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Sample records for adaptive coping skills

  1. Adaptive Behavior vs Adaptive Skills: Dimensions in Coping Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Henry

    This paper views the adaptive behavior of individuals with mental retardation as a coping response to the biological and social demands of the environment. Adaptive skills are contrasted with adaptive behaviors, with skills being based primarily on developing new learning and habituating specific responses. Adaptive behavior represents a more…

  2. Substance Abuse, Coping Strategies, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Clients with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Admitted to a Treatment Facility: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…

  3. Coping Skills Program for Individuals with Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Cynthia P.; Hood, Colleen Deyell

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a theory based coping skills program for people with alcoholism. Based on Shiffman and Wills' (1985) Stress Program Process model, it helped clients effectively respond to conditions that contributed to negative affect and create life- enhancing experiences. Evaluation involved social…

  4. [Coping strategies in adaptation of higher education students].

    PubMed

    das Neves Mira Freitas, Helena Cristina

    2007-01-01

    The adjustment to higher education can be understood as a multidimensional process, which requires by the student a development of adaptive skills to a new and dynamic context in itself. To meet these challenges students have to develop effective coping strategies, enabling them to be adapted to the context. The school has a key role in the help it can give to these young people, in order to adapt effectively.

  5. [Coping strategies in adaptation of higher education students].

    PubMed

    das Neves Mira Freitas, Helena Cristina

    2007-01-01

    The adjustment to higher education can be understood as a multidimensional process, which requires by the student a development of adaptive skills to a new and dynamic context in itself. To meet these challenges students have to develop effective coping strategies, enabling them to be adapted to the context. The school has a key role in the help it can give to these young people, in order to adapt effectively. PMID:18372532

  6. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz de Rodríguez, Lucy; Ruiz de Cárdenas, Carmen Helena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the recourses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004), in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Processing, defines Coping as the ''behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands''. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986), a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that enhance this adaptation. Methods: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Synergy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services. PMID:24893059

  7. Coping with School Adaptation Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Emory L.

    1971-01-01

    Strategems to cope with maladaptation have been limited in effectiveness. Presented are some key problems they present as well as guidelines for a conceptually preferable set of strategems emphasizing principles which should serve to cut down materially on school maladjustment and restore children to effective school function. (Author/BY)

  8. Assessment of Anger Coping Skills in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, P.; Brace, N.; Phillips, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent controlled studies have supported the effectiveness of anger management training for people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). This report describes an evaluation instrument designed to assess their usage of specific anger coping skills. The Profile of Anger Coping Skills (PACS) is designed for completion by a staff member or carer.…

  9. Grief and trauma intervention for children after disaster: exploring coping skills versus trauma narration.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Alison; Overstreet, Stacy

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of the Grief and Trauma Intervention (GTI) with coping skills and trauma narrative processing (CN) and coping skills only (C). Seventy African American children (6-12 years old) were randomly assigned to GTI-CN or GTI-C. Both treatments consisted of a manualized 11-session intervention and a parent meeting. Measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, traumatic grief, global distress, social support, and parent reported behavioral problems were administered at pre, post, 3 and 12 months post intervention. In general, children in both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvements in distress related symptoms and social support, which, with the exception of externalizing symptoms for GTI-C, were maintained up to 12 months post intervention. Results suggest that building coping skills without the structured trauma narrative may be a viable intervention to achieve symptom relief in children experiencing trauma-related distress. However, it may be that highly distressed children experience more symptom relief with coping skills plus narrative processing than with coping skills alone. More research on the differential effects of coping skills and trauma narration on child distress and adaptive functioning outcomes is needed.

  10. Counseling with American Indians: Issues in Training Assertiveness and Coping Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.

    Recently, Indian people from the United States and Canada recommended coping-skills training for American Indians, to help in handling stress, becoming self-determined, being assertive, problem solving, and redesigning social roles and support systems. Some 30 tribal groups and agencies participated in a cultural adaptation of an assertive…

  11. Developing Coping Skills in Early Childhood: Theory and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forquer, Sandra L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses techniques that child care workers can utilize to foster the development of coping skills in young children. Emphasizes the difference between psychological immunity to stress based on problem-solving abilities and pseudo-immunity created by overprotectiveness. Holds that challenges build children's competence and self-esteem.…

  12. Totally Model-Free Learned Skillful Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Stuart E.

    2004-01-01

    The author proposes a neural-network-based explanation of how a brain might acquire intuitive expertise. The explanation is intended merely to be suggestive and lacks many complexities found in even lower animal brains. Yet significantly, even this simplified brain model is capable of explaining the acquisition of simple skills without developing…

  13. Coping and adaptation in adults living with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Barone, Stacey Hoffman; Waters, Katherine

    2012-10-01

    Biopsychosocial adaptation remains a multifaceted challenge for individuals with spinal cord injury, their families, and healthcare providers alike. The development of frequent medical complications necessitating healthcare interventions is an ongoing, debilitating, and costly problem for those living with spinal cord injuries. Although several demographic variables have been correlated with positive adaptation in individuals with spinal cord injury, the research outcome data present limitations in understanding and facilitating which coping techniques work best to augment biopsychosocial adaptation in this population. Coping facilitates adaptation and adjustment to stress and can help to increase quality of life in people living with spinal cord injury and reduce common complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics and hardiness explain coping in 243 adults living with a spinal cord injury. In addition, this study examined which predictors of coping explain biopsychosocial adaptation. A descriptive explanatory design was utilized. Standardized instruments were administered nationally to assess hardiness, coping, and physiological and psychosocial adaptation. Canonical correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that less educated, less hardy, and recently injured participants were more likely to use escape-avoidance coping and less likely to use social support, problem solving, and positive reappraisal coping behaviors (p < .05). Individuals with paraplegia had a higher level of functional ability, spent less time in rehabilitation, had a greater sense of control, and experienced less frequent complications. The control dimension of hardiness was the only dimension that significantly related to biopsychosocial adaptation within this sample.

  14. Influence of Personal Social Network and Coping Skills on Risk for Suicidal Ideation in Chinese University Students

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Fang; Qin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Personal social network and coping skills have important influences on suicidality of young people and such influences must be understood in the context of other factors. This study aims to assess the influences of social contacts and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation and to disentangle their possible pathways using a large sample of university students from China. Methods 5972 students, randomly selected from 6 universities in China, completed the questionnaire survey for the study. Logistic regression was performed to estimate individual effect of social contacts and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation. A partial least squares path model (PLSPM) was used to probe possible paths of their effects in the context of psychopathology. Results Of the 5972 students, 16.39% reported the presence of suicidal ideation. Poor social contacts were significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal ideation. The influence of coping skills varied by coping styles adapted toward problems. A high score of skills on seeking guidance and support, problem solving as well as seeking alternative rewards was associated with a reduced risk of suicidal ideation; whereas a high score of acceptance or resignation, emotional discharge as well as logical analysis was associated with a significantly increased risk. Modeling the data with PLSPM indicated that the avoidance coping skills conferred the most important dimensional variable in suicidal ideation prediction, followed by the approach coping skills and social network. Conclusions Poor social contacts and deficient coping skills are strong risk factors for suicidal ideation in young students. Prevention program focusing on these problems may have an enduring effect on reducing suicidal behavior in this population. PMID:25803665

  15. Cultural Adaptation of the Skills Training Model: Assertion Training with American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.; Rowe, Wayne

    A skills training approach provides a conceptual framework from which human services can be provided for the personal and emotional needs of Indian people without the subtle, culturally erosive effect of traditional psychotherapy. Some 30 tribal groups and agencies participated in a cultural adaptation of an assertive coping-skills training…

  16. Three Authentic Curriculum-Integration Approaches to Bird Adaptations That Incorporate Technology and Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Barrera, Manuel T., III

    2008-01-01

    Integration of subject areas with technology and thinking skills is a way to help teachers cope with today's overloaded curriculum and to help students see the connectedness of different curriculum areas. This study compares three authentic approaches to teaching a science unit on bird adaptations for habitat that integrate thinking skills and…

  17. Temper and Tantrum Tamers. Breakthrough Strategies To Teach and Counsel Troubled Youth: Social Skills, School Skills, Coping Skills Lesson Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ruth Herman

    This document is one of eight in a series of guides designed to help teach and counsel troubled youth. It presents 20 lessons designed to teach the coping skills necessary to control one's temper. The first lesson teaches students the meaning of aggressive behavior; this lesson and several others throughout the guide focus on helping aggressive…

  18. [Spanish adaptation of Hobfoll's Strategic Approach to Coping Scale (SACS)].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Santed Germán, Miguel A; Pérez García, Ana M

    2012-01-01

    The present research adapted the Strategic Approach to Coping Scale (SACS), developed by Hobfoll and colleagues, to the Spanish population. SACS is an instrument derived from Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources Theory, which emphasises the contribution of social factors to coping processes. This instrument assesses coping strategies in 9-subscales, organised in three dimensions: orientation to the problem (active/passive), use of social resources (prosocial/antisocial), and orientation to others involved (direct/indirect). The Spanish version, administered to a non-clinical sample (N= 767), found 7-subscales structured in prosocial/antisocial, active/passive and reflexive/intuitive dimensions, with adequate reliability and construct validity. To conclude, the Spanish SACS is a potentially useful and reliable instrument for research and clinical purposes, mainly in areas in which social components need to be explicitly considered.

  19. Participation in specific treatment components predicts alcohol-specific and general coping skills.

    PubMed

    Forys, Kelly; McKellar, John; Moos, Rudolf

    2007-08-01

    This study identified which aspects of substance abuse treatment in community residential facilities (CRFs) were correlated with patients' post-treatment coping. A total of 2376 patients supplied demographic information and completed measures at baseline (coping and abstinence self-efficacy) and one year after treatment (coping, level of drug and alcohol use, and substance-related problems). Staff provided information about treatment orientation and patients' participation in treatment (e.g., life skills training, vocational counseling). The data were used to predict coping 1 year after treatment. As expected, higher levels of general approach coping and alcohol-specific coping and lower levels of general avoidance coping were associated with less 1-year alcohol and drug use and fewer drinking problems. Patients' greater level of participation in life skills counseling predicted more approach coping at 1 year. In addition, positive social relationships and participation in 12-step self-help groups predicted less general avoidance coping and more alcohol-specific coping at 1 year post-treatment. Life skills training, 12-step self-help groups, and enhancement of supportive relationships during CRF treatment for substance abuse are related to healthy coping. Future research should examine the effect of these components in less intensive programs and with women. PMID:17182195

  20. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  1. Sources of acute stress, cognitive appraisal, and coping strategies among highly skilled Mexican and U.S. competitive tennis players.

    PubMed

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio; Anshel, Mark H

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to identify sources of acute stress, cognitive appraisal (i.e., perceived controllability), and the use of coping strategies as a function of culture among highly skilled tennis players from Mexico and the United States. Participants were 112 competitive tennis players, 54 of whom were from Mexico (44 boys, 10 girls), and 58 of whom were from the United States (30 boys, 28 girls). A qualitative analysis indicated that the most common sources of acute stress in tennis include "receiving negative comments from coaches and relatives" and "opponent cheating." The authors adapted the COPE Instrument (C. Carver, M. F. Scheier, & J. K. Weintraub, 1989) to ascertain the athletes' use of coping strategies. Regression analysis assessed the extent to which culture predicted the athletes' perceived controllability of the stressors and their use of coping strategies. The results indicated that culture significantly predicted both perceived controllability and the use of coping strategies. The authors discussed implications for the role of culture in predicting cognitive appraisal and coping in sport.

  2. [Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and content validation of the Portuguese version of the Coping Behaviours Inventory (CBI) for the Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Constant, Hilda Maria Rodrigues Moleda; Figueiró, Luciana Rizzieri; Signor, Luciana; Bisch, Nadia Krubskaya; Barros, Helena Maria Tanhauser; Ferigolo, Maristela

    2014-10-01

    Coping skills correlate directly with the success of alcohol abstinence. Brazil previously lacked an instrument to identify alcohol users' specific coping skills. The current study therefore aimed to perform the translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and content validation of the Coping Behaviours Inventory (CBI). Procedures included translation and back-translation, cross-cultural adaptation, content evaluation, and a pilot study. The final Portuguese version was administered by telephone to 40 alcohol users seeking help through a telephone hotline called VIVAVOZ. The retranslated version was close to the original. As for content validation, most of the items proved satisfactory and acceptable. The theoretical dimension showed a mean kappa index of 0.666 between evaluators, which was considered a substantial level of agreement. The results were satisfactory and acceptable, demonstrating that the inventory is appropriate for investigating coping skills in Brazilian alcohol users.

  3. Cognitive, behavioral and goal adjustment coping and depressive symptoms in young people with diabetes: a search for intervention targets for coping skills training.

    PubMed

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for young people with Type 1 (T1) diabetes. A wide range of coping techniques was studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 78 young people with T1 diabetes participated. They were contacted through a social networking website, several Internet sites, and flyers. A wide range of coping techniques appeared to be related to depressive symptoms. Especially the cognitive coping strategies self-blame, rumination, refocus positive, and other-blame, together with goal adjustment coping, were of importance. A large proportion of the variance of depressive symptoms could be explained (65 %). These findings suggest that these specific coping strategies should be part of coping skills trainings for young people with T1 diabetes.

  4. Perceived Control and Adaptive Coping: Programs for Adolescent Students Who Have Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Nola; Frydenberg, Erica; Greaves, Daryl

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effect of a coping program and a teacher feedback intervention on perceived control and adaptive coping for 98 adolescent students who had specific learning disabilities. The coping program was modified to build personal control and to address the needs of students who have specific learning disabilities. The teacher…

  5. How they cope: a qualitative study of the coping skills of hospice volunteers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mary V

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the coping techniques utilized by hospice volunteers. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 hospice volunteers who had at least 1 year of experience, working as a hospice volunteer with direct patient care. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed utilizing qualitative research methods. The results indicated the volunteers used problem-focused coping (seeking advice from members of the hospice interdisciplinary team), emotion-focused coping (talking with others, going to funerals), meaning making through appraisal (religious beliefs, downward comparison), and physical techniques (walking, deep breathing). The most significant coping mechanism utilized for the volunteer was talking with the volunteer coordinator. Implications for hospice volunteer coordinators are also discussed. PMID:21262760

  6. Coping Skills Help Explain How Future-Oriented Adolescents Accrue Greater Well-Being Over Time.

    PubMed

    Chua, Li Wen; Milfont, Taciano L; Jose, Paul E

    2015-11-01

    Adolescents who endorse greater levels of future orientation report greater well-being over time, but we do not know the mechanism by which this happens. The present longitudinal study examined whether both adaptive as well as maladaptive coping strategies might explain how future orientation leads to ill-being and well-being over time in young New Zealanders. A sample of 1,774 preadolescents and early adolescents (51.9 % female) aged 10-15 years at Time 1 completed a self-report survey three times with 1 year intervals in between. Longitudinal mediation path models were constructed to determine whether and how maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies at Time 2 functioned as mediators between future orientation at Time 1 and ill-being and well-being at Time 3. Results showed that future orientation predicted lower maladaptive coping, which in turn predicted lower substance use and self-harming behavior. All three well-being outcomes (i.e., happiness with weight, vitality, and sleep) were consistently predicted by future orientation, and all three pathways were mediated by both lower maladaptive and higher adaptive coping strategies (with the exception of happiness with weight, which was mediated only by lower maladaptive coping). The results suggest that several pathways by which future orientation leads to greater well-being occurs through an increased use of adaptive coping, a decreased use of maladaptive coping, or both.

  7. Vulnerability, Sensitivity, and Coping/Adaptive Capacity Worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2009-10-01

    Research and analyses have repeatedly shown that impacts of climate change will be unevenly distributed and will affect various societies in various ways. The severity of impacts will depend in part on ability to cope in the short term and adapt in the longer term. However, it has been difficult to find a comparative basis on which to assess differential impacts of climate change. This chapter describes the Vulnerability-Resilience Indicator Model that uses 18 proxy indicators, grouped into 8 elements, to assess on a quantitative basis the comparative potential vulnerability and resilience of countries to climate change. The model integrates socioeconomic and environmental information such as land use, crop production, water availability, per capita GDP, inequality, and health status. Comparative results for 160 countries are presented and analyzed.

  8. Quality vs. Quantity: Acquisition of Coping Skills Following Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes over time in quality and quantity of coping skills acquired following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and examine potential mediating effects on substance use outcomes. Design A randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of a computerized version of CBT (CBT4CBT) as an adjunct to standard outpatient treatment over an 8-week period. Setting Data were collected from individuals seeking treatment for substance dependence in an outpatient community setting. Participants Fifty-two substance abusing individuals (50% African American), with an average age of 42 years, and a majority reporting cocaine as their primary drug of choice. Measurements Participants’ responses to behavioral role-plays of situations associated with high risk for drug and alcohol use were audio-taped and independently rated to assess their coping responses. Findings There were statistically significant increases in mean ratings of the quality of participants’ coping responses for those assigned to CBT4CBT compared to treatment as usual, and these differences remained significant three months after treatment completion. Moreover, quality of coping responses mediated the effect of treatment on participants’ duration of abstinence during the follow-up period. Conclusions These findings suggest that assignment to the computerized CBT program improved participants’ coping skills, as measured by independent ratings of a role playing task. It is also the first study to test and support quality of coping skills acquired as a mediator of the effect of CBT for substance use. PMID:20854334

  9. Coping Skills Among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Results of a Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojan; Labelle, Réal; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Knafo, Alexandra; Condat, Agnès; Bapt-Cazalets, Nathalie; Marguet, Christophe; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A multisite study was undertaken to advance our understanding of how coping skills, depression, and suicidal ideation are related among adolescents who attempt suicide. Two hypotheses were postulated: productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with lower and higher depression scores when age, sex, and stressful life events (SLEs) were controlled; and productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with the presence and absence of suicidal ideation when age, sex, and SLEs were controlled. Methods: Participants were 167 adolescents (13 to 17 years of age) hospitalized for attempting suicide in 5 pediatric departments across France. Four instruments were administered: the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Present and Lifetime Version, the Adolescent Coping Scale, the Life Events Questionnaire, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Descriptive analyses and univariate and multiple regression models were completed. Results: Both hypotheses were confirmed. Focus on the positive emerged as a significant variable in both models; depression emerged as a significant variable in the suicidal ideation model. The only sex difference observed was that girls made greater use of wishful thinking and seek social support. Conclusions: These findings suggest that coping skills are important mechanisms through which depression and suicidal ideation are maintained after attempting suicide. In intervening with adolescents who have attempted suicide, it may be useful to emphasize cognitive work geared to looking on the bright side, positive thinking, and fighting depression. PMID:25886670

  10. Developing Skilled Learners: A Strategy for Coping with New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearn, Michael; Downs, Sylvia

    1988-01-01

    Description of technique to enhance the development of learning skills, called Developing Skilled Learners (DSL), focuses on two case studies in British industry. The effects of change generated by new technology are discussed and the emphasis on learning processes rather than training methods is explained. (LRW)

  11. Second Wind: Bringing Good Coping Skills Materials to More Adult Students. Final Narrative Report [and] Coping Skills for Adults Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Educational Projects, Inc., Lancaster, PA.

    This document consists of a narrative final project report and the project product, a new edition of five booklets in the "Coping with Crisis" series. The report describes the process of redesigning and repackaging existing adult basic education materials; comments from three students are given. The five booklets are as follows: (1) "Dealing with…

  12. Web-based Coping Skills Training for Women Whose Partner has a Drinking Problem

    PubMed Central

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.; Barrick, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Spouses whose partner has an alcohol use disorder can experience considerable psychological distress. Yet, due to social, financial, relationship, and psychological barriers they often remain hidden, and underserved. To partially reduce treatment barriers for this population, this study evaluated the short-term efficacy of a self-paced, web-delivered coping skills training program for women experiencing distress as a result of living with a partner with an Alcohol Use Disorder. Participants (N = 89) were randomly assigned to either 8-weeks of an Internet-administered Coping Skills Training Program (iCST), or an 8-week Delayed Treatment Control (DTC). Participation in, and satisfaction with iCST was high. At the end of the 8-week access/delay period, iCST participants exhibited a significantly higher level of coping skills relative to DTC, d = 1.02, 95% CI [.64, 1.51], and reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms, d = −.65, 95% CI [−1.21, −.35], and situational anger, d = −.70, 95% CI [−1.62, −.64]. Moreover, iCST appeared to prevent an increase in symptoms among those with low baseline symptom levels; DTC did not. Skill acquisition appeared to partially mediate changes observed. Online coping skills training may be an effective way of reaching and helping a large number of this frequently underserved population. PMID:25347016

  13. Development of Maladaptive Coping: A Functional Adaptation to Chronic, Uncontrollable Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2015-01-01

    Health disparities are rooted in childhood and stem from adverse early environments that damage physiologic stress-response systems. Developmental psychobiological models of the effects of chronic stress account for both the negative effects of a stress-response system calibrated to a dangerous and unpredictable environment from a health perspective, and the positive effects of such an adaptively calibrated stress response from a functional perspective. Our research suggests that contexts that produce functionally adapted physiologic responses to stress also encourage a functionally adapted coping response—coping that can result in maladjustment in physical and mental health, but enables children to grow and develop within those contexts. In this article, I highlight the value of reframing maladaptive coping as functional adaptation to understand more completely the development of children’s coping in different contexts, and the value of such a conceptual shift for coping-based theory, research, and intervention. PMID:26019717

  14. Building adaptive capacity to cope with increasing vulnerability due to climatic change in Africa A new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twomlow, Steve; Mugabe, Francis T.; Mwale, Moses; Delve, Robert; Nanja, Durton; Carberry, Peter; Howden, Mark

    The world community faces many risks from climate change, with most scenarios indicating higher temperatures and more erratic rainfall in Africa. Predictions for southern Africa suggest a general decrease in total seasonal rainfall, accompanied by more frequent in-season dry spells that will significantly impact crop and livestock production, and hence economic growth in the region. The hardest hit will be the rural poor in the drier areas, where crop failure due to drought is already common and chronic food emergencies afflict the region in most years. Lessons can be learnt on how the rural poor currently cope with the vagaries of climate and these can be used to help them adapt their current production systems to the future threats of further climate change. But this assumes the institutions that work towards the economic empowerment of the rural poor have the requisite skills to understand their current coping strategies and how adaptation can be facilitated. A new initiative led by Midlands State University and the Zambian Meteorological Office proposes that improving the ability of institutions that train the ‘Future Change Agents’, who will subsequently support smallholder communities in adapting their agricultural practices to current climate variability, is the first step in building adaptive capacity to cope with future climate change. The capacity of African scientists, regional organizations and decision-makers in dealing with the issues of climate change and adaptation will be enhanced on a continuing basis, and the impacts of their agricultural development programs improved.

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Gifted Students' Coping with Anger and Decision Making Skills Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersoy, Evren; Deniz, Mehmet Engin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the scale concerning gifted children's' skills for making decisions and coping with anger and to examine the validity and reliability of the scale. A total of 324 students, which 151 were female and 173 were male, studying in 3 different Science and Arts Center's (BILSEM) in Istanbul during 2014-2015…

  16. Coping Skills Training for Parents of Children with Type 1 Diabetes: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Margaret; Jaser, Sarah S.; Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Lindemann, Evie

    2011-01-01

    Background Although it is recognized that caring for a child with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is stressful for parents, few interventions have been developed and tested for this population. Objectives To compare a group educational intervention for parents of children with T1D to a coping skills training intervention. Method Parents of children with T1D were randomized to the group educational (n = 106) or coping skills training (n = 75) conditions. Parents completed measures of family conflict, responsibility for treatment, coping, and quality of life at baseline and 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Clinical data (i.e., HbA1c) were collected from children’s medical records pre- and postintervention. Results There were no significant treatment effects 12 months postintervention, but parents in both groups reported improved coping (p < .001), less responsibility for treatment management (p < .001), and improved quality of life (p = .005). While children’s metabolic control worsened over time, mean values at 12 months were still within the recommended levels in this well-controlled sample (HbA1c < 8%). Discussion Group-based interventions for parents of children with T1D may lessen the impact of treatment management, improving coping and quality of life. PMID:21522034

  17. Coping with Work Stressors in Nursing. Effects of Adaptive versus Maladaptive Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parasuraman, Saroj; Hansen, Donna

    1987-01-01

    The effect of coping behaviors on nurses' affective reactions to work-generated stressors was assessed, using data gathered from 215 nurses in a medical center hospital in the Midwest. Adaptive coping, reflecting problem-solving behaviors, was found to moderate the relationships of work overload and resource inadequacy with felt stress. (Author/CH)

  18. Coping Strategies Applied to Comprehend Multistep Arithmetic Word Problems by Students with Above-Average Numeracy Skills and Below-Average Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nortvedt, Guri A.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how 13-year-old students with above-average numeracy skills and below-average reading skills cope with comprehending word problems. Compared to other students who are proficient in numeracy and are skilled readers, these students are more disadvantaged when solving single-step and multistep arithmetic word problems. The…

  19. Brief coping skills treatment for cocaine abuse: 12-month substance use outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rohsenow, D J; Monti, P M; Martin, R A; Michalec, E; Abrams, D B

    2000-06-01

    Patients (N = 108) in a study of cocaine-specific coping skills training (CST), which was found to reduce cocaine use during a 3-month follow-up, were followed for an additional 9 months. CST involved coping skills training in the context of high-risk situations. Control treatment used meditation-relaxation. Both were added to comprehensive private substance abuse treatment. Patients in CST who relapsed had significantly fewer cocaine use days than did the control group during the first 6 months, then both conditions did equally well. Patients in CST also drank alcohol more frequently in the last 6 months than did contrast patients but did not differ in heavy drinking days. For cocaine use outcomes, no interaction of treatment was found with gender, education, route of administration, drug use severity, sociopathy, or depression. Implications include the need to investigate different lengths and combinations of treatment.

  20. A Controlled Examination of Two Coping Skills for Daily Alcohol Use and PTSD Symptom Severity Among Dually Diagnosed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Luterek, Jane A.; Kaysen, Debra; Rosenthal, Christina F.; Gurrad, Bethann; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of targeted coping skills could help guide initial treatment decisions for individuals with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) who often endorse worse coping skills than those with AD but not PTSD. Although improvement in coping skills is associated with enhanced alcohol use outcomes, no study has evaluated the utility of teaching specific coping skills in the context of comorbid PTSD/AD. We compared the effects of teaching two coping skills (cognitive restructuring [CR] and experiential acceptance [EA]) or an attention control condition on drinking and PTSD symptoms among 78 men and women with comorbid PTSD/AD during a 5-week daily follow-up assessment. Both CR and EA skills were associated with decreased drinking compared to control, and that change in drinking over time did not significantly differ between those who received CR and EA. Individuals who received CR skills, however, consumed less alcohol on a given day than those who received EA skills. Neither CR nor EA was associated with a decrease in PTSD symptom severity. These results provide preliminary support for clinicians to prioritize CR and EA skills during initial treatment sessions when working with individuals with PTSD/AD, and offer ideas for continued investigation and intervention refinement. PMID:25617814

  1. Stress Management in Physical Education Class: An Experiential Approach to Improve Coping Skills and Reduce Stress Perceptions in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Christin; Feldmeth, Anna Karina; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In most physical education (PE) syllabuses, promoting life skills constitutes an important educational objective. The aim of this study was to implement a coping training program (EPHECT) within regular PE and to evaluate its effects on coping and stress among vocational students. Eight classes from a vocational school were selected for study;…

  2. Psychological skills in basketball: preliminary study for development of a Greek form of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28.

    PubMed

    Goudas, M; Theodorakis, Y; Karamousalidis, G

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine for a sample of 126 basketball players the psychometric properties of a Greek version of the 1995 Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 by Smith, Schutz, Smoll, and Ptacek. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the structural validity of the translated inventory. Moreover, six of the seven subscales showed adequate internal consistency. The discriminant validity of the scores on the inventory was supported by examining mean differences between experienced and inexperienced athletes as well as between athletes of different levels of competition. Further steps for the validation of the inventory in Greek are discussed.

  3. Family Adaptation and Coping among Siblings of Cancer Patients, Their Brothers and Sisters, and Nonclinical Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan-Swain, Avi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined coping and family adaptation in siblings (n=32) of cancer patients, their ill brothers and sisters (n=19), and control group of nonclinical children (n=10) with healthy siblings. Gender and age of sibling, birth order, and number of siblings were examined. Found better adaptation in larger families and decreased family involvement among…

  4. Computerized Adaptive Testing of Music-Related Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vispoel, Walter P.; Coffman, Don D.

    1992-01-01

    Reports the findings of a study of university marching band members' tonal memory skills and their preferences between adaptive and paper-and-pencil testing. Concludes that adaptive testing yielded greater reliability and validity scores. Indicates that students preferred adaptive tests over paper-and-pencil music tests. (SG)

  5. A Feasibility Study of Virtual Reality-Based Coping Skills Training for Nicotine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Traylor, Amy C.; Carter, Brian L.; Graap, Ken M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Virtual reality (VR)-based cue reactivity has been successfully used for the assessment of drug craving. Going beyond assessment of cue reactivity, a novel VR-based treatment approach for smoking cessation was developed and tested for feasibility. Method In a randomized experiment, 10-week treatment feasibility trial, 46 nicotine-dependent adults, completed the10-week program. Virtual reality skills training (VRST) combined with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was compared to NRT alone. Participants were assessed for smoking behavior and coping skills during, at end of treatment, and at posttreatment follow-up. Results Smoking rates and craving for nicotine were significantly lower for the VRST group compared to NRT-only group at the end of treatment. Self-confidence and coping skills were also significantly higher for the VRST group, and number of cigarettes smoked was significantly lower, compared to the control group at follow-up. Conclusions Feasibility of VRST was supported in the current study. PMID:25484549

  6. Effects of a Risk and Resilience Course on Stress, Coping Skills, and Cognitive Strategies in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatkin, Jess P.; Diamond, Ursula; Zhao, Yihong; DiMeglio, John; Chodaczek, Michaela; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the impact of the skills-building component of a two-semester risk and resilience (R&R) course on the stress, coping skills, and cognitive style of 36 undergraduates compared to 62 students enrolled in a child and adolescent psychopathology course. In the fall, students learned about risk taking and decision-making as well as…

  7. Evaluation of Pillars4life: a virtual coping skills program for cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sophia K.; O’Donnell, Jonathan D.; Abernethy, Amy P.; MacDermott, Kristin; Staley, Tina; Samsa, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pillars4Life is an educational program that teaches coping skills to cancer patients in a virtual group setting; it was recently implemented at 17 hospitals across the USA. The cost-effective, scalable, and assessable Pillars4Life curriculum targets psychosocial resources (e.g., self-efficacy and coping skills) as a means to reduce symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress) and enhance quality of life. Methods Cancer patients were recruited from hospitals that received the LIVESTRONG Community Impact Project Award to enroll in a pilot study of Pillars4Life. Consenting participants met with a certified instructor weekly for 10 weeks in a virtual environment; the manualized intervention trained participants in personal coping skills. Longitudinal assessments over 6 months were assessed using validated instruments to determine changes in Pillars4Life targeted resources and outcomes. Multiple linear regression models examined the relationship between changes in targeted resources and changes in outcome from baseline to 3 months post-intervention. Results Participants (n = 130) had the following characteristics: mean age of 56 ± 11 years, 87% women, 11% non-Caucasian, and 77% with college degree. At 3- and 6-month follow-up, mean scores improved on all key outcome measures such as depression (Patient Health Questionnaire), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder), posttraumatic stress (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist), fatigue (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy—Fatigue), and well-being (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy—General) from baseline (all p<0.01); results were most pronounced among participants who reported ≥4/10 on the Distress Thermometer at baseline (all p<0.001). Changes in each targeted resource were associated with 3-month improvements in at least one outcome. Conclusions Participation in the Pillars4Life program was associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements in

  8. COPING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY--EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY INTERVENTION.

    PubMed

    Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials.

  9. COPING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY--EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY INTERVENTION.

    PubMed

    Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials. PMID:27017721

  10. Effects of coping skills training on generalized self-efficacy and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Smith, R E

    1989-02-01

    A number of studies have shown that mastery experiences strengthen self-efficacy expectancies that are specific to the mastery situation. In this study I assessed the effects of cognitive-behavioral coping skills training on generalized expectancies concerning self-efficacy and locus of control in test-anxious college students. Compared with a waiting-list control group, the trained subjects exhibited significant decreases on trait and state measures of test anxiety and a higher level of academic performance on classroom tests, as well as changes in specific self-efficacy expectancies relating to test-anxiety management and academic performance. Consistent with generalization predictions derived from self-efficacy theory, the coping skills group also exhibited decreases in general trait anxiety and increased scores on a trait measure of generalized self-efficacy. Locus of control was unaffected by the program, and changes in general self-efficacy were unrelated to changes in locus of control, suggesting the possibility that different parameters of experience are related to changes in the two types of generalized expectancies. PMID:2926626

  11. The Sense of Self-Continuity as a Resource in Adaptive Coping with Job Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeh, Noa; Karniol, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the sense of self-continuity, defined as the ability to perceive oneself as extending temporally backwards into the past and forwards into the future, and the adaptiveness of strategies of coping with job loss. We created a web site that was linked to several Israeli web sites dealing with unemployment in…

  12. Coping Strategies and Adaptation of Mothers of Children with Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooshyar, Nahid T.

    Mothers' coping mechanisms and adaptations to having a handicapped child were analyzed through extensive structured interviews with mothers of eight preschool-aged Down syndrome children and a language impaired child. Three illustrative case studies are presented, and general conclusions are drawn. Mothers of Down syndrome children go through the…

  13. Bibliography of Selected Literature in the 1970s Related to Crises, Family Stress, Coping and Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesser, Barbara

    This bibliography of literature from the 1970s related to crises, family stress, coping, and adaptation contains references of particular interest to professionals in the areas of counseling, education, and family social, psychological and health services. The bibliography is divided into 26 categories; references are classified according to major…

  14. At a Foreign University: An International Study of Adaptation and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klineberg, Otto; Hull, Frank W., IV

    An international study of adaptation and coping of students, faculty, and administrators involved with foreign student exchange is examined using data obtained in 11 countries--Brazil, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Hong Kong, India, Iran, Japan, Kenya, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The following are included:…

  15. Coping Skills Training in a Telephone Health Coaching Program for Youth at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Vanessa; Jaser, Sarah S.; Lindemann, Evie; Galasso, Pamela; Beale, Alison; Holl, Marita G.; Grey, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this paper is to describe components of a health coaching intervention based on coping skills training delivered via telephone. This intervention was provided to urban adolescents at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), reinforcing a school-based curriculum designed to promote a healthy lifestyle and prevent T2DM. Method Health coaching via telephone was provided to at-risk, urban youth enrolled in a study of an intervention to reduce risk for T2DM. Vignettes are used to describe the use of several coping skills in this high risk youth population. Results A variety of vignettes illustrate how telephone health coaching reinforced lifestyle changes in students by incorporating coping skills training. Discussion Given the benefits and the challenges of the telephone health coaching intervention, several suggestions for others who plan to use a similar method are described. PMID:21514490

  16. Coping with thermal challenges: physiological adaptations to environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Glenn J; Sinclair, Brent J; Withers, Philip C; Fields, Peter A; Seebacher, Frank; Cooper, Christine E; Maloney, Shane K

    2012-07-01

    Temperature profoundly influences physiological responses in animals, primarily due to the effects on biochemical reaction rates. Since physiological responses are often exemplified by their rate dependency (e.g., rate of blood flow, rate of metabolism, rate of heat production, and rate of ion pumping), the study of temperature adaptations has a long history in comparative and evolutionary physiology. Animals may either defend a fairly constant temperature by recruiting biochemical mechanisms of heat production and utilizing physiological responses geared toward modifying heat loss and heat gain from the environment, or utilize biochemical modifications to allow for physiological adjustments to temperature. Biochemical adaptations to temperature involve alterations in protein structure that compromise the effects of increased temperatures on improving catalytic enzyme function with the detrimental influences of higher temperature on protein stability. Temperature has acted to shape the responses of animal proteins in manners that generally preserve turnover rates at animals' normal, or optimal, body temperatures. Physiological responses to cold and warmth differ depending on whether animals maintain elevated body temperatures (endothermic) or exhibit minimal internal heat production (ectothermic). In both cases, however, these mechanisms involve regulated neural and hormonal over heat flow to the body or heat flow within the body. Examples of biochemical responses to temperature in endotherms involve metabolic uncoupling mechanisms that decrease metabolic efficiency with the outcome of producing heat, whereas ectothermic adaptations to temperature are best exemplified by the numerous mechanisms that allow for the tolerance or avoidance of ice crystal formation at temperatures below 0°C.

  17. Influence of Music Therapy on Coping Skills and Anger Management in Forensic Psychiatric Patients: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Laurien; Bogaerts, Stefan; Thaut, Michael H; Spreen, Marinus

    2015-07-01

    The effect of music therapy on anger management and coping skills is an innovative subject in the field of forensic psychiatry. This study explores the following research question: Can music therapy treatment contribute to positive changes in coping skills, anger management, and dysfunctional behavior of forensic psychiatric patients? To investigate this question, first a literature review is offered on music therapy and anger management in forensic psychiatry. Then, an explorative study is presented. In the study, a pre- and post-test design was used with a random assignment of patients to either treatment or control condition. Fourteen participants' complete datasets were collected. All participants received "treatment as usual." Nine of the participants received a standardized, music therapy anger management program; the five controls received, unplanned, an aggression management program. Results suggested that anger management skills improved for all participants. The improvement of positive coping skills and diminishing of avoidance as a coping skill were measured to show greater changes in music therapy participants. When controlling for the exact number of treatment hours, the outcomes suggested that music therapy might accelerate the process of behavioral changes. PMID:24379454

  18. Influence of Music Therapy on Coping Skills and Anger Management in Forensic Psychiatric Patients: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Laurien; Bogaerts, Stefan; Thaut, Michael H; Spreen, Marinus

    2015-07-01

    The effect of music therapy on anger management and coping skills is an innovative subject in the field of forensic psychiatry. This study explores the following research question: Can music therapy treatment contribute to positive changes in coping skills, anger management, and dysfunctional behavior of forensic psychiatric patients? To investigate this question, first a literature review is offered on music therapy and anger management in forensic psychiatry. Then, an explorative study is presented. In the study, a pre- and post-test design was used with a random assignment of patients to either treatment or control condition. Fourteen participants' complete datasets were collected. All participants received "treatment as usual." Nine of the participants received a standardized, music therapy anger management program; the five controls received, unplanned, an aggression management program. Results suggested that anger management skills improved for all participants. The improvement of positive coping skills and diminishing of avoidance as a coping skill were measured to show greater changes in music therapy participants. When controlling for the exact number of treatment hours, the outcomes suggested that music therapy might accelerate the process of behavioral changes.

  19. COPE for Depressed and Anxious Teens: A Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Skills Building Intervention to Increase Access to Timely, Evidence-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, Pamela; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    TOPIC Evidence–based CBT skills building intervention – COPE -for depressed and anxious teens in brief 30 minute outpatient visits. PURPOSE Based on COPE training workshops, this paper provides an overview of the COPE program, it’s development, theoretical foundation, content of the sessions and lessons learned for best delivery of COPE to individuals and groups in psychiatric settings, primary care settings and schools. SOURCES Published literature and clinical examples CONCLUSION With the COPE program, the advanced practice nurse in busy outpatient practice can provide timely, evidence-based therapy for adolescents and use the full extent of his/her advanced practice nursing knowledge and skills. PMID:23351105

  20. Combat health care providers and resiliency: adaptive coping mechanisms during and after deployment.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Shafer, Michaela; Aramanda, Larry; Hickling, Edward J; Benedek, David M

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to understand the varied health care provider responses to traumas by identifying perceptions of control and self-efficacy, appraisal styles, and postevent coping strategies in active duty military nurses and physicians deployed to combat/terrorist regions. Twenty purposively sampled military health care providers completed a descriptive questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a recorded semistructured interview that was later transcribed and content analyzed. Cognitive-behavioral determinants of healthy response to trauma were used to frame this descriptive interpretive study and to assist with developing a model for healthy adaptation in trauma-exposed health care providers. Participants felt they had the greatest control over their health care provider role in theater, and most expressed a belief that a sense of control and a sense of purpose were important to their coping. All used some form of social support to cope and many found calming activities that allowed for self-reflection to be helpful. Results from this analysis can be used to inform interventions and promote postevent coping behaviors that increase social support, strengthen important bonds, and enhance involvement in activities that elicit positive emotions. Health care providers experienced positive outcomes despite considerable traumatic exposure by using coping strategies that map closely to several principles of psychological first aid. This suggests a need to train all medical personnel in these concepts as they appear helpful in mitigating responses to the stress of combat-related exposures. PMID:23855421

  1. Cultural adaptation of the Brief COPE for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanraj, Rani; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Kumar, Shuba; Mani, Thenmozhi; Rao, Deepa; Murray, Katherine R.; Manhart, Lisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and psychological stressors of HIV infection demand adequate coping responses from persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and coping strategies may vary by cultural context. The Brief COPE is a well validated scale that has been used extensively to assess coping with cancer, depression, and HIV infection in other settings, but never in India. In this study we translated and validated the 28 item Brief COPE among 299 PLHA in South India, assessing reliability, validity, and cultural appropriateness. Although the original scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (alpha=0.70) and good convergent validity with depression, the test-retest reliability was marginal (test-retest=0.6) and the original factor structure demonstrated poor fit in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) yielded a 16 item scale with 5 factors (active planning, social support, avoidant emotions, substance use, religion). A second CFA demonstrated good model fit and acceptable reliability (alpha=0.61) of the adapted scale. PMID:25096895

  2. Adaptive Variability in Skilled Human Movements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Kazutoshi; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

    Human movements are produced in variable external/internal environments. Because of this variability, the same motor command can result in quite different movement patterns. Therefore, to produce skilled movements humans must coordinate the variability, not try to exclude it. In addition, because human movements are produced in redundant and complex systems, a combination of variability should be observed in different anatomical/physiological levels. In this paper, we introduce our research about human movement variability that shows remarkable coordination among components, and between organism and environment. We also introduce nonlinear dynamical models that can describe a variety of movements as a self-organization of a dynamical system, because the dynamical systems approach is a major candidate to understand the principle underlying organization of varying systems with huge degrees-of-freedom.

  3. Anxiety, Depression, and Coping Skills among Mexican School Children: A Comparison of Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallegos, Julia; Langley, Audra; Villegas, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare severity and risk status for anxiety and depression with coping skills among 130 Mexican school children with learning disabilities (LD) and 130 school children without LD. This research is the first to explore the emotional difficulties of Mexican children with LD. Children completed the Spanish version of…

  4. Appreciation and Life Satisfaction: Does Appreciation Uniquely Predict Life Satisfaction above Gender, Coping Skills, Self-Esteem, and Positive Affectivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Joshua Solomon

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine whether appreciation explains variance in life satisfaction after controlling for gender, positive affectivity, self-esteem, and coping skills. Two hundred ninety-eight undergraduates went to the informed consent page of the online survey composed of the Appreciation Scale, the Satisfaction With…

  5. Culturally Adapted Skill Use as a Therapeutic Alliance Catalyst

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewicki, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, I explore how the therapeutic alliance, along with culturally competent and adapted skill use can be positively correlated with treatment outcome when using the ecological validity model as the frame. The ecological validity model refers to the degree to which there is consistency between the environment as experienced by…

  6. Adapted Assessment of Phonological Sensitivity Skills: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pufpaff, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Children with little or no functional speech are at risk for literacy acquisition. Assessment of early literacy skills is particularly challenging among this population due to the need for children to provide a spoken response to tasks. This study explored the effects of adapted response modes on measures of phonological sensitivity. Assessment…

  7. The effect of songwriting on knowledge of coping skills and working alliance in psychiatric patients: a randomized clinical effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a songwriting intervention on psychiatric patients' knowledge of coping skills and working alliance. Participants were randomly assigned to scripted and manualized experimental (n=48) or control (n=41) conditions. The experimental condition was a group psychoeducational music therapy songwriting session concerning coping skills while the control condition was a group psychoeducational session concerning coping skills. Both conditions were single-session therapy with patients on an acute adult psychiatric unit. Results indicated no significant between group differences in measures of knowledge of coping skills, consumer working alliance, or perception of enjoyment (p>.05), although the experimental condition tended to have slightly higher mean scores than the control group for these measures. There was a significant between group difference in measures of therapist working alliance (p<.001), with the therapist scoring the experimental group higher than the control group. Although the music therapy group had a higher mean rate of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, their perception of enjoyment scores were still higher than those of the control condition, a finding incongruent in the literature. Furthermore, despite the increased number of previous hospitalizations, the music therapy condition had higher attendance rates than the control condition, thus possibly providing incentives for funding. It seems that group songwriting about coping skills can be as effective a psychosocial intervention as traditional talk-based psychoeducation to teach psychiatric inpatients how to proactively manage their illness. Additionally, music therapy can be as effective as talk-based psychoeducation in establishing working alliance. Implications for clinical practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  8. Adaptive Capacity in Tanzanian Maasailand: Changing strategies to cope with drought in fragmented landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Riosmena, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which the adaptive capacity of households to climatic events varies within communities and is mediated by institutional and landscape changes. We present qualitative and quantitative data from two Maasai communities differentially exposed to the devastating drought of 2009 in Northern Tanzania. We show how rangeland fragmentation combined with the decoupling of institutions and landscapes are affecting pastoralists ability to cope with drought. Our data highlight that mobility remains a key coping mechanism for pastoralists to avoid cattle loss during a drought. However, mobility is now happening in new ways that require not only large amounts of money but new forms of knowledge and connections outside of customary reciprocity networks. Those least affected by the drought, in terms of cattle lost, were those with large herds who were able to sell some of their cattle and to pay for private access to pastures outside of Maasai areas. Drawing on an entitlements framework, we argue that the new coping mechanisms are not available to all, could be making some households more vulnerable to climate change, and reduce the adaptive capacity of the overall system as reciprocity networks and customary institutions are weakened. As such, we posit that adaptive capacity to climate change is uneven within and across communities, is scale-dependent, and is intimately tied to institutional and landscape changes. PMID:25400331

  9. Coping, acculturation, and psychological adaptation among migrants: a theoretical and empirical review and synthesis of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ben C.H.

    2014-01-01

    Given the continuous, dynamic demographic changes internationally due to intensive worldwide migration and globalization, the need to more fully understand how migrants adapt and cope with acculturation experiences in their new host cultural environment is imperative and timely. However, a comprehensive review of what we currently know about the relationship between coping behavior and acculturation experience for individuals undergoing cultural changes has not yet been undertaken. Hence, the current article aims to compile, review, and examine cumulative cross-cultural psychological research that sheds light on the relationships among coping, acculturation, and psychological and mental health outcomes for migrants. To this end, this present article reviews prevailing literature pertaining to: (a) the stress and coping conceptual perspective of acculturation; (b) four theoretical models of coping, acculturation and cultural adaptation; (c) differential coping pattern among diverse acculturating migrant groups; and (d) the relationship between coping variabilities and acculturation levels among migrants. In terms of theoretical understanding, this review points to the relative strengths and limitations associated with each of the four theoretical models on coping-acculturation-adaptation. These theories and the empirical studies reviewed in this article further highlight the central role of coping behaviors/strategies in the acculturation process and outcome for migrants and ethnic populations, both conceptually and functionally. Moreover, the review shows that across studies culturally preferred coping patterns exist among acculturating migrants and migrant groups and vary with migrants' acculturation levels. Implications and limitations of the existing literature for coping, acculturation, and psychological adaptation research are discussed and recommendations for future research are put forth. PMID:25750766

  10. Personality and illness adaptation in adults with type 1 diabetes: the intervening role of illness coping and perceptions.

    PubMed

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Klimstra, Theo A; Moons, Philip; Groven, Chris; Weets, Ilse

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by the common sense model, the present cross-sectional study examined illness perceptions and coping as intervening mechanisms in the relationship between Big Five personality traits and illness adaptation in adults with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 368 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (18-35 years old) completed questionnaires on personality, diabetes-related problems, illness perceptions, and illness coping. First, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted patients' illness adaptation, above and beyond the effects of sex, age, and illness duration. Second, illness coping was found to be an important mediating mechanism in the relationship between the Big Five and illness adaptation. Finally, perceived consequences and perceived personal control partially mediated the relationship between the Big Five and illness coping. These findings underscore the importance of examining patients' personality to shed light on their daily functioning and, hence, call for tailored intervention programs which take into account the personality of the individual patient.

  11. Dyslexic entrepreneurs: the incidence; their coping strategies and their business skills.

    PubMed

    Logan, Julie

    2009-11-01

    This comparative study explores the incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs, corporate managers and the general population. It examines the suggestion that dyslexic entrepreneurs develop coping strategies to manage their weaknesses, which are subsequently of benefit in the new venture creation process. Results of this study suggest that there is a significantly higher incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs than in the corporate management and general US and UK populations and some of the strategies they adopt to overcome dyslexia (such as delegation of tasks) may be useful in business. The study was undertaken in two parts. First, entrepreneurs and corporate managers completed an online questionnaire, which combined questions about their company, their management or leadership role and their business skills together with questions that were designed to explore the likely incidence of dyslexia. A follow-up study that made use of a semi-structured questionnaire explored business issues and educational experience in more depth with those who had been diagnosed as dyslexic and those who did not have any history of dyslexia or any other learning difficulty.

  12. Dyslexic entrepreneurs: the incidence; their coping strategies and their business skills.

    PubMed

    Logan, Julie

    2009-11-01

    This comparative study explores the incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs, corporate managers and the general population. It examines the suggestion that dyslexic entrepreneurs develop coping strategies to manage their weaknesses, which are subsequently of benefit in the new venture creation process. Results of this study suggest that there is a significantly higher incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs than in the corporate management and general US and UK populations and some of the strategies they adopt to overcome dyslexia (such as delegation of tasks) may be useful in business. The study was undertaken in two parts. First, entrepreneurs and corporate managers completed an online questionnaire, which combined questions about their company, their management or leadership role and their business skills together with questions that were designed to explore the likely incidence of dyslexia. A follow-up study that made use of a semi-structured questionnaire explored business issues and educational experience in more depth with those who had been diagnosed as dyslexic and those who did not have any history of dyslexia or any other learning difficulty. PMID:19378286

  13. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    PubMed Central

    Mhaidat, Fatin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades) enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure) and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. PMID:27175098

  14. Resident Ratings of Communication Skills Using the Kalamazoo Adapted Checklist

    PubMed Central

    Porcerelli, John H.; Brennan, Simone; Carty, Jennifer; Ziadni, Maisa; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-01-01

    Background The Kalamazoo Essential Elements Communication Checklist–Adapted (KEECC-A) is a well-regarded instrument for evaluating communication and interpersonal skills. To date, little research has been conducted that assesses the accuracy of resident self-ratings of their communication skills. Objective To assess whether residents can accurately self-rate communication skills, using the KEECC-A, during an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Methods A group of 104 residents from 8 specialties completed a multistation OSCE as part of an institutional communication skills curriculum conducted at a single institution. Standardized patients (SPs) and observers were trained in rating communication skills using the KEECC-A. Standardized patient ratings and resident self-ratings were completed immediately following each OSCE encounter, and trained observers rated archived videotapes of the encounters. Results Resident self-ratings and SP ratings using the KEECC-A were significantly correlated (r104 = 0.238, P = .02), as were resident self-ratings and observer ratings (r104 = 0.284, P = .004). The correlation between the SP ratings and observer (r104 = 0.378, P = .001) ratings were larger in magnitude, but not significantly different (P > .05) from resident/SP or resident/observer correlations. Conclusions The results suggest that residents, with a modicum of training using the KEECC-A, can accurately rate their own communication and interpersonal skills during an OSCE. Using trained observers to rate resident communication skills provides a unique opportunity for evaluating SP and resident self-ratings. Our findings also lend further support for the reliability and validity of the KEECC-A. PMID:26457156

  15. Anxiety, Depression, and Coping Skills Among Mexican School Children: A Comparison of Students With and Without Learning Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Julia; Langley, Audra; Villegas, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare severity and risk status for anxiety and depression with coping skills among 130 Mexican school children with learning disabilities (LD) and 130 school children without LD. This research is the first to explore the emotional difficulties of Mexican children with LD. Children completed the Spanish version of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and Children’s Depression Inventory, and the Cuestionario de Afrontamiento (Coping Skills Questionnaire). Results indicated that a higher percentage of children with LD were at risk for anxiety (22.3% vs. 11.5%) and depression (32% vs. 18%). No statistically significant differences were found for coping skills. Results support the idea that there is an increased awareness of comorbid depression and anxiety among students with LD and a need to promote early identification and intervention in schools. Efforts should focus on better understanding the relationship between social-emotional difficulties and academic achievement and on developing effective interventions to support children with LD. PMID:24223470

  16. The Utility of the Rorschach Coping Deficit Index as a Measure of Depression and Social Skills Deficits in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stredny, Rebecca; Ball, J.

    2005-01-01

    Little research has evaluated the validity of the Coping Deficit Index (CDI) of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). Because the CS Depression Index (DEPI) has frequently been found to yield false negatives, the CDI has been proposed as an alternative means of assessing social coping skills that may relate to depression. This study examined…

  17. Adaptive Coping under Conditions of Extreme Stress: Multilevel Influences on the Determinants of Resilience in Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2009-01-01

    The study of resilience in maltreated children reveals the possibility of coping processes and resources on multiple levels of analysis as children strive to adapt under conditions of severe stress. In a maltreating context, aspects of self-organization, including self-esteem, self-reliance, emotion regulation, and adaptable yet reserved…

  18. Coping with the Forced Swim Stressor: Towards Understanding an Adaptive Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    de Kloet, E. R.; Molendijk, M. L.

    2016-01-01

    In the forced swim test (FST) rodents progressively show increased episodes of immobility if immersed in a beaker with water from where escape is not possible. In this test, a compound qualifies as a potential antidepressant if it prevents or delays the transition to this passive (energy conserving) behavioural style. In the past decade however the switch from active to passive “coping” was used increasingly to describe the phenotype of an animal that has been exposed to a stressful history and/or genetic modification. A PubMed analysis revealed that in a rapidly increasing number of papers (currently more than 2,000) stress-related immobility in the FST is labeled as a depression-like phenotype. In this contribution we will examine the different phases of information processing during coping with the forced swim stressor. For this purpose we focus on the action of corticosterone that is mediated by the closely related mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the limbic brain. The evidence available suggests a model in which we propose that the limbic MR-mediated response selection operates in complementary fashion with dopaminergic accumbens/prefrontal executive functions to regulate the transition between active and passive coping styles. Upon rescue from the beaker the preferred, mostly passive, coping style is stored in the memory via a GR-dependent action in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. It is concluded that the rodent's behavioural response to a forced swim stressor does not reflect depression. Rather the forced swim experience provides a unique paradigm to investigate the mechanistic underpinning of stress coping and adaptation. PMID:27034848

  19. Automated Internet-based pain coping skills training to manage osteoarthritis pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rini, Christine; Porter, Laura S; Somers, Tamara J; McKee, Daphne C; DeVellis, Robert F; Smith, Meredith; Winkel, Gary; Ahern, David K; Goldman, Roberta; Stiller, Jamie L; Mariani, Cara; Patterson, Carol; Jordan, Joanne M; Caldwell, David S; Keefe, Francis J

    2015-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) places a significant burden on worldwide public health because of the large and growing number of people affected by OA and its associated pain and disability. Pain coping skills training (PCST) is an evidence-based intervention targeting OA pain and disability. To reduce barriers that currently limit access to PCST, we developed an 8-week, automated, Internet-based PCST program called PainCOACH and evaluated its potential efficacy and acceptability in a small-scale, 2-arm randomized controlled feasibility trial. Participants were 113 men and women with clinically confirmed hip or knee OA and associated pain. They were randomized to a group completing PainCOACH or an assessment-only control group. Osteoarthritis pain, pain-related interference with functioning, pain-related anxiety, self-efficacy for pain management, and positive and negative affect were measured before intervention, midway through the intervention, and after intervention. Findings indicated high acceptability and adherence: 91% of participants randomized to complete PainCOACH finished all 8 modules over 8 to 10 weeks. Linear mixed models showed that, after treatment, women who received the PainCOACH intervention reported significantly lower pain than that in women in the control group (Cohen d = 0.33). Intervention effects could not be tested in men because of their low pain and small sample size. Additionally, both men and women demonstrated increases in self-efficacy from baseline to after intervention compared with the control group (d = 0.43). Smaller effects were observed for pain-related anxiety (d = 0.20), pain-related interference with functioning (d = 0.13), negative affect (d = 0.10), and positive affect (d = 0.24). Findings underscore the value of continuing to develop an automated Internet-based approach to disseminate this empirically supported intervention.

  20. Caregiver-Assisted Coping Skills Training for Lung Cancer: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Laura S.; Keefe, Francis J.; Garst, Jennifer; Baucom, Donald H.; McBride, Colleen; McKee, Daphne C.; Sutton, Linda; Carson, Kimberly; Knowles, Verena; Rumble, Meredith; Scipio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Context Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the U.S. and is associated with high levels of symptoms including pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, and psychological distress. Caregivers as well as patients are adversely affected. However, previous studies of coping skills training (CST) interventions have not been tested in patients with lung cancer nor systematically included caregivers. Objectives This study tested the efficacy of a caregiver-assisted CST protocol in a sample of patients with lung cancer. Methods Two hundred thirty-three lung cancer patients and their caregivers were randomly assigned to receive 14 telephone-based sessions of either caregiver-assisted CST or education/support involving the caregiver. Patients completed measures assessing pain, psychological distress, QOL, and self-efficacy for symptom management; caregivers completed measures assessing psychological distress, caregiver strain, and self-efficacy for helping the patient manage symptoms. Results Patients in both treatment conditions showed improvements in pain, depression, QOL, and self-efficacy and caregivers in both conditions showed improvements in anxiety and self-efficacy from baseline to four-month follow-up. Results of exploratory analyses suggested that the CST intervention was more beneficial to patients/caregivers with Stage II and III cancers, whereas the education/support intervention was more beneficial to patients/caregivers with Stage I cancer. Conclusion Taken together with the broader literature in this area, results from this study suggest that psychosocial interventions can lead to improvements in a range of outcomes for cancer patients. Suggestions for future studies include the utilization of three-group designs (e.g., comparing two active interventions to a standard-care control) and examining mechanisms of change. PMID:20832982

  1. Mixed-gender groups: coping strategies and factors of psychological adaptation in a polar environment.

    PubMed

    Rosnet, Elisabeth; Jurion, Sylvie; Cazes, Geneviève; Bachelard, Claude

    2004-07-01

    The polar environment is often seen as a good analog for long-term space missions in terms of isolation and confinement. This paper focuses on the psychological adaptation of both the men and women in mixed-gender groups in the French polar station Dumont d'Urville. The first 49 expeditions to this station were composed of men only in groups of 25-30. In 2000, two women were included in the first mixed-gender wintering group, followed by five women in 2001. This study on coping strategies and psychological adaptation was included in an end-of-mission debriefing performed by a psychologist. Data were collected using a few quantitative tools and a semi-structured interview, and focused on adaptation to wintering, coping strategies, and information on interpersonal relationships. Including women in a wintering group seems to have had positive effects on the general climate of the group by reducing men's rude behavior, but it also seems to be an important stressor for both men and women when the females' average age is close to the males' because seduction behaviors appear and rivalry, frustration, and sexual harassment frequently result. The use of problem-oriented strategies helps women to adapt. There are strong arguments indicating that living in an isolated and confined environment magnifies the usual difficulties that arise in mixed-gender relationships. Difficulties may be magnified in space since the group size is smaller and the confinement more extreme. This implies the need for rigorous select-in criteria for both men and women, especially for relational criteria, and for group training after selection.

  2. Mixed-gender groups: coping strategies and factors of psychological adaptation in a polar environment.

    PubMed

    Rosnet, Elisabeth; Jurion, Sylvie; Cazes, Geneviève; Bachelard, Claude

    2004-07-01

    The polar environment is often seen as a good analog for long-term space missions in terms of isolation and confinement. This paper focuses on the psychological adaptation of both the men and women in mixed-gender groups in the French polar station Dumont d'Urville. The first 49 expeditions to this station were composed of men only in groups of 25-30. In 2000, two women were included in the first mixed-gender wintering group, followed by five women in 2001. This study on coping strategies and psychological adaptation was included in an end-of-mission debriefing performed by a psychologist. Data were collected using a few quantitative tools and a semi-structured interview, and focused on adaptation to wintering, coping strategies, and information on interpersonal relationships. Including women in a wintering group seems to have had positive effects on the general climate of the group by reducing men's rude behavior, but it also seems to be an important stressor for both men and women when the females' average age is close to the males' because seduction behaviors appear and rivalry, frustration, and sexual harassment frequently result. The use of problem-oriented strategies helps women to adapt. There are strong arguments indicating that living in an isolated and confined environment magnifies the usual difficulties that arise in mixed-gender relationships. Difficulties may be magnified in space since the group size is smaller and the confinement more extreme. This implies the need for rigorous select-in criteria for both men and women, especially for relational criteria, and for group training after selection. PMID:15267070

  3. [Adaptation and psychometric proprieties study for the Portuguese version of the Adolescent Coping Scale - Escala de Coping para Adolescentes].

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Diogo Frasquilho; Cruz, Diana; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Sampaio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: O coping é um processo psicológico que leva ao ajustamento individual perante situações de stress. A Adolescent Coping Scale é um instrumento de investigação e uma ferramenta clínica, amplamente utilizada. O presente estudo tem como objectivos desenvolver uma versão Portuguesa da Adolescent Coping Scale e analisar as estratégias e estilos de coping dos jovens da nossa amostra.Material e Métodos: Um questionário anónimo compreendendo a Adolescent Coping Scale obteve respostas de 1 713 alunos (56% do sexo feminino, com idades compreendidas entre os 12 e os 20 anos e uma média etária de 16). O estudo de validade da escala contemplou: análise em componentes principais e avaliação da consistência interna; análise confirmatória através de modelo de equações estruturais. Posteriormente, foram comparadas por género as estratégias e estilos de coping da amostra (testes t para amostras independentes).Resultados: A estrutura final da adaptação da Adolescent Coping Scale reteve 70 itens, que avaliam 16 estratégias de coping agrupadas em três estilos distintos. As escalas apresentaram bons valores de consistência interna (alfas de Cronbach compreendidos entre 0,63 e 0,86, com a exceção de uma dimensão que apresentou um valor de 0,55) e o modelo confirmatório demonstrou bom fit (goodness of fit index compreendidos entre 0,94 e 0,96). Foram eliminadas duas estratégias de coping por motivos estatísticos (ausência de saturação de itens suficientes nas dimensões correspondentes). Verificámos que o estilo de coping focado na resolução do problema é aquele maioritariamente utilizado pelos adolescentes da nossa amostra, em ambos os sexos. No sexo feminino observaram-se valores médios mais elevados nos estilos de coping não produtivo e de referência a outros.Discussão: A versão adaptada apresenta elevada semelhança com a escala original, com alterações minor espectáveis tendo em conta que o coping é influenciado por

  4. Coping and psychosocial adaptation to Type 2 diabetes in older Blacks born in the Southern US and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Degazon, Cynthia E; Parker, Veronica G

    2007-04-01

    Older Black men and women (n = 212) with Type 2 diabetes completed questionnaires. Spearman's rho correlation indicated that confrontive coping strategies supported effective psychosocial adaptation for persons originally from Haiti and Jamaica, while emotive coping strategies were related to ineffective psychosocial adaptation for persons originally from Barbados and to increased psychological distress for all participants. Women used more palliative coping; no gender differences were observed for psychosocial adaptation. Health care orientation, extended family relationships, and psychological distress domains distinguished Blacks born in Haiti from Blacks born in Barbados and Jamaica, the Southern US and Jamaica, and the Southern US, Barbados, and Jamaica. Findings from this study may aid in the development of interventions focused on improving diabetes self-management for older Blacks. PMID:17380516

  5. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner's Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2005-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did…

  6. Longitudinal Effects of Social Support and Adaptive Coping on the Emotional Well-Being of Survivors of Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Eric S.; Penedo, Frank J.; Bustillo, Natalie E.; Benedict, Catherine; Rasheed, Mikal; Lechner, Suzanne; Soloway, Mark; Kava, Bruce R.; Schneiderman, Neil; Antoni, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Survivors of prostate cancer experience treatment-related physical side effects that can compromise emotional well-being for years post treatment. There is limited research investigating how social support and the use of coping may affect the emotional well-being of this population following treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate how social support and coping impact emotional well-being 2 years after treatment in survivors of localized prostate cancer who have received either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Psychosocial and disease-specific measures were administered to an ethnically and demographically diverse sample of 180 men treated for localized prostate cancer at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Regression analyses demonstrated that higher levels of social support at baseline predicted better emotional well-being 2 years later. Furthermore, higher levels of adaptive coping at baseline partially mediated the relationship between social support and emotional well-being. Supportive relationships may contribute to improved emotional well-being following treatment by facilitating the use of adaptive coping strategies. Attention should be given to strengthening social support networks and educating survivors of prostate cancer on adaptive coping techniques. PMID:21086876

  7. The Development of Adaptive Skills in Young People with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duijn, G.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Scholte, E. M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, I. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To help children with Down syndrome reach optimum levels of adaptive behaviour, caretakers need to know how and to what extent children with Down syndrome acquire adaptive skills. Method: The adaptive levels of motor, daily living, communicative and social behavioural skills were determined in a group of 984 Dutch children with Down…

  8. Early-Emerging Social Adaptive Skills in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Item Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventola, Pamela; Saulnier, Celine A.; Steinberg, Elizabeth; Chawarska, Katarzyna; Klin, Ami

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with ASD have significant impairments in adaptive skills, particularly adaptive socialization skills. The present study examined the extent to which 20 items from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Socialization Domain differentiated between ASD and developmentally delayed (DD) groups. Participants included 108 toddlers with ASD or…

  9. Adaptation of Problem-Solving Skills Training (PSST) for Parent Caregivers of Youth with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Tonya M.; Law, Emily F.; Essner, Bonnie; Jessen-Fiddick, Tricia; Eccleston, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Research on the experience of parents caring for a child with chronic pain indicates that high levels of parental role stress, feelings of frustration over an inability to help, and psychological distress are common. Moreover, parental distress adversely influences child adjustment to chronic pain. Therefore, intervening with parents of youth with chronic pain may, in turn, result in positive outcomes for children in their ability to engage in positive coping strategies, reduce their own distress, and to function competently in their normal daily lives. Our aim was to adapt an intervention, Problem-Solving Skills Training, previously proven effective in reducing parental distress in other pediatric illness conditions to the population of caregivers of youth with chronic pain. In the first phase, the intervention was adapted based on expert review of the literature and review of parent responses on a measure of pain-related family impact. In the second phase, the intervention was tested in a small group of parents to evaluate feasibility, determined by response to treatment content, ratings of acceptability, and ability to enroll and deliver the treatment visits. This phase included piloting the PSST intervention and all outcome measures at pre-treatment and immediately post-treatment. In an exploratory manner we examined change in parent distress and child physical function and depression from pre- to post-treatment. Findings from this feasibility study suggest that PSST can be implemented with parents of youth with chronic pain, and they find the treatment acceptable. PMID:25422795

  10. Adaptation of Problem-Solving Skills Training (PSST) for Parent Caregivers of Youth with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Tonya M; Law, Emily F; Essner, Bonnie; Jessen-Fiddick, Tricia; Eccleston, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Research on the experience of parents caring for a child with chronic pain indicates that high levels of parental role stress, feelings of frustration over an inability to help, and psychological distress are common. Moreover, parental distress adversely influences child adjustment to chronic pain. Therefore, intervening with parents of youth with chronic pain may, in turn, result in positive outcomes for children in their ability to engage in positive coping strategies, reduce their own distress, and to function competently in their normal daily lives. Our aim was to adapt an intervention, Problem-Solving Skills Training, previously proven effective in reducing parental distress in other pediatric illness conditions to the population of caregivers of youth with chronic pain. In the first phase, the intervention was adapted based on expert review of the literature and review of parent responses on a measure of pain-related family impact. In the second phase, the intervention was tested in a small group of parents to evaluate feasibility, determined by response to treatment content, ratings of acceptability, and ability to enroll and deliver the treatment visits. This phase included piloting the PSST intervention and all outcome measures at pre-treatment and immediately post-treatment. In an exploratory manner we examined change in parent distress and child physical function and depression from pre- to post-treatment. Findings from this feasibility study suggest that PSST can be implemented with parents of youth with chronic pain, and they find the treatment acceptable.

  11. Mental Health, Substance Use, and Adaptive Coping among Social Work Students in the Aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Catherine M.; Plummer, Carol A.; Richardson, Roslyn; Simon, Cassandra E.; Ai, Amy L.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined mental health symptomology, substance use, and adaptive coping among 416 social work students following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Among participants, 47% scored at or above the clinical level for depression, with 6% of students showing clinical PTSD-like symptoms, and 16.9% reporting substance use. Two thirds (66.9%)…

  12. Coping style and situational appraisals as predictors of coping strategies following stressful events in sport as a function of gender and skill level.

    PubMed

    Anshel, M H; Kaissidis, A N

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine links between coping style, situational appraisals and the subsequent use of coping strategies in response to acute stress among competitive Australian basketball players (N = 190, 93 men and 97 women, ranging in age from 18 to 44 years). Regression analyses indicated that participants' approach and avoidance coping responses varied across four sport-related stressful situations. In addition, both personal and situational factors accounted for significant variation in players' approach coping responses, with situational factors better predictors of approach coping than personal dispositions. For avoidance coping, situational appraisals (i.e. perceived stress and controllability) were again better predictors than personal dispositions. The results lend credence to the interactional (contextual) model of coping in which participants' use of coping strategies is at least a partial function of situational demands.

  13. Together - a couples' program to improve communication, coping, and financial management skills: development and initial pilot-testing.

    PubMed

    Falconier, Mariana K

    2015-04-01

    The accumulated knowledge about the negative impact of financial strain on couple's relationship functioning and the magnitude of the latest economic downturn have brought together the fields of financial counseling and couples' therapy. This article describes the development of a new interdisciplinary program that aims at helping couples under financial strain improve their financial management, communication, and dyadic coping skills. The article also reports the results from its initial pilot-testing with data collected from 18 financially distressed couples before and after participation in the program and 3 months later. Results from repeated measures ANOVAs suggest that the program may help reduce both partners' financial strain and the male negative communication and improve both partners' financial management skills and strategies to cope together with financial strain, and the male relationship satisfaction. These findings together with the high satisfaction reported by participants regarding the structure and content of the sessions and homework suggest that this program may be a promising approach to help couples experiencing financial strain. Gender differences, clinical implications, and possibilities for further research are also discussed. PMID:24910157

  14. Dyslexic Entrepreneurs: The Incidence; Their Coping Strategies and Their Business Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This comparative study explores the incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs, corporate managers and the general population. It examines the suggestion that dyslexic entrepreneurs develop coping strategies to manage their weaknesses, which are subsequently of benefit in the new venture creation process. Results of this study suggest that there is a…

  15. Supplemental Curriculum for Life Coping Skills for the Elderly. Project 310. Etowah City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etowah City Schools, TN.

    This curriculum guide contains materials for a course that explores ways of improving the lives of older citizens and helping them cope with the rigors and pursuits of life. Section I discusses the development of community resource files at adult basic education (ABE) sites. Forms for each step are provided. Section II presents information on the…

  16. Children's Disclosure and Secrecy: Links to Maternal Parenting Characteristics and Children's Coping Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almas, Alisa N.; Grusec, Joan E.; Tackett, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The relations between maternal parenting characteristics, child disclosure and secrecy, and child outcomes (positive and negative strategies for coping with distress), were examined in a study of 140 children (10-12-year-olds) and their mothers. Child disclosure and secrecy were shown to be distinct but related constructs with authoritativeness…

  17. Water management to cope with and adapt to climate variability and change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, A.; Trisorio-Liuzzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In many parts of the world, variability in climatic conditions is already resulting in major impacts. These impacts are wide ranging and the link to water management problems is obvious and profound. The know-how and the available information undoubtedly indicate that climate change will lead to an intensification of the global hydrological cycle and can have major impacts on regional water resources, affecting both ground and surface water supply for sectorial water uses and, in particular, the irrigation field imposing notable negative effects on food security and poverty alleviation programs in most arid and semi-arid developing countries. At the United Nations Millennium Summit, in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Declaration. From this declaration, the IWRM was recognised as the key concept the water sector should be using for water related development and measures and, hence, for achieving the water related MDG's. However, the potential impacts of climate change and increasing climate variability are not sufficiently addressed in the IWRM plans. Indeed, only a very limited IWRM national plans have been prepared, coping with climate variability and changes. This is mainly due to the lack of operational instruments to deal with climate change and climate variability issues. This is particularly true in developing countries where the financial, human and ecological impacts are potentially greatest and where water resources may be already highly stressed, but the capacity to cope and adapt is weakest. Climate change has now brought realities including mainly rising temperatures and increasing frequency of floods and droughts that present new challenges to be addressed by the IWRM practice. There are already several regional and international initiatives underway that focus on various aspects of water resources management those to be linked with climate changes and vulnerability issues. This is the way where the water resources

  18. Adaptive livelihood strategies for coping with water scarcity in the drylands of central Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liwenga, Emma T.

    In this paper, it is argued that local knowledge for adapting to water scarcity is important for integrated resource management by taking into consideration both the natural and social constraints in a particular setting based on accumulated experience. The paper examines the relevance of local knowledge in sustaining agricultural production in the semiarid areas of central Tanzania. The paper specifically focuses on how water scarcity, as the major limiting factor, is addressed in the study area using local knowledge to sustain livelihoods of its people. The study was conducted in four villages; Mzula, Ilolo, Chanhumba and Ngahelezi, situation in Mvumi Division in Dodoma Region. The study mainly employed qualitative data collection techniques. Participatory methods provided a means of exploring perceptions and gaining deeper insights regarding natural resource utilization in terms of problems and opportunities. The main data sources drawn upon in this study were documentation, group interviews and field observations. Group interviews involved discussions with a group of 6-12 people selected on the basis of gender, age and socio-economic groups. Data analysis entailed structural and content analysis within the adaptive livelihood framework in relation to management of water scarcity using local knowledge. The findings confirm that rainfall is the main limiting factor for agricultural activities in the drylands of Central Tanzania. As such, local communities have developed, through time, indigenous knowledge to cope with such environments utilizing seasonality and diversity of landscapes. Use of this local knowledge is therefore effective in managing water scarcity by ensuring a continuous production of crops throughout the year. This practice implies increased food availability and accessibility through sales of such agricultural products. Local innovations for water management, such as cultivation in sandy rivers, appear to be very important means of accessing

  19. An examination of stress, coping, and adaptation in nurses in a recovery and monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Marie Katherine; Taylor, Kathleen P; Marcus-Aiyeku, Ulanda; Krause-Parello, Cheryl A

    2012-10-01

    Addiction rates in nurses are higher than in the general population. The relationship between stress, coping, and adaptation in nurses (N = 82) enrolled in a recovery and monitoring program in the state of New Jersey was examined. Social support, a variable tested as a mediator of this relationship, was also examined. Participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Psychological General Well-Being Index. Negative relationships were found between stress and social support and stress and well-being, and a positive relationship was found between social support and well-being (all ps < .05). The direct relationship between stress and well-being was decreased in the presence of social support. The findings of this research suggest that, to assist nurses, an increased awareness of stress and its injurious effects on overall well-being must be identified so proactive measures can be implemented to prevent potential untoward consequences. Ultimately, methods to strengthen social support and social networks will enhance the probability of sustained recovery, relapse prevention, and safe reentry into nursing practice. Implications for behavioral health providers and health care practitioners are discussed.

  20. Pre-adaptations and the evolution of pollination by sexual deception: Cope's rule of specialization revisited.

    PubMed

    Vereecken, Nicolas J; Wilson, Carol A; Hötling, Susann; Schulz, Stefan; Banketov, Sergey A; Mardulyn, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Pollination by sexual deception is arguably one of the most unusual liaisons linking plants and insects, and perhaps the most illustrative example of extreme floral specialization in angiosperms. While considerable progress has been made in understanding the floral traits involved in sexual deception, less is known about how this remarkable mimicry system might have arisen, the role of pre-adaptations in promoting its evolution and its extent as a pollination mechanism outside the few groups of plants (primarily orchids) where it has been described to date. In the Euro-Mediterranean region, pollination by sexual deception is traditionally considered to be the hallmark of the orchid genus Ophrys. Here, we introduce two new cases outside of Ophrys, in plant groups dominated by generalized, shelter-mimicking species. On the basis of phylogenetic reconstructions of ancestral pollination strategies, we provide evidence for independent and bidirectional evolutionary transitions between generalized (shelter mimicry) and specialized (sexual deception) pollination strategies in three groups of flowering plants, and suggest that pseudocopulation has evolved from pre-adaptations (floral colours, shapes and odour bouquets) that selectively attract male pollinators through shelter mimicry. These findings, along with comparative analyses of floral traits (colours and scents), shed light on particular phenotypic changes that might have fuelled the parallel evolution of these extraordinary pollination strategies. Collectively, our results provide the first substantive insights into how pollination sexual deception might have evolved in the Euro-Mediterranean region, and demonstrate that even the most extreme cases of pollinator specialization can reverse to more generalized interactions, breaking 'Cope's rule of specialization'.

  1. Radiographic skills learning: procedure simulation using adaptive hypermedia.

    PubMed

    Costaridou, L; Panayiotakis, G; Pallikarakis, N; Proimos, B

    1996-10-01

    The design and development of a simulation tool supporting learning of radiographic skills is reported. This tool has by textual, graphical and iconic resources, organized according to a building-block, adaptive hypermedia approach, which is described and supported by an image base of radiographs. It offers interactive user-controlled simulation of radiographic imaging procedures. The development is based on a commercially available environment (Toolbook 3.0, Asymetrix Corporation). The core of the system is an attributed precedence (priority) graph, which represents a task outline (concept and resources structure), which is dynamically adjusted to selected procedures. The user interface imitates a conventional radiography system, i.e. operating console, tube, table, patient and cassette. System parameters, such as patient positioning, focus-to-patient distance, magnification, field dimensions, tube voltage and mAs are under user control. Their effects on image quality are presented, by means of an image base acquired under controlled exposure conditions. Innovative use of hypermedia, computer based learning and simulation principles and technology in the development of this tool resulted in an enhanced interactive environment providing radiographic parameter control and visualization of parameter effects on image quality. PMID:9038530

  2. Financial Adaptation among College Students: Helping Students Cope with Financial Strain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serido, Joyce; Shim, Soyeon; Xiao, Jing Jian; Tang, Chuanyi; Card, Noel A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the recent financial crisis on co-occurring patterns of change in financial strain and financial coping behaviors of college students (N = 748) using two-timed, longitudinal data collected prior to the 2008 financial crisis and again one year later. Using a stress and coping framework, we found that different…

  3. Families of Adolescents and Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan: The Role of Social Support and Coping in Family Adaptation and Maternal Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Orsmond, Gael I.; Coster, Wendy J.; Cohn, Ellen S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined differences in social support and coping between mothers of adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Taiwan and the United States and to investigate the effects of social support and coping strategies on family adaptation and maternal well-being. Participants were 76 Taiwanese mothers who had at…

  4. The Dynamics of Relationships: A Guide for Developing Self-Esteem and Coping Skills for Teens and Young Adults. Teacher Manual Books 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Patricia; Hockman, Fyllis, Ed.

    The "Dynamics of Relationships" program was originally designed as a preventive approach to the many social ills affecting young people and families today. This teacher's manual for the program provides objectives and activities for helping students develop and maintain a strong and secure self-image, effective communication and coping skills, and…

  5. The Relations of Employability Skills to Career Adaptability among Technical School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Choi, Kyoung Ok

    2013-01-01

    This two pronged study reports the initial validation of the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Career Adapt-Abilities Scale (CAAS) in the context of Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the investigation of the relationship between employability skills and career adaptability. Results of the study revealed that CAAS can be a valid and…

  6. Gender differences in psychological adaptation and coping in parents of pediatric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra-Weebers, J E; Jaspers, J P; Kamps, W A; Klip, E C

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated differences in psychological distress and coping styles between fathers and mothers of pediatric cancer patients, over a 1-year time period. Also examined were (dis)similarities in couples in distress and coping, and the relationship between (dis)similarities in coping and psychological functioning of both members of a couple. Parents (n = 124, 62 couples) were assessed at diagnosis, at 6 and 12 months. Fathers and mothers experienced higher levels of psychiatric symptomatology and psychological distress at diagnosis than men and women of a normgroup. Distress declined significantly with time. Although parents did not report more symptoms than the normgroup 12 months post-diagnosis, they still were psychologically out of balance. Contrary to findings in the general population, no differences were found between fathers and mothers in psychiatric symptoms or psychological distress on any of the measurements. Only a few gender differences in coping were found. Fathers used more active-problem focusing at diagnosis and a less palliative reaction pattern at 12 months than did mothers. Mothers used more social-support seeking on all measurements. A tendency for similarity in the use of the coping styles within couples was found. Discrepancies in coping in couples were positively related to distress in fathers at diagnosis. However, 12 months later, the more discrepant the couples were in their coping preferences the more distress the mothers indicated.

  7. Evaluation of marginal fit and internal adaptation of zirconia copings fabricated by two CAD - CAM systems: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Balaji N; Jayaraman, Srinivasan; Kandhasamy, Baburajan; Rajakumaran, Ilangkumaran

    2015-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Three main factors which determine the success of an All-ceramic restoration are esthetic value, resistance to fracture and third being the marginal fit. Marginal fit and internal adaptation are crucial factors in increasing the longevity of the restoration. Newer and economical CAD CAM systems have been introduced claiming better marginal fit and adaptation of All ceramic crowns. CAD CAM systems involves scanning of the die or the tooth preparation and milling of the restoration, which may have variations among the systems available. Aim of the Study: Our study intended to check the marginal fit and internal adaptation of commonly used CAD CAM systems namely CERAMILL and CEREC -In Lab MC XL. Materials and Methods: Two groups of typodont teeth (n = 10) were prepared using a standardized protocol to receive All ceramic copings. 10 samples of Group A were used for fabrication of copings using CERAMILL system and 10 samples of Group B were used for fabrication of copings using CEREC -In Lab MC XL system. They were then luted with glass ionomer cement under mild finger pressure. Samples were embedded in resin and sliced longitudinally. They were then viewed under stereomicroscope and readings were measured along 15 points using ImageScope software. The P value was set at 0.05 at 95% confidence interval with 80% power. The data were checked for normality and unpaired t-test was used to evaluate the results of the two groups. Results: The overall internal adaptation was 61.5 ± 5.2 μm for CERAMILL and 56.9 ± 5.7 μm for CEREC -In Lab MC XL (P < 0.05). The marginal fit for CERAMILL was 83 μm and for CEREC -In Lab MC XL was 68 μm (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The marginal adaptation of CEREC -In Lab MC XL (68 μm) was found to be superior to CERAMILL (83 μm) (P < 0.05). Both the CEREC -In Lab MC XL and CERAMILL copings demonstrated internal adaptation and marginal fit within acceptable discrepancy range. When corroborating both the internal adaptation

  8. Adaptive Virtual Reality Training to Optimize Military Medical Skills Acquisition and Retention.

    PubMed

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Best, Bradley J; Kim, Jong Wook; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Ritter, Frank E

    2016-05-01

    The Department of Defense has pursued the integration of virtual reality simulation into medical training and applications to fulfill the need to train 100,000 military health care personnel annually. Medical personnel transitions, both when entering an operational area and returning to the civilian theater, are characterized by the need to rapidly reacquire skills that are essential but have decayed through disuse or infrequent use. Improved efficiency in reacquiring such skills is critical to avoid the likelihood of mistakes that may result in mortality and morbidity. We focus here on a study testing a theory of how the skills required for minimally invasive surgery for military surgeons are learned and retained. Our adaptive virtual reality surgical training system will incorporate an intelligent mechanism for tracking performance that will recognize skill deficiencies and generate an optimal adaptive training schedule. Our design is modeling skill acquisition based on a skill retention theory. The complexity of appropriate training tasks is adjusted according to the level of retention and/or surgical experience. Based on preliminary work, our system will improve the capability to interactively assess the level of skills learning and decay, optimizes skill relearning across levels of surgical experience, and positively impact skill maintenance. Our system could eventually reduce mortality and morbidity by providing trainees with the reexperience they need to help make a transition between operating theaters. This article reports some data that will support adaptive tutoring of minimally invasive surgery and similar surgical skills. PMID:27168575

  9. Development and Alpha Testing of QuitIT: An Interactive Video Game to Enhance Skills for Coping With Smoking Urges

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite many efforts at developing relapse prevention interventions, most smokers relapse to tobacco use within a few months after quitting. Interactive games offer a novel strategy for helping people develop the skills required for successful tobacco cessation. Objective The objective of our study was to develop a video game that enables smokers to practice strategies for coping with smoking urges and maintaining smoking abstinence. Our team of game designers and clinical psychologists are creating a video game that integrates the principles of smoking behavior change and relapse prevention. We have reported the results of expert and end-user feedback on an alpha version of the game. Methods The alpha version of the game consisted of a smoking cue scenario often encountered by smokers. We recruited 5 experts in tobacco cessation research and 20 current and former smokers, who each played through the scenario. Mixed methods were used to gather feedback on the relevance of cessation content and usability of the game modality. Results End-users rated the interface from 3.0 to 4.6/5 in terms of ease of use and from 2.9 to 4.1/5 in terms of helpfulness of cessation content. Qualitative themes showed several user suggestions for improving the user interface, pacing, and diversity of the game characters. In addition, the users confirmed a high degree of game immersion, identification with the characters and situations, and appreciation for the multiple opportunities to practice coping strategies. Conclusions This study highlights the procedures for translating behavioral principles into a game dynamic and shows that our prototype has a strong potential for engaging smokers. A video game modality exemplifies problem-based learning strategies for tobacco cessation and is an innovative step in behavioral management of tobacco use. PMID:24025236

  10. Anxiety, coping skills and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Maria; Urrutia, Rebecca; Torres-Reverón, Annelyn; Vincent, Katy; Flores, Idhaliz

    2015-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is an inflammatory disease that is defined by growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, resulting in pain, infertility, and emotional distress. Previous studies have shown that the HPA axis is compromised in patients with chronic, painful diseases, including endometriosis. However, the underlying mechanisms and the physiological and emotional consequences of dysfunctions in the HPA axis in these patients are largely unknown. We aimed to understand whether diurnal circulating cortisol levels in women with endometriosis are affected and how this impacts their emotional and behavioral responses. Methods Thirty-two patients with endometriosis and 36 healthy control women provided saliva samples and completed a series of psychological questionnaires. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in duplicate using a colorimetric immunoassay. Results There were significant differences in average cortisol levels between endometriosis patients and controls. A negative correlation was found between cortisol levels and infertility and dyspareunia. Furthermore, incapacitating pain was found to be a strong predictor of hypocortisolism. Women with endometriosis reported higher levels of trait anxiety, but showed no differences in perceived stress or in coping styles compared to the control group. Conclusions This study supports previous reports of hypocortisolism as a biomarker of aberrant HPA responses in women with endometriosis. Moreover, it provides further insight into the link between HPA axis dysregulation, emotional responses, and the high comorbidity between endometriosis and other inflammatory conditions. PMID:26900480

  11. Lessons learned in developing a culturally adapted intervention for African-American families coping with parental cancer.

    PubMed

    Davey, Maureen P; Kissil, Karni; Lynch, Laura; Harmon, La-Rhonda; Hodgson, Nancy

    2012-12-01

    Prior clinical research supports the effectiveness of cancer support groups for cancer patients and their families, yet African-American families continue to be underrepresented in cancer support groups and in cancer clinical research studies. In order to fill this gap, we developed and evaluated a culturally adapted family support group for African-American families coping with parental cancer. We encountered unexpected challenges in overcoming barriers to recruitment, partnering with oncology providers, and building trust with the African-American community and African-American families coping with parental cancer. We describe actions taken during the two phases of this study and lessons learned along the way about recruiting and engaging African-American families in cancer support group studies, partnering with oncology providers, networking with the African-American community, and the importance of demonstrating cultural sensitivity to overcome the understandable historical legacy of mistrust.

  12. The relationship of motor skills and adaptive behavior skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship of motor skills and the core behaviors of young children with autism, social affective skills and repetitive behaviors, as indicated through the calibrated autism severity scores. Design The univariate GLM tested the relationship of gross and fine motor skills measured by the gross motor scale and the fine motor scale of the MSEL with autism symptomology as measured by calibrated autism severity scores. Setting Majority of the data collected took place in an autism clinic. Participants A cohort of 159 young children with ASD (n=110), PDD-NOS (n=26) and non-ASD (developmental delay, n=23) between the ages of 12–33 months were recruited from early intervention studies and clinical referrals. Children with non-ASD (developmental delay) were included in this study to provide a range of scores indicted through calibrated autism severity. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome measures in this study were calibrated autism severity scores. Results Fine motor skills and gross motor skills significantly predicted calibrated autism severity (p < 0.01). Children with weaker motor skills displayed higher levels of calibrated autism severity. Conclusions The fine and gross motor skills are significantly related to autism symptomology. There is more to focus on and new avenues to explore in the realm of discovering how to implement early intervention and rehabilitation for young children with autism and motor skills need to be a part of the discussion. PMID:25774214

  13. Perceptions and Practices of Adapted Physical Educators on the Teaching of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury; Porretta, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine adapted physical educators' perceptions and practices about teaching social skills to students with disabilities. A questionnaire based on Bandura's social learning theory concept of modeling was developed and mailed to an entire frame of 426 adapted physical education teachers in the state of Ohio. Face…

  14. Three Adapted Science Skill Builders for Junior and Senior High School Orthopaedically Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardullias, Peter J.; And Others

    The study was designed to determine how standard science skill builder activities can be modified or adapted for use by orthopedically handicapped students. Nine secondary level science experiments were selected for initial review and from these, three were selected for adaptation--use of the microscope, use of graduated cylinders, and use of the…

  15. Peer Victimization: The Role of Emotions in Adaptive and Maladaptive Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2004-01-01

    Mediator models were examined in which children's emotional reactions to peer aggression were hypothesized to mediate their selection of coping strategies and subsequent peer victimization and internalizing problems. Self-report data were collected from 145 ethnically diverse kindergarten through fifth grade children (66 females and 79 males) who…

  16. Adaptation of Professional Skills in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rende, Deniz; Rende, Sevinc; Baysal, Nihat

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the design of three consecutive unit operations laboratory (UOL) courses that retain the academic rigor of the course while incorporating skills essential for professional careers, such as ability to propose ideas, develop practical solutions, participate in teamwork, meet deadlines, establish communication between technical support…

  17. Coping modeling problem solving versus mastery modeling: effects on adherence, in-session process, and skill acquisition in a residential parent-training program.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C E; Davis, J R; Bremner, R; Dunn, K W; Rzasa, T

    1993-10-01

    This trial compared two approaches used to introduce parenting skills in a residential staff training program. Fifty staff were randomly assigned to: mastery modelling in which videotaped models demonstrated new skills, coping modelling problem solving (CMPS) in which participants formulated their own solutions to the errors depicted by videotaped models, or a waiting-list control group. In both, leaders used modelling, role playing, and homework projects to promote mastery and transfer of new skills. The skills of all groups improved, but CMPS participants attended more sessions, were late to fewer sessions, completed more homework, engaged in more cooperative in-session interaction, rated the program more positively, and reported higher job accomplishment scores. These data suggest that CMPS allowing participants to formulate their own solutions may enhance adherence and reduce the resistance observed in more didactic programs. PMID:8245284

  18. Coping modeling problem solving versus mastery modeling: effects on adherence, in-session process, and skill acquisition in a residential parent-training program.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C E; Davis, J R; Bremner, R; Dunn, K W; Rzasa, T

    1993-10-01

    This trial compared two approaches used to introduce parenting skills in a residential staff training program. Fifty staff were randomly assigned to: mastery modelling in which videotaped models demonstrated new skills, coping modelling problem solving (CMPS) in which participants formulated their own solutions to the errors depicted by videotaped models, or a waiting-list control group. In both, leaders used modelling, role playing, and homework projects to promote mastery and transfer of new skills. The skills of all groups improved, but CMPS participants attended more sessions, were late to fewer sessions, completed more homework, engaged in more cooperative in-session interaction, rated the program more positively, and reported higher job accomplishment scores. These data suggest that CMPS allowing participants to formulate their own solutions may enhance adherence and reduce the resistance observed in more didactic programs.

  19. Female caregivers of stroke survivors: coping and adapting to a life that once was.

    PubMed

    Saban, Karen L; Hogan, Nancy S

    2012-02-01

    Despite the prevalence of women caring for stroke survivors, relatively little research has focused specifically on the experience and needs of informal female caregivers of stroke survivors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the experience of female caregivers who care for an adult family member who has experienced a stroke within the previous year using a qualitative methodology. A sample of 46 female caregivers of stroke survivors completed a demographic form and responded to open-ended written questions exploring their experiences as caregivers and how they coped with changes in their lives during the first year after the stroke. Four concepts emerged from the data: losing the life that once was, coping with daily burdens, creating a new normal, and interacting with healthcare providers. Findings suggest that female caregivers of stroke survivors grieve the life that they once shared with the stroke survivor and struggle to cope with multiple family and work demands while trying their best to interact with healthcare providers to attain the best possible care for their loved ones. Recognizing the unique challenges of female caregivers of stroke survivors may help nurses provide better support and resources to meet their needs.

  20. HIV stigma and physical health symptoms: do social support, adaptive coping, and/or identity centrality act as resilience resources?

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lang, Shawn M; Lippitt, Margaret; Jin, Harry; Chaudoir, Stephenie R

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to eliminate it at the societal level, HIV stigma persists and continues to threaten the health of people living with HIV (PLWH). We tested whether social support, adaptive coping, and/or HIV identity centrality act as resilience resources by buffering people from the negative impact of enacted and/or anticipated stigma on stress and ultimately HIV symptoms. Ninety-three PLWH completed a survey, and data analyses tested for evidence of mediation and moderation. Results demonstrated that instrumental social support, perceived community support, and HIV identity centrality buffered participants from the association between anticipated stigma and HIV symptoms. That is, anticipated stigma was associated with HIV symptoms via stress only at low levels of these resources. No resources buffered participants from the impact of enacted stigma. Identifying and enhancing resilience resources among PLWH is critical for protecting PLWH from the harmful effects of stigma.

  1. Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.

  2. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates…

  3. The Effects of a Telehealth Coping Skills Intervention on Outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Primary Results from the INSPIRE-II Study

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, James A.; Emery, Charles F.; Smith, Patrick J.; Keefe, Francis J.; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Mabe, Stephanie; Martinu, Tereza; Johnson, Julie J.; Babyak, Michael A.; O’Hayer, Virginia F.; Diaz, Philip T.; Durheim, Michael; Baucom, Donald; Palmer, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and reduced quality of life. Novel interventions are needed to improve outcomes in COPD patients. The present study assessed the effects of a telephone-based coping skills intervention on psychological and somatic quality of life and on the combined medical endpoint of COPD-related hospitalizations and all-cause mortality. Methods We conducted a dual-site, randomized clinical trial with assessments at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment. The study population comprised 326 outpatients with COPD aged 38 to 81 years, randomized to Coping Skills training (CST) or to COPD Education (COPD-ED). Patients completed a battery of quality of life (QoL) instruments, pulmonary function tests, and functional measures and were followed for up to 4.4 years to assess medical outcomes. Results The CST group exhibited greater improvements in psychological QoL compared to controls (P = .001), including less depression (Cohen’s d=0.22 [95%CI 0.08, 0.36]) and anxiety (d=0.17 [95%CI 0.02, 0.33]), and better overall mental health (d=0.17 [95%CI 0.03, 0.32]), emotional role functioning (d= 0.29 [95%CI 0.10, 0.48]), vitality (d= 0.27 [95%CI 0.11, 0.42]), and social functioning (d= 0.21 [95%CI 0.03, 0.38]). A significant baseline psychological QoL by Treatment group interaction revealed that CST with lower QoL at baseline achieved even greater improvements in psychological QoL compared to COPE-ED. CST participants also exhibited greater improvements in Somatic QoL (P = .042), including greater improvements in pulmonary QoL (d= 0.13 [95%CI 0.01, 0.24]), less fatigue (d= 0.34 [95%CI 0.18, 0.50]), and less shortness of breath (d= 0.11 [95%CI −0.01, 0.23]) and greater improvement in distance walked on the 6 Minute Walk Test (d= 0.09 [95%CI 0.01, 0.16]). However, there was no significant difference in risk of time to COPD-related hospitalization or all-cause mortality between CST

  4. Adapting the Helpful Responses Questionnaire to assess communication skills involved in delivering contingency management: Preliminary psychometrics

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues’ (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write ‘what they would say next.’ In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. PMID:25770870

  5. Effect of Roy’s Adaptation Model-Guided Education on Coping Strategies of the Veterans with Lower Extremities Amputation: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Farsi, Zahra; Azarmi, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Any defect in the extremities of the body can affect different life aspects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Roy’s adaptation model-guided education on coping strategies of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Methods: In a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 veterans with lower extremities amputation referring to Kowsar Orthotics and Prosthetics Center of Veterans Clinic in Tehran, Iran were recruited using convenience method and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups in 2013-2014. Lazarus and Folkman coping strategies questionnaire was used to collect the data. After completing the questionnaires in both groups, maladaptive behaviours were determined in the intervention group and an education program based on Roy’s adaptation model was implemented. After 2 months, both groups completed the questionnaires again. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Independent T-test showed that the score of the dimensions of coping strategies did not have a statistically significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the pre-intervention stage (P>0.05). This test showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the post-intervention stage in terms of the scores of different dimensions of coping strategies (P>0.05), except in dimensions of social support seeking and positive appraisal (P>0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this research indicated that the Roy’s adaptation model-guided education improved the majority of coping strategies in veterans with lower extremities amputation. It is recommended that further interventions based on Roy’s adaptation model should be performed to improve the coping of the veterans with lower extremities amputation. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014081118763N1 PMID:27218110

  6. The effectiveness of program developed from cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent coping with stress.

    PubMed

    Monkong, L; Pongpanich, S; Viwatwongkasem, C; Chantavanich, S; Wongpiromsarn, Y; Katz, L S

    2009-12-01

    Many methodologies to decrease stress in adolescents have been introduced and implemented. However, it seems that the problems in their physical, mental, emotional, and learning conditions still exist, especially for long-term. The proposed program with some booster was used to solve the long run problems. To examine the effectiveness of program developed from cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent coping with stress. A quasi-experimental research in two groups is used to modify theoretical concepts of cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent coping with stress. The students of secondary schools in Nakhon Sawan Province Thailand were the target population. Two schools were randomly chosen, one for control and the other for experiment. The sample size of 84 students was randomly selected and requested to be volunteers and 44 volunteers were trained on concept of thinking, strategies to resolve the problem and control emotion for 5 days and booster in school for 9 months in every fortnight and was measured 5 times, before and after interventions at 3rd, 6th and 9th months. We used independent t-test, paired t-test, analysis of variance and covariance for data analysis. There were no difference in the mean of summation of knowledge, attitude and practice of pre-test score between treatment and control group (P = 0.124). After the training program, the volunteers showed significant improvement of knowledge, attitude and practice (P < 0.05) and the level of stress decreased was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The results indicated that the training program with modify theoretical concepts of cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent enabled the participants to improve knowledge, attitude and practice in coping with stress.

  7. Adapting to and Coping with the Threat and Impacts of Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reser, Joseph P.; Swim, Janet K.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the nature and challenge of adaptation in the context of global climate change. The complexity of "climate change" as threat, environmental stressor, risk domain, and impacting process with dramatic environmental and human consequences requires a synthesis of perspectives and models from diverse areas of psychology to…

  8. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner’s Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners’ untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did not mediate the TSF effect. Lower depression levels were maintained at 12 months with no differences between groups. Partner drinking decreased from pretreatment to follow-up in the CST and TSF conditions. However, for partners with a history of relationship violence, drinking improved across follow-up in the CST condition but worsened in the TSF condition. Partner relationship violence was less in the CST condition. CST may be particularly useful for women experiencing physical violence from a partner with alcoholism. PMID:15796632

  9. Psychotic symptoms, functioning and coping in adolescents with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychotic symptoms in the context of psychiatric disorders are associated with poor functional outcomes. Environmental stressors are important in the development of psychosis; however, distress may only be pathogenic when it exceeds an individual’s ability to cope with it. Therefore, one interesting factor regarding poor functional outcomes in patients with psychotic symptoms may be poor coping. This paper aimed to address the question whether 1) psychotic symptoms are associated with poorer functioning and 2) whether poor coping moderated the association. Methods In a clinical case-clinical control study of 106 newly-referred adolescent patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, coping was investigated using the Adolescents Coping Scale. Severity of impairment in socio-occupational functioning was assessed with the Children’s Global Assessment Scale. Results Patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and additional psychotic symptoms (N = 50) had poorer functioning and were more likely to use avoidance-oriented coping compared to patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders without psychotic symptoms (N = 56). No differences were found with respect to approach-oriented coping. When stratifying for poor/good coping, only those adolescent patients with psychotic symptoms who applied poor coping (i.e. less use of approach-oriented coping styles [OR 0.24, p < 0.015] and more use of avoidance-oriented coping [OR 0.23, p < 0.034]) had poorer functioning. However, these interactions were not significant. Conclusions Non-adaptive coping and poorer functioning were more often present in adolescents with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and additional psychotic symptoms. Due to small subgroups, our analyses could not give definitive conclusions about the question whether coping moderated the association between psychotic symptoms and functioning. Improvement of coping skills may form an important target for intervention

  10. Perceptions and practices of adapted physical educators on the teaching of social skills.

    PubMed

    Samalot-Rivera, Amaury; Poretta, David L

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine adapted physical educators' perceptions and practices about teaching social skills to students with disabilities. A questionnaire based on Bandura's social learning theory concept of modeling was developed and mailed to an entire frame of 426 adapted physical education teachers in the state of Ohio. Face and content validity as well as test/retest reliability (0.89) were established. Of those that were surveyed, 53% (225 teachers; 148 females and 77 males) responded. Results indicate that 93% (209) believe it is important to explicitly teach social skills in PE; however, 60% (135) expressed not feeling properly prepared to teach them. Teachers with more than 20 years of teaching experience were more likely to actually teach social skills. When compared with other teachers with less years teaching, however, they identified a greater need for training in the teaching of social skills. Results are discussed relative to teacher preparation and practices as well as social skills taught for general education and community integration.

  11. Coping with Spatial Heterogeneity and Temporal Variability in Resources and Risks: Adaptive Movement Behaviour by a Large Grazing Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jodie; Benhamou, Simon; Yoganand, K.; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Movement is a key mean for mobile species to cope with heterogeneous environments. While in herbivorous mammals large-scale migration has been widely investigated, fine-scale movement responses to local variations in resources and predation risk remain much less studied, especially in savannah environments. We developed a novel approach based on complementary movement metrics (residence time, frequency of visits and regularity of visits) to relate movement patterns of a savannah grazer, the blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, to fine-scale variations in food availability, predation risk and water availability in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Wildebeests spent more time in grazing lawns where the grass is of higher quality but shorter than in seep zones, where the grass is of lower quality but more abundant. Although the daily distances moved were longer during the wet season compared to the dry season, the daily net displacement was lower, and the residence time higher, indicating a more frequent occurrence of area-concentred searching. In contrast, during the late dry season the foraging sessions were more fragmented and wildebeests moved more frequently between foraging areas. Surprisingly, predation risk appeared to be the second factor, after water availability, influencing movement during the dry season, when resources are limiting and thus expected to influence movement more. Our approach, using complementary analyses of different movement metrics, provided an integrated view of changes in individual movement with varying environmental conditions and predation risk. It makes it possible to highlight the adaptive behavioral decisions made by wildebeest to cope with unpredictable environmental variations and provides insights for population conservation. PMID:25719494

  12. Coping with spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability in resources and risks: adaptive movement behaviour by a large grazing herbivore.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jodie; Benhamou, Simon; Yoganand, K; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Movement is a key mean for mobile species to cope with heterogeneous environments. While in herbivorous mammals large-scale migration has been widely investigated, fine-scale movement responses to local variations in resources and predation risk remain much less studied, especially in savannah environments. We developed a novel approach based on complementary movement metrics (residence time, frequency of visits and regularity of visits) to relate movement patterns of a savannah grazer, the blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, to fine-scale variations in food availability, predation risk and water availability in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Wildebeests spent more time in grazing lawns where the grass is of higher quality but shorter than in seep zones, where the grass is of lower quality but more abundant. Although the daily distances moved were longer during the wet season compared to the dry season, the daily net displacement was lower, and the residence time higher, indicating a more frequent occurrence of area-concentred searching. In contrast, during the late dry season the foraging sessions were more fragmented and wildebeests moved more frequently between foraging areas. Surprisingly, predation risk appeared to be the second factor, after water availability, influencing movement during the dry season, when resources are limiting and thus expected to influence movement more. Our approach, using complementary analyses of different movement metrics, provided an integrated view of changes in individual movement with varying environmental conditions and predation risk. It makes it possible to highlight the adaptive behavioral decisions made by wildebeest to cope with unpredictable environmental variations and provides insights for population conservation.

  13. Development of the Coping Flexibility Scale: Evidence for the Coping Flexibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    "Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese college…

  14. Ionizing Radiation: how fungi cope, adapt, and exploit with the help of melanin

    PubMed Central

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY OF RECENT ADVANCES Life on Earth has always existed in the flux of ionizing radiation. However, fungi seem to interact with the ionizing radiation differently from other Earth’s inhabitants. Recent data show that melanized fungal species like those from Chernobyl’s reactor respond to ionizing radiation with enhanced growth. Fungi colonize space stations and adapt morphologically to extreme conditions. Radiation exposure causes upregulation of many key genes, and an inducible microhomology-mediated recombination pathway could be a potential mechanism of adaptive evolution in eukaryotes. The discovery of melanized organisms in high radiation environments, the space stations, Antarctic mountains, and in the reactor cooling water combined with phenomenon of ‘radiotropism’ raises the tantalizing possibility that melanins have functions analogous to other energy harvesting pigments such as chlorophylls. PMID:18848901

  15. Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus have Evolved Different Adaptive Mechanisms to Cope with Light and UV Stress

    PubMed Central

    Mella-Flores, Daniella; Six, Christophe; Ratin, Morgane; Partensky, Frédéric; Boutte, Christophe; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Marie, Dominique; Blot, Nicolas; Gourvil, Priscillia; Kolowrat, Christian; Garczarek, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, which numerically dominate vast oceanic areas, are the two most abundant oxygenic phototrophs on Earth. Although they require solar energy for photosynthesis, excess light and associated high UV radiations can induce high levels of oxidative stress that may have deleterious effects on their growth and productivity. Here, we compared the photophysiologies of the model strains Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511 and Synechococcus sp. WH7803 grown under a bell-shaped light/dark cycle of high visible light supplemented or not with UV. Prochlorococcus exhibited a higher sensitivity to photoinactivation than Synechococcus under both conditions, as shown by a larger drop of photosystem II (PSII) quantum yield at noon and different diel patterns of the D1 protein pool. In the presence of UV, the PSII repair rate was significantly depressed at noon in Prochlorococcus compared to Synechococcus. Additionally, Prochlorococcus was more sensitive than Synechococcus to oxidative stress, as shown by the different degrees of PSII photoinactivation after addition of hydrogen peroxide. A transcriptional analysis also revealed dramatic discrepancies between the two organisms in the diel expression patterns of several genes involved notably in the biosynthesis and/or repair of photosystems, light-harvesting complexes, CO2 fixation as well as protection mechanisms against light, UV, and oxidative stress, which likely translate profound differences in their light-controlled regulation. Altogether our results suggest that while Synechococcus has developed efficient ways to cope with light and UV stress, Prochlorococcus cells seemingly survive stressful hours of the day by launching a minimal set of protection mechanisms and by temporarily bringing down several key metabolic processes. This study provides unprecedented insights into understanding the distinct depth distributions and dynamics of these two picocyanobacteria in the field. PMID:23024637

  16. Individual and public-program adaptation: coping with heat waves in five cities in Canada.

    PubMed

    Alberini, Anna; Gans, Will; Alhassan, Mustapha

    2011-12-01

    Heat Alert and Response Systems (HARS) are currently undergoing testing and implementation in Canada. These programs seek to reduce the adverse health effects of heat waves on human health by issuing weather forecasts and warnings, informing individuals about possible protections from excessive heat, and providing such protections to vulnerable subpopulations and individuals at risk. For these programs to be designed effectively, it is important to know how individuals perceive the heat, what their experience with heat-related illness is, how they protect themselves from excessive heat, and how they acquire information about such protections. In September 2010, we conducted a survey of households in 5 cities in Canada to study these issues. At the time of the survey, these cities had not implemented heat outreach and response systems. The study results indicate that individuals' recollections of recent heat wave events were generally accurate. About 21% of the sample reported feeling unwell during the most recent heat spell, but these illnesses were generally minor. Only in 25 cases out of 243, these illnesses were confirmed or diagnosed by a health care professional. The rate at which our respondents reported heat-related illnesses was higher among those with cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, was higher among younger respondents and bore no relationship with the availability of air conditioning at home. Most of the respondents indicated that they would not dismiss themselves as "not at risk" and that they would cope with excessive heat by staying in air conditioned environments and keeping well hydrated. Despite the absence of heat outreach and education programs in their city, our respondents at least a rough idea of how to take care of themselves. The presence of air conditioning and knowledge of cooling centers is location-specific, which provides opportunities for targeting HARS interventions.

  17. Individual and Public-Program Adaptation: Coping with Heat Waves in Five Cities in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Alberini, Anna; Gans, Will; Alhassan, Mustapha

    2011-01-01

    Heat Alert and Response Systems (HARS) are currently undergoing testing and implementation in Canada. These programs seek to reduce the adverse health effects of heat waves on human health by issuing weather forecasts and warnings, informing individuals about possible protections from excessive heat, and providing such protections to vulnerable subpopulations and individuals at risk. For these programs to be designed effectively, it is important to know how individuals perceive the heat, what their experience with heat-related illness is, how they protect themselves from excessive heat, and how they acquire information about such protections. In September 2010, we conducted a survey of households in 5 cities in Canada to study these issues. At the time of the survey, these cities had not implemented heat outreach and response systems. The study results indicate that individuals’ recollections of recent heat wave events were generally accurate. About 21% of the sample reported feeling unwell during the most recent heat spell, but these illnesses were generally minor. Only in 25 cases out of 243, these illnesses were confirmed or diagnosed by a health care professional. The rate at which our respondents reported heat-related illnesses was higher among those with cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, was higher among younger respondents and bore no relationship with the availability of air conditioning at home. Most of the respondents indicated that they would not dismiss themselves as “not at risk” and that they would cope with excessive heat by staying in air conditioned environments and keeping well hydrated. Despite the absence of heat outreach and education programs in their city, our respondents at least a rough idea of how to take care of themselves. The presence of air conditioning and knowledge of cooling centers is location-specific, which provides opportunities for targeting HARS interventions. PMID:22408596

  18. Self-Control and Coping Skills as Factors in Pain Perception, Perceived Health and Psychological Adjustment in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Coralie; And Others

    Self-control and self-efficacy have played a central role in recent behavioral medicine work on the control of chronic physical pain. Little work investigating the concepts of self-control and self-efficacy has been done with the elderly in spite of the fact that coping strategies in the elderly have been associated with a variety of health and…

  19. Analysis of Academic Self-Efficacy, Self-Esteem and Coping with Stress Skills Predictive Power on Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandemir, Mehmet; Ilhan, Tahsin; Ozpolat, Ahmed Ragip; Palanci, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to analyze the predictive power level of academic self-efficacy, self-esteem and coping with stress on academic procrastination behavior. Relational screening model is used in the research whose research group is made of 374 students in Kirikkale University, Education Faculty in Turkey. Students in the research group…

  20. Coping with Changes in International Classifications of Sectors and Occupations: Application in Skills Forecasting. Research Paper No 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvetan, Vladimir, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and consistent time series are essential to any kind of economic forecasting. Skills forecasting needs to combine data from national accounts and labour force surveys, with the pan-European dimension of Cedefop's skills supply and demand forecasts, relying on different international classification standards. Sectoral classification (NACE)…

  1. Surviving the crisis: Adaptive wisdom, coping mechanisms and local responses to avian influenza threats in Haining, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Letian; Pan, Tianshu

    2008-04-01

    Based on ethnographic research conducted in the summer of 2006, this paper examines local responses to the imminent threat of avian flu in Haining County of Zhejiang Province. During our field investigation, we conducted interviews with officials from local medical institutions (including the hospitals, the animal husbandry and veterinary station, and health clinics), to bureaus of public health and agro-economy. We also visited chicken farms, restaurants and farming households. We address the following factors that commonly structured the perceptions and actions of different social actors in the area of study: The changing mode of information-sharing and communication practices in the local communities; the official drive to professionalize the emergency response management system in the county; and the coping mechanisms that helped the villagers and town residents to weather the storm of avian flu. Our field research suggests that collective survival consciousness was translated into a spirit of voluntarism during the crisis. One important practical lesson we have learned from this study is that the adaptive wisdom embedded in local memories demonstrated its operational worth as a resourceful knowledge base for ordinary farmers to deal with food shortage, famine, plague and future pandemics. PMID:27268990

  2. SAMCO: Society Adaptation for coping with Mountain risks in a global change COntext

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Bernardie, Severine; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Puissant, Anne; Houet, Thomas; Berger, Frederic; Fort, Monique; Pierre, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The SAMCO project aims to develop a proactive resilience framework enhancing the overall resilience of societies on the impacts of mountain risks. The project aims to elaborate methodological tools to characterize and measure ecosystem and societal resilience from an operative perspective on three mountain representative case studies. To achieve this objective, the methodology is split in several points with (1) the definition of the potential impacts of global environmental changes (climate system, ecosystem e.g. land use, socio-economic system) on landslide hazards, (2) the analysis of these consequences in terms of vulnerability (e.g. changes in the location and characteristics of the impacted areas and level of their perturbation) and (3) the implementation of a methodology for quantitatively investigating and mapping indicators of mountain slope vulnerability exposed to several hazard types, and the development of a GIS-based demonstration platform. The strength and originality of the SAMCO project will be to combine different techniques, methodologies and models (multi-hazard assessment, risk evolution in time, vulnerability functional analysis, and governance strategies) and to gather various interdisciplinary expertises in earth sciences, environmental sciences, and social sciences. The multidisciplinary background of the members could potentially lead to the development of new concepts and emerging strategies for mountain hazard/risk adaptation. Research areas, characterized by a variety of environmental, economical and social settings, are severely affected by landslides, and have experienced significant land use modifications (reforestation, abandonment of traditional agricultural practices) and human interferences (urban expansion, ski resorts construction) over the last century.

  3. Approaching sign language test construction: adaptation of the German sign language receptive skills test.

    PubMed

    Haug, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    There is a current need for reliable and valid test instruments in different countries in order to monitor deaf children's sign language acquisition. However, very few tests are commercially available that offer strong evidence for their psychometric properties. A German Sign Language (DGS) test focusing on linguistic structures that are acquired in preschool- and school-aged children (4-8 years old) is urgently needed. Using the British Sign Language Receptive Skills Test, that has been standardized and has sound psychometric properties, as a template for adaptation thus provides a starting point for tests of a sign language that is less documented, such as DGS. This article makes a novel contribution to the field by examining linguistic, cultural, and methodological issues in the process of adapting a test from the source language to the target language. The adapted DGS test has sound psychometric properties and provides the basis for revision prior to standardization. PMID:21208998

  4. Approaching sign language test construction: adaptation of the German sign language receptive skills test.

    PubMed

    Haug, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    There is a current need for reliable and valid test instruments in different countries in order to monitor deaf children's sign language acquisition. However, very few tests are commercially available that offer strong evidence for their psychometric properties. A German Sign Language (DGS) test focusing on linguistic structures that are acquired in preschool- and school-aged children (4-8 years old) is urgently needed. Using the British Sign Language Receptive Skills Test, that has been standardized and has sound psychometric properties, as a template for adaptation thus provides a starting point for tests of a sign language that is less documented, such as DGS. This article makes a novel contribution to the field by examining linguistic, cultural, and methodological issues in the process of adapting a test from the source language to the target language. The adapted DGS test has sound psychometric properties and provides the basis for revision prior to standardization.

  5. Coping Styles of Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Developing Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Sugar, Catherine A.; Zinberg, Jamie; Bachman, Peter; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim There is a wealth of evidence suggesting that patients with schizophrenia tend to respond to life stressors using less effective coping skills, which are in turn related to poor outcome. However, the contribution of coping strategies to outcome in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) for developing psychosis has not been investigated. Methods This longitudinal study followed CHR youth over a twelve-month period, using the Brief COPE questionnaire. CHR subjects (n=88) were compared at baseline to a healthy control sample (n=53), and then mixed models were used to explore the relationship of coping strategies to clinical and psychosocial outcomes in CHR subjects over time (n=102). Results Cross-sectional analyses revealed that, in comparison to healthy controls, CHR youth reported using more maladaptive coping strategies (p<.001) and fewer adaptive coping strategies (p<.01). Longitudinal analyses within the CHR group showed significant decreases in maladaptive coping and symptom severity over time, with corresponding improvements in social and role functioning. Adaptive coping was associated with better concurrent social functioning and less severe symptomatology (both p<.001). Over time, more maladaptive coping was associated with more severe positive and negative symptoms (both p < .005). Conclusions Youth at-risk for psychosis report using fewer adaptive and more maladaptive coping strategies relative to healthy controls. Over one year follow-up, more adaptive coping styles are associated with less severe clinical symptomatology and better social functioning. These findings suggest that teaching adaptive coping styles may be an important target for intervention in youth at high risk for psychosis. PMID:23164368

  6. Feasibility and preliminary outcomes from a pilot study of coping skills training for adolescent--young adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents.

    PubMed

    Judge Santacroce, Sheila; Asmus, Kirsten; Kadan-Lottick, Nina; Grey, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty is a central feature of long-term childhood cancer survivorship during which time it principally has to do with late effects. Therefore, the purposes of this article are (a) to assess feasibility of a randomized clinical trial of a telephone-delivered coping skills training (CST) intervention in terms of recruitment, retention, and timeline, as well as the performance of the study measures; and (b) to demonstrate trends in change on outcomes within the context of a small pilot study. The results of this pilot study suggest that HEROS PLUS CST has clinical relevance and that in-person long-term follow-up plus telephone-delivered psychosocial care is a practical way to deliver integrated care to adolescent-young adult childhood cancer survivors and their parents.

  7. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  8. A Comparison of Adaptive and Nonadaptive Training Strategies in the Acquisition of a Physically Complex Psychomotor Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riedel, James A.; And Others

    Results of research to determine if an adaptive technique could be used to teach a physically complex psychomotor skill (specifically, performing on an arc welding simulator) more efficiently than the skill could be taught with a nonadaptive technique are presented. Sixty hull maintenance technician firemen and fireman apprentice trainees were…

  9. The Parent Version of the Preschool Social Skills Rating System: Psychometric Analysis and Adaptation with a German Preschool Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Markus; Scheithauer, Herbert; Kleiber, Dieter; Wille, Nora; Erhart, Michael; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) developed by Gresham and Elliott (1990) is a multirater, norm-referenced instrument measuring social skills and adaptive behavior in preschool children. The aims of the present study were (a) to test the factorial structure of the Parent Form of the SSRS for the first time with a German preschool sample (391…

  10. Increasing Adaptive Behavior Skill Deficits From Childhood to Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Role of Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive behavior, with specific attention to the role of executive function (EF) in youth with HFASD aged 4–23. There was a negative relationship between age and adaptive behavior and the discrepancy between IQ and adaptive behavior increased with age. EF problems contributed to lower adaptive behavior scores across domains. As such, it is important to target adaptive skills, and the EF problems that may contribute to them, in youth with HFASD. PMID:25398602

  11. Managing Expectations: Results from Case Studies of US Water Utilities on Preparing for, Coping with, and Adapting to Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller-Simms, N.; Metchis, K.

    2014-12-01

    Water utilities, reeling from increased impacts of successive extreme events such as floods, droughts, and derechos, are taking a more proactive role in preparing for future incursions. A recent study by Federal and water foundation investigators, reveals how six US water utilities and their regions prepared for, responded to, and coped with recent extreme weather and climate events and the lessons they are using to plan future adaptation and resilience activities. Two case studies will be highlighted. (1) Sonoma County, CA, has had alternating floods and severe droughts. In 2009, this area, home to competing water users, namely, agricultural crops, wineries, tourism, and fisheries faced a three-year drought, accompanied at the end by intense frosts. Competing uses of water threatened the grape harvest, endangered the fish industry and resulted in a series of regulations, and court cases. Five years later, new efforts by partners in the entire watershed have identified mutual opportunities for increased basin sustainability in the face of a changing climate. (2) Washington DC had a derecho in late June 2012, which curtailed water, communications, and power delivery during a record heat spell that impacted hundreds of thousands of residents and lasted over the height of the tourist-intensive July 4th holiday. Lessons from this event were applied three months later in anticipation of an approaching Superstorm Sandy. This study will help other communities in improving their resiliency in the face of future climate extremes. For example, this study revealed that (1) communities are planning with multiple types and occurrences of extreme events which are becoming more severe and frequent and are impacting communities that are expanding into more vulnerable areas and (2) decisions by one sector can not be made in a vacuum and require the scientific, sectoral and citizen communities to work towards sustainable solutions.

  12. Coping with Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Kenneth

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative decline is predicted because of the leveling off of industrial production and exhaustion of resources. Coping with these conditions requires flexibility and adaptability. Delusions of certainty zero in on catastrophe. (Author/MLF)

  13. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. PMID:25695097

  14. A socio-ecological adaptive approach to contaminated mega-site management: From 'control and correct' to 'coping with change'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, Mario; Lyon, Ken; Armstrong, James E.; Farrell, Katharine N.

    2012-01-01

    Mega-sites have a notable impact on surrounding ecological systems. At such sites there are substantial risks associated with complex socio-ecological interactions that are hard to characterize, let alone model and predict. While the urge to control and clean-up mega-sites (control and correct) is understandable, rather than setting a goal of cleaning up such sites, we suggest a more realistic response strategy is to address these massive and persistent sources of contamination by acknowledging their position as new features of the socio-ecological landscapes within which they are located. As it seems nearly impossible to clean up such sites, we argue for consideration of a 'coping with change' rather than a 'control and correct' approach. This strategy recognizes that the current management option for a mega-site, in light of its physical complexities and due to changing societal preferences, geochemical transformations, hydrogeology knowledge and remedial technology options may not remain optimal in future, and therefore needs to be continuously adapted, as community, ecology, technology and understanding change over time. This approach creates an opportunity to consider the relationship between a mega-site and its human and ecological environments in a different and more dynamic way. Our proposed approach relies on iterative adaptive management to incorporate mega-site management into the overall socio-ecological systems of the site's context. This approach effectively embeds mega-site management planning in a triple bottom line and environmental sustainability structure, rather than simply using single measures of success, such as contaminant-based guidelines. Recognizing that there is probably no best solution for managing a mega-site, we present a starting point for engaging constructively with this seemingly intractable issue. Therefore, we aim to initiate discussion about a new approach to mega-site management, in which the complexity of the problems posed

  15. A socio-ecological adaptive approach to contaminated mega-site management: from 'control and correct' to 'coping with change'.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Mario; Lyon, Ken; Armstrong, James E; Farrell, Katharine N

    2012-01-01

    Mega-sites have a notable impact on surrounding ecological systems. At such sites there are substantial risks associated with complex socio-ecological interactions that are hard to characterize, let alone model and predict. While the urge to control and clean-up mega-sites (control and correct) is understandable, rather than setting a goal of cleaning up such sites, we suggest a more realistic response strategy is to address these massive and persistent sources of contamination by acknowledging their position as new features of the socio-ecological landscapes within which they are located. As it seems nearly impossible to clean up such sites, we argue for consideration of a 'coping with change' rather than a 'control and correct' approach. This strategy recognizes that the current management option for a mega-site, in light of its physical complexities and due to changing societal preferences, geochemical transformations, hydrogeology knowledge and remedial technology options may not remain optimal in future, and therefore needs to be continuously adapted, as community, ecology, technology and understanding change over time. This approach creates an opportunity to consider the relationship between a mega-site and its human and ecological environments in a different and more dynamic way. Our proposed approach relies on iterative adaptive management to incorporate mega-site management into the overall socio-ecological systems of the site's context. This approach effectively embeds mega-site management planning in a triple bottom line and environmental sustainability structure, rather than simply using single measures of success, such as contaminant-based guidelines. Recognizing that there is probably no best solution for managing a mega-site, we present a starting point for engaging constructively with this seemingly intractable issue. Therefore, we aim to initiate discussion about a new approach to mega-site management, in which the complexity of the problems posed

  16. Consequences and risks of <1000-g birth weight for neuropsychological skills, achievement, and adaptive functioning.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Drotar, Dennis; Schluchter, Mark; Hack, Maureen

    2006-12-01

    A cohort of 219 children with extremely low birth weight (<1000 g, extremely low birth weight [ELBW]) born from 1992 to 1995 was followed to mean age 8 years to evaluate outcomes and identify risk factors. We compared 204 of these children with 176 term-born normal birth weight (NBW) controls on neuropsychological skills, academic achievement, and adaptive behavior. The ELBW group had worse outcomes than the NBW on all measures. Within the ELBW group, lower scores on NEPSY tests of executive function and memory were related to <750 g birth weight, B (SE) = -0.93 (0.36), p =.010; cranial ultrasound abnormality, B = -1.03 (0.22), p =.002; postnatal steroid therapy, B = -1.00 (0.33), p =.003; and necrotizing enterocolitis, B = -2.26 (0.75), p =.008. A lower score on the Test of Motor Proficiency was related to chronic lung disease, B = -7.33 (1.98), p <.001. Neuropsychological skills mediated the effects of neonatal risk on achievement and adaptive functioning. The findings document the neuropsychological consequences of ELBW at school age in a recently born cohort and identify risks for adverse outcomes.

  17. Adaptation and implementation of an evidence-based behavioral medicine program in diverse global settings: The Williams LifeSkills experience.

    PubMed

    Williams, Redford B; Williams, Virginia P

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiological research has documented the health-damaging effects of psychosocial factors like hostility, depression, anxiety, job stress, social isolation and low socioeconomic status. Several studies suggest that behavioral interventions can reduce levels of these psychosocial factors. Herein we describe the translational process whereby the Williams LifeSkills® (WLS(®)) program and products for reducing psychosocial risk factors have been developed and tested in clinical trials in the U.S. and Canada and then adapted for other cultures and tested in clinical trials in other countries around the world. Evidence from published controlled and observational trials of WLS(®) products in the U.S. and elsewhere shows that persons receiving coping skills training using WLS(®) products have consistently reported reduced levels of psychosocial risk factors. In two controlled trials, one for caregivers of a relative with Alzheimer's Disease in the U.S. and one for coronary bypass surgery patients in Singapore, WLS(®) training also produced clinically significant blood pressure reductions. In conclusion, WLS(®) products have been shown in controlled and observational trials to produce reduced levels of both psychosocial and cardiovascular stress indices. Ongoing research has the potential to show that WLS(®) products can be an effective vehicle for the delivery of stress reduction and mental health services in developing countries.

  18. Adaptive and Nonadaptive Help Seeking with Peer Harassment: An Integrative Perspective of Coping and Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    When harassed by peers, elementary school students often face a dilemma of whether to ask their teacher for help. Assistance may be useful, and perhaps necessary. However, there can be social costs; children generally are expected to resolve interpersonal conflicts on their own. Two theoretical perspectives (i.e., coping and self-regulation)…

  19. Adaptive Coping Reduces the Impact of Community Violence Exposure on Violent Behavior among African American and Latino Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether coping moderated the impact of community violence exposure (CVE) on violent behavior among 285 urban African American and Latino adolescent males assessed annually across 5 years. Composites indicating overall CVE (having knowledge of others' victimization, witnessing violence, direct victimization) and approach to…

  20. Coping behavior in normal and clinical samples: more similarities than differences?

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, I

    1993-09-01

    In our studies we tried to integrate a developmental and a clinical perspective on coping and adaptation in adolescence. Starting with a review of the author's own research, involving over 3000 12- to 20-year-olds from various cultures, the problems typical of this developmental phase and the ways of coping with these normative demands are presented. The results show that coping skills of young people in dealing with age-specific problems have so far been considerably underestimated. Their response to problems stemming from different developmental fields such as parents, peers, school or future involved three main modes of coping: Active Coping, Internal Coping and Withdrawal. Withdrawal was employed very rarely and only for certain types of problems. Age, gender and problem-specific effects in coping were found. Whereas normal adolescents most frequently choose to cope with difficulties actively by means of social resources and to think out possible solutions, risk populations appear to have a more ambivalent pattern of coping strategies with high functionality and high dysfunctionality. Even their appraisal of problems is already disturbed; they feel more readily threatened by everyday problem situations and respond more uniformly with withdrawal. Finally, similarities between the female coping style in normal samples and the more pronounced ambivalent pattern in clinical samples were discussed and related to psychopathology. PMID:8282899

  1. Numerical Relations and Skill Level Constrain Co-Adaptive Behaviors of Agents in Sports Teams

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed

  2. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of

  3. Numerical relations and skill level constrain co-adaptive behaviors of agents in sports teams.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of

  4. Argentinean adaptation of the Social Skills Inventory IHS-Del-Prette.

    PubMed

    Olaz, Fabián Orlando; Medrano, Leonardo; Greco, María Eugenia; Del Prette, Zilda Aparecida Pereira

    2009-11-01

    We present the results of the adaptation of the IHS-Del-Prette (Inventario de Habilidades Sociales, in English, Social Skills Inventory) to a sample of Argentinean college students. Firstly, we addressed the backward translation and carried out an equivalence study of the Portuguese and Spanish versions of the scale. The results showed the two versions were equivalent, as we obtained correlations lower than .50 in only 5 items. Secondly, we performed item analysis by calculating discrimination indexes and item-total correlations. Results indicated that the items are sensitive to differentiate between high and low social-skill groups. Exploratory factor analysis carried out with a sample of 602 college students yielded five factors that explained 26.5% of the total variance, although our data did not completely match the original factor structure. We also obtained moderate alpha values for the subscales, but high reliability for the total scale. Lastly, group differences between males and females are presented to provide evidence of validity. We discuss the implications of the results and present future lines of inquiry.

  5. Mosaicism for the FMR1 gene influences adaptive skills development in fragile X-affected males

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, I.L.; Sudhalter, V.; Nolin, S.L.

    1996-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, and the first of a new class of genetic disorders associated with expanded trinucleotide repeats. Previously, we found that about 41% of affected males are mosaic for this mutation in that some of their blood cells have an active fragile X gene and others do not. It has been hypothesized that these mosaic cases should show higher levels of functioning than those who have only the inactive full mutation gene, but previous studies have provided negative or equivocal results. In the present study, the cross-sectional development of communication, self-care, socialization, and motor skills was studied in 46 males with fragile X syndrome under age 20 years as a function of two variables: age and the presence or absence of mosaicism. The rate of adaptive skills development was 2-4 times as great in mosaic cases as in full mutation cases. There was also a trend for cases with autism to be more prevalent in the full-mutation group. These results have implications for prognosis, for the utility of gene or protein replacement therapies for this disorder, and for understanding the association between mental retardation, developmental disorders, and fragile X syndrome. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Importance of plasticity and local adaptation for coping with changing salinity in coastal areas: a test case with barnacles in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salinity plays an important role in shaping coastal marine communities. Near-future climate predictions indicate that salinity will decrease in many shallow coastal areas due to increased precipitation; however, few studies have addressed this issue. The ability of ecosystems to cope with future changes will depend on species’ capacities to acclimatise or adapt to new environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the effects of a strong salinity gradient (the Baltic Sea system – Baltic, Kattegat, Skagerrak) on plasticity and adaptations in the euryhaline barnacle Balanus improvisus. We used a common-garden approach, where multiple batches of newly settled barnacles from each of three different geographical areas along the Skagerrak-Baltic salinity gradient were exposed to corresponding native salinities (6, 15 and 30 PSU), and phenotypic traits including mortality, growth, shell strength, condition index and reproductive maturity were recorded. Results We found that B. improvisus was highly euryhaline, but had highest growth and reproductive maturity at intermediate salinities. We also found that low salinity had negative effects on other fitness-related traits including initial growth and shell strength, although mortality was also lowest in low salinity. Overall, differences between populations in most measured traits were weak, indicating little local adaptation to salinity. Nonetheless, we observed some population-specific responses – notably that populations from high salinity grew stronger shells in their native salinity compared to the other populations, possibly indicating adaptation to differences in local predation pressure. Conclusions Our study shows that B. improvisus is an example of a true brackish-water species, and that plastic responses are more likely than evolutionary tracking in coping with future changes in coastal salinity. PMID:25038588

  7. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed. PMID:24942813

  8. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.

  9. The relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, family environment, and caregiver coping in families of children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A; Heckler, Charles E

    2013-12-01

    The factors that influence caregiver coping mechanism preferences after a child's diagnosis with cancer are not fully understood. This study examines the relationship between caregivers' socio-demographic characteristics and the coping strategies they use to adapt to childhood cancer. Sixty caregivers of pediatric cancer patients completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the COPE inventory. There were no significant differences in family environment by income or education. Caregiver educational attainment was positively associated with use of planning and active coping styles, while income was not associated with caregiver coping style. Mothers were more likely than fathers to use active coping, instrumental support, religious coping, and emotional support. Men with lower education engaged in greater substance use coping and lower planning. The findings show that educational attainment and caregiver gender influence caregiver coping styles following a pediatric cancer diagnosis and suggest that educational attainment rather than financial resources drive the association between SES and coping. Programs that address educational gaps and teach caregivers planning and active coping skills may be beneficial for parents with lower educational attainment, particularly men.

  10. Teaching College Level Content and Reading Comprehension Skills Simultaneously via an Artificially Intelligent Adaptive Computerized Instructional System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Roger D.; Belden, Noelle

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a behavioral model for conceptualizing advanced reading comprehension as a "higher order" behavior class. Also discussed are strategies and tactics utilized by an artificially intelligent adaptive tutoring and testing software system designed to shape such comprehension skills while also teaching subject-specific "content" to…

  11. Interest level in 2-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder predicts rate of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Scoring for Autism, quantifying toddlers’ interest in toys, social routines, and activities that could serve as reinforcers in an intervention. Adaptive level and mental age were measured concurrently (Time 1) and again after a mean of 16.3 months of treatment (Time 2). Interest Level Scoring for Autism score, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule score, adaptive age equivalent, verbal and nonverbal mental age, and intensity of intervention were entered into regression models to predict rates of skill acquisition. Interest level at Time 1 predicted subsequent acquisition rate of adaptive skills (R2 = 0.36) and verbal mental age (R2 = 0.30), above and beyond the effects of Time 1 verbal and nonverbal mental ages and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Interest level at Time 1 also contributed (R2 = 0.30), with treatment intensity, to variance in development of nonverbal mental age. PMID:25398893

  12. An Evaluation of Social and Adaptive Skills in Adults with Bipolar Disorder and Severe/Profound Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Terlonge, Cindy; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Rivet, Tessa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the interrelationship of social and adaptive skills in adults with bipolar disorder and severe or profound intellectual disability. A bipolar group (N=14), a severe psychopathology group without bipolar disorder (N=14), and a control group with no DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis (N=14) were compared on the…

  13. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…

  14. Investigating the Impact of Formal Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    In work-related, instrumental learning contexts the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's (1985) experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory (2000) predict skill-adaptation as a possible outcome. This prediction was experimentally explored by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants'…

  15. Adaptation of the Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills to Turkish Children Aged 61 to 72 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Ozgun; Kandir, Adalet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is s to adapt and apply t the Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS) to Turkish children in the city of Ankara. In the study, a descriptive screening model was used. The population of the study consisted of children who showed normal developmental characteristics and who were enrolled at public…

  16. Examining the Effects of Adapted Peer Tutoring on Social and Language Skills of Young English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yaoying

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adapted peer tutoring (APT) on social interactions and early language and literacy skills of pre-school-age children who were English language learners (ELLs). APT was the treatment for this study. Quasi-experimental group comparison design was applied. Two inclusive pre-school classrooms…

  17. Teaching "Yes, And" … Improv in Sales Classes: Enhancing Student Adaptive Selling Skills, Sales Performance, and Teaching Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocco, Richard A.; Whalen, D. Joel

    2014-01-01

    In an application of experiential learning, assessment, and career development, this article reports a field experiment of teaching sales students adaptive selling skills via an "Improvisational (Improv) Comedy" technique: "Yes, And." Students learn this well-established theatrical improv method via classroom lecture,…

  18. Cognition and Adaptive Skills in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1: A Study of 55 Individuals with Congenital and Childhood Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Anne-Berit; Hakenas-Plate, Louise; Tulinius, Mar; Wentz, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate cognitive abilities and adaptive skills in children and adolescents with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and correlate the findings to the cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) repeat expansion size. Method: Cognitive level was assessed in 55 children and adolescents with DM1 (31 males, 24 females; mean age 12y 1mo, SD 5y 1mo; range…

  19. Environmental Emergency Preparedness. Outdoor Living Skills Series. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Don

    This instructor's manual contains 21 lesson plans to teach advanced skills to cope with emergency outdoor living situations and emphasizes being prepared, rather than survival. Written for the classroom teacher, but adaptable for other youth groups, the module contains subject information, lesson plans with activities, student handouts, a written…

  20. Unleashing Creativity in Linguistic Discourses through Advertising Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suneetha, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Creative fluency is positively correlated with the quantity and quality of talk as well. The fluency gives an indication of the learner's ability to cope with real-time communication. This paper makes a correlative study on nurturing narrative tasks through advertising skills. English advertising exploits from the high adaptability of the English…

  1. Compulsive Eating: The Emotional Link of Its Use as a Coping Mechanism for Resident Freshman Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beylerian, Nvair Kadian

    An 18-year old's freshman year in college is not only a test of his or her intellect, but also a test in social skills, adaptability to new living situations, and other conditions. This study examined the link of emotions to compulsive eating and its use as a coping mechanism for female college students. It explores the stresses of the transition…

  2. Pregnant Teens vs. Teen Mothers: Impact of Self-Image, Style of Coping, and Family Environment on Caretaking Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Marilyn; Alvarez, Aracelly

    The purpose of this ongoing study is to assess the impact of style of coping, self-image, family environment, and perceptions of parenting skills on the adaptation of adolescents to the stressors of parenthood. A total of 27 adolescent mothers and their infants, and a cohort of 16 pregnant teens, have thus far participated in the study. Each of…

  3. Changes in Coping Following Treatment for Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serran, Geris A.; Moulden, Heather; Firestone, Philip; Marshall, W. L.

    2007-01-01

    Relapse prevention theory assumes that specific coping skills deficits contribute to sexual reoffending. Recent research suggests that the general coping style of sexual offenders is also ineffective. In this study changes were examined in specific and general coping deficits following a treatment program that incorporated specific skills training…

  4. Coping with Temperature at the Warm Edge – Patterns of Thermal Adaptation in the Microbial Eukaryote Paramecium caudatum

    PubMed Central

    Krenek, Sascha; Petzoldt, Thomas; Berendonk, Thomas U.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ectothermic organisms are thought to be severely affected by global warming since their physiological performance is directly dependent on temperature. Latitudinal and temporal variations in mean temperatures force ectotherms to adapt to these complex environmental conditions. Studies investigating current patterns of thermal adaptation among populations of different latitudes allow a prediction of the potential impact of prospective increases in environmental temperatures on their fitness. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, temperature reaction norms were ascertained among 18 genetically defined, natural clones of the microbial eukaryote Paramecium caudatum. These different clones have been isolated from 12 freshwater habitats along a latitudinal transect in Europe and from 3 tropical habitats (Indonesia). The sensitivity to increasing temperatures was estimated through the analysis of clone specific thermal tolerances and by relating those to current and predicted temperature data of their natural habitats. All investigated European clones seem to be thermal generalists with a broad thermal tolerance and similar optimum temperatures. The weak or missing co-variation of thermal tolerance with latitude does not imply local adaptation to thermal gradients; it rather suggests adaptive phenotypic plasticity among the whole European subpopulation. The tested Indonesian clones appear to be locally adapted to the less variable, tropical temperature regime and show higher tolerance limits, but lower tolerance breadths. Conclusions/Significance Due to the lack of local temperature adaptation within the European subpopulation, P. caudatum genotypes at the most southern edge of their geographic range seem to suffer from the predicted increase in magnitude and frequency of summer heat waves caused by climate change. PMID:22427799

  5. An Examination of the Role of Social Support, Coping Strategies, and Individual Characteristics in Students' Adaptation to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bejerano, Arleen R.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation, or adjustment, is a psycho-social process that occurs when an individual accepts and integrates into his or her life a transition from one situation to another situation (Schlossberg, 1981). Many individuals struggle with transitions because transitions involve changes in the environment, roles, routines, and/or ways of looking at the…

  6. Elementary School Teachers Adapt Their Instructional Support According to Students' Academic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Leskinen, Esko; Torppa, Minna; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Niemi, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal associations between children's academic skills and the instructional support teachers gave individual students. A total of 253 Finnish children were tested on reading and math skills twice in the first grade and once in the second grade. The teachers of these children rated the instructional support that they…

  7. Endocrine and Cognitive Adaptations to Cope with Stress in Immature Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Sex and Age Matter

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Galvão, Ana Cecília de Menezes; Sales, Carla Jéssica Rodrigues; de Castro, Dijenaide Chaves; Galvão-Coelho, Nicole Leite

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This species is an important experimental model in psychiatry, and we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from juvenile to subadult, with females showing higher levels. Immature males and females at 6 and 9 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation with respect to range and duration of response. Additional evidence showed that at 12 months of age, males and females buffered the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis during chronic stress. Moreover, chronic stressed juvenile marmoset males showed better cognitive performance in working memory tests and motivation when compared to those submitted to short-term stress living in family groups. Thus, as cortisol profile seems to be sexually dimorphic before adulthood, age and sex are critical variables to consider in approaches that require immature marmosets in their experimental protocols. Moreover, available cognitive tests should be scrutinized to allow better investigation of cognitive traits in this species. PMID:26648876

  8. Endocrine and Cognitive Adaptations to Cope with Stress in Immature Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Sex and Age Matter.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Galvão, Ana Cecília de Menezes; Sales, Carla Jéssica Rodrigues; de Castro, Dijenaide Chaves; Galvão-Coelho, Nicole Leite

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This species is an important experimental model in psychiatry, and we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from juvenile to subadult, with females showing higher levels. Immature males and females at 6 and 9 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation with respect to range and duration of response. Additional evidence showed that at 12 months of age, males and females buffered the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during chronic stress. Moreover, chronic stressed juvenile marmoset males showed better cognitive performance in working memory tests and motivation when compared to those submitted to short-term stress living in family groups. Thus, as cortisol profile seems to be sexually dimorphic before adulthood, age and sex are critical variables to consider in approaches that require immature marmosets in their experimental protocols. Moreover, available cognitive tests should be scrutinized to allow better investigation of cognitive traits in this species.

  9. Endocrine and Cognitive Adaptations to Cope with Stress in Immature Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): Sex and Age Matter.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Maria Bernardete Cordeiro; Galvão, Ana Cecília de Menezes; Sales, Carla Jéssica Rodrigues; de Castro, Dijenaide Chaves; Galvão-Coelho, Nicole Leite

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic sex differences in primates are associated with body differentiation during the early stages of life, expressed in both physiological and behavioral features. Hormones seem to play a pivotal role in creating a range of responses to meet environmental and social demands, resulting in better reactions to cope with challenges to survival and reproduction. Steroid hormones actively participate in neuroplasticity and steroids from both gonads and neurons seem to be involved in behavioral modulation in primates. Indirect evidence suggests the participation of sexual steroids in dimorphism of the stress response in common marmosets. This species is an important experimental model in psychiatry, and we found a dual profile for cortisol in the transition from juvenile to subadult, with females showing higher levels. Immature males and females at 6 and 9 months of age moved alone from the family group to a new cage, over a 21-day period, expressed distinct patterns of cortisol variation with respect to range and duration of response. Additional evidence showed that at 12 months of age, males and females buffered the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during chronic stress. Moreover, chronic stressed juvenile marmoset males showed better cognitive performance in working memory tests and motivation when compared to those submitted to short-term stress living in family groups. Thus, as cortisol profile seems to be sexually dimorphic before adulthood, age and sex are critical variables to consider in approaches that require immature marmosets in their experimental protocols. Moreover, available cognitive tests should be scrutinized to allow better investigation of cognitive traits in this species. PMID:26648876

  10. An Investigation into the Role of Coping in Preventing Depression Associated with Perfectionism in Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Dry, Silja M.; Kane, Robert Thomas; Rooney, Rosanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) and maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies and their collective impact on depression symptoms were examined in the context of a randomized controlled universal trial of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program. Five hundred and forty-one children aged 8–12 completed a battery of self-reports, of which responses for measures of depression symptoms, perfectionism, and coping strategies were examined for the purposes of this study. Structural equation modeling tested whether coping mediated the effects of perfectionism on depression. Results indicated that SPP had both a direct and an indirect relationship with depression symptoms through a moderate association with maladaptive coping. Implications for prevention of depression were discussed and recommendations for future research were proposed. PMID:26301212

  11. Group Training in Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills for Workplace Adaptation of Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study…

  12. [Coping psychologically with amputation].

    PubMed

    Schulz, M

    2009-02-01

    An amputation is a "tragic event" in someone's biography which causes a dramatic change in the outer appearance, the loss of mobility, independence and self esteem. The following article is about how people learn to cope with this difficult situation; with the practical problems of everyday life as well as their emotional problems. It is important for the amputees to go through the different stages of mourning: The first stage is the rejection of the situation. Repression and denial of the loss protects the patient from emotional overstrain. Confrontation is the next step: emotionally as well as mentally. "How could it happen?", (understanding the reasons why ...) "What will my future be like?", "How will I cope?" (ability of coping) "Why did it happen to me?" (sense) The last stage of coping with the amputation is to accept and deal with the new situation and to build up new self-confidence. A successful process of coping leads to a new identity. If a person fails to adapt to the new situation, he will develop an inferiority complex and fall into a depression. He might also try to look for culprit and blame the situation on someone else. About two thirds of all amputees don't cope with their amputation and become depressive. 15% develop symptoms of anxiety. Therefore it is important to offer help. The patients should get together in self helping groups and talk about their experiences and problems. If they need more intensive and individual help, they should have the opportunity to contact a psychologist. During the process of coping with their amputation the patients often alternate between optimistic and pessimistic moods. Sometimes they fall back into a negative and resigned state of mind. This is natural and part of the process as long as they find their own way to a positive attitude and view of life. PMID:19259934

  13. The use of adaptable automation: Effects of extended skill lay-off and changes in system reliability.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Chavaillaz, Alain

    2017-01-01

    This experiment aimed to examine how skill lay-off and system reliability would affect operator behaviour in a simulated work environment under wide-range and large-choice adaptable automation comprising six different levels. Twenty-four participants were tested twice during a 2-hr testing session, with the second session taking place 8 months after the first. In the middle of the second testing session, system reliability changed. The results showed that after the retention interval trust increased and self-confidence decreased. Complacency was unaffected by the lay-off period. Diagnostic speed slowed down after the retention interval but diagnostic accuracy was maintained. No difference between experimental conditions was found for automation management behaviour (i.e. level of automation chosen and frequency of switching between levels). There were few effects of system reliability. Overall, the findings showed that subjective measures were more sensitive to the impact of skill lay-off than objective behavioural measures.

  14. The use of adaptable automation: Effects of extended skill lay-off and changes in system reliability.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Chavaillaz, Alain

    2017-01-01

    This experiment aimed to examine how skill lay-off and system reliability would affect operator behaviour in a simulated work environment under wide-range and large-choice adaptable automation comprising six different levels. Twenty-four participants were tested twice during a 2-hr testing session, with the second session taking place 8 months after the first. In the middle of the second testing session, system reliability changed. The results showed that after the retention interval trust increased and self-confidence decreased. Complacency was unaffected by the lay-off period. Diagnostic speed slowed down after the retention interval but diagnostic accuracy was maintained. No difference between experimental conditions was found for automation management behaviour (i.e. level of automation chosen and frequency of switching between levels). There were few effects of system reliability. Overall, the findings showed that subjective measures were more sensitive to the impact of skill lay-off than objective behavioural measures. PMID:27633244

  15. Flexible Applications of the Coping Cat Program for Anxious Youth1

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    The current article offers suggestions for ways to adapt empirically supported treatments (ESTs). A specific manualized EST (Coping Cat; Kendall & Hedtke, 2006a) is used to illustrate the concept of “flexibility within fidelity” (Kendall & Beidas, 2007; Kendall, Gosch, Furr, & Sood, 2008). Flexibility within fidelity stresses the importance of using ESTs while considering and taking into account individual client presentations. In this discussion, recommendations are offered for the use of the Coping Cat with younger youth, adolescents, and youth with secondary comorbidities (i.e., social skills deficits, inattentive symptoms, and depressive symptoms). PMID:20936081

  16. Peer Mentoring Intervention Teaching Adaptive Skills to Individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarville, Edel

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with High Functioning ASD's (HFA) often have difficulties with adaptive functioning. Due to these deficits in independent functioning, many individuals with High-Functioning ASD's have limitations in adulthood. This study investigated if individuals with HFA would have a greater likelihood of learning independent adaptive daily living…

  17. Adaptive Skills, Behavior Problems, and Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarimski, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The relationship of temperament, atypical behaviors, and adaptive behavior of young boys with Fragile X syndrome on mothers' parenting stress was analyzed. Twenty-six boys with Fragile X syndrome (30-88 months of age) participated. The overall development of the participants was significantly delayed with a specific profile of adaptive behaviors…

  18. Illness behavior, social adaptation, and the management of illness. A comparison of educational and medical models.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, D

    1977-08-01

    Motivational needs and coping are important aspects of illness response. Clinicians must help guide illness response by suggesting constructive adaptive opportunities and by avoiding reinforcement of maladaptive patterns. This paper examines how the patient's search for meaning, social attributions, and social comparisons shapes adaptation to illness and subsequent disability. It proposes a coping-adaptation model involving the following five resources relevant to rehabilitation: economic assets, abilities and skills, defensive techniques, social supports, and motivational impetus. It is maintained that confusion between illness and illness behavior obfuscates the alternatives available to guide patients through smoother adaptations and resumption of social roles. PMID:328824

  19. Conducting Psychological Assessments in Schools: Adapting for Converging Skills and Expanding Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Terry; Scull, Janet; Hattie, John; Clinton, Janet; Larkins, Geraldine; Cicconi, Vincent; Kumar, Doreen; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we argue for a revision of the knowledge, skills and competencies of school psychologists and specialist teachers. Evidence-based practice of psychologists and teachers, the accountability movement, and calls for improved service delivery have led to changes in the practice of both professions. The changes in technology and the…

  20. Treating Adaptive Living Skills of Persons with Autism Using Applied Behavior Analysis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Belva, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Work, self-help, leisure, and hygiene skill deficits are often associated with Autistic Disorder, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in socialization, communication, and repetitive and restricted behaviors or interests. A number of interventions have been established to assist individuals with these impairments.…

  1. Computerized Adaptive Tutorials to Improve and Assess Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nirmalakhandan, N.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research studies have reported on how novices and experts differ in storing, organizing, and retrieving subject matter knowledge and on how they apply their knowledge to solve new problems. These findings have been integrated and implemented in a computer environment to help novices improve their problem-solving skills. An outline of this…

  2. Transferable Skills Representations in a Portuguese College Sample: Gender, Age, Adaptability and Vocational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Magda

    2012-01-01

    The departing point of this study is the theoretical framework of "Making the Match project" (Evers and Rush in Management Learning 27:275-299, 1996) about how to develop a common language among stakeholders regarding transferable skills. Thus, the paper examines the impact of demographic variables (age and gender) and developmental dimensions…

  3. Coping Power. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Coping Power" is based on the earlier "Anger Coping Power" program. It emphasizes social and emotional skills that are needed during the transition to middle school. The program incorporates child and parent components. The child component consists of thirty-four 50-minute group sessions and periodic individual sessions over the course of 15-18…

  4. Schools Must Teach Kids How To Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Students need opportunities for developing a strong self-image and for learning how to cope with life's problems safely and effectively. Programs should be provided that offer young people the opportunity to develop (1) a strong and secure sense of self-worth; (2) more effective communication skills; (3) the ability to cope with disappointment,…

  5. The Role of Spirituality in Coping with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yampolsky, Maya A.; Wittich, Walter; Webb, Gail; Overbury, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Spirituality and coping behaviors were measured in 85 individuals with visual impairments aged 23 to 97. A regression analysis indicated that the religious well-being subscale of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale is a significant predictor of adaptive coping behaviors, indicating that higher religious well-being facilitates adaptive coping. (Contains…

  6. Coping within couples: adjustment two years after forced geographic relocation.

    PubMed

    Wamboldt, F S; Steinglass, P; Kaplan De-Nour, A

    1991-09-01

    Is our understanding of how individuals adjust to stressful life events increased when we analyze their adjustment in ways that recognize that these individuals are also married couples? The data used to answer this question came from a unique "natural experiment" occasioned by the forced evacuation of the Israeli settlement of Ophira under the terms of the Camp David Accords. We found that the adjustment of individuals within couples became more similar across the relocation, that is, couples adapted as a "family system." This occurred because the coping skills of one member of the couple "drove" the adjustment of both partners.

  7. The Associations of Dyadic Coping and Relationship Satisfaction Vary between and within Nations: A 35-Nation Study

    PubMed Central

    Hilpert, Peter; Randall, Ashley K.; Sorokowski, Piotr; Atkins, David C.; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Alghraibeh, Ahmad M.; Aryeetey, Richmond; Bertoni, Anna; Bettache, Karim; Błażejewska, Marta; Bodenmann, Guy; Borders, Jessica; Bortolini, Tiago S.; Butovskaya, Marina; Castro, Felipe N.; Cetinkaya, Hakan; Cunha, Diana; David, Oana A.; DeLongis, Anita; Dileym, Fahd A.; Domínguez Espinosa, Alejandra D. C.; Donato, Silvia; Dronova, Daria; Dural, Seda; Fisher, Maryanne; Frackowiak, Tomasz; Gulbetekin, Evrim; Hamamcıoğlu Akkaya, Aslıhan; Hansen, Karolina; Hattori, Wallisen T.; Hromatko, Ivana; Iafrate, Raffaella; James, Bawo O.; Jiang, Feng; Kimamo, Charles O.; King, David B.; Koç, Fırat; Laar, Amos; Lopes, Fívia De Araújo; Martinez, Rocio; Mesko, Norbert; Molodovskaya, Natalya; Moradi, Khadijeh; Motahari, Zahrasadat; Natividade, Jean C.; Ntayi, Joseph; Ojedokun, Oluyinka; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd S. B.; Onyishi, Ike E.; Özener, Barış; Paluszak, Anna; Portugal, Alda; Relvas, Ana P.; Rizwan, Muhammad; Salkičević, Svjetlana; Sarmány-Schuller, Ivan; Stamkou, Eftychia; Stoyanova, Stanislava; Šukolová, Denisa; Sutresna, Nina; Tadinac, Meri; Teras, Andero; Tinoco Ponciano, Edna L.; Tripathi, Ritu; Tripathi, Nachiketa; Tripathi, Mamta; Vilchinsky, Noa; Xu, Feng; Yamamoto, Maria E.; Yoo, Gyesook

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Theories about how couples help each other to cope with stress, such as the systemic transactional model of dyadic coping, suggest that the cultural context in which couples live influences how their coping behavior affects their relationship satisfaction. In contrast to the theoretical assumptions, a recent meta-analysis provides evidence that neither culture, nor gender, influences the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction, at least based on their samples of couples living in North America and West Europe. Thus, it is an open questions whether the theoretical assumptions of cultural influences are false or whether cultural influences on couple behavior just occur in cultures outside of the Western world. Method: In order to examine the cultural influence, using a sample of married individuals (N = 7973) from 35 nations, we used multilevel modeling to test whether the positive association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction varies across nations and whether gender might moderate the association. Results: Results reveal that the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction varies between nations. In addition, results show that in some nations the association is higher for men and in other nations it is higher for women. Conclusions: Cultural and gender differences across the globe influence how couples' coping behavior affects relationship outcomes. This crucial finding indicates that couple relationship education programs and interventions need to be culturally adapted, as skill trainings such as dyadic coping lead to differential effects on relationship satisfaction based on the culture in which couples live. PMID:27551269

  8. Different Faces of Variability in the Adaptive Process of Motor Skill Learning.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Umberto Cesar; Benda, Rodolfo Novelino; de Oliveira, Dalton Lustosa; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Freudenheim, Andrea Michele; Tani, Go

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the variability by considering an action programme as hierarchically organized, which reconciles invariant and variant features of motor skills at the macro- and microstructural level of analysis. It was assumed that invariant aspects of skilled actions express the macrostructure and therefore measures of sequencing, relative size, relative timing, relative force and relative pause time. The microstructure was related to the variant aspects so that total size, total movement time, total force, and total pause time were selected as its measures. These propositions were tested in an experimental design comprised by three learning phases: a stabilisation phase that entailed a given number of trials to achieve the functional stabilization on a graphic task, followed by transfer and retention phases. In the transfer phase, the graphic task was modified to yield different demands upon skill reorganization. Two such modifications demanded parametric changes (i.e. microstructure changes), in which graphic size and drawing speed were altered. Another modification demanded structural alterations (i.e. macrostructure change), in which drawing was changed. Overall, results supported the main predictions by showing that parametric changes in the task affected the microstructure, but did not affect the macrostructure consistently. Furthermore, a structural change affected both macro- and microstructure. PMID:26375936

  9. Different Faces of Variability in the Adaptive Process of Motor Skill Learning.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Umberto Cesar; Benda, Rodolfo Novelino; de Oliveira, Dalton Lustosa; Ugrinowitsch, Herbert; Freudenheim, Andrea Michele; Tani, Go

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the variability by considering an action programme as hierarchically organized, which reconciles invariant and variant features of motor skills at the macro- and microstructural level of analysis. It was assumed that invariant aspects of skilled actions express the macrostructure and therefore measures of sequencing, relative size, relative timing, relative force and relative pause time. The microstructure was related to the variant aspects so that total size, total movement time, total force, and total pause time were selected as its measures. These propositions were tested in an experimental design comprised by three learning phases: a stabilisation phase that entailed a given number of trials to achieve the functional stabilization on a graphic task, followed by transfer and retention phases. In the transfer phase, the graphic task was modified to yield different demands upon skill reorganization. Two such modifications demanded parametric changes (i.e. microstructure changes), in which graphic size and drawing speed were altered. Another modification demanded structural alterations (i.e. macrostructure change), in which drawing was changed. Overall, results supported the main predictions by showing that parametric changes in the task affected the microstructure, but did not affect the macrostructure consistently. Furthermore, a structural change affected both macro- and microstructure.

  10. Development of the Coping Flexibility Scale: evidence for the coping flexibility hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2012-04-01

    Coping flexibility was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese college students and employees were conducted to test the hypothesis that flexible coping produces more adaptive outcomes. Studies 1, 2, and 3 provided evidence of the reliability of the CFS scores as well as of its convergent and discriminant validity for Japanese samples. Study 4 further demonstrated that flexible coping was positively associated with improved psychological health, including reduced depression, anxiety, and distress. In Study 5, coping flexibility as measured by the CFS was associated with reduced future depression, even after controlling for the effects of other coping flexibility measures and popular coping strategies. Overall, these results suggest that a valid approach for assessing coping flexibility has been developed and that flexible coping can contribute to psychological health. The implications of these findings for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:22506909

  11. Adapting Experiential Learning to Develop Problem-Solving Skills in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Engineering Students.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Matthew M; Carrano, Andres L; Dannels, Wendy A

    2016-10-01

    Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and best practices of STEM instruction to give first-year DHH students enrolled in a postsecondary STEM program the opportunity to develop problem-solving skills in real-world scenarios. Using an industrial engineering laboratory that provides manufacturing and warehousing environments, students were immersed in real-world scenarios in which they worked on teams to address prescribed problems encountered during the activities. The highly structured, Plan-Do-Check-Act approach commonly used in industry was adapted for the DHH student participants to document and communicate the problem-solving steps. Students who experienced the intervention realized a 14.6% improvement in problem-solving proficiency compared with a control group, and this gain was retained at 6 and 12 months, post-intervention.

  12. Adapting Experiential Learning to Develop Problem-Solving Skills in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Engineering Students.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Matthew M; Carrano, Andres L; Dannels, Wendy A

    2016-10-01

    Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and best practices of STEM instruction to give first-year DHH students enrolled in a postsecondary STEM program the opportunity to develop problem-solving skills in real-world scenarios. Using an industrial engineering laboratory that provides manufacturing and warehousing environments, students were immersed in real-world scenarios in which they worked on teams to address prescribed problems encountered during the activities. The highly structured, Plan-Do-Check-Act approach commonly used in industry was adapted for the DHH student participants to document and communicate the problem-solving steps. Students who experienced the intervention realized a 14.6% improvement in problem-solving proficiency compared with a control group, and this gain was retained at 6 and 12 months, post-intervention. PMID:27559078

  13. TRACING THE DEVELOPMENT OF TYPEWRITING SKILLS IN AN ADAPTIVE E-LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, Mattis; Schmittmann, Verena D; Hofman, Abe D; van der Maas, Han L J

    2015-12-01

    Typewriting studies which compare novice and expert typists have suggested that highly trained typing skills involve cognitive process with an inner and outer loop, which regulate keystrokes and words, respectively. The present study investigates these loops longitudinally, using multi-level modeling of 1,091,707 keystroke latencies from 62 children (M age=12.6 yr.) following an online typing course. Using finger movement repetition as indicator of the inner loop and words typed as indicator of the outer loop, practicing keystroke latencies resulted in different developmental curves for each loop. Moreover, based on plateaus in the developmental curves, the inner loop seemed to require less practice to develop than the outer loop. PMID:26654987

  14. A novel adaptation of a parent–child observational assessment tool for appraisals and coping in children exposed to acute trauma

    PubMed Central

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Background Millions of children worldwide are exposed to acute potentially traumatic events (PTEs) annually. Many children and their families experience significant emotional distress and/or functional impairment following PTEs. While current research has begun to highlight a role for early appraisals and coping in promoting or preventing full recovery from PTEs, the exact nature of the relationships among appraisals, coping, and traumatic stress reactions as well as how appraisals and coping behaviors are influenced by the child's environment (e.g., parents) remains unclear; assessment tools that reach beyond self-report are needed to improve this understanding. Objective The objective of the current study is to describe the newly created Trauma Ambiguous Situations Tool (TAST; i.e., an observational child–parent interview and discussion task that allows assessment of appraisals, coping, and parent–child processes) and to report on initial feasibility and validation of TAST implemented with child–parent dyads in which children were exposed to a PTE. Method As part of a larger study on the role of biopsychosocial factors in posttraumatic stress reactions, children (aged 8–13) and parents (n=25 child–parent dyads) completed the TAST during the child's hospitalization for injury. Results Children and parents engaged well with the TAST. The time to administer the TAST was feasible, even in a peri-trauma context. The TAST solicited a wide array of appraisals (threat and neutral) and coping solutions (proactive and avoidant). Forced-choice and open-ended appraisal assessments provided unique information. The parent–child discussion portion of the TAST allowed for direct observation of parent–child processes and demonstrated parental influence on children's appraisals and coping solutions. Conclusions The TAST is a promising new research tool, which may help to explicate how parents influence their child's developing appraisals and coping solutions

  15. Coping with Demotivation: EFL Learners' Remotivation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falout, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    When foreign language education is compulsory, competitive, or coercive, how learners cope with stress can determine outcomes, including value of the subject, persistence on task, and level of proficiency. The development of adaptive or maladaptive coping processes toward situated learning goals is influenced by learners' beliefs about themselves…

  16. VNTR-DAT1 and COMTVal158Met Genotypes Modulate Mental Flexibility and Adaptive Behavior Skills in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    del Hoyo, Laura; Xicota, Laura; Langohr, Klaus; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; de Sola, Susana; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; Rodriguez, Joan; Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael; Cuenca-Royo, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an aneuploidy syndrome that is caused by trisomy for human chromosome 21 resulting in a characteristic cognitive and behavioral phenotype, which includes executive functioning and adaptive behavior difficulties possibly due to prefrontal cortex (PFC) deficits. DS also present a high risk for early onset of Alzheimer Disease-like dementia. The dopamine (DA) system plays a neuromodulatory role in the activity of the PFC. Several studies have implicated trait differences in DA signaling on executive functioning based on genetic polymorphisms in the genes encoding for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMTVal158Met) and the dopamine transporter (VNTR-DAT1). Since it is known that the phenotypic consequences of genetic variants are modulated by the genetic background in which they occur, we here explore whether these polymorphisms variants interact with the trisomic genetic background to influence gene expression, and how this in turn mediates DS phenotype variability regarding PFC cognition. We genotyped 69 young adults of both genders with DS, and found that VNTR-DAT1 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium but COMTVal158Met had a reduced frequency of Met allele homozygotes. In our population, genotypes conferring higher DA availability, such as Met allele carriers and VNTR-DAT1 10-repeat allele homozygotes, resulted in improved performance in executive function tasks that require mental flexibility. Met allele carriers showed worse adaptive social skills and self-direction, and increased scores in the social subscale of the Dementia Questionnaire for People with Intellectual Disabilities than Val allele homozygotes. The VNTR-DAT1 was not involved in adaptive behavior or early dementia symptoms. Our results suggest that genetic variants of COMTVal158Met and VNTR-DAT1 may contribute to PFC-dependent cognition, while only COMTVal158Met is involved in behavioral phenotypes of DS, similar to euploid population. PMID:27799900

  17. Group training in interpersonal problem-solving skills for workplace adaptation of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study describes preliminary data from a group format manual-based intervention, the Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme, aimed at improving the cognitive and metacognitive process of social problem-solving skills focusing on typical social situations in the workplace based on mediation as the main strategy. A total of 50 adults with Asperger syndrome received the programme and were compared with a control group of typical development. The feasibility and effectiveness of the treatment were explored. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment on a task of social problem-solving skills and two secondary measures of socialisation and work profile using self- and caregiver-report. Using a variety of methods, the results showed that scores were significantly higher at post-treatment in the social problem-solving task and socialisation skills based on reports by parents. Differences in comparison to the control group had decreased after treatment. The treatment was acceptable to families and subject adherence was high. The Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme appears to be a feasible training programme.

  18. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.

  19. Language and Communication Skills in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Contribution of Cognition, Severity of Autism Symptoms, and Adaptive Functioning to the Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Asa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis…

  20. A Systematic Review of Behavioral Intervention Research on Adaptive Skill Building in High-Functioning Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Annemiek; Didden, Robert; Lang, Russell

    2012-01-01

    This review involved a systematic search and analysis of behavioral intervention studies aimed at improving adaptive skills in high-functioning young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Through electronic databases and hand searching, 20 studies were identified meeting pre-determined inclusion criteria. Studies were summarized and analysed in…

  1. Using a Computer-Adapted, Conceptually Based History Text to Increase Comprehension and Problem-Solving Skills of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twyman, Todd; Tindal, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the comprehension and problem-solving skills of students with disabilities in social studies using a conceptually framed, computer-adapted history text. Participants were 11th and 12th grade students identified with learning disabilities in reading and writing from two intact, self-contained social studies…

  2. Gender and Age Differences in How Children Cope with Daily Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales Rodriguez, Francisco Manuel; Trianes Torres, Maria Victoria; Miranda Paez, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study of coping among students accounts for an interesting subject, as having coping skills guarantees a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The present study aims to analyze the role played by age and gender on the coping strategies used by Andalusian school students to cope with situations of daily stress. These situations…

  3. STRIVE: Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments: a pre-deployment VR system for training emotional coping skills and assessing chronic and acute stress responses.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert; Buckwalter, J Galen; John, Bruce; Newman, Brad; Parsons, Thomas; Kenny, Patrick; Williams, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in returning OEF/OIF military personnel is creating a significant healthcare challenge. This has served to motivate research on how to better develop and disseminate evidence-based treatments for PTSD. One emerging form of treatment for combat-related PTSD that has shown promise involves the delivery of exposure therapy using immersive Virtual Reality (VR). Initial outcomes from open clinical trials have been positive and fully randomized controlled trials are currently in progress to further validate this approach. Based on our research group's initial positive outcomes using VR to emotionally engage and successfully treat persons undergoing exposure therapy for PTSD, we have begun development in a similar VR-based approach to deliver stress resilience training with military service members prior to their initial deployment. The Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments (STRIVE) project aims to create a set of combat simulations (derived from our existing Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system) that are part of a multi-episode narrative experience. Users can be immersed within challenging combat contexts and interact with virtual characters within these episodes as part of an experiential learning approach for training a range of psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral emotional coping strategies believed to enhance stress resilience. The STRIVE project aims to present this approach to service members prior to deployment as part of a program designed to better prepare military personnel for the types of emotional challenges that are inherent in the combat environment. During these virtual training experiences users are monitored physiologically as part of a larger investigation into the biomarkers of the stress response. One such construct, Allostatic Load, is being directly investigated via physiological and neuro-hormonal analysis from specimen collections taken immediately before and after

  4. STRIVE: Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments: a pre-deployment VR system for training emotional coping skills and assessing chronic and acute stress responses.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert; Buckwalter, J Galen; John, Bruce; Newman, Brad; Parsons, Thomas; Kenny, Patrick; Williams, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in returning OEF/OIF military personnel is creating a significant healthcare challenge. This has served to motivate research on how to better develop and disseminate evidence-based treatments for PTSD. One emerging form of treatment for combat-related PTSD that has shown promise involves the delivery of exposure therapy using immersive Virtual Reality (VR). Initial outcomes from open clinical trials have been positive and fully randomized controlled trials are currently in progress to further validate this approach. Based on our research group's initial positive outcomes using VR to emotionally engage and successfully treat persons undergoing exposure therapy for PTSD, we have begun development in a similar VR-based approach to deliver stress resilience training with military service members prior to their initial deployment. The Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments (STRIVE) project aims to create a set of combat simulations (derived from our existing Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system) that are part of a multi-episode narrative experience. Users can be immersed within challenging combat contexts and interact with virtual characters within these episodes as part of an experiential learning approach for training a range of psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral emotional coping strategies believed to enhance stress resilience. The STRIVE project aims to present this approach to service members prior to deployment as part of a program designed to better prepare military personnel for the types of emotional challenges that are inherent in the combat environment. During these virtual training experiences users are monitored physiologically as part of a larger investigation into the biomarkers of the stress response. One such construct, Allostatic Load, is being directly investigated via physiological and neuro-hormonal analysis from specimen collections taken immediately before and after

  5. Measuring Coping Behavior in Liver Transplant Candidates: A Psychometric Analysis of the Brief COPE.

    PubMed

    Amoyal, Nicole; Fernandez, Anne C; Ng, Reuben; Fehon, Dwain C

    2016-09-01

    Liver transplant candidates must cope with significant physiological and psychological challenges. The Brief COPE is a frequently used measure of coping behavior; however, knowledge of the scale's factor structure and construct validity is limited with regard to liver transplant candidates. This study assessed the validity of the Brief COPE in 120 liver transplant candidates using exploratory factor analysis. Results revealed a 6-factor solution, only 2 of which were consistent with the original scale assignments. Construct validity of the 6 Brief COPE scales yielded in this study was demonstrated. The results indicate that the Brief COPE is valid, reliable, and can be meaningfully interpreted in liver transplant patients. Future research should confirm this factor structure and examine its predictive validity prior to widespread use among liver transplant patients. Suggestions are presented for enhancing the care of transplant candidates by promoting the use of adaptive coping mechanisms to manage distress.

  6. Living Skills as a Core Curriculum Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufty, David

    Schools should help students develop daily living skills in addition to basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and figuring. Living skills are interpreted to include those skills which help students cope with rapid social change. Skills need to be taught on health and nutrition, safety and first aid, interpersonal relationships, family…

  7. Personality and coping traits: A joint factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this paper is to explore the structural similarities between Eysenck's model of personality and the dimensions of the dispositional COPE. Costa et al. {Costa P., Somerfield, M., & McCrae, R. (1996). Personality and coping: A reconceptualisation. In (pp. 44-61) Handbook of coping: Theory, research and applications. New York: Wiley} suggest that personality and coping behaviour are part of a continuum based on adaptation. If this is the case, there should be structural similarities between measures of personality and coping behaviour. This is tested using a joint factor analysis of personality and coping measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The EPQ-R and the dispositional COPE were administered to 154 participants, and the data were analysed using joint factor analysis and bivariate associations. RESULTS: The joint factor analysis indicated that these data were best explained by a four-factor model. One factor was primarily unrelated to personality. There was a COPE-neurotic-introvert factor (NI-COPE) containing coping behaviours such as denial, a COPE-extroversion (E-COPE) factor containing behaviours such as seeking social support and a COPE-psychoticism factor (P-COPE) containing behaviours such as alcohol use. This factor pattern, especially for NI- and E-COPE, was interpreted in terms of Gray's model of personality {Gray, J. A. (1987) The psychology of fear and stress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press}. NI-, E-, and P-COPE were shown to be related, in a theoretically consistent manner, to perceived coping success and perceived coping functions. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there are indeed conceptual links between models of personality and coping. It is argued that future research should focus on identifying coping 'trait complexes'. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:12614507

  8. Do Coping Strategies Mediate the Relationship Between Parental Attachment and Self-Harm in Young People?

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    Insecure attachment is associated with self-harm in young people, but little research has explored the pathways through which this relationship develops. We investigated whether attachment impacts on self-harm via its effect on coping strategies and appraisal of problem-solving abilities. A total of 314 students aged 18-20 years completed an online survey with measures of parental attachment, emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies, and psychological distress and self-harm. A mediational model was not supported as there were no direct effects between parental attachment and self-harm. However, analysis of specific indirect pathways revealed that perceived parental attachment impacts on self-harm through problem-focused coping. Higher quality of attachment was associated with greater reliance on problem-focused (adaptive) coping, which in turn was associated with a decreased risk of having self-harmed. Furthermore, poorer paternal attachment was associated with lower appraisal of problem-solving skills, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of having self-harmed. Individuals with insecure attachment may be more vulnerable to self-harm because they lack other more constructive coping strategies for relieving stress.

  9. Language and communication skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders: contribution of cognition, severity of autism symptoms, and adaptive functioning to the variability.

    PubMed

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Åsa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis of caregiver completion of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI). The children were classified into three cognitive groups: (a) Normal intelligence; (b) Developmental delay; and (c) Intellectual disability. Autism symptom severity was measured by the Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC), and adaptive functioning by the Daily Living Skills (DLS) and Socialization (Soc) subscales from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. For each of five CDI variables (Phrases understood, Words understood, Words produced, Gestures and actions, and Language use), the contribution of cognition, severity of autism symptoms, and adaptive functioning to the variability was examined. Cognition and age explained about half or more of the variance in the four verbal language CDI variables, but only about one fourth of the variance in the non-verbal communication variable Gestures and actions. Severity of autism symptoms and the two adaptive measures (DLS and Soc) each only accounted for a few percent more of the variance in the four CDI language variables; however, for Gestures and actions, an additional 11-21% of the variance was accounted for. In conclusion, for children with ASD, receptive and expressive language is mainly related to cognitive level, whereas non-verbal communication skills seem to also be related to severity of autism symptoms and adaptive functioning.

  10. Personality and coping.

    PubMed

    Carver, Charles S; Connor-Smith, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Personality psychology addresses views of human nature and individual differences. Biological and goal-based views of human nature provide an especially useful basis for construing coping; the five-factor model of traits adds a useful set of individual differences. Coping-responses to adversity and to the distress that results-is categorized in many ways. Meta-analyses link optimism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to more engagement coping; neuroticism to more disengagement coping; and optimism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness to less disengagement coping. Relations of traits to specific coping responses reveal a more nuanced picture. Several moderators of these associations also emerge: age, stressor severity, and temporal proximity between the coping activity and the coping report. Personality and coping play both independent and interactive roles in influencing physical and mental health. Recommendations are presented for ways future research can expand on the growing understanding of how personality and coping shape adjustment to stress.

  11. Indirect and direct associations between personality and psychological distress mediated by dispositional coping.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Constantinos M; Kapsou, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the association between coping and personality, by testing the hypothesis that dispositional coping mediates the relationship between personality and psychological distress. Canonical correlations evaluated the degree of the association among personality and coping dimensions in a community sample (N = 489) from Cyprus. Results partially support the hypothesized mediation model with Agreeableness predicting distress through the full mediation of avoidant coping, expression of negative feelings and active-positive coping. Partial mediation was found for Neuroticism and Openness. Canonical correlations deciphered how coping relates to the Big Five dimensions. Neuroticism was mostly associated with maladaptive coping, whereas Conscientiousness and Extraversion with adaptive coping.

  12. Coping styles of older adults with ostomies.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Sheila Normand; Meeker, Bonnie Juve'

    2002-05-01

    Various clinical studies throughout the years have shown that individuals with ostomies are a unique group facing adjustment demands. One of the most important challenges for an individual with an ostomy is coping with the physiological and psychological changes. The purpose of this study was to describe coping styles of older adults after undergoing ostomy surgery and to explore its helpfulness in dealing with the stressors related to having an ostomy. Lazarus and Folkman's theory on stress and coping was used as the framework to guide this study. A sample of 27 participants ranging from age 50 to 84 years was obtained from an ostomy association in southeastern Louisiana. Participants were asked to complete a demographic data form and the Revised Jalowiec Coping Scale. This revised scale measured eight coping styles related to Use and Effectiveness. Findings revealed significant differences existed among the means of the eight measures for both Use and Effectiveness at p < .01. Results demonstrated that the optimistic and self-reliant styles of coping were the most frequently used as effective styles for coping with an ostomy. This indicated a positive outlook and dependence on oneself rather than dependence on others when coping with the stressors of having an ostomy. There were no statistically significant differences related to gender or ostomy type. Also, aging did not appear to be a factor when considering coping styles of older adults with ostomies. The nursing role should include assessment of the individual preoperatively to identify fears, concerns, and stressors related to having an ostomy. Also, nurses can provide education on disease management, assist with identification of ineffective coping mechanisms, and promote effective coping skills and stress management techniques.

  13. Does coping help? A reexamination of the relation between coping and mental health.

    PubMed

    Aldwin, C M; Revenson, T A

    1987-08-01

    In a longitudinal community survey of 291 adults, we explored the relation between coping strategies and psychological symptoms. Respondents completed the revised Ways of Coping Scale (Folkman & Lazarus, 1985) for a self-named stressful episode. Factor analysis produced eight coping factors: three problem focused, four emotion focused, and one (support mobilization) that contained elements of both. Multiple regression analyses indicated bidirectionality in the relation between coping and psychological symptoms. Those in poorer mental health and under greater stress used less adaptive coping strategies, such as escapism, but coping efforts still affected mental health independent of prior symptom levels and degree of stress. We compared main versus interactive effects models of stress buffering. Main effects were confined primarily to the emotion-focused coping scales and showed little or negative impacts of coping on mental health; interactive effects, though small, were found with the problem-focused scales. The direction of the relation between problem-focused scales and symptoms may depend in part on perceived efficacy, or how the respondent thought he or she handled the problem. Implications for the measurement of adaptive coping mechanisms and their contextual appropriateness are discussed.

  14. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college.

  15. Effects of Age on Adaptive Behavior Levels and Academic Skill Levels in Autistic and Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ando, Haruhiko; And Others

    1980-01-01

    It was found that the levels of toilet training, eating skills, participation in group activities, and self-control in the autistic children improved significantly with age. The skills of number concepts in the autistic children also improved with age. (Author)

  16. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  17. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts.

  18. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  19. Project COPE, 1983-1984: OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    Project COPE provides supportive services, basic skills, career development, and occupational training to limited English proficient (LEP) students at three New York City high schools. Many COPE students are also limited in their ability to read and write in their native languages. Program participants in 1983-84 included: 173 Spanish-dominant…

  20. Acquiring Psychomotor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padelford, Harold E.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses levels of psychomotor skill acquisition: perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting, and innovating. How these skills interact and how they affect the learner's ability to learn are examined. (CT)

  1. Stress Coping Mechanisms in Elderly Adults: An Initial Study of Recreational and Other Coping Behaviors in Nursing Home Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, I. Roy; Gillen, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Residents (N = 32) of 3 skilled nursing homes participated in a study designed to document the nature of the stressors they experienced and the coping mechanisms they used. Medical issues were the most common stressors. The most common coping responses were prayer, reading, watching television, listening to music, and talking to friends and…

  2. Adaptive Changes of the Insig1/SREBP1/SCD1 Set Point Help Adipose Tissue to Cope With Increased Storage Demands of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carobbio, Stefania; Hagen, Rachel M.; Lelliott, Christopher J.; Slawik, Marc; Medina-Gomez, Gema; Tan, Chong-Yew; Sicard, Audrey; Atherton, Helen J.; Barbarroja, Nuria; Bjursell, Mikael; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Virtue, Sam; Tuthill, Antoinette; Lefai, Etienne; Laville, Martine; Wu, Tingting; Considine, Robert V.; Vidal, Hubert; Langin, Dominique; Oresic, Matej; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Fernandez-Real, Jose Manuel; Griffin, Julian L.; Sethi, Jaswinder K.; López, Miguel; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity imposes unprecedented challenges on human adipose tissue (WAT) storage capacity that may benefit from adaptive mechanisms to maintain adipocyte functionality. Here, we demonstrate that changes in the regulatory feedback set point control of Insig1/SREBP1 represent an adaptive response that preserves WAT lipid homeostasis in obese and insulin-resistant states. In our experiments, we show that Insig1 mRNA expression decreases in WAT from mice with obesity-associated insulin resistance and from morbidly obese humans and in in vitro models of adipocyte insulin resistance. Insig1 downregulation is part of an adaptive response that promotes the maintenance of SREBP1 maturation and facilitates lipogenesis and availability of appropriate levels of fatty acid unsaturation, partially compensating the antilipogenic effect associated with insulin resistance. We describe for the first time the existence of this adaptive mechanism in WAT, which involves Insig1/SREBP1 and preserves the degree of lipid unsaturation under conditions of obesity-induced insulin resistance. These adaptive mechanisms contribute to maintain lipid desaturation through preferential SCD1 regulation and facilitate fat storage in WAT, despite on-going metabolic stress. PMID:23919961

  3. Vocational Coping Training. Participant's Workbook, Short Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.; Johnson, Virginia A.

    This participant's workbook is part of a training program to teach individuals with physical, intellectual, or emotional disabilities the skills required to cope with common on-the-job situations encountered with one's supervisor and co-workers. The workbook is intended to accompany the short (15-20 hour) version of the program which incorporates…

  4. Vocational Coping Training. Participants Workbook, Long Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.; Johnson, Virginia A.

    This participant's workbook is part of a training program to teach individuals with physical, intellectual, or emotional disabilities the skills required to cope with common on-the-job situations encountered with one's supervisor and co-workers. The workbook is intended to accompany the long (40-hour) version of the program which incorporates…

  5. Does disaster education of teenagers translate into better survival knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Codeanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Jacobs, Ian

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of people are affected worldwide by the effects of disasters, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has recognized the need for a radical paradigm shift in the preparedness and combat of the effects of disasters through the implementation of specific actions. At the governmental level, these actions translate into disaster and risk reduction education and activities at school. Fifteen years after the UNISDR declaration, there is a need to know if the current methods of disaster education of the teenage population enhance their knowledge, knowledge of skills in disasters, and whether there is a behavioral change which would improve their chances for survival post disaster. This multidisciplinary systematic literature review showed that the published evidence regarding enhancing the disaster-related knowledge of teenagers and the related problem solving skills and behavior is piecemeal in design, approach, and execution in spite of consensus on the detrimental effects on injury rates and survival. There is some evidence that isolated school-based intervention enhances the theoretical disaster knowledge which may also extend to practical skills; however, disaster behavioral change is not forthcoming. It seems that the best results are obtained by combining theoretical and practical activities in school, family, community, and self-education programs. There is a still a pressing need for a concerted educational drive to achieve disaster preparedness behavioral change. School leavers' lack of knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change are detrimental to their chances of survival.

  6. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  7. How to Cope with Bias While Adapting for Inclusion in Physical Education and Sports: A Judgment and Decision-Making Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Bar-Eli, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a theoretical model and practice examples of judgment and decision making bias within the context of inclusion in physical education and sports. After presenting the context of adapting for inclusion, the theoretical roots of judgment and decision are described, and are linked to the practice of physical…

  8. Coping in the Cyberworld: Program Implementation and Evaluation--A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Cecilia Wing Chi; Frydenberg, Erica

    2009-01-01

    As increasing numbers of adolescents become involved in online activities, many also become victims of cyberharassment. This pilot project investigates how a program teaching coping skills (Best of Coping program, BOC) and a program teaching cybersafety (Cyber Savvy Teens program, CST) can optimise adolescents' capacity to cope online.…

  9. Coping with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Gerdenio M.; And Others

    Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly…

  10. Current Practice in Designing Training for Complex Skills: Implications for Design and Evaluation of ADAPT[IT].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eseryel, Deniz; Schuver-van Blanken, Marian J.; Spector, J. Michael

    ADAPT[IT] (Advanced Design Approach for Personalized Training-Interactive Tools is a European project coordinated by the Dutch National Aerospace Laboratory. The aim of ADAPT[IT] is to create and validate an effective training design methodology, based on cognitive science and leading to the integration of advanced technologies, so that the…

  11. Pain-Coping Traits of Nontraditional Women Athletes: Relevance to Optimal Treatment and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Michael C.; Higgs, Robert; LeUnes, Arnold D.; Bourgeois, Anthony E.; Laurent, C. Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Context The primary goal of traditional treatment and rehabilitation programs is to safely return athletes to full functional capacity. Nontraditional activities such as rock climbing or rodeo are typically less training structured and coach structured; individualism, self-determination, and autonomy are more prevalent than observed in athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-sponsored sports. The limited research available on nontraditional athletes has provided the athletic trainer little insight into the coping skills and adaptations to stressors that these athletes may bring into the clinical setting, especially among the growing number of women participating in these types of activities. A better understanding of the pain-coping traits of nontraditional competitors would enhance insight and triage procedures while heading off potential athlete-related risk factors in the clinical setting. Objective To quantify and compare pain-coping traits among individual-sport women athletes participating in nontraditional versus traditional NCAA-structured competition, with relevance to optimal treatment and rehabilitation. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data collected during each participant's respective group meeting before seasonal activity. Participants or Other Participants A total of 298 athletes involved in either nontraditional, non-NCAA individual sports (n = 152; mean age = 20.2 ± 1.3 years; downhill skiing, martial arts, rock climbing, rodeo, skydiving, telemark skiing) or traditional NCAA sports (n = 146; mean age = 20.3 ± 1.4 years; equestrian, golf, swimming/diving, tennis, track). Main Outcome Measure(s) All participants completed the Sports Inventory for Pain, a sport-specific, self-report instrument that measures pain-coping traits relevant to competition, treatment, and rehabilitation. Trait measures were direct coping, cognitive, catastrophizing, avoidance, body awareness, and total coping response. Data were grouped for

  12. Coping and Self-Efficacy in Marijuana Treatment: Results from the Marijuana Treatment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Stephens, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether a coping-skills-based treatment for marijuana dependence operated by encouraging the use of coping skills or via other mechanisms. Participants were 450 men and women treated in the multisite Marijuana Treatment Project who were randomly assigned to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive-behavioral (MET-CB)…

  13. An Evaluation of Social Adaptation Skills of Children with and without Preschool Education Background Based on Their Mothers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunindi, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to discover if preschool teaching affects children's development of social skills and behaviours. Mothers of 50 children from middle socio-economic class families attending preschools and mothers of 50 children from the same socio-economic class families not attending preschools were included in the study. "Social…

  14. Psychological predictors of coping responses among Greek basketball referees.

    PubMed

    Kaissidis-Rodafinos, A; Anshel, M H

    2000-06-01

    The authors examined the effects of situational appraisals (perceived control and intensity), coping styles (monitoring and blunting), and personal dispositions (optimism and self-esteem) on the approach and avoidance coping responses of skilled Greek basketball referees (N = 162) and the consistency of their responses following 3 game-related stressful situations. In an effort to clarify the variables involved in coping and to consider the theoretical principles both within and beyond sports, the authors replicated an earlier study among Australian basketball referees (A. Kaissidis-Rodafinos, M. H. Anshel, & A. Porter, 1997). The results were equivocal: The Greek referees were not consistent in using avoidance and approach coping responses across situations. Approach coping was more predictable than avoidance coping in accounting for both situational and personal variables.

  15. A Qualitative Analysis of the Coping Strategies of Substitute Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorell, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    This study distinguishes whether substitute teachers enact coping strategies that mitigate the source of work-related stress (problem-centered) or coping strategies that enable them to adapt to stress created by work-related stressors (avoidance-centered). The author gathered data for this analysis by conducting 37 in-depth interviews with…

  16. Control Beliefs, Coping Efforts, and Adjustment to Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mark P.; Karoly, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Examined adaptation to chronic pain in 118 patients. Control appraisals, ignoring pain, using coping self-statements, and increasing activities were positively related to psychological functioning. Control appraisals, diverting attention, ignoring pain, and using coping self-statements were positively related to activity level for patients…

  17. Coping in Dual-Employed Families: Spousal Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Denise A.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    The Dual Employed Coping Scales (DECS) were developed to measure coping behaviors and patterns of dual-employed families. The original DECS (58 self-report items) was administered to a sample of 60 individuals in dual-employed families. In another study, in which 69 dual-employed couples completed the DECS and the Family Adaptability and Cohesion…

  18. Coping Behavior: Implications for Disabled Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, G. Gordon; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated differences between coping behavior of 25 developmentally disabled and 25 nondisabled children (age 4-34 months) from lower- and middle-income family backgrounds. Assessment of three adaptive-coping behaviors (sensorimotor organization, reactive behavior, and self-initiated behavior) indicated that nondisabled children…

  19. Teacher Stress and Coping Strategies: A National Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This national survey of 1,201 kindergarten through Grade-12-U.S. teachers focused on three related areas: (1) sources of teacher stress, (2) manifestations of stress, and (3) suggested coping strategies. The survey instrument was adapted from the Teacher Stress Inventory and the Coping Scale for Adults. Results indicated that teachers nationwide…

  20. Optimism, Social Comparisons, and Coping with Vision Loss in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Debi, Zoharit

    2005-01-01

    This study of 90 adults (aged 55?80) who lost their vision assessed their dispositional optimism, social comparisons, coping strategies, and wellbeing. The findings suggest that optimism and positive social comparisons play an important role in stimulating the motivation to cope adaptively with vision loss and that enhancing optimism and social…

  1. Farmer Health and Adaptive Capacity in the Face of Climate Change and Variability. Part 1: Health as a Contributor to Adaptive Capacity and as an Outcome from Pressures Coping with Climate Related Adversities

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Helen L.; Hogan, Anthony; Ng, Suan Peng; Parkinson, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the role farmers’ health plays as an element of adaptive capacity. The study examines which of twenty aspects of adaptation may be related to overall health outcomes, controlling for demographic and on-farm-factors in health problems. The analysis is based on 3,993 farmers’ responses to a national survey of climate risk and adaptation. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used examine the extent to which, in a multivariate analysis, the use of adaptive practices was predictively associated with self-assessed health, taking into account the farmer’s rating of whether their health was a barrier to undertaking farm work. We present two models, one excluding pre-existing health (model 1) and one including pre-existing health (model 2). The first model accounted for 21% of the variance. In this model better health was most strongly predicted by an absence of on-farm risk, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, younger age and a desire to continue farming. Social capital (trust and reciprocity) was moderately associated with health as was the intention to adopt more sustainable practices. The second model (including the farmers’ health as a barrier to undertaking farm work) accounted for 43% of the variance. Better health outcomes were most strongly explained, in order of magnitude, by the absence of pre-existing health problems, greater access to social support, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, a desire to continue farming and the condition of on-farm resources. Model 2 was a more parsimonious model (only nine predictors, compared with 15 in model 1), and explained twice as much variance in health outcomes. These results suggest that (i) pre-existing health problems are a very important factor to consider when designing adaptation programs and policies and (ii) these problems may mediate or modify the relationship between adaptation and health. PMID:22073027

  2. Farmer health and adaptive capacity in the face of climate change and variability. Part 1: Health as a contributor to adaptive capacity and as an outcome from pressures coping with climate related adversities.

    PubMed

    Berry, Helen L; Hogan, Anthony; Ng, Suan Peng; Parkinson, Anne

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines the role farmers' health plays as an element of adaptive capacity. The study examines which of twenty aspects of adaptation may be related to overall health outcomes, controlling for demographic and on-farm-factors in health problems. The analysis is based on 3,993 farmers' responses to a national survey of climate risk and adaptation. Hierarchical linear regression modelling was used examine the extent to which, in a multivariate analysis, the use of adaptive practices was predictively associated with self-assessed health, taking into account the farmer's rating of whether their health was a barrier to undertaking farm work. We present two models, one excluding pre-existing health (model 1) and one including pre-existing health (model 2). The first model accounted for 21% of the variance. In this model better health was most strongly predicted by an absence of on-farm risk, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, younger age and a desire to continue farming. Social capital (trust and reciprocity) was moderately associated with health as was the intention to adopt more sustainable practices. The second model (including the farmers' health as a barrier to undertaking farm work) accounted for 43% of the variance. Better health outcomes were most strongly explained, in order of magnitude, by the absence of pre-existing health problems, greater access to social support, greater financial viability, greater debt pressures, a desire to continue farming and the condition of on-farm resources. Model 2 was a more parsimonious model (only nine predictors, compared with 15 in model 1), and explained twice as much variance in health outcomes. These results suggest that (i) pre-existing health problems are a very important factor to consider when designing adaptation programs and policies and (ii) these problems may mediate or modify the relationship between adaptation and health.

  3. Personality, life events and coping in the oldest-old.

    PubMed

    Martin, P; Poon, L W; Clayton, G M; Lee, H S; Fulks, J S; Johnson, M A

    1992-01-01

    This paper compares older adults in their sixties, eighties, and 100s on personality, experience of life events, and coping. A secondary goal was to test a structural model of adaptation. Participants (165) filled out a personality inventory, life-event lists, and coping and mental health measures. Results revealed differences in personality: centenarians scored higher on dominance, suspiciousness, and imagination. While centenarians scored lower on active behavioral coping than other age groups, they used cognitive strategies when coping with health and family events. Results from the structural equation model indicated that extraversion and anxiety predicted morale and mental health.

  4. Future Directions for The Math You Need, When You Need It: Adaptation and Implementation of Online Student-Centered Tutorials that Remediate Introductory Geoscience-Related Mathematical Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenner, J. M.; Burn, H.; Baer, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    Requiring introductory geoscience students to apply mathematical concepts and solve quantitative problems can be an arduous task because these courses tend to attract students with diverse levels of mathematical preparedness. Perhaps more significantly, geoscience instructors grapple with quantitative content because of the difficulties students have transferring their prior mathematical learning to common geological problems. As a result, instructors can choose to eliminate the mathematics, spend valuable class time teaching basic mathematical skills or let students flounder in the hope that they will learn on their own. None of these choices are ideal. Instead, research suggests that introductory geoscience courses are opportune places to increase students’ quantitative abilities but that students need effective support at their own skill level. To provide such support, we developed The Math You Need, When You Need It (TMYN): a set of online geoscience context-rich tutorials that students complete just before they encounter a mathematical or numerical skill in their introductory course. The tutorials are modular; each mathematical topic has a set of pages that students work through toward a final assessment. The 11 modules currently available, including unit conversions, graphing, calculating density, and rearranging equations, touch on quantitative topics that cross a number of geologic contexts. TMYN modules are designed to be stand-alone and flexible - faculty members can choose modules appropriate for their courses and implement them at any time throughout the term. The flexible and adaptable nature of TMYN enables faculty to provide a supportive learning environment that remediates math for those who need it without taking significant classroom time. Since spring 2008, seven instructors at Highline Community College and University of Wisconsin Oshkosh successfully implemented TMYN in six geoscience courses with diverse student audiences. Evaluation of

  5. Coping Strategy Use, Personality, and Adjustment of Parents Rearing Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, L. M.; Natcher, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parents rearing children with developmental disabilities encounter stressors that require coping and adaptation. In Glidden et al. 2006, the use of problem-focused coping strategies was more often associated with positive adjustment outcomes than was the use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and parental personality was shown to…

  6. The Impact of Childhood Cancer: A Two-Factor Model of Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevon, Michael A.; Armstrong, Gordon D.

    A review of existing stress and coping models and an analysis of the distress caused by childhood cancer suggest that a broader conceptualization of coping that includes "pleasure management" is needed. Presently, successful coping is identified as the employment of strategies which allow the individual to adapt to stress. Traditional stress…

  7. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  8. Women's experiences of coping with pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Lafarge, Caroline; Mitchell, Kathryn; Fox, Pauline

    2013-07-01

    Pregnancy termination for fetal abnormality (TFA) can have significant psychological consequences. Most previous research has been focused on measuring the psychological outcomes of TFA, and little is known about the coping strategies involved. In this article, we report on women's coping strategies used during and after the procedure. Our account is based on experiences of 27 women who completed an online survey. We analyzed the data using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Coping comprised four structures, consistent across time points: support, acceptance, avoidance, and meaning attribution. Women mostly used adaptive coping strategies but reported inadequacies in aftercare, which challenged their resources. The study's findings indicate the need to provide sensitive, nondirective care rooted in the acknowledgment of the unique nature of TFA. Enabling women to reciprocate for emotional support, promoting adaptive coping strategies, highlighting the potential value of spending time with the baby, and providing long-term support (including during subsequent pregnancies) might promote psychological adjustment to TFA.

  9. Investigating coping strategies and social support among Canadian melanoma patients: A survey approach.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, Melanie; Cyr, Annette; Gregorio, Nancy; Nyhof-Young, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Complex support needs are involved in coping with a diagnosis of melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived social support levels and utilization of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies by Canadian melanoma patients. The impact of social support level on coping strategy utilization was also examined. Social support and coping strategies were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) and the 28-item Brief COPE, respectively. Perceived levels of emotional/informational support were significantly lower than affectionate support and positive social interaction. Acceptance, active coping, and use of emotional support were the most frequently utilized coping strategies. Patients with higher perceived levels of social support had significantly higher adaptive coping scores than patients with lower levels of social support. Health care professionals have an important role in promoting awareness of and access to emotional and informational support resources in order to improve perceived social support levels. PMID:26642495

  10. Endurance athletes' coping function use during competitive suffering episodes.

    PubMed

    Evans, Michael Blair; Hoar, Sharleen D; Gebotys, Robert J; Marchesin, Courtney A

    2014-01-01

    Endurance athletes who realise that they are falling short of important personal goals during competition are expected to experience competitive suffering. As a negative affective state with implications for performance and personal experiences, it is important to understand how endurance athletes cope with competitive suffering. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in athletes' momentary coping function use over time during a competitive suffering episode. Twenty-six runners (mean age: 35.8 years) completed a 5-km running time trial that evoked an experience of competitive suffering using false failure-oriented feedback. Momentary assessments of goal attainment feelings and coping function use were completed immediately following the running time trial using video-mediated recall. Pooled time series analysis was used to predict coping function use across several points in time (i.e. earlier and later stages of a competitive suffering episode) and at different ratings of goal attainment feelings. Analyses revealed that negative feelings about goal attainment moderately predicted problem-focused coping use, and strongly predicted emotion-focused coping use. Although it was not predicted by goal attainment feelings, avoidance coping use was decreased over time throughout suffering episodes. Overall, this study supports propositions that the coping process is continually adapted to competitive demands and identifies the roles of distinct coping functions within the total coping effort.

  11. Coping profiles characterize individual flourishing, languishing, and depression.

    PubMed

    Faulk, Kathryn E; Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    According to the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, negative emotions narrow one's thought-action repertoire. In contrast, positive emotions have a broadening effect, expanding cognitive capacity, increasing potential coping strategies that come to mind, and enhancing decision-making, reaction, and adaptation to adversity. Fredrickson and Losada determined that a positivity ratio - the ratio of experienced positive to negative emotions - at or above 2.9 promotes human flourishing. A ratio below 2.9 is indicative of languishing individuals, whereas a ratio below 1.0 is a marker of depression. This study examined whether adaptive and maladaptive coping profiles differentiated those who flourish, languish, or are depressed in two convenience samples - military spouses (n =367) and public school teachers (n=267). Results were consistent with the theoretical predictions, as coping profiles of the groups differed significantly, with flourishing individuals favoring adaptive coping strategies more than those who were languishing or depressed. Conversely, depressed individuals reported greater use of maladaptive coping strategies than those who were languishing or flourishing. These results provide further empirical support for the mathematical model of Fredrickson and Losada, as the set of positivity criteria were predictive of coping profiles in two samples where successful coping and adaptation are important. PMID:22853921

  12. A comparative study of marginal fit of copings prepared with various techniques on different implant abutments.

    PubMed

    Koç, Esra; Öngül, Değer; Şermet, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated fabrication techniques of recently introduced all-ceramic copings' marginal adaptation on two different implant abutments with different finish lines. Five different copings were prepared (Casted chrome-cobalt metal coping, Zirkonzahn, Cercon, In Ceram Alumina and IPS e.max Press) on two cementable implant abutments with two marginal designs. Ten samples for each coping group were prepared (totally 100 samples). Copings were cemented to implant abutments and marginal gap measurements were done from 24 points with stereomicroscope and the datas were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test before cementation. Cercon copings showed the lowest marginal fit scores and metal copings showed the highest scores. After cementation, all marginal gap values have been increased. All marginal gap values obtained from crown copings can be considered in clinically acceptable limits (<120 µm) except metal copings after cementation on abutment with 135 degrees shoulder group (123 µm).

  13. A comparative study of marginal fit of copings prepared with various techniques on different implant abutments.

    PubMed

    Koç, Esra; Öngül, Değer; Şermet, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated fabrication techniques of recently introduced all-ceramic copings' marginal adaptation on two different implant abutments with different finish lines. Five different copings were prepared (Casted chrome-cobalt metal coping, Zirkonzahn, Cercon, In Ceram Alumina and IPS e.max Press) on two cementable implant abutments with two marginal designs. Ten samples for each coping group were prepared (totally 100 samples). Copings were cemented to implant abutments and marginal gap measurements were done from 24 points with stereomicroscope and the datas were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test before cementation. Cercon copings showed the lowest marginal fit scores and metal copings showed the highest scores. After cementation, all marginal gap values have been increased. All marginal gap values obtained from crown copings can be considered in clinically acceptable limits (<120 µm) except metal copings after cementation on abutment with 135 degrees shoulder group (123 µm). PMID:27252001

  14. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version “COPE Breve”

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Mara R. C. A.; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  15. Adaptedness and coping in dysphagic students.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, B; Theorell, T

    1995-01-01

    Using a definition based on Bowlby and Pörn, an effort is made to interpret adaptedness and coping in 87 dysphagic students (corresponding to a prevalence of dysphagia in 9% of the boys and 12% of the girls) found in a screening study utilizing a questionnaire. Coping patterns and methods of adaptation were explored in a telephone interview with dysphagic students. Those who stated that their dysphagia influenced their daily living were classified as subjectively maladapted (S-maladapted; n = 9). Compared with the S-adapted students, the S-maladapted students reported more defects in ability to eat, more inappropriate beliefs about the causes and management of dysphagia, and greater desires regarding eating than S-adapted students (p < 0.05). The environmental conditions more often impaired the eating ability in S-maladapted students (p < 0.05). Anxiety at mealtime was reported more frequently than in S-adapted students (p < 0.05). Every second S-maladapted student had reduced self-esteem because of dysphagia (p < 0.05). The S-maladapted students had talked about their dysphagia with parents and/or friends and visited a school physician because of dysphagia more often than S-adapted students (p < 0.05). Two of 9 students felt confirmed by the physician and experienced help. There was concordance between the students' own beliefs regarding the causes of dysphagia and corresponding coping strategy. PMID:7600858

  16. Adaptedness and coping in dysphagic students.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, B; Theorell, T

    1995-01-01

    Using a definition based on Bowlby and Pörn, an effort is made to interpret adaptedness and coping in 87 dysphagic students (corresponding to a prevalence of dysphagia in 9% of the boys and 12% of the girls) found in a screening study utilizing a questionnaire. Coping patterns and methods of adaptation were explored in a telephone interview with dysphagic students. Those who stated that their dysphagia influenced their daily living were classified as subjectively maladapted (S-maladapted; n = 9). Compared with the S-adapted students, the S-maladapted students reported more defects in ability to eat, more inappropriate beliefs about the causes and management of dysphagia, and greater desires regarding eating than S-adapted students (p < 0.05). The environmental conditions more often impaired the eating ability in S-maladapted students (p < 0.05). Anxiety at mealtime was reported more frequently than in S-adapted students (p < 0.05). Every second S-maladapted student had reduced self-esteem because of dysphagia (p < 0.05). The S-maladapted students had talked about their dysphagia with parents and/or friends and visited a school physician because of dysphagia more often than S-adapted students (p < 0.05). Two of 9 students felt confirmed by the physician and experienced help. There was concordance between the students' own beliefs regarding the causes of dysphagia and corresponding coping strategy.

  17. EXPANDING URBAN AMERICAN INDIAN YOUTHS’ REPERTOIRE OF DRUG RESISTANCE SKILLS: PILOT RESULTS FROM A CULTURALLY ADAPTED PREVENTION PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Kulis, Stephen; Dustman, Patricia A.; Brown, Eddie F.; Martinez, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This article examines changes in the drug resistance strategies used by urban American Indian (UAI) middle school students during a pilot test of a substance use prevention curriculum designed specifically for UAI youth, Living in 2 Worlds (L2W). L2W teaches four drug resistance strategies (refuse, explain, avoid, leave [R-E-A-L]) in culturally appropriate ways. Data come from 57 UAI students (53% female; mean age = 12.5 years) who participated in L2W during an academic enrichment class for Native youth at two Phoenix schools. Students completed a pre-test questionnaire before the L2W lessons and a post-test 7 months later. Questions assessed the use of R-E-A-L and alternative strategies commonly reported by UAI youth (change the subject, use humor). Tests of mean differences from pre-test to post-test showed significant increases in use of refuse, R-E-A-L repertoire. Use of more passive strategies (avoid, use humor) did not change significantly, except for change the subject, which increased. Changes in the use of strategies did not differ significantly by gender, age, school grades, parental education, or length of urban residence. The L2W curriculum appears effective in teaching culturally relevant communication strategies that expand UAI youths’ repertoire of drug resistance skills. PMID:23529769

  18. Better to bend than to break: coping strategies utilized by substance-abusing homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Dashora, Pushpanjali; Erdem, Gizem; Slesnick, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between coping styles and problem behaviors among a sample of substance-abusing homeless youth. Homeless youth (n = 268) were recruited through the only drop-in center in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Results revealed that youth with higher task-oriented coping reported less delinquent behaviors while those with higher emotion-oriented coping reported higher levels of anxiety/ depression and higher delinquency. Contrary to expectations, youth utilizing higher avoidance-oriented coping skills showed fewer HIV risk behaviors, fewer anxiety/depressive symptoms, and less frequent alcohol use. Findings emphasize the need to examine coping strategies in the context that individuals are situated.

  19. Interrelatedness of Proactive Coping, Reactive Coping, and Learned Resourcefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moring, John; Fuhrman, Robert; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.

    2011-01-01

    Research has identified that coping strategies used by individuals depend on temporal locations of stressors. Dispositional attributes are also identified as predictors of coping. The current study identified commonalities of proactive coping, reactive coping, and learned resourcefulness measures. The analysis yielded three factors reflective of…

  20. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes.

  1. Coping during pregnancy: a systematic review and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Guardino, Christine M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence documents that prenatal maternal stress predicts a variety of adverse physical and psychological health outcomes for the mother and baby. However, the importance of the ways that women cope with stress during pregnancy is less clear. We conducted a systematic review of the English-language literature on coping behaviors and coping styles in pregnancy using PsycInfo and PubMed to identify 45 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies involving 16,060 participants published between January 1990 and June 2012. Although results were often inconsistent across studies, the literature provides some evidence that avoidant coping behaviors or styles and poor coping skills in general are associated with postpartum depression, preterm birth, and infant development. Variability in study methods including differences in sample characteristics, timing of assessments, outcome variables, and measures of coping styles or behaviors may explain the lack of consistent associations. In order to advance the scientific study of coping in pregnancy, we call attention to the need for a priori hypotheses and greater use of pregnancy-specific, daily process, and skills-based approaches. There is promise in continuing this area of research, particularly in the possible translation of consistent findings to effective interventions, but only if the conceptual basis and methodological quality of research improve. PMID:24489596

  2. Development and use of an instrument adapted to assess the clinical skills learning environment in the pre-clinical years

    PubMed Central

    Rdesinski, Rebecca E.; Chappelle, Kathryn G.; Elliot, Diane L.; Litzelman, Debra K.; Palmer, Ryan; Biagioli, Frances E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Communication, Curriculum, and Culture (C3) instrument is a well-established survey for measuring the professional learning climate or hidden curriculum in the clinical years of medical school. However, few instruments exist for assessing professionalism in the pre-clinical years. We adapted the C3 instrument and assessed its utility during the pre-clinical years at two U.S. medical schools. Methods The ten-item Pre-Clinical C3 survey was adapted from the C3 instrument. Surveys were administered at the conclusion of the first and second years of medical school using a repeated cross-sectional design. Factor analysis was performed and Cronbach’s alphas were calculated for emerging dimensions. Results The authors collected 458 and 564 surveys at two medical schools during AY06-07 and AY07-09 years, respectively. Factor analysis of the survey data revealed nine items in three dimensions: “Patients as Objects”, “Talking Respectfully of Colleagues”, and “Patient-Centered Behaviors”. Reliability measures (Cronbach’s alpha) for the Pre-Clinical C3 survey data were similar to those of the C3 survey for comparable dimensions for each school. Gender analysis revealed significant differences in all three dimensions. Conclusions The Pre-Clinical C3 instrument’s performance was similar to the C3 instrument in measuring dimensions of professionalism. As medical education moves toward earlier and more frequent clinical and inter-professional educational experiences, the Pre-Clinical C3 instrument may be especially useful in evaluating the impact of curricular revisions. PMID:26509103

  3. How Older Female Spouses Cope with Partners' Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Marnocha, Suzanne; Marnocha, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research sought to better understand how older female spouses cope with a partner's coronary artery bypass graft surgery and to explore coping's relationships with life-change stress, cognitive appraisal, resilience, social support, and aspects of spouse's surgery. A sample of 96 women, aged from 55 to 81 years, completed surveys after their partner's surgery. Folkman and Lazarus' ways of coping (WCQ) scales yielded two factors in this sample—reactive coping and adaptive coping. Reactive coping, including more emotion-focused ways of coping from the WCQ, was associated only with more time spent anticipating spouses' surgeries. Women described the greatest use of ways of coping labeled adaptive, which in turn had significant relationships with greater resilience, social support, and positive appraisal of the surgical experience. Stepwise multiple regression found greater resilience, more frequent religious participation, and fewer children to be distinct predictors of adaptive coping. Nursing staff are encouraged to accept and normalize reactive coping, while facilitating adaptive coping with surgical stresses. PMID:23634299

  4. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescence Predicts Maladaptive Coping Styles in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (−.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581

  5. Transitions: Preparing Families of Preschoolers for "Marathon Skills".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deitz, Sally J.; Warkala, Catherine Sonen

    1993-01-01

    Skills that families gain in coping with transitions at the early ages of their child with visual impairments provide skills necessary for all the life-stage transitions that follow and, thus, are termed marathon skills. The transition programing of the Lighthouse Child Development Center in New York City is designed to develop those skills. (JDD)

  6. Helping Teens Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jami I.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the role of school library media specialists in helping teens cope with developmental and emotional challenges. Discusses resiliency research, and opportunities to develop programs and services especially for middle school and high school at-risk teens. (LRW)

  7. Coping with College Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160792.html Coping With College Stress Parents can help make the transition easier for ... 5, 2016 MONDAY, Sept. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stress and anxiety are common among new college students, ...

  8. Coping with the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholzman, Steven C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in students. Suggests ways that teachers can help students cope with catastrophic events such as the September 11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. (PKP)

  9. Coping with Feelings

    MedlinePlus

    ... coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel afraid ... life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but if your fear is overwhelming, it can ...

  10. Coping with the Crunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Examines housing strategies several college facilities managers used to cope with the problem of overcrowded residence halls. Also highlighted are tips to help facilities managers determine if their solution is to build additional housing. (GR)

  11. Caregivers--Who Copes How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Dujela, Carren

    2009-01-01

    Within gerontological caregiving research, there is a major emphasis on stresses and burdens of this role. Yet there has been little attention directed toward the coping strategies that caregivers engage in to cope with this role and the factors that influence their adoption of different coping strategies. This article examines coping strategies…

  12. Adapting Vocational Psychology To Cope with Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesketh, Beryl

    2001-01-01

    The interdisciplinary tradition of vocational psychology is a strength, but it has been slow to respond to technology. Strategic issues to be addressed include implications of human genome research, inclusion of goal setting and metacognition in career development, virtual work organizations, and time as an important dimension of career research.…

  13. Transfer of ballistic motor skill between bilateral and unilateral contexts in young and older adults: neural adaptations and behavioral implications.

    PubMed

    Hinder, Mark R; Carroll, Timothy J; Summers, Jeffery J

    2013-06-01

    Bilateral movement rehabilitation is gaining popularity as an approach to improve the recovery not only of bimanual function but also of unilateral motor tasks. While the neural mechanisms mediating the transfer of bilateral training gains into unimanual contexts are not fully understood, converging evidence from behavioral, neurophysiological, and imaging studies suggests that bimanual movements are not simply the superposition of unimanual tasks undertaken with both (upper) limbs. Here we investigated the neural responses in both hemispheres to bilateral ballistic motor training and the extent to which performance improvements transferred to a unimanual task. Since aging influences interhemispheric interactions during movement production, both young (n = 9; mean age 19.4 yr; 6 women, 3 men) and older (n = 9; 66.3 yr; 7 women, 2 men) adults practiced a bilateral motor task requiring simultaneous "fast-as-possible" abductions of their left and right index fingers. Changes in bilateral and unilateral performance, and in corticospinal excitability and intracortical inhibition, were assessed. Strong transfer was observed between bimanual and unimanual contexts for both age groups. However, in contrast to previous reports of substantial bilateral cortical adaptations following unilateral training, increases in corticospinal excitability following bilateral training were not statistically reliable, and a release of intracortical inhibition was only observed for older adults. The results indicate that the neural mechanisms of motor learning for bilateral ballistic tasks differ from those that underlie unimanual ballistic performance improvement but that aging results in a greater overlap of the neural mechanisms mediating bilateral and unilateral ballistic motor performance.

  14. Relationship Between Resilience and Coping Strategies in Competitive Sport.

    PubMed

    Secades, Xabel García; Molinero, Olga; Salguero, Alfonso; Barquín, Roberto Ruíz; de la Vega, Ricardo; Márquez, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Resilience is important in sport performers to withstand the pressure they experience. This study analyzed the relationship among resilient qualities and coping strategies in 235 Spanish athletes (126 males, 109 females; M age = 20.7 yr) who practiced different sports (79.1% team sports, 20.9% individual sports). They were evaluated at the beginning of the last competitive mesocycle and after an important competition. Coping strategies and level of resilient qualities were measured by the Coping Inventory for Competitive Sport and the Resilience Scale. There was no significant difference in resilience scores between evaluations performed during the last mesocycle or competition. A significant increase occurred in the scores for emotion-oriented and distraction-oriented coping during competition. Resilience scores correlated positively to task-oriented coping and negatively to disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping during both periods. Analysis of variance indicated that athletes with high individual resilient qualities reached higher scores in task-oriented coping, using to a lower extent disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping. Results obtained suggest that resilient characteristics may associate in athletes to the use of more potentially adaptative coping strategies.

  15. Relationship Between Resilience and Coping Strategies in Competitive Sport.

    PubMed

    Secades, Xabel García; Molinero, Olga; Salguero, Alfonso; Barquín, Roberto Ruíz; de la Vega, Ricardo; Márquez, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Resilience is important in sport performers to withstand the pressure they experience. This study analyzed the relationship among resilient qualities and coping strategies in 235 Spanish athletes (126 males, 109 females; M age = 20.7 yr) who practiced different sports (79.1% team sports, 20.9% individual sports). They were evaluated at the beginning of the last competitive mesocycle and after an important competition. Coping strategies and level of resilient qualities were measured by the Coping Inventory for Competitive Sport and the Resilience Scale. There was no significant difference in resilience scores between evaluations performed during the last mesocycle or competition. A significant increase occurred in the scores for emotion-oriented and distraction-oriented coping during competition. Resilience scores correlated positively to task-oriented coping and negatively to disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping during both periods. Analysis of variance indicated that athletes with high individual resilient qualities reached higher scores in task-oriented coping, using to a lower extent disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping. Results obtained suggest that resilient characteristics may associate in athletes to the use of more potentially adaptative coping strategies. PMID:27420325

  16. Resilient Coping Moderates the Effect of Trauma Exposure on Depression.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Vaughn G; Wallston, Kenneth A; Strachan, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Posttraumatic depression rates are increasing in the United States, and there is a great need to identify malleable factors that could moderate posttraumatic depression levels. The purpose of this study was to examine whether resilient coping moderates the effects of trauma exposure on depression, while controlling for neuroticism-an established predictor of depressive symptoms. This study used data from 3,734 pairs of twins from the community-based University of Washington Twin Registry. Each twin pair was randomized with twin A in one subsample and twin B in the second subsample. The four-item Brief Resilient Coping Scale measured resilient coping. The two-item Patient Health Questionnaire measured depression. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed on each subsample, controlling for neuroticism. In addition to significant effects of neuroticism and trauma exposure on depression (p < .001), the effect of the interaction of resilient coping and trauma exposure on depression was significant in both subsamples (p < .01). High levels of resilient coping were associated with lower depression scores in the context of previous trauma exposure. Individuals high in resilient coping who experienced significant life traumas were less depressed after trauma exposure, even after controlling for neuroticism. Because coping skills may be learned, interventions that teach resilient coping to individuals with traumatic histories merit investigation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27176758

  17. Adolescents in secure residential care: the role of active and passive coping on general well-being and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Barendregt, Charlotte S; Van der Laan, André M; Bongers, Ilja L; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-07-01

    Coping, general well-being and self-esteem play an important role during the process of adaptation to turning points in life-course. This study aimed to investigate the effect of coping on both the development of general well-being and self-esteem of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care. In addition, risk and protective factors were taken into account. Adolescents between the age of 16 and 18 (N = 172) were followed for 1.5 years. General well-being and self-esteem were assessed with the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, respectively. In addition, the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents and the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth were administered. Results showed that the longitudinal relation between general well-being and self-esteem is no longer significant after adding active and passive coping to the model. The use of active coping strategies was associated with a higher self-esteem. The use of passive coping strategies was associated with a lower self-esteem and also a lower perceived general well-being. Having multiple risks in the individual and/or social/contextual domain affected the developmental pattern of general well-being. During treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care, attention should be paid for enhancing those capabilities and skills, like coping, which help adolescents to fulfill their needs and consequently enhance their well-being. Enhancing the well-being of adolescents might in the long run decrease the chance of reoffending and/or psychiatric relapse.

  18. Personal and situational factors that predict coping strategies for acute stress among basketball referees.

    PubMed

    Kaissidis-Rodafinos, A; Anshel, M H; Porter, A

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the ways in which coping style and situational appraisals are related to the consistency of using approach and avoidance coping strategies for skilled Australian basketball referees (n = 133) after three game-related stressful events. The events, 'making a mistake', 'aggressive reactions by coaches or players' and 'presence of important others', were determined from previous research on sources of acute stress among basketball officials. Our findings indicated that: referees exhibited consistent avoidance, but not approach, coping styles; they used more avoidance than approach strategies; and they perceived stress to be positively correlated with approach, and negatively associated with avoidance, coping strategies. These findings suggest that individual differences exist in perceptions of stress (i.e. situational appraisals), controllability and coping styles among moderately and highly skilled basketball referees. The implications for teaching cognitive and behavioural strategies for effective coping with acute stress in basketball officiating are discussed.

  19. Skills for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary R.

    This publication contains two miniunits to help students in grades 7-12 build skills for the future. The exercises can also be adapted for use in grades 4-6. Each of the miniunits contains several exercises to build specific skills. Miniunit One, "The Arithmetic of Growth," deals with two concepts--exponential growth and doubling time. These two…

  20. Psychosocial variables associated with coping of HIV-positive women diagnosed during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Marinda; Visser, Maretha; Makin, Jenny; Sikkema, Kathleen; Forsyth, Brian

    2013-02-01

    To identify psychosocial variables related to the use of coping strategies by HIV-positive South African women diagnosed during pregnancy, structured interviews were conducted with 224 HIV-positive women at antenatal clinics over a period of 2 years. Two coping styles, active and avoidant coping, were assessed using an adapted version of the Brief COPE. Psychosocial variables associated with changes in coping over time were identified with mixed linear analysis. Increases in active coping were associated with decreasing levels of internalized stigma and depression, increasing self-esteem and positive social support, knowing someone who is living with HIV, being physically healthy and living above the poverty line. Increases in avoidant coping were associated with increasing internalized stigma and depression, lower levels of self-esteem, HIV-knowledge and lower levels of education. Recommendations are made for psychological support services to strengthen women's ability to cope and enhance their health and that of their infants.

  1. Alma: coping with culture, poverty, and disability.

    PubMed

    Blanche, E I

    1996-04-01

    This article raises questions about the ways culture affects the nature of health care services. By examining the life story of Alma, a Central American woman who has a daughter with disabilities; her interactions with health care providers; and my own assumptions about cultural differences, I note the impact of cultural differences on coping and adaptation in Alma and in the health care system when working with poor, non-English-speaking clients.

  2. Socialization of Children's Recall and Use of Strategies for Coping with Interparental Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul A.; Kliewer, Wendy; Partch, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Using experimental, observational and interview-assessment methods, we examined relations among mother-child discussion skills and suggested strategies for coping with postdivorce interparental conflict in a conflict task, children's memory for those strategies in a later recall interview, and children's self-reported use of coping strategies in…

  3. Learning Styles and Their Relationship to Stress and Coping in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, L. M.; Hensley, B.; Baker, R. C.; Dearman, L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between specific learning styles and stress and coping in a sample of female college students (N = 246). Participants in the study were assessed on the three variables by completing several self-report instruments measuring learning styles, life stress level, and coping skills. There were significant…

  4. Helping Children Cope with Fears: Using Children's Literature in Classroom Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Janice I.; Pearson, Quinn M.

    2003-01-01

    Many children are dealing with adult fears, such as death, crime, and war at early ages. School counselors can help children cope with these fears using stories from children's literature. The role that children's literature can play in teaching these coping skills is discussed along with strategies for choosing books. (Contains 33 references.)…

  5. Maternal coping styles and adjustment in children.

    PubMed

    Atlas, J G; Rickel, A U

    1988-06-01

    A comprehensive examination of children's social-emotional adjustment as related to maternal coping styles was performed. Subjects were 186 black mothers from lower-income families, and their children who were enrolled in the Detroit Public Schools Area F, Title I Preschool Program. Maternal nurturant and restrictive child rearing practices, life stress, locus of control and marital status were evaluated with respect to each of the child variables of school adjustment, self-concept and social problem solving skills. Maternal life stress was significantly related to children's lower self-concept, higher aggression, use of finagling and nondirective problem-solving strategies. Significant negative relationships were found between maternal nurturance and child moodiness and learning problems in school, further validating the Modified Child Rearing Practices Report. These findings provide support for expanding the current child developmental focus of preventive parenting programs to include maternal coping strategies such as improved communication and assertiveness training.

  6. The Influence of Emotional Intelligence (EI) on Coping and Mental Health in Adolescence: Divergent Roles for Trait and Ability EI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sarah K.; Humphrey, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, trait and ability emotional intelligence (EI) should mobilise coping processes to promote adaptation, plausibly operating as personal resources determining choice and/or implementation of coping style. However, there is a dearth of research deconstructing if/how EI impacts mental health via multiple coping strategies in adolescence.…

  7. Coping With Stress Strategies in HIV-infected Iranian Patients.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehdari, Tahereh; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud; Abbasian, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Stress has significant adverse impacts on health outcomes of HIV-infected patients. Our study explored coping with stress strategies by HIV-infected Iranian patients. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted at the Consultation Clinic of HIV at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Twenty-six semi-structured in-depth interviews were done. Participants were asked about coping strategies for stress. After the first interview, continuous analysis of data was started and continued up to data saturation. Results showed that participants used two categories of strategies (emotion-based coping and problem-based coping) to cope with stress. Emotion-based coping had two sub-themes: adaptive and maladaptive. The problem-based coping category had three sub-themes: participation in education sessions, adherence to medication, and efforts to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Explanations of different strategies available to HIV-infected patients to cope with stress may help develop tailored interventions to improve the psychological conditions of people living with HIV.

  8. Schema Utilization by Skilled and Less Skilled Sixth Grade Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; And Others

    Twenty-four sixth grade students participated in a study that adapted earlier reading research to determine whether students would demonstrate sensitivity to the presence or absence of a relevant schema in a passage and whether skilled readers would show more use of the schema than would less skilled readers. Six skilled and six less skilled…

  9. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  10. Project COPE, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    In its final year of funding, Project COPE provided instruction in basic skills and career development to 388 students of limited English proficiency (LEP) in grades 9 through 12 at three sites in Brooklyn and the Bronx: 150 Hispanics at John F. Kennedy High School, 150 Haitians at Prospect Heights High School, and 88 Italians at Christopher…

  11. Coping with Jealousy: The Association between Maladaptive Aspects of Jealousy and Drinking Problems are Mediated by Drinking to Cope

    PubMed Central

    DiBello, Angelo M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Rodriguez, Lindsey M.; Lindgren, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that both alcohol use and jealousy are related to negative relationship outcomes. Little work, however, has examined direct associations between alcohol use and jealousy. The current study aimed to build upon existing research examining alcohol use and jealousy. More specifically, findings from current jealousy literature indicate that jealousy is a multifaceted construct with both maladaptive and adaptive aspects. The current study examined the association between maladaptive and adaptive feelings of jealousy and alcohol-related problems in the context of drinking to cope. Given the relationship between coping motives and alcohol-related problems, our primary interest was in predicting alcohol-related problems, but alcohol consumption was also investigated. Undergraduate students at a large Northwestern university (N = 657) in the US participated in the study. They completed measures of jealousy, drinking to cope, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Analyses examined associations between jealousy subscales, alcohol use, drinking to cope, and drinking problems. Results indicated that drinking to cope mediated the association between some, but not all, aspects of jealousy and problems with alcohol use. In particular, the more negative or maladaptive aspects of jealousy were related to drinking to cope and drinking problems, while the more adaptive aspects were not, suggesting a more complex view of jealousy than previously understood. PMID:24138965

  12. Coping with Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Coping with Crises is a home economics course in a rural school in Missouri. It includes experiences designed to increase the individual's ability to deal with stress and covers communication, popularity, loneliness, divorce, death and dying, mental illness, and rejection. (SK)

  13. Coping with Computing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Richard D.

    Elements of computing success of Iona College, the challenges it currently faces, and the strategies conceived to cope with future computing needs are discussed. The college has mandated computer literacy for students and offers nine degrees in the computerized information system/management information system areas. Since planning is needed in…

  14. Coping by Caring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, Sheila S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a Texas elementary school's efforts to cope with the special needs of Kenneth, a fourth grader slowly dying of kidney cancer. Besides learning their subjects like other students, Kenneth's classmates learned how to care. Every student volunteered to be Kenneth's assistant and was enriched by the boy's positive attitude and determination…

  15. Incarceration, Coping, and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bonnie E.; Cervera, Neil J.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of incarceration on family life among 63 inmates and 38 inmate wives. Contrasted those who participated in Family Reunion (conjugal visits) Program with nonparticipants. Found that coping was in normal range for both groups of inmates and wives and, except for measures of wives' passive appraisal, did not differ according to…

  16. Coping with Traumatic Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    This workshop seeks to train persons interested in counseling those who have suffered traumatic loss. The training comes about in part by the participants' introspection into their own past trauma reactions and the coping strategies they used. They also learn from the shared experiences of other participants. The goals of this workshop are to 1)…

  17. Coping strategies of children with faecal incontinence.

    PubMed

    Ludman, L; Spitz, L

    1996-04-01

    As part of a study concerning the psychosocial adjustment of 160 children treated for anorectal anomalies, the authors investigated the ways in which the children coped with faecal incontinence (FIC). At the time of assessment, the children were 6 to 18 years of age. Portions of the in-depth interviews with the children and their parents covered questions about methods of managing and coping with FIC at home, socially, and at school. In addition, information was obtained about child and family characteristics that have been shown to contribute to the ability to adapt to chronic health problems. The ways in which the children dealt with their problems could be grouped into three distinct phases and were different for boys and girls. In phase 1, around 6 to 7 years of age, boys were largely unaware of the unsocial nature of their condition; the girls were sensitive and withdrawn. In phase 2, between 8 and 11 years of age, boys used overt denial, girls used secretiveness. Phase 3, from around 12 years into adolescence, for both sexes was marked by continued covert denial and eventual acceptance of their disability. The coping strategies reflected a complex interrelationship between characteristics of the child, the family, the social environment, and the unsocial and embarrassing nature of FIC. The findings showed that coping with FIC has potentially severely disruptive implications for the overall development of the child. PMID:8801314

  18. Feasibility of a pediatric cognitive-behavioral self-management intervention: Coping Openly and Personally with Epilepsy (COPE).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Janelle L; Smith, Gigi; Ferguson, Pamela; van Bakergem, Karen; Hrisko, Stephanie

    2011-07-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the feasibility and satisfaction of an integrated cognitive-behavioral and self-management intervention for youth with epilepsy (YWE) and caregivers. The Coping Openly and Personally with Epilepsy (COPE) intervention was based on empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques and theory driven self-management content. Content of the intervention consists of epilepsy education, primary and secondary coping skills. Children and adolescents ages 10-15, who had been diagnosed with epilepsy for at least six months (ICD-9345 codes), had at least average intelligence, no history of a serious mental illness, were not currently being treated for major depression, and lived within an 80 mile radius were considered eligible. Nine youth and their caregivers completed the COPE program and provided self-report data on feasibility, accuracy, and satisfaction of the COPE program. Caregivers and youth reported a high level of satisfaction with the COPE program, and findings support the feasibility and accuracy of the intervention content and delivery. Results provide a foundation for future randomized, controlled, clinical trials to examine the effectiveness of the COPE program for youth with epilepsy and their caregivers.

  19. Children's Coping with Academic Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…

  20. Children Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette M.

    Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

  1. At Home with MS: Adapting Your Environment

    MedlinePlus

    ... of things you almost never need. Your storage adaptations may include hanging baskets, rolling storage carts, peg ... living at home with a disability. n Any adaptation or renovation to help you cope with MS ...

  2. Emotion regulation, coping and alcohol use as moderators in the relationship between non-suicidal self-injury and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Williams, Fiona; Hasking, Penelope

    2010-03-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury is a risk factor for more severe self-injury and later suicide, yet is relatively under-researched in non-clinical populations. In order to prevent more severe self-injury and later suicide, understanding of non-suicidal self-injury is imperative. This study aimed to examine whether coping skills, emotion regulation and alcohol use moderate the relationship between psychological distress and non-suicidal self-injury. Two hundred eighty-nine young adults completed self-report questionnaires assessing the variables of interest. Of the sample, 47.4% reported a history of non-suicidal self-injury. Adaptive coping strategies protected those who were psychologically distressed from severe self-injury. However for those who reported greater distress, this protective effect was negated by heavy alcohol use. Coping skills training may serve to protect young people from self-injury, although those who are severely distressed may also benefit from strategies to limit alcohol use.

  3. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  4. Never the Twain shall meet? Closing the gap between coping research and clinical intervention research.

    PubMed

    Coyne, J C; Racioppo, M W

    2000-06-01

    Two distinct literatures have contributed to a tremendous growth of interest in coping. The 1st consists of descriptive studies that have used coping checklists. This literature is in crisis because of its failure to yield substantive findings concerning the role of coping in adaptation that cannot be dismissed as truisms, trivia, or the product of a confounding of stress, coping, and distress. The 2nd literature concerns interventions to improve adaptation by enhancing coping. It provides evidence of the efficacy of intervention but provides little understanding of crucial ingredients, mechanisms of change, or barriers to maintaining gains. Both literatures would benefit from cross-fertilization. Process studies of interventions designed to improve coping provide an alternative to fruitless and potentially misleading correlational studies using checklists. Such studies might also aid in understanding and refining intervention strategies.

  5. The effect of Problem/Project-Based Learning on a desired skill set for construction professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirotiak, Todd L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if a Problem/Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach can affect certain non-technical, "soft" skills of construction engineers. Such skills include leadership, adaptability, and stress management. In mixed design research, quantitative and qualitative data are assembled and analyzed collectively. For this study, two separate assessment tools were used for the quantitative portion, while open-ended written reflections and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were implemented for the qualitative portion. A hypothetical model was used to investigate certain soft skills based on prior research documenting need. Skills investigated were confidence, stress coping, leadership, communication skills, adaptability, and management skills. Descriptive statistics, open-ended final written reflections, and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were used to analyze the data. PBL is a process in which the students are challenged to develop realistic solutions on open, less structured, real world type problems. The results of this study performed with the combined count of nearly 60 students suggest that PBL can influence several soft skills of senior construction engineers. Specifically, these findings demonstrate the following: (a) PBL appears to affect students' soft skills; (b) students appear to recognize the realism and "real world" applicability that PBL brings to their skill development; and (c) the data suggest that the experience is holistic and offers opportunities for balanced growth in several ways. Some key competencies such as communication and leadership indicated significant enhancements. Although this study was limited to one academic year of the university's construction engineering program, it provides interesting insight to changes within the time period investigated. This study should be replicated in other construction engineering environments to investigate a larger population sample. In addition

  6. Learning Leadership Skills in a Simulated Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewiorek, Anna; Saarinen, Eeli; Lainema, Timo; Lehtinen, Erno

    2012-01-01

    In today's unstable market economy, individuals have to be skilled to work efficiently in constantly changing and complex situations. Thus, graduate students have to be trained to cope with unpredictable situations before they enter the workforce. They need to exercise occupational skills, such as leadership skills, during higher education.…

  7. The relationships among self-esteem, stress, coping, eating behavior, and depressive mood in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela; Penckofer, Sue; Gulanick, Meg; Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Bryant, Fred B

    2009-02-01

    The prevalence of adolescent overweight is significant, almost 25% in some minorities, and often is associated with depressive symptoms. Psychological and psychosocial factors as well as poor coping skills have been correlated with unhealthy eating and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among self-esteem, stress, social support, and coping; and to test a model of their effects on eating behavior and depressive mood in a sample of 102 high school students (87% minority). Results indicate that (a) stress and low self-esteem were related to avoidant coping and depressive mood, and that (b) low self-esteem and avoidant coping were related to unhealthy eating behavior. Results suggest that teaching adolescents skills to reduce stress, build self-esteem, and use more positive approaches to coping may prevent unhealthy eating and subsequent obesity, and lower risk of depressive symptoms.

  8. Career Adaptability and Attitudes to Low-Skilled Work by Individuals with Few Qualifications: "Getting By", "Getting On" or "Going Nowhere"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who pass through low-skilled work in their careers can represent this phase as showing strength of character as obstacles are overcome. However, continuing to work in low-skilled employment has so many negative consequences that finding ways to assist those individuals' career development is an important challenge for guidance policy…

  9. Development of the PROMIS® Coping Expectancies of Smoking Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Edelen, Maria Orlando; Tucker, Joan S.; Stucky, Brian D.; Hansen, Mark; Cai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Smoking is a coping strategy for many smokers who then have difficulty finding new ways to cope with negative affect when they quit. This paper describes analyses conducted to develop and evaluate item banks for assessing the coping expectancies of smoking for daily and nondaily smokers. Methods: Using data from a large sample of daily (N = 4,201) and nondaily (N = 1,183) smokers, we conducted a series of item factor analyses, item response theory analyses, and differential item functioning (DIF) analyses (according to gender, age, and ethnicity) to arrive at a unidimensional set of items for daily and nondaily smokers. We also evaluated performance of short forms (SFs) and computer adaptive tests (CATs) for assessing coping expectancies of smoking. Results: For both daily and nondaily smokers, the unidimensional Coping Expectancies item banks (21 items) are relatively DIF free and are highly reliable (0.96 and 0.97, respectively). A common 4-item SF for daily and nondaily smokers also showed good reliability (0.85). Adaptive tests required an average of 4.3 and 3.7 items for simulated daily and nondaily respondents, respectively, and achieved reliabilities of 0.91 for both when the maximum test length was 10 items. Conclusions: This research provides a new set of items that can be used to reliably assess coping expectancies of smoking, through a SF, CAT, or a tailored set selected for a specific research purpose. PMID:25118227

  10. Coping behaviour after shipwreck.

    PubMed

    Henderson, S; Bostock, T

    1977-07-01

    A description is given of the coping behaviour of seven men who survived a shipwreck and were not rescued until 13 days later. The principal behaviours shown by the men were attachment ideation, drive to survive, modelling, prayer and hope. Particular attention is paid to the first of these, and consideration given to its likely origins in behavioural evolution. It is proposed as a hitherto inadequately recognized coping behaviour. A follow-up examination 12 to 24 months later showed that five of the seven men available had developed substantial psychiatric disorder, while by contrast one was not only well but claimed to have been enriched by the experience. Exposure to extreme adversity or disaster may have long-term effects on mental health. Further longitudinal studies of disaster victims are necessary for the design of informed after-care.

  11. Chronic sorrow and coping in families of children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hobdell, Elizabeth F; Grant, Mitzie L; Valencia, Ignacio; Mare, Jane; Kothare, Sanjeev V; Legido, Agustin; Khurana, Divya S

    2007-04-01

    Epilepsy, a common problem in child neurology, affects the entire family. There is a potential for such psychosocial consequences as parental chronic sorrow and alterations in coping. In this study, 67 parents completed brief questionnaires about their sorrow and coping styles. Results demonstrated chronic sorrow as measured by the Adapted Burke Questionnaire (10.45 +/- 7.9). Interestingly, the total score was not significantly different between parents of children with refractory and nonrefractory epilepsy or parents of children with comorbid or without comorbid conditions. Selection of the individual item disbelief, however, was significantly increased in parents of children with nonrefractory epilepsy, and selection of the item anger was significantly increased in parents of children with comorbid conditions. Parental coping styles were similar to those reported in the normative data for the instrument used, the Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP). The correlation between chronic sorrow and coping was significant between the grief component of sorrow and Coping Pattern II of the CHIP. Implications for practice include earlier identification of parental feelings of sorrow and coping styles, which may contribute to a positive outcome. PMID:17477221

  12. Coping among the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Pradyumna; Chakrabarti, Subho

    2015-01-01

    Coping is understood as the process of managing external or internal demands that are considered as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person. There is no formal classification of coping strategies, and these are understood as adaptive versus maladaptive and problem focuses versus emotion-focused. Understanding the commonly used coping strategies in a particular group of subjects can provide valuable insights for designing interventions to reduce the stress. In this review, we look at the literature which is available with regards to the coping strategies used by the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Findings suggest that caregivers of patients with schizophrenia use mixed type of coping mechanisms to deal with the stress of caregiving. The coping strategies are shown to have association with variables such as caregiver burden, caregiving experience, expressed emotions, social support, psychological morbidity in the caregivers, quality of life of caregivers and psychopathology in patients. One of the major limitations of the literature is that there is a lot of variability in the assessment instruments used across different studies to assess coping. PMID:26257476

  13. Mindfulness Training Improves Problem-Focused Coping in Psychology and Medical Students: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halland, E.; De Vibe, M.; Solhaug, I.; Friborg, O.; Rosenvinge, J. H.; Tyssen, R.; Sørlie, T.; Bjørndal, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Students of clinical psychology and medicine experience high levels of mental distress and low levels of life satisfaction. Using adaptive coping strategies can modify the negative effect of stressors on health. Mindfulness, it has been claimed, more adaptive coping with stress, yet few studies have investigated whether mindfulness…

  14. Adolescents coping with mood disorder: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Meadus, R J

    2007-04-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to explore the phenomenon of coping as experienced by adolescents with a mood disorder. Mood disorders among children and adolescents are more persistent than previously thought and have numerous negative associated features, including further episodes of depression, impaired social, academic and vocational relationships, use of alcohol and other drugs, and an increased risk of suicide. Current literature offered little awareness of how adolescents cope with a mood disorder, as well as their perspective of how such an illness impacts their lives. A substantive theory regarding the process of coping for adolescents with a mood disorder was generated from the data collected from one male and eight female adolescents. Using grounded theory coding procedures, a four-phase coping theory identified by the categories feeling different, cutting off connections, facing the challenge/reconnecting, and learning from the experience was developed. The core category identified in this research was An Unplanned Journey: Coping Through Connections. Implications identified for nursing practice, research and education included greater attention on the prevention of adolescent mood disorder, and the education of adolescents about the development and enhancement of healthy coping skills. PMID:17352785

  15. Illness Adaptation: Clarifying the Concept and Validating a Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rosalie F.; Kahana, Eva

    Traditionally, coping and adaptation have been considered synonymous in individual's responses to illness and other stressful situations. The Illness Adaptation Scale (IAS) is a 12-item instrument which was designed to assess adaptational outcomes in illness situations as well as four coping modes (instrumental-self oriented, instrumental-other…

  16. From Fistfights to Gunfights: Preparing Teachers and Administrators To Cope with Violence in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, H. Woodrow

    Issues facing educators today include drug traffic and abuse, crime and delinquency, gangs, weapons, violence, vandalism, schoolyard bullying, and crisis management. Teachers and administrators require special skills to cope with potentially explosive situations and violent students, yet training in those skills is not being received in university…

  17. The Mechanism by Which Interpersonal Coping Flexibility Influences Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Yiqun; Liu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to conceptualize interpersonal coping flexibility and to explore how it influences personal adaptation. Two hundred sixty two university students were classified based on their responses to prompts about their degree of prioritizing harmony and the number of coping strategies they employed when dealing with…

  18. Age and Gender Differences in Coping Style across Various Problems: Omani Adolescents' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…

  19. The Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Brief Resilient Coping Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Vaughn G.; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2004-01-01

    This article introduces the Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS), a 4-item measure designed to capture tendencies to cope with stress in a highly adaptive manner. Two samples of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (ns = 90 and 140) provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the BRCS. The BRCS has adequate internal consistency and…

  20. Stress Constellations and Coping Styles of Older Adults with Age-Related Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyoung Othelia; Brennan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Narrative data from two earlier studies of adaptation to age-related visual impairment were examined for constellations of stressors and coping styles. In the course of previous qualitative analyses, the researchers identified stress and coping codes according to behavioral, psychological, and social domains using a grounded theory approach. In…

  1. Predictive Factors for the Uptake of Coping Strategies by Spousal Dementia Caregivers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Roche, Lauren; MacCann, Carolyn; Croot, Karen

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of spousal dementia caregivers' coping strategies and their predictive factors is imperative for caregivers' well-being. Although several reviews have explored the relationship between coping strategies and outcomes, no review has investigated factors that predict caregivers' use of one type of coping strategy over another. The current review aimed to identify factors that predict caregivers' coping strategies. Within this, we attempted to identify caregivers who are more likely to adopt dysfunctional coping strategies and be at risk of adverse outcomes. Several electronic databases were systematically searched. Twenty-one studies were eligible for review, describing 18 caregiver and care-recipient factors related to the 3 coping strategies. No factors were classified "predictive," however, 16 factors were "potentially predictive." Younger, more highly educated caregivers with greater emotional supports and knowledge of dementia were associated with solution-focused coping. Younger, less educated caregivers were associated with emotional support/acceptance-based coping strategies. Whereas nonwhite caregivers with less emotional supports caregiving for persons with more behavioral problems were associated with dysfunctional coping strategies. Enhancing caregiver self-efficacy, knowledge of dementia, improving social supports, linking to support groups, managing behavioral problems, as well as coaching adaptive coping strategies while flagging caregivers at risk for dysfunctional coping may improve outcomes for caregivers. PMID:26485497

  2. Predictive Factors for the Uptake of Coping Strategies by Spousal Dementia Caregivers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Roche, Lauren; MacCann, Carolyn; Croot, Karen

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of spousal dementia caregivers' coping strategies and their predictive factors is imperative for caregivers' well-being. Although several reviews have explored the relationship between coping strategies and outcomes, no review has investigated factors that predict caregivers' use of one type of coping strategy over another. The current review aimed to identify factors that predict caregivers' coping strategies. Within this, we attempted to identify caregivers who are more likely to adopt dysfunctional coping strategies and be at risk of adverse outcomes. Several electronic databases were systematically searched. Twenty-one studies were eligible for review, describing 18 caregiver and care-recipient factors related to the 3 coping strategies. No factors were classified "predictive," however, 16 factors were "potentially predictive." Younger, more highly educated caregivers with greater emotional supports and knowledge of dementia were associated with solution-focused coping. Younger, less educated caregivers were associated with emotional support/acceptance-based coping strategies. Whereas nonwhite caregivers with less emotional supports caregiving for persons with more behavioral problems were associated with dysfunctional coping strategies. Enhancing caregiver self-efficacy, knowledge of dementia, improving social supports, linking to support groups, managing behavioral problems, as well as coaching adaptive coping strategies while flagging caregivers at risk for dysfunctional coping may improve outcomes for caregivers.

  3. Coping strategies in a sample of anxiety patients: factorial analysis and associations with psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Pozzi, Gino; Frustaci, Alessandra; Tedeschi, Daniela; Solaroli, Silvia; Grandinetti, Paolo; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between coping styles and mental disorders has received considerable attention and instruments have been developed to assess coping strategies. The measurement by means of category systems has been criticized and a functional hierarchy of action types linked to the adaptive processes is preferred. We aimed to determine which factors may exist within the Brief-COPE (Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced – COPE – Inventory) in an Italian sample of patients with anxiety disorders; and if these factors correlate with the severity of psychopathology or with other characteristics. Methods A total sample of 148 patients was recruited. The Brief-COPE inventory, the Symptom Check List 90-Revised, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, the Zung Anxiety Status Inventory and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale were administered. Results Factor analysis of the Brief-COPE yielded nine factors accounting for 65.48% of the variance. Patients scored higher on Searching Support, followed by Acceptance, Changing Perspective, and Problem Solving. Associations between measures of psychopathology and factors of coping strategies, mostly Searching support and Avoidance, were found. Conclusions Data of the present study support a nine-factor structure of the Brief-COPE that includes five broad dimensions of coping. Psychopathology was mostly related to Searching support and Avoidance factors, showing that these strategies may reflect ineffective ways of coping; Problem solving and Changing perspective could be a valid approach to moderate anxiety/depression symptoms and psychopathology in general. PMID:26356192

  4. [Retention of the skill to perform adaptive bio-control of bioelectrical activity synchronization in the human brain cortex in an argon-nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere with various oxygen content].

    PubMed

    Antonov, A A; Ershova, T A

    2009-01-01

    The best method to prevent fire incident in space vehicles and other habitable pressurized modules is reduction of atmospheric oxygen concentration (hypoxia). Atmosphere doping with argon may ease tolerance of this hypoxia by humans. Mental performance in Ag-N2-O2 atmosphere with various oxygen content was assed by: retention of the skill to perform adaptive biocontrol (ABC) of bioelectrical activity synchronization in the frontoparietal and parietooccipital cortex (EEG); emotional and mental state (Luscher test); work successfulness (completion of PC games "Miner"and "Tetris"). The Ag-N2-O2 atmosphere did not affect, despite the fluctuation of anxiety, simulated work completion and long-term (within 24 hours) retention of the relevant to ABC skills.

  5. Relapse Coping Strategies in Young Adults Addicts: A Quantitative Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Ebrahim; Hoseini, Agha Fatemeh; Parsaeian, Farnaz; Heidarinejad, Ali; Azmal, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behavioral coping approach is known as an effective strategy to preventing relapse. Its goal is to forget incompatible behaviors and replaces them with the compatible answers. Objectives: This study examines relapse coping strategies in young adults in selected substance abuse treatment centers in Iran. Patients and Methods: The present is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 70 self-referred young addicts (18-24 years). Adolescence Relapse Coping Questionnaire was used to assess relapse coping strategies. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Results: The findings revealed that 71.2% have experienced a relapse totally. It was hard to control the hypothetical high risk situation and they greatly wanted to use the substance (mean 7.39 of 10). Addicts have used of all three coping skills in “definitely would do” level. Conclusion: Enhancing self-efficacy through training coping skills, especially abstinence - focused coping skills to react properly in high risk situation can be useful. PMID:27011402

  6. Psychological skill model of collegiate athletes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Chou, Tzu-Chin Rejoice

    2014-10-01

    The importance of psychological skills to an athlete is widely recognized. The Athletic Psychological Skills Inventory (APSI) was developed to evaluate psychological skills in the Taiwanese sports environment. This study employed the APSI model to refine the psychological skill factor structure. The model was supported as a reliable and valid form of measurement. A second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the factor structure of the APSI in Taiwanese collegiate athletes. Peaking under pressure and coping with adversity were combined into a simplified factor, coping with adversity. PMID:25310230

  7. On Everyday Stress and Coping Strategies among Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Elementary school students are confronted with a variety of everyday challenges ranging from comprehension obstacles to interpersonal conflict. Learning to cope effectively with moments of tension is an important part of a child's education because adaptation to stress is likely to influence academic and developmental success. However,…

  8. Flexible Applications of the Coping Cat Program for Anxious Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    The current article offers suggestions for ways to adapt empirically supported treatments (ESTs). A specific manualized EST (Coping Cat; Kendall & Hedtke, 2006a) is used to illustrate the concept of "flexibility within fidelity" (Kendall & Beidas, 2007; Kendall, Gosch, Furr, & Sood, 2008). Flexibility within fidelity stresses the importance of…

  9. Stress and coping research. Methodological challenges, theoretical advances, and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Somerfield, M R; McCrae, R R

    2000-06-01

    Coping is among the most widely studied topics in contemporary psychology. However, the explosion of interest in coping has yielded little and the field is in crisis. This section offers a survey of the state of the art in theory and research on stress and adaptational processes. The four core articles in the section take up, respectively, problems in research design, the neglect of unconscious reactions to stress, the selection of adaptational outcomes, and the link between research on adaptational processes and clinical practice. The final article by Richard S. Lazarus offers a commentary. The present introduction provides the historical backdrop for the section. Then, after a brief overview of research on adaptational processes, the authors summarize the scope and yield of coping research and preview the four core articles in the section. The strengths and limits of individual coping efforts and the need for realistic expectations and redoubled efforts are discussed.

  10. Reinforcement sensitivity, coping, and delinquent behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope A

    2007-10-01

    Since 1964, the relationship between personality and criminal behaviour has been extensively studied. However, studies, which have examined the Eysenckian dimensions of extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism have produced mixed results. Gray's [Gray, J. A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extroversion. Behavior Research and Therapy, 8, 249-266] Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides an alternative conceptualisation of the role of personality in criminal behaviour, and has generally produced more consistent findings. This study aimed to examine the relationship between reinforcement sensitivity and delinquent behaviour in a sample of 259 adolescents, and to examine the role that coping strategies play in this relationship. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that use of problem solving mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and delinquent behaviour, while use of non-productive coping strategies moderated the relationship between BAS drive and delinquency. Consequently, it was suggested that coping skills training could be an effective early intervention for delinquent behaviour.

  11. Coping as Part of Motivational Resilience in School: A Multidimensional Measure of Families, Allocations, and Profiles of Academic Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Ellen; Pitzer, Jennifer; Steele, Joel

    2013-01-01

    A study was designed to examine a multidimensional measure of children's coping in the academic domain as part of a larger model of motivational resilience. Using items tapping multiple ways of dealing with academic problems, including five adaptive ways (strategizing, help-seeking, comfort-seeking, self-encouragement, and commitment) and six…

  12. [Coping with crisis as an important factor in the rehabilitation process].

    PubMed

    Clemens, K; Hack, E; Sülzer, A; Schottmann, J

    2008-03-01

    Accidents and serious illnesses are inevitably associated with an emotional crisis, based on the fact that they are followed by significant consequences. Coping with this crisis requires enormous mental adaptation. This active coping process is typically characterised by three phases: the shock phase, the coping phase in the narrow sense and the phase of successful coping versus chronification. In order to ensure a positive rehabilitation process, successful coping with the illness is necessary. It is therefore absolutely crucial to analyse individual coping styles and possible obstacles thoroughly from a psychological point of view. In order to prevent a process of chronification, relevant psychosocial factors should be considered along with the medical and occupational aspects early in the rehabilitation process. Ultimately, psychological stability is the prerequisite for successful rehabilitation.

  13. Intergenerational Child Abuse and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…

  14. Coping Resources of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Allen L.

    Coping resources are what people bring to situations (as opposed to what they do) that enable them to deal with stressors more effectively, allow them to recover faster, or experience fewer or less intense symptoms upon exposure to stressors. The Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) measures resources in the following domains: cognitive, social,…

  15. The process of coping following child sexual abuse:a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Oaksford, Karen; Frude, Neil

    2003-01-01

    This research employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches to studying the immediate and long-term coping strategies adopted by survivors of child sexual abuse, focusing on how strategies evolve over time. Qualitative findings showed that coping with child sexual abuse is not static, but changes over time. The narratives of these nonclinical survivors suggest that an adaptive outcome may be associated with a particular evolution of strategies across time, i.e., survivors reported coping predominantly by engaging in psychological escape methods initially, and then adopting cognitive appraisal and positive reframing strategies in the longer term. It appears that coping processes can affect psychological outcome following child sexual abuse. This study offers insight into the evolution of coping methods associated with an adaptive outcome.

  16. Coping: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrangue, Renee

    1980-01-01

    Women always have been managers, personnel directors, long-range planners, and arbitrators in the domestic realm, but, as they assume positions of responsibility outside the home, these skills no longer can be taken for granted. The author offers suggestions to women for performing well in numerous roles. (Author/KC)

  17. Coping with Continual Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutsche, Betha

    2010-01-01

    In the face of seismic shifts in technology and social organization, librarians and library staff face changing roles. A focus on competencies--the skills, knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes that are involved in a job--can help the library profession keep its footing as well as help librarians stick to values. When well done, they can define a…

  18. [Coping with chronic disease].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Silke

    2014-03-26

    Patients suffering form chronic diseases have to deal with several problems, the illness itself only being one of them. Health care providers have to undergo a paradigm shift to be able to meet the new challenges which differ from those in acute care. From the patient's perspective, coping with a chronic disease is not a limited process, but encompasses different, often recurring phases (trajectory model). The treating physician's support may comprise the offering of information on general and specific stress factors (physical, emotional, social), empathy, respecting the individual's expertise and activating a patient's resources and self-efficacy. The amount of support given is limited by the treating physician's expert knowledge in this area. Physicians should respect their own limits and involve specialists, supervision or Balint groups.

  19. Coping With Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaporozec, Alexander

    This book is a collection of selected papers from the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Droughts entitled “Drought Impact Control Technology,” held at the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 1980. The editors of the book have chosen a nontraditional but successful approach to presenting the papers. Instead of including a verbatim proceedings of the institute, they assembled 21 papers presented by 14 of the institute's lecturers, reshaped and synthesized them, and supplemented them by five new papers that cover obvious gaps in topics. The result is enlightening reading and a more or less complete presentation of the subject. The edited material in the book was arranged around three central themes related to efforts needed to cope with or manage the droughts. In the process, the identity of individual contributors has been preserved.

  20. Promoting 21st-Century Skills in the Science Classroom by Adapting Cookbook Lab Activities: The Case of DNA Extraction of Wheat Germ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alozie, Nonye M.; Grueber, David J.; Dereski, Mary O.

    2012-01-01

    How can science instruction engage students in 21st-century skills and inquiry-based learning, even when doing simple labs in the classroom? We collaborated with teachers in professional development workshops to transform "cookbook" activities into engaging laboratory experiences. We show how to change the common classroom activity of DNA…

  1. The Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior. Measures of Program Development for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded. Section 1. Skills of Functional Independence. Part Three: Program Scoring Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.

    The scoring form for functional independence skills for the mentally retarded includes a section for recording subjects' demographic characteristics as well as tests used, date administered, and raw score. Other sections provide for a brief description of the program being used, an item scoring sheet for the Eating Scales (dependent feeding,…

  2. Facilitating Positive Psychosocial Adaptation in Children with Cystic Fibrosis by Increasing Family Communication and Problem-Solving Skills. A Research Report to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabler, Brian; And Others

    This study tested the effects of two group-oriented supportive and educational approaches on the parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirteen families were randomly assigned either to a group which received information on medical and technical aspects of CF or to a group which received instruction in communication skills in addition to…

  3. Incorporating coping into an expectancy framework for explaining drinking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope A; Oei, Tian P S

    2008-01-01

    Expectancy Theory has offered much in the way of understanding alcohol use and abuse, and has contributed greatly to prevention and treatment initiatives. However although many cognitive-behavioural treatment approaches are based on expectancy constructs, such as outcome expectancies and self-efficacy, high relapse rates imply that expectancy theory may be too narrow in scope, and that additional variables need to be examined if a comprehensive understanding of drinking behaviour, and better treatment outcomes, are to be achieved. We suggest that the coping strategies an individual employs present one such set of variables that have largely been neglected from an expectancy framework. Although coping skills training is routinely used in prevention and treatment of alcohol problems, coping research has suffered from a poor theoretical framework. In this paper we review the existing research relating expectancies, self-efficacy and coping to drinking behaviour and propose a model which explains both social and dependent drinking, by incorporating coping into an expectancy theory framework. We also outline research and clinical implications of the proposed model. PMID:19630702

  4. Basic Skills in Asian Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantula, James

    This publication contains field tested learning activities which will help secondary students develop basic skills while learning about Asian history, culture, and geography. The activities can be used or easily adapted by teachers in any Asian studies course. The publication is organized by the skills taught. These are: reading; applying…

  5. Discovering Prerequisite Structure of Skills through Probabilistic Association Rules Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yang; Wuillemin, Pierre-Henr; Labat, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the prerequisite structure of skills is a crucial issue in domain modeling. Students usually learn skills in sequence since the preliminary skills need to be learned prior to the complex skills. The prerequisite relations between skills underlie the design of learning sequence and adaptation strategies for tutoring systems. The…

  6. Adolescent vulnerability and the distress of rejection: Associations of adjustment problems and gender with control, emotions, and coping.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Skinner, Ellen A

    2015-12-01

    We examined adjustment problems as risks for patterns of emotions, appraisals, and coping with rejection, and explored whether these processes could account for sex (boy/girl) differences in coping. Young adolescents (N = 669, grades 6-8) completed questionnaires, which assessed responses to peer rejection threat with two short scenarios. Using structural equation modeling to test a multivariate process model, adolescents with heightened social anxiety had the most maladaptive responses to rejection threat, including elevated emotional reactions, more self-blame, and coping using more social isolation, rumination and opposition. Adolescents reporting more depressive symptoms felt less control and anticipated using less adaptive coping (less support seeking, distraction, and negotiation), whereas aggressive adolescents responded with more anger and coped via opposition. Moreover, as anticipated, sex differences in coping, symptoms, emotions, and appraisals were found. However, coping differences between boys and girls were mostly nonsignificant after accounting for symptoms, aggression, emotional reactions, and appraisals.

  7. Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhor, Charles

    One of a series dealing with current issues affecting language arts instruction, this paper focuses on thinking skills. The paper begins by raising two issues: whether thinking skills should be taught as part of each subject area, as a separate skill, or both, and whether English and language arts teachers have a special role in the teaching of…

  8. Library Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karin; Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Branch, Jennifer L.; Solowan, Diane Galloway; Case, Roland; Abilock, Debbie; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Koechlin, Carol; Zwaan, Sandi; Hughes, Sandra; Low, Ann; Litch, Margaret; Lowry, Cindy; Irvine, Linda; Stimson, Margaret; Schlarb, Irene; Wilson, Janet; Warriner, Emily; Parsons, Les; Luongo-Orlando, Katherine; Hamilton, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Includes 19 articles that address issues related to library skills and Canadian school libraries. Topics include information literacy; inquiry learning; critical thinking and electronic research; collaborative inquiry; information skills and the Big 6 approach to problem solving; student use of online databases; library skills; Internet accuracy;…

  9. Coping with cognitive impairment and dementia: Rural caregivers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Branger, Camille; Burton, Rachel; O'Connell, Megan E; Stewart, Norma; Morgan, Debra

    2016-07-01

    Caregiving in a rural context is unique, but the experience of rural caregivers is understudied. This paper describes how rural caregivers cope with caring for a loved one diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment or dementia using qualitative description to generate a low-inference summary of a response to an open-ended question. This approach allowed these rural caregivers to describe their positive experiences in addition to the more commonly explored caregiver experiences related to stress. Analyses of coping revealed use of social support, engaging in relaxing and physical activity, and cognitive reframing. In addition, caregivers reported strong faith and religiosity, and to a lesser frequency behavioral changes, checking in with the person with dementia via telephone, and joint activity. Predominantly, these methods reflect approach-based strategies. The current data suggest that these caregivers manage well and adopt adaptive coping strategies to meet the demands of the caregiving role. PMID:24951255

  10. Developing Survival Skills Workshops for Urban Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Linda P.; Greenwood, Charles R.

    Survival Skills for Urban Women is a series of 10 3-hour workshops designed for low-income minority women. The workshops cover the following topics: (1) assertiveness; (2) personal health; (3) nutrition; (4) money management; (5) child management; (6) legal rights; (7) self-advocacy; (8) crisis coping; (9) community resources; and (10) re-entry to…

  11. Mustering the Will and Skill for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Matthew B.; Louis, Karen Seashore

    1990-01-01

    A four-year study of urban high school renewal found that the leadership and management of change meant dealing with uncertainty, complexity, turbulence, and the cussedness of many different people. This article discusses four study topics (context, vision building, resources, and problem coping), explores will and skill issues, and provides…

  12. American Indian Life Skills Development Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.

    This culturally relevant curriculum was developed to teach American Indian secondary school students coping and suicide prevention skills. Although the curriculum was designed for high school students, many of the lesson plans and activities can be used with middle school students. The goal is to address the significant problem of suicide among…

  13. Coping with climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2006-01-01

    Climate is not the only factor in the deterioration of natural systems.We are making big changes to the landscape, altering land use and land cover in major ways. These changes combined present a challenge to environmental management. Adaptive management is a scientific approach to managing the adverse impacts of climate and landscape change.

  14. Hurricane! Coping With Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

  15. Coping and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Carroll, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of coping strategies employed by homeless youth upon suicidal ideation, suicide attempts on the streets, and feeling trapped/helpless. Coping strategies examined in the analysis included problem-focused and avoidant coping, along with several coping strategies identified in previous exploratory qualitative studies.…

  16. Validation of the Mindful Coping Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharaldsen, Kjersti B.; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…

  17. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People

    PubMed Central

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID

  18. Examining an affect regulation model of substance abuse in schizophrenia. The role of traits and coping.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, J J; Squires, D; Henry, T; Horan, W P; Bogenschutz, M; Lauriello, J; Bustillo, J

    1999-02-01

    Comorbid substance use disorders occur frequently in schizophrenia with significant detrimental effects to clinical outcome. Unfortunately, attempts to identify factors associated with comorbid substance use disorders (beyond demographic characteristics such as gender) have not been successful. This study examined an affect regulation model of comorbid substance use in schizophrenia with a focus on personality traits and coping. It was hypothesized that maladaptive coping and the traits of negative affect (NA) and disinhibition (DIS), but not trait positive affect (PA), would be associated with greater substance use problems. Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed measures of personality traits, coping, and negative consequences associated with substance use. Traits were differentially associated with coping in that NA and DIS, but not PA, were associated with maladaptive coping including the use of drugs and alcohol to cope with stress. Alternatively, PA, but not DIS or NA, was related to adaptive coping strategies. Individuals high in NA and endorsing the use of drugs and alcohol to cope reported the greatest number of negative consequences from substance use. This finding held after controlling for gender. These results are consistent with an affect regulation model of substance use and suggest the advantage of examining the role of affect, traits, and coping in understanding comorbid substance use in schizophrenia.

  19. The Relationship Between Optimism, Coping, and Depressive Symptoms in Hispanic Mothers and Fathers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Willis, Kelcie; Timmons, Lisa; Pruitt, Megan; Schneider, Hoa Lam; Alessandri, Michael; Ekas, Naomi V

    2016-07-01

    This study examined gender differences in the relationship between dispositional optimism, coping, and depressive symptoms of Hispanic mothers (n = 46) and fathers (n = 43) of children with autism spectrum disorder. Coping was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between optimism and depressive symptoms. The results revealed that mothers reported greater depressive symptoms and greater use of positive and support coping than fathers; however, both mothers and fathers reported similar levels of optimism and use of avoidant coping. In addition, positive and avoidant coping strategies mediated the association between optimism and depressive symptoms for both mothers and fathers. Clinical implications for this study include interventions for improving optimistic outlooks as well as interventions that improve parents' coping skills and therefore reduce negative outcomes.

  20. Mixed Emotions and Coping: The Benefits of Secondary Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Braniecka, Anna; Trzebińska, Ewa; Dowgiert, Aneta; Wytykowska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The existing empirical literature suggests that during difficult situations, the concurrent experience of positive and negative affects may be ideal for ensuring successful adaptation and well-being. However, different patterns of mixed emotions may have different adaptive consequences. The present research tested the proposition that experiencing a pattern of secondary mixed emotion (i.e., secondary emotion that embrace both positive and negative affects) more greatly promotes adaptive coping than experiencing two other patterns of mixed emotional experiences: simultaneous (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects taking place at the same time) and sequential (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects switching back and forth). Support for this hypothesis was obtained from two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) and a longitudinal survey (Study 3). The results revealed that secondary mixed emotions predominate over sequential and simultaneous mixed emotional experiences in promoting adaptive coping through fostering the motivational and informative functions of emotions; this is done by providing solution-oriented actions rather than avoidance, faster decisions regarding coping strategies (Study 1), easier access to self-knowledge, and better narrative organization (Study 2). Furthermore, individuals characterized as being prone to feeling secondary mixed emotions were more resilient to stress caused by transitions than those who were characterized as being prone to feeling opposing emotions separately (Study 3). Taken together, the preliminary results indicate that the pattern of secondary mixed emotion provides individuals with a higher capacity to handle adversity than the other two patterns of mixed emotional experience. PMID:25084461

  1. Mixed emotions and coping: the benefits of secondary emotions.

    PubMed

    Braniecka, Anna; Trzebińska, Ewa; Dowgiert, Aneta; Wytykowska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The existing empirical literature suggests that during difficult situations, the concurrent experience of positive and negative affects may be ideal for ensuring successful adaptation and well-being. However, different patterns of mixed emotions may have different adaptive consequences. The present research tested the proposition that experiencing a pattern of secondary mixed emotion (i.e., secondary emotion that embrace both positive and negative affects) more greatly promotes adaptive coping than experiencing two other patterns of mixed emotional experiences: simultaneous (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects taking place at the same time) and sequential (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects switching back and forth). Support for this hypothesis was obtained from two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) and a longitudinal survey (Study 3). The results revealed that secondary mixed emotions predominate over sequential and simultaneous mixed emotional experiences in promoting adaptive coping through fostering the motivational and informative functions of emotions; this is done by providing solution-oriented actions rather than avoidance, faster decisions regarding coping strategies (Study 1), easier access to self-knowledge, and better narrative organization (Study 2). Furthermore, individuals characterized as being prone to feeling secondary mixed emotions were more resilient to stress caused by transitions than those who were characterized as being prone to feeling opposing emotions separately (Study 3). Taken together, the preliminary results indicate that the pattern of secondary mixed emotion provides individuals with a higher capacity to handle adversity than the other two patterns of mixed emotional experience.

  2. Cancer, Coping, and Cognition: A Model for the Role of Stress Reactivity in Cancer-Related Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Charissa; Root, James C.; Ahles, Tim A.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive decline and accompanying neurological changes associated with non-CNS cancer diagnosis and treatment have been increasingly identified in a subset of patients. Initially believed to be due to neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy exposure, observation of cognitive decline in patients not treated with chemotherapy, cancer-diagnosed individuals prior to treatment, and patients receiving alternative treatment modalities (surgery, endocrine therapy, radiation), has led to investigation of additional potential etiologies and moderating factors. Stressful experiences have long been posited as a contributor to these cognitive changes. Through reciprocal connectivity with peripheral systems, the brain maintains a dynamic circuitry to adapt to stress (allostasis). However, overuse of this system leads to dysregulation and contributes to pathophysiology (allostatic load). At this time, little research has been conducted to systematically examine the role of allostatic load in cancer-related cognitive dysfunction. Here we integrate theories of stress biology, neuropsychology, and coping and propose a model through which individuals with a high level of allostatic load at diagnosis may be particularly vulnerable to the neurocognitive effects of cancer. Opportunities for future research to test and extend proposed mechanisms are discussed in addition to points of prevention and intervention based on individual variation in stress reactivity and coping skills. PMID:25286084

  3. An Examination of Individual Level Factors in Stress and Coping Processes: Perspectives of Chinese International Students in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Kun; Berliner, David C.

    2011-01-01

    No empirical research has focused solely upon understanding the stress and coping processes of Chinese international students in the United States. This qualitative inquiry examines the individual-level variables that affect the stress-coping process of Chinese international students and how they conceptualize and adapt to their stress at an…

  4. Trait Gratitude and Grateful Coping as They Relate to College Student Persistence, Success, and Integration in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mofidi, Tracey; El-Alayli, Amani; Brown, Ashley A.

    2014-01-01

    Grateful people experience more psychological well-being, social connectedness, and feelings of personal accomplishment, along with less burnout. They also use more adaptive approach-oriented coping strategies. Thus, we hypothesized that trait gratitude and grateful coping strategies would be associated with various indicators/predictors of…

  5. Are reported stress and coping style associated with frequent recurrence of genital herpes?

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, L; Meadows, J; Catalán, J; Barton, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper reports on the cross sectional data from the longitudinal study examining the impact of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection on quality of life. In particular the report sought to study the relation between recurrence of genital HSV and coping style, mood, personality, and quality of life, among other factors. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: 116 patients with a known history of genital herpes simplex infection attending the Department of Genitourinary Medicine at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. METHODS: Psychosocial factors (stress, anxiety, depression, health locus of control, personality, social support, coping skills, and quality of life) and the reported frequency of genital herpes episodes were measured using self administered questionnaires designed to examine the relation between psychosocial status and the frequency of genital HSV episodes. RESULTS: The number of recurrences reported by patients was significantly related to the style of coping skills used. Higher recurrences were less likely to use problem focused coping skills of planning and active coping, and the emotion focused coping skills of positive reinterpretation and growth. There was a significant difference in the number of patients who believed that psychological stress was related to the number of recurrences they experienced. This belief was related to neuroticism on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire scale, and not to any of the other measures investigated. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that it is the way individuals cope, and their personality characteristics rather than actual levels of psychological stress, that influence their belief in a link between recurrent genital HSV and stress. HSV may become the focus of existing concerns and be viewed as the physical manifestation of stress. PMID:9389946

  6. Relationships among Stress Coping, Secure Attachment, and the Trait of Resilience among Taiwanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming-hui

    2008-01-01

    College students often live stressful lives, yet some college students appear to adapt better than their peers in similar situations. Active coping appears to be a vital factor that contributes to a successful adaptation. This study explored relative effectiveness among stress, secure attachment, and the trait of resilience in predicting active…

  7. The psychobiology of PTSD: coping with trauma.

    PubMed

    Olff, Miranda; Langeland, Willie; Gersons, Berthold P R

    2005-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the few psychiatric conditions where a specific psychosocial stressor is explicitly tied to etiology. Although a majority of people experience a traumatic event in their life, most of them will not develop PTSD or other mental health problems such as depressive or anxiety disorders. Emotional and neurobiological responses to psychosocial stressors show striking individual variation. In this paper cognitive appraisal and coping factors are explored as potential sources of individual differences in the neuroendocrinological stress response, and subsequently in mental health outcome. Continued study of the psychobiology of trauma and PTSD will enhance our understanding of adaptation to psychosocial stressors and support efforts to treat associated psychological and biological sequelae.

  8. Issues in the Assessment of Children's Coping in the Context of Mass Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Wind, Leslie H.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to mass trauma has contributed to increasing concern about the well-being of children, families, and communities. In spite of global awareness of the dramatic impact of mass trauma on youth, little is known about how children and adolescents cope with and adapt to disasters and terrorism. While coping has yet to be fully conceptualized as a unified construct, the process of responding to stress includes recognized cognitive, emotional, and behavioral components. Unfortunately, research on the complex process of adaptation in the aftermath of mass trauma is a relatively recent focus. Further study is needed to build consensus in terminology, theory, methods, and assessment techniques to assist researchers and clinicians in measuring children's coping, both generally and within the context of mass trauma. Advancements are needed in the area of coping assessment to identify internal and external factors affecting children's stress responses. Additionally, enhanced understanding of children's disaster coping can inform the development of prevention and intervention programs to promote resilience in the aftermath of traumatic events. This article examines the theoretical and practical issues in assessing coping in children exposed to mass trauma, and includes recommendations to guide assessment and research of children's coping within this specialized context. PMID:22691268

  9. Stress and coping in fathers of newborns: comparisons of planned versus unplanned pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Clinton, J F; Kelber, S T

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to identify stresses and coping styles in fathers of newborns, and to explore if these vary according to pregnancy planning. Data from 69 subjects were collected using the Ireton Personal Inventory and the Jalowiec Coping Scale. The most common and least often sources of stress or worry were reported. Fathers' predominant mode of coping was problem oriented. Compared to fathers with planned pregnancies, fathers with unplanned pregnancies were found to be significantly more stressed about numerous issues as well as feeling powerless in adapting to the arrival of a new infant. Implications for practice and research are explored. PMID:8225809

  10. Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne

    1993-01-01

    Three developments lend support to the idea that schools must help teach study skills: (1) advances in cognitive psychology that suggest children are active learners; (2) society's concern for at-risk students; and (3) growing demands for improved student performance. There is evidence that systematic study skills instruction does improve academic…

  11. The Mediating Role of Coping Style in the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Burnout among Chinese Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yongqing; Yang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiuxian; Zhang, Tiehui; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Xin; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Lin; Sui, Hong

    2015-01-01

    avoid negative coping style, improve skill of coping and enhance PsyCap of nurses, active interventions should be developed in the future. PMID:25898257

  12. Coping with Congenital Hand Differences

    PubMed Central

    Franzblau, Lauren E.; Chung, Kevin C.; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chin, Autumn Y. T.; Nellans, Kate W.; Waljee, Jennifer F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although functional outcomes following reconstruction for congenital hand differences are frequently described, much less is known regarding children’s ability to cope with psychosocial effects of these conditions. We qualitatively explored stress and coping mechanisms among children following reconstructive surgery for congenital hand differences. Methods Forty patients and their parents participated in semi-structured interviews examining stress related to hand functioning and appearance, emotional responses to stress, and coping strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed thematically. A consensus taxonomy for classifying content evolved from comparisons of coding by two reviewers. Themes expressed by participants were studied for patterns of connection and grouped into broader categories. Results In this sample, 58% of children and 40% of parents reported stress related to congenital hand differences, attributed to functional deficits (61%), hand appearance (27%), social interactions (58%), and emotional reactions (46%). Among the 18 children who reported stress, 43% of parents were not aware of the presence of stress. Eight coping strategies emerged, including humor (12%), self-acceptance (21%), avoidance (27%), seeking external support (30%), concealment (30%), educating others (9%), support programs (21%) and religion (24%). Conclusions Although children with congenital hand differences often experience emotional stress related to functional limitations and aesthetic deformities, many apply positive coping mechanisms that enhance self-esteem and self-esteem. Clinicians caring for children with congenital hand differences should inform families about potential sources of stress in order to direct resources toward strengthening coping strategies and support systems. Level of Evidence Level IV-Case series PMID:25502854

  13. A Stress-Coping Profile of Opioid Dependent Individuals Entering Naltrexone Treatment: A Comparison with Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Scott M.; Hong, Kwang-Ik A.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Dabre, Zubaida; Comegys, Allison D.; Kimmerling, Anne; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-01-01

    Background Stress is known to increase addiction vulnerability and risk of relapse to substance use. Purpose & Method We compared opioid dependent individuals entering naltrexone treatment (n = 57) with healthy controls (n = 75) on measures of stress, coping, and social support and examined the relative contribution of group membership, coping and social support to stress within the sample. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), and stepwise multiple regression were conducted. Results Compared with controls, opioid dependent subjects reported greater stress, less use of adaptive coping, but comparable use of maladaptive/avoidant coping. No group differences were found with respect to social support. Perceived stress was predicted by group membership, low social support and greater use of maladaptive/avoidant coping, and the prediction by social support and maladaptive/avoidant coping did not differ by group. Conclusion Opioid dependent individuals entering naltrexone treatment experience higher levels of stress and report less use of adaptive coping strategies when compared with controls. Group membership, maladaptive/avoidant coping and social support independently contribute to perceived stress. Findings suggest that novel treatment approaches that decrease maladaptive/avoidant coping and improve social support are important aspects of decreasing stress during early recovery from opioid addiction. PMID:20025367

  14. Communal proactive coping strategies among Tamil refugees in Norway: A case study in a naturalistic setting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results Tamil refugees in Norway co-operated to appraise their shared life situation and accumulate resources communally to improve it in culturally meaningful ways. Long term aspirations were related to both the situation in the homeland and in exile. However, unforeseen social events created considerable challenges and forced them to modify and adapt their coping strategies. Conclusions We describe a form of coping previously not described in the scientific literature: Communal proactive coping strategies, defined as the process by which group members feel collectively responsible for their future well-being and co-operate to promote desired outcomes and prevent undesired changes. The study shows that proactive coping efforts occur in a dynamic social setting which may force people to use their accumulated proactive coping resources in reactive coping efforts. Theoretical and clinical implications are explored. PMID:21521494

  15. Relationships among dispositional coping strategies, suicidal ideation, and protective factors against suicide in older adults.

    PubMed

    Marty, Meghan A; Segal, Daniel L; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2010-11-01

    Older adults have a disproportionally high rate of completed suicide as compared to the general population. Whereas a large literature has focused on risk factors related to elder suicide, limited research exists on relationships between coping strategies with protective factors against suicide and suicidal ideation in this population. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 108, mean age = 71.5 years, age range = 60-95 years) completed the Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced scale, Reasons for Living inventory, and Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS). Problem- and emotion-focused coping were associated positively with reasons for living and negatively with suicide ideation. Dysfunctional coping was associated positively with suicide ideation, but results did not support the hypothesized negative relationship with reasons for living. Thus, problem- and emotion-focused coping appear to be adaptive, whereas dysfunctional coping appears to be somewhat less related to resilience to suicidal ideation among community-dwelling older adults. Implications of the study are that some coping strategies may serve as protective factors against suicide and that coping strategies should be evaluated as part of a thorough assessment of suicidal risk among older adults. The results also provide some evidence of convergent validity for the recently developed GSIS. PMID:21069608

  16. Maternal Avoidant Coping Mediates the Effect of Parenting Stress on Depressive Symptoms during Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gondoli, Dawn M.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined maternal avoidant coping as a mediator between maternal parenting stress and maternal depressive symptoms during early adolescence. Three years of self-report data were collected from 173 mothers, beginning when mothers’ adolescents were in 6th grade and aged 11–13 years. Utilizing longitudinal path analysis, results indicated that avoidant coping at time two mediated the association between parenting stress at time one and depressive symptoms at time three. Additionally, the reverse direction of effects was examined, revealing that the relation between parenting stress and avoidant coping was unidirectional, while the relation between avoidant coping and depressive symptoms was bidirectional. Our results suggest that during early adolescence, mothers who experience more stress in the parenting role are more likely to engage in higher levels of avoidant coping when faced with parenting problems. In turn, a mother’s long-term avoidant reactions to parenting problems may predict increases in depressive symptoms. Moreover, our findings of a bidirectional relation between avoidant coping and depressive symptoms suggest that prior levels of depression might serve as a barrier to efficient and effective coping. The present study may inform preventive intervention efforts aimed at decreasing the use of avoidance in response to parenting stressors by increasing adaptive parental coping with stressors, and providing appropriate support and resources for parents. PMID:25554723

  17. The stress-coping (mis)match hypothesis for nature × nurture interactions.

    PubMed

    Homberg, Judith R

    2012-01-13

    There is high consensus that stress-related disorders like depression are shaped by nature×nurture interactions. However, the complexity appears larger than envisaged and nature×nurture research is progressing too slowly. An important reason is that mainstream research is focussing on the idea that a combination of genotypic stress-sensitivity and stress exposure inevitably leads to maladaptive stress-coping responses, and thereby stress-related disorders. However, stress-coping responses can also be adaptive and adhere to the expected norm. Here I elaborate the 'environment' mismatch hypothesis proposed by Mathias Schmidt (Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 330-338, 2011) to the stress-coping (mis)match (SCM) hypothesis postulating that stress-coping responses-as programmed by nature×age-dependent nurture interactions-are adaptive when they match current stress conditions, but maladaptive when they mismatch current stress conditions. For instance, acquisition of an active stress-coping response during nurture may lead to the programmed release of active coping responses in current life. This is adaptive when current stress is escapable, but maladaptive when current stress is inescapable, leading to agitation. A model par example for nature×nurture interactions is the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism, which will be discussed in the framework of the SCM hypothesis. The potential role of the prefrontal-amygdala circuit and the therapeutic implications of the SCM hypothesis will also be discussed.

  18. Determinants of adolescents' ineffective and improved coping with cyberbullying: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Niels C L; Dehue, Francine; Völlink, Trijntje; Lechner, Lilian

    2014-06-01

    The study's aim was to obtain an overview of all relevant variables involved in ineffective coping behavior and improvement in coping behavior as it pertains to cyberbullying among adolescents, in order to systematically develop a theory- and evidence-based intervention. This was done by means of a three round online Delphi study. First, 20 key experts listed possible relevant determinants. Next, 70 experts scored these determinants on their relevance and finally, experts rerated relevance of each determinant based on group median scores. The experts agreed that 115 items are relevant for ineffective (62) or improvement in (53) coping behavior. New found determinants were the extent to which one can adjust behavior upon feedback, impulsivity, self-confidence, communication style, personality, decision-making skills, conflict resolution skills, previous participation in personal resilience training, social relationships, rumors and self-disclosure. We conclude that the Delphi technique is useful in discovering new and relevant determinants of behavior. PMID:24793384

  19. Examining the relationship between coping strategies and suicidal desire in a sample of United States military personnel.

    PubMed

    Khazem, Lauren R; Law, Keyne C; Green, Bradley A; Anestis, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Suicidal desire in the military has been previously examined through the lens of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS). However, no research has examined the impact of specific coping strategies on perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicidal ideation in a large population of individuals serving in the US military. Furthermore, the factor structure of previously utilized coping clusters did not apply to our sample of military personnel. Therefore, we found a three-factor solution to be tested in this sample. We hypothesized that specific types of coping behavior clusters (Adaptive and Maladaptive) would predict both IPTS constructs and suicidal ideation. Results indicated that Adaptive and Maladaptive coping clusters predicted the IPTS constructs in the hypothesized directions. However, only the Maladaptive cluster predicted suicidal ideation. These findings implicate the need for further research and suicide prevention efforts focusing on coping strategies, specifically those that are maladaptive in nature, in relation to suicidal ideation in military members. PMID:25480664

  20. Uncontrollable Stress, Coping, and Subjective Well-Being in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether uncontrollable stress related to levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in a group of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Additionally, the researchers examined what types of coping skills were utilized in the face of high levels of uncontrollable stress. Finally, a moderation model was proposed,…

  1. Problem-Solving Treatment and Coping Styles in Primary Care for Minor Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxman, Thomas E.; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Dietrich, Allen J.

    2008-01-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care…

  2. Coping with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Intervention Strategies and a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aadalen, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Family-centered intervention after the death of a baby due to sudden infant death syndrome facilitates reorganization, growth, and development of the family system. A potentially defeating crisis becomes an opportunity to develop coping skills and strengthen family members. Public health nursing is an essential component of the program.…

  3. Coping Strategies Title I Teachers Use to Manage Burnout and Stress: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeter, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Teacher burnout contributes to poor psychological and physical health, absenteeism, early retirement, and leads to inadequate teacher performance with adverse outcomes in student learning and achievement. Effective coping skills have been proposed as possible protectors from the effects of burnout; therefore, examining teachers' coping…

  4. Enhancing Coping and Supporting Protective Factors after a Disaster: Findings From a Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Tara; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the Journey of Hope (JoH), a school-based intervention for children who have experienced a collective trauma such as a natural disaster. Through the use of group work, the JoH focuses on building coping skills and enhancing protective factors to help children recover. Method: This quasi-experimental research…

  5. Coping with Teasing: A Program for Children Teased Due to Their Medical Condition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ruanna MacDougall; Young, Loretta; Williams, Margaret; Bagley-Young, Abigail

    2001-01-01

    Describes a day-long group program to help children with medical conditions deal with teasing and to increase self-confidence. Reports preliminary program evaluation results, indicating that most children retained the knowledge skills acquired in the program and appeared to be using these effectively in coping with teasing 12 to 16 weeks later.…

  6. Helping Schoolchildren Cope with Anger: A Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jim; Lochman, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This guide presents information and clinical tools to implement the Anger Coping Program, an empirically supported intervention for students in grades 3-6. Practitioners are taken step by step through setting up treatment groups, teaching vital skills for reducing aggression and disruptive behavior, and building strong partnerships with teachers…

  7. Cognitive Coping Tool Kit for Psychosis: Development of a Group-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT…

  8. How Pupils with Severe Visual Impairment Describe Coping with Reading Activities in the Norwegian Inclusive School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Astrid Kristin; Lassen, Liv M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how 11 pupils with severe visual impairment cope with reading activities in inclusive Norwegian schools. All pupils received instruction in braille and print, and used an audio-text format. Having multiple reading options provided possibilities for pupils to achieve reading skills, but also generated stress. Theories of…

  9. Helping Students Cope in an Age of Terrorism: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chibbaro, Julia S.; Jackson, C. Marie

    2006-01-01

    School counselors experience unique challenges as they struggle to provide students with coping skills geared to the outside world including acts of terrorism. School-aged students in the United States are one of the most vulnerable populations in the event of a terrorist act. This article offers a review of the current and most relevant…

  10. Life Events, Coping, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Chinese Adolescents Exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuhong; Fan, Fang; Liu, Xianchen; Mo, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between negative life events, coping styles, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adolescent survivors exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China. Methods A survey was conducted in a sample of 2250 adolescent students from two schools in Dujiangyan District, a seriously damaged area, 20 kilometers away from the epicenter, 6 months after the earthquake. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, negative life events, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. Results Academic pressure was the strongest predictor of adolescents' PTSD symptoms among all negative life events. Main effects of negative life events, positive coping and negative coping on PTSD symptoms were significant in both younger adolescents and older adolescents, while the moderator effects of two coping styles were found significant only within older adolescents. Conclusions Coping may play a role to moderate the relationship between post-earthquake negative life events and PTSD symptom, but the function seems to depend on the age of participants. Psychosocial coping skills training may be important in the prevention and intervention of mental health problems in adolescent survivors of traumatic earthquake. PMID:22295059

  11. Alpine Skiing: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The first of five guides in the Sports Skills Instructional Program focuses on teaching alpine skiing to mentally retarded students. Each unit contains the following elements: overview, long-term goal, short-term objectives, modifications and adaptations, sports skill assessment, teaching skill, skill sequence, task analysis, teaching suggestions,…

  12. Stress and the Athlete: Coping with Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Athletes, including recreational athletes, must cope with stress, both from within and from others. The causes of stress, identifying the distressed athlete, and coping with stress are dealt with. (MT)

  13. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  14. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  15. Helping Students Cope with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodabough, Tillman

    1980-01-01

    Classroom teachers need to understand the broad differences that exist between a child's perception of death and that of an adult and should be prepared to confront and cope with the effects of death and grief upon students. Children's perceptions of death and ways in which the teacher can help the child with his grief are described. (JN)

  16. Helping Children Cope with Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    Noting that the most assistance adults can provide to a child during a disaster is to be calm, honest, and caring, this brochure provides suggestions for helping children cope with natural and other disasters. The brochure details how children's typical reactions vary with their age, describes how families can prepare for disasters, and suggests…

  17. Group work. Cope street revisited.

    PubMed

    Rowe, A

    1993-10-01

    45 Cope Street is a preventive health project working with pregnant women and young mothers aged between 16 and 25 years and their children in the inner city of Nottingham. A beacon of innovative health visiting practice, it has recently passed the fifth anniversary of its opening. Team leader Ann Rowe describes their philosophy and practice.

  18. COPE: Computer Organized Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambdin, Dolly

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the need for and appropriate use of individual assessment in physical education and explains how computerized data management can combat the logistical difficulties of using the data. Describes project COPE (Computer Organized Physical Education), a computerized data management system for improving recordkeeping, planning, and…

  19. Coping with Stress in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Signs and sources of stress among approximately 220 special educators were identified, the most prevalent being feelings of exhaustion, frustration, disturbed sleep, and withdrawal. Coping resources included personal, interpersonal, organizational, and community approaches. Conclusions stressed the need for more administrative support, counseling,…

  20. Coping with urbanization: a cardiometabolic risk? The THUSA study.

    PubMed

    Malan, Leoné; Malan, Nicolaas T; Wissing, Maria P; Seedat, Yackoob K

    2008-12-01

    An assessment of specific coping styles in rural-urban Africans is done to evaluate its contribution as cardiometabolic risk factor. In total, 608 apparently healthy Africans were included in a cross-sectional comparative study from the North-West Province in South Africa. The adapted and translated COPE Questionnaire classified participants according to their responses into active (AC) or passive (PC) copers. Fasting resting metabolic syndrome (MS) indicators using the WHO definition (glucose, high density lipoproteins, waist/hip ratio, hypertension prevalence, and triglyceride) and associated MS values, i.e. fibrinogen were obtained. The Finapres recorded resting blood pressure continuously. Co-variates for all statistical analyses included age, body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle factors (alcohol consumption, smoking habits and physical activity). The only MS values prevalent in urbanized participants were higher hypertension prevalence rates and fibrinogen (women only) compared to their rural counterparts. Adding coping styles, it was mainly the urbanized AC participants that indicated higher MS values (hypertension prevalence, glucose and fibrinogen) when compared to their rural and PC counterparts. In conclusion, urbanization is associated with enhanced blood pressure and fibrinogen (women) values only. Coping as cardiometabolic risk is accentuated in the urbanized AC group, especially the men. The urbanized AC group with their higher blood pressure values and more MS indicators appears to have behaviorally an AC style but physiologically a dissociated AC style.

  1. Interrelationships between Coping, School Connectedness and Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Erica; Care, Esther; Freeman, Elizabeth; Chan, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships between coping styles, emotional wellbeing, and school connectedness using path analysis. A total of 536 Year 8 students (241 boys and 295 girls) responded to an in-class survey and the "Adolescent Coping Scale" (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993a) as part of a larger study. Productive coping style was positively…

  2. Coping Processes of Couples Experiencing Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…

  3. Coping Styles among Adolescent Competitive Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the various coping strategies that competitive adolescent athletes use to deal with errors, penalties, and unpleasant comments from spectators. Identifies and discusses four coping strategies: avoidance, approach, task-focused, and emotion-focused. Briefly reviews the literature on coping and the results of a survey of Australian…

  4. Coping Strategies in Young Male Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohino, Susana; Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The general aim of this study is to analyze diverse aspects relating to the use of coping strategies among prison inmates. The specific objectives are (a) to analyze which type of coping strategies predominate among prisoners, considering both the focus and the method; (b) to relate the use of coping strategies with variables related to the prison…

  5. Challenges to the Developmental Study of Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Ellen A.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2009-01-01

    We summarize progress in the developmental study of coping, including specification of a multilevel framework, construction of definitions of coping that rely on regulation as a core concept, and identification of developmentally graded members of families of coping. We argue that these accomplishments are a prelude to the real tasks of a…

  6. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  7. Coping with Schizophrenia: Patterns in Later Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano, Nancy H.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether the coping framework developed with younger adults with schizophrenia could be applied to people over 50 with schizophrenia. Results indicated that coping strategies used by older people were similar to those of younger populations. However, it was reported that efficacy of coping strategies had increased as participants had…

  8. Age Differences in Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Barbara J.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    While most lifespan developmental theories of personality predict age-related changes in coping, little direct evidence exists for determining whether age differences in coping style are due to intrinsic developmental processes or to age differences in the kinds of stresses encountered. To evaluate age differences in coping strategies and whether…

  9. Long-range forecast of all India summer monsoon rainfall using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system: skill comparison with CFSv2 model simulation and real-time forecast for the year 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Das, D.; Goswami, S.; Das, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    All India summer monsoon rainfall (AISMR) characteristics play a vital role for the policy planning and national economy of the country. In view of the significant impact of monsoon system on regional as well as global climate systems, accurate prediction of summer monsoon rainfall has become a challenge. The objective of this study is to develop an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for long range forecast of AISMR. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data of temperature, zonal and meridional wind at different pressure levels have been taken to construct the input matrix of ANFIS. The membership of the input parameters for AISMR as high, medium or low is estimated with trapezoidal membership function. The fuzzified standardized input parameters and the de-fuzzified target output are trained with artificial neural network models. The forecast of AISMR with ANFIS is compared with non-hybrid multi-layer perceptron model (MLP), radial basis functions network (RBFN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models. The forecast error analyses of the models reveal that ANFIS provides the best forecast of AISMR with minimum prediction error of 0.076, whereas the errors with MLP, RBFN and MLR models are 0.22, 0.18 and 0.73 respectively. During validation with observations, ANFIS shows its potency over the said comparative models. Performance of the ANFIS model is verified through different statistical skill scores, which also confirms the aptitude of ANFIS in forecasting AISMR. The forecast skill of ANFIS is also observed to be better than Climate Forecast System version 2. The real-time forecast with ANFIS shows possibility of deficit (65-75 cm) AISMR in the year 2015.

  10. Dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity among adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Jones, Leigh; Morley, Dave; Carson, Fraser

    2013-06-01

    It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels.

  11. Relationship between alexithymia and coping strategies in patients with somatoform disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Toshiyuki; Choi, Hyungin; Nagoshi, Yasuhide; Wada, Yoshihisa; Fukui, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    rely less on seeking social support, and patients with high “externally oriented thinking” tend to rely less on confrontive coping strategies. The coping skills intervention implemented should differ across individuals and should be based on the alexithymia dimension of each patient. PMID:24403835

  12. A validity and reliability study of the coping self-efficacy scale

    PubMed Central

    Chesney, Margaret A.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Chambers, Donald B.; Taylor, Jonelle M.; Folkman, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the psychometric characteristics of the coping self-efficacy (CSE) scale, a 26-item measure of one’s confidence in performing coping behaviors when faced with life challenges. Design Data came from two randomized clinical trials (N1 = 149, N2 = 199) evaluating a theory-based Coping Effectiveness Training (CET) intervention in reducing psychological distress and increasing positive mood in persons coping with chronic illness. Methods The 348 participants were HIV-seropositive men with depressed mood who have sex with men. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention and comparison conditions and assessed pre- and post-intervention. Outcome variables included the CSE scale, ways of coping, and measures of social support and psychological distress and well-being. Results Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) revealed a 13-item reduced form of the CSE scale with three factors: Use problem-focused coping (6 items, α = .91), stop unpleasant emotions and thoughts (4 items, α = .91), and get support from friends and family (3 items, α = .80). Internal consistency and test–retest reliability are strong for all three factors. Concurrent validity analyses showed these factors assess self-efficacy for different types of coping. Predictive validity analyses showed that residualized change scores in using problem- and emotion-focused coping skills were predictive of reduced psychological distress and increased psychological well-being over time. Conclusions The CSE scale provides a measure of a person’s perceived ability to cope effectively with life challenges, as well as a way to assess changes in CSE over time in intervention research. PMID:16870053

  13. Coping with myocardial infarction: evaluation of a coping questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Brink, Eva; Persson, Lars-Olof; Karlson, Björn W

    2009-12-01

    The negative effects of emotional distress on the recovery following myocardial infarction make it important to study coping strategies in this situation. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and the validity of a 10 dimensions questionnaire labelled The General Coping Questionnaire (GCQ). The structure of the questionnaire was based on a previous interview study with 26 persons with different diseases. The 10 dimensions are called self-trust, problem-reducing actions, change of values, social trust, minimization, fatalism, resignation, protest, isolation and intrusion. The present study comprised 114 first-time myocardial infarction patients (37 women, 77 men). Five months after myocardial infarction, they answered questions about health-related quality of life, health complaints, sense of coherence and the GCQ. A multi-trait/multi-item analysis showed good item-scale convergent and discriminatory validity when the GCQ was reduced from 47 to 40 items. In conclusion, the results showed that the 40-item GCQ is a well-structured and reliable questionnaire for measuring coping strategies in myocardial infarction patients. PMID:19804373

  14. Adaptive Control For Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Ih, Che-Hang Charles; Wang, Shyh Jong

    1988-01-01

    Paper discusses ways to cope with measurement noise in adaptive control system for large, flexible structure in outer space. System generates control signals for torque and thrust actuators to turn all or parts of structure to desired orientations while suppressing torsional and other vibrations. Main result of paper is general theory for introduction of filters to suppress measurement noise while preserving stability.

  15. Coping capacity among women with abusive partners.

    PubMed

    Nurius, P S; Furrey, J; Berliner, L

    1992-01-01

    Coping capacity, although increasingly implicated as a mediating force in how individuals respond to personal threat, is an underrecognized factor in work with women of abusive partners. To explore the utility of coping capacity as a multivariable set to guide intervention with women of abusive partners, findings are reported comparing four groups of women: those whose partners do not engage in abuse, are abusive toward them, are sex offenders of children for whom the woman is a parent, or are offenders of children for whom the woman is not a parent. Three variable sets were included: vulnerability factors that may negatively influence appraisals of threat and ability to cope with abuse; coping responses that include cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to the abuse; and coping resources expected to mediate effects of vulnerability factors and to influence the mobilization (of lack thereof) of coping responses. There were significant differences in coping capacity profiles across the four groups. These appeared to be a continuum of coping capacity, with women who were most directly threatened showing the lowest and women who were least directly threatened showing the highest levels of coping capacity. In order from the lowest to the highest levels of coping capacity were (1) battered women, (2) women whose partners are offenders against their children, (3) women whose partners are offenders against children of whom they are not the parent, and (4) control group women. The paper ends with a conceptual interpretation of the mediating functions of coping resources and implications for intervention and further study.

  16. Caritas, spirituality and religiosity in nurses' coping.

    PubMed

    Ekedahl, M A; Wengström, Y

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate registered nurses' coping processes when working with terminally ill and dying cancer patients, with special focus on religious aspects of coping resources. What religious components can be identified as coping resources in oncology nurses' orienting system and what function has religiosity in the nurse's work? The theoretical reference is care philosophy and the psychology of religion and coping. The material consists of interviews with 15 Swedish registered oncology nurses. The results highlight different dynamic aspects of the nurses' life orientation such as caritas, religiosity, spirituality and atheism and demonstrate that religiosity can have a protective function that facilitates coping, as the nurse has something to turn to. Religious coping dominated by basic trust where prayer is used as a coping strategy may support the nurse.

  17. Coping Strategies in Late Adolescence: Relationships to Parental Attachment and Time Perspective.

    PubMed

    Blomgren, Anna-Sara; Svahn, Kajsa; Åström, Elisabeth; Rönnlund, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated adolescents' use of coping strategies in relation to attachment to parents and time perspective. Adolescents in Grade 3 upper secondary school (M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.6 years; n = 160) completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the Brief COPE. Correlational analyses showed that attachment to parents was associated with a more favorable view of the past (higher past positive and lower past negative), a less fatalistic view of the present, and a more favorable view of the future (higher future positive and lower future negative). Parental attachment accounted for significant variance in composite coping scores (adaptive and maladaptive) when entered before, but not after, time perspective subscales in hierarchical regression analyses. However, time perspective (mainly present hedonistic and positive or negative future) predicted adaptive or maladaptive coping over and beyond attachment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and coping is mediated by individual differences in time perspective. By contrast, factors other than attachment to parents (e.g., temperament) must be considered to fully account for the relationship between time perspective and coping.

  18. Coping, social relations, and communication: a qualitative exploratory study of children of parents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Thastum, Mikael; Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Gubba, Lotte; Olesen, Louise Berg; Romer, Georg

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study of families where a parent has cancer was to explore ways of informing the child of the parent's illness, how the child perceives the parent's emotional state, how the child copes with the parent's illness, and how this coping relates to the parent's coping and concerns for the child. Twenty-one children from 15 families and their parents were interviewed. In 13 families the mother was ill, in two the father. Children were aware of the facts of the illness, but there was limited emotional communication between the generations. The children were very observant of both the ill and the healthy parent's emotional condition. The children's observations and expressions led us to identify five coping strategies the younger generation used: Helping others, parentification, distraction, keeping it in the head, and wishful thinking. Both adaptive and destructive examples of parentification were found. Communication patterns and parental coping seemed to be highly related to the child's coping repertoire. Even though most children seemed to manage rather well, all children were strongly affected by the illness. The 'healthiest' adaptation related to factors within the family system, which has implications for the provision of help.

  19. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness.

    PubMed

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:25699003

  20. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness

    PubMed Central

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:25699003

  1. The dual process model of coping with bereavement: rationale and description.

    PubMed

    Stroebe, M; Schut, H

    1999-01-01

    There are shortcomings in traditional theorizing about effective ways of coping with bereavement, most notably, with respect to the so-called "grief work hypothesis." Criticisms include imprecise definition, failure to represent dynamic processing that is characteristic of grieving, lack of empirical evidence and validation across cultures and historical periods, and a limited focus on intrapersonal processes and on health outcomes. Therefore, a revised model of coping with bereavement, the dual process model, is proposed. This model identifies two types of stressors, loss- and restoration-oriented, and a dynamic, regulatory coping process of oscillation, whereby the grieving individual at times confronts, at other times avoids, the different tasks of grieving. This model proposes that adaptive coping is composed of confrontation--avoidance of loss and restoration stressors. It also argues the need for dosage of grieving, that is, the need to take respite from dealing with either of these stressors, as an integral part of adaptive coping. Empirical research to support this conceptualization is discussed, and the model's relevance to the examination of complicated grief, analysis of subgroup phenomena, as well as interpersonal coping processes, is described.

  2. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness.

    PubMed

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed.

  3. Revealing hidden evolutionary capacity to cope with global change.

    PubMed

    Chirgwin, Evatt; Monro, Keyne; Sgro, Carla M; Marshall, Dustin J

    2015-09-01

    The extent to which global change will impact the long-term persistence of species depends on their evolutionary potential to adapt to future conditions. While the number of studies that estimate the standing levels of adaptive genetic variation in populations under predicted global change scenarios is growing all the time, few studies have considered multiple environments simultaneously and even fewer have considered evolutionary potential in multivariate context. Because conditions will not be constant, adaptation to climate change is fundamentally a multivariate process so viewing genetic variances and covariances over multivariate space will always be more informative than relying on bivariate genetic correlations between traits. A multivariate approach to understanding the evolutionary capacity to cope with global change is necessary to avoid misestimating adaptive genetic variation in the dimensions in which selection will act. We assessed the evolutionary capacity of the larval stage of the marine polychaete Galeolaria caespitosa to adapt to warmer water temperatures. Galeolaria is an important habitat-forming species in Australia, and its earlier life-history stages tend to be more susceptible to stress. We used a powerful quantitative genetics design that assessed the impacts of three temperatures on subsequent survival across over 30 000 embryos across 204 unique families. We found adaptive genetic variation in the two cooler temperatures in our study, but none in the warmest temperature. Based on these results, we would have concluded that this species has very little capacity to evolve to the warmest temperature. However, when we explored genetic variation in multivariate space, we found evidence that larval survival has the potential to evolve even in the warmest temperatures via correlated responses to selection across thermal environments. Future studies should take a multivariate approach to estimating evolutionary capacity to cope with global

  4. Dynamic neural activity during stress signals resilient coping.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Constable, R Todd; Seo, Dongju

    2016-08-01

    Active coping underlies a healthy stress response, but neural processes supporting such resilient coping are not well-known. Using a brief, sustained exposure paradigm contrasting highly stressful, threatening, and violent stimuli versus nonaversive neutral visual stimuli in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we show significant subjective, physiologic, and endocrine increases and temporally related dynamically distinct patterns of neural activation in brain circuits underlying the stress response. First, stress-specific sustained increases in the amygdala, striatum, hypothalamus, midbrain, right insula, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) regions supported the stress processing and reactivity circuit. Second, dynamic neural activation during stress versus neutral runs, showing early increases followed by later reduced activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), left DLPFC, hippocampus, and left insula, suggested a stress adaptation response network. Finally, dynamic stress-specific mobilization of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VmPFC), marked by initial hypoactivity followed by increased VmPFC activation, pointed to the VmPFC as a key locus of the emotional and behavioral control network. Consistent with this finding, greater neural flexibility signals in the VmPFC during stress correlated with active coping ratings whereas lower dynamic activity in the VmPFC also predicted a higher level of maladaptive coping behaviors in real life, including binge alcohol intake, emotional eating, and frequency of arguments and fights. These findings demonstrate acute functional neuroplasticity during stress, with distinct and separable brain networks that underlie critical components of the stress response, and a specific role for VmPFC neuroflexibility in stress-resilient coping. PMID:27432990

  5. [Compassion fatigue and coping strategies for hospital nurses].

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Tsai-Rung; Yu, Yueh-Li; Yang, Li-Chien; Tsai, Su-Hua; Hung, Chich-Hsiu

    2012-06-01

    Over-involvement in patient trauma and loss in clinical settings negatively affects nurses and may cause compassion fatigue. Compassion fatigue is associated with prolonged exposure to trauma cases, over-involvement in patient situations and over-extending caring energies. Nurses unable to adapt and cope may suffer physically and psychologically, reduce their quality of care, cause medical care costs to increase, and ultimately become frustrated and decide to leave the nursing profession. While current approaches to addressing compassion fatigue focus on evaluating individual nurse situations, adjusting attitudes, holding education programs, and bolstering support systems, little research attention has been directed toward the consequences of such on patient care or the origins of compassion fatigue in Taiwan nurses. This paper defines compassion fatigue, examines its importance and consequences, and delineates common nursing coping strategies in Taiwan. Findings expand domestic research on this phenomenon and suggest relevant theories and effective interventions to achieve remediation.

  6. Genetic Counseling-Stress, Coping, and the Empowerment Perspective.

    PubMed

    McConkie-Rosell, A; Sullivan, J A

    1999-12-01

    Historically one of the basic foundations of the genetic counseling process has been nondirectiveness; however, its definition and utility continues to be in question. There remains a need to develop genetic counseling interventions in order to qualify, quantify, measure, and enhance the genetic counseling process as well as to delineate the complex interactions of education and counseling that occur. We propose a framework for genetic counseling interventions utilizing an empowerment perspective and Lazarus and Folkman's adaptation of the theory of stress and coping. This model frames the genetic counseling process as one that promotes the autonomy of the individual by providing the individual with the tools required to make their own decisions and enhances coping and adjustment to the outcome of those decisions through control and mastery.

  7. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle.

    PubMed

    Angeler, David G; Allen, Craig R; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Gunderson, Lance H; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26716453

  8. Quantifying the adaptive cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  9. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26716453

  10. Profiles of Psychological Well-being and Coping Strategies among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Carlos; Ferradás, María Del Mar; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C.; Vallejo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b) to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning). Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress. PMID:27790168

  11. A stress and coping model of adjustment to caring for an adult with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Christina; Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the utility of a stress and coping framework for identifying factors associated with adjustment to informal caregiving to adults with mental illness. Relations between stress and coping predictors and negative (distress) and positive (positive affect, life satisfaction, benefit finding, health) carer adjustment outcomes were examined. A total of 114 caregivers completed questionnaires. Predictors included relevant background variables (carer and care recipient characteristics and caregiving context), coping resources (optimism, social support, carer-care recipient relationship quality), appraisal (threat, control, challenge) and coping strategies (problem-focused, avoidance, acceptance, meaning-focused). Results indicated that after controlling for relevant background variables (burden, caregiving frequency, care recipient symptom unpredictability), better caregiver adjustment was related to higher social support and optimism, better quality of carer-care recipient relationship, lower threat and higher challenge appraisals, and less reliance on avoidance coping, as hypothesised. Coping resources emerged as the most consistent predictor of adjustment. Findings support the utility of stress and coping theory in identifying risk and protective factors associated with adaptation to caring for an adult with mental illness.

  12. Changes in Coping, Pain and Activity following Cognitive-Behavioral Training: A Randomized Clinical Trial for Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Jeffrey; Schlenz, Alyssa; McClellan, Catherine B.; Puffer, Eve S.; Hardy, Steven; Pfeiffer, Matthew; Roberts, Carla W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined the outcomes of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for pain in pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) using smartphones as a novel delivery method. Methods Forty-six children with SCD received CBT coping skills training using a randomized, waitlist control design. The intervention involved a single-session of CBT training and home-based practice using smartphones for eight weeks. Pre-post questionnaires between the randomized groups were used to evaluate changes in active psychological coping and negative thinking using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Daily diaries completed by the full sample during the treatment period were used to assess if CBT skill use was related to reductions in next day pain intensity and increases in same day functional activity. Results The pre-post group comparison suggested that youth increased active psychological coping attempts with the intervention. Daily diary data indicated that when children used CBT skills on days with higher pain, there were reductions in next day pain intensity. There was no such association between skill use and functional activity. Discussion CBT coping skills training supported via smartphones can increase coping and reduce pain intensity for children with SCD; however, additions to the study protocols are recommended in future studies. Advantages and caveats of using smartphones are also discussed. PMID:25503599

  13. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery. PMID:25426088

  14. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person's specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient's coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

  15. Coping and Psychological Health of Aging Parents of Adult Children With Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Among aging parents (mean age = 65, N = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas disengagement and distraction strategies exacerbated the effects of burden on depression symptoms. Most effects were similar for mothers and fathers, and all coping strategies, including active strategies to reduce stress (primary engagement), had greater effects for the parents with co-resident children. Vulnerability to caregiver burden was greatest when the aging parents with co-resident children used disengagement and distraction coping, but those who used engagement coping were resilient. PMID:24679353

  16. Spiritual coping and anxiety in palliative care patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gaudette, Holly; Jankowski, Katherine R B

    2013-01-01

    Patients often rely on spirituality to cope with anxiety, yet it is not known if spiritual coping actually helps patients deal with anxiety. The present study was designed, therefore, to examine this relationship. A series of patients who were referred to the palliative care team at New York University, Langone Medical Center (N = 44) were interviewed about their spiritual coping and anxiety. Anxiety was measured using the first three items of the GAD-7. Fourteen items, which were adapted from existing scales, were used to create the "Beliefs and Activities Spirituality Scale" (BASS), having two subscales: Activities (α = .79) and Beliefs (α = .82). Anxiety had a significant negative correlations with the total BASS (r = -.56), and the Activities (r = -.52) and Beliefs (r = -.42) subscales. The salubrious association of spiritual coping and anxiety remained for the BASS and the Activities subscale, after controlling for demographic variables. PMID:24070434

  17. Coping with work and family: how do dual-earners interact?

    PubMed

    Matias, Marisa; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2015-04-01

    Juggling the demands of both work and family has become increasingly difficult, especially for dual-earner households; nevertheless, families have developed strategies to deal with work-family challenges. This paper uses couple level analyses (APIM models) with 100 dual-earner couples to provide insight about partners' mutual influence on the use of work-family coping strategies. The results show that women's use of coping strategies is more associated with work-family conflict and work-family enrichment than men's coping. In addition, using partner coping, having a positive attitude towards multiple roles, using planning and management skills and avoiding having to cut back on professional responsibilities is associated with better outcomes (more enrichment and less conflict). Surprisingly, the use of childcare facilities is associated with women's conflict and partner effects were only found concerning the use of management and planning skills. These skills, however, have distinct effects for men and women's outcomes: their use by men reduces their own conflict but increases their wives', while their use by women decreases their own conflict and increases their own and their partner's enrichment. These results point to the fact that gender roles continue to be a hallmark of work-family issues. Our design and results point out the need for new interventions that take couple interdependences into account.

  18. Exploring the Relationship Among Moral Distress, Coping, and the Practice Environment in Emergency Department Nurses.

    PubMed

    Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich; Chan, Garrett K

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) nurses practice in environments that are highly charged and unpredictable in nature and can precipitate conflict between the necessary prescribed actions and the individual's sense of what is morally the right thing to do. As a consequence of multiple moral dilemmas, ED staff nurses are at risk for experiencing distress and how they cope with these challenges may impact their practice. To examine moral distress in ED nurses and its relationship to coping in that specialty group. Using survey methods approach. One hundred ninety-eight ED nurses completed a moral distress, coping, and demographic collection instruments. Advanced statistical analysis was completed to look at relationships between the variables. Data analysis did show that moral distress is present in ED nurses (M = 80.19, SD = 53.27), and when separated into age groups, the greater the age, the less the experience of moral distress. A positive relationship between moral distress and some coping mechanisms and the ED environment was also noted. This study's findings suggest that ED nurses experience moral distress and could receive some benefit from utilization of appropriate coping skills. This study also suggests that the environment in which ED nurses practice has a significant impact on the experience of moral distress. Because health care is continuing to evolve, it is critical that issues such as moral distress and coping be studied in ED nurses to help eliminate human suffering.

  19. Parental bonding and depressive affect: the mediating role of coping resources.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Kimberly; Kelly, Owen; Cole, Barbara; Tannenbaum, Beth; Dodd, Charlene; Anisman, Hymie

    2005-09-01

    Ordinarily, when stressors are encountered, a cascade of cognitive and behavioural responses is evoked that serves to protect the individual from compromised well-being. When coping resources or skills are limited or ineffective, then psychological disturbances, such as depression, may ensue (Paykel, 2001). Although any number of factors could account for variations of stress resilience, this paper argues that early life experiences and relationships, and particularly those with parents or primary caregivers, may contribute to the development of appropriate styles of coping, which, in turn, influence affective responses in the face of stressors encountered in adulthood.

  20. Map and Globe Reading Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    Although the guide was designed to accompany an instructional television series, it contains teacher-developed activities on map and globe skills which can be selected and adapted to the needs of elementary students independent of the series. Geographic concepts include direction, the globe, boundaries, hemispheres, scale, latitude, longitude, and…

  1. Skills for Innovation and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Innovation holds the key to ongoing improvements in living standards, as well as to solving pressing social challenges. Skilled people play a crucial role in innovation through the new knowledge they generate, how they adopt and develop existing ideas, and through their ability to learn new competencies and adapt to a changing environment. This…

  2. Understanding and Coping with Loneliness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, M. Honore; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of loneliness and some program strategies for school counselors to use in responding to concerns about loneliness. Counseling techniques include exploration of loneliness, improving self-esteem, improving social skills, and managing anxiety. (JAC)

  3. Teaching Social Skills: An Effective Online Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Rebecca P.; Brown, Emily; DeRosier, Melissa E.

    2015-01-01

    Educators, policymakers, and the general public agree that social skills should be taught to children. In an effort to bridge this gap between evidence-based social skills training and populations in need, the authors have developed an Intelligent Social Tutoring System (ISTS) that fosters learning through adaptive interaction between the student…

  4. Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Patricia; And Others

    The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

  5. Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study strategies used to assist mildly handicapped students become more actively engaged and successful in gaining and responding to information in content area classes are described. They include using advance organizers, summarizing/paraphrasing what is read, enhancing listening skills, and improving the organization, appearance, and accuracy of…

  6. Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    While this may not be a "complete list" of what leadership skills one needs to effectively lead in any/every situation, it should provide a great overview of many of the things s/he needs to do, at least initially.

  7. Sharing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mealy, Virginia; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)

  8. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  9. Toward the Development of an Inventory of Daily Widowed Life (IDWL): Guided by the Dual Process Model of Coping with Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caserta, Michael S.; Lund, Dale A.

    2007-01-01

    "The Dual Process Model of Coping with Bereavement" (M. Stroebe & H. Schut, 1999) suggests that the most effective adaptation involves oscillation between 2 coping processes: loss-orientation (LO) and restoration-orientation (RO). A 22-item Inventory of Daily Widowed Life (IDWL) was developed to measure these processes and the oscillation between…

  10. Quantifying insufficient coping behavior under chronic stress: a cross-cultural study of 1,303 students from Italy, Spain and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Juan P; Barragán, Elena; Botella, Cristina; Braun, Silke; Bridler, René; Camussi, Elisabetta; Chafrat, Verónica; Lott, Petra; Mohr, Christine; Moragrega, Inés; Papagno, Costanza; Sanchez, Susana; Seifritz, Erich; Soler, Carla; Stassen, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    The question of how to quantify insufficient coping behavior under chronic stress is of major clinical relevance. In fact, chronic stress increasingly dominates modern work conditions and can affect nearly every system of the human body, as suggested by physical, cognitive, affective and behavioral symptoms. Since freshmen students experience constantly high levels of stress due to tight schedules and frequent examinations, we carried out a 3-center study of 1,303 students from Italy, Spain and Argentina in order to develop socioculturally independent means for quantifying coping behavior. The data analysis relied on 2 self-report questionnaires: the Coping Strategies Inventory (COPE) for the assessment of coping behavior and the Zurich Health Questionnaire which assesses consumption behavior and general health dimensions. A neural network approach was used to determine the structural properties inherent in the COPE instrument. Our analyses revealed 2 highly stable, socioculturally independent scales that reflected basic coping behavior in terms of the personality traits activity-passivity and defeatism-resilience. This replicated previous results based on Swiss and US-American data. The percentage of students exhibiting insufficient coping behavior was very similar across the study sites (11.5-18.0%). Given their stability and validity, the newly developed scales enable the quantification of basic coping behavior in a cost-efficient and reliable way, thus clearing the way for the early detection of subjects with insufficient coping skills under chronic stress who may be at risk of physical or mental health problems. PMID:25967599

  11. Iranian and English women's use of religion and spirituality as resources for coping with infertility.

    PubMed

    Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Allan, Helen T; Smith, Pam A

    2014-06-01

    The study reported in this paper explores how infertile women cope with infertility using their religious and spiritual beliefs. In total, 30 infertile women affiliated to different denominations of Christianity and Islam were interviewed in the UK and Iranian fertility clinics using grounded theory. The categories which emerged included governing ones' 'Self' through gaining control of emotions, adopting religious coping strategies, and handling the burden of infertility peacefully, which all related to the core category of 'relying on a higher being'. We argue that infertile women employ a variety of religious and spiritual coping strategies which are associated with adaptive health outcomes. Further scientific inquiry is required to investigate how religion and spirituality promote adaptation to infertility.

  12. Iranian and English women's use of religion and spirituality as resources for coping with infertility.

    PubMed

    Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Allan, Helen T; Smith, Pam A

    2014-06-01

    The study reported in this paper explores how infertile women cope with infertility using their religious and spiritual beliefs. In total, 30 infertile women affiliated to different denominations of Christianity and Islam were interviewed in the UK and Iranian fertility clinics using grounded theory. The categories which emerged included governing ones' 'Self' through gaining control of emotions, adopting religious coping strategies, and handling the burden of infertility peacefully, which all related to the core category of 'relying on a higher being'. We argue that infertile women employ a variety of religious and spiritual coping strategies which are associated with adaptive health outcomes. Further scientific inquiry is required to investigate how religion and spirituality promote adaptation to infertility. PMID:24869428

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Parent Situation Inventory: A Role-Play Measure of Coping in Parents of Substance-Using Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McGillicuddy, Neil B.; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the generalizability, reliability, and construct validity of the Parent Situation Inventory (PSI), a role-play measure of coping skills in parents experiencing problems from an adolescent’s drug and alcohol use. Generalizability was robust (.80) and alternate form and test–retest reliability were satisfactory. PSI skillfulness was negatively related to the parent’s own substance use and to the adolescent’s alcohol use. The PSI shows promise as a reliable and potentially valid measure of coping in this population and has direct implications for developing and evaluating skill-based parent training programs. PMID:15584798

  14. Endogenous opioids regulate glucocorticoid-dependent stress-coping strategies in mice.

    PubMed

    Szklarczyk, Klaudia; Korostynski, Michal; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Ficek, Joanna; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2016-08-25

    Coping skills are essential in determining the outcomes of aversive life events. Our research was aimed to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of different coping styles in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and SWR/J. We compared the influence of a preceding stressor (0.5h of restraint) on behavioral and gene expression profiles between these two strains. The C57BL/6J strain exhibited increased conditioned fear and high immobility (passive coping). Oppositely, the SWR/J mice demonstrated low freezing and immobility, low post-restraint anxiety and considerable struggling during the forced swim test (active coping). Gene profiling in the amygdala revealed transcriptional patterns that were related to the differential stress reactivity, such as the activation of glucocorticoid-dependent genes specifically in the C57BL/6J mice. Post-restraint blood sampling for corticosterone levels confirmed the association of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation with a passive coping style. Pharmacological tools were used to modulate the stress-coping strategies. The blockade of opioid receptors (ORs) before the aversive event caused transcriptional and neuroendocrine changes in the SWR/J mice that were characteristic of the passive coping strategy. We found that treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist (dexamethasone (DEX), 4mg/kg) impaired the consolidation of fear memory in the C57BL/6J mice and that this effect was reversed by OR blockade (naltrexone (NTX), 2mg/kg). In parallel, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (mifepristone (MIF), 20mg/kg) reversed the effect of morphine (20mg/kg) on conditioned fear in the C57BL/6J mice. Our results suggest that in mice, stress-coping strategies are determined by opioid-dependent mechanisms that modulate activity of the HPA axis. PMID:27235740

  15. Patient coping strategies in COPD across disease severity and quality of life: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Brien, Sarah B; Lewith, George T; Thomas, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has a weak relationship with lung function (LF) impairment in COPD; some cope well despite poor LF, whereas others suffer disproportionate QoL impairment despite well-preserved LF. Adjuvant non-pharmacological interventions such as rehabilitation and psychological/behavioural support may help if acceptable and targeted appropriately, but they are under-used and sometimes declined by patients. This study aimed to explore and understand variations in experiences and coping strategies in patients with different severities of disease and disease-specific QoL. Thirty-four participants were purposively sampled across a spectrum of LF and QoL impairment, to cover a grid of sub-groups (‘very severe LF, good QoL’, moderate LF, poor QoL’ and so on). Semi-structured interviews, digitally recorded, were analysed by thematic analysis. Data saturation was achieved. Four themes emerged: symptom impact, coping strategies, coping challenges and support needs. Most of them described using multiple coping strategies, yet over half reported significant challenges coping with COPD, including psychological impact, non-acceptance of diagnosis and/or disease progression, effects of co-morbidities and inadequate self-management skills. Approximately half of the participants wanted further help, ideally non-pharmacological, across all LF impairment groups but mainly with lower QoL. Those with lower QoL additionally reported greater psychological distress and greater use of non-pharmacological support strategies where accessible. Patients who develop effective coping strategies have a better QoL independent of objective LF, whereas others cope poorly, are aware of this and report more use of non-pharmacological approaches. This study suggests that severely impaired QoL, irrelevant of lung function, is a powerful patient-centred indication to explore the positive benefits of psychological and behavioural support for distressed COPD patients. PMID:27629237

  16. [Snacking behavior among elementary and junior high school students and its relationship to stress-coping].

    PubMed

    Shimai, S; Kawabata, T; Nishioka, N; Haruki, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate current problems of snacking behavior and their relationship to stress coping among 1,486 fourth through ninth grade students from 10 elementary schools and six junior high schools. An anonymous self-completed questionnaire was utilized which included items about 1) selection of snack foods, which were classified into healthy, popular, complementary and western-style snacks, 2) problems of snacking behavior, which included external and emotional eating scores, and 3) stress coping scale. The stress coping scale contained two sub-scales; problem-focused and emotion-focused coping. The results were as follows: 1) Students who frequently went without breakfast did not select healthy foods, i.e., fruits and dairy products, but popular snacks, i.e., potato chips, pop corn and sweet beverage. 2) Both external and emotional eating scores increased by age in girls but was not apparent in boys. 3) Students who preferred either western-style or popular snacks showed higher score of external and emotional eating. 4) The score of problem-focused coping was positively correlated with preference for health snacks, but emotion-focused coping was positively correlated with external and emotional eating scores. The close relationship between snack food selection and problematic aspects of eating behavior suggests that modification of eating behavior is necessary to develop healthy snack habits in early adolescents. Also, it is interesting that snacking behavior is closely related to stress coping, which suggested the behavioral intervention for healthy eating habit should be included in development of stress-coping skills against various kinds of demands in life.

  17. Patient coping strategies in COPD across disease severity and quality of life: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Brien, Sarah B; Lewith, George T; Thomas, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has a weak relationship with lung function (LF) impairment in COPD; some cope well despite poor LF, whereas others suffer disproportionate QoL impairment despite well-preserved LF. Adjuvant non-pharmacological interventions such as rehabilitation and psychological/behavioural support may help if acceptable and targeted appropriately, but they are under-used and sometimes declined by patients. This study aimed to explore and understand variations in experiences and coping strategies in patients with different severities of disease and disease-specific QoL. Thirty-four participants were purposively sampled across a spectrum of LF and QoL impairment, to cover a grid of sub-groups ('very severe LF, good QoL', moderate LF, poor QoL' and so on). Semi-structured interviews, digitally recorded, were analysed by thematic analysis. Data saturation was achieved. Four themes emerged: symptom impact, coping strategies, coping challenges and support needs. Most of them described using multiple coping strategies, yet over half reported significant challenges coping with COPD, including psychological impact, non-acceptance of diagnosis and/or disease progression, effects of co-morbidities and inadequate self-management skills. Approximately half of the participants wanted further help, ideally non-pharmacological, across all LF impairment groups but mainly with lower QoL. Those with lower QoL additionally reported greater psychological distress and greater use of non-pharmacological support strategies where accessible. Patients who develop effective coping strategies have a better QoL independent of objective LF, whereas others cope poorly, are aware of this and report more use of non-pharmacological approaches. This study suggests that severely impaired QoL, irrelevant of lung function, is a powerful patient-centred indication to explore the positive benefits of psychological and behavioural support for distressed COPD patients. PMID:27629237

  18. Multidimensional Perfectionism and Anxiety: Differences among Individuals with Perfectionism and Tests of a Coping-Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxiety, and coping processes in a sample of 329 undergraduate students. Specifically, participants with adaptive perfectionism had the lowest levels of anxiety, followed by participants with nonperfectionism, and participants with maladaptive perfectionism had…

  19. Strategic leadership: the essential skills.

    PubMed

    Schoemaker, Paul J H; Krupp, Steve; Howland, Samantha

    2013-01-01

    The more uncertain your environment, the greater the opportunity--if you have the leadership skills to capitalize on it. Research at the Wharton school and at the authors' consulting firm, involving more than 20,000 executives to date, has identified six skills that, when mastered and used in concert, allow leaders to think strategically and navigate the unknown effectively. They are the abilities to anticipate, challenge, interpret, decide, align, and learn. This article describes the six skills in detail and includes a self-assessment that will enable you to identify the ones that most need your attention. The authors have found that strength in one skill cannot easily compensate for a deficit in another. An adaptive strategic leader has learned to apply all six at once.

  20. Coping with contraception: cognitive and behavioral methods with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, L D; Schinke, S P

    1983-01-01

    Teenagers' sporadic use or nonuse of contraception is 1 explanation for the high rates of unwanted pregnancies in the US. Past efforts have had limited impact as they focused on simply providing adolescents with information and increased access to birth control. The argument here points to specific cognitive and behavioral skills, which adolescents lack, and which are required for effective contraception. Previous research documents an increase in teenagers' use of contraception following a skills-training program presented in intensive small-group format. The present study evaluates cognitive and behavioral skills training methods implemented with large groups (n=120), in the natural environment. The subjects are male and female students of a middle class suburban public high school. Training in this preventive approach stresses verbal and nonverbal components of effective interpersonal communication--approach, refusal and request responses--as important behavioral skills. Cognitive skills training emphasizes the application of facts about reproduction and contraception to make optimal decisions in situations involving sexual activity. Leaders help the subjects relate abstract facts and observable risks to their own life circumstances and choices. Additional skills practice involves the completion of written assignments outside the group setting. At the end of the 2-week training period, the students are evaluated along 4 measures: a knowledge inventory, a contraceptive attitudes and intentions inventory, and a videotaped performance test. Analyses of findings support the feasibility of large-group procedures for helping adolescents cope with sexuality and contraception. Future investigations are needed to replicate the present research as are longitudinal follow-up data to assess the long-term effects of this treatment approach.

  1. Shift work: coping with the biological clock.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Josephine

    2010-01-01

    The internal circadian clock adapts slowly, if at all, to rapid transitions between different shift schedules. This leads to misalignment (desynchrony) of rhythmic physiological systems, such as sleep, alertness, performance, metabolism and the hormones melatonin and cortisol, with the imposed work-rest schedule. Consequences include sleep deprivation and poor performance. Clock gene variants may influence tolerance of sleep deprivation. Shift work is associated with an increased risk of major disease (heart disease and cancer) and this may also, at least in part, be attributed to frequent circadian desynchrony. Abnormal metabolism has been invoked as a contributory factor to the increased risk of heart disease. There is recent evidence for an increased risk of certain cancers, with hypothesized causal roles of light at night, melatonin suppression and circadian desynchrony. Various strategies exist for coping with circadian desynchrony and for hastening circadian realignment (if desired). The most important factor in manipulating the circadian system is exposure to and/or avoidance of bright light at specific times of the 'biological night'.

  2. Religious coping methods of Taiwanese folk religion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Jung

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore religious coping methods employed by Taiwanese folk religious believers. This study applied qualitative research methods in data collection and data analysis by conducting semi-structured interviews with participants and analyzing the interview contents. We have identified fourteen coping methods that can be categorized into five different religious dimensions: belief, ritual, ethical, emotional and material. The findings not only expanded our knowledge about how believers of Taiwanese folk religion employ the religion to cope with difficulties but also discovered that some coping methods employed by them are also reported in Western countries, only in different forms.

  3. Coping styles of Chicago adults: description.

    PubMed

    Ilfeld, F W

    1980-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 2,299 Chicago adults the author empirically describes the coping styles used to combat stressors in the social roles of marriage, parenting, finances, and job. Factor analyses of coping responses uncovered three major patterns: taking direct action, rationalization avoidance of the stressor, and acceptance of the stressful situation without attempting alteration. Respondents did not consistently utilize one coping style across all role areas, but rather employed a repertoire of responses. Demographic characteristics were found to explain only a small amount of variation in the coping styles.

  4. Warrior Spirit: Soul Wound and Coping among American Indians in Law Enforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Leah M. Rouse; Davis, Amileah R.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory study examined the role vocation played for American Indian non-Tribal law enforcement officers in adaptively coping with historical trauma, or "Soul Wound." Participants' views of career in relationship to its perceived congruence with their Nations' warrior societies and how this vocation may facilitate or constrain…

  5. Acculturative Stress and Coping: Gender Differences among Korean and Korean American University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Diane Sookyoung; Padilla, Amado M.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we examined acculturative stress and coping among 86 students of Korean heritage at an American university. Participants indicated their stress levels on 3 scales of cultural adaptation: discrimination, language and cultural ties, and social distance. Findings show that self-identified Korean students displayed higher levels of…

  6. Personality, Coping Style and Well-Being of Parents Rearing Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, L. M.; Billings, F. J.; Jobe, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Parents with children with developmental disabilities (DD) encounter a variety of stressors associated with rearing their children and must develop effective coping mechanisms in order to adapt successfully to these challenges. Previous research has failed to establish the role of parental individual differences in the reported use of…

  7. Personality Variables in Coping with the Stress of a Spouse's Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoeneman, Sandra Z.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Identified wives (N=56) of hemodialysis patients at risk for problems adapting to their husband's illness, and explored personality variables that might enhance coping. Results showed greater external locus of control was related to poorer adjustment, but greater internal locus of control was not related to better adjustment. (Author/JAC)

  8. The Impact of Childhood Hearing Loss on the Family: Mothers' and Fathers' Stress and Coping Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Most, Tova; Tarrasch, Ricardo; Haddad-eid, Eliana; Brand, Devora

    2016-01-01

    Parenting children who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) presents unique long-term challenges that can place the parents at a greater risk for elevated levels of parenting stress. Adaptation of families to the various challenges presented by childhood hearing loss is influenced by their personal and social coping resources available for managing…

  9. Coping and Psychological Health of Aging Parents of Adult Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Among aging parents (mean age = 65, "N" = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas…

  10. Bodies Coping with Standardization: An Ethnography of Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazher, Waseem

    2012-01-01

    How students labeled as learning disabled (LD) cope with standardization in their schools is mostly a mystery, as is the broader question of how such persons adapt throughout their lives. Participant observation research methodology involved daily observing and interviewing labeled students (6 boys and 4 girls) over nearly one whole academic year…

  11. Perfectionism, Perceived Stress, Drinking to Cope, and Alcohol-Related Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Van Arsdale, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the association between perfectionism (categorized by adaptive perfectionistic, maladaptive perfectionistic, or nonperfectionistic groups), perceived stress, drinking alcohol to cope, and alcohol-related problems in a large sample of college students (N = 354). Maladaptive perfectionists reported significantly higher levels…

  12. MANDALA: Developing Parenting Skills Through a Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bryan E.

    A simulation game designed as a tool for teaching parenting skills is described. This board game, called MANDALA, guides participants through the process of rearing a child from conception to adolescence. Assuming the parenting role, players must cope with true-life experiences of their child. A throw of the dice sends players through the various…

  13. Leadership skills?

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Senior executive leaders might be interested in applying for the NHS Leadership Academy's director programme, which is designed to 'stretch and challenge' those with an 'existing level of complex leadership skills'. The programme also offers an opportunity for participants to work with other leaders and other parts of the system to enhance inclusiveness. There are three cohorts a year, and the programme runs for a 12 months. Closing dates for applicants are 4 September 2016, 22 January 2017 and 21 May 2017.

  14. Quality of life and coping in patients awaiting heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Muirhead, J; Meyerowitz, B E; Leedham, B; Eastburn, T E; Merrill, W H; Frist, W H

    1992-01-01

    The psychosocial adaptation of patients awaiting heart transplantation has not been defined. Forty-one patients (36 men, 5 women; mean age, 48 years) completed standardized questionnaires before transplantation to assess quality of life, physical symptoms, marital/social adjustment, psychiatric morbidity, coping, and compliance to medical regimens. Also, data were obtained from spouses/partners and the transplantation nurse coordinator. Unlike previously reported findings with patients after transplantation, those awaiting transplantation report moderate dissatisfaction with quality of life. Patients report physical symptoms, functional disabilities, sexual dysfunction, and psychological distress. Nonetheless, reported levels of compliance with the medical regimens and of social support were high, and both patients and spouses/partners provided marital adjustment ratings on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale that were comparable to those of well-adjusted, happily married couples. High levels of coping also were recorded. Having a positive attitude and seeking social support were the most common coping strategies, whereas confrontation, acceptance, and escapism were relatively uncommon. In conclusion, patients awaiting heart transplantation, although dissatisfied with quality of life, maintain positive psychological and social adjustment.

  15. How Dyslexic Teenagers Cope: An Investigation of Self-Esteem, Coping and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Passe, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Research into how dyslexics cope and the effects of their coping has received little attention in the 100 years since dyslexia has been recognized. Why is this? Well it is not an easy area to investigate, partly as most qualitative studies have looked only at coping strategies of specific dyslexics. These are individuals and are unsuitable for…

  16. Coping with Multiple Sclerosis Scale

    PubMed Central

    Parkerson, Holly A.; Kehler, Melissa D.; Sharpe, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Coping with Multiple Sclerosis Scale (CMSS) was developed to assess coping strategies specific to multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite its wide application in MS research, psychometric support for the CMSS remains limited to the initial factor analytic investigation by Pakenham in 2001. Methods: The current investigation assessed the factor structure and construct validity of the CMSS. Participants with MS (N = 453) completed the CMSS, as well as measures of disability related to MS (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale), quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Scale), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Results: The original factor structure reported by Pakenham was a poor fit to the data. An alternate seven-factor structure was identified using exploratory factor analysis. Although there were some similarities with the existing CMSS subscales, differences in factor content and item loadings were found. Relationships between the revised CMSS subscales and additional measures were assessed, and the findings were consistent with previous research. Conclusions: Refinement of the CMSS is suggested, especially for subscales related to acceptance and avoidance strategies. Until further research is conducted on the revised CMSS, it is recommended that the original CMSS continue to be administered. Clinicians and researchers should be mindful of lack of support for the acceptance and avoidance subscales and should seek additional scales to assess these areas. PMID:27551244

  17. Coping with displacement from Hurricane Katrina: predictors of one-year post-traumatic stress and depression symptom trajectories.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Santiago, Catherine Decarlo; Einhorn, Lindsey

    2009-07-01

    This study examined predictors of symptom trajectories of 93 adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina who were displaced and relocated to Colorado. Survivors were interviewed within six months of the hurricane and then again six months later. Four symptom trajectories were identified for clinical levels of depression and post-traumatic stress: resilient, recovered, delayed onset, and chronic. High levels of adaptive coping and coping efficacy characterized the resilient groups and low levels of both characterized the chronic groups. The recovered groups were characterized by low levels of adaptive coping coupled with high coping efficacy, and the delayed groups were characterized by high secondary control coping in the presence of low primary control coping, though some symptom-specific differences were found for these two groups. African American (67%) participants did not differ from European American (28%) participants in terms of membership in trajectory groups, though analyses revealed that displacement stress and positive religious coping were especially relevant predictors for African American participants. The results are interpreted in light of the Conservation of Resources Theory (Hobfoll, 2001) and implications for treatment and preventive intervention are discussed.

  18. Problem-solving treatment and coping styles in primary care for minor depression.

    PubMed

    Oxman, Thomas E; Hegel, Mark T; Hull, Jay G; Dietrich, Allen J

    2008-12-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care clinics. Those subjects who were eligible were randomized (N = 151), and 107 subjects completed treatment (57 PST-PC, 50 usual care) and a 35-week follow-up. Analysis with linear mixed modeling revealed significant effects of treatment and coping, such that those in PST-PC improved at a faster rate and those initially high in avoidant coping were significantly more likely to have sustained benefit from PST-PC.

  19. Coping capacity among women with abusive partners.

    PubMed

    Nurius, P S; Furrey, J; Berliner, L

    1992-01-01

    Coping capacity, although increasingly implicated as a mediating force in how individuals respond to personal threat, is an underrecognized factor in work with women of abusive partners. To explore the utility of coping capacity as a multivariable set to guide intervention with women of abusive partners, findings are reported comparing four groups of women: those whose partners do not engage in abuse, are abusive toward them, are sex offenders of children for whom the woman is a parent, or are offenders of children for whom the woman is not a parent. Three variable sets were included: vulnerability factors that may negatively influence appraisals of threat and ability to cope with abuse; coping responses that include cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to the abuse; and coping resources expected to mediate effects of vulnerability factors and to influence the mobilization (of lack thereof) of coping responses. There were significant differences in coping capacity profiles across the four groups. These appeared to be a continuum of coping capacity, with women who were most directly threatened showing the lowest and women who were least directly threatened showing the highest levels of coping capacity. In order from the lowest to the highest levels of coping capacity were (1) battered women, (2) women whose partners are offenders against their children, (3) women whose partners are offenders against children of whom they are not the parent, and (4) control group women. The paper ends with a conceptual interpretation of the mediating functions of coping resources and implications for intervention and further study. PMID:1294238

  20. Longitudinal spiritual coping with trauma in people with HIV: implications for health care.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Heidemarie; Ironson, Gail

    2014-03-01

    This 10-year study (N=177) examines how people with HIV use spirituality to cope with life's trauma on top of HIV-related stress (e.g., facing death, stigma, poverty, limited healthcare) usual events. Spirituality, defined as a connection to a higher presence, is independent from religion (institutionalized spirituality). As a dynamic adaptive process, coping requires longitudinal studying. Qualitative content-analysis of interviews/essays yielded a coding of specific aspects and a longitudinal rating of overall spiritual coping. Most participants were rated as spiritual, using spiritual practices, about half experienced comfort, empowerment, growth/transformation, gratitude, less than one-third meaning, community, and positive reframing. Up to one-fifth perceived spiritual conflict, struggle, or anger, triggering post-traumatic stress, which sometimes converted into positive growth/transformation later. Over time, 65% used spiritual coping positively, 7% negatively, and 28% had no significant use. Spirituality was mainly beneficial for women, heterosexuals, and African Americans (p<0.05). Results suggest that spirituality is a major source of positive and occasionally negative coping (e.g., viewing HIV as sin). We discuss how clinicians can recognize and prevent when spirituality is creating distress and barriers to HIV treatment, adding a literature review on ways of effective spiritual assessment. Spirituality may be a beneficial component of coping with trauma, considering socio-cultural contexts. PMID:24601735