarean delivery. a- and b- adrenergic antagonists reduced respiration and nipple attachment rates while sympathetic and vehicle alone did not. These results provide additional support for the hypothesis that adaptive neonatal effects of labor contractions are mediated by adrenal and extra-adrenal catecholamines.

  13. Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, V M; Ata, F A; Storz, J

    1976-01-01

    Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method. PMID:1000377

  14. Inactivation of Semicircular Canals Causes Adaptive Increases in Otolith-driven Tilt Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, Dora E.; Newlands, Shawn D.; Dickman, J. David

    2002-01-01

    Growing experimental and theoretical evidence suggests a functional synergy in the processing of otolith and semicircular canal signals for the generation of the vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs). In this study we have further tested this functional interaction by quantifying the adaptive changes in the otolith-ocular system during both rotational and translational movements after surgical inactivation of the semicircular canals. For 0.1- 0.5 Hz (stimuli for which there is no recovery of responses from the plugged canals), pitch and roll VOR gains recovered during earth- horizontal (but not earth-vertical) axis rotations. Corresponding changes were also observed in eye movements elicited by translational motion (0.1 - 5 Hz). Specifically, torsional eye movements increased during lateral motion, whereas vertical eye movements increased during fore-aft motion. The findings indicate that otolith signals can be adapted according to compromised strategy that leads to improved gaze stabilization during motion. Because canal-plugged animals permanently lose the ability to discriminate gravitoinertial accelerations, adapted animals can use the presence of gravity through otolith-driven tilt responses to assist gaze stabilization during earth-horizontal axis rotations.

  15. Scientists in a Changed Institutional Environment: Subjective Adaptation and Social Responsibility Norms in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2008-06-05

    How do scientists react when the institutional setting in which they conduct their work changes radically? How do long-standing norms regarding the social responsibility of scientists fare? What factors influence whether scientists embrace or reject the new institutions and norms? We examine these questions using data from a unique survey of 602 scientists in Russia, whose science system experienced a sustained crisis and sweeping changes in science institutions following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We develop measures of how respondents view financing based on grants and other institutional changes in the Russian science system, as well as measures of two norms regarding scientists social responsibility. We find that the majority of scientists have adapted, in the sense that they hold positive views of the new institutions, but a diversity of orientations remains. Social responsibility norms are common among Russian scientists, but far from universal. The main correlates of adaptation are age and current success at negotiating the new institutions, though prospective success, work context, and ethnicity have some of the hypothesized associations. As for social responsibility norms, the main source of variation is age: younger scientists are more likely to embrace individualistic rather than socially-oriented norms.

  16. RARtool: A MATLAB Software Package for Designing Response-Adaptive Randomized Clinical Trials with Time-to-Event Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ryeznik, Yevgen; Sverdlov, Oleksandr; Wong, Weng Kee

    2015-08-01

    Response-adaptive randomization designs are becoming increasingly popular in clinical trial practice. In this paper, we present RARtool, a user interface software developed in MATLAB for designing response-adaptive randomized comparative clinical trials with censored time-to-event outcomes. The RARtool software can compute different types of optimal treatment allocation designs, and it can simulate response-adaptive randomization procedures targeting selected optimal allocations. Through simulations, an investigator can assess design characteristics under a variety of experimental scenarios and select the best procedure for practical implementation. We illustrate the utility of our RARtool software by redesigning a survival trial from the literature.

  17. Recent Visual Experience Shapes Visual Processing in Rats through Stimulus-Specific Adaptation and Response Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Vinken, Kasper; Vogels, Rufin; Op de Beeck, Hans

    2017-03-20

    From an ecological point of view, it is generally suggested that the main goal of vision in rats and mice is navigation and (aerial) predator evasion [1-3]. The latter requires fast and accurate detection of a change in the visual environment. An outstanding question is whether there are mechanisms in the rodent visual system that would support and facilitate visual change detection. An experimental protocol frequently used to investigate change detection in humans is the oddball paradigm, in which a rare, unexpected stimulus is presented in a train of stimulus repetitions [4]. A popular "predictive coding" theory of cortical responses states that neural responses should decrease for expected sensory input and increase for unexpected input [5, 6]. Despite evidence for response suppression and enhancement in noninvasive scalp recordings in humans with this paradigm [7, 8], it has proven challenging to observe both phenomena in invasive action potential recordings in other animals [9-11]. During a visual oddball experiment, we recorded multi-unit spiking activity in rat primary visual cortex (V1) and latero-intermediate area (LI), which is a higher area of the rodent ventral visual stream. In rat V1, there was only evidence for response suppression related to stimulus-specific adaptation, and not for response enhancement. However, higher up in area LI, spiking activity showed clear surprise-based response enhancement in addition to stimulus-specific adaptation. These results show that neural responses along the rat ventral visual stream become increasingly sensitive to changes in the visual environment, suggesting a system specialized in the detection of unexpected events.

  18. Request for Information Response for the Flight Validation of Adaptive Control to Prevent Loss-of-Control Events. Overview of RFI Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive control should be integrated with a baseline controller and only used when necessary (5 responses). Implementation as an emergency system. Immediately re-stabilize and return to controlled flight. Forced perturbation (excitation) for fine-tuning system a) Check margins; b) Develop requirements for amplitude of excitation. Adaptive system can improve performance by eating into margin constraints imposed on the non-adaptive system. Nonlinear effects due to multi-string voting.

  19. Molecular Adaptation Mechanisms Employed by Ethanologenic Bacteria in Response to Lignocellulose-derived Inhibitory Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ibraheem, Omodele; Ndimba, Bongani K.

    2013-01-01

    Current international interest in finding alternative sources of energy to the diminishing supplies of fossil fuels has encouraged research efforts in improving biofuel production technologies. In countries which lack sufficient food, the use of sustainable lignocellulosic feedstocks, for the production of bioethanol, is an attractive option. In the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic feedstocks for ethanol production, various chemicals and/or enzymatic processes are employed. These methods generally result in a range of fermentable sugars, which are subjected to microbial fermentation and distillation to produce bioethanol. However, these methods also produce compounds that are inhibitory to the microbial fermentation process. These compounds include products of sugar dehydration and lignin depolymerisation, such as organic acids, derivatised furaldehydes and phenolic acids. These compounds are known to have a severe negative impact on the ethanologenic microorganisms involved in the fermentation process by compromising the integrity of their cell membranes, inhibiting essential enzymes and negatively interact with their DNA/RNA. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms of these inhibitions, and the mechanisms by which these microorganisms show increased adaptation to such inhibitors. Presented here is a concise overview of the molecular adaptation mechanisms of ethanologenic bacteria in response to lignocellulose-derived inhibitory compounds. These include general stress response and tolerance mechanisms, which are typically those that maintain intracellular pH homeostasis and cell membrane integrity, activation/regulation of global stress responses and inhibitor substrate-specific degradation pathways. We anticipate that understanding these adaptation responses will be essential in the design of 'intelligent' metabolic engineering strategies for the generation of hyper-tolerant fermentation bacteria strains. PMID:23847442

  20. Molecular adaptation mechanisms employed by ethanologenic bacteria in response to lignocellulose-derived inhibitory compounds.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, Omodele; Ndimba, Bongani K

    2013-01-01

    Current international interest in finding alternative sources of energy to the diminishing supplies of fossil fuels has encouraged research efforts in improving biofuel production technologies. In countries which lack sufficient food, the use of sustainable lignocellulosic feedstocks, for the production of bioethanol, is an attractive option. In the pre-treatment of lignocellulosic feedstocks for ethanol production, various chemicals and/or enzymatic processes are employed. These methods generally result in a range of fermentable sugars, which are subjected to microbial fermentation and distillation to produce bioethanol. However, these methods also produce compounds that are inhibitory to the microbial fermentation process. These compounds include products of sugar dehydration and lignin depolymerisation, such as organic acids, derivatised furaldehydes and phenolic acids. These compounds are known to have a severe negative impact on the ethanologenic microorganisms involved in the fermentation process by compromising the integrity of their cell membranes, inhibiting essential enzymes and negatively interact with their DNA/RNA. It is therefore important to understand the molecular mechanisms of these inhibitions, and the mechanisms by which these microorganisms show increased adaptation to such inhibitors. Presented here is a concise overview of the molecular adaptation mechanisms of ethanologenic bacteria in response to lignocellulose-derived inhibitory compounds. These include general stress response and tolerance mechanisms, which are typically those that maintain intracellular pH homeostasis and cell membrane integrity, activation/regulation of global stress responses and inhibitor substrate-specific degradation pathways. We anticipate that understanding these adaptation responses will be essential in the design of 'intelligent' metabolic engineering strategies for the generation of hyper-tolerant fermentation bacteria strains.

  1. Strategies for Coping with Stress and Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Genevieve Rogge

    This guide presents strategies used in Pain Management and Stress Reduction workshops for helping the elderly cope with stress and chronic pain. Client evaluations of the workshops are given along with an analysis of the clients' presenting problems. Coping strategies described include: the relaxation response, imagery, daily logs, journal…

  2. Validating Work Discrimination and Coping Strategy Models for Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Williams, Wendi; Dispenza, Franco

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate and expand on Y. B. Chung's (2001) models of work discrimination and coping strategies among lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. In semistructured individual interviews, 17 lesbians and gay men reported 35 discrimination incidents and their related coping strategies. Responses were coded based on Ch