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Sample records for adaptive emotion regulation

  1. [Adaptive and Maladaptive Strategies of Emotion Regulation in Adolescents with ADHD].

    PubMed

    Lange, Sarah; Tröster, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated differences between adolescents with ADHD and control subjects in their adaptive und maladaptive regulation of negative emotions. We assessed emotion regulation strategies using the German self-report questionnaire FEEL-KJ in a sample of adolescents (between 11 and 18 years) with ADHD (disturbance of activity, impulsivity and attention: n = 32, hyperkinetic conduct disorder: n = 26) and controls (n = 58). We found that adolescents with ADHD reported using less adaptive strategies for dealing with negative emotions than control subjects. No effects were found for maladaptive emotion regulation strategies for anger, fear and sadness. Our findings indicate that adolescents with ADHD should be encouraged in the development of adaptive emotion regulation. PMID:27184787

  2. Paradoxical cardiovascular effects of implementing adaptive emotion regulation strategies in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Mennin, Douglas S

    2012-02-01

    Recent models of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have expanded on Borkovec's avoidance theory by delineating emotion regulation deficits associated with the excessive worry characteristic of this disorder (see Behar, DiMarco, Hekler, Mohlman, & Staples, 2009). However, it has been difficult to determine whether emotion regulation is simply a useful heuristic for the avoidant properties of worry or an important extension to conceptualizations of GAD. Some of this difficulty may arise from a focus on purported maladaptive regulation strategies, which may be confounded with symptomatic distress components of the disorder (such as worry). We examined the implementation of adaptive regulation strategies by participants with and without a diagnosis of GAD while watching emotion-eliciting film clips. In a between-subjects design, participants were randomly assigned to accept, reappraise, or were not given specific regulation instructions. Implementation of adaptive regulation strategies produced differential effects in the physiological (but not subjective) domain across diagnostic groups. Whereas participants with GAD demonstrated lower cardiac flexibility when implementing adaptive regulation strategies than when not given specific instructions on how to regulate, healthy controls showed the opposite pattern, suggesting they benefited from the use of adaptive regulation strategies. We discuss the implications of these findings for the delineation of emotion regulation deficits in psychopathology. PMID:22218164

  3. ADHD and Adaptability: The Roles of Cognitive, Behavioural, and Emotional Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Emma; Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptability has been recently proposed as cognitive, behavioural, and emotional regulation assisting individuals to effectively respond to change, uncertainty and novelty. Given students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have known impairments with regulatory functions, they may be at particular disadvantage as they seek to…

  4. Brain Networks Subserving Emotion Regulation and Adaptation after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    van der Horn, Harm J; Liemburg, Edith J; Aleman, André; Spikman, Jacoba M; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2016-01-01

    The majority of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustain a mild injury (mTBI). One out of 4 patients experiences persistent complaints, despite their often normal neuropsychological test results and the absence of structural brain damage on conventional neuroimaging. Susceptibility to develop persistent complaints is thought to be affected by interindividual differences in adaptation, which can also be influenced by preinjury psychological factors. Coping is a key construct of adaptation and refers to strategies to deal with new situations and serious life events. An important element of coping is the ability to regulate emotions and stress. The prefrontal cortex is a crucial area in this regulation process, given that it exerts a top-down influence on the amygdala and other subcortical structures involved in emotion processing. However, little is known about the role of the prefrontal cortex and associated brain networks in emotion regulation and adaptation post-mTBI. Especially, the influence of prefrontal dysfunction on development of persistent postconcussive complaints is poorly understood. In this article, we aim to integrate findings from functional and structural MRI studies on this topic. Alterations within the default mode, executive and salience network have been found in relation to complaints post-mTBI. Dysfunction of the medial prefrontal cortex may impair network dynamics for emotion regulation and adaptation post-mTBI, resulting in persistent post-concussive complaints. PMID:25962860

  5. Regulation of Emotions in Socially Challenging Learning Situations: An Instrument to Measure the Adaptive and Social Nature of the Regulation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvenoja, Hanna; Volet, Simone; Jarvela, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) research has conventionally relied on measures, which treat SRL as an aptitude. To study self-regulation and motivation in learning contexts as an ongoing adaptive process, situation-specific methods are needed in addition to static measures. This article presents an "Adaptive Instrument for Regulation of Emotions"…

  6. Chinese Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Child Version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Liang; Blue, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to validate a Chinese's adaption of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for children (CERQ-Ck). This self-report instrument evaluates nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies that can be used by children after experiencing a negative life event. The CERQ-Ck was evaluated in a sample of 1403 elementary students between the ages of 9 and 11 by using cluster sampling. All the item-correlation coefficients for CERQ-Ck were above 0.30. The internal consistencies of the nine factors suggested moderate reliability (0.66 to 0.73). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that the current version had the same structure as the original instrument (Tucker-Lewis index = 0.912, comparative fit index = 0.922, root mean square error of approximation = 0.032, standardized root mean square residual = 0.044). A second-order factor and a third-order factor structure were also found. Test-retest correlations (0.53 to 0.70, ps < 0.01) over a period of 1 month, which ranged from acceptable to moderately strong were obtained from a random and stratified subsample of elementary students (N = 76). In addition, we analyzed convergent validity in relation to CERQ-Ck and the Chinese version of the Children's Depression Inventory model dimensions with a subsample of 1083 elementary students. Multiple-group CFA confirmed the measurement invariance for both the male and female groups (ΔCFI < 0.01, ΔRMSEA < 0.015). Overall, results indicate that CERQ-Ck has similar psychometric properties to the original instrument as well as with adequate reliability and validity to investigate the nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies during late childhood developmental periods. PMID:26925586

  7. Chinese Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Child Version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Liang; Blue, Philip R.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to validate a Chinese’s adaption of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for children (CERQ-Ck). This self-report instrument evaluates nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies that can be used by children after experiencing a negative life event. The CERQ-Ck was evaluated in a sample of 1403 elementary students between the ages of 9 and 11 by using cluster sampling. All the item-correlation coefficients for CERQ-Ck were above 0.30. The internal consistencies of the nine factors suggested moderate reliability (0.66 to 0.73). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that the current version had the same structure as the original instrument (Tucker–Lewis index = 0.912, comparative fit index = 0.922, root mean square error of approximation = 0.032, standardized root mean square residual = 0.044). A second-order factor and a third-order factor structure were also found. Test–retest correlations (0.53 to 0.70, ps < 0.01) over a period of 1 month, which ranged from acceptable to moderately strong were obtained from a random and stratified subsample of elementary students (N = 76). In addition, we analyzed convergent validity in relation to CERQ-Ck and the Chinese version of the Children’s Depression Inventory model dimensions with a subsample of 1083 elementary students. Multiple-group CFA confirmed the measurement invariance for both the male and female groups (ΔCFI < 0.01, ΔRMSEA < 0.015). Overall, results indicate that CERQ-Ck has similar psychometric properties to the original instrument as well as with adequate reliability and validity to investigate the nine cognitive emotion regulation strategies during late childhood developmental periods. PMID:26925586

  8. Targeting Vulnerabilities to Risky Behavior: An Intervention for Promoting Adaptive Emotion Regulation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claro, Anthony; Boulanger, Marie-Michelle; Shaw, Steven R.

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined the effectiveness of an in-school intervention for adolescents designed to target emotional regulation skills related to risky behaviors. The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Intended for Youth (CERTIFY) program was delivered to at-risk adolescents in Montreal, Canada. Participants were drawn from an alternative high school and a…

  9. Adaptive Associations between Social Cognition and Emotion Regulation are Absent in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Jesseca E.; Hamilton, Meelah K.; Vella, Nicholas; Lino, Bianca J.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Green, Melissa J.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with impairments in facial emotion perception and Theory of Mind (ToM). These social cognitive skills deficits may be related to a reduced capacity to effectively regulate one’s own emotions according to the social context. We therefore set out to examine the relationship between social cognitive abilities and the use of cognitive strategies for regulating negative emotion in SZ and BD. Participants were 56 SZ, 33 BD, and 58 healthy controls (HC) who completed the Ekman 60-faces test of facial emotion recognition; a sub-set of these participants also completed The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). SZ participants demonstrated impairments in emotion perception on both the Ekman and the TASIT Emotion Evaluation tests relative to BD and HC. While both SZ and BD patients showed ToM deficits (i.e., perception of sarcasm and lie) compared to HC, SZ patients demonstrated significantly greater ToM impairment compared to BD. There were also distinct patterns of cognitive strategies used to regulate emotion in both patient groups: those with SZ were more likely to engage in catastrophizing and rumination, while BD subjects were more likely to blame themselves and were less likely to engage in positive reappraisal, relative to HC. In addition, those with SZ were more likely to blame others compared to BD. Associations between social cognition and affect regulation were revealed for HC only: TASIT performance was negatively associated with more frequent use of rumination, catastrophizing, and blaming others, such that more frequent use of maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies was associated with poor social cognitive performance. These associations were not present in either patient group. However, both SZ and BD patients demonstrated poor ToM performance and aberrant use of emotion regulation strategies consistent with previous

  10. Maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation through music: a behavioral and neuroimaging study of males and females.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non-music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy.

  11. Maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation through music: a behavioral and neuroimaging study of males and females

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non-music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy. PMID:26379529

  12. Maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation through music: a behavioral and neuroimaging study of males and females.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non-music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy. PMID:26379529

  13. When to throw the switch: The adaptiveness of modifying emotion regulation strategies based on affective and physiological feedback.

    PubMed

    Birk, Jeffrey L; Bonanno, George A

    2016-08-01

    Particular emotion regulation (ER) strategies are beneficial in certain contexts, but little is known about the adaptiveness of switching strategies after implementing an initial strategy. Research and theory on regulatory flexibility suggest that people switch strategies dynamically and that internal states provide feedback indicating when switches are appropriate. Frequent switching may predict positive outcomes among people who respond to this feedback. We investigated whether internal feedback (particularly corrugator activity, heart rate, or subjective negative intensity) guides people to switch to an optimal (i.e., distraction) but not nonoptimal (i.e., reappraisal) strategy for regulating strong emotion. We also tested whether switching frequency and responsiveness to internal feedback (RIF) together predict well-being. While attempting to regulate emotion elicited by unpleasant pictures, participants could switch to an optimal (Study 1; reappraisal-to-distraction order; N = 90) or nonoptimal (Study 2; distraction-to-reappraisal order; N = 95) strategy for high-arousal emotion. A RIF score for each emotion measure indexed the relative strength of emotion during the initial phase for trials on which participants later switched strategies. As hypothesized, negative intensity, corrugator activity, and the magnitude of heart rate deceleration during this early phase were higher on switch than maintain trials in Study 1 only. Critically, in Study 1 only, greater switching frequency predicted higher and lower life satisfaction for participants with high and low corrugator RIF, respectively, even after controlling for reappraisal success. Individual differences in RIF may contribute to subjective well-being provided that the direction of strategy switching aligns well with regulatory preferences for high emotion. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26900993

  14. When is emotional contagion adaptive?

    PubMed

    Nakahashi, Wataru; Ohtsuki, Hisashi

    2015-09-01

    Empathy plays an important role in animal social behavior. Since emotional contagion forms one of the bases of empathy, here we study conditions for emotional contagion to be adaptive, compared with other behavioral rules such as behavioral mimicry. We consider the situation where the focal individual (=observer) reacts to a behavior of another individual (=demonstrator). By emotional contagion one spontaneously copies the emotional state of the demonstrator and takes a behavior driven by that emotion. By behavioral mimicry, in contrast, one copies the behavior of the demonstrator itself. Through mathematical models we show that emotional contagion is adaptive when the environmental similarity between the demonstrator and the observer is intermediate. The advantage of adopting emotional contagion over behavioral mimicry increases when observing others' behavior is difficult or cognitively demanding. We show that emotional contagion is often a more flexible strategy than behavioral mimicry in order to cope with the living environment. In other words, emotional contagion often works as a better social learning strategy. These results suggest some ecological conditions that would favor the evolution of emotional contagion, and give a part of the explanations of why emotional contagion is frequently observed in group-living animals.

  15. Emotional context, maternal behavior and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the importance of emotion-eliciting context (positive and negative) and mother's behaviors (constrained and involved) on toddlers' emotion regulation behavioral strategies, emotional expressiveness and intensity, during three episodes eliciting fear, frustration/anger and positive affect. Fifty-five children between 18 and 26 months of age and their mothers participated in the study. Toddlers' regulatory strategies varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited behavioral strategies more frequently during positive affect and frustration/anger episodes and less frequently during fear episodes) and maternal involvement. Toddlers' expression of emotion varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited more emotional expressions, both negative and positive during fear and frustration/anger episodes compared to positive affect episodes). Toddlers' expression of emotion was not strongly related to maternal involvement, however, the intensity of emotional expression was related to the interaction of context and maternal involvement.

  16. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  17. Emotion Regulation and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cisler, Josh M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the construct of emotion regulation is important for understanding the onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. In this review, we provide a selective overview of this emerging field and highlight the major sources of evidence. First, evidence suggests that the construct of emotion regulation can be differentiated from the construct of emotion. Second, there is a large and consistent body of research demonstrating that emotion regulation strategies can modulate emotional responding, and this finding is observed in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Third, measures of emotion regulation explain incremental variance in measures of anxiety disorder symptoms not accounted for by measures of negative affect. Although the research implicating emotion regulation in the anxiety disorders is promising, future research will be necessary to further clarify causal mechanisms explaining how emotion regulation confers vulnerability for anxiety disorders and to improve the clarity and consistency of definitions of emotion regulation. PMID:22392595

  18. Emotional mimicry as social regulation.

    PubMed

    Hess, Ursula; Fischer, Agneta

    2013-05-01

    Emotional mimicry is the imitation of the emotional expressions of others. According to the classic view on emotional mimicry (the Matched Motor Hypothesis), people mimic the specific facial movements that comprise a discrete emotional expression. However, little evidence exists for the mimicry of discrete emotions; rather, the extant evidence supports only valence-based mimicry. We propose an alternative Emotion Mimicry in Context view according to which emotional mimicry is not based on mere perception but rather on the interpretation of signals as emotional intentions in a specific context. We present evidence for the idea that people mimic contextualized emotions rather than simply expressive muscle movements. Our model postulates that (implicit or explicit) contextual information is needed for emotional mimicry to take place. It takes into account the relationship between observer and expresser, and suggests that emotional mimicry depends on this relationship and functions as a social regulator.

  19. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers’ emotion coaching and children’s emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children’s adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Dyads completed questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated with children’s emotion regulation, which in turn was related to higher mother-reported adaptive skills, higher child-reported internalizing symptoms, and lower child-reported adjustment. When children were high in emotion lability/negativity, mothers’ emotion coaching was associated with lower mother and child reports of externalizing behavior. Results suggest the role of emotion regulation and emotion lability in child awareness of socio-emotional problems and support the potential of maternal emotion coaching as a protective factor for children with ODD, especially for those high in emotion lability. PMID:24187441

  20. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

    PubMed

    Dunsmore, Julie C; Booker, Jordan A; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2013-08-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). Dyads completed questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching was associated with children's emotion regulation, which in turn was related to higher mother-reported adaptive skills, higher child-reported internalizing symptoms, and lower child-reported adjustment. When children were high in emotion lability/negativity, mothers' emotion coaching was associated with lower mother and child reports of externalizing behavior. Results suggest the role of emotion regulation and emotion lability in child awareness of socio-emotional problems and support the potential of maternal emotion coaching as a protective factor for children with ODD, especially for those high in emotion lability.

  1. Adrenocortical Activity and Emotion Regulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansbury, Kathy; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1994-01-01

    This essay argues that the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system does not appear to be related to emotion regulation processes in children, although individual differences in emotion processes related to negative emotion temperaments appear to be associated with individual differences in HPA reactivity among normally…

  2. Mothers' responses to children's negative emotions and child emotion regulation: the moderating role of vagal suppression.

    PubMed

    Perry, Nicole B; Calkins, Susan D; Nelson, Jackie A; Leerkes, Esther M; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-07-01

    The current study examined the moderating effect of children's cardiac vagal suppression on the association between maternal socialization of negative emotions (supportive and nonsupportive responses) and children's emotion regulation behaviors. One hundred and ninety-seven 4-year-olds and their mothers participated. Mothers reported on their reactions to children's negative emotions and children's regulatory behaviors. Observed distraction, an adaptive self-regulatory strategy, and vagal suppression were assessed during a laboratory task designed to elicit frustration. Results indicated that children's vagal suppression moderated the association between mothers' nonsupportive emotion socialization and children's emotion regulation behaviors such that nonsupportive reactions to negative emotions predicted lower observed distraction and lower reported emotion regulation behaviors when children displayed lower levels of vagal suppression. No interaction was found between supportive maternal emotion socialization and vagal suppression for children's emotion regulation behaviors. Results suggest physiological regulation may serve as a buffer against nonsupportive emotion socialization.

  3. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Grillon, Christian; Quispe-Escudero, David; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2015-06-01

    Because healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over 2 separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented with neutral and negative pictures, with instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotional reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation.

  4. Follow your heart: Emotion adaptively influences perception

    PubMed Central

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Gagnon, Kyle T.; Lessard, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The current review introduces a new program of research that suggests the perception of spatial layout is influenced by emotions. Though perceptual systems are often described as closed and insulated, this review presents research suggesting that a variety of induced emotions (e.g., fear, disgust, sadness) can produce changes in vision and audition. Thus, the perceptual system may be highly interconnected, allowing emotional information to influence perceptions that, in turn, influence cognition. The body of work presented here also suggests that emotion-based changes in perception help us solve particular adaptive problems because emotion does not change all perceptions of the world. Taking the adaptive significance of emotion into account allows us to make predictions about when and how emotion influences perception. PMID:21731579

  5. Making Mistakes: Emotional Adaptation and Classroom Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Mary; Vriesema, Christine C.; Burggraf, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background: We studied how students in Grades 4-6 participate in and emotionally adapt to the give-and-take of learning in classrooms, particularly when making mistakes. Our approach is consistent with researchers who (a) include cognitive appraisals in the study of emotional experiences, (b) consider how personal concerns might mediate…

  6. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  7. Fixing our focus: Training attention to regulate emotion

    PubMed Central

    Wadlinger, Heather A.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies have frequently linked negative attentional biases with attentional dysfunction and negative moods; however, far less research has focused on how attentional deployment can be an adaptive strategy that regulates emotional experience. We argue that attention may be an invaluable tool for promoting emotion regulation. Accordingly, we present evidence that selective attention to positive information reflects emotion regulation, and that regulating attention is a critical component of the emotion regulatory process. Furthermore, attentional regulation can be successfully trained through repeated practice. We ultimately propose a model of attention training methodologies integrating attention-dependent emotion regulation strategies with attention networks. While additional interdisciplinary research is needed to bolster these nascent findings, meditative practices appear to be among the most effective training methodologies in enhancing emotional well-being. Further exploration of the positive and therapeutic qualities of attention warrants the empirical attention of social and personality psychologists. PMID:20435804

  8. Relating empathy and emotion regulation: do deficits in empathy trigger emotion dysregulation?

    PubMed

    Schipper, Marc; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Emotion regulation is a crucial skill in adulthood; its acquisition represents one of the key developmental tasks in early childhood. Difficulties with adaptive emotion regulation increase the risk of psychopathology in childhood and adulthood. This is, for instance, shown by a relation between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age, indicating emotion dysregulation as an important risk factor of aggressive behavior and potential precursor of psychopathology. Based on (1) interrelations between emotion processes and social information processing (maladaptive emotion regulation and social information processing are associated with higher levels of aggression) and (2) recent neuroscientific findings showing that empathy deficits might not only result in difficulties labeling others' emotions but one's own emotions too, we suggest that empathy deficits might serve as potential trigger of emotion dysregulation. Different studies investigating the relation between empathy and emotion regulation are presented and discussed. Discussions are based on the assumed potential of empathy deficits triggering emotion dysregulation. Furthermore, developmental neuroscientific findings on empathy and emotion regulation are highlighted which provide further insights on how these processes might relate. Finally, possible directions for future research are presented. PMID:23327297

  9. Relating empathy and emotion regulation: do deficits in empathy trigger emotion dysregulation?

    PubMed

    Schipper, Marc; Petermann, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Emotion regulation is a crucial skill in adulthood; its acquisition represents one of the key developmental tasks in early childhood. Difficulties with adaptive emotion regulation increase the risk of psychopathology in childhood and adulthood. This is, for instance, shown by a relation between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age, indicating emotion dysregulation as an important risk factor of aggressive behavior and potential precursor of psychopathology. Based on (1) interrelations between emotion processes and social information processing (maladaptive emotion regulation and social information processing are associated with higher levels of aggression) and (2) recent neuroscientific findings showing that empathy deficits might not only result in difficulties labeling others' emotions but one's own emotions too, we suggest that empathy deficits might serve as potential trigger of emotion dysregulation. Different studies investigating the relation between empathy and emotion regulation are presented and discussed. Discussions are based on the assumed potential of empathy deficits triggering emotion dysregulation. Furthermore, developmental neuroscientific findings on empathy and emotion regulation are highlighted which provide further insights on how these processes might relate. Finally, possible directions for future research are presented.

  10. Emotion Regulation in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suveg, Cynthia; Zeman, Janice

    2004-01-01

    This study examined emotion management skills in addition to the role of emotional intensity and self-efficacy in emotion regulation in 26 children with anxiety disorders (ADs) ages 8 to 12 years and their counterparts without any form of psychopathology. Children completed the Children's Emotion Management Scales (CEMS) and Emotion Regulation…

  11. Adaptive emotional memory: the key hippocampal-amygdalar interaction.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, Aline; Marighetto, Aline; Richter-Levin, Gal; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    For centuries philosophical and clinical studies have emphasized a fundamental dichotomy between emotion and cognition, as, for instance, between behavioral/emotional memory and explicit/representative memory. However, the last few decades cognitive neuroscience have highlighted data indicating that emotion and cognition, as well as their underlying neural networks, are in fact in close interaction. First, it turns out that emotion can serve cognition, as exemplified by its critical contribution to decision-making or to the enhancement of episodic memory. Second, it is also observed that reciprocally cognitive processes as reasoning, conscious appraisal or explicit representation of events can modulate emotional responses, like promoting or reducing fear. Third, neurobiological data indicate that reciprocal amygdalar-hippocampal influences underlie such mutual regulation of emotion and cognition. While supporting this view, the present review discusses experimental data, obtained in rodents, indicating that the hippocampal and amygdalar systems not only regulate each other and their functional outcomes, but also qualify specific emotional memory representations through specific activations and interactions. Specifically, we review consistent behavioral, electrophysiological, pharmacological, biochemical and imaging data unveiling a direct contribution of both the amygdala and hippocampal-septal system to the identification of the predictor of a threat in different situations of fear conditioning. Our suggestion is that these two brain systems and their interplay determine the selection of relevant emotional stimuli, thereby contributing to the adaptive value of emotional memory. Hence, beyond the mutual quantitative regulation of these two brain systems described so far, we develop the idea that different activations of the hippocampus and amygdala, leading to specific configurations of neural activity, qualitatively impact the formation of emotional memory

  12. Emotion regulation interventions: a common-sense model approach.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Linda D; Jago, Lana

    2008-05-01

    We present an expanded common-sense model of self-regulation that delineates emotion regulation strategies for coping with illness-related distress, and we describe how it can be used to design self-regulation interventions for promoting adjustment and well-being. Two therapeutic interventions guided by this model are reviewed: a self-regulation writing technique for promoting adaptation to stressful experiences and an emotion regulation intervention for women with breast cancer. The implications of these and related studies for designing self-regulation interventions are discussed. Therapeutic interventions must give appropriate attention to both problem-focused regulation and emotional regulation processes in order to confer optimal benefits for individuals with physical health conditions. This expanded model can be used to synthesize findings from the growing body of research on emotion regulation, formulate new hypotheses, and identify constructs to manipulate and assess in health intervention research.

  13. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms in Preadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siener, Shannon; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined associations among several measures of emotion regulation, and their links to depressive symptoms, in a sample of children ages 10-12 years old (N = 87). Both temporal features of emotion regulation and regulation processes involved in the evaluation, monitoring, and modification of emotion were assessed through parent and…

  14. Multiple-Family Group Intervention for Incarcerated Male Adolescents Who Sexually Offend and Their Families: Change in Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Predicts Adaptive Change in Adolescent Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Keiley, Margaret K; Zaremba-Morgan, Ali; Datubo-Brown, Christiana; Pyle, Raven; Cox, Milira

    2015-07-01

    The multiple-family group intervention is an effective, yet affordable, 8-week treatment that is conducted in a juvenile correctional institution in Alabama with adolescents who sexually offend and their families. Data from 115 incarcerated male adolescents and their male and female caregivers collected at pre-, post-, and 1-year follow-up were used to determine that problem behaviors (internalizing, externalizing) decreased over pre- and posttest and the significant decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation predicted those changes. Adolescent-reported anxiety over abandonment and attachment dependence on parents increased significantly; these changes were predicted by decreases in maladaptive emotion regulation. Linear growth models were also fit over the 3 time points and indicate decreases in adolescent problem behavior and maladaptive emotion regulation. PMID:24809985

  15. Emotion regulation through execution, observation, and imagery of emotional movements

    PubMed Central

    Shafir, Tal; Taylor, Stephan F.; Atkinson, Anthony P.; Langenecker, Scott A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2014-01-01

    According to Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis, emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with subjective feelings. This proposition implies a corollary that the deliberate control of motor behavior could regulate feelings. We tested this possibility, hypothesizing that engaging in movements associated with a certain emotion would enhance that emotion and/or the corresponding valence. Furthermore, because motor imagery and observation are thought to activate the same mirror-neuron network engaged during motor execution, they might also activate the same emotional processing circuits, leading to similar emotional effects. Therefore, we measured the effects of motor execution, motor imagery and observation of whole-body dynamic expressions of emotions (happiness, sadness, fear) on affective state. All three tasks enhanced the corresponding affective state, indicating their potential to regulate emotions. PMID:23561915

  16. Emotion Regulation in Sexually Abused Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Rachel; Cossette, Louise; Hébert, Martine

    2016-02-01

    Emotion regulation is closely related to mental health in children and adults. Low emotion regulation competencies have been found in school-aged sexually abused girls. The aim of the present study was to investigate emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschool girls and boys using a multi-informant approach. Emotion regulation was assessed in 62 sexually abused and 65 non-abused preschoolers using the Emotion Regulation Checklist and the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. Both parents and educators reported lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused preschoolers, especially boys, than in non-abused children. The narrative task completed by the children also revealed lower emotion regulation competencies in sexually abused boys. These findings could have an important impact on intervention programs offered to these at-risk children. PMID:25724803

  17. Emotional intelligence: recognizing and regulating emotions.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Amy

    2005-04-01

    Occupational health nurses are in the unique position to influence health in the work force. To maximize this positive health influence, occupational health nurses should develop the skills of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence includes awareness of self and others and empathy. These behaviors are congruent with the mission of nursing because they improve health outcomes. Occupational health nurses who are emotionally intelligent have improved relationships with others, an important aspect of the nursing role. Emotional intelligence can be developed. The process begins with self-awareness, enhanced through self-care behaviors, such as exercise and journaling. Reading popular self-help literature also can improve self-awareness. After a nurse becomes self-aware, the next phase is to develop an awareness of others. This can be learned using the same type of techniques in the self-awareness stage. The final step is the development of empathy. This is the active step using the knowledge developed in the prior two stages. Through discipline and effort, an individual can learn to actively listen to others. This type of listening fosters empathy. By working in a positive, caring environment, personal growth in emotional intelligence can be enhanced (McMullen, 2003). Through the development of emotional intelligence, the nurse can improve personally and professionally, a win-win situation for all involved.

  18. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  19. Incidental emotions in moral dilemmas: the influence of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Raluca D; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories have argued that emotions play a central role in moral decision-making and suggested that emotion regulation may be crucial in reducing emotion-linked biases. The present studies focused on the influence of emotional experience and individual differences in emotion regulation on moral choice in dilemmas that pit harming another person against social welfare. During these "harm to save" moral dilemmas, participants experienced mostly fear and sadness but also other emotions such as compassion, guilt, anger, disgust, regret and contempt (Study 1). Fear and disgust were more frequently reported when participants made deontological choices, whereas regret was more frequently reported when participants made utilitarian choices. In addition, habitual reappraisal negatively predicted deontological choices, and this effect was significantly carried through emotional arousal (Study 2). Individual differences in the habitual use of other emotion regulation strategies (i.e., acceptance, rumination and catastrophising) did not influence moral choice. The results of the present studies indicate that negative emotions are commonly experienced during "harm to save" moral dilemmas, and they are associated with a deontological bias. By efficiently reducing emotional arousal, reappraisal can attenuate the emotion-linked deontological bias in moral choice.

  20. Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network

    PubMed Central

    Viviani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom

  1. Boredom proneness and emotion regulation predict emotional eating.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Amanda C; Myhre, Samantha K; Rokke, Paul D

    2015-05-01

    Emotional eating is considered a risk factor for eating disorders and an important contributor to obesity and its associated health problems. It has been suggested that boredom may be an important contributor to overeating, but has received relatively little attention. A sample of 552 college students was surveyed. Linear regression analyses found that proneness to boredom and difficulties in emotion regulation simultaneously predicted inappropriate eating behavior, including eating in response to boredom, other negative emotions, and external cues. The unique contributions of these variables to emotional eating were discussed. These findings help to further identify which individuals could be at risk for emotional eating and potentially for unhealthy weight gain. PMID:25903253

  2. Emotion recognition and regulation in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Amy; Sullivan, Sarah; Tchanturia, Kate; Treasure, Janet

    2009-01-01

    It is recognized that emotional problems lie at the core of eating disorders (EDs) but scant attention has been paid to specific aspects such as emotional recognition, regulation and expression. This study aimed to investigate emotion recognition using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) task and emotion regulation using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) in 20 women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and 20 female healthy controls (HCs). Women with AN had significantly lower scores on RME and reported significantly more difficulties with emotion regulation than HCs. There was a significant negative correlation between total DERS score and correct answers from the RME. These results suggest that women with AN have difficulties with emotional recognition and regulation. It is uncertain whether these deficits result from starvation and to what extent they might be reversed by weight gain alone. These deficits may need to be targeted in treatment.

  3. Flexibility and attractors in context: family emotion socialization patterns and children's emotion regulation in late childhood.

    PubMed

    Lunkenheimer, Erika S; Hollenstein, Tom; Wang, Jun; Shields, Ann M

    2012-07-01

    Familial emotion socialization practices relate to children's emotion regulation (ER) skills in late childhood, however, we have more to learn about how the context and structure of these interactions relates to individual differences in children's ER. The present study examined flexibility and attractors in family emotion socialization patterns in three different conversational contexts and their relation to ER in 8-12 year olds. Flexibility was defined as dispersion across the repertoire of discrete emotion words and emotion socialization functions (emotion coaching, dismissing, and elaboration) in family conversation, whereas attractors were defined as the average duration per visit to each of these three emotion socialization functions using state space grid analysis. It was hypothesized that higher levels of flexibility in emotion socialization would buffer children's ER from the presence of maladaptive attractors, or the absence of adaptive attractors, in family emotion conversation. Flexibility was generally adaptive, related to children's higher ER across all contexts, and also buffered children from maladaptive attractors in select situations. Findings suggest that the study of dynamic interaction patterns in context may reveal adaptive versus maladaptive socialization processes in the family that can inform basic and applied research on children's regulatory problems.

  4. The neural bases of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Etkin, Amit; Büchel, Christian; Gross, James J

    2015-11-01

    Emotions are powerful determinants of behaviour, thought and experience, and they may be regulated in various ways. Neuroimaging studies have implicated several brain regions in emotion regulation, including the ventral anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, as well as the lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices. Drawing on computational approaches to value-based decision-making and reinforcement learning, we propose a unifying conceptual framework for understanding the neural bases of diverse forms of emotion regulation. PMID:26481098

  5. Why Do People Regulate Their Emotions? A Taxonomy of Motives in Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Maya

    2016-08-01

    Emotion regulation involves the pursuit of desired emotional states (i.e., emotion goals) in the service of superordinate motives. The nature and consequences of emotion regulation, therefore, are likely to depend on the motives it is intended to serve. Nonetheless, limited attention has been devoted to studying what motivates emotion regulation. By mapping the potential benefits of emotion to key human motives, this review identifies key classes of motives in emotion regulation. The proposed taxonomy distinguishes between hedonic motives that target the immediate phenomenology of emotions, and instrumental motives that target other potential benefits of emotions. Instrumental motives include behavioral, epistemic, social, and eudaimonic motives. The proposed taxonomy offers important implications for understanding the mechanism of emotion regulation, variation across individuals and contexts, and psychological function and dysfunction, and points to novel research directions.

  6. Maternal depressive symptoms, toddler emotion regulation, and subsequent emotion socialization.

    PubMed

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2016-03-01

    Although many studies have examined how maternal depressive symptoms relate to parenting outcomes, less work has examined how symptoms affect emotion socialization, a parenting construct linked to a myriad of socioemotional outcomes in early childhood. In line with a transactional perspective on the family, it is also important to understand how children contribute to these emotional processes. The current study examined how toddler emotion regulation strategies moderated the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization responses, including nonsupportive responses (e.g., minimizing, responding punitively to children's negative emotions) and wish-granting, or the degree to which mothers give in to their children's demands in order to decrease their children's and their own distress. Mothers (n = 91) and their 24-month-old toddlers participated in laboratory tasks from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors were observed. Mothers reported depressive symptoms and use of maladaptive emotion socialization strategies concurrently and at a 1-year follow-up. The predictive relation between maternal depressive symptoms and emotion socialization was then examined in the context of toddlers' emotion regulation. Toddlers' increased use of caregiver-focused regulation interacted with depressive symptoms in predicting increased wish-granting socialization responses at 36 months. At high levels of toddlers' caregiver-focused regulation, depressive symptoms related to increased wish-granting socialization at 36 months. There was no relation for nonsupportive socialization responses. Results suggest that toddler emotional characteristics influence how depressive symptoms may put mothers at risk for maladaptive parenting. Family psychologists must strive to understand the role of both parent and toddler characteristics within problematic emotional interactions.

  7. Emotion regulation predicts symptoms of depression over five years.

    PubMed

    Berking, Matthias; Wirtz, Carolin M; Svaldi, Jennifer; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2014-06-01

    Deficits in emotion regulation have been identified as an important risk and maintaining factor for depression. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of emotion regulation on symptoms of depression. Moreover, we investigated which specific emotion regulation skills were associated with subsequent symptoms of depression. Participants were 116 individuals (78% women, average age 35.2 years) who registered for an online-based assessment of depression and its risk-factors and reported at least some symptoms of depression. Successful application of emotion regulation skills and depressive symptom severity were assessed twice over a 5-year period. We utilized cross-lagged panel analyses to assess whether successful skills application would be negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptom severity. Cross-lagged panel analyses identified successful skills application as a significant predictor for depressive symptom severity even when controlling for the effects of initial symptoms of depression. A comparison of the effect sizes for different emotion regulation skills on subsequent depressive symptoms suggests that most of the skills included have similar predictive value. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the hypotheses that deficits in emotion regulation may contribute to the development of depression and that interventions systematically enhancing adaptive emotion regulation skills may help prevent and treat depressive symptoms.

  8. Teachers' Emotion Regulation and Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Rosemary E.; Mudrey-Camino, Renee; Knight, Catharine C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a series of studies on teachers' attempts to modify the intensity and duration of their emotions, and how their emotions are expressed in the classroom. Among the important findings is that teachers practice emotion regulation because they believe it makes them more effective in management, discipline, and their…

  9. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    PubMed

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way. PMID:26032031

  10. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    PubMed

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.

  11. Social regulation of emotion: messy layers.

    PubMed

    Kappas, Arvid

    2013-01-01

    Emotions are evolved systems of intra- and interpersonal processes that are regulatory in nature, dealing mostly with issues of personal or social concern. They regulate social interaction and in extension, the social sphere. In turn, processes in the social sphere regulate emotions of individuals and groups. In other words, intrapersonal processes project in the interpersonal space, and inversely, interpersonal experiences deeply influence intrapersonal processes. Thus, I argue that the concepts of emotion generation and regulation should not be artificially separated. Similarly, interpersonal emotions should not be reduced to interacting systems of intraindividual processes. Instead, we can consider emotions at different social levels, ranging from dyads to large scale e-communities. The interaction between these levels is complex and does not only involve influences from one level to the next. In this sense the levels of emotion/regulation are messy and a challenge for empirical study. In this article, I discuss the concepts of emotions and regulation at different intra- and interpersonal levels. I extend the concept of auto-regulation of emotions (Kappas, 2008, 2011a,b) to social processes. Furthermore, I argue for the necessity of including mediated communication, particularly in cyberspace in contemporary models of emotion/regulation. Lastly, I suggest the use of concepts from systems dynamics and complex systems to tackle the challenge of the "messy layers." PMID:23424049

  12. Social regulation of emotion: messy layers

    PubMed Central

    Kappas, Arvid

    2013-01-01

    Emotions are evolved systems of intra- and interpersonal processes that are regulatory in nature, dealing mostly with issues of personal or social concern. They regulate social interaction and in extension, the social sphere. In turn, processes in the social sphere regulate emotions of individuals and groups. In other words, intrapersonal processes project in the interpersonal space, and inversely, interpersonal experiences deeply influence intrapersonal processes. Thus, I argue that the concepts of emotion generation and regulation should not be artificially separated. Similarly, interpersonal emotions should not be reduced to interacting systems of intraindividual processes. Instead, we can consider emotions at different social levels, ranging from dyads to large scale e-communities. The interaction between these levels is complex and does not only involve influences from one level to the next. In this sense the levels of emotion/regulation are messy and a challenge for empirical study. In this article, I discuss the concepts of emotions and regulation at different intra- and interpersonal levels. I extend the concept of auto-regulation of emotions (Kappas, 2008, 2011a,b) to social processes. Furthermore, I argue for the necessity of including mediated communication, particularly in cyberspace in contemporary models of emotion/regulation. Lastly, I suggest the use of concepts from systems dynamics and complex systems to tackle the challenge of the “messy layers.” PMID:23424049

  13. Emotions, Cognitions, and Well-Being: The Role of Perfectionism, Emotional Overexcitability, and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Simon-Dack, Stephanie L.; Beduna, Kerry N.; Williams, Cady C.; Esche, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined interrelationships among emotional overexcitability, perfectionism, emotion regulation, and subjective well-being. Dabrowski and Piechowski's theoretical conceptualization of overexcitabilities and J. J. Gross and John's constructs of emotion regulation strategies provided a framework to guide hypotheses in the present…

  14. How Is Emotional Awareness Related to Emotion Regulation Strategies and Self-Reported Negative Affect in the General Population?

    PubMed Central

    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E.; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D.; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. Sample and Methods A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. Results LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Discussion Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The

  15. Emotion-Related Regulation: Sharpening the Definition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2004-01-01

    Cole, Martin, and Dennis (this issue) considered many important conceptual and methodological issues in their discussion of emotion regulation. Although it may be necessary to develop an integrated definition of the construct of emotion regulation, the definition provided in the Cole et al. article is too encompassing. It is important to…

  16. Parent-Child Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumariu, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Given the centrality of both parent-child attachment and emotion regulation in children's development and adjustment, it is important to evaluate the relations between these constructs. This article discusses conceptual and empirical links between attachment and emotion regulation in middle childhood, highlights progress and challenges in the…

  17. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes. PMID:25332404

  18. Implicit emotion regulation affects outcome evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiwei; Tang, Ping; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Wenbo; Luo, Yue-jia

    2015-06-01

    Efficient implicit emotion regulation processes, which run without awareness, are important for human well-being. In this study, to investigate the influence of implicit emotion regulation on psychological and electrophysiological responses to gains and losses, participants were required to select between two Chinese four-character idioms to match the meaning of the third one before they performed a monetary gambling task. According to whether their meanings were related to emotion regulation, the idioms fell into two categories. Event-related potentials and self-rating emotional experiences to outcome feedback were recorded during the task. Priming emotion regulation reduced subjective emotional experience to both gains and losses and the amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity, while the P3 component was not influenced. According to these results, we suggest that the application of implicit emotion regulation effectively modulated the subjective emotional experience and the motivational salience of current outcomes without the cost of cognitive resources. This study implicates the potential significance of implicit emotion regulation in decision-making processes.

  19. Trans fatty acid intake and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Megan E; Lee, Jerry W; Morton, Kelly R; Tonstad, Serena

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether there is a relationship between trans fatty acid intakes and emotion regulation, mediated by positive or negative affect. Archival data on 1699 men and 3293 women were used to measure trans fatty acid intake at baseline, positive, and negative affects and emotion regulation at follow-up. Higher trans fatty acid intake related to subsequent difficulties with emotional awareness (p = 0.045), clarity (p = 0.012), and regulation strategies (p = 0.009). Affect mediated these relationships. Lower trans fatty acid intake associated with increased positive and decreased negative affects which, in turn, associated with improved emotion regulation. Trans fatty acid intakes may be associated with subsequent ability to regulate emotions.

  20. Positive interventions: An emotion regulation perspective.

    PubMed

    Quoidbach, Jordi; Mikolajczak, Moïra; Gross, James J

    2015-05-01

    The rapid growth of the literature on positive interventions to increase "happiness" has suggested the need for an overarching conceptual framework to integrate the many and apparently disparate findings. In this review, we used the process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998) to organize the existing literature on positive interventions and to advance theory by clarifying the mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. We have proposed that positive emotions can be increased both in the short- and longer-term through 5 families of emotion regulation strategies (i.e., situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation), showing how these emotion regulation strategies can be applied before, during, and after positive emotional events. Regarding short-term increases in positive emotions, our review found that attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation strategies have received the most empirical support, whereas more work is needed to establish the effectiveness of situation selection and situation modification strategies. Regarding longer-term increases in positive emotions, strategies such as situation selection during an event and attentional deployment before, during, and after an event have received strong empirical support and are at the center of many positive interventions. However, more work is needed to establish the specific benefits of the other strategies, especially situation modification. We argue that our emotion regulation framework clarifies existing interventions and points the way for new interventions that might be used to increase positive emotions in both nonclinical and clinical populations.

  1. Emotions and Emotion Regulation in Breast Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Claire C.; Bishop, Brenden T.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    Emotional distress in cancer patients is an important outcome; however, emotional experience does not begin and end with emotion generation. Attempts to regulate emotions may lessen their potentially negative effects on physical and psychological well-being. Researchers have called for the study of emotion regulation (ER) in health psychology and psycho-oncology. Thus, this review has three aims. First, we discuss current understandings of emotion and ER across the cancer trajectory, including the principles of ER and methods for its assessment. Second, we present a model for examining the mediating effects of ER on psychosocial outcomes. Third, we “round out” the discussion with an example: new data on the role of ER in recurrent breast cancer. Taken together, these aims illustrate the impact of affective regulatory processes on cancer patients’ long-term outcomes. As survival rates increase, long-term follow-up studies are needed to characterize the dynamic, reciprocal effects of emotion and ER for cancer survivors. Further research on ER may help women with breast cancer better manage the challenges associated with diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27517969

  2. Emotions and Emotion Regulation in Breast Cancer Survivorship.

    PubMed

    Conley, Claire C; Bishop, Brenden T; Andersen, Barbara L

    2016-08-10

    Emotional distress in cancer patients is an important outcome; however, emotional experience does not begin and end with emotion generation. Attempts to regulate emotions may lessen their potentially negative effects on physical and psychological well-being. Researchers have called for the study of emotion regulation (ER) in health psychology and psycho-oncology. Thus, this review has three aims. First, we discuss current understandings of emotion and ER across the cancer trajectory, including the principles of ER and methods for its assessment. Second, we present a model for examining the mediating effects of ER on psychosocial outcomes. Third, we "round out" the discussion with an example: new data on the role of ER in recurrent breast cancer. Taken together, these aims illustrate the impact of affective regulatory processes on cancer patients' long-term outcomes. As survival rates increase, long-term follow-up studies are needed to characterize the dynamic, reciprocal effects of emotion and ER for cancer survivors. Further research on ER may help women with breast cancer better manage the challenges associated with diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Emotions and Emotion Regulation in Breast Cancer Survivorship.

    PubMed

    Conley, Claire C; Bishop, Brenden T; Andersen, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    Emotional distress in cancer patients is an important outcome; however, emotional experience does not begin and end with emotion generation. Attempts to regulate emotions may lessen their potentially negative effects on physical and psychological well-being. Researchers have called for the study of emotion regulation (ER) in health psychology and psycho-oncology. Thus, this review has three aims. First, we discuss current understandings of emotion and ER across the cancer trajectory, including the principles of ER and methods for its assessment. Second, we present a model for examining the mediating effects of ER on psychosocial outcomes. Third, we "round out" the discussion with an example: new data on the role of ER in recurrent breast cancer. Taken together, these aims illustrate the impact of affective regulatory processes on cancer patients' long-term outcomes. As survival rates increase, long-term follow-up studies are needed to characterize the dynamic, reciprocal effects of emotion and ER for cancer survivors. Further research on ER may help women with breast cancer better manage the challenges associated with diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27517969

  4. Emotional facial expressions reduce neural adaptation to face identity.

    PubMed

    Gerlicher, Anna M V; van Loon, Anouk M; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F; van der Leij, Andries R

    2014-05-01

    In human social interactions, facial emotional expressions are a crucial source of information. Repeatedly presented information typically leads to an adaptation of neural responses. However, processing seems sustained with emotional facial expressions. Therefore, we tested whether sustained processing of emotional expressions, especially threat-related expressions, would attenuate neural adaptation. Neutral and emotional expressions (happy, mixed and fearful) of same and different identity were presented at 3 Hz. We used electroencephalography to record the evoked steady-state visual potentials (ssVEP) and tested to what extent the ssVEP amplitude adapts to the same when compared with different face identities. We found adaptation to the identity of a neutral face. However, for emotional faces, adaptation was reduced, decreasing linearly with negative valence, with the least adaptation to fearful expressions. This short and straightforward method may prove to be a valuable new tool in the study of emotional processing.

  5. Emotional facial expressions reduce neural adaptation to face identity.

    PubMed

    Gerlicher, Anna M V; van Loon, Anouk M; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F; van der Leij, Andries R

    2014-05-01

    In human social interactions, facial emotional expressions are a crucial source of information. Repeatedly presented information typically leads to an adaptation of neural responses. However, processing seems sustained with emotional facial expressions. Therefore, we tested whether sustained processing of emotional expressions, especially threat-related expressions, would attenuate neural adaptation. Neutral and emotional expressions (happy, mixed and fearful) of same and different identity were presented at 3 Hz. We used electroencephalography to record the evoked steady-state visual potentials (ssVEP) and tested to what extent the ssVEP amplitude adapts to the same when compared with different face identities. We found adaptation to the identity of a neutral face. However, for emotional faces, adaptation was reduced, decreasing linearly with negative valence, with the least adaptation to fearful expressions. This short and straightforward method may prove to be a valuable new tool in the study of emotional processing. PMID:23512931

  6. The Role of Physiological Arousal in Time Perception: Psychophysiological Evidence from an Emotion Regulation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mella, N.; Conty, L.; Pouthas, V.

    2011-01-01

    Time perception, crucial for adaptive behavior, has been shown to be altered by emotion. An arousal-dependent mechanism is proposed to account for such an effect. Yet, physiological measure of arousal related with emotional timing is still lacking. We addressed this question using skin conductance response (SCR) in an emotion regulation paradigm.…

  7. Facets of emotional awareness and associations with emotion regulation and depression.

    PubMed

    Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J

    2015-06-01

    Emotion theories posit that effective emotion regulation depends upon the nuanced information provided by emotional awareness; attending to and understanding one's own emotions. Additionally, the strong associations between facets of emotional awareness and various forms of psychopathology may be partially attributable to associations with emotion regulation. These logically compelling hypotheses are largely uninvestigated, including which facets compose emotional awareness and how they relate to emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology. We used exploratory structural equation modeling of individual difference measures among a large adult sample (n = 919) recruited online. Results distinguished 4 facets of emotional awareness (type clarity, source clarity, involuntary attention to emotion, and voluntary attention to emotion) that were differentially associated with expressive suppression, acceptance of emotions, and cognitive reappraisal. Facets were associated with depression both directly and indirectly via associations with emotion regulation strategies. We discuss implications for theory and research on emotional awareness, emotion regulation, and psychopathology.

  8. Deficits in Emotion-Regulation Skills Predict Alcohol Use during and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berking, Matthias; Margraf, Matthias; Ebert, David; Wupperman, Peggilee; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Junghanns, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As emotion regulation is widely considered to be a primary motive in the misuse of alcohol, our aim in the study was to investigate whether deficits in adaptive emotion-regulation skills maintain alcohol dependence (AD). Method: A prospective study investigated whether emotion-regulation skills were associated with AD and whether these…

  9. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions. PMID:26244914

  10. Attachment's Links With Adolescents' Social Emotions: The Roles of Negative Emotionality and Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Tia Panfile; Laible, Deborah J; Augustine, Mairin; Robeson, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has attempted to explain the mechanisms through which parental attachment affects social and emotional outcomes (e.g., Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007 ; Panfile & Laible, 2012 ). The authors' goal was to examine negative emotionality and emotion regulation as mediators of the associations that attachment has with empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. One hundred forty-eight adolescents reported their parental attachment security, general levels of negative emotionality and abilities to regulate emotional responses, and tendencies to feel empathy, forgiveness, guilt, and jealousy. Results revealed that attachment security was associated with higher levels of empathy, forgiveness, and guilt, but lower levels of jealousy. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the links attachment shared with both empathy and guilt, such that higher levels of attachment security were linked with greater levels of emotion regulation, which led to greater levels of empathy and guilt. Alternatively, negative emotionality mediated the links attachment shared with both forgiveness and jealousy, such that higher levels of attachment security were associated with lower levels of negative emotionality, which in turn was linked to lower levels of forgiveness and higher levels of jealousy. This study provides a general picture of how attachment security may play a role in shaping an individual's levels of social emotions.

  11. Emotion Regulation and Impulsivity in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Liana R.N.; Grant, Jon E.; Odlaug, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Past research has linked both emotion regulation and impulsivity with the development and maintenance of addictions. However, no research has investigated the relationship between emotion regulation and impulsivity within young adults. In the present study, we analyzed 194 young adults (27.8% female; 21.3 ± 3.32 years old; 91.8% single; 85.1% Caucasian), grouping them as low, average, or high emotionally dysregulated, and compared self-reported impulsivity, impulsive behaviors (such as alcohol and substance use and gambling) and cognitive impulsivity. We hypothesized that those with high levels of emotion dysregulation would score higher on self-reported and cognitive impulsivity, and report more impulsive behaviors. Analysis indicated that compared to low, the high emotion dysregulation group scored significantly higher on two self-report measures of impulsivity, harm avoidance, and cognitive reasoning. No significant differences were found between groups in impulsive behaviors and cognitive impulsivity. Overall, this study highlights the relationship between emotion dysregulation and impulsivity, suggesting that emotion regulation may be an important factor to consider when assessing individuals at a higher risk for developing an addiction. PMID:22385661

  12. Relationship Between Emotions, Emotion Regulation, and Well-Being of Professional Caregivers of People With Dementia.

    PubMed

    Bassal, Catherine; Czellar, Judith; Kaiser, Susanne; Dan-Glauser, Elise S

    2016-05-01

    So far, limited research has been carried out to better understand the interplay between the emotions, the use of emotion regulation strategies, and the well-being of professional caregivers of People with Dementia (PwD). This pilot study (N = 43 professional caregivers) aimed to (1) describe the type and frequency of emotions experienced at work; (2) analyze the associations between experienced emotions, emotion regulation strategies, and well-being; and (3) test whether the use of specific emotion regulation strategies moderates the relationship between experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion. In the challenging context of professionally caring for PwD, results suggest that (1) caregivers experience positive emotions more frequently than negative emotions; (2) caregivers using relatively inappropriate regulation strategies are more likely to experience negative emotions, less likely to experience positive emotions, and have poorer physical and mental health; and (3) expressive suppression significantly moderates the relationship between positive experienced emotions and emotional exhaustion.

  13. Regulating emotion expression and regulating emotion experience: divergent associations with dimensions of attachment among older women.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Fiori, Katherine L; Magai, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Adult attachment research does not systematically distinguish between experiential and expressive forms of regulation. Drawing insights from developmental-functionalism - a lifespan theory of emotion and emotion regulation - the current report examined the relations among attachment, trait emotion, and expressive emotion regulation in a large (N = 1204) sample of older women. Although both preoccupation and fearful-avoidance predicted more anxiety and anger, preoccupation predicted greater fear withdrawal and less fear expression, while fearful-avoidance predicted greater fear expression and greater anger withdrawal; attachment security predicted less fear withdrawal and less anger expression. Importantly, results regarding expressive regulation held even when controlling for trait levels of the underlying emotion. Results are interpreted within the context of models of attachment and lifespan socioemotional functioning. It is suggested that attachment research may benefit from considering the distinct functions of experienced versus expressed emotion in developmentally diverse contexts. Limitations are discussed and directions for future research are given.

  14. Cognitive emotion regulation fails the stress test.

    PubMed

    Raio, Candace M; Orederu, Temidayo A; Palazzolo, Laura; Shurick, Ashley A; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2013-09-10

    Cognitive emotion regulation has been widely shown in the laboratory to be an effective way to alter the nature of emotional responses. Despite its success in experimental contexts, however, we often fail to use these strategies in everyday life where stress is pervasive. The successful execution of cognitive regulation relies on intact executive functioning and engagement of the prefrontal cortex, both of which are rapidly impaired by the deleterious effects of stress. Because it is specifically under stressful conditions that we may benefit most from such deliberate forms of emotion regulation, we tested the efficacy of cognitive regulation after stress exposure. Participants first underwent fear-conditioning, where they learned that one stimulus (CS+) predicted an aversive outcome but another predicted a neutral outcome (CS-). Cognitive regulation training directly followed where participants were taught to regulate fear responses to the aversive stimulus. The next day, participants underwent an acute stress induction or a control task before repeating the fear-conditioning task using these newly acquired regulation skills. Skin conductance served as an index of fear arousal, and salivary α-amylase and cortisol concentrations were assayed as neuroendocrine markers of stress response. Although groups showed no differences in fear arousal during initial fear learning, nonstressed participants demonstrated robust fear reduction following regulation training, whereas stressed participants showed no such reduction. Our results suggest that stress markedly impairs the cognitive regulation of emotion and highlights critical limitations of this technique to control affective responses under stress.

  15. Dampening or savoring positive emotions: a dialectical cultural script guides emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming

    2011-12-01

    Four studies examined the hypothesis that, although people may generally want to savor, rather than to dampen, their positive emotions (i.e., hedonic emotion regulation), such a hedonic emotion regulation tendency should be less pronounced for Easterners than for Westerners. Using retrospective memory procedures, Study 1 found that Easterners recalled engaging in hedonic emotion regulation less than Westerners did, even after controlling for their initial emotional reactions. Studies 2-3 showed that cultural differences in emotion regulation were mediated by dialectical beliefs about positive emotions. Study 4 replicated the findings by examining online reports of emotion regulation strategies on the day students received a good grade. Furthermore, there were cultural differences in actual emotion change over time, which was partly explained by dialectical beliefs about positive emotions. These findings highlight the active role cultural scripts play in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences.

  16. Multidimensional Assessment of Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Adolescents Using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Anna; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Gratz, Kim L.; Koot, Hans M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored the utility of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) in assessing adolescents' emotion regulation. Adolescents (11-17 years; N = 870) completed the DERS and measures of externalizing and internalizing problems. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested a similar factor structure in the adolescent sample of the…

  17. Emotion Regulation Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, David M.; Mennin, Douglas S.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Ritter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Despite the success of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBT) for emotional disorders, a sizable subgroup of patients with complex clinical presentations, such as patients with generalized anxiety disorder, fails to evidence adequate treatment response. Emotion Regulation Therapy (ERT) integrates facets of traditional and contemporary CBTs, mindfulness, and emotion-focused interventions within a framework that reflects basic and translational findings in affect science. Specifically, ERT is a mechanism-targeted intervention focusing on patterns of motivational dysfunction while cultivating emotion regulation skills. Open and randomized controlled psychotherapy trials have demonstrated considerable preliminary evidence for the utility of this approach as well as for the underlying proposed mechanisms. This article provides an illustration of ERT through the case of “William.” In particular, this article includes a case-conceptualization of William from an ERT perspective while describing the flow and progression of the ERT treatment approach. PMID:27499606

  18. Emotion Chat: A Web Chatroom with Emotion Regulation for E-Learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Deli; Tian, Feng; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Qinghua; Qin, Jiwei

    In order to compensate for lack of emotion communication between teachers and students in e-learning systems, we have designed and implemented the EmotionChat -- a web chatroom with emotion regulation. EmotionChat perceives e-learners' emotional states based on interactive text. And it recommends resources such as music, cartoons, and mottos to an e-learner when it detects negative emotional states. Meanwhile, it recommends emotion regulation cases to the e-learner's listeners and teachers. The result of our initial experiment shows that EmotionChat can recommend valuable emotion regulation policies for e-learners.

  19. Emotional intelligence and social and academic adaptation to school.

    PubMed

    Mestre, José M; Guil, Rocío; Lopes, Paulo N; Salovey, Peter; Gil-Olarte, Paloma

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 127 Spanish adolescents, the ability to understand and manage emotions, assessed by a performance measure of emotional intelligence (the MSCEIT), correlated positively with teacher ratings of academic achievement and adaptation for both males and females. Among girls, these emotional abilities also correlated positively with peer friendship nominations. After controlling for IQ and the Big Five personality traits, the ability to understand and manage emotions remained significantly associated with teacher ratings of academic adaptation among boys and peer friendship nominations among girls. Self-perceived emotional intelligence was unrelated to these criteria. These findings provide partial support for hypotheses that emotional abilities are associated with indicators of social and academic adaptation to school.

  20. Exploring Suitable Emotion-Focused Strategies in Helping Students to Regulate Their Emotional State in a Tutoring System: Malaysian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusoff, Mohd Zaliman Mohd; Zin, Nor Azan Mat

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study explored the suitable emotion-focused strategies in helping students to regulate their emotional state in a self-regulated tutoring system. Method: A questionnaire which consists of 25 different regulation strategies adapted from Way of Coping Questionnaire (WCQ) was used to determine the strategies deployed by the…

  1. Broadening the scope of research on emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in the study of emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology, researchers have predominantly focused on covert emotion regulation strategies-that is, those strategies that occur within the individual (e.g., cognitive reappraisal, suppression). Conversely, less attention has been devoted to the examination of the relationship between psychopathology and overt emotion regulation strategies (e.g., drinking alcohol, seeking advice). This has resulted in a limited understanding of the complex repertoire of emotion regulation strategies that individuals possess, and how patterns in the use of strategies might relate to psychopathology. We asked 218 undergraduates to report on their habitual use of 15 covert and overt emotion regulation strategies and symptoms of seven different mental disorders. Overt strategies were associated with symptoms and, at times, they predicted psychopathology above and beyond the more frequently studied covert strategies. These findings have implications for developing a more sophisticated understanding of patterns of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation.

  2. Leadership styles, emotion regulation, and burnout.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kara A; Connelly, Catherine E; Walsh, Megan M; Ginis, Kathleen A Martin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the potential impact of leadership style on leaders' emotional regulation strategies and burnout. Drawing on the full-range model of leadership and Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we tested whether transformational, contingent reward, management by exception-active and -passive, or laissez-faire leadership exert direct effects on leaders' reported use of surface acting, deep acting, and genuine emotion. In turn, we hypothesized and tested the indirect effect of leadership on burnout through surface acting. Three waves of data from 205 leaders were analyzed using OLS regression. Transformational leadership predicted deep acting and genuine emotion. Contingent reward predicted both surface and deep acting. Management by exception-active and -passive predicted surface acting, and laissez faire predicted genuine emotion. The indirect effects of management by exception-active and -passive on burnout through surface acting were not significant. Indirect effects of transformational leadership and laissez-faire on burnout through genuine emotion, however, were significant. This study provides empirical evidence for the hypothesized relationships between leadership style, emotion regulation, and burnout, and provides the basis for future research and theory building on this topic.

  3. Leadership styles, emotion regulation, and burnout.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Kara A; Connelly, Catherine E; Walsh, Megan M; Ginis, Kathleen A Martin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the potential impact of leadership style on leaders' emotional regulation strategies and burnout. Drawing on the full-range model of leadership and Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, we tested whether transformational, contingent reward, management by exception-active and -passive, or laissez-faire leadership exert direct effects on leaders' reported use of surface acting, deep acting, and genuine emotion. In turn, we hypothesized and tested the indirect effect of leadership on burnout through surface acting. Three waves of data from 205 leaders were analyzed using OLS regression. Transformational leadership predicted deep acting and genuine emotion. Contingent reward predicted both surface and deep acting. Management by exception-active and -passive predicted surface acting, and laissez faire predicted genuine emotion. The indirect effects of management by exception-active and -passive on burnout through surface acting were not significant. Indirect effects of transformational leadership and laissez-faire on burnout through genuine emotion, however, were significant. This study provides empirical evidence for the hypothesized relationships between leadership style, emotion regulation, and burnout, and provides the basis for future research and theory building on this topic. PMID:25844908

  4. Emotion regulation through listening to music in everyday situations.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Myriam V; Ryf, Stefan; Mohiyeddini, Changiz; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2012-01-01

    Music is a stimulus capable of triggering an array of basic and complex emotions. We investigated whether and how individuals employ music to induce specific emotional states in everyday situations for the purpose of emotion regulation. Furthermore, we wanted to examine whether specific emotion-regulation styles influence music selection in specific situations. Participants indicated how likely it would be that they would want to listen to various pieces of music (which are known to elicit specific emotions) in various emotional situations. Data analyses by means of non-metric multidimensional scaling revealed a clear preference for pieces of music that were emotionally congruent with an emotional situation. In addition, we found that specific emotion-regulation styles might influence the selection of pieces of music characterised by specific emotions. Our findings demonstrate emotion-congruent music selection and highlight the important role of specific emotion-regulation styles in the selection of music in everyday situations.

  5. Parental Emotion Coaching and Child Emotion Regulation as Protective Factors for Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Booker, Jordan A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed linkages of mothers' emotion coaching and children's emotion regulation and emotion lability/negativity with children's adjustment in 72 mother-child dyads seeking treatment for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Dyads completed the questionnaires and discussed emotion-related family events. Maternal emotion coaching…

  6. Implicit loneliness, emotion regulation, and depressive symptoms in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Marroquín, Brett; Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna; Weihs, Karen L; Stanton, Annette L

    2016-10-01

    Among individuals coping with cancer, emotional approach coping-expressing and processing emotions following negative events-has been identified as a potentially adaptive form of emotion regulation. However, its mental health benefits may depend on social-cognitive factors and on how it is implemented. This study examined loneliness as a determinant of emotion regulation associations with depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer. Loneliness was examined as an implicit social-cognitive phenomenon (i.e., automatic views of oneself as lonely), and emotional expression and processing were examined as both explicit and implicit processes. Approximately 11 months after diagnosis, 390 women completed explicit measures of coping through cancer-related emotional expression and processing; an implicit measure of expression and processing (an essay-writing task submitted to linguistic analysis); and an implicit association test measuring loneliness. Depressive symptoms were assessed 3 months later. Regardless of implicit loneliness, self-reported emotional expression (but not emotional processing) predicted fewer depressive symptoms, whereas implicit expression of negative emotion during essay-writing predicted more symptoms. Only among women high in implicit loneliness, less positive emotional expression and more causal processing during the writing task predicted more depressive symptoms. Results suggest that explicit and implicit breast cancer-related emotion regulation have distinct relations with depressive symptoms, and implicit loneliness moderates effects of implicit emotional approach. Findings support implicit processes as influential mechanisms of emotion regulation and suggest targets for intervention among breast cancer survivors. PMID:27287618

  7. Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context.

    PubMed

    Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction.

  8. Preschoolers' Emotion Regulation Strategy Understanding: Relations with Emotion Socialization and Child Self-Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Pamela M.; Dennis, Tracy A.; Smith-Simon, Kristen E.; Cohen, Laura H.

    2009-01-01

    Preschool-age children's ability to verbally generate strategies for regulating anger and sadness, and to recognize purported effective strategies for these emotions, were examined in relation to child factors (child age, temperament, and language ability) and maternal emotion socialization (supportiveness and structuring in response to child…

  9. Spontaneous Emotion Regulation to Positive and Negative Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volokhov, Rachael N.; Demaree, Heath A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions is an integral part of human social behavior. One antecedent emotion regulation strategy, known as reappraisal, is characterized by cognitively evaluating an emotional stimulus to alter its emotional impact and one response-focused strategy, suppression, is aimed at reducing behavioral output. People are…

  10. Preliminary physiological evidence for impaired emotion regulation in depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Monde, Kai-Mosadi; Ketay, Sarah; Giesbrecht, Timo; Braun, Ashley; Simeon, Daphne

    2013-09-30

    Depersonalization disorder is associated with emotional responding deficits. Ability to regulate emotion was measured by heart rate, skin conductance, and subjective responses to pictures. Compared to controls, depersonalized participants were better able to suppress, but not enhance, emotions irrespective of valence (heart rate). Emotion regulation in depersonalization merits further study.

  11. Mothers' Socialization of Emotion Regulation: The Moderating Role of Children's Negative Emotional Reactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirabile, Scott P.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Robison, Sarah D.

    2009-01-01

    During the toddler period, children begin to shift from being primarily dependent on parents to regulate their emotions to managing their emotions independently. The present study considers how children's propensity towards negative emotional arousal interacts with mothers' efforts to socialize emotion regulation. Fifty-five low income mothers and…

  12. Implications of Emotion Regulation on Young Children's Emotional Wellbeing and Educational Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djambazova-Popordanoska, Snezhana

    2016-01-01

    Effective regulation of both positive and negative emotions plays a pivotal role in young children's emotional and cognitive development and later academic achievement. A compelling body of evidence has highlighted the symbiotic relationship between emotion regulation competencies and young children's emotional health, in particular their mood and…

  13. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences. PMID:24708499

  14. Cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation after a negative event.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yuri; Ma, Xiaoming; Petermann, Amelia G

    2014-08-01

    Beliefs about emotions can influence how people regulate their emotions. The present research examined whether Eastern dialectical beliefs about negative emotions lead to cultural differences in how people regulate their emotions after experiencing a negative event. We hypothesized that, because of dialectical beliefs about negative emotions prevalent in Eastern culture, Easterners are less motivated than Westerners to engage in hedonic emotion regulation-up-regulation of positive emotions and down-regulation of negative emotions. By assessing online reactions to a recent negative event, Study 1 found that European Americans are more motivated to engage in hedonic emotion regulation. Furthermore, consistent with the reported motivation to regulate emotion hedonically, European Americans show a steeper decline in negative emotions 1 day later than do Asians. By examining retrospective memory of reactions to a past negative event, Study 2 further showed that cultural differences in hedonic emotion regulation are mediated by cultural differences in dialectical beliefs about motivational and cognitive utility of negative emotions, but not by personal deservingness or self-efficacy beliefs. These findings demonstrate the role of cultural beliefs in shaping emotion regulation and emotional experiences.

  15. Emotion Regulation and Emotion Work: Two Sides of the Same Coin?

    PubMed Central

    von Scheve, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This contribution links psychological models of emotion regulation to sociological accounts of emotion work to demonstrate the extent to which emotion regulation is systematically shaped by culture and society. I first discuss a well-established two-factor process model of emotion regulation and argue that a substantial proportion of emotion regulatory goals are derived from emotion norms. In contrast to universal emotion values and hedonic preferences, emotion norms are highly specific to social situations and institutional contexts. This specificity is determined by social cognitive processes of categorization and guided by framing rules. Second, I argue that the possibilities for antecedent-focused regulation, in particular situation selection and modification, are not arbitrarily available to individuals. Instead, they depend on economic, cultural, and social resources. I suggest that the systematic and unequal distribution of these resources in society leads to discernible patterns of emotion and emotion regulation across groups of individuals. PMID:23181041

  16. Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

    2015-02-01

    Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability. PMID:24835246

  17. Multidimensional assessment of beliefs about emotion: development and validation of the emotion and regulation beliefs scale.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Salomaa, Anna C; Shaver, Jennifer A; Zielinski, Melissa J; Pollert, Garrett A

    2015-02-01

    Recent work has extended the idea of implicit self-theories to the realm of emotion to assess beliefs in the malleability of emotions. The current article expanded on prior measurement of emotion beliefs in a scale development project. Items were tested and revised over rounds of data collection with both students and nonstudent adult online participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a three-factor structure. The resulting scale, the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale, assesses beliefs that emotions can hijack self-control, beliefs that emotion regulation is a worthwhile pursuit, and beliefs that emotions can constrain behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that the Emotion and Regulation Beliefs Scale has good internal consistency, is conceptually distinct from measures assessing individuals' beliefs in their management of emotions and facets of emotional intelligence, and predicts clinically relevant outcomes even after controlling for an existing short measure of beliefs in emotion controllability.

  18. Maternal emotion socialization differentially predicts third-grade children's emotion regulation and lability.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Megan L; Halberstadt, Amy G; Castro, Vanessa L; MacCormack, Jennifer K; Garrett-Peters, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Numerous parental emotion socialization factors have been implicated as direct and indirect contributors to the development of children's emotional competence. To date, however, no study has combined parents' emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and regulation strategies in one model to assess their cumulative-as well as unique-contributions to children's emotion regulation. We considered the 2 components that have recently been distinguished: emotion regulation and emotional lability. We predicted that mothers' beliefs about the value of and contempt for children's emotions, mothers' supportive and nonsupportive reactions to their children's emotions, as well as mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal and suppression of their own emotions would each contribute unique variance to their children's emotion regulation and lability, as assessed by children's teachers. The study sample consisted of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of 165 mothers and their third-grade children. Different patterns emerged for regulation and lability: Controlling for family income, child gender, and ethnicity, only mothers' lack of suppression as a regulatory strategy predicted greater emotion regulation in children, whereas mothers' valuing of children's emotions, mothers' lack of contempt for children's emotions, mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal to reinterpret events, and mothers' lack of emotional suppression predicted less lability in children. These findings support the divergence of emotion regulation and lability as constructs and indicate that, during middle childhood, children's lability may be substantially and uniquely affected by multiple forms of parental socialization.

  19. Discrepancies in Parents' and Children's Reports of Child Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourigan, Shannon E.; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions effectively has been linked with many aspects of well-being. The current study examined discrepancies between mothers' and children's reports of child emotion regulation. This investigation examined patterns of discrepancies for key aspects of emotion regulation (i.e., inhibition and dysregulated expression)…

  20. Linking Emotion Regulation Strategies to Affective Events and Negative Emotions at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefendorff, James M.; Richard, Erin M.; Yang, Jixia

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the use of specific forms of emotion regulation at work, utilizing Gross's [Gross, J. J. (1998). "The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review." "Review of General Psychology" 2, 271-299] process-based framework of emotion regulation as a guiding structure. In addition to examining employee self-reported…

  1. Up- and down-regulation of daily emotion: an experience sampling study of Chinese adolescents' regulatory tendency and effects.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xinmei; Sang, Biao; Luan, Ziyan

    2013-10-01

    The present study examined Chinese adolescents' emotion regulatory tendency and its effect, using an Experience Sampling Method. Participants comprised 72 Chinese adolescents (M age = 15.2 yr., SD = 1.7; 36 girls). Momentary emotional experience and regulation was assessed up to 5 or 6 times each day for two weeks. Results showed that participants tended to use up-regulation when they experienced positive emotion and habitually regulated their negative emotion by down-regulation. Also, adolescents who utilized down-regulation in a certain sampling moment reported higher positive emotion at the subsequent sampling moment. Moreover, adolescents who utilized down-regulation more frequently reported higher positive emotion at the subsequent sampling moment. Overall, down-regulation seemed to be a more adaptive regulatory strategy than up-regulation in Chinese adolescents' emotional lives.

  2. Emotional maltreatment and disordered eating in adolescents: testing the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Mills, Pamela; Newman, Emily Frances; Cossar, Jill; Murray, George

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine if emotion regulation mediates the relationship between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behavior in adolescents. Participants were 222 secondary school pupils (aged 14-18 years) from a state high school in the UK. Standardized questionnaire measures were used to gather self-report data on emotional abuse and emotional neglect, functional and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and disordered eating behavior. Results showed that disordered eating was associated with emotional abuse, dysfunctional emotion regulation and being female. Multiple mediation analysis found an indirect relationship between emotional abuse and disordered eating through dysfunctional emotion regulation. Interestingly, emotional neglect predicted lower levels of functional emotion regulation. The findings support previous research showing emotion regulation to mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and disordered eating in adults and a differential effect of abuse and neglect on emotion regulation. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm the direction of relationships; however these data suggest that dysfunctional emotion regulation is a significant variable in the development of disordered eating and may be a useful target for intervention.

  3. Emotional maltreatment and disordered eating in adolescents: testing the mediating role of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Mills, Pamela; Newman, Emily Frances; Cossar, Jill; Murray, George

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine if emotion regulation mediates the relationship between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behavior in adolescents. Participants were 222 secondary school pupils (aged 14-18 years) from a state high school in the UK. Standardized questionnaire measures were used to gather self-report data on emotional abuse and emotional neglect, functional and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies and disordered eating behavior. Results showed that disordered eating was associated with emotional abuse, dysfunctional emotion regulation and being female. Multiple mediation analysis found an indirect relationship between emotional abuse and disordered eating through dysfunctional emotion regulation. Interestingly, emotional neglect predicted lower levels of functional emotion regulation. The findings support previous research showing emotion regulation to mediate the relationship between childhood abuse and disordered eating in adults and a differential effect of abuse and neglect on emotion regulation. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm the direction of relationships; however these data suggest that dysfunctional emotion regulation is a significant variable in the development of disordered eating and may be a useful target for intervention. PMID:25129874

  4. Cultural regulation of emotion: individual, relational, and structural sources

    PubMed Central

    De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Boiger, Michael; Mesquita, Batja

    2013-01-01

    The most prevalent and intense emotional experiences differ across cultures. These differences in emotional experience can be understood as the outcomes of emotion regulation, because emotions that fit the valued relationships within a culture tend to be most common and intense. We review evidence suggesting that emotion regulation underlying cultural differences in emotional experience often takes place at the point of emotion elicitation through the promotion of situations and appraisals that are consistent with culturally valued relationships. These regulatory processes depend on individual tendencies, but are also co-regulated within relationships—close others shape people's environment and help them appraise events in culturally valued ways—and are afforded by structural conditions—people's daily lives “limit” the opportunities for emotion, and afford certain appraisals. The combined evidence suggests that cultural differences in emotion regulation go well beyond the effortful regulation based on display rules. PMID:23408753

  5. Emotional competence and extrinsic emotion regulation directed toward an ostracized person.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Yuki

    2015-12-01

    Positive interpersonal relationships hinge on individuals' competence in regulating others' emotions as well as their own. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between emotional competence and specific interpersonal behaviors. In particular, it is unclear which situations require emotional competence for extrinsic emotion regulation and whether emotionally competent individuals actually attempt to regulate others' emotions. To clarify these issues, the current investigation examined the relationship between emotional competence and extrinsic emotion regulation directed toward an ostracized person. The results of Study 1 (N = 39) indicated that interpersonal emotional competence (competence related to others' emotions) was positively associated with participants' efforts to relieve the ostracized person's sadness. In Study 2 (N = 120), this relationship was moderated by the ostracized person's emotional expression. In particular, participants with high interpersonal emotional competence were more likely to attempt to regulate the sadness of ostracized individuals who expressed neutral affect. In contrast, when the ostracized person expressed sadness, there were no significant relationships between high or low interpersonal emotional competence and extrinsic emotion regulation behavior. These results offer novel insight into how emotionally competent individuals use their competence to benefit others.

  6. Explicit and Implicit Emotion Regulation: A Dual-Process Framework

    PubMed Central

    Gyurak, Anett; Gross, James J.; Etkin, Amit

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that emotions can be regulated in an astonishing variety of ways. Most research to date has focused on explicit (effortful) forms of emotion regulation. However, there is growing research interest in implicit (automatic) forms of emotion regulation. To organize emerging findings, we present a dual-process framework that integrates explicit and implicit forms of emotion regulation, and argue that both forms of regulation are necessary for well-being. In the first section of this review, we provide a broad overview of the construct of emotion regulation, with an emphasis on explicit and implicit processes. In the second section, we focus on explicit emotion regulation, considering both neural mechanisms that are associated with these processes and their experiential and physiological consequences. In the third section, we turn to several forms of implicit emotion regulation, and integrate the burgeoning literature in this area. We conclude by outlining open questions and areas for future research. PMID:21432682

  7. Living Emotions, Avoiding Emotions: Behavioral Investigation of the Regulation of Socially Driven Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Emotion regulation is important for psychological well-being. Although it is known that alternative regulation strategies may have different emotional consequences, the effectiveness of such strategies for socially driven emotions remains unclear. In this study we investigated the efficacy of different forms of reappraisal on responses to the selfish and altruistic behavior of others in the Dictator Game. In Experiment 1, subjects mentalized the intentions of the other player in one condition, and took distance from the situation in the other. Emotion ratings were recorded after each offer. Compared with a baseline condition, mentalizing led subjects to experience their emotions more positively when receiving both selfish and altruistic proposals, whereas distancing decreased the valence when receiving altruistic offers, but did not affect the perception of selfish behavior. In Experiment 2, subjects played with both computer and human partners while reappraising the meaning of the player’s intentions (with a human partner) or the meaning of the situation (with a computer partner). Results showed that both contexts were effectively modulated by reappraisal, however a stronger effect was observed when the donor was a human partner, as compared to a computer partner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that socially driven emotions can be successfully modulated by reappraisal strategies that focus on the reinterpretation of others’ intentions. PMID:23349645

  8. Emotion regulation promotes persistence in a residential substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Schade, Nick; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Daughters, Stacey B; Lejuez, Carl W

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation at treatment entry was evaluated among 115 patients in an inner-city substance use residential facility who either persisted (N = 94) or discontinued treatment (N = 21). Emotion regulation capacity including emotional clarity and the ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite emotional distress, as well as lower scores on a measure of trait-negative emotionality, were associated with treatment persistence, whereas motivational variables were not. Findings indicate the importance of regulating negative emotions for treatment engagement among substance abusers. PMID:25404467

  9. Emotion regulation promotes persistence in a residential substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Schade, Nick; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Daughters, Stacey B; Lejuez, Carl W

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation at treatment entry was evaluated among 115 patients in an inner-city substance use residential facility who either persisted (N = 94) or discontinued treatment (N = 21). Emotion regulation capacity including emotional clarity and the ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite emotional distress, as well as lower scores on a measure of trait-negative emotionality, were associated with treatment persistence, whereas motivational variables were not. Findings indicate the importance of regulating negative emotions for treatment engagement among substance abusers.

  10. Adipostatic regulation of motivation and emotion.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jon F

    2010-05-01

    The proper maintenance of body weight and mood are two of the most prevalent health issues present in society today. Obese humans display higher levels of mood-related disorders and the causality of such an association is unknown. A common feature of obesity is the imbalance of regulatory hormones which normally act to maintain stable energy balance and body weight. The adiposity hormone leptin is one such signal elevated in obesity with the capacity to dampen feeding behavior through action on brain circuits which regulate appetite and metabolism. Recent evidence suggests that leptin may regulate motivation through its actions within brain reward circuitry. In addition, leptin signaling within central nervous system regions that regulate cognition and emotion elicits anti-depressant like effects. Together, these data indicate that leptin may regulate the decreased motivation and mood present in obesity and depression. This review describes the capacity of leptin to regulate motivation and depression through actions within brain circuits that modulate effort-based behavior and emotion, respectively.

  11. Investigating Transactions among Motives, Emotional Regulation Related to Testing, and Test Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Aultman, Lori Price; Schutz, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships among achievement motives, emotional regulation, and emotions. They collected data from 425 college undergraduates (110 men, 315 women) and used several scales, including the Achievement Motives Scales (K. Hagtvet & L. Zou, 2000), the Emotional Regulation During Testing Scale (P. A. Schutz, C. DiStefano, J.…

  12. Investigating Children's Emotion Regulation in Socio-Emotionally Challenging Classroom Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurki, Kristiina; Järvelä, Sanna; Mykkänen, Arttu; Määttä, Elina

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have associated effective emotion and behaviour regulation with learning and social competence among young children. However, further studies on children's use of emotion regulation in their everyday lives are required. This study focuses on investigating six- to nine-year-old children's (N?=?24) use of emotion regulation…

  13. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability.

  14. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: relationships with emotion regulation in children with an anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Katherine E; Hudson, Jennifer L; Schniering, Carolyn A

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that parental reactions to children's emotions play a significant role in the development of children's emotion regulation (ER) and adjustment. This study compared parent reactions to children's negative emotions between families of anxious and non-anxious children (aged 7-12) and examined associations between parent reactions and children's ER. Results indicated that children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder had significantly greater difficulty regulating a range of negative emotions and were regarded as more emotionally negative and labile by their parents. Results also suggested that mothers of anxious children espoused less supportive parental emotional styles when responding to their children's negative emotions. Supportive and non-supportive parenting reactions to children's negative emotions related to children's emotion regulation skills, with father's non-supportive parenting showing a unique relationship to children's negativity/lability. PMID:25527899

  15. Eating Pathology, Emotion Regulation, and Emotional Overeating in Obese Adults with Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gianini, Loren M.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship among emotional regulation, emotional overeating, and general eating pathology in a treatment seeking sample of adults with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Method The sample was composed of 326 adults (248 women, 78 men) who were obese and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BED. Prior to treatment, participants completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Emotional Overeating Questionnaire (EOQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) as part of a larger assessment battery. Results A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that difficulties with emotion regulation accounted for unique variance in both emotional overeating and general eating pathology above and beyond sex and negative affect. Discussion Emotion regulation may play a significant role in the maintenance of emotional overeating and eating pathology in obese adults with BED. PMID:23910772

  16. Resting heart rate variability predicts self-reported difficulties in emotion regulation: a focus on different facets of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Williams, DeWayne P; Cash, Claudia; Rankin, Cameron; Bernardi, Anthony; Koenig, Julian; Thayer, Julian F

    2015-01-01

    The Model of Neurovisceral Integration suggests that vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) represents a psychophysiological index of inhibitory control and thus, is associated with emotion regulation capacity. Over the past decade, growing empirical evidence supports this notion, showing that those with higher resting vmHRV can regulate negative emotions more adequately. However, to our knowledge, no study has previously examined how resting vmHRV may relate to everyday perceived difficulties in emotion regulation. The present study attempts to examine such relationship in 183 undergraduate students (98 female, 60 minority, mean Age = 19.34). Resting vmHRV was collected during a 5-min resting baseline period, and everyday difficulties in emotion regulation were assessed using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Controlling for potential covariates (including both trait anxiety and rumination), results revealed a negative relationship between resting vmHRV and DERS such that lower resting vmHRV was associated with greater difficulties in emotional regulation, especially a lack of emotional clarity and impulse control, as indicated by the respective subscales of the DERS. These findings provide further evidence for the Neurovisceral Integration Model, suggesting that emotion regulation and autonomic regulation share neural networks within the brain. Moreover, the present study extends prior research by highlighting two distinct facets of emotion regulation (impulse control and emotional clarity) that should be of particular interest when investigating the link between emotion regulation, resting vmHRV, and related health outcomes including morbidity and mortality.

  17. Emotions and Emotion Regulation in Undergraduate Studying: Examining Students' Reports from a Self-Regulated Learning Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Elizabeth A.; Hadwin, Allyson F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined undergraduate students' reports of emotions and emotion regulation during studying from a self-regulated learning (SRL) perspective. Participants were 111 university students enrolled in a first-year course designed to teach skills in SRL. Students reflected on their emotional experiences during goal-directed studying episodes…

  18. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting.

  19. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting. PMID:27683567

  20. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting. PMID:27683567

  1. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting.

  2. Making an Effort to Feel Positive: Insecure Attachment in Infancy Predicts the Neural Underpinnings of Emotion Regulation in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moutsiana, Christina; Fearon, Pasco; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter; Goodyer, Ian; Johnstone, Tom; Halligan, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Animal research indicates that the neural substrates of emotion regulation may be persistently altered by early environmental exposures. If similar processes operate in human development then this is significant, as the capacity to regulate emotional states is fundamental to human adaptation. Methods: We utilised a 22-year longitudinal…

  3. Integrating emotion regulation and emotional intelligence traditions: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Sarrionandia, Ainize; Mikolajczak, Moïra; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Two relatively independent research traditions have developed that address emotion management. The first is the emotion regulation (ER) tradition, which focuses on the processes which permit individuals to influence which emotions they have, when they have them, and how they experience and express these emotions. The second is the emotional intelligence (EI) tradition, which focuses—among other things—on individual differences in ER. To integrate these two traditions, we employed the process model of ER (Gross, 1998b) to review the literature on EI. Two key findings emerged. First, high EI individuals shape their emotions from the earliest possible point in the emotion trajectory and have many strategies at their disposal. Second, high EI individuals regulate their emotions successfully when necessary but they do so flexibly, thereby leaving room for emotions to emerge. We argue that ER and EI traditions stand to benefit substantially from greater integration. PMID:25759676

  4. Adaptation of an Emotional Intelligence Scale for Turkish Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakan, Mehtap; Altun; Sadegul Akbaba

    2005-01-01

    Schutte et al.'s (1998) emotional intelligence scale was adapted and administered to 177 Turkish educators. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed. In order to confirm the authors' model and findings of previous research, one, two, three, and four factor models were examined. It was decided that the one factor model fitted the…

  5. Does Implicit Emotion Regulation in Binge Eating Disorder Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Athena; Safer, Debra L.; Austin, Julia L.; Etkin, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine if implicit emotion regulation (occurring outside of awareness) is related to binge eating disorder (BED) symptomatology and explicit emotion regulation (occurring within awareness), and can be altered via intervention. Methods Implicit emotion regulation was assessed via the Emotion Conflict Task (ECT) among a group of adults with BED. Study 1 correlated BED symptomatology and explicit emotion regulation with ECT performance at baseline (BL) and after receiving BED treatment (PT). Study 2 generated effect sizes comparing ECT performance at BL and PT with healthy (non-eating disordered) controls (HC). Results Study 1 yielded significant correlations (p<.05) between both BED symptomatology and explicit emotion regulation with ECT performance. Study 2 found that compared to BL ECT performance, PT shifted (d=−.27), closer to HC. Preliminary results suggest a) BED symptomatology and explicit emotion regulation are associated with ECT performance, and b) PT ECT performance normalized after BED treatment. Conclusions Implicit emotion regulation may be a BED treatment mechanism because psychotherapy, directly or indirectly, decreased sensitivity to implicit emotional conflict. Further understanding implicit emotion regulation may refine conceptualizations and effective BED treatments. PMID:26117164

  6. Metacognitive emotion regulation: children's awareness that changing thoughts and goals can alleviate negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J; Lench, Heather C; Quas, Jodi A

    2010-08-01

    Metacognitive emotion regulation strategies involve deliberately changing thoughts or goals to alleviate negative emotions. Adults commonly engage in this type of emotion regulation, but little is known about the developmental roots of this ability. Two studies were designed to assess whether 5- and 6-year-old children can generate such strategies and, if so, the types of metacognitive strategies they use. In Study 1, children described how story protagonists could alleviate negative emotions. In Study 2, children recalled times that they personally had felt sad, angry, and scared and described how they had regulated their emotions. In contrast to research suggesting that young children cannot use metacognitive regulation strategies, the majority of children in both studies described such strategies. Children were surprisingly sophisticated in their suggestions for how to cope with negative emotions and tailored their regulatory responses to specific emotional situations.

  7. Emotion regulation and the temporal dynamics of emotions: Effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on emotional inertia.

    PubMed

    Koval, Peter; Butler, Emily A; Hollenstein, Tom; Lanteigne, Dianna; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The tendency for emotions to be predictable over time, labelled emotional inertia, has been linked to low well-being and is thought to reflect impaired emotion regulation. However, almost no studies have examined how emotion regulation relates to emotional inertia. We examined the effects of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on the inertia of behavioural, subjective and physiological measures of emotion. In Study 1 (N = 111), trait suppression was associated with higher inertia of negative behaviours. We replicated this finding experimentally in Study 2 (N = 186). Furthermore, in Study 2, instructed suppressors and reappraisers both showed higher inertia of positive behaviours, and reappraisers displayed higher inertia of heart rate. Neither suppression nor reappraisal were associated with the inertia of subjective feelings in either study. Thus, the effects of suppression and reappraisal on the temporal dynamics of emotions depend on the valence and emotional response component in question.

  8. Emotional Face Processing and Emotion Regulation in Children: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Malone, Melville M.; Chen, Chao-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Emotion regulation is a critical component of healthy development, yet few studies examine neural correlates of emotion regulation in childhood. In the present study, we assessed whether children's neurophysiological responses to salient and socially significant emotional distracters - emotional faces - were related to broader emotion regulation capacities. Emotion regulation was measured as attention performance following emotional distracters and as maternal report of child emotional dysregulation. Electroencephalography was recorded while participants (15 children aged 5-9) performed an attention task. Scalp-recorded event related potentials (ERPs) were time-locked to emotional distracters (fearful, sad, and neutral faces) and reflected a range of rapid attentional and face processing operations (P1, N1, N170, and Nc). P1 latencies were faster whereas N1 amplitudes were reduced to fearful compared to sad faces. Larger P1 and Nc amplitudes to fearful and sad faces were correlated with more effective emotion regulation. Results are discussed in terms of mechanisms in emotion regulation and the use of ERPs to detect early risk for psychopathology and inform intervention efforts. PMID:19142768

  9. Analysis of Emotion Regulation in Spanish Adolescents: Validation of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Romera, Eva M.; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario; Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is a basic psychological process that has been broadly linked to psychosocial adjustment. Due to its relationship with psychosocial adjustment, a significant number of instruments have been developed to assess emotion regulation in a reliable and valid manner. Among these, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003) is one of the most widely used, having shown good psychometric properties with adult samples from different cultures. Studies of validation in children and adolescents are, however, scarce and have only been developed for the Australian and Portuguese populations. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the ERQ for use in adolescents and determine possible differences according to the gender and age of young people. The sample consisted of 2060 adolescents (52.1% boys). Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA), multi-group analysis and Two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed and the percentiles calculated. The results of the AFE and CFA corroborated the existence of two factors related to the emotion regulation strategies of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, showing acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Both factors also showed good criterion validity with personality traits, self-esteem, and social anxiety. Differences in cognitive reappraisal were found with regard to age, with younger students exhibiting the greatest mastery of this strategy. Gender differences were observed regarding the expressive suppression strategy, with boys being more likely to use this strategy than girls. A gender-age interaction effect was also observed, revealing that the use of the expressive suppression strategy did not vary by age in girls, and was more widely used by boys aged 12–14 years than those aged 15–16 years. However, we found evidence of measurement invariance across sex and age groups. The results suggest

  10. Analysis of Emotion Regulation in Spanish Adolescents: Validation of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Romera, Eva M; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario; Cabello, Rosario; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is a basic psychological process that has been broadly linked to psychosocial adjustment. Due to its relationship with psychosocial adjustment, a significant number of instruments have been developed to assess emotion regulation in a reliable and valid manner. Among these, the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003) is one of the most widely used, having shown good psychometric properties with adult samples from different cultures. Studies of validation in children and adolescents are, however, scarce and have only been developed for the Australian and Portuguese populations. The aim of this study was to validate the Spanish version of the ERQ for use in adolescents and determine possible differences according to the gender and age of young people. The sample consisted of 2060 adolescents (52.1% boys). Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analysis (EFA and CFA), multi-group analysis and Two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed and the percentiles calculated. The results of the AFE and CFA corroborated the existence of two factors related to the emotion regulation strategies of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, showing acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Both factors also showed good criterion validity with personality traits, self-esteem, and social anxiety. Differences in cognitive reappraisal were found with regard to age, with younger students exhibiting the greatest mastery of this strategy. Gender differences were observed regarding the expressive suppression strategy, with boys being more likely to use this strategy than girls. A gender-age interaction effect was also observed, revealing that the use of the expressive suppression strategy did not vary by age in girls, and was more widely used by boys aged 12-14 years than those aged 15-16 years. However, we found evidence of measurement invariance across sex and age groups. The results suggest that

  11. Learning Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation through Sibling Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Young children's relationships with their sisters and brothers offer unique and important opportunities for learning about emotions and developing emotional understanding. Through a critical analysis, this article examines sibling interaction in 3 different but normative contexts (conflict/conflict management, play, and…

  12. Mobile Phone Use, Emotion Regulation, and Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Hoffner, Cynthia A; Lee, Sangmi

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the use of mobile phones to regulate negative emotions, considering both the role of different aspects of phone use and individual differences in emotion regulation strategies. A total of 287 young adult smartphone users completed an online survey that addressed use of mobile phones for negative emotion regulation. They responded to a phone loss scenario by rating how much they would miss various uses/functions of the phone (which could be involved in emotion regulation). Habitual use of reappraisal to regulate emotion was associated with missing both interpersonal contact and social support, but not access to entertainment/information. In contrast, habitual use of emotion suppression was associated only with missing entertainment/information content. Regulating negative emotions via mobile phone was associated with missing all three uses/functions of the phone, but perception that the phone was effective in remediating negative emotion was associated only with missing social support. Well-being was related to greater use and perceived effectiveness of the mobile phone for emotion regulation. Overall, this study demonstrates that mobile phones can yield psychological benefits, depending on how they are used. Findings suggest that using the phone for social support is most likely to lead to effective remediation of negative emotion. Interpretations and implications of the findings are discussed.

  13. Mobile Phone Use, Emotion Regulation, and Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Hoffner, Cynthia A; Lee, Sangmi

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the use of mobile phones to regulate negative emotions, considering both the role of different aspects of phone use and individual differences in emotion regulation strategies. A total of 287 young adult smartphone users completed an online survey that addressed use of mobile phones for negative emotion regulation. They responded to a phone loss scenario by rating how much they would miss various uses/functions of the phone (which could be involved in emotion regulation). Habitual use of reappraisal to regulate emotion was associated with missing both interpersonal contact and social support, but not access to entertainment/information. In contrast, habitual use of emotion suppression was associated only with missing entertainment/information content. Regulating negative emotions via mobile phone was associated with missing all three uses/functions of the phone, but perception that the phone was effective in remediating negative emotion was associated only with missing social support. Well-being was related to greater use and perceived effectiveness of the mobile phone for emotion regulation. Overall, this study demonstrates that mobile phones can yield psychological benefits, depending on how they are used. Findings suggest that using the phone for social support is most likely to lead to effective remediation of negative emotion. Interpretations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26167841

  14. Awareness and Regulation of Emotions in Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieffe, Carolien

    2012-01-01

    In this study, deaf children's understanding of their own emotions was compared with that of hearing peers. Twenty-six deaf children (mean age 11 years) and 26 hearing children, matched for age and gender, were presented with various tasks that tap into their emotion awareness and regulation (coping) regarding the four basic emotions (happiness,…

  15. Teacher Emotion Management in the Classroom: Appraisal, Regulation, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Compared with other professions, teachers in P-12 schools seem to experience the highest level of emotional exhaustion. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher emotions within the context of teachers' appraisals and the ways they regulate and cope with their emotions. This was done by exploring novice teachers' appraisals of classroom…

  16. Emotion-Related Behavioral Regulation in African American Preschoolers: Social-Emotional Correlates of Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Maureen C.

    2004-01-01

    This preliminary and exploratory study examined the correlates of 5 aspects of teacher-rated emotion-related regulation (modulation, flexibility, organization, emotion-focused coping, aggressive-coping strategies) in a sample of 36 low- to middle-income African American preschoolers. Results showed that children's empathy, emotional intensity,…

  17. Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

  18. Choosing how to feel: emotion regulation choice in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hay, Aleena C; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J; Gruber, June

    2015-04-01

    Individuals with bipolar disorder experience emotion regulation difficulties, even during remission, but are able to effectively employ emotion regulation strategies when instructed. We hypothesized that this puzzling discrepancy might be due to their maladaptive emotion regulation choices. To test this hypothesis, we used a previously validated paradigm (Sheppes, Scheibe, Suri, & Gross, 2011; Sheppes et al., 2014), and asked remitted individuals with bipolar I disorder (n = 25) and healthy individuals (n = 26) to view standardized positive and negative images of high and low intensity, and choose reappraisal or distraction to decrease their emotion intensity. Replicating and extending prior results, participants across both groups showed a pattern of choosing distraction more for high versus low intensity positive and negative images, but no between-groups differences were evident. These results suggest that emotion regulation choice patterns may be robust across samples, and add to growing evidence that several basic emotion regulation elements may remain intact in bipolar disorder.

  19. Alexithymia influences brain activation during emotion perception but not regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; Wiersma, Durk; de Haan, Lieuwe; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia is a psychological construct that can be divided into a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension is characterized by difficulties in identifying, verbalizing and analysing feelings. The affective dimension comprises reduced levels of emotional experience and imagination. Alexithymia is widely regarded to arise from an impairment of emotion regulation. This is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to critically evaluate this by investigating the neural correlates of emotion regulation as a function of alexithymia levels. The aim of the current study was to investigate the neural correlates underlying the two alexithymia dimensions during emotion perception and emotion regulation. Using fMRI, we scanned 51 healthy subjects while viewing, reappraising or suppressing negative emotional pictures. The results support the idea that cognitive alexithymia, but not affective alexithymia, is associated with lower activation in emotional attention and recognition networks during emotion perception. However, in contrast with several theories, no alexithymia-related differences were found during emotion regulation (neither reappraisal nor suppression). These findings suggest that alexithymia may result from an early emotion processing deficit rather than compromised frontal circuits subserving higher-order emotion regulation processes. PMID:24760016

  20. Emotion regulation and emotion coherence: evidence for strategy-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Dan-Glauser, Elise S; Gross, James J

    2013-10-01

    One of the central tenets of emotion theory is that emotions involve coordinated changes across experiential, behavioral, and physiological response domains. Surprisingly little is known, however, about how the strength of this emotion coherence is altered when people try to regulate their emotions. To address this issue, we recorded experiential, behavioral, and physiological responses while participants watched negative and positive pictures. Cross-correlations were used to quantify emotion coherence. Study 1 tested how two types of suppression (expressive and physiological) influence coherence. Results showed that both strategies decreased the response coherence measured in negative and positive contexts. Study 2 tested how multichannel suppression (simultaneously targeting expressive and physiological responses) and acceptance influence emotion coherence. Results again showed that suppression decreased coherence. By contrast, acceptance was not significantly different from the unregulated condition. These findings help to clarify the nature of emotion response coherence by showing how different forms of emotion regulation may differentially affect it.

  1. Emotion Regulation and Emotion Coherence: Evidence for Strategy-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dan-Glauser, Elise S.; Gross, James J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the central tenets of emotion theory is that emotions involve coordinated changes across experiential, behavioral, and physiological response domains. Surprisingly little is known, however, on how the strength of this emotion coherence is altered when people try to regulate their emotions. To address this issue, we recorded experiential, behavioral, and physiological responses while participants watched negative and positive pictures. Cross-correlations were used to quantify emotion coherence. Study 1 tested how two types of suppression (expressive and physiological) influence coherence. Results showed that both strategies decreased the response coherence measured in negative and positive contexts. Study 2 tested how multi-channel suppression (simultaneously targeting expressive and physiological responses) and acceptance influence emotion coherence. Results again showed that suppression decreased coherence. By contrast, acceptance was not significantly different from the unregulated condition. These findings help to clarify the nature of emotion response coherence by showing how different forms of emotion regulation may differentially affect it. PMID:23731438

  2. Individual differences in hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Garima; Dubey, Akanksha; Saxena, Prachi; Pandey, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hemisphericity or individual difference in the preference to use the left or the right hemispheric mode of information processing has been associated with various emotion-related differences. For example, the right hemisphericity has been linked with inhibition of emotional expression, feeling of tension, greater impulsivity etc. These observations suggest that right hemisphericity may be associated with greater difficulties in regulating emotions. However, direct empirical tests of such theoretical proposition are very thin. Aim: In view of this, the present study aims to investigate how and to what extent individual difference in hemispheric preference relate to emotion regulation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two right-handed male subjects in the age range 18 to 20 years were assessed on self-report measures of hemispheric preference and emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation between dimensions of hemispheric preference and difficulties in regulating emotions was computed. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were also done to explore the relative significance of various dimensions of hemispheric preference in predicting emotion regulation difficulties. Results: The findings revealed that in general a preference for the right hemispheric mode of information processing was associated with greater emotion regulation difficulties. The correlation analysis indicated that while impulse control difficulties and difficulties in engaging goal directed behavior was associated with preference for almost all the right hemispheric mode of information processing, the nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation was related to preference for only global/synthetic (a right hemispheric) mode of information processing. Similarly, the lack of emotional clarity facet of emotion regulation difficulties correlated significantly with a preference for the emotional mode of information processing (again a right

  3. Emotional and organizational supports for preschoolers' emotion regulation: Relations with school adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Craig S; Denham, Susanne A; Curby, Timothy W; Bassett, Hideko H

    2016-03-01

    Preschool teachers, like parents, support children in ways that promote the regulation capacities that drive school adjustment, especially for children struggling to succeed in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to explore the emotionally and organizationally supportive classroom processes that contribute to the development of children's emotion regulation and executive control. Emotion regulation and executive control were assessed in 312 3-, 4- and 5-year-old children. The 44 teachers of these children completed questionnaires asking about 3 components of children's school adjustment: Positive/Engaged, Independent/Motivated, and Prosocial/Connected. Observations of classroom emotional and organizational supports were conducted. Results of multilevel models indicated emotion regulation was significantly associated with the Positive/Engaged school adjustment component, but only when teachers' emotional and organizational supports were taken into account. Children with lower levels of emotion regulation, who were also in less supportive classrooms, had the lowest scores on the Positive/Engaged component. Children's executive control was associated with the Independent/Motivated and Prosocial/Connected components independently of teacher effects. In general, moderate support was found for the notion that teachers' supports can be particularly helpful for children struggling to regulate their emotions to be better adjusted to school. Children's emotionally salient classroom behaviors, and teachers' emotion scaffolding, are discussed.

  4. Emotion regulation in Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Samson, Andrea C; Huber, Oswald; Gross, James J

    2012-08-01

    It is generally thought that individuals with Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism (AS/HFA) have deficits in theory of mind. These deficits have been previously linked to problems with social cognition. However, we reasoned that AS/HFA individuals' Theory of Mind deficits also might lead to problems with emotion regulation. To assess emotional functioning in AS/HFA, 27 AS/HFA adults (16 women) and 27 age-, gender-, and education-matched typically developing (TD) participants completed a battery of measures of emotion experience, labeling, and regulation. With respect to emotion experience, individuals with AS/HFA reported higher levels of negative emotions, but similar levels of positive emotions, compared with TD individuals. With respect to emotion labeling, individuals with AS/HFA had greater difficulties identifying and describing their emotions, with approximately two-thirds exceeding the cutoff for alexithymia. With respect to emotion regulation, individuals with AS/HFA used reappraisal less frequently than TD individuals and reported lower levels of reappraisal self-efficacy. Although AS/HFA individuals used suppression more frequently than TD individuals, no difference in suppression self-efficacy was found. It is important to note that these differences in emotion regulation were evident even when controlling for emotion experience and labeling. Implications of these deficits are discussed, and future research directions are proposed.

  5. Neurocognitive bases of emotion regulation development in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Saz P; Bittencourt-Hewitt, Amanda; Sebastian, Catherine L

    2015-10-01

    Emotion regulation is the ability to recruit processes to influence emotion generation. In recent years there has been mounting interest in how emotions are regulated at behavioural and neural levels, as well as in the relevance of emotional dysregulation to psychopathology. During adolescence, brain regions involved in affect generation and regulation, including the limbic system and prefrontal cortex, undergo protracted structural and functional development. Adolescence is also a time of increasing vulnerability to internalising and externalising psychopathologies associated with poor emotion regulation, including depression, anxiety and antisocial behaviour. It is therefore of particular interest to understand how emotion regulation develops over this time, and how this relates to ongoing brain development. However, to date relatively little research has addressed these questions directly. This review will discuss existing research in these areas in both typical adolescence and in adolescent psychopathology, and will highlight opportunities for future research. In particular, it is important to consider the social context in which adolescent emotion regulation develops. It is possible that while adolescence may be a time of vulnerability to emotional dysregulation, scaffolding the development of emotion regulation during this time may be a fruitful preventative target for psychopathology. PMID:26340451

  6. Neurocognitive bases of emotion regulation development in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Saz P; Bittencourt-Hewitt, Amanda; Sebastian, Catherine L

    2015-10-01

    Emotion regulation is the ability to recruit processes to influence emotion generation. In recent years there has been mounting interest in how emotions are regulated at behavioural and neural levels, as well as in the relevance of emotional dysregulation to psychopathology. During adolescence, brain regions involved in affect generation and regulation, including the limbic system and prefrontal cortex, undergo protracted structural and functional development. Adolescence is also a time of increasing vulnerability to internalising and externalising psychopathologies associated with poor emotion regulation, including depression, anxiety and antisocial behaviour. It is therefore of particular interest to understand how emotion regulation develops over this time, and how this relates to ongoing brain development. However, to date relatively little research has addressed these questions directly. This review will discuss existing research in these areas in both typical adolescence and in adolescent psychopathology, and will highlight opportunities for future research. In particular, it is important to consider the social context in which adolescent emotion regulation develops. It is possible that while adolescence may be a time of vulnerability to emotional dysregulation, scaffolding the development of emotion regulation during this time may be a fruitful preventative target for psychopathology.

  7. Emotional regulation: implications for the psychobiology of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan J

    2008-03-01

    A range of studies have contributed to understanding the psychobiology of emotional regulation. Functional imaging studies have demonstrated that cortico-limbic circuitry plays an important role in mediating processes such as reappraisal and suppression. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be important in conscious reframing, while ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex may be particularly important in emotion evaluation. Gene variants and early environments impact underlying emotional regulation and its neurobiology. It may be hypothesized that during interventions such as psychotherapy there are improvements in emotional regulation, together with the normalization of related psychobiological mechanisms.

  8. Emotion Regulation: Concepts & Practice in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; White, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to describe emotion regulation, and how emotion regulation may be compromised in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This information may be useful for clinicians working with children with ASD who exhibit behavioral problems. Suggestions for practice are provided. PMID:24231164

  9. Emotion Regulation Profiles, Temperament, and Adjustment Problems in Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point…

  10. Music as Emotional Self-Regulation throughout Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarikallio, Suvi

    2011-01-01

    Emotional self-regulation is acknowledged as one of the most important reasons for musical engagement at all ages. Yet there is little knowledge on how this self-regulatory use of music develops across the life span. A qualitative study was conducted to initially explore central processes and strategies of the emotional self-regulation during…

  11. The Effect of Temperament on Emotion Regulation among Chinese Adolescents: The Role of Teacher Emotional Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenhai

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical linear modeling techniques were used to explored individual and contextual factors of emotion regulation in a sample of 2074 adolescents from grade 7 through grade 12 and 54 head teachers in China mainland. Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) and Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised (EATQ-R) were administered among…

  12. Business or pleasure? Utilitarian versus hedonic considerations in emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Maya; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Gross, James J

    2007-08-01

    It is widely accepted that emotions have utilitarian as well as hedonic consequences. Nevertheless, it is typically assumed that individuals regulate emotions to obtain hedonic, rather than utilitarian, benefits. In this study, the authors tested whether individuals represent the utility of pleasant and unpleasant emotions and whether they would be motivated to experience unpleasant emotions if they believed they could be useful. First, findings revealed that participants explicitly viewed approach emotions (e.g., excitement) as useful for obtaining rewards, but viewed avoidance emotions (e.g., worry) as useful for avoiding threats. Second, this pattern was replicated in implicit representations of emotional utility, which were dissociated from explicit ones. Third, implicit, but not explicit, representations of emotional utility predicted motives for emotion regulation. When anticipating a threatening task, participants who viewed emotions such as worry and fear as useful for avoiding threats preferred to engage in activities that were likely to increase worry and fear (vs. excitement) before the task. These findings demonstrate that utilitarian considerations play an important, if underappreciated, role in emotion regulation.

  13. Behavioral Assessment of Emotion Discrimination, Emotion Regulation, and Cognitive Control in Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Casey, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Emotion discrimination, emotion regulation, and cognitive control are three related, yet separable processes that emerge over the course of development. The current study tested 100 children, adolescents, and adults on an Emotional Go/Nogo task, illustrating the ability of this paradigm to identify the unique developmental patterns for each of these three processes in the context of both positive (happy) and negative emotions (fear, sad, and anger), across three different age groups. Consistent with previous literature, our findings show that emotion discrimination and regulatory abilities (both cognitive control and emotion regulation) improve steadily for each age group, with each age group showing unique patterns of performance. The findings suggest that emotion regulation is constructed from basic cognition control and emotion discrimination skills. The patterns of behavior from the Emotional Go/Nogo task provide normative benchmark data across a wide range of emotions that can be used for future behavioral and neuroimaging studies that examine the developmental construction of emotion regulatory processes. PMID:21716604

  14. Familial Accumulation of Social Anxiety Symptoms and Maladaptive Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Asbrand, Julia; Svaldi, Jennifer; Krämer, Martina; Breuninger, Christoph; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2016-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is thought to be strongly related to maladaptive emotion regulation (ER). As social anxiety symptoms accumulate in families, we hypothesize that maladaptive ER is also more prevalent in families with anxious children. Thus, we analyze differences in emotion regulation of both child and mother in relation to social anxiety, as well as both their ER strategies in dealing with anxiety. Further, a positive relation between child and maternal ER strategies is assumed. Method Children (aged 9 to 13 years) with social, anxiety disorder (SAD; n = 25) and healthy controls (HC, n = 26) as well as their mothers completed several measures of social anxiety and trait ER strategies towards anxiety. As ER of children is still in development, age is considered as covariate. Results SAD children and their mothers reported more maladaptive ER strategies than HC dyads. Maternal maladaptive ER was related negatively to child adaptive ER which was further moderated by the child’s age. Discussion Maladaptive ER strategies seem to contribute to the exacerbation of social anxiety in both mother and child. Mothers reporting maladaptive ER may have difficulties supporting their child in coping with social anxiety while simultaneously also experiencing heightened levels of anxiety. Deeper understanding of interactional processes between mothers and children during development can assist the comprehension of factors maintaining SAD. Implications for future research and possible consequences for interventions are discussed. PMID:27055278

  15. Selectivity as an Emotion Regulation Strategy: Lessons from Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Tamara; Hogan, Candice; Carstensen, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Findings based on studies of daily life consistently associate older ages with relatively positive emotional experience, suggesting that older adults may regulate emotions more effectively than younger adults. Findings from laboratory studies are equivocal, however, with mixed evidence for age-related improvements in use of emotion regulatory strategies. In the current paper, we propose that findings may reflect a failure of laboratory-based experiments to capture the regulatory strategies that older people use in their everyday lives. We argue that the advantages older people have are likely due to antecedent emotion regulation as opposed to response-focused strategies. Understanding the regulatory approaches that older people actually use may inform developmental models of emotion regulation throughout adulthood as well as interventions for improving emotional experience across the life span. PMID:25914897

  16. Emotion Regulation through Movement: Unique Sets of Movement Characteristics are Associated with and Enhance Basic Emotions.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Tal; Tsachor, Rachelle P; Welch, Kathleen B

    2015-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that motor execution, observation, and imagery of movements expressing certain emotions can enhance corresponding affective states and therefore could be used for emotion regulation. But which specific movement(s) should one use in order to enhance each emotion? This study aimed to identify, using Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), the Laban motor elements (motor characteristics) that characterize movements whose execution enhances each of the basic emotions: anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. LMA provides a system of symbols describing its motor elements, which gives a written instruction (motif) for the execution of a movement or movement-sequence over time. Six senior LMA experts analyzed a validated set of video clips showing whole body dynamic expressions of anger, fear, happiness and sadness, and identified the motor elements that were common to (appeared in) all clips expressing the same emotion. For each emotion, we created motifs of different combinations of the motor elements common to all clips of the same emotion. Eighty subjects from around the world read and moved those motifs, to identify the emotion evoked when moving each motif and to rate the intensity of the evoked emotion. All subjects together moved and rated 1241 motifs, which were produced from 29 different motor elements. Using logistic regression, we found a set of motor elements associated with each emotion which, when moved, predicted the feeling of that emotion. Each emotion was predicted by a unique set of motor elements and each motor element predicted only one emotion. Knowledge of which specific motor elements enhance specific emotions can enable emotional self-regulation through adding some desired motor qualities to one's personal everyday movements (rather than mimicking others' specific movements) and through decreasing motor behaviors which include elements that enhance negative emotions.

  17. Emotion Regulation through Movement: Unique Sets of Movement Characteristics are Associated with and Enhance Basic Emotions.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Tal; Tsachor, Rachelle P; Welch, Kathleen B

    2015-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that motor execution, observation, and imagery of movements expressing certain emotions can enhance corresponding affective states and therefore could be used for emotion regulation. But which specific movement(s) should one use in order to enhance each emotion? This study aimed to identify, using Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), the Laban motor elements (motor characteristics) that characterize movements whose execution enhances each of the basic emotions: anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. LMA provides a system of symbols describing its motor elements, which gives a written instruction (motif) for the execution of a movement or movement-sequence over time. Six senior LMA experts analyzed a validated set of video clips showing whole body dynamic expressions of anger, fear, happiness and sadness, and identified the motor elements that were common to (appeared in) all clips expressing the same emotion. For each emotion, we created motifs of different combinations of the motor elements common to all clips of the same emotion. Eighty subjects from around the world read and moved those motifs, to identify the emotion evoked when moving each motif and to rate the intensity of the evoked emotion. All subjects together moved and rated 1241 motifs, which were produced from 29 different motor elements. Using logistic regression, we found a set of motor elements associated with each emotion which, when moved, predicted the feeling of that emotion. Each emotion was predicted by a unique set of motor elements and each motor element predicted only one emotion. Knowledge of which specific motor elements enhance specific emotions can enable emotional self-regulation through adding some desired motor qualities to one's personal everyday movements (rather than mimicking others' specific movements) and through decreasing motor behaviors which include elements that enhance negative emotions. PMID:26793147

  18. Emotion Regulation through Movement: Unique Sets of Movement Characteristics are Associated with and Enhance Basic Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Shafir, Tal; Tsachor, Rachelle P.; Welch, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that motor execution, observation, and imagery of movements expressing certain emotions can enhance corresponding affective states and therefore could be used for emotion regulation. But which specific movement(s) should one use in order to enhance each emotion? This study aimed to identify, using Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), the Laban motor elements (motor characteristics) that characterize movements whose execution enhances each of the basic emotions: anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. LMA provides a system of symbols describing its motor elements, which gives a written instruction (motif) for the execution of a movement or movement-sequence over time. Six senior LMA experts analyzed a validated set of video clips showing whole body dynamic expressions of anger, fear, happiness and sadness, and identified the motor elements that were common to (appeared in) all clips expressing the same emotion. For each emotion, we created motifs of different combinations of the motor elements common to all clips of the same emotion. Eighty subjects from around the world read and moved those motifs, to identify the emotion evoked when moving each motif and to rate the intensity of the evoked emotion. All subjects together moved and rated 1241 motifs, which were produced from 29 different motor elements. Using logistic regression, we found a set of motor elements associated with each emotion which, when moved, predicted the feeling of that emotion. Each emotion was predicted by a unique set of motor elements and each motor element predicted only one emotion. Knowledge of which specific motor elements enhance specific emotions can enable emotional self-regulation through adding some desired motor qualities to one's personal everyday movements (rather than mimicking others' specific movements) and through decreasing motor behaviors which include elements that enhance negative emotions. PMID:26793147

  19. Rethinking emotion: cognitive reappraisal is an effective positive and negative emotion regulation strategy in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gruber, June; Hay, Aleena C; Gross, James J

    2014-04-01

    Bipolar disorder involves difficulties with emotion regulation, yet the precise nature of these emotion regulatory difficulties is unclear. The current study examined whether individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 23) differ in their ability to use one effective and common form of emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal. Positive, negative, and neutral films were used to elicit emotion, and participants were cued to watch the film carefully (i.e., uninstructed condition) or reappraise while measures of affect, behavior, and psychophysiology were obtained. Results showed that reappraisal was associated with reductions in emotion reactivity across subjective (i.e., positive and negative affect), behavioral (i.e., positive facial displays), and physiological (i.e., skin conductance) response domains across all participants. Results suggest that reappraisal may be an effective regulation strategy for both negative and positive emotion across both healthy adults and individuals with bipolar disorder. Discussion focuses on clinical and treatment implications for bipolar disorder.

  20. Rapid Emotion Regulation After Mood Induction: Age and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Larcom, Mary Jo

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that emotion regulation improves with age. This study examined both age and individual differences in online emotion regulation after a negative mood induction. We found evidence that older adults were more likely to rapidly regulate their emotions than were younger adults. Moreover, older adults who rapidly regulated had lower trait anxiety and depressive symptoms and higher levels of optimism than their same-age peers who did not rapidly regulate. Measuring mood change over an extended time revealed that older rapid regulators still reported increased levels of positive affect over 20 min later, whereas young adult rapid regulators’ moods had declined. These results highlight the importance of considering individual differences when examining age differences in online emotion regulation. PMID:19808810

  1. Abnormal Default System Functioning in Depression: Implications for Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Francesca; Cusinato, Maria; Calvo, Vincenzo; Sambin, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Depression is widely seen as the result of difficulties in regulating emotions. Based on neuroimaging studies on voluntary emotion regulation, neurobiological models have focused on the concept of cognitive control, considering emotion regulation as a shift toward involving controlled processes associated with activation of the prefrontal and parietal executive areas, instead of responding automatically to emotional stimuli. According to such models, the weaker executive area activation observed in depressed patients is attributable to a lack of cognitive control over negative emotions. Going beyond the concept of cognitive control, psychodynamic models describe the development of individuals' capacity to regulate their emotional states in mother-infant interactions during childhood, through the construction of the representation of the self, others, and relationships. In this mini-review, we link these psychodynamic models with recent findings regarding the abnormal functioning of the default system in depression. Consistently with psychodynamic models, psychological functions associated with the default system include self-related processing, semantic processes, and implicit forms of emotion regulation. The abnormal activation of the default system observed in depression may explain the dysfunctional aspects of emotion regulation typical of the condition, such as an exaggerated negative self-focus and rumination on self-esteem issues. We also discuss the clinical implications of these findings with reference to the therapeutic relationship as a key tool for revisiting impaired or distorted representations of the self and relational objects.

  2. Abnormal Default System Functioning in Depression: Implications for Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Francesca; Cusinato, Maria; Calvo, Vincenzo; Sambin, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Depression is widely seen as the result of difficulties in regulating emotions. Based on neuroimaging studies on voluntary emotion regulation, neurobiological models have focused on the concept of cognitive control, considering emotion regulation as a shift toward involving controlled processes associated with activation of the prefrontal and parietal executive areas, instead of responding automatically to emotional stimuli. According to such models, the weaker executive area activation observed in depressed patients is attributable to a lack of cognitive control over negative emotions. Going beyond the concept of cognitive control, psychodynamic models describe the development of individuals’ capacity to regulate their emotional states in mother-infant interactions during childhood, through the construction of the representation of the self, others, and relationships. In this mini-review, we link these psychodynamic models with recent findings regarding the abnormal functioning of the default system in depression. Consistently with psychodynamic models, psychological functions associated with the default system include self-related processing, semantic processes, and implicit forms of emotion regulation. The abnormal activation of the default system observed in depression may explain the dysfunctional aspects of emotion regulation typical of the condition, such as an exaggerated negative self-focus and rumination on self-esteem issues. We also discuss the clinical implications of these findings with reference to the therapeutic relationship as a key tool for revisiting impaired or distorted representations of the self and relational objects. PMID:27375536

  3. Abnormal Default System Functioning in Depression: Implications for Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Messina, Irene; Bianco, Francesca; Cusinato, Maria; Calvo, Vincenzo; Sambin, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Depression is widely seen as the result of difficulties in regulating emotions. Based on neuroimaging studies on voluntary emotion regulation, neurobiological models have focused on the concept of cognitive control, considering emotion regulation as a shift toward involving controlled processes associated with activation of the prefrontal and parietal executive areas, instead of responding automatically to emotional stimuli. According to such models, the weaker executive area activation observed in depressed patients is attributable to a lack of cognitive control over negative emotions. Going beyond the concept of cognitive control, psychodynamic models describe the development of individuals' capacity to regulate their emotional states in mother-infant interactions during childhood, through the construction of the representation of the self, others, and relationships. In this mini-review, we link these psychodynamic models with recent findings regarding the abnormal functioning of the default system in depression. Consistently with psychodynamic models, psychological functions associated with the default system include self-related processing, semantic processes, and implicit forms of emotion regulation. The abnormal activation of the default system observed in depression may explain the dysfunctional aspects of emotion regulation typical of the condition, such as an exaggerated negative self-focus and rumination on self-esteem issues. We also discuss the clinical implications of these findings with reference to the therapeutic relationship as a key tool for revisiting impaired or distorted representations of the self and relational objects. PMID:27375536

  4. Maternal Attachment Style and Responses to Adolescents’ Negative Emotions: The Mediating Role of Maternal Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jason D.; Brett, Bonnie E.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Lejuez, Carl W.; Cassidy, Jude

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective Previous research has examined the developmental consequences, particularly in early childhood, of parents’ supportive and unsupportive responses to children’s negative emotions. Much less is known about factors that explain why parents respond in ways that may support or undermine their children’s emotions, and even less is known about how these parenting processes unfold with adolescents. We examined the associations between mothers’ attachment styles and their distress, harsh, and supportive responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions two years later and whether these links were mediated by maternal emotion regulation difficulties. Design Mothers in a longitudinal study (n = 230) reported on their attachment style, difficulties regulating their emotions, and their hypothetical responses to their adolescents’ negative emotions, respectively, at consecutive laboratory visits one year apart. Results Mothers who reported greater attachment-related avoidance and anxiety reported having greater difficulties with emotion regulation one year later. Emotion dysregulation, in turn, predicted more distressed, harsher, and less supportive maternal responses to adolescents’ negative emotions the following year. In addition, greater avoidance directly predicted harsher maternal responses two years later. Conclusions These findings extend previous research by identifying maternal attachment style as a predictor of responses to adolescent distress and by documenting the underlying role of emotion dysregulation in the link between adult attachment style and parenting. PMID:25568638

  5. Preschool children's views on emotion regulation: Functional associations and implications for social-emotional adjustment.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Tracy A; Kelemen, Deborah A

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and fear. Forty-seven adults were presented with a parallel questionnaire. Participants rated the degree to which six emotion-regulation strategies were effective in decreasing negative emotions. Results showed that even the youngest preschoolers viewed cognitive and behavioral distraction and repairing the situation as relatively effective; compared to adults, however, preschoolers favored relatively "ineffective" strategies such as venting and rumination. Children also showed a functional view of emotion regulation; that effective strategies depend on the emotion being regulated. All participants favored repairing a negative situation to reduce anger and behavioral distraction to reduce sadness and fear. Finally, the more children indicated that venting would reduce negative emotions, the lower their maternal report of social skills. Findings are discussed in terms of functional emotion theory and implications of emotion-regulation understanding for child adjustment. PMID:19724663

  6. Threat of resource loss: The role of self-regulation in adaptive task performance.

    PubMed

    Niessen, Cornelia; Jimmieson, Nerina L

    2016-03-01

    Changes at work are often accompanied with the threat of, or actual, resource loss. Through an experiment, we investigated the detrimental effect of the threat of resource loss on adaptive task performance. Self-regulation (i.e., task focus and emotion control) was hypothesized to buffer the negative relationship between the threat of resource loss and adaptive task performance. Adaptation was conceptualized as relearning after a change in task execution rules. Threat of resource loss was manipulated for 100 participants undertaking an air traffic control task. Using discontinuous growth curve modeling, 2 kinds of adaptation--transition adaptation and reacquisition adaptation--were differentiated. The results showed that individuals who experienced the threat of resource loss had a stronger drop in performance (less transition adaptation) and a subsequent slower recovery (less reacquisition adaptation) compared with the control group who experienced no threat. Emotion control (but not task focus) moderated the relationship between the threat of resource loss and transition adaptation. In this respect, individuals who felt threatened but regulated their emotions performed better immediately after the task change (but not later on) compared with those individuals who felt threatened and did not regulate their emotions as well. However, later on, relearning (reacquisition adaptation) under the threat of resource loss was facilitated when individuals concentrated on the task at hand.

  7. African American parents' racial and emotion socialization profiles and young adults' emotional adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Angel S; Perry, Nicole B; Cavanaugh, Alyson M; Leerkes, Esther M

    2015-07-01

    The current study aimed to identify parents' profiles of racial and emotion socialization practices, to determine if these profiles vary as a function of family income and young adult child gender, and to examine their links with young adults' emotional adaptation. Participants included 192 African American young adults (70% women) who ranged in age from 18 to 24 years (M = 19.44 years). Four maternal profiles emerged: cultural-supportive (high cultural socialization and supportive responses to children's negative emotions), moderate bias preparation (moderate preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses to negative emotions), high bias preparation (high preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and nonsupportive responses), and low engaged (low across racial and socialization constructs). Three paternal profiles emerged: multifaceted (moderate across racial and emotion socialization constructs), high bias preparation, and low engaged. Men were more likely to have mothers in the high bias preparation and to have fathers in the multifaceted or high bias preparation profiles. Individuals with higher income were more likely to have mothers in the cultural-supportive profile and to have fathers in the multifaceted profile. Young adults whose mothers fit the cultural-supportive profile or the moderate bias preparation profile had lower levels of depressive symptoms than young adults whose mothers fit the high bias preparation profile. PMID:25090149

  8. The neural correlates of regulating positive and negative emotions in medication-free major depression.

    PubMed

    Greening, Steven G; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Peter C; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2014-05-01

    Depressive cognitive schemas play an important role in the emergence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study adapted emotion regulation techniques to reflect elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and related psychotherapies to delineate neurocognitive abnormalities associated with modulating the negative cognitive style in MDD. Nineteen non-medicated patients with MDD and 19 matched controls reduced negative or enhanced positive feelings elicited by emotional scenes while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although both groups showed significant emotion regulation success as measured by subjective ratings of affect, the controls were significantly better at modulating both negative and positive emotion. Both groups recruited regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) when regulating negative emotions. Only in controls was this accompanied by reduced activity in sensory cortices and amygdala. Similarly, both groups showed enhanced activity in VLPFC and ventral striatum when enhancing positive affect; however, only in controls was ventral striatum activity correlated with regulation efficacy. The results suggest that depression is associated with both a reduced capacity to achieve relief from negative affect despite recruitment of ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortical regions implicated in emotion regulation, coupled with a disconnect between activity in reward-related regions and subjective positive affect.

  9. The neural correlates of regulating positive and negative emotions in medication-free major depression

    PubMed Central

    Greening, Steven G.; Osuch, Elizabeth A.; Williamson, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive cognitive schemas play an important role in the emergence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study adapted emotion regulation techniques to reflect elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and related psychotherapies to delineate neurocognitive abnormalities associated with modulating the negative cognitive style in MDD. Nineteen non-medicated patients with MDD and 19 matched controls reduced negative or enhanced positive feelings elicited by emotional scenes while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although both groups showed significant emotion regulation success as measured by subjective ratings of affect, the controls were significantly better at modulating both negative and positive emotion. Both groups recruited regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) when regulating negative emotions. Only in controls was this accompanied by reduced activity in sensory cortices and amygdala. Similarly, both groups showed enhanced activity in VLPFC and ventral striatum when enhancing positive affect; however, only in controls was ventral striatum activity correlated with regulation efficacy. The results suggest that depression is associated with both a reduced capacity to achieve relief from negative affect despite recruitment of ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortical regions implicated in emotion regulation, coupled with a disconnect between activity in reward-related regions and subjective positive affect. PMID:23482626

  10. Individual Differences in Infants' Emotional Resonance to a Peer in Distress: Self-Other Awareness and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geangu, Elena; Benga, Oana; Stahl, Daniel; Striano, Tricia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, relations between emotional resonance responses to another's distress, emotion regulation, and self-other discrimination were investigated in infants three-, six-, and nine-months-old. We measured the emotional reactions to the pain cry of a peer, along with the ability to regulate emotions and to discriminate between self and other…

  11. Linking children's neuropsychological processing of emotion with their knowledge of emotion expression regulation.

    PubMed

    Watling, Dawn; Bourne, Victoria J

    2007-09-01

    Understanding of emotions has been shown to develop between the ages of 4 and 10 years; however, individual differences exist in this development. While previous research has typically examined these differences in terms of developmental and/or social factors, little research has considered the possible impact of neuropsychological development on the behavioural understanding of emotions. Emotion processing tends to be lateralised to the right hemisphere of the brain in adults, yet this pattern is not as evident in children until around the age of 10 years. In this study 136 children between 5 and 10 years were given both behavioural and neuropsychological tests of emotion processing. The behavioural task examined expression regulation knowledge (ERK) for prosocial and self-presentational hypothetical interactions. The chimeric faces test was given as a measure of lateralisation for processing positive facial emotion. An interaction between age and lateralisation for emotion processing was predictive of children's ERK for only the self-presentational interactions. The relationships between children's ERK and lateralisation for emotion processing changes across the three age groups, emerging as a positive relationship in the 10-year-olds. The 10-years-olds who were more lateralised to the right hemisphere for emotion processing tended to show greater understanding of the need for regulating negative emotions during interactions that would have a self-presentational motivation. This finding suggests an association between the behavioural and neuropsychological development of emotion processing.

  12. Emotional Experience and Regulation of Expressive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saarni, Carolyn

    Issues related to children's ability to conceal their immediate emotional experiences by displaying alternate socially or personally motivated facial expressions are discussed. Four basic categories of dissimulation of emotional experience are specified, and motives for the use of cultural and personal display rules and direct deception are posed.…

  13. The Cognitive Consequences of Emotion Regulation: An ERP Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Deveney, C.M.; Pizzagalli, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that emotion regulation (ER) strategies modulate encoding of information presented during regulation; however, no studies have assessed the impact of cognitive reappraisal ER strategies on the processing of stimuli presented after the ER period. Participants in the present study regulated emotions to unpleasant pictures and then judged whether a word was negative or neutral. Electromyographic measures (corrugator supercilli) confirmed that individuals increased and decreased negative affect according to ER condition. Event-related potential analyses revealed smallest N400 amplitudes to negative and neutral words presented after decreasing unpleasant emotions and smallest P300 amplitudes to words presented after increasing unpleasant emotions whereas reaction time data failed to show ER modulations. Results are discussed in the context of the developing ER literature, as well as theories of emotional incongruity (N400) and resource allocation (P300). PMID:18221443

  14. A Review of Emotion Regulation in Intelligent Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malekzadeh, Mehdi; Mustafa, Mumtaz Begum; Lahsasna, Adel

    2015-01-01

    Having improved emotional (affective) state may have several benefits on learners, such as promoting higher cognitive flexibility and opens the learner to discovery of new ideas and possibilities. On other side, negative emotional states like boredom and frustration have been linked with less use of self-regulation and cognitive strategies for…

  15. Maternal Emotion Coaching, Adolescent Anger Regulation, and Siblings' Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortt, Joann Wu; Stoolmiller, Mike; Smith-Shine, Jessica N.; Eddy, J. Mark; Sheeber, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Background: Increases in externalizing behaviors during the transition to adolescence may put children at risk for developing mental disorders and related problems. Although children's ability to regulate their emotions appears to be a key factor influencing risk for maladjustment, emotion processes during adolescence remain understudied. In this…

  16. Neural Mechanisms of Emotion Regulation in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richey, J. Anthony; Damiano, Cara R.; Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Petty, Chris; Bizzell, Josh; Voyvodic, James; Heller, Aaron S.; Coffman, Marika C.; Smoski, Moria; Davidson, Richard J.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by high rates of comorbid internalizing and externalizing disorders. One mechanistic account of these comorbidities is that ASD is characterized by impaired emotion regulation (ER) that results in deficits modulating emotional responses. We assessed neural activation during cognitive reappraisal of…

  17. Relation of Emotional Reactivity and Regulation to Childhood Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karrass, Jan; Walden, Tedra A.; Conture, Edward G.; Graham, Corrin G.; Arnold, Hayley S.; Hartfield, Kia N.; Schwenk, Krista A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between children's emotional reactivity, emotion regulation and stuttering. Participants were 65 preschool children who stutter (CWS) and 56 preschool children who do not stutter (CWNS). Parents completed the Behavior Style Questionnaire (BSQ) [McDevitt S. C., & Carey, W. B. (1978). A…

  18. Teaching Teachers about Emotion Regulation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fried, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    Emotions affect, and are intertwined with, many of the cognitive processes of learning and also classroom motivation and social interaction. There are often times within daily classroom life that students and teachers are required to, or feel compelled to, regulate their emotions. Limited research has shown that particular aspects of classroom…

  19. Homework Emotion Regulation Scale: Psychometric Properties for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao; Du, Jianxia

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present investigation is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Homework Emotion Regulation Scale (HERS) using 796 middle school students in China. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) supported the existence of two distinct yet related subscales for the HERS: Emotion Management and Cognitive Reappraisal. Concerning the…

  20. Adolescent Deliberate Self-Harm: Linkages to Emotion Regulation and Family Emotional Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Leslie; Adrian, Molly; Zeman, Janice; Cassano, Michael; Friedrich, William N.

    2009-01-01

    Parents' responses to their children's emotional expressivity have been shown to significantly influence children's subsequent psychosocial functioning. This study hypothesized that adolescents' deliberate self-harm (DSH) may be an outcome associated with poor emotion regulation as well as an invalidating family environment. The mediational role…

  1. Maladaptive Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Emotion Experience and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Andrea C.; Hardan, Antonio Y.; Lee, Ihno A.; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive behavior is common in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, the factors that give rise to maladaptive behavior in this context are not well understood. The present study examined the role of emotion experience and emotion regulation in maladaptive behavior in individuals with ASD and typically developing (TD) participants.…

  2. Caregiver Emotional Expressiveness, Child Emotion Regulation, and Child Behavior Problems among Head Start Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C. Cybele

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between caregivers' self-reported positive and negative emotional expressiveness, observer assessments of children's emotion regulation, and teachers' reports of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a sample of 97 primarily African American and Hispanic Head Start families. Results…

  3. Reappraise the Situation but Express Your Emotions: Impact of Emotion Regulation Strategies on ad libitum Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Taut, Diana; Renner, Britta; Baban, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Research investigating the role of maladaptive emotion regulation (ER) on food intake has exclusively focused on food intake in a forced consumption situation. In contrast, the present study examined the effect of negative emotions (fear, negative affect) and ER strategies (suppression, reappraisal) on food intake in a non-forced, free eating setting where participants (N = 165) could choose whether and how much they ate. This free (ad libitum) eating approach enabled, for the first time, the testing of (1) whether eating (yes/no) is used as a secondary ER strategy and (2) whether the amount of food intake differed, depending on the ER strategy. In order to produce a more ecologically valid design, ER strategy manipulation was realized while exposing participants to emotion induction procedures. To induce an initial negative emotional state, a movie clip was presented without ER instruction. The instructions to regulate emotions (suppression, reappraisal, no ER instruction) then preceded a second clip. The results show that whereas about two-thirds of the control (no ER instruction) and suppression groups began to eat, only one-third of the reappraisal group did. However, when reappraisers began to eat, they ate as much as participants in the suppression and control groups. Accordingly, the results suggest that when people are confronted with a negative event, eating is used as a secondary coping strategy when the enacted ER is ineffective. Conversely, an adaptive ER such as reappraisal decreases the likelihood of eating in the first place, even when ER is employed during rather than before the unfolding of the negative event. Consequently, the way we deal with negative emotions might be more relevant for explaining emotional eating than the distress itself.

  4. [Emotion Regulation in Adolescents with Nonsuicidal Self-Injury].

    PubMed

    In-Albon, Tina; Tschan, Taru; Schwarz, Daniela; Schmid, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a prevalent and impairing condition that was newly included in DSM-5 in the section III criteria for further research. Difficulties in emotion regulation play an important role in the development and maintenance of NSSI. This study investigated the emotion regulation in female adolescents with NSSI according to DSM-5 (n=55), clinical control adolescents with mental disorders without NSSI (n=30), and nonclinical control adolescents (n=58) using self-report questionnaires and interviews. As expected, results indicated that adolescents with NSSI have significantly more difficulties in emotion regulation compared to healthy controls. In addition, adolescents with NSSI reported also significantly more difficulties in impulse control, lack of emotional clarity, difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior, and limited access to emotion regulation strategies compared to nonclinical and clinical controls. Adolescents with NSSI felt significantly more often sadness compared to clinical controls (d=0.66) and compared to other emotions. Adolescents with NSSI indicated significantly less often happiness compared to nonclinical controls (d=1.83). Results support that adolescents with NSSI have difficulties in emotion regulation and that these difficulties are even more pronounced than in adolescents with other mental disorders. Clinical implications will be discussed. PMID:26032034

  5. Automatic control of negative emotions: evidence that structured practice increases the efficiency of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Christou-Champi, Spyros; Farrow, Tom F D; Webb, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is vital to everyday functioning. However, the effortful nature of many forms of ER may lead to regulation being inefficient and potentially ineffective. The present research examined whether structured practice could increase the efficiency of ER. During three training sessions, comprising a total of 150 training trials, participants were presented with negatively valenced images and asked either to "attend" (control condition) or "reappraise" (ER condition). A further group of participants did not participate in training but only completed follow-up measures. Practice increased the efficiency of ER as indexed by decreased time required to regulate emotions and increased heart rate variability (HRV). Furthermore, participants in the ER condition spontaneously regulated their negative emotions two weeks later and reported being more habitual in their use of ER. These findings indicate that structured practice can facilitate the automatic control of negative emotions and that these effects persist beyond training.

  6. Automatic control of negative emotions: Evidence that structured practice increases the efficiency of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Christou-Champi, Spyros; Farrow, Tom F. D.; Webb, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is vital to everyday functioning. However, the effortful nature of many forms of ER may lead to regulation being inefficient and potentially ineffective. The present research examined whether structured practice could increase the efficiency of ER. During three training sessions, comprising a total of 150 training trials, participants were presented with negatively valenced images and asked either to “attend” (control condition) or “reappraise” (ER condition). A further group of participants did not participate in training but only completed follow-up measures. Practice increased the efficiency of ER as indexed by decreased time required to regulate emotions and increased heart rate variability (HRV). Furthermore, participants in the ER condition spontaneously regulated their negative emotions two weeks later and reported being more habitual in their use of ER. These findings indicate that structured practice can facilitate the automatic control of negative emotions and that these effects persist beyond training. PMID:24678930

  7. Emotion regulation predicts marital satisfaction: More than a wives’ tale

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Lian; Haase, Claudia M.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation is generally thought to be a critical ingredient for successful interpersonal relationships. Ironically, few studies have investigated the link between how well spouses regulate emotion and how satisfied they are with their marriages. We utilized data from a 13-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of middle-aged (40–50 years old) and older (60–70 years old) long-term married couples, focusing on the associations between downregulation of negative emotion (measured during discussions of an area of marital conflict at Wave 1) and marital satisfaction (measured at all three waves). Downregulation of negative emotion was assessed by determining how quickly spouses reduced signs of negative emotion (in emotional experience, emotional behavior, and physiological arousal) after negative emotion events. Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence modeling. Findings showed that (a) greater downregulation of wives’ negative experience and behavior predicted greater marital satisfaction for wives and husbands concurrently and (b) greater downregulation of wives’ negative behavior predicted increases in wives’ marital satisfaction longitudinally. Wives’ use of constructive communication (measured between Waves 1 and 2) mediated the longitudinal associations. These results show the benefits of wives’ downregulation of negative emotion during conflict for marital satisfaction and point to wives’ constructive communication as a mediating pathway. PMID:24188061

  8. Emotion regulation predicts marital satisfaction: more than a wives' tale.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Lian; Haase, Claudia M; Levenson, Robert W

    2014-02-01

    Emotion regulation is generally thought to be a critical ingredient for successful interpersonal relationships. Ironically, few studies have investigated the link between how well spouses regulate emotion and how satisfied they are with their marriages. We utilized data from a 13-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of middle-aged (40-50 years old) and older (60-70 years old) long-term married couples, focusing on the associations between downregulation of negative emotion (measured during discussions of an area of marital conflict at Wave 1) and marital satisfaction (measured at all 3 waves). Downregulation of negative emotion was assessed by determining how quickly spouses reduced signs of negative emotion (in emotional experience, emotional behavior, and physiological arousal) after negative emotion events. Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence modeling. Findings showed that (a) greater downregulation of wives' negative experience and behavior predicted greater marital satisfaction for wives and husbands concurrently and (b) greater downregulation of wives' negative behavior predicted increases in wives' marital satisfaction longitudinally. Wives' use of constructive communication (measured between Waves 1 and 2) mediated the longitudinal associations. These results show the benefits of wives' downregulation of negative emotion during conflict for marital satisfaction and point to wives' constructive communication as a mediating pathway.

  9. The Unconscious Regulation of Emotion: Nonconscious Reappraisal Goals Modulate Emotional Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Lawrence E.; Bargh, John A.; Nocera, Christopher C.; Gray, Jeremy R.

    2009-01-01

    People often encounter difficulty when making conscious attempts to regulate their emotions. We propose that nonconscious self-regulatory processes may be of help in these difficult circumstances, because nonconscious processes are not subject to the same set of limitations as are conscious processes. Two experiments examined the effects of nonconsciously operating goals on people's emotion-regulatory success. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in an anxiety-eliciting task who had a reappraisal emotion-control goal primed and operating nonconsciously achieved the same decrease in physiological reactivity as those explicitly instructed to reappraise, compared to a control group. In Experiment 2, the effect of nonconscious reappraisal priming on physiological reactivity was shown to be most pronounced for those who do not habitually use reappraisal strategies. The findings highlight the potential importance of nonconscious goals for facilitating emotional control in complex real-world environments, and have implications for contemporary models of emotion-regulation. PMID:20001127

  10. The unconscious regulation of emotion: nonconscious reappraisal goals modulate emotional reactivity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lawrence E; Bargh, John A; Nocera, Christopher C; Gray, Jeremy R

    2009-12-01

    People often encounter difficulty when making conscious attempts to regulate their emotions. We propose that nonconscious self-regulatory processes may be of help in these difficult circumstances because nonconscious processes are not subject to the same set of limitations as are conscious processes. Two experiments examined the effects of nonconsciously operating goals on people's emotion regulatory success. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in an anxiety-eliciting task. Participants who had a reappraisal emotion control goal primed and operating nonconsciously achieved the same decrease in physiological reactivity as those explicitly instructed to reappraise. In Experiment 2, the effect of nonconscious reappraisal priming on physiological reactivity was shown to be most pronounced for those who do not habitually use reappraisal strategies. The findings highlight the potential importance of nonconscious goals for facilitating emotional control in complex real-world environments and have implications for contemporary models of emotion regulation.

  11. The unconscious regulation of emotion: nonconscious reappraisal goals modulate emotional reactivity.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lawrence E; Bargh, John A; Nocera, Christopher C; Gray, Jeremy R

    2009-12-01

    People often encounter difficulty when making conscious attempts to regulate their emotions. We propose that nonconscious self-regulatory processes may be of help in these difficult circumstances because nonconscious processes are not subject to the same set of limitations as are conscious processes. Two experiments examined the effects of nonconsciously operating goals on people's emotion regulatory success. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in an anxiety-eliciting task. Participants who had a reappraisal emotion control goal primed and operating nonconsciously achieved the same decrease in physiological reactivity as those explicitly instructed to reappraise. In Experiment 2, the effect of nonconscious reappraisal priming on physiological reactivity was shown to be most pronounced for those who do not habitually use reappraisal strategies. The findings highlight the potential importance of nonconscious goals for facilitating emotional control in complex real-world environments and have implications for contemporary models of emotion regulation. PMID:20001127

  12. Mindful Emotion Regulation: Exploring the Neurocognitive Mechanisms behind Mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Pappaianni, Edoardo; Siugzdaite, Roma; Theuninck, Anthony; Job, Remo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review some of the psychological and neural mechanisms behind mindfulness practice in order to explore the unique factors that account for its positive impact on emotional regulation and health. After reviewing the mechanisms of mindfulness and its effects on clinical populations we will consider how the practice of mindfulness contributes to the regulation of emotions. We argue that mindfulness has achieved effective outcomes in the treatment of anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologies through the contribution of mindfulness to emotional regulation. We consider the unique factors that mindfulness meditation brings to the process of emotion regulation that may account for its effectiveness. We review experimental evidence that points towards the unique effects of mindfulness specifically operating over and above the regulatory effects of cognitive reappraisal mechanisms. A neuroanatomical circuit that leads to mindful emotion regulation is also suggested. This paper thereby aims to contribute to proposed models of mindfulness for research and theory building by proposing a specific model for the unique psychological and neural processes involved in mindful detachment that account for the effects of mindfulness over and above the effects accounted for by other well-established emotional regulation processes such as cognitive reappraisal. PMID:26137490

  13. Neural Circuitry of Impaired Emotion Regulation in Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Pommy, Jessica M.; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-01-01

    Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders

  14. Changing views of emotion regulation and neurobiological models of the mechanism of action of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Messina, Irene; Sambin, Marco; Beschoner, Petra; Viviani, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Influential neurobiological models of the mechanism of action of psychotherapy attribute its success to increases of activity in prefrontal areas and decreases in limbic areas, interpreted as the successful and adaptive recruitment of controlled processes to achieve emotion regulation. In this article, we review the behavioral and neuroscientific evidence in support of this model and its applicability to explain the mechanism of action of psychotherapy. Neuroimaging studies of explicit emotion regulation, evidence on the neurobiological substrates of implicit emotion regulation, and meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies of the effect of psychotherapy consistently suggest that areas implicated in coding semantic representations play an important role in emotion regulation not covered by existing models based on controlled processes. We discuss the findings that implicate these same areas in supporting working memory, in encoding preferences and the prospective outcome of actions taken in rewarding or aversive contingencies, and show how these functions may be integrated into process models of emotion regulation that depend on elaborate semantic representations for their effectiveness. These alternative models also appear to be more consistent with internal accounts in the psychotherapeutic literature of how psychotherapy works. PMID:27351671

  15. Executive functions and the down-regulation and up-regulation of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Kramer, Joel H.; Miller, Bruce L.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between individual differences in executive functions (EF; assessed by measures of working memory, Stroop, trail making, and verbal fluency) and ability to down-regulate and up-regulate responses to emotionally evocative film clips. To ensure a wide range of EF, 48 participants with diverse neurodegenerative disorders and 21 older neurologically normal aging participants were included. Participants were exposed to three different movie clips that were designed to elicit a mix of disgust and amusement. While watching the films they were either instructed to watch, down-regulate, and up-regulate their visible emotional responses. Heart-rate and facial behaviors were monitored throughout. Emotion regulatory ability was operationalized as changes in heart-rate and facial behavior in the down- and up-regulation conditions, controlling for responses in the watch condition. Results indicated that higher verbal fluency scores were related to greater ability to regulate emotion in both the down-regulation and up-regulation conditions. This finding remained significant even after controlling for age and general cognitive functioning. No relationships were found between emotion regulation and the other EF measures. We believe these results derive from differences among EF measures, with verbal fluency performance best capturing the complex sequence of controlled planning, activation, and monitoring required for successful emotion regulation. These findings contribute to our understanding of emotion-cognition interaction, suggesting a link between emotion-regulatory abilities and individual differences in complex executive functions. PMID:21432634

  16. Preschoolers' emotion expression and regulation: relations with school adjustment.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Kristina J; Bailey, Craig S; Shewark, Elizabeth A; Denham, Susanne A; Bassett, Hideko H

    2013-01-01

    Children's expression and regulation of emotions are building blocks of their experiences in classrooms. Thus, the authors' primary goal was to investigate whether preschoolers' expression or ability to regulate emotions were associated with teachers' ratings of school adjustment. A secondary goal was to investigate how boys and girls differed across these associations. Children's social-emotional behaviors in Head Start and private childcare center classrooms were observed, and using a series of measures, teachers' ratings of children's social competence, attitudes toward school, positive teacher relationships, and cooperative participation were collected. Three factors of children's school adjustment were extracted from these indicators. A series of hierarchical regressions revealed that emotion expression and regulation were indeed associated with children's reported school adjustment, with the strongest associations stemming from children's negative emotion expression and their emotion dysregulation. Many of these associations were also different for boys and girls. The results corroborate and extend the authors' earlier findings, and have implications for social-emotional programming to maximize children's early school success. PMID:24303577

  17. Emotion valence, intensity and emotion regulation in immigrants and majority members in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stupar, Snežana; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Fontaine, Johnny R J

    2015-08-01

    We were interested in interethnic differences and similarities in how emotion regulation strategies (reappraisal, suppression and social sharing) can be predicted by emotion valence and intensity. The sample consisted of 389 Dutch majority members and members of five immigrant groups: 136 Turkish and Moroccan, 105 Antillean and Surinamese, 102 Indonesian, 313 Western and 150 other non-Western immigrants. In a path model with latent variables we confirmed that emotion regulation strategies were significantly and similarly related to emotion valence and intensity across the groups. Negative emotions were more reappraised and suppressed than positive emotions. Intensity was positively related to social sharing and negatively related to reappraisal and suppression. The Dutch majority group scored higher on emotion valence than Turkish and Moroccan immigrants. Also, the Dutch majority group scored lower on reappraisal than all non-Western groups, and lower on suppression than Turkish and Moroccan immigrants. We conclude that group differences reside more in mean scores on some components than in how antecedents are linked to regulation strategies.

  18. Age and Gender Differences in Emotion Regulation Strategies: Autobiographical Memory, Rumination, Problem Solving and Distraction.

    PubMed

    Ricarte Trives, Jorge Javier; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre Postigo, José Miguel; Ros Segura, Laura; Watkins, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Our study tested the hypothesis that older adults and men use more adaptive emotion regulatory strategies but fewer negative emotion regulatory strategies than younger adults and women. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that rumination acts as a mediator variable for the effect of age and gender on depression scores. Differences in rumination, problem solving, distraction, autobiographical recall and depression were assessed in a group of young adults (18-29 years) compared to a group of older adults (50-76 years). The older group used more problem solving and distraction strategies when in a depressed state than their younger counterparts (ps .06). Ordinary least squares regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that rumination mediated the association between age, gender and depression scores. These results suggest that older adults and men select more adaptive strategies to regulate emotions than young adults and women with rumination acting as a significant mediator variable in the association between age, gender, and depression. PMID:27425806

  19. The Role of Ineffective Emotion Regulation in Problem Drinking Varies by Emotional Disposition, Delinquency, and Gender of South Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sunmi; Graham, Jennifer E.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Sohn, Young-Woo

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of emotion regulation (ER) strategies and emotional disposition in problem drinking of adolescent offenders (n = 303) and non-offending peers (n = 287) from South Korea. The participants completed a questionnaire assessing problem drinking, positive and negative emotion, emotional intensity, and use of problem solving,…

  20. Adolescent Depression and Negative Life Events, the Mediating Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Bodden, Denise H. M.; Kleinjan, Marloes; Reijnders, Mirjam; van Baar, Anneloes L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Depression during adolescence is a serious mental health problem. Difficulties in regulating evoked emotions after stressful life events are considered to lead to depression. This study examined if depressive symptoms were mediated by various cognitive emotion regulation strategies after stressful life events, more specifically, the loss of a loved one, health threats or relational challenges. Methods We used a sample of 398 adolescents (Mage = 16.94, SD = 2.90), including 52 depressed outpatients, who all reported stressful life event(s). Path analyses in Mplus were used to test mediation, for the whole sample as well as separately for participants scoring high versus low on depression, using multigroup analyses. Results Health threats and relational challenging stressful life events were associated with depressive symptoms, while loss was not. More frequent use of maladaptive strategies was related to more depressive symptoms. More frequent use of adaptive strategies was related to less depressive symptoms. Specific life events were associated with specific emotion regulation strategies. The relationship between challenging, stressful life events and depressive symptoms in the whole group was mediated by maladaptive strategies (self-blame, catastrophizing and rumination). No mediation effect was found for adaptive strategies. Conclusion The association between relational challenging, stressful life events and depressive symptoms was mediated by maladaptive, cognitive emotion regulation strategies. PMID:27571274

  1. Thinning of the lateral prefrontal cortex during adolescence predicts emotion regulation in females.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-11-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adolescence and (ii) structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex between early and mid-adolescence. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans when they were aged approximately 12 and 16 years, respectively. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain cortical thickness estimates for three prefrontal regions [anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC); ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)]. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was completed when adolescents were aged approximately 19 years. Results showed that greater cortical thinning of the left dlPFC and left vlPFC during adolescence was significantly associated with greater use of cognitive reappraisal in females, though no such relationship was evident in males. Furthermore, baseline left dlPFC thickness predicted cognitive reappraisal at trend level. These findings suggest that cortical maturation may play a role in the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies during adolescence.

  2. Criterion and incremental validity of the emotion regulation questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, Christos A.; Siegling, A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Although research on emotion regulation (ER) is developing, little attention has been paid to the predictive power of ER strategies beyond established constructs. The present study examined the incremental validity of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross and John, 2003), which measures cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, over and above the Big Five personality factors. It also extended the evidence for the measure's criterion validity to yet unexamined criteria. A university student sample (N = 203) completed the ERQ, a measure of the Big Five, and relevant cognitive and emotion-laden criteria. Cognitive reappraisal predicted positive affect beyond personality, as well as experiential flexibility and constructive self-assertion beyond personality and affect. Expressive suppression explained incremental variance in negative affect beyond personality and in experiential flexibility beyond personality and general affect. No incremental effects were found for worry, social anxiety, rumination, reflection, and preventing negative emotions. Implications for the construct validity and utility of the ERQ are discussed. PMID:25814967

  3. Emotion-Related Self-Regulation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sulik, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors review basic conceptual issues in research on children's emotion-related self-regulation, including the differentiation between self-regulation that is effortful and voluntary and control-related processes that are less amenable to effortful control. In addition, the authors summarize what researchers know about…

  4. Understanding the Role of Private Speech in Children's Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Kimberly L.; Smith, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Self-regulation includes both cognitive and affective components, but few researchers have investigated how these components interact to better explain self-regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate how children's private speech, which is typically related to cognitive ability, was utilized during an emotion-eliciting task. By…

  5. Transdiagnostic Case Conceptualization of Emotional Problems in Youth with ASD: An Emotion Regulation Approach

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    Youth with autism spectrum disorder often struggle to cope with co-occurring anxiety, depression, or anger, and having both internalizing and externalizing symptoms is a common clinical presentation. A number of authors have designed cognitive-behavioral interventions to address transdiagnostic factors related to multiple emotional problems, although none have applied this focus to youth with ASD. The current review article describes how a transdiagnostic emotion regulation framework may inform cognitive-behavioral interventions for youth with ASD, which until now have focused almost exclusively on anxiety. Research is needed to empirically test how a transdiagnostic intervention can address the processes of emotion regulation and assist youth with ASD to cope with their emotional disorders. PMID:25673923

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability-Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability-negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion regulation was a…

  7. Regulated cell death and adaptive stress responses.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic cells react to potentially dangerous perturbations of the intracellular or extracellular microenvironment by activating rapid (transcription-independent) mechanisms that attempt to restore homeostasis. If such perturbations persist, cells may still try to cope with stress by activating delayed and robust (transcription-dependent) adaptive systems, or they may actively engage in cellular suicide. This regulated form of cell death can manifest with various morphological, biochemical and immunological correlates, and constitutes an ultimate attempt of stressed cells to maintain organismal homeostasis. Here, we dissect the general organization of adaptive cellular responses to stress, their intimate connection with regulated cell death, and how the latter operates for the preservation of organismal homeostasis.

  8. Maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms and infant emotional reactivity and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Kitts, Robert L; Blood, Emily; Bizarro, Andrea; Hofmeister, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J

    2011-12-01

    The current study examined associations between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and infant emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during the first year of life in a primarily low-income, urban, ethnic/racial minority sample of 52 mother-infant dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own trauma exposure history and current PTSD and depressive symptoms and their infants' temperament when the infants were 6 months old. Dyads participated in the repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R) when the infants were 6 months old, and infant affective states were coded for each SFP-R episode. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing infant trauma exposure history and infant current emotional and behavioral symptoms when the infants were 13 months old. Maternal PTSD symptoms predicted infants' emotion regulation at 6 months as assessed by (a) infant ability to recover from distress during the SFP-R and (b) maternal report of infant rate of recovery from distress/arousal in daily life. Maternal PTSD symptoms also predicted maternal report of infant externalizing, internalizing, and dysregulation symptoms at 13 months. Maternal PTSD was not associated with measures of infant emotional reactivity. Neither maternal depressive symptoms nor infant direct exposure to trauma accounted for the associations between maternal PTSD symptoms and infant outcomes. These findings suggest that maternal PTSD is associated with offspring emotion regulation difficulties as early as infancy. Such difficulties may contribute to increased risk of mental health problems among children of mothers with PTSD. PMID:21862136

  9. An expectancy-value model of emotion regulation: implications for motivation, emotional experience, and decision making.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Maya; Bigman, Yochanan E; Rhodes, Emily; Salerno, James; Schreier, Jenna

    2015-02-01

    According to expectancy-value models of self-regulation, people are motivated to act in ways they expect to be useful to them. For instance, people are motivated to run when they believe running is useful, even when they have nothing to run away from. Similarly, we propose an expectancy-value model of emotion regulation, according to which people are motivated to emote in ways they expect to be useful to them, regardless of immediate contextual demands. For instance, people may be motivated to get angry when they believe anger is useful, even when there is nothing to be angry about. In 5 studies, we demonstrate that leading people to expect an emotion to be useful increased their motivation to experience that emotion (Studies 1-5), led them to up-regulate the experience of that emotion (Studies 3-4), and led to emotion-consistent behavior (Study 4). Our hypotheses were supported when we manipulated the expected value of anxiety (Study 1) and anger (Studies 2-5), both consciously (Studies 1-4) and unconsciously (Study 5). We discuss the theoretical and pragmatic implications of the proposed model.

  10. Maternal Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Infant Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Kitts, Robert L.; Blood, Emily; Bizarro, Andrea; Hofmeister, Michelle; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined associations between maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and infant emotional reactivity and emotion regulation during the first year of life in a primarily low-income, urban, ethnic/racial minority sample of 52 mother-infant dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing their own trauma exposure history and current PTSD and depressive symptoms and their infants’ temperament when the infants were 6 months old. Dyads participated in the repeated Still-Face Paradigm (SFP-R) when the infants were 6 months old, and infant affective states were coded for each SFP-R episode. Mothers completed questionnaires assessing infant trauma exposure history and infant current emotional and behavioral symptoms when the infants were 13 months old. Maternal PTSD symptoms predicted infants’ emotion regulation at 6 months as assessed by (a) infant ability to recover from distress during the SFP-R and (b) maternal report of infant rate of recovery from distress/arousal in daily life. Maternal PTSD symptoms also predicted maternal report of infant externalizing, internalizing, and dysregulation symptoms at 13 months. Maternal PTSD was not associated with measures of infant emotional reactivity. Neither maternal depressive symptoms nor infant direct exposure to trauma accounted for the associations between maternal PTSD symptoms and infant outcomes. These findings suggest that maternal PTSD is associated with offspring emotion regulation difficulties as early as infancy. Such difficulties may contribute to increased risk of mental health problems among children of mothers with PTSD. PMID:21862136

  11. The Role of Emotion Perception in Adaptive Functioning of People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudepohl, Margaret B.; Robins, Diana L.; King, Tricia Z.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning has historically been used to predict adaptive outcomes of people with autism spectrum disorders; however, research shows that it is not a complete predictor. The current study explored whether emotion perception was a predictor of adaptive outcomes, and more specifically, hypothesized that emotion perception (Diagnostic…

  12. Emotion experience and regulation in China and the United States: how do culture and gender shape emotion responding?

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth; Greenberger, Ellen; Charles, Susan; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhao, Libo; Dong, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Culture and gender shape emotion experience and regulation, in part because the value placed on emotions and the manner of their expression is thought to vary across these groups. This study tested the hypothesis that culture and gender would interact to predict people's emotion responding (emotion intensity and regulatory strategies). Chinese (n=220; 52% female) and American undergraduates (n=241; 62% female) viewed photos intended to elicit negative emotions after receiving instructions to either "just feel" any emotions that arose (Just Feel), or to "do something" so that they would not experience any emotion while viewing the photos (Regulate). All participants then rated the intensity of their experienced emotions and described any emotion-regulation strategies that they used while viewing the photos. Consistent with predictions, culture and gender interacted with experimental condition to predict intensity: Chinese men reported relatively low levels of emotion, whereas American women reported relatively high levels of emotion. Disengagement strategies (especially distancing) were related to lower emotional intensity and were reported most often by Chinese men. Taken together, findings suggest that emotion-regulation strategies may contribute to differences in emotional experience across Western and East Asian cultures.

  13. The role of emotion regulation in auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Badcock, Johanna C; Paulik, Georgie; Maybery, Murray T

    2011-02-28

    Emotion regulation involves the use of strategies to influence the experience and expression of emotions. Anxiety and depression are strongly associated with the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as auditory hallucinations (AHs). Individuals usually try to down-regulate (decrease) such emotions, consequently abnormal or maladaptive use of one or more of these down-regulatory processes (e.g. increased use of expressive suppression or maladaptive attentional deployment, i.e. rumination/worry) may play an important role in AHs (e.g. increasing AH severity and distress). This study examined the self-reported use of a range of emotion regulation strategies in individuals with schizophrenia and current AHs (SZ AH; N=34) and healthy controls (N=34). Two separable dimensions of hallucinatory experiences (severity and distress) were assessed together with measures of anxiety, depression and happiness. Within the SZ AH group, greater use of expressive suppression was associated with an increase in severity of AHs and greater disruption in daily life. In addition, rumination was significantly positively correlated with the distress (but not with the severity) associated with AHs. Within the control group, expressive suppression, rumination and worry were associated with more anxiety/depression and less happiness, as predicted. The implications of different emotion regulation strategies for the treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and AHs are discussed. PMID:20678808

  14. Applying the polyvagal theory to children's emotion regulation: Social context, socialization, and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Paul D; Nuselovici, Jacob N; Utendale, William T; Coutya, Julie; McShane, Kelly E; Sullivan, Caroline

    2008-12-01

    Effective emotion regulation is essential for children's positive development. Polyvagal theory provides a framework for understanding how parasympathetic regulation of cardiac activity contributes to children's adaptive versus maladaptive functioning. Maintenance of cardiac respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) under social challenge should support emotion regulation and behavioral adjustment. Children's effective parasympathetic regulation and behavioral adjustment should be supported by appropriate parental socialization. These proposals were evaluated in a short-term longitudinal study of 94 preschool-aged children. Parenting and basal RSA were measured at home, then 6-10 months later behavioral adjustment and RSA in lab baseline and socially challenging contexts were measured. Children with relatively higher RSA in social challenge than at baseline (DeltaRSA) had fewer internalizing problems (IP) and externalizing problems (EP), and better behavioral self-regulation (SR). Mothers who used more negative control had children with lower DeltaRSA, more IP and EP, and less SR. Structural equation modeling showed that vagal regulation mediated associations between maternal negative control and children's adjustment; maternal negative control did not predict EP or SR after accounting for DeltaRSA. Associations were consistent across boys and girls, with one exception: Higher DeltaRSA was significantly associated with fewer EP in boys only. These findings suggest that the practical significance of physiological regulation might be best revealed in ecologically valid procedures, and that children's physiological mechanisms of emotion regulation are shaped by their experiences of parental socialization. PMID:18722499

  15. Applying the polyvagal theory to children's emotion regulation: Social context, socialization, and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Hastings, Paul D; Nuselovici, Jacob N; Utendale, William T; Coutya, Julie; McShane, Kelly E; Sullivan, Caroline

    2008-12-01

    Effective emotion regulation is essential for children's positive development. Polyvagal theory provides a framework for understanding how parasympathetic regulation of cardiac activity contributes to children's adaptive versus maladaptive functioning. Maintenance of cardiac respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) under social challenge should support emotion regulation and behavioral adjustment. Children's effective parasympathetic regulation and behavioral adjustment should be supported by appropriate parental socialization. These proposals were evaluated in a short-term longitudinal study of 94 preschool-aged children. Parenting and basal RSA were measured at home, then 6-10 months later behavioral adjustment and RSA in lab baseline and socially challenging contexts were measured. Children with relatively higher RSA in social challenge than at baseline (DeltaRSA) had fewer internalizing problems (IP) and externalizing problems (EP), and better behavioral self-regulation (SR). Mothers who used more negative control had children with lower DeltaRSA, more IP and EP, and less SR. Structural equation modeling showed that vagal regulation mediated associations between maternal negative control and children's adjustment; maternal negative control did not predict EP or SR after accounting for DeltaRSA. Associations were consistent across boys and girls, with one exception: Higher DeltaRSA was significantly associated with fewer EP in boys only. These findings suggest that the practical significance of physiological regulation might be best revealed in ecologically valid procedures, and that children's physiological mechanisms of emotion regulation are shaped by their experiences of parental socialization.

  16. Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzell, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive automation has been proposed as a solution to current problems of human-automation interaction. Past research has shown the potential of this advanced form of automation to enhance pilot engagement and lower cognitive workload. However, there have been concerns voiced regarding issues, such as automation surprises, associated with the use of adaptive automation. This study examined the use of psychophysiological self-regulation training with adaptive automation that may help pilots deal with these problems through the enhancement of cognitive resource management skills. Eighteen participants were assigned to 3 groups (self-regulation training, false feedback, and control) and performed resource management, monitoring, and tracking tasks from the Multiple Attribute Task Battery. The tracking task was cycled between 3 levels of task difficulty (automatic, adaptive aiding, manual) on the basis of the electroencephalogram-derived engagement index. The other two tasks remained in automatic mode that had a single automation failure. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  17. Impaired Emotion Regulation in Schizophrenia: Evidence From Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Horan, William P.; Hajcak, Greg; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Green, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although several aspects of emotion appear intact in schizophrenia, there is emerging evidence that patients show an impaired ability to adaptively regulate their emotions. This ERP study examined whether schizophrenia is associated with impaired neural responses to appraisal frames – i.e., when negative stimuli are presented in a less negative context. Methods 31 schizophrenia outpatients and 27 healthy controls completed a validated picture viewing task with three conditions: 1) Neutral pictures preceded by neutral descriptions (“Neutral”), 2) Unpleasant pictures preceded by negative descriptions (“Preappraised negative”), 3) Unpleasant pictures preceded by more neutral descriptions (“Preappraised neutral”). Analyses focused on the Late Positive Potential (LPP), an index of facilitated attention to emotional stimuli that is reduced following cognitive emotion regulation strategies, during four time windows from 300 – 2000 ms post picture onset. Results Replicating prior studies, controls showed smaller LPP in Preappraised neutral and Neutral vs. Preappraised negative conditions throughout 300 – 2000 ms. In contrast, patients showed (a) larger LPP in Preappraised neutral and Preappraised negative vs. Neutral conditions in the initial period (300 – 600 ms) and (b) an atypical pattern of larger LPP to Preappraised neutral vs. Preappraised negative and Neutral conditions in the 600–1500 ms epochs. Conclusions Modulation of neural responses by a cognitive emotion regulation strategy appears impaired in schizophrenia during the first two seconds after exposure to unpleasant stimuli. PMID:23360592

  18. The Jekyll and Hyde of emotional intelligence: emotion-regulation knowledge facilitates both prosocial and interpersonally deviant behavior.

    PubMed

    Côté, Stéphane; Decelles, Katherine A; McCarthy, Julie M; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Hideg, Ivona

    2011-08-01

    Does emotional intelligence promote behavior that strictly benefits the greater good, or can it also advance interpersonal deviance? In the investigation reported here, we tested the possibility that a core facet of emotional intelligence--emotion-regulation knowledge--can promote both prosocial and interpersonally deviant behavior. Drawing from research on how the effective regulation of emotion promotes goal achievement, we predicted that emotion-regulation knowledge would strengthen the effects of other-oriented and self-oriented personality traits on prosocial behavior and interpersonal deviance, respectively. Two studies supported our predictions. Among individuals with higher emotion-regulation knowledge, moral identity exhibited a stronger positive association with prosocial behavior in a social dilemma (Study 1), and Machiavellianism exhibited a stronger positive association with interpersonal deviance in the workplace (Study 2). Thus, emotion-regulation knowledge has a positive side and a dark side.

  19. Task relevance regulates the interaction between reward expectation and emotion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ping; Kang, Guanlan

    2014-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated the impact of reward expectation on the processing of emotional facial expression using a cue-target paradigm. A cue indicating the reward condition of each trial (incentive vs. non-incentive) was followed by the presentation of a picture of an emotional face, the target. Participants were asked to discriminate the emotional expression of the target face in Experiment 1, to discriminate the gender of the target face in Experiment 2, and to judge a number superimposed on the center of the target face as even or odd in Experiment 3, rendering the emotional expression of the target face as task relevant in Experiment 1 but task irrelevant in Experiments 2 and 3. Faster reaction times (RTs) were observed in the monetary incentive condition than in the non-incentive condition, demonstrating the effect of reward on facilitating task concentration. Moreover, the reward effect (i.e., RTs in non-incentive conditions versus incentive conditions) was larger for emotional faces than for neutral faces when emotional expression was task relevant but not when it was task irrelevant. The findings suggest that top-down incentive motivation biased attentional processing toward task-relevant stimuli, and that task relevance played an important role in regulating the influence of reward expectation on the processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:24553754

  20. The Impact of Experienced Emotion on Evaluative Judgments: The Effects of Age and Emotion Regulation Style

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Thomas M.; Beale, Karen S.; Miles, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Adults aged from 24 to 79 were exposed to four commercial advertisements within the context of television programs designed to induce either a positive or negative mood. Although age was associated with memory for the content of the commercials, it did not moderate the impact of mood on evaluations of the advertized products. Instead, participants who reported engaging in expressive suppression as a common emotion regulation strategy were more likely to make evaluations that were biased by moods than those individuals who reported low use of this strategy. The results suggest that the maintenance of emotion regulation ability in later adulthood may help people control certain affective influences on thought. PMID:20694860

  1. Overnight emotional adaptation to negative stimuli is altered by REM sleep deprivation and is correlated with intervening dream emotions.

    PubMed

    Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Nielsen, Tore A; Solomonova, Elizaveta; Levrier, Katia; Popova, Ani

    2009-06-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming may be implicated in cross-night adaptation to emotionally negative events. To evaluate the impact of REM sleep deprivation (REMD) and the presence of dream emotions on a possible emotional adaptation (EA) function, 35 healthy subjects randomly assigned to REMD (n = 17; mean age 26.4 +/- 4.3 years) and control (n = 18; mean age 23.7 +/- 4.4 years) groups underwent a partial REMD and control nights in the laboratory, respectively. In the evening preceding and morning following REMD, subjects rated neutral and negative pictures on scales of valence and arousal and EA scores were calculated. Subjects also rated dream emotions using the same scales and a 10-item emotions list. REMD was relatively successful in decreasing REM% on the experimental night, although a mean split procedure was applied to better differentiate subjects high and low in REM%. High and low groups differed - but in a direction contrary to expectations. Subjects high in REMD% showed greater adaptation to negative pictures on arousal ratings than did those low in REMD% (P < 0.05), even after statistically controlling sleep efficiency and awakening times. Subjects above the median on EA(valence) had less intense overall dream negativity (P < 0.005) and dream sadness (P < 0.004) than subjects below the median. A correlation between the emotional intensities of the morning dream and the morning picture ratings supports a possible emotional carry-over effect. REM sleep may enhance morning reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. Further, REM sleep and dreaming may be implicated in different dimensions of cross-night adaptation to negative emotions.

  2. The effect of toddler emotion regulation on maternal emotion socialization: Moderation by toddler gender.

    PubMed

    Premo, Julie E; Kiel, Elizabeth J

    2014-08-01

    Although developmental research continues to connect parenting behaviors with child outcomes, it is critical to examine how child behaviors influence parenting behaviors. Given the emotional, cognitive, and social costs of maladaptive parenting, it is vital to understand the factors that influence maternal socialization behaviors. The current study examined children's observed emotion regulatory behaviors in two contexts (low-threat and high-threat novelty) as one influence. Mother-child dyads (n = 106) with toddlers of 24 months of age participated in novelty episodes from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors (i.e., caregiver-focused, attention, and self-soothing) were coded, and mothers reported their use of emotion socialization strategies when children were 24 and 36 months. We hypothesized that gender-specific predictive relations would occur, particularly from regulatory behaviors in the low-threat contexts. Gender moderated the relation between caregiver-focused emotion regulation in low-threat contexts and nonsupportive emotion socialization. Results from the current study inform the literature on the salience of child-elicited effects on the parent-child relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Effect of Toddler Emotion Regulation on Maternal Emotion Socialization: Moderation by Toddler Gender

    PubMed Central

    Premo, Julie E.; Kiel, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Although developmental research continues to connect parenting behaviors with child outcomes, it is critical to examine how child behaviors influence parenting behaviors. Given the emotional, cognitive, and social costs of maladaptive parenting, it is vital to understand the factors that influence maternal socialization behaviors. The current study examines children’s observed emotion regulatory behaviors in two contexts (low-threat and high-threat novelty) as one influence. Mother-child dyads (n = 106) with toddlers of 24 months of age participated in novelty episodes from which toddler emotion regulation behaviors (caregiver-focused, attention, and self-soothing) were coded, and mothers reported their use of emotion socialization strategies when children were 24 and 36 months. We hypothesized that gender-specific predictive relations would occur, particularly from regulatory behaviors in the low-threat contexts. Gender moderated the relation between caregiver-focused emotion regulation in low-threat contexts and non-supportive emotion socialization. Results from the current study inform the literature on the salience of child-elicited effects on the parent-child relationship. PMID:24821395

  4. Cognition Regulated by Emotional Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, George B.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive ability did not appear de novo in humans. Despite our ability to recognize limited cognitive behavioral characteristics in animals, there has been no outcry to proclaim this phenomenon. The notion that humans are the only animals to possess cognition has taken advantage of the illusory potential in inter-subjectivity and placed him outside of reality. This deception, however, has positive survival value due to the fact that it is humankind’s self-proclaimed responsibility to excel beyond other simple animal species. However, at this point in evolution, we must allow our cognitive ability to reform itself and, in so doing, evolve with the benefit of the knowledge that this ability is itself creating. By recognizing that animals may have limited cognitive ability, we only enhance our self-esteem, not diminish it. Furthermore, cognition, given its limited brain controlling attributes, may mask another more diligent force for action and control, namely, emotion. Emotion provides the motivation for action, the mechanism to limit reason in a timely survival related manner and a coping strategy for dealing with other humans and animals while simultaneously modulating involuntary physiological functions in an appropriate manner. PMID:26751739

  5. Influence of Tempo and Rhythmic Unit in Musical Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Latorre, José M

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the assumption of musical power to change the listener's mood. The paper studies the outcome of two experiments on the regulation of emotional states in a series of participants who listen to different auditions. The present research focuses on note value, an important musical cue related to rhythm. The influence of two concepts linked to note value is analyzed separately and discussed together. The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely "Tension" (ranging from Relaxing to Stressing), "Expressiveness" (Expressionless to Expressive), "Amusement" (Boring to Amusing) and "Attractiveness" (Pleasant to Unpleasant). The participants also have to indicate how much they feel certain basic emotions while listening to each music excerpt. The rated emotions are "Happiness," "Surprise," and "Sadness." This study makes it possible to draw some interesting conclusions about the associations between note value and emotions.

  6. [Neurophysiological mechanisms and effects of emotional regulation on time perception].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2016-08-25

    Time is an important element for cognitive processes. Timing and time perception have been investigated by neuroscientists and psychologists for many years. It is well accepted that emotions could alter our experience of time. Previous studies of the emotional modulation on temporal perception focus primarily on behavioral and psychological experiments. In recent years, studies about the neurophysiological mechanisms of time perception have made some progress. Therefore, researchers started to explore how emotions influence our sense of time on the aspects of neural networks, neurotransmitters and synaptic plasticity. In this paper, we tried to review current studies about the effects of emotional regulation on time perception and the relevant neurophysiological mechanisms. This review will help us to deeply understand the neural mechanisms of time perception. PMID:27546506

  7. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect. PMID:25698699

  8. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks.

    PubMed

    Engen, Haakon G; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect. PMID:25698699

  9. Compassion-based emotion regulation up-regulates experienced positive affect and associated neural networks.

    PubMed

    Engen, Haakon G; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    Emotion regulation research has primarily focused on techniques that attenuate or modulate the impact of emotional stimuli. Recent evidence suggests that this mode regulation can be problematic in the context of regulation of emotion elicited by the suffering of others, resulting in reduced emotional connectedness. Here, we investigated the effects of an alternative emotion regulation technique based on the up-regulation of positive affect via Compassion-meditation on experiential and neural affective responses to depictions of individuals in distress, and compared these with the established emotion regulation strategy of Reappraisal. Using fMRI, we scanned 15 expert practitioners of Compassion-meditation either passively viewing, or using Compassion-meditation or Reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions to film clips depicting people in distress. Both strategies effectively, but differentially regulated experienced affect, with Compassion primarily increasing positive and Reappraisal primarily decreasing negative affect. Imaging results showed that Compassion, relative to both passive-viewing and Reappraisal increased activation in regions involved in affiliation, positive affect and reward processing including ventral striatum and medial orbitfrontal cortex. This network was shown to be active prior to stimulus presentation, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism of Compassion is the stimulus-independent endogenous generation of positive affect.

  10. Emotional Development and Adaptive Abilities in Adults with Intellectual Disability. A Correlation Study between the Scheme of Appraisal of Emotional Development (SAED) and Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Lassi, Stefano; Bertelli, Marco; Albertini, Giorgio; Dosen, Anton

    2009-01-01

    The importance of emotional aspects in developing cognitive and social abilities has already been underlined by many authors even if there is no unanimous agreement on the factors constituting adaptive abilities, nor is there any on the way to measure them or on the relation between adaptive ability and cognitive level. The purposes of this study…

  11. Dynamics of positive emotion regulation: associations with youth depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Fussner, Lauren M; Luebbe, Aaron M; Bell, Debora J

    2015-04-01

    Depression is frequently considered a disorder of impaired affect regulation with deficits across both positive and negative affective systems. However, where deficits in emotion regulation occur in youth, specifically regarding regulation of positive emotions, is relatively unknown. The current study tested whether deficits in broad (felt and expressed) and specific (up-regulation and maintenance) positive emotion processes are associated with youth depressive symptoms. Adolescents (n = 134; 65 girls) in grades 7 to 9 completed a self-report measure of depressive symptoms prior to participating in two parent-child interactions tasks, a rewarding trivia task and a problem-solving conflict task. During the interaction tasks, adolescent's overall self-reported experience and observed expression of positive affect (PA) was examined. Following the reward task, youth's ability to up-regulate PA (PA response) and maintain PA while buffering against NA (PA persistence) was explored observationally. Results suggested that reduced experience and expression of PA was associated with depression symptoms, but only in a context that elicited negative emotions. No association was found between PA response and depression symptoms; however, shorter PA persistence was associated with elevated depressive symptoms. Youth higher in depressive symptoms appear able to respond similarly to rewarding events, but fail to maintain PA and ward off NA when transitioning from a positive to negative task.

  12. Adaptation Aftereffects in Vocal Emotion Perception Elicited by Expressive Faces and Voices

    PubMed Central

    Skuk, Verena G.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotions is often suggested to be multimodal in nature, and bimodal as compared to unimodal (auditory or visual) presentation of emotional stimuli can lead to superior emotion recognition. In previous studies, contrastive aftereffects in emotion perception caused by perceptual adaptation have been shown for faces and for auditory affective vocalization, when adaptors were of the same modality. By contrast, crossmodal aftereffects in the perception of emotional vocalizations have not been demonstrated yet. In three experiments we investigated the influence of emotional voice as well as dynamic facial video adaptors on the perception of emotion-ambiguous voices morphed on an angry-to-happy continuum. Contrastive aftereffects were found for unimodal (voice) adaptation conditions, in that test voices were perceived as happier after adaptation to angry voices, and vice versa. Bimodal (voice + dynamic face) adaptors tended to elicit larger contrastive aftereffects. Importantly, crossmodal (dynamic face) adaptors also elicited substantial aftereffects in male, but not in female participants. Our results (1) support the idea of contrastive processing of emotions (2), show for the first time crossmodal adaptation effects under certain conditions, consistent with the idea that emotion processing is multimodal in nature, and (3) suggest gender differences in the sensory integration of facial and vocal emotional stimuli. PMID:24236215

  13. Adaptation aftereffects in vocal emotion perception elicited by expressive faces and voices.

    PubMed

    Skuk, Verena G; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-01-01

    The perception of emotions is often suggested to be multimodal in nature, and bimodal as compared to unimodal (auditory or visual) presentation of emotional stimuli can lead to superior emotion recognition. In previous studies, contrastive aftereffects in emotion perception caused by perceptual adaptation have been shown for faces and for auditory affective vocalization, when adaptors were of the same modality. By contrast, crossmodal aftereffects in the perception of emotional vocalizations have not been demonstrated yet. In three experiments we investigated the influence of emotional voice as well as dynamic facial video adaptors on the perception of emotion-ambiguous voices morphed on an angry-to-happy continuum. Contrastive aftereffects were found for unimodal (voice) adaptation conditions, in that test voices were perceived as happier after adaptation to angry voices, and vice versa. Bimodal (voice + dynamic face) adaptors tended to elicit larger contrastive aftereffects. Importantly, crossmodal (dynamic face) adaptors also elicited substantial aftereffects in male, but not in female participants. Our results (1) support the idea of contrastive processing of emotions (2), show for the first time crossmodal adaptation effects under certain conditions, consistent with the idea that emotion processing is multimodal in nature, and (3) suggest gender differences in the sensory integration of facial and vocal emotional stimuli. PMID:24236215

  14. Cut! that’s a wrap: regulating negative emotion by ending emotion-eliciting situations

    PubMed Central

    Vujovic, Lara; Opitz, Philipp C.; Birk, Jeffrey L.; Urry, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the potentially powerful set of emotion regulation (ER) processes that target emotion-eliciting situations. We thus studied the decision to end emotion-eliciting situations in the laboratory. We hypothesized that people would try to end negative situations more frequently than neutral situations to regulate distress. In addition, motivated by the selection, optimization, and compensation with ER framework, we hypothesized that failed attempts to end the situation would prompt either (a) greater negative emotion or (b) compensatory use of a different ER process, attentional deployment (AD). Fifty-eight participants (18–26 years old, 67% women) viewed negative and neutral pictures and pressed a key whenever they wished to stop viewing them. After key press, the picture disappeared (“success”) or stayed (“failure”) on screen. To index emotion, we measured corrugator and electrodermal activity, heart rate, and self-reported arousal. To index overt AD, we measured eye gaze. As their reason for ending the situation, participants more frequently reported being upset by high- than low-arousal negative pictures; they more frequently reported being bored by low- than high-arousal neutral pictures. Nevertheless, participants’ negative emotional responding did not increase in the context of ER failure nor did they use overt AD as a compensatory ER strategy. We conclude that situation-targeted ER processes are used to regulate emotional responses to high-arousal negative and low-arousal neutral situations; ER processes other than overt AD may be used to compensate for ER failure in this context. PMID:24592251

  15. The role of emotion perception in adaptive functioning of people with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hudepohl, Margaret B; Robins, Diana L; King, Tricia Z; Henrich, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning has historically been used to predict adaptive outcomes of people with autism spectrum disorders; however, research shows that it is not a complete predictor. The current study explored whether emotion perception was a predictor of adaptive outcomes, and more specifically, hypothesized that emotion perception (Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy-2 error scores) would mediate adaptive functioning of people with autism spectrum disorder (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition). People with autism spectrum disorders demonstrated significantly lower adaptive functioning and emotion perception skills compared to typically developing individuals. Emotion perception acted as a significant mediator for socialization, but not communication or daily living skills, highlighting that in people with autism spectrum disorders, lower socialization abilities is the result, in part, of emotion perception deficits. It was unexpected that emotion perception was not a mediator for communication skills. This may be related to sample restrictions, or the narrow focus on emotion perception. Future research should involve a larger, more inclusive autism spectrum disorder sample, broaden approaches to exploring relationships between social perception and adaptive outcomes, and relate findings to brain mechanisms underlying emotion perception. PMID:24335115

  16. Harsh Parenting in Relation to Child Emotion Regulation and Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lei; Schwartz, David; Dodge, Kenneth A.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a model of harsh parenting that has an indirect effect, as well as a direct effect, on child aggression in the school environment through the mediating process of child emotion regulation. Tested on a sample of 325 Chinese children and their parents, the model showed adequate goodness of fit. Also investigated were interaction effects between parents’ and children’s gender. Mothers’ harsh parenting affected child emotion regulation more strongly than fathers’, whereas harsh parenting emanating from fathers had a stronger effect on child aggression. Fathers’ harsh parenting also affected sons more than daughters, whereas there was no gender differential effect with mothers’ harsh parenting. These results are discussed with an emphasis on negative emotionality as a potentially common cause of family perturbations, including parenting and child adjustment problems. PMID:14640808

  17. The Late Positive Potential Predicts Emotion Regulation Strategy Use in School-Aged Children Concurrently and Two Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Babkirk, Sarah; Rios, Victor; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to use cognitive emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal may be a core component of emotional competence across development, but due to methodological challenges in measuring such strategies, they are rarely studied in young children. One neurophysiological measure, the late positive potential (LPP) has been examined in response to reappraisal as a potential neurosignature for emotion regulatory capacity in adults. The association between the LPP and emotion regulatory capacity in children is unknown. The present study examined whether the LPP during reappraisal could predict greater observed adaptive emotion regulation strategy use in school-aged children over a two-year period. Thirty-two five- to seven- year- olds participated in two identical lab visits spaced two years apart. EEG was continuously recorded during a computerized reappraisal task in which children viewed unpleasant images paired with either reappraisal or negative stories. Next they completed a disappointing and a frustrating task during which emotion regulation strategies was observed. As predicted, children who showed reappraisal-induced reductions in the LPP at the first assessment used significantly more adaptive ER strategies concurrently and two years later. These findings provide observation-based evidence that the LPP may be a viable neurosignature for emotion regulatory capacity in children. PMID:25438825

  18. Neural Mechanisms of Emotion Regulation in Childhood Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hum, Kathryn M.; Manassis, Katharina; Lewis, Marc D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to examine the cortical processes that mediate cognitive regulation in response to emotion-eliciting stimuli in anxious children. Methods: Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded from clinically anxious children ("n" = 29) and typically developing children ("n" = 34).…

  19. Dedifferentiation of emotion regulation strategies in the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Ponzio, Allison; Velasco, Ricardo; Kaplan, Jonas; Mather, Mara

    2015-01-01

    Different emotion regulation strategies are distinctly represented in the brains of younger adults. Decreasing a reaction to a negative situation by reinterpreting it (reappraisal) relies on cognitive control regions in the prefrontal cortex, while distracting away from a stressor involves more posterior medial structures. In this study, we used Multi-Voxel pattern analyses (MVPA) to examine whether reappraisal and distraction strategies have distinct representations in the older adult brain, or whether emotion regulation strategies become more dedifferentiated in later life. MVPA better differentiated the two emotion regulation strategies for younger adults than for older adults, and revealed the greatest age-related differences in differentiation in the posterior medial cortex (PMC). Univariate analyses revealed equal PMC recruitment across strategies for older adults, but greater activity during distraction than reappraisal for younger adults. The PMC is central to self-focused processing, and thus our findings are consistent with the possibility that focusing on the self may be a default mechanism across emotion regulation strategies for older people. PMID:25380765

  20. Age, Emotion Regulation Strategies, Temperament, Creative Drama, and Preschoolers' Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Yu-Chu; Li, Me-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Based on Yeh's (2004) "Ecological Systems Model of Creativity Development", this study investigated the effects that age, the use of emotion regulation strategies, temperament, and exposure to creative drama instruction have on the development of creativity among preschool children. Participants were 116 4- to 6-year-old preschool children. This…

  1. Adolescents' Emotion Regulation Strategies, Self-Concept, and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…

  2. Relations between Fantasy Orientation and Emotion Regulation in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Ansley T.; Brown, Melissa M.; Pierucci, Jillian M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: Emotion regulation is a strong predictor of both short- and long-term peer relationships and social competence and is often targeted in preschool curricula and interventions. Pretense is a natural activity of childhood that is thought to facilitate the development of socialization, perspective taking, language, and possibly…

  3. Examining the Relationship of Children's Behavior to Emotion Regulation Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onchwari, Grace; Keengwe, Jared

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between children's ability to regulate emotions and display of appropriate behavior in social settings. A sample of 33 children representing a wide range of social economic status was randomly selected from a Head Start Program and an Early Childhood Development Center in the Midwest. Data were collected…

  4. An Integrative Theory-Driven Positive Emotion Regulation Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Weytens, Fanny; Luminet, Olivier; Verhofstadt, Lesley L.; Mikolajczak, Moïra

    2014-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, positive psychology research has validated a set of happiness enhancing techniques. These techniques are relatively simple exercises that allow happiness seekers to mimic thoughts and behavior of naturally happy people, in order to increase their level of well-being. Because research has shown that the joint use of these exercises increases their effects, practitioners who want to help happiness seekers need validated interventions that combine several of these techniques. To meet this need, we have developed and tested an integrative intervention (Positive Emotion Regulation program – PER program) incorporating a number of validated techniques structured around a theoretical model: the Process Model of Positive Emotion Regulation. To test the effectiveness of this program and to identify its added value relative to existing interventions, 113 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to a 6-week positive emotion regulation pilot program, a loving-kindness meditation training program, or a wait-list control group. Results indicate that fewer participants dropped out from the PER program than from the Loving-Kindness Meditation training. Furthermore, subjects in the PER group showed a significant increase in subjective well-being and life satisfaction and a significant decrease in depression and physical symptoms when compared to controls. Our results suggest that the Process Model of Positive Emotion Regulation can be an effective option to organize and deliver positive integrative interventions. PMID:24759870

  5. Developmental Pathways of Emotion Regulation in Childhood: A Neuropsychological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woltering, Steven; Lewis, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a model featuring two types of emotion regulation--reactive and deliberate--and discusses the developmental trajectory of both types. We argue that the later-developing capacity for deliberate control builds on and coevolves with earlier-developing reactive control. Findings from the field of developmental neuroscience are…

  6. College Student Binge Eating: Insecure Attachment and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Suejung; Pistole, M. Carole

    2014-01-01

    Because college students who have accomplished developmental tasks less effectively may be at risk for detrimental behavior such as binge eating, we examined emotion regulation as a mediator of attachment insecurity and binge eating. Based on undergraduate and graduate student responses to a Web-based survey ("N" = 381), structural…

  7. Emotion Regulation and Heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Galloway-Long, Hilary S.; Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this. Method: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be…

  8. Parent Emotion Representations and the Socialization of Emotion Regulation in the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Sara; Raikes, H. Abigail; Virmani, Elita A.; Waters, Sara; Thompson, Ross A.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable knowledge of parental socialization processes that directly and indirectly influence the development of children's emotion self-regulation, but little understanding of the specific beliefs and values that underlie parents' socialization approaches. This study examined multiple aspects of parents' self-reported…

  9. Attachment Security and Child's Empathy: The Mediating Role of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panfile, Tia M.; Laible, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the influence of multiple factors on individual differences in empathy; namely, attachment, negative emotionality, and emotion regulation. A total of 63 mothers completed the Attachment Q-set and questionnaires about their children's empathy, negative emotionality, and emotion regulation when children were 3 years old.…

  10. Sad as a Matter of Choice? Emotion-Regulation Goals in Depression.

    PubMed

    Millgram, Yael; Joormann, Jutta; Huppert, Jonathan D; Tamir, Maya

    2015-08-01

    Research on deficits in emotion regulation has devoted considerable attention to emotion-regulation strategies. We propose that deficits in emotion regulation may also be related to emotion-regulation goals. We tested this possibility by assessing the direction in which depressed people chose to regulate their emotions (i.e., toward happiness, toward sadness). In three studies, clinically depressed participants were more likely than nondepressed participants to use emotion-regulation strategies in a direction that was likely to maintain or increase their level of sadness. This pattern was found when using the regulation strategies of situation selection (Studies 1 and 2) and cognitive reappraisal (Study 3). The findings demonstrate that maladaptive emotion regulation may be linked not only to the means people use to regulate their emotions, but also to the ends toward which those means are directed. PMID:26092058

  11. Biobehavioral indices of emotion regulation relate to school attitudes, motivation, and behavior problems in a low-income preschool sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Stroud, Laura; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Dickstein, Susan

    2006-12-01

    Effective emotion regulation may promote resilience and preschool classroom adjustment by supporting adaptive peer interactions and engagement in learning activities. We investigated how hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) regulation, cardiac reactivity, and classroom emotion displays related to adjustment among low-income preschoolers attending Head Start. A total of 62 four-year-olds completed a laboratory session including a baseline soothing video; emotion-eliciting slides/video clips, and recovery. Salivary cortisol, heart rate, and vagal tone were measured throughout. Independent coders used handheld computers to observe classroom emotion expression/regulation. Teachers rated child motivation, persistence/attention, learning attitudes, and internalizing/externalizing symptoms. Results reveal associations between biobehavioral markers of regulatory capacity and early school adjustment.

  12. Biobehavioral indices of emotion regulation relate to school attitudes, motivation, and behavior problems in a low-income preschool sample.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Stroud, Laura; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Dickstein, Susan

    2006-12-01

    Effective emotion regulation may promote resilience and preschool classroom adjustment by supporting adaptive peer interactions and engagement in learning activities. We investigated how hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) regulation, cardiac reactivity, and classroom emotion displays related to adjustment among low-income preschoolers attending Head Start. A total of 62 four-year-olds completed a laboratory session including a baseline soothing video; emotion-eliciting slides/video clips, and recovery. Salivary cortisol, heart rate, and vagal tone were measured throughout. Independent coders used handheld computers to observe classroom emotion expression/regulation. Teachers rated child motivation, persistence/attention, learning attitudes, and internalizing/externalizing symptoms. Results reveal associations between biobehavioral markers of regulatory capacity and early school adjustment. PMID:17347370

  13. Emotion regulation modulates anticipatory brain activity that predicts emotional memory encoding in women.

    PubMed

    Galli, Giulia; Griffiths, Victoria A; Otten, Leun J

    2014-03-01

    It has been shown that the effectiveness with which unpleasant events are encoded into memory is related to brain activity set in train before the events. Here, we assessed whether encoding-related activity before an aversive event can be modulated by emotion regulation. Electrical brain activity was recorded from the scalps of healthy women while they performed an incidental encoding task on randomly intermixed unpleasant and neutral visual scenes. A cue presented 1.5 s before each picture indicated the upcoming valence. In half of the blocks of trials, the instructions emphasized to let emotions arise in a natural way. In the other half, participants were asked to decrease their emotional response by adopting the perspective of a detached observer. Memory for the scenes was probed 1 day later with a recognition memory test. Brain activity before unpleasant scenes predicted later memory of the scenes, but only when participants felt their emotions and did not detach from them. The findings indicate that emotion regulation can eliminate the influence of anticipatory brain activity on memory encoding. This may be relevant for the understanding and treatment of psychiatric diseases with a memory component.

  14. Emotion regulation moderates the association between empathy and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Patricia L; Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Viding, Essi

    2014-01-01

    Theory and evidence suggest that empathy is an important motivating factor for prosocial behaviour and that emotion regulation, i.e. the capacity to exert control over an emotional response, may moderate the degree to which empathy is associated with prosocial behaviour. However, studies to date have not simultaneously explored the associations between different empathic processes and prosocial behaviour, nor whether different types of emotion regulation strategies (e.g. cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) moderate associations between empathy and prosocial behaviour. One hundred-and-ten healthy adults completed questionnaire measures of empathy, emotion regulation and prosocial tendencies. In this sample, both affective and cognitive empathy predicted self-reported prosocial tendencies. In addition, cognitive reappraisal moderated the association between affective empathy and prosocial tendencies. Specifically, there was a significant positive association between empathy and prosocial tendencies for individuals with a low or average tendency to reappraise but not for those with a high tendency to reappraise. Our findings suggest that, in general, empathy is positively associated with prosocial behaviour. However, this association is not significant for individuals with a high tendency for cognitive reappraisal. PMID:24810604

  15. Protective emotional regulation processes towards adjustment in infertile patients.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Gouveia, José; Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, Marina; Matos, Marcela

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about emotional regulation processes of psychological flexibility/acceptance, self-compassion, and coping styles in infertility and the way they may exert a protective function towards depression. The aim of the current study was to explore how these emotion regulation processes are related to depression and to the sense of self-efficacy to deal with infertility in infertile patients. Gender differences were also considered. One hundred couples without known fertility problems and 100 couples with an infertility diagnosis completed the instruments: Beck Depression Inventory, Coping Styles Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Self-Compassion Scale and Infertility Self-efficacy Scale. Infertile couples presented statistically significantly higher scores on depression and lower scores in psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion than the control group. This pattern was particularly identified in women who also tended to use less an emotional/detached coping style and to perceive themselves as less confident to deal with infertility than men. Multiple regression analysis showed that psychological flexibility/acceptance was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in men and women with infertility. Emotional regulation processes, such as psychological flexibility/acceptance and self-compassion, seem to be relevant to the understanding of depressive symptoms and psychological adjustment to infertility, suggesting that these issues should be addressed in a therapeutic context with these couples.

  16. Dissociable Self Effects for Emotion Regulation: A Study of Chinese Major Depressive Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Feng, Zhengzhi; Zhou, Daiquan; Lei, Xu; Liao, Tongquan; Zhang, Li; Ji, Bing; Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Reappraisal is an adaptive emotion regulation strategy while the role of self-perspective in reappraisal process of depressed patients is largely unknown in terms of goals (valence/arousal) and tactics (detachment/immersion). In this study, 12 depressed individuals and 15 controls were scanned with MRI during which they either attend naturally to emotional stimuli, or adopt detachment/immersion strategy. Behaviorally, no group differences in self-reported emotion regulation effectiveness were found. In addition, we observed that (1) patients were less able to downregulate amygdala activation with recruitment of more dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) when adopting detachment strategy regardless of valence, and this preserved ability to regulate emotion was inversely associated with severity of symptoms; (2) patients had deficits in upregulating amygdala activation when adopting immersion strategy, with less inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) activation and strengthening coupling of dlPFC and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) with amygdala; (3) comparison between groups yielded that patients showed stronger vmPFC activation under either self-detached or self-immersed condition. In conclusion, impaired modulatory effects of amygdala in depressed patients are compensated with strengthening cognitive control resources, with dissociable effects for different self-perspectives in reappraisal. These results may help clarify the role of self-perspective underlying reappraisal in major depression. PMID:24804219

  17. When trying is not enough: emotion regulation and the effort-success gap in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Gruber, June; Harvey, Allison G; Gross, James J

    2012-10-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is presumed to involve difficulties in emotion regulation. Little is known, however, about the specific emotion regulation profile associated with this disorder. The present study examined the use of specific emotion regulation strategies among individuals with BD (n = 37) and healthy controls (n = 38). Participants' spontaneous use of reappraisal and suppression, as well as their associated effort and success at regulating their emotions, was measured in the context of three emotionally evocative films (neutral, happy, sad). Results indicated that the BD participants made greater use of spontaneous suppression and reappraisal across all films compared to the control group. BD participants also reported greater effort, but less success, when spontaneously regulating emotions. These findings suggest that bipolar disorder is associated with less success when regulating emotions despite a widespread engagement of regulatory efforts. Discussion focuses on the disjunction between troubled emotion functioning in bipolar disorder and sustained efforts to modify intense emotions.

  18. Emotion Regulation Difficulties Associated with the Experience of Uncued Panic Attacks: Evidence of Experiential Avoidance, Emotional Nonacceptance, and Decreased Emotional Clarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tull, Matthew T.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Emotion regulation difficulties among nonclinical uncued panickers were examined in two studies. In Study 1, participants with a recent history of uncued panic attacks (n=91), compared to a nonpanic sample (n=91), reported significantly greater levels of experiential avoidance, lack of emotional acceptance, and lack of emotional clarity. In Study…

  19. Brief report: emotion regulation and respiratory sinus arrhythmia in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Guy, Lisa; Souders, Margaret; Bradstreet, Lauren; DeLussey, Christine; Herrington, John D

    2014-10-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) may be an important transdiagnostic factor for understanding mental and behavioral health given its association with several psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is limited research on ER in ASD, particularly using biomarkers such as respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). The aim of the current study was to examine RSA among school-aged children with ASD in relation to symptoms of anxiety, executive functioning, and adaptive socialization skills. Results showed decreased RSA in children with ASD (relative to typically developing controls), reflecting decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity. In addition, decreased RSA was associated with increased symptoms of anxiety and lower socialization skills. These findings emphasize the need for interventions targeting emotional and arousal regulation in ASD. PMID:24752681

  20. Fronto-Limbic Brain Dysfunction during the Regulation of Emotion in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Eack, Shaun M; Wojtalik, Jessica A; Barb, Scott M; Newhill, Christina E; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Phillips, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by significant and widespread impairments in the regulation of emotion. Evidence is only recently emerging regarding the neural basis of these emotion regulation impairments, and few studies have focused on the regulation of emotion during effortful cognitive processing. To examine the neural correlates of deficits in effortful emotion regulation, schizophrenia outpatients (N = 20) and age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers (N = 20) completed an emotional faces n-back task to assess the voluntary attentional control subprocess of emotion regulation during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Behavioral measures of emotional intelligence and emotion perception were administered to examine brain-behavior relationships with emotion processing outcomes. Results indicated that patients with schizophrenia demonstrated significantly greater activation in the bilateral striatum, ventromedial prefrontal, and right orbitofrontal cortices during the effortful regulation of positive emotional stimuli, and reduced activity in these same regions when regulating negative emotional information. The opposite pattern of results was observed in healthy individuals. Greater fronto-striatal response to positive emotional distractors was significantly associated with deficits in facial emotion recognition. These findings indicate that abnormalities in striatal and prefrontal cortical systems may be related to deficits in the effortful emotion regulatory process of attentional control in schizophrenia, and may significantly contribute to emotion processing deficits in the disorder. PMID:26930284

  1. Emotion regulation styles as longitudinal predictors of compulsive exercise: a twelve month prospective study.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Huw; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Exercise can be used as a mood regulator but, in the eating disorder literature, exercise has sometimes been found to be compulsive, detrimental to physical health, and regarded as one maladaptive strategy used to regulate emotions. This study examined longitudinal associations between emotion regulation styles and this compulsive exercise in 572 adolescents who completed measures of compulsive exercise and emotion regulation. Twelve months later they completed measures of compulsive exercise. Compulsive exercise was predicted by Internal Dysfunctional emotion regulation in girls and boys, even after controlling for initial levels of compulsive exercise. Adolescents displaying compulsivity to exercise may require intervention programmes to alter their emotion regulation strategies.

  2. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions.

  3. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions. PMID:25258109

  4. Back to basics: a naturalistic assessment of the experience and regulation of emotion.

    PubMed

    Heiy, Jane E; Cheavens, Jennifer S

    2014-10-01

    Emotion regulation research links regulatory responding to important outcomes in psychological well-being, physical health, and interpersonal relations, but several fundamental questions remain. As much of the previous research has addressed generalized regulatory habits, far less is known about the ways in which individuals respond to emotions in daily life. The literature is particularly sparse in explorations of positive emotion regulation. In the current study, we provide an assessment of naturalistic experiences and regulation of emotion, both positive and negative in valence. Using an electronic experience sampling methodology, participants reported on their use of 40 regulatory strategies in response to 14 emotions for 10 consecutive days. On average, participants used 15 different regulatory strategies in response to negative emotions over this time, most frequently relying on acceptance, behavioral activation, and rumination. Participants used a similarly large repertoire of strategies, approximately 16 total, in response to positive emotions, particularly savoring, future focus, and behavioral activation. Participants' mood ratings following strategy use, however, indicated that the most frequently used strategies were often not the most effective strategies. The results of this study provide estimates of the frequency and effectiveness of a large number of emotion regulation strategies in response to both negative and positive emotions. Such findings characterize naturalistic emotion regulation, and estimates of normative emotion regulation processes are imperative to determining the ways in which deviations (e.g., small emotion regulation repertoires, insufficient attention to regulation of positive emotions) impact emotional functioning.

  5. Robust adaptive regulation without persistent excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozano-Leal, Rogelio

    1988-01-01

    A globally convergent adaptive regulator for minimum or nonminimum phase systems subject to bounded distrubances and unmodeled dynamics is presented. The control strategy is designed for a particular input-output representation obtained from the state space representation of the system. The leading coefficient of the new representation is the product of the observability and controllability matrices of the system. The controller scheme uses a Least Squares identification algorithm with a dead zone. The dead zone is chosen to obtain convergence properties on the estimates and on the covariance matrix as well. This allows the definition of modified estimates which secure well-conditioned matrices in the adaptive control law. Explicit bounds on the plant output are given.

  6. Robust adaptive regulation without persistent excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozano-Leal, Rogelio

    1989-01-01

    A globally convergent adaptive regulator for minimum- or nonminimum-phase systems subject to bounded disturbances and unmodeled dynamics is presented. The control strategy is designed for a particular input-output representation obtained from the state space representation of the system. The leading coefficient of the representation is the product of the observability and controllability matrices of the system. The controller scheme uses a Least-Squares identification algorithm a with dead zone. The dead zone is chosen to obtain convergence properties on the estimates and on the covariance matrix as well. This allows the definition of modified estimates which secure well-conditioned matrices in the adaptive control law. Explicit bounds on the plant output are given.

  7. The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems: Cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms. PMID:26895773

  8. The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems: Cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Tommie; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla; Granqvist, Pehr; Eninger, Lilianne

    2016-09-01

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms.

  9. Psychodynamic Emotional Regulation in View of Wolpe's Desensitization Model.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Merav

    2016-01-01

    The current research belongs to the stream of theoretical integration and establishes a theoretical platform for integrative psychotherapy in anxiety disorders. Qualitative metasynthesis procedures were applied to 40 peer-reviewed psychoanalytic articles involving emotional regulation. The concept of psychodynamic emotional regulation was found to be connected with the categories of desensitization, gradual exposure, containment, and transference. This article presents a model according to which psychoanalytic psychotherapy allows anxiety to be tolerated while following the core principles of systematic desensitization. It is shown that despite the antiresearch image of psychoanalytic psychotherapy, its foundations obey evidence-based principles. The findings imply that anxiety tolerance might be a key goal in which the cumulative wisdom of the different therapies can be used to optimize psychotherapy outcomes.

  10. Entry behavior and emotion regulation abilities of developmentally delayed boys.

    PubMed

    Wilson, B J

    1999-01-01

    This study investigated the social deficits of developmentally delayed children. Participants were 48 five-year-old to eight-year-old boys. Delayed children (n = 20) were compared with nondelayed children of similar chronological age (CA nondelayed; n = 20) and of similar mental age (n = 8). The behavior and emotion regulation strategies of participants were assessed in an analogue entry situation. Delayed children were just as able as nondelayed children to understand the play themes of others but were more intrusive in delivering their entry attempts. Delayed children appeared to have less effective emotion regulation strategies for coping with entry failure and were more likely to increase their use of disruptive entry strategies over time than CA nondelayed children. PMID:9923476

  11. Adolescent RSA responses during an anger discussion task: Relations to emotion regulation and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W; Larzelere, Robert E; Criss, Michael M; Houltberg, Benjamin J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents' emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years of age, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA values and respiration rates were computed. Adolescents reported on their own emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Multilevel latent growth modeling was employed to capture RSA responses across time (i.e., linear and quadratic changes; time course approach), and adolescent emotion regulation and adjustment variables were included in the model to test their links to RSA responses. Results indicated that high RSA baseline was associated with more adolescent prosocial behavior. A pattern of initial RSA decreases (RSA suppression) in response to angry event recall and subsequent RSA increases (RSA rebound) were related to better anger and sadness regulation and more prosocial behavior. However, RSA was not significantly linked to adolescent aggressive behavior. We also compared the time course approach with the conventional linear approach and found that the time course approach provided more meaningful and rich information. The implications of adaptive RSA change patterns are discussed.

  12. Adolescent RSA Responses during an Anger Discussion Task: Relations to Emotion Regulation and Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W.; Larzelere, Robert E.; Criss, Michael M.; Houltberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents’ emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10–18 years old, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA values and respiration rates were computed. Adolescents reported on their own emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Multi-level latent growth modeling was employed to capture RSA responses across time (i.e., linear and quadratic changes; time course approach), and adolescent emotion regulation and adjustment variables were included in the model to test their links to RSA responses. Results indicated that high RSA baseline was associated with more adolescent prosocial behavior. A pattern of initial RSA decreases (RSA suppression) in response to angry event recall and subsequent RSA increases (RSA rebound) were related to better anger and sadness regulation and more prosocial behavior. However, RSA was not significantly linked to adolescent aggressive behavior. We also compared the time course approach with the conventional linear approach and found that the time course approach provided more meaningful and rich information. The implications of adaptive RSA change patterns are discussed. PMID:25642723

  13. The impact of validation and invalidation on aggression in individuals with emotion regulation difficulties.

    PubMed

    Herr, Nathaniel R; Jones, Alyssa C; Cohn, Danielle M; Weber, Danielle M

    2015-10-01

    For individuals with difficulty regulating their emotions, aggression has been found to be a particularly problematic interpersonal behavior. Invalidation (i.e., rejection of one's emotional experience) is thought to play a role in the etiology of disorders of emotion regulation, and it may be a trigger for aggressive behaviors. The present study experimentally manipulated validation and invalidation after a sad mood induction among individuals with few versus many difficulties regulating their emotions. Subsequent aggression was measured using an in-laboratory behavioral task. Results indicate that, among individuals with many difficulties regulating their emotions, validation led to significantly less aggression than did invalidation. However, among individuals with few difficulties regulating their emotions, aggressive behaviors were generally low and did not differ after validation as compared with invalidation. The findings suggest that validation of emotional experiences may help to prevent aggressive behaviors among individuals with difficulties regulating their emotions. PMID:26053230

  14. [Self-reported Emotion Regulation Strategies in Children and Adolescents with Mental Disorders].

    PubMed

    Greuel, Jan Felix; Reinhold, Nadine; Wenglorz, Markus; Heinrichs, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) is extensively researched in the context of psychopathology. It is quite controversial if deficits in ER are related to psychopathology across disorders or specifically linked to certain forms of psychopathology. Furthermore, it appears unclear if there are differences in ER depending on the specific emotion to be regulated. There are only few studies comparing different forms of psychopathology in terms of ER, specifically in childhood and adolescence. We explored ER in a consecutive clinical sample seeking help in two outpatient university clinics (N=129, age: 7-17 years, 45% female). In a first step, the ER of all children and adolescents seeking professional help for emotional and behavioral problems was compared with the ER-characteristics of children and adolescents identified in school samples. In a second step, the clinical sample was divided into different groups of psychopathology, comparing the associations of different types of psychopathology with ER. ER in the clinical sample differed significantly from children and adolescents in school settings. The clinical sample was particularly characterized by a lack of adaptive strategies, and only partially by an increased use of maladaptive strategies. Further analysis revealed no specific deficits in the ER depending on types of psychopathology. The findings suggest a transdiagnostic and emotion-overarching conceptualization of ER in childhood and adolescence. PMID:26032033

  15. Emotion generation and regulation in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of self-report data.

    PubMed

    Oldershaw, Anna; Lavender, Tony; Sallis, Hannah; Stahl, Daniel; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review sought to examine the generation and regulation of emotion in people with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Key databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and Web of Science) were searched for peer-reviewed articles published by March 2015 yielding 131 studies relevant to emotion generation and emotion regulation (ER) processes as defined by Gross (1998). Meta-analyses determined pooled group differences between AN and healthy control (HC) groups. More maladaptive schemata were reported by people with AN than HCs, with largest pooled effects for defectiveness/shame (d=2.81), subjugation (d=1.59) and social isolation (d=1.66). Poorer awareness of and clarity over emotion generated and some elevated emotionality (disgust and shame) were reported. A greater use of 'maladaptive' ER strategies was reported by people with AN than HCs, alongside less use of 'adaptive' strategies. Pooled differences of particularly large effect were observed for: experiential avoidance (d=1.00), negative problem-solving style (d=1.06), external/social comparison (d=1.25), submissiveness (d=1.16), attention concentration (worry/rumination; d=1.44) and emotion suppression (d=1.15), particularly to avoid conflict (d=1.54). These data support the notion that emotion regulation difficulties are a factor in AN and support use of associated cognitive-affective models. The implications of these findings for further understanding AN, and developing models and related psychological interventions are discussed. PMID:26043394

  16. Emotion generation and regulation in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review and meta-analysis of self-report data.

    PubMed

    Oldershaw, Anna; Lavender, Tony; Sallis, Hannah; Stahl, Daniel; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2015-07-01

    This systematic review sought to examine the generation and regulation of emotion in people with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Key databases (Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and Web of Science) were searched for peer-reviewed articles published by March 2015 yielding 131 studies relevant to emotion generation and emotion regulation (ER) processes as defined by Gross (1998). Meta-analyses determined pooled group differences between AN and healthy control (HC) groups. More maladaptive schemata were reported by people with AN than HCs, with largest pooled effects for defectiveness/shame (d=2.81), subjugation (d=1.59) and social isolation (d=1.66). Poorer awareness of and clarity over emotion generated and some elevated emotionality (disgust and shame) were reported. A greater use of 'maladaptive' ER strategies was reported by people with AN than HCs, alongside less use of 'adaptive' strategies. Pooled differences of particularly large effect were observed for: experiential avoidance (d=1.00), negative problem-solving style (d=1.06), external/social comparison (d=1.25), submissiveness (d=1.16), attention concentration (worry/rumination; d=1.44) and emotion suppression (d=1.15), particularly to avoid conflict (d=1.54). These data support the notion that emotion regulation difficulties are a factor in AN and support use of associated cognitive-affective models. The implications of these findings for further understanding AN, and developing models and related psychological interventions are discussed.

  17. An examination of the roles of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder on emotion regulation strategies of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn veterans.

    PubMed

    Sippel, Lauren M; Roy, Alicia M; Southwick, Steven M; Fichtenholtz, Harlan M

    2016-09-01

    Theories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicate emotional processes, including difficulties utilizing adaptive emotion regulation strategies, as critical to the etiology and maintenance of PTSD. Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OIF/OEF/OND) veterans report high levels of combat exposure and PTSD. We aimed to extend findings suggesting that emotion regulation difficulties are a function of PTSD, rather than combat trauma exposure or common comorbidities, to OIF/OEF/OND veterans, in order to inform models of PTSD risk and recovery that can be applied to returning veterans. We tested differences in emotion regulation, measured with the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, among trauma-exposed veterans with (n = 24) or without PTSD (n = 22) and healthy civilian comparison participants (n = 27) using multivariate analyses of covariance, adjusting for major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and demographic variables (age, sex, and ethnicity). Veterans with PTSD reported more use of expressive suppression and more difficulties with emotion regulation than veterans without PTSD and healthy comparison participants. Groups did not differ on cognitive reappraisal. Findings suggest the key role of PTSD above and beyond trauma exposure, depression, and anxiety in specific aspects of emotion dysregulation among OIF/OEF/OND veterans. Interventions that help veterans expand and diversify their emotion regulation skills may serve as helpful adjunctive treatments for PTSD among OIF/OEF/OND veterans. PMID:27195939

  18. The Contribution of Emotion Regulation to Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sim, Leslie; Zeman, Janice

    2006-01-01

    To understand whether difficulties in emotional functioning distinguish between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, a set of emotion regulation (i.e., negative emotion, emotional awareness, coping), demographic (i.e., age), and physical (i.e., BMI (Body Mass Index)) factors were assessed in 234 early adolescent girls, grades six to eight.…

  19. Eliciting adaptive emotion in conversations with parents of children receiving therapy for leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Pillon, Marta; Schiavo, Simone; Carli, Modesto

    2011-01-01

    Clinician-parent communication may often be difficult, especially soon after the diagnosis. The aims of this article are to identify the communication strategies associated with expressions of adaptive emotions in parents and to explore the effect of the type of leukemia and of parent's gender on parents' expressions of emotions. The data are obtained from 4.622 conversational turns of 20 videotaped interviews with 10 mothers and 10 fathers of children at their first hospitalization for leukemia. A coding scheme for parent emotional expressions was reliably applied by two independent judges. An original self-report questionnaire on parents' emotional states was used before and after the interview. Positive politeness of interviewer elicits adaptive emotional expressions in parents. Mothers of children with acute myeloid leukemia and fathers of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia appear more distressed during the interview. This interview can be identified as an innovative technique of communication with parents of children with cancer. PMID:21590576

  20. Evidence for altered amygdala activation in schizophrenia in an adaptive emotion recognition task.

    PubMed

    Mier, Daniela; Lis, Stefanie; Zygrodnik, Karina; Sauer, Carina; Ulferts, Jens; Gallhofer, Bernd; Kirsch, Peter

    2014-03-30

    Deficits in social cognition seem to present an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia, and are known to be associated with an altered amygdala response to faces. However, current results are heterogeneous with respect to whether this altered amygdala response in schizophrenia is hypoactive or hyperactive in nature. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate emotion-specific amygdala activation in schizophrenia using a novel adaptive emotion recognition paradigm. Participants comprised 11 schizophrenia outpatients and 16 healthy controls who viewed face stimuli expressing emotions of anger, fear, happiness, and disgust, as well as neutral expressions. The adaptive emotion recognition approach allows the assessment of group differences in both emotion recognition performance and associated neuronal activity while also ensuring a comparable number of correctly recognized emotions between groups. Schizophrenia participants were slower and had a negative bias in emotion recognition. In addition, they showed reduced differential activation during recognition of emotional compared with neutral expressions. Correlation analyses revealed an association of a negative bias with amygdala activation for neutral facial expressions that was specific to the patient group. We replicated previous findings of affected emotion recognition in schizophrenia. Furthermore, we demonstrated that altered amygdala activation in the patient group was associated with the occurrence of a negative bias. These results provide further evidence for impaired social cognition in schizophrenia and point to a central role of the amygdala in negative misperceptions of facial stimuli in schizophrenia.

  1. Emotion Regulation Strategies Can Predict Task-Switching Abilities in Euthymic Bipolar Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Amara; Khan, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    This study examined task-switching abilities and emotion regulation strategies in euthymic bipolar patients (EBP). Forty EBP and 40 healthy individuals performed face categorization tasks where they switched between emotion and non-emotion (i.e., gender) features among faces and completed emotion regulation questionnaire (Gross and John, 2003). Subject groups showed substantial differences in task-switching abilities and emotion regulation strategies: (1) there was a dissociation between emotion and gender classification in EBP. The switch cost was larger [i.e., higher reaction times (RTs) on switch as compared to no-switch trials] for gender categorization as compared to the emotion categorization task. In contrast, such asymmetries were absent among healthy participants. The differential pattern of task switching reflected functional disturbances in frontotemporal neural system and an attentional bias to emotion features of the faces in EBP. This suggests that when a euthymic bipolar patient is preoccupied with emotion recognition, an instruction to perform gender categorization results in greater cost on RTs. (2) In contrast to healthy individuals, EBP reported more frequent use of emotion suppression and lesser use of cognitive reappraisal as emotion regulation strategy. (3) Emotion regulation was found to be a significant predictor of task-switching abilities. It is argued that task switching deficits rely on maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in EBP specifically when tasks of emotional significance are involved. PMID:25386129

  2. Influence of Tempo and Rhythmic Unit in Musical Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Latorre, José M.

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the assumption of musical power to change the listener's mood. The paper studies the outcome of two experiments on the regulation of emotional states in a series of participants who listen to different auditions. The present research focuses on note value, an important musical cue related to rhythm. The influence of two concepts linked to note value is analyzed separately and discussed together. The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely “Tension” (ranging from Relaxing to Stressing), “Expressiveness” (Expressionless to Expressive), “Amusement” (Boring to Amusing) and “Attractiveness” (Pleasant to Unpleasant). The participants also have to indicate how much they feel certain basic emotions while listening to each music excerpt. The rated emotions are “Happiness,” “Surprise,” and “Sadness.” This study makes it possible to draw some interesting conclusions about the associations between note value and emotions. PMID:27536232

  3. Influence of Tempo and Rhythmic Unit in Musical Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Latorre, José M

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the assumption of musical power to change the listener's mood. The paper studies the outcome of two experiments on the regulation of emotional states in a series of participants who listen to different auditions. The present research focuses on note value, an important musical cue related to rhythm. The influence of two concepts linked to note value is analyzed separately and discussed together. The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely "Tension" (ranging from Relaxing to Stressing), "Expressiveness" (Expressionless to Expressive), "Amusement" (Boring to Amusing) and "Attractiveness" (Pleasant to Unpleasant). The participants also have to indicate how much they feel certain basic emotions while listening to each music excerpt. The rated emotions are "Happiness," "Surprise," and "Sadness." This study makes it possible to draw some interesting conclusions about the associations between note value and emotions. PMID:27536232

  4. Preschool children’s views on emotion regulation: Functional associations and implications for social-emotional adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Kelemen, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and fear. Forty-seven adults were presented with a parallel questionnaire. Participants rated the degree to which six emotion-regulation strategies were effective in decreasing negative emotions. Results showed that even the youngest preschoolers viewed cognitive and behavioral distraction and repairing the situation as relatively effective; compared to adults, however, preschoolers favored relatively “ineffective” strategies such as venting and rumination. Children also showed a functional view of emotion regulation; that effective strategies depend on the emotion being regulated. All participants favored repairing a negative situation to reduce anger and behavioral distraction to reduce sadness and fear. Finally, the more children indicated that venting would reduce negative emotions, the lower their maternal report of social skills. Findings are discussed in terms of functional emotion theory and implications of emotion-regulation understanding for child adjustment. PMID:19724663

  5. Nitric oxide regulates vascular adaptive mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew W; Knaub, Leslie A; Olivera-Fragoso, Luis F; Keller, Amy C; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Watson, Peter A; Reusch, Jane E B

    2013-06-15

    Cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and physical inactivity, are all correlated with impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and decreased nitric oxide (NO) production. NO-mediated regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been established in many tissues, yet the role of eNOS in vascular mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics is unclear. We hypothesized that genetic eNOS deletion and 3-day nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition in rodents would result in impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and defunct fission/fusion and autophagy profiles within the aorta. We observed a significant, eNOS expression-dependent decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) protein subunits from complexes I, II, III, and V in eNOS heterozygotes and eNOS null mice compared with age-matched controls. In response to NOS inhibition with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) treatment in Sprague Dawley rats, significant decreases were observed in ETC protein subunits from complexes I, III, and IV as well as voltage-dependent anion channel 1. Decreased protein content of upstream regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, cAMP response element-binding protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, were observed in response to 3-day L-NAME treatment. Both genetic eNOS deletion and NOS inhibition resulted in decreased manganese superoxide dismutase protein. L-NAME treatment resulted in significant changes to mitochondrial dynamic protein profiles with decreased fusion, increased fission, and minimally perturbed autophagy. In addition, L-NAME treatment blocked mitochondrial adaptation to an exercise intervention in the aorta. These results suggest that eNOS/NO play a role in basal and adaptive mitochondrial biogenesis in the vasculature and regulation of mitochondrial turnover. PMID:23585138

  6. Adaptation and Validation of the Teacher Emotional Labour Strategy Scale in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Hongbiao

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the adaptation and validation of the Teacher Emotional Labour Strategy Scale (TELSS) as tested on samples of 633 Beijing teachers and 648 Chongqing teachers in Chinese mainland. Results show that the 13-item TELSS adapted for this study had good internal consistency on three subscales which measure three types of teacher…

  7. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. PMID:26232242

  8. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tabak, Naomi T.; Horan, William P.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning. PMID:26232242

  9. Mindfulness in schizophrenia: Associations with self-reported motivation, emotion regulation, dysfunctional attitudes, and negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Naomi T; Horan, William P; Green, Michael F

    2015-10-01

    Mindfulness-based interventions are gaining empirical support as alternative or adjunctive treatments for a variety of mental health conditions, including anxiety, depression, and substance use disorders. Emerging evidence now suggests that mindfulness-based treatments may also improve clinical features of schizophrenia, including negative symptoms. However, no research has examined the construct of mindfulness and its correlates in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined self-reported mindfulness in patients (n=35) and controls (n=25) using the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire. We examined correlations among mindfulness, negative symptoms, and psychological constructs associated with negative symptoms and adaptive functioning, including motivation, emotion regulation, and dysfunctional attitudes. As hypothesized, patients endorsed lower levels of mindfulness than controls. In patients, mindfulness was unrelated to negative symptoms, but it was associated with more adaptive emotion regulation (greater reappraisal) and beliefs (lower dysfunctional attitudes). Some facets of mindfulness were also associated with self-reported motivation (behavioral activation and inhibition). These patterns of correlations were similar in patients and controls. Findings from this initial study suggest that schizophrenia patients may benefit from mindfulness-based interventions because they (a) have lower self-reported mindfulness than controls and (b) demonstrate strong relationships between mindfulness and psychological constructs related to adaptive functioning.

  10. The mindful brain and emotion regulation in mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Farb, Norman A S; Anderson, Adam K; Segal, Zindel V

    2012-02-01

    Mindfulness involves nonjudgmental attention to present-moment experience. In its therapeutic forms, mindfulness interventions promote increased tolerance of negative affect and improved well-being. However, the neural mechanisms underlying mindful mood regulation are poorly understood. Mindfulness training appears to enhance focused attention, supported by the anterior cingulate cortex and the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In emotion regulation, these PFC changes promote the stable recruitment of a nonconceptual sensory pathway, an alternative to conventional attempts to cognitively reappraise negative emotion. In neural terms, the transition to nonconceptual awareness involves reducing evaluative processing, supported by midline structures of the PFC. Instead, attentional resources are directed toward a limbic pathway for present-moment sensory awareness, involving the thalamus, insula, and primary sensory regions. In patients with affective disorders, mindfulness training provides an alternative to cognitive efforts to control negative emotion, instead directing attention toward the transitory nature of momentary experience. Limiting cognitive elaboration in favour of momentary awareness appears to reduce automatic negative self-evaluation, increase tolerance for negative affect and pain, and help to engender self-compassion and empathy in people with chronic dysphoria.

  11. Neural correlates of conscious self-regulation of emotion.

    PubMed

    Beauregard, M; Lévesque, J; Bourgouin, P

    2001-09-15

    A fundamental question about the relationship between cognition and emotion concerns the neural substrate underlying emotional self-regulation. To address this issue, brain activation was measured in normal male subjects while they either responded in a normal manner to erotic film excerpts or voluntarily attempted to inhibit the sexual arousal induced by viewing erotic stimuli. Results demonstrated that the sexual arousal experienced, in response to the erotic film excerpts, was associated with activation in "limbic" and paralimbic structures, such as the right amygdala, right anterior temporal pole, and hypothalamus. In addition, the attempted inhibition of the sexual arousal generated by viewing the erotic stimuli was associated with activation of the right superior frontal gyrus and right anterior cingulate gyrus. No activation was found in limbic areas. These findings reinforce the view that emotional self-regulation is normally implemented by a neural circuit comprising various prefrontal regions and subcortical limbic structures. They also suggest that humans have the capacity to influence the electrochemical dynamics of their brains, by voluntarily changing the nature of the mind processes unfolding in the psychological space. PMID:11549754

  12. The Neural Correlates of Emotion Regulation by Implementation Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Hallam, Glyn P.; Webb, Thomas L.; Sheeran, Paschal; Miles, Eleanor; Wilkinson, Iain D.; Hunter, Michael D.; Barker, Anthony T.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.; Totterdell, Peter; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Farrow, Tom F. D.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated the neural basis of effortful emotion regulation (ER) but the neural basis of automatic ER has been less comprehensively explored. The present study investigated the neural basis of automatic ER supported by ‘implementation intentions’. 40 healthy participants underwent fMRI while viewing emotion-eliciting images and used either a previously-taught effortful ER strategy, in the form of a goal intention (e.g., try to take a detached perspective), or a more automatic ER strategy, in the form of an implementation intention (e.g., “If I see something disgusting, then I will think these are just pixels on the screen!”), to regulate their emotional response. Whereas goal intention ER strategies were associated with activation of brain areas previously reported to be involved in effortful ER (including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), ER strategies based on an implementation intention strategy were associated with activation of right inferior frontal gyrus and ventro-parietal cortex, which may reflect the attentional control processes automatically captured by the cue for action contained within the implementation intention. Goal intentions were also associated with less effective modulation of left amygdala, supporting the increased efficacy of ER under implementation intention instructions, which showed coupling of orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. The findings support previous behavioural studies in suggesting that forming an implementation intention enables people to enact goal-directed responses with less effort and more efficiency. PMID:25798822

  13. The Late Positive Potential: A Neurophysiological Marker for Emotion Regulation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Hajcak, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Background: The ability to modulate emotional responses, or emotion regulation, is a key mechanism in the development of mood disruptions. Detection of a neural marker for emotion regulation thus has the potential to inform early detection and intervention for mood problems. One such neural marker may be the late positive potential (LPP), which is…

  14. Emotion-Regulation Ability, Burnout, and Job Satisfaction among British Secondary-School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackett, Marc A.; Palomera, Raquel; Mojsa-Kaja, Justyna; Reyes, Maria Regina; Salovey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The topic of emotion regulation and its relationship with teacher effectiveness is beginning to garner attention by researchers. This study examined the relationship between emotion-regulation ability (ERA), as assessed by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and both job satisfaction and burnout among secondary-school…

  15. Attentional deployment is not necessary for successful emotion regulation via cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression.

    PubMed

    Bebko, Genna M; Franconeri, Steven L; Ochsner, Kevin N; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-06-01

    According to appraisal theories of emotion, cognitive reappraisal is a successful emotion regulation strategy because it involves cognitively changing our thoughts, which, in turn, change our emotions. However, recent evidence has challenged the importance of cognitive change and, instead, has suggested that attentional deployment may at least partly explain the emotion regulation success of cognitive reappraisal. The purpose of the current study was to examine the causal relationship between attentional deployment and emotion regulation success. We examined 2 commonly used emotion regulation strategies--cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression-because both depend on attention but have divergent behavioral, experiential, and physiological outcomes. Participants were either instructed to regulate emotions during free-viewing (unrestricted image viewing) or gaze-controlled (restricted image viewing) conditions and to self-report negative emotional experience. For both emotion regulation strategies, emotion regulation success was not altered by changes in participant control over the (a) direction of attention (free-viewing vs. gaze-controlled) during image viewing and (b) valence (negative vs. neutral) of visual stimuli viewed when gaze was controlled. Taken together, these findings provide convergent evidence that attentional deployment does not alter subjective negative emotional experience during either cognitive reappraisal or expressive suppression, suggesting that strategy-specific processes, such as cognitive appraisal and response modulation, respectively, may have a greater impact on emotional regulation success than processes common to both strategies, such as attention.

  16. Moving Ahead in the Study of the Development of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    This special section on the development of emotion regulation highlights several important new directions for research. Specifically, the findings of these studies indicate that: (1) emotion regulation develops across the lifespan and not just in early childhood and does so in complex ways, (2) it is necessary to distinguish among emotions to…

  17. Emotion regulation in bereavement: searching for and finding emotional support in social network sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döveling, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    In an age of rising impact of online communication in social network sites (SNS), emotional interaction is neither limited nor restricted by time or space. Bereavement extends to the anonymity of cyberspace. What role does virtual interaction play in SNS in dealing with the basic human emotion of grief caused by the loss of a beloved person? The analysis laid out in this article provides answers in light of an interdisciplinary perspective on online bereavement. Relevant lines of research are scrutinized. After laying out the theoretical spectrum for the study, hypotheses based on a prior in-depth qualitative content analysis of 179 postings in three different German online bereavement platforms are proposed and scrutinized in a quantitative content analysis (2127 postings from 318 users). Emotion regulation patterns in SNS and similarities as well as differences in online bereavement of children, adolescents and adults are revealed. Large-scale quantitative findings into central motives, patterns, and restorative effects of online shared bereavement in regulating distress, fostering personal empowerment, and engendering meaning are presented. The article closes with implications for further analysis in memorialization practices.

  18. Self-compassion as an emotion regulation strategy in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Diedrich, Alice; Grant, Michaela; Hofmann, Stefan G; Hiller, Wolfgang; Berking, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Cognitive reappraisal and acceptance are two presumably adaptive emotion regulation strategies in depression. More recently, self-compassion has been discussed as another potentially effective strategy for coping with depression. In the present study, we compared the effectiveness of self-compassion with a waiting condition, reappraisal, and acceptance in a clinically depressed sample, and tested the hypothesis that the intensity of depressed mood would moderate the differential efficacy of these strategies. In an experimental design, we induced depressed mood at four points in time in 48 participants meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. After each mood induction, participants were instructed to wait, reappraise the situation, accept their negative emotions, or employ self-compassion to regulate their depressed mood. Self-ratings of depressed mood were assessed before and after each mood induction and regulation phase. Results showed that the reduction of depressed mood was significantly greater in the self-compassion condition than in the waiting condition. No significant differences were observed between the self-compassion and the reappraisal condition, and between the self-compassion and the acceptance condition in patients' mood ratings. However, the intensity of self-rated depressed mood at baseline was found to moderate the comparative effectiveness of self-compassion and reappraisal with a trend of self-compassion being more effective than reappraisal in high depressed mood at baseline. These findings support the use of self-compassion as another adaptive emotion regulation strategy for patients with major depressive disorder, especially for those suffering from high levels of depressed mood.

  19. The role of emotion regulation in childhood obesity: implications for prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, E; Canals, J; Arija, V; De Henauw, S; Michels, N

    2016-06-01

    Stress and negative emotions pose a major threat to public health, by increasing the risk of obesity. Since the management process for emotions (emotion regulation; ER) is developed in childhood, we present a novel conceptual framework model for the role of ER in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. A narrative review of the literature by electronic database search (MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge and Scopus) was conducted of observational and interventional/experimental literature on ER and obesity and the underlying concepts. We also present an overview of ER intervention techniques. Our model indicates that childhood ER is a link between stress and obesity. Stress along with ineffective ER leads to abnormal cortisol patterns, emotional eating, sedentary lifestyle, reduction of physical activity, and sleep problems. Simultaneously, a healthy lifestyle could show benefits on ER and in developing adaptive ER strategies. In the development of obesity and ER, parents also play a role. By contrast, effective ER skills decrease obesity-related unhealthy behaviour and enhance protective factors, which boost health. The literature contains some observational studies of children but very few intervention studies, most of which are pilot or on-going studies. In conclusion, encouraging effective ER could be a useful new approach for combating and treating childhood obesity. Future ER intervention studies are needed to confirm the validity of this model in children.

  20. Preservice Teachers' Emotion-Related Regulation and Cognition: Associations with Teachers' Responses to Children's Emotions in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Rebecca Anne; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The present research examines preservice teachers' (N = 24) self-reported emotion-related regulation and cognition as predictors of their observed responses to young children's positive and negative emotional displays. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that teachers reporting greater reappraisal strategies in…

  1. Cumulative Risk, Negative Emotionality, and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Social Competence in Transition to School: A Mediated Moderation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hyein; Shelleby, Elizabeth C.; Cheong, JeeWon; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine the additive and interactive effects of cumulative risk and child negative emotionality on children's social competence in the transition from preschool to school and to test whether these associations were mediated by child emotion regulation within a sample of 310 low-income, ethnically diverse boys.…

  2. Exploring the Association between Teachers' Perceived Student Misbehaviour and Emotional Exhaustion: The Importance of Teacher Efficacy Beliefs and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsouloupas, Costas N.; Carson, Russell L.; Matthews, Russell; Grawitch, Matthew J.; Barber, Larissa K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between teachers' perceived student misbehaviour and emotional exhaustion, and the role of teacher efficacy beliefs (related to handling student misbehaviour) and emotion regulation in this relationship. Additionally, we examined teacher turnover intentions in relation to emotional…

  3. Peer Relations and Emotion Regulation of Children with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties with and without a Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Sasha; Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Cobham, Vanessa

    2013-01-01

    Children with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) and those who also have developmental disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD), can experience the same adverse consequences in their peer interactions and relationships. This present study compared the emotion regulation and peer…

  4. Prediction of Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation Skills of 4-5 Age Group Children with Parent-Child Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dereli, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to examine whether personal attributes, family characteristics of the child and parent-child relations predict children's emotional understanding and emotion regulation skills. The study was conducted with relational screening model, one of the screening models. Study sample included 423 children between the…

  5. Emotion regulation in heavy smokers: experiential, expressive and physiological consequences of cognitive reappraisal

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lingdan; Winkler, Markus H.; Wieser, Matthias J.; Andreatta, Marta; Li, Yonghui; Pauli, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation dysfunctions are assumed to contribute to the development of tobacco addiction and relapses among smokers attempting to quit. To further examine this hypothesis, the present study compared heavy smokers with non-smokers (NS) in a reappraisal task. Specifically, we investigated whether non-deprived smokers (NDS) and deprived smokers (DS) differ from non-smokers in cognitive emotion regulation and whether there is an association between the outcome of emotion regulation and the cigarette craving. Sixty-five participants (23 non-smokers, 22 NDS, and 20 DS) were instructed to down-regulate emotions by reappraising negative or positive pictorial scenarios. Self-ratings of valence, arousal, and cigarette craving as well as facial electromyography and electroencephalograph activities were measured. Ratings, facial electromyography, and electroencephalograph data indicated that both NDS and DS performed comparably to nonsmokers in regulating emotional responses via reappraisal, irrespective of the valence of pictorial stimuli. Interestingly, changes in cigarette craving were positively associated with regulation of emotional arousal irrespective of emotional valence. These results suggest that heavy smokers are capable to regulate emotion via deliberate reappraisal and smokers’ cigarette craving is associated with emotional arousal rather than emotional valence. This study provides preliminary support for the therapeutic use of reappraisal to replace maladaptive emotion-regulation strategies in nicotine addicts. PMID:26528213

  6. Socio-emotional regulation in children with intellectual disability and typically developing children, and teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment.

    PubMed

    Baurain, Céline; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie; Dionne, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the extent to which socio-emotional regulation displayed in three dyadic interactive play contexts (neutral, competitive or cooperative) by 45 children with intellectual disability compared with 45 typically developing children (matched on developmental age, ranging from 3 to 6 years) is linked with the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. A Coding Grid of Socio-Emotional Regulation by Sequences (Baurain & Nader-Grosbois, 2011b, 2011c) focusing on Emotional Expression, Social Behavior and Behavior toward Social Rules in children was applied. The Social Adjustment for Children Scale (EASE, Hugues, Soares-Boucaud, Hochman, & Frith, 1997) and the Assessment, Evaluation and Intervention Program System (AEPS, Bricker, 2002) were completed by teachers. Regression analyses emphasized, in children with intellectual disability only, a positive significant link between their Behavior toward Social Rules in interactive contexts and the teachers' perceptions of their social adjustment. Children with intellectual disabilities who listen to and follow instructions, who are patient in waiting for their turn, and who moderate their externalized behavior are perceived by their teachers as socially adapted in their daily social relationships. The between-groups dissimilarity in the relational patterns between abilities in socio-emotional regulation and social adjustment supports the "structural difference hypothesis" with regard to the group with intellectual disability, compared with the typically developing group. Hierarchical cluster cases analyses identified distinct subgroups showing variable structural patterns between the three specific categories of abilities in socio-emotional regulation and their levels of social adjustment perceived by teachers. In both groups, several abilities in socio-emotional regulation and teachers' perceptions of social adjustment vary depending on children's developmental age. Chronological age in children with

  7. Anxiety symptomatology and perceived health in African American adults: Moderating role of emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Sierra E.; Walker, Rheeda L.

    2014-01-01

    Though emotional health has been theoretically and empirically linked to physical health, the anxiety-physical health association in particular is not well understood for African American adults. This study examined anxiety as a specific correlate of perceived health in addition to testing the potential moderating role of emotion regulation, an index of how and when individuals modulate emotions, in the association for anxiety to perceived health. Study participants were 151 community-based African American adults who completed measures of anxiety symptomatology and emotion regulation in addition to responding to a self-report question of perceived health. Results showed that higher levels of anxiety symptomatology were associated with poorer health ratings for those who reported more limited access to emotion regulation strategies but not those who reported having more emotion regulation strategies. The findings suggest that anxiety-related distress and health problems may be interrelated when emotion regulation strategies are limited. PMID:25045943

  8. Escaping affect: how motivated emotion regulation creates insensitivity to mass suffering.

    PubMed

    Cameron, C Daryl; Payne, B Keith

    2011-01-01

    As the number of people in need of help increases, the degree of compassion people feel for them ironically tends to decrease. This phenomenon is termed the collapse of compassion. Some researchers have suggested that this effect happens because emotions are not triggered by aggregates. We provide evidence for an alternative account. People expect the needs of large groups to be potentially overwhelming, and, as a result, they engage in emotion regulation to prevent themselves from experiencing overwhelming levels of emotion. Because groups are more likely than individuals to elicit emotion regulation, people feel less for groups than for individuals. In Experiment 1, participants displayed the collapse of compassion only when they expected to be asked to donate money to the victims. This suggests that the effect is motivated by self-interest. Experiment 2 showed that the collapse of compassion emerged only for people who were skilled at emotion regulation. In Experiment 3, we manipulated emotion regulation. Participants who were told to down-regulate their emotions showed the collapse of compassion, but participants who were told to experience their emotions did not. We examined the time course of these effects using a dynamic rating to measure affective responses in real time. The time course data suggested that participants regulate emotion toward groups proactively, by preventing themselves from ever experiencing as much emotion toward groups as toward individuals. These findings provide initial evidence that motivated emotion regulation drives insensitivity to mass suffering.

  9. Associations between narcissism and emotion regulation difficulties: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhenhong; You, Xuqun; Lü, Wei; Luo, Yun

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the direct and interactive effects of two types of narcissism (overt and covert) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity on emotion regulation difficulties in 227 undergraduate students. Overt and covert narcissism and emotion regulation difficulties were assessed with self-report measures (narcissistic personality inventory (NPI)-16, hypersensitive narcissism scale (HSNS), and difficulties in emotion regulation scale (DERS)), and physiological data were measured during the baseline, stress (a public-speaking task), and recovery periods in the laboratory. Results indicated that overt narcissism was negatively related to a lack of emotional awareness and emotional clarity, whereas covert narcissism was positively related to overall emotion regulation difficulties, nonacceptance of emotional responses, impulse control difficulties, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and a lack of emotional clarity. RSA reactivity in response to a mock job interview moderated the associations between covert narcissism (as a predictor) and overall emotion regulation difficulties and impulse control difficulties (as outcomes). This finding showed that a greater stress-induced RSA decrease may serve as a protective factor and ameliorate the effect of covert narcissism on individuals' emotion regulation difficulties.

  10. Electrophysiological correlates related to the conflict adaptation effect in an emotional conflict task.

    PubMed

    Xue, Song; Ren, Guofang; Kong, Xia; Liu, Jia; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have provided some evidence of the neural basis of the emotional conflict adaptation effect. However, the neural time-course is largely unknown. Therefore, a face-word Stroop task was used in the present study to explore the neural dynamics of the emotional conflict control effect, using event-related potentials (ERPs). The behavioral data showed a robust emotional conflict adaptation effect, and there was an interaction between previous trials and current trials for RT. There were two ERP components (N450 and conflict SP) that might be related to trial congruency. The N450 results showed both a main effect of current trial congruency and an interaction between previous trials and current trials, which might be related to successful conflict adaptation. The SP results only showed the main effect of current trial congruency, which might be associated with post-response monitoring.

  11. The relationships between HIV stigma, emotional status, and emotional regulation among HIV-affected children in rural China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Harrison, Sayward; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-03-01

    Children affected by HIV/AIDS have unique psychosocial needs that often go unaddressed in traditional treatment approaches. They are more likely than unaffected peers to encounter stigma, including overt discriminatory behaviors, as well as stereotyped attitudes. In addition, HIV-affected children are at risk for experiencing negative affect, including sadness and depression. Previous studies have identified a link between HIV stigma and the subsequent emotional status of children affected by HIV/AIDS. However, limited data are available regarding protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effects of HIV stigma and thus promote resiliency for this vulnerable population. Utilizing data from 790 children aged 6-17 years affected by parental HIV in rural central China this study aims to examine the association between HIV stigma, including both enacted and perceived stigma, and emotional status among HIV-affected children, as well as to evaluate the mediating effects of emotional regulation on the relationship between HIV stigma and emotional status. In addition, the moderating role of age is tested. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. We found that the experience of HIV stigma had a direct positive effect on negative emotions among children affected by HIV. Emotional regulation offers a level of protection, as it mediated the impact of HIV stigma on negative emotions. Moreover, age was found to moderate the relationship between perceived stigma and negative emotions. A significant interaction between perceived stigma and age suggested that negative emotions increase with age among those who perceived a higher level of stigmatization. Results suggest that children affected by HIV may benefit from interventions designed to enhance their capacity to regulate emotions and that health professionals should be aware of the link between stigma and negative emotion in childhood and adolescence and use the knowledge to inform their

  12. The relationships between HIV stigma, emotional status, and emotional regulation among HIV-affected children in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Harrison, Sayward; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Children affected by HIV/AIDS have unique psychosocial needs that often go unaddressed in traditional treatment approaches. They are more likely than unaffected peers to encounter stigma, including overt discriminatory behaviors, as well as stereotyped attitudes. In addition, HIV-affected children are at risk for experiencing negative affect, including sadness and depression. Previous studies have identified a link between HIV stigma and the subsequent emotional status of children affected by HIV/AIDS. However, limited data are available regarding protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effects of HIV stigma and thus promote resiliency for this vulnerable population. Utilizing data from 790 children aged 6–17 years affected by parental HIV in rural central China this study aims to examine the association between HIV stigma, including both enacted and perceived stigma, and emotional status among HIV-affected children, as well as to evaluate the mediating effects of emotional regulation on the relationship between HIV stigma and emotional status. In addition, the moderating role of age is tested. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. We found that the experience of HIV stigma had a direct positive effect on negative emotions among children affected by HIV. Emotional regulation offers a level of protection, as it mediated the impact of HIV stigma on negative emotions. Moreover, age was found to moderate the relationship between perceived stigma and negative emotions. A significant interaction between perceived stigma and age suggested that negative emotions increase with age among those who perceived a higher level of stigmatization. Results suggest that children affected by HIV may benefit from interventions designed to enhance their capacity to regulate emotions and that health professionals should be aware of the link between stigma and negative emotion in childhood and adolescence and use the knowledge to inform

  13. Chronic pain and the adaptive significance of positive emotions.

    PubMed

    Ong, Anthony D; Zautra, Alex J; Reid, M Carrington

    2015-04-01

    The February-March 2014 special issue of the American Psychologist featured articles summarizing select contributions from the field of psychology to the assessment and treatment of chronic pain. The articles examined a range of psychosocial and family factors that influence individual adjustment and contribute to disparities in pain care. The reviews also considered the psychological correlates and neurophysiological mechanisms of specific pain treatments, including cognitive-behavioral therapy, hypnosis, acceptance and commitment therapy, mindfulness, and meditation. Although a number of articles emphasized the role that negative states of mind play in pain outcomes, positive emotions were given only brief mention. Here, we provide a rationale for the inclusion of positive emotions in chronic pain research. PMID:25844656

  14. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  15. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Steward, Trevor; Picó-Pérez, Maria; Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18-25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  16. Does Implicit Emotion Regulation in Binge Eating Disorder Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Athena; Safer, Debra L.; Austin, Julia L.; Etkin, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine if implicit emotion regulation (occurring outside of awareness) is related to binge eating disorder (BED) symptomatology and explicit emotion regulation (occurring within awareness), and can be altered via intervention. Methods Implicit emotion regulation was assessed via the Emotion Conflict Task (ECT) among a group of adults with BED. Study 1 correlated BED symptomatology and explicit emotion regulation with ECT performance at baseline (BL) and after receiving BED treatment (PT). Study 2 generated effect sizes comparing ECT performance at BL and PT with healthy (non-eating disordered) controls (HC). Results Study 1 yielded significant correlations (p<.05) between both BED symptomatology and explicit emotion regulation with ECT performance. Study 2 found that compared to BL ECT performance, PT shifted (d=−.27), closer to HC. Preliminary results suggest a) BED symptomatology and explicit emotion regulation are associated with ECT performance, and b) PT ECT performance normalized after BED treatment. Conclusions Implicit emotion regulation may be a BED treatment mechanism because psychotherapy, directly or indirectly, decreased sensitivity to implicit emotional conflict. Further understanding implicit emotion regulation may refine conceptualizations and effective BED treatments. PMID:26117164

  17. Emotion Regulation from Early Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood and Middle Adulthood: Age Differences, Gender Differences, and Emotion-Epecific Developmental Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Peter; Iwanski, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Despite the growing research on emotion regulation, the empirical evidence for normative age-related emotion regulation patterns is rather divergent. From a life-span perspective, normative age changes in emotion regulation may be more salient applying the same methodological approach on a broad age range examining both growth and decline during…

  18. Non-suicidal self-injury and emotion regulation: a review on facial emotion recognition and facial mimicry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is an increasingly prevalent, clinically significant behavior in adolescents and can be associated with serious consequences for the afflicted person. Emotion regulation is considered its most frequent function. Because the symptoms of NSSI are common and cause impairment, it will be included in Section 3 disorders as a new disorder in the revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). So far, research has been conducted mostly with patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) showing self-injurious behavior. Therefore, for this review the current state of research regarding emotion regulation, NSSI, and BPD in adolescents is presented. In particular, the authors focus on studies on facial emotion recognition and facial mimicry, as social interaction difficulties might be a result of not recognizing emotions in facial expressions and inadequate facial mimicry. Although clinical trials investigating the efficacy of psychological treatments for NSSI among adolescents are lacking, especially those targeting the capacity to cope with emotions, clinical implications of the improvement in implicit and explicit emotion regulation in the treatment of NSSI is discussed. Given the impact of emotion regulation skills on the effectiveness of psychotherapy, neurobiological and psychophysiological outcome variables should be included in clinical trials. PMID:23421964

  19. Relations of Children's Social Status to Their Emotionality and Regulation: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maszk, Patricia; Eisenberg, Nancy; Guthrie, Ivanna K.

    1999-01-01

    Study examined relation of children's negative emotionality and regulation to current and subsequent sociometric status throughout the year. Measures of emotional intensity, regulation and aggression completed by teachers for 74 four- to six-year olds at two points during the year, indicated individual differences in regulation, and emotionality…

  20. Emotion-based preventive intervention: Effectively promoting emotion knowledge and adaptive behavior among at-risk preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Finlon, Kristy J; Izard, Carroll E; Seidenfeld, Adina; Johnson, Stacy R; Cavadel, Elizabeth Woodburn; Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Morgan, Judith K

    2015-11-01

    Effectiveness studies of preschool social-emotional programs are needed in low-income, diverse populations to help promote the well-being of at-risk children. Following an initial program efficacy study 2 years prior, 248 culturally diverse Head Start preschool children participated in the current effectiveness trial and received either the Emotion-Based Prevention Program (EBP) or the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) intervention. Pre- and postdata collection included direct child assessment, teacher report, parent interview, and independent observations. Teachers implementing the EBP intervention demonstrated good and consistent fidelity to the program. Overall, children in EBP classrooms gained more emotion knowledge and displayed greater decreases in negative emotion expressions and internalizing behaviors across the implementation period as compared to children in ICPS classrooms. In addition, cumulative risk, parental depressive symptoms, and classroom climate significantly moderated treatment effects. For children experiencing more stress or less support, EBP produced more successful outcomes than did ICPS. These results provide evidence of EBP sustainability and program effectiveness, as did previous findings that demonstrated EBP improvements in emotion knowledge, regulation skills, and behavior problems replicated under unsupervised program conditions. PMID:26439080

  1. The Normative Development of Emotion Regulation Strategy Use in Children and Adolescents: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullone, Eleonora; Hughes, Elizabeth K.; King, Neville J.; Tonge, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Background: Emotion regulation involves intrinsic and extrinsic processes responsible for managing one's emotions toward goal accomplishment. Research on emotion regulation has predominantly focused on early developmental periods and the majority of emotion regulation research examining the pre-adult years has lacked a comprehensive theoretical…

  2. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline “look” condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, “regulating regions”) were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, “regulated regions”) were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react. PMID:24027512

  3. A Person-Centered Approach to Adolescent Emotion Regulation: Associations with Psychopathology and Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Turpyn, Caitlin C.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Cook, Emily C.; Martelli, Alexandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a unique period of heightened emotional arousal and still-developing regulatory abilities. Adolescent emotion regulation patterns may be critically involved in adolescents’ psychosocial development, but patterns of emotion regulation in youth are not well-understood. The present study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to elucidate patterns of emotion expression, experience, and emotion-related physiological arousal in adolescents. One-hundred ninety-eight adolescents and their primary caregivers participated in an emotionally-arousing parent-adolescent conflict interaction. Adolescent’s observed emotion expressions, emotion experiences, and heart rate (HR) and caregiver parenting behaviors were assessed during and/or after the interaction. Parents reported on adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and youth reported on depressive symptoms. The LPA revealed 4 emotion regulation profiles: a moderate HR-and-high expression profile, a suppression profile (with low negative emotion expression, high emotion experience), a low reactive profile, and a high reactive profile. The moderate HR-and-high expression profile was associated with lower conduct disorder symptoms; the suppression profile was related to lower anxiety symptoms; and the high reactive profile was associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms. The high reactive and moderate HR-and-high expression profiles were associated with more negative/critical parenting behaviors. Findings suggest that profiles of adolescent emotion regulation can be empirically identified and may be significant risk factors for psychopathology. PMID:25846016

  4. Emotion Regulation in the Brain: Conceptual Issues and Directions for Developmental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marc D.; Stieben, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Emotion regulation cannot be temporally distinguished from emotion in the brain, but activation patterns in prefrontal cortex appear to mediate cognitive control during emotion episodes. Frontal event-related potentials (ERPs) can tap cognitive control hypothetically mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex, and developmentalists have used these…

  5. Emotional and Adrenocortical Regulation in Early Adolescence: Prediction by Attachment Security and Disorganization in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Gottfried; Zimmermann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine differences in emotion expression and emotion regulation in emotion-eliciting situations in early adolescence from a bio-psycho-social perspective, specifically investigating the influence of early mother-infant attachment and attachment disorganization on behavioural and adrenocortical responses. The…

  6. Emotional Experience, Expression, and Regulation of High-Quality Japanese Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosotani, Rika; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the emotional experience, expression, and regulation processes of high-quality Japanese elementary school teachers while they interact with children, in terms of teachers' emotional competence. Qualitative analysis of interview data demonstrated that teachers had various emotional experiences including self-elicited…

  7. Neurophysiological mechanisms of emotion regulation for subtypes of externalizing children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieben, James

    Children referred for externalizing behavior problems may not represent a homogeneous population. The objective of this study was to assess the neural mechanisms of emotion regulation that might distinguish subtypes of externalizing children from each other and from their typically developing age-mates. Children with pure externalizing (EXT) problems were compared with children comorbid for externalizing and internalizing (MIXED) problems and with age-matched controls. Only boys were included in the analysis because so few girls were referred for treatment. A go/no-go task with a negative emotion induction was used to examine dense-array EEG data together with behavioral measures of performance. Four event-related potential (ERP) components tapping inhibitory control or self-monitoring were assessed including the inhibitory N2, the error-related negativity (ERN), the error positivity (Pe) and the frontal inhibitory P3 (iP3). Source models were constructed estimating the cortical generators of these components. The MIXED children's N2s increased in response to the emotion induction, resulting in greater amplitudes than EXT children in the following trial block. MIXED and EXT children showed increased N2 latencies compared to controls. ERN amplitudes were greatest for control children and smallest for EXT children with MIXED children in between, but only prior to the emotion induction. N2 component latencies were shorter for controls but only before and after the induction block with a significantly faster N2 for controls only in block C relative to MIXED children. Latencies for the ERN component were longer for the EXT children in blocks A and B relative to both MIXED and controls. Mixed results were found for both the Pe and frontal P3 amplitude. Pe amplitudes were smallest for control children in blocks A and B relative to both clinical groups. Pe latencies were consistent across groups with the exception of block B where EXT children showed an increase in

  8. Parent Emotion Socialization Practices and Child Self-regulation as Predictors of Child Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Cardiac Variability.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah R; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2015-08-01

    The importance of the parent-child relationship in emotional development is well supported. The parental role of facilitating a child's self-regulation may provide a more focused approach for examining the role of parenting in child anxiety. The current study hypothesized that parent emotion socialization practices would predict a child's abilities in self-regulation. Given that physiological arousal has been implicated in emotional development, this was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between parental emotion socialization and child emotion regulation to predict child anxiety. Eighty-five parent and child dyads participated in the study. Parents reporting higher degrees of unsupportive emotion socialization were more likely to have children with fewer abilities in emotion regulation. Cardiac responsiveness mediated the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation. The model of cardiac responsiveness mediating the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation failed to reach statistical significance in predicting child anxiety symptoms. PMID:25204571

  9. Parent Emotion Socialization Practices and Child Self-regulation as Predictors of Child Anxiety: The Mediating Role of Cardiac Variability.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sarah R; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2015-08-01

    The importance of the parent-child relationship in emotional development is well supported. The parental role of facilitating a child's self-regulation may provide a more focused approach for examining the role of parenting in child anxiety. The current study hypothesized that parent emotion socialization practices would predict a child's abilities in self-regulation. Given that physiological arousal has been implicated in emotional development, this was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between parental emotion socialization and child emotion regulation to predict child anxiety. Eighty-five parent and child dyads participated in the study. Parents reporting higher degrees of unsupportive emotion socialization were more likely to have children with fewer abilities in emotion regulation. Cardiac responsiveness mediated the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation. The model of cardiac responsiveness mediating the relationship between unsupportive emotion socialization and child emotion regulation failed to reach statistical significance in predicting child anxiety symptoms.

  10. Emotion regulation difficulties mediate associations between betrayal trauma and symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Rachel E; Chesney, Samantha A; Heath, Nicole M; Barlow, M Rose

    2013-06-01

    Emotion regulation difficulties following trauma exposure have received increasing attention among researchers and clinicians. Previous work highlights the role of emotion regulation difficulties in multiple forms of psychological distress and identifies emotion regulation capacities as especially compromised among survivors of betrayal trauma: physical, sexual, or emotional maltreatment perpetrated by someone to whom the victim is close, such as a parent or partner. It is unknown, however, whether links between emotion regulation difficulties and psychological symptoms differ following exposure to betrayal trauma as compared with other trauma types. In the present study, 593 male and female university undergraduates completed the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (Gratz & Roemer, 2004), the Brief Betrayal Trauma Scale (Goldberg & Freyd, 2006), the Impact of Event Scale (Horowitz, Wilner, & Alvarez, 1979), and the Trauma Symptom Checklist (Elliott & Briere, 1992). A path analytic model demonstrated that betrayal trauma indirectly impacted symptoms of intrusion (β = .11), avoidance (β = .13), depression (β = .17), and anxiety (β = .14) via emotion regulation difficulties, an effect consistent with mediation. Emotion regulation difficulties did not mediate the relationship between other trauma exposure and psychological symptoms. Results may inform treatment-matching efforts, and suggest that emotion regulation difficulties may constitute a key therapeutic target following betrayal trauma. PMID:23737296

  11. Relationships among emotion regulation and symptoms during trauma-focused CBT for school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Thornback, Kristin; Muller, Robert T

    2015-12-01

    This study examined improvement in emotion regulation throughout Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) and the degree to which improvement in emotion regulation predicted improvement in symptoms. Traumatized children, 7-12 years (69.9% female), received TF-CBT. Data from 4 time periods were used: pre-assessment (n=107), pre-treatment (n=78), post-treatment (n=58), and 6-month follow-up (n=44). Questionnaires measured emotion regulation in the form of inhibition and dysregulation (Children's Emotion Management Scales) and lability/negativity and emotion regulation skill (Emotion Regulation Checklist), as well as child-reported (Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children) and parent-reported (Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children) posttraumatic stress, and internalizing and externalizing problems (Child Behaviuor Checklist). To the extent that children's dysregulation and lability/negativity improved, their parents reported fewer symptoms following therapy. Improvements in inhibition best predicted improvements in child-reported posttraumatic stress (PTS) during clinical services, but change in dysregulation and lability/negativity best predicted improvement in child-reported PTS symptoms at 6-month follow-up. Moreover, statistically significant improvements of small effect size were found following therapy, for inhibition, dysregulation, and lability/negativity, but not emotion regulation skill. These findings suggest that emotion regulation is a worthy target of intervention and that improvements in emotion regulation can be made. Suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:26470906

  12. Early postnatal stress and neural circuit underlying emotional regulation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Machiko; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Togashi, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have shown that traumatic events during the early postnatal period precipitate long-lasting alterations in the functional properties underlying emotional expression that are attributable to the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. In this chapter, we summarize our recent work elucidating whether early postnatal stress alters the neural circuits underlying emotional regulation. Rats exposed to footshock stress (FS) during the second (2W) or the third (3W) postnatal week were subjected to unconditioned and conditioned stresses at the postadolescent period (10-12 weeks). No differences in locomotor activity or hippocampal synaptic changes were observed between the FS-groups and non-FS controls during exposure to open field stress. Fear-related freezing behavior during exposure to contextual fear conditioning (CFC) was markedly attenuated in the 2W-FS group, presumably due to disturbance of the retention for fear memory, an effect that was attributable to synaptic changes in the hippocampal CA1 field. The 3W-FS group exhibited attenuation of the decreases in freezing behavior induced by CFC extinction trials. The deficits in extinction was abolished by repeated treatment with the partial N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor agonist d-cycloserine, suggesting that aversive stress exposure during the third postnatal week impaired extinction of context-dependent fear memory. Taken together, the altered behavior observed in adulthood is likely the result of neurodevelopmental perturbations elicited by early life stress. Thus, a "critical period" exists for neural circuits involved in emotional expression that may contribute to lifelong susceptibility to stress.

  13. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  14. The electrocortical modulation effects of different emotion regulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Gan, Shuzhen; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Xuhai; Yang, Yufang

    2015-08-01

    The current event-related potential study investigated the modulation effects of different emotion regulation strategies on electrocortical responses. When watching negative or neutral pictures, participants were instructed to perform three tasks: cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression and passive viewing. We found that negative pictures elicited a larger late positive potential (LPP) than neutral pictures. Moreover, processes involved in strategy also had an effect on LPP amplitude, which was indicated by a larger LPP in reappraisal compared with suppression and viewing tasks when neutral pictures were presented. After the influence of processes on LPP was excluded, results showed that reappraisal effectively decreased the emotion-enhanced LPP than suppression and viewing. The difference in regulatory effect may be determined by the underlying processing mechanism. A larger frontal-central component, N2, was observed in suppression than reappraisal and viewing, which suggested that it involved the processes focusing on behavioral response. While the larger LPP found in reappraisal implicated that it recruited cognitive processes focusing on the picture meaning.

  15. The Contributions of Emotional Intelligence and Social Support for Adaptive Career Progress among Italian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Kenny, Maureen E.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from career construction and positive youth development perspectives, this study explores, among 254 Italian high school students, the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and support from friends and teachers with indices of adaptive career development. Results from the full canonical correlational model revealed that…

  16. The Emotions of Socialization-Related Learning: Understanding Workplace Adaptation as a Learning Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    The influence of selected discrete emotions on socialization-related learning and perception of workplace adaptation was examined in an exploratory study. Data were collected from 233 service workers in 4 small and medium-sized companies in metropolitan Washington, D.C. The sample members' average age was 32.5 years, and the sample's racial makeup…

  17. Facial Emotion Processing and Social Adaptation in Adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Villamisar, Domingo; Rojahn, Johannes; Zaja, Rebecca H.; Jodra, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and individuals with intellectual disabilities without ASD have limited facial emotion recognition abilities, which may adversely impact social adjustment and other adaptive behavior. This study was designed to examine this relationship in adults with and without ASD. Two groups of adults with…

  18. Adapting Progress Feedback and Emotional Support to Learner Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Matt; Masthoff, Judith; Mellish, Chris

    2016-01-01

    As feedback is an important part of learning and motivation, we investigate how to adapt the feedback of a conversational agent to learner personality (as well as to learner performance, as we expect an interaction effect between personality and performance on feedback). We investigate two aspects of feedback. Firstly, we investigate whether the…

  19. Emotional Regulation and Executive Function Deficits in Unmedicated Chinese Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenqing; Li, Yan; Fan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the feature of emotional regulation and executive functions in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) children. Methods The emotional regulation and executive functions of adolescents with ODD, as well as the relationship between the two factors were analyzed using tools including Adolescent Daily Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ADERQ), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in comparison with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without behavioral problem and healthy children; the ADERQ assessed emotional regulation ability and others were used to assess executive function. Results Compared to normal children, the ODD group displayed significant differences in the scores of cognitive reappraisal, rumination, expressive suppression, and revealing of negative emotions, as well as in the score of cognitive reappraisal of positive emotions. WCST perseverative errors were well correlated with rumination of negative emotions (r=0.47). Logistic regression revealed that the minimum number of moves in the Stocking of Cambridge (SOC) test (one test in CANTAB) and negative emotion revealing, were strongly associated with ODD diagnosis. Conclusion Children with ODD showed emotion dysregulation, with negative emotion dysregulation as the main feature. Emotion dysregulation and the lack of ability to plan lead to executive function deficits. The executive function deficits may guide us to understand the deep mechanism under ODD. PMID:27247593

  20. The neural correlates of regulating another person's emotions: an exploratory fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Hallam, Glyn P.; Webb, Thomas L.; Sheeran, Paschal; Miles, Eleanor; Niven, Karen; Wilkinson, Iain D.; Hunter, Michael D.; Woodruff, Peter W. R.; Totterdell, Peter; Farrow, Tom F. D.

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating the neurophysiological basis of intrapersonal emotion regulation (control of one's own emotional experience) report that the frontal cortex exerts a modulatory effect on limbic structures such as the amygdala and insula. However, no imaging study to date has examined the neurophysiological processes involved in interpersonal emotion regulation, where the goal is explicitly to regulate another person's emotion. Twenty healthy participants (10 males) underwent fMRI while regulating their own or another person's emotions. Intrapersonal and interpersonal emotion regulation tasks recruited an overlapping network of brain regions including bilateral lateral frontal cortex, pre-supplementary motor area, and left temporo-parietal junction. Activations unique to the interpersonal condition suggest that both affective (emotional simulation) and cognitive (mentalizing) aspects of empathy may be involved in the process of interpersonal emotion regulation. These findings provide an initial insight into the neural correlates of regulating another person's emotions and may be relevant to understanding mental health issues that involve problems with social interaction. PMID:24936178

  1. Emotional reactivity, regulation and childhood stuttering: A behavioral and electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Hayley S.; Conture, Edward G.; Key, Alexandra P.F.; Walden, Tedra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess whether behavioral and psychophysiological correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation are associated with developmental stuttering, as well as determine the feasibility of these methods in preschool-age children. Nine preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) and nine preschool-age children who do not stutter (CWNS) listened to brief background conversations conveying happy, neutral, and angry emotions (a resolution conversation followed the angry conversation), then produced narratives based on a text-free storybook. Electroencephalograms (EEG) recorded during listening examined cortical correlates of emotional reactivity and regulation. Speech disfluencies and observed emotion regulation were measured during a narrative immediately after each background conversation. Results indicated that decreased use of regulatory strategies is related to more stuttering in children who stutter. However, no significant differences were found in EEG measurements of emotional reactivity and regulation between CWS and CWNS or between emotion elicitation conditions. Findings were taken to suggest that use of regulatory strategies may relate to the fluency of preschool-age children’s speech-language output. Learner Outcomes: The reader will be able to (1) describe emotional reactivity and regulation processes, (2) discuss evidence for or against the relations of emotional reactivity, regulation and stuttering, (3) understand how multiple measures can be used to measure emotional reactivity and regulation. PMID:21276977

  2. Emotion regulation in disordered eating: Psychometric properties of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale among Spanish adults and its interrelations with personality and clinical severity

    PubMed Central

    Wolz, Ines; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Gratz, Kim L.; Menchón, José M.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the study were to (1) validate the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) in a sample of Spanish adults with and without eating disorders, and (2) explore the role of emotion regulation difficulties in eating disorders (ED), including its mediating role in the relation between key personality traits and ED severity. Methods: One hundred and thirty four patients (121 female, mean age = 29 years) with anorexia nervosa (n = 30), bulimia nervosa (n = 54), binge eating (n = 20), or Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders (n = 30) and 74 healthy control participants (51 female, mean age = 21 years) reported on general psychopathology, ED severity, personality traits and difficulties in emotion regulation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the psychometrics of the DERS in this Spanish sample (Aim 1). Additionally, to examine the role of emotion regulation difficulties in ED (Aim 2), differences in emotion regulation difficulties across eating disorder subgroups were examined and structural equation modeling was used to explore the interrelations among emotion regulation, personality traits, and eating disorder severity. Results: Results support the validity and reliability of the DERS within this Spanish adult sample and suggest that this measure has a similar factor structure in this sample as in the original sample. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties were found to differ as a function of eating disorder subtype and to mediate the relation between two specific personality traits (i.e., high harm avoidance and low self-directedness) and ED severity. Conclusions: Personality traits of high harm avoidance and low self-directedness may increase vulnerability to ED pathology indirectly, through emotion regulation difficulties. PMID:26175710

  3. Neural activation associated with the cognitive emotion regulation of sadness in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Belden, Andy C; Luby, Joan L; Pagliaccio, David; Barch, Deanna M

    2014-07-01

    When used effectively, cognitive reappraisal of distressing events is a highly adaptive cognitive emotion regulation (CER) strategy, with impairments in cognitive reappraisal associated with greater risk for psychopathology. Despite extensive literature examining the neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal in healthy and psychiatrically ill adults, there is a dearth of data to inform the neural bases of CER in children, a key gap in the literature necessary to map the developmental trajectory of cognitive reappraisal. In this fMRI study, psychiatrically healthy schoolchildren were instructed to use cognitive reappraisal to modulate their emotional reactions and responses of negative affect after viewing sad photos. Consistent with the adult literature, when actively engaged in reappraisal compared to passively viewing sad photos, children showed increased activation in the vlPFC, dlPFC, and dmPFC as well as in parietal and temporal lobe regions. When children used cognitive reappraisal to minimize their experience of negative affect after viewing sad stimuli they exhibited dampened amygdala responses. Results are discussed in relation to the importance of identifying and characterizing neural processes underlying adaptive CER strategies in typically developing children in order to understand how these systems go awry and relate to the risk and occurrence of affective disorders.

  4. The Relation of Children's Everyday Nonsocial Peer Play Behavior to Their Emotionality, Regulation, and Social Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Harris, Elizabeth; Hanish, Laura; Fabes, Richard A.; Kupanoff, Kristina; Ringwald, Staci; Holmes, Julie

    2004-01-01

    The relations of children's nonsocial behavior to their emotionality, regulation, and social functioning were examined in a short-term longitudinal study. Parents (primarily mothers) and teachers rated children's effortful regulation, emotionality, asocial behaviors, problem behaviors, and social acceptance, and children's nonsocial play behaviors…

  5. Emotional Self-Regulation in Preschoolers: The Interplay of Child Approach Reactivity, Parenting, and Control Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether child temperamental approach reactivity moderated the association between 2 factors, parenting and child control capacities and child emotional self-regulation. Participants (N=113) were 3- and 4-year-olds (M=48 months, SD=5.78) and their mothers. Emotional self-regulation was measured as observed persistence and…

  6. The Relationships among Language Ability, Emotion Regulation and Social Competence in Second-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monopoli, W. John; Kingston, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Relationships exist between language ability, emotion regulation, and social competence in preschool children. This study examines how these relationships function in elementary school children, and explores whether language ability partially mediates the relationship between emotion regulation and social competence. Second-grade students (N = 67)…

  7. Brief Report of Preliminary Outcomes of an Emotion Regulation Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Kendra; Burnham Riosa, Priscilla; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often present with comorbid psychopathology including problems with emotion regulation. The goal of the present research was to investigate the feasibility of a multicomponent manualized cognitive behavior therapy treatment program for improving emotion regulation in youth with ASD 8-12 years of age.…

  8. Emotion Regulation Strategies in European American and Hong Kong Chinese Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Kayan Phoebe; Savina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study explored emotion regulation strategies in middle school European American (N = 54) and Hong Kong Chinese (N = 89) children. Children were presented with scenarios describing a fictitious girl/boy who encountered situations eliciting sadness, anger, and fear. Based on Gross' theory (1998), the survey of emotion regulation strategies was…

  9. Self-Regulation, Language Skills, and Emotion Knowledge in Young Children from Northern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Salisch, Maria; Haenel, Martha; Denham, Susanne Ayers

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to examine the explanatory power of behavioral self-regulation in the domain of emotion knowledge, especially in a non-U.S. culture, 365 German 4- and 5-year-olds were individually tested on these constructs. Path analyses revealed that children's behavioral self-regulation explained their emotion knowledge in the…

  10. Children's Negative Emotionality Combined with Poor Self-Regulation Affects Allostatic Load in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dich, Nadya; Doan, Stacey; Evans, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the concurrent and prospective, longitudinal effects of childhood negative emotionality and self-regulation on allostatic load (AL), a physiological indicator of chronic stress. We hypothesized that negative emotionality in combination with poor self-regulation would predict elevated AL. Mothers reported on children's…

  11. Emotion Regulation and Aggressive Behavior in Preschoolers: The Mediating Role of Social Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmsen, Johanna; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the relation between maladaptive emotion regulation and aggression was mediated by deviant social information processing (SIP). Participants were 193 preschool children. Emotion regulation and aggression were rated by teachers. Deviant SIP (i.e., attribution of hostile intent, aggressive response generation, aggressive…

  12. Magnitude and Chronometry of Neural Mechanisms of Emotion Regulation in Subtypes of Aggressive Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Connie; Granic, Isabela; Zelazo, Philip David; Lewis, Marc D.

    2011-01-01

    Emotion regulation is a key social skill and children who fail to master it are at risk for clinical disorders. Specific styles of emotion regulation have been associated with particular patterns of prefrontal activation. We investigated whether anxious aggressive children would reveal a different pattern of cortical activation than non-anxious…

  13. Preschoolers' Emotion Expression and Regulation: Relations with School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, Kristina J.; Bailey, Craig S.; Shewark, Elizabeth A.; Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.

    2013-01-01

    Children's expression and regulation of emotions are building blocks of their experiences in classrooms. Thus, the authors' primary goal was to investigate whether preschoolers' expression or ability to regulate emotions were associated with teachers' ratings of school adjustment. A secondary goal was to investigate how boys…

  14. Pretend Play and the Development of Emotion Regulation in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galyer, Karma T.; Evans, Ian M.

    2001-01-01

    Explored preschoolers' emotion regulation skills within a pretend play context using a negatively valenced event designed to elicit a high level of arousal. Found that children's success in continuing pretend play was related to emotion regulation skills in other contexts, whereas their effectiveness at resolving conflict was not. (TJQ)

  15. Emotion Regulation Strategies in Offspring of Childhood-Onset Depressed Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Skuban, Emily M.; Oland, Alyssa A.; Kovacs, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examines emotion regulation strategies used by children of mothers with childhood-onset depression (COD) and children of never-depressed mothers (NCOD). Methods: Participants were 49 COD offspring (ages 4-7) and 37 NCOD offspring (ages 4-7) and their mothers. Emotion regulation strategies were assessed observationally during…

  16. Emotion regulation training to reduce problematic dietary restriction: An experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Haynos, Ann F; Hill, Bailey; Fruzzetti, Alan E

    2016-08-01

    Evidence suggests that emotion regulation may be a process relevant to problematic dietary restriction. However, emotion regulation has not been evaluated as an intervention target across a range of restriction severity. This study utilized an experimental design to examine whether targeting emotion regulation reduced problematic dietary restriction. Within a self-identified restrictive sample (n = 72), the effects of an emotion regulation condition (i.e., emotion regulation training) were compared to those of a control condition (i.e., nutrition information training) on dietary restriction indices (i.e., effort to reduce intake on a progressive ratio task, work towards an alternate reinforcer on a progressive ratio task, intake by dietary recall) following a stressor. Exploratory analyses of potential moderators (i.e., restraint, BMI, binge eating and purging status, emotion regulation difficulties) were conducted to examine whether these factors affected the impact of training on dietary restriction. No significant main effects of condition were detected on any outcome measure. However, results were moderated by BMI status. Participants with lower BMIs exerted less effort towards dietary restriction following the emotion regulation condition versus the control condition (p = 0.02). Results suggest that targeting emotion regulation may help to reduce problematic dietary restriction among lower weight individuals. PMID:27105583

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Spanish Version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Sanchez, Francisco J.; Lasa-Aristu, Amaia; Amor, Pedro J.; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ-S), originally developed by Garnefski, Kraaij, and Spinhoven. To date, it is the only available instrument that permits a conceptually pure quantification of cognitive strategies of emotional regulation. A sample of 615 students (25…

  18. Emotion Regulation as a Scientific Construct: Methodological Challenges and Directions for Child Development Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Pamela M.; Martin, Sarah E.; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2004-01-01

    Emotion regulation has emerged as a popular topic, but there is doubt about its viability as a scientific construct. This article identifies conceptual and methodological challenges in this area of study and describes exemplar studies that provide a substantive basis for inferring emotion regulation. On the basis of those studies, 4 methods are…

  19. Relationships between Parent and Child Emotion Regulation Strategy Use: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bariola, Emily; Hughes, Elizabeth K.; Gullone, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    We examined the direct relationships between parent and child emotion regulation (ER) strategy use during the transitionary and understudied developmental periods of middle childhood through to adolescence. Three hundred and seventy-nine participants aged between 9 and 19 years, completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and…

  20. Emotion Regulation in Adolescence: A Prospective Study of Expressive Suppression and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Junilla K.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Geenen, Rinie; van Middendorp, Henriet; English, Tammy; Gross, James J.; Ha, Thao; Evers, Catharine; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between expressive suppression and depressive symptoms. These results have been interpreted as reflecting the impact of emotion regulation efforts on depression. However, it is also possible that depression may alter emotion regulation tendencies. The goal of the present study was to…

  1. Age-Related Differences in Emotion Regulation Strategies: Examining the Role of Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R.; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2016-01-01

    Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and…

  2. Emotion Regulation Strategies That Promote Learning: Reappraisal Enhances Children's Memory for Educational Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth L.; Levine, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds ("N" = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group received no…

  3. Emotion Regulation via the Autonomic Nervous System in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Backs, Richard W.; Schmitt, Colleen F.; Ablow, Jennifer C.; Measelle, Jeffery R.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in conceptualizing ADHD as involving disrupted emotion regulation, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms related to emotion regulation in children with this disorder. This study examined parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity via measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardiac…

  4. Regulating and facilitating: the role of emotional intelligence in maintaining and using positive affect for creativity.

    PubMed

    Parke, Michael R; Seo, Myeong-Gu; Sherf, Elad N

    2015-05-01

    Although past research has identified the effects of emotional intelligence on numerous employee outcomes, the relationship between emotional intelligence and creativity has not been well established. We draw upon affective information processing theory to explain how two facets of emotional intelligence-emotion regulation and emotion facilitation-shape employee creativity. Specifically, we propose that emotion regulation ability enables employees to maintain higher positive affect (PA) when faced with unique knowledge processing requirements, while emotion facilitation ability enables employees to use their PA to enhance their creativity. We find support for our hypotheses using a multimethod (ability test, experience sampling, survey) and multisource (archival, self-reported, supervisor-reported) research design of early career managers across a wide range of jobs. PMID:25528247

  5. An experimental study of emotion regulation during relationship conflict interactions: the moderating role of attachment orientations.

    PubMed

    Ben-Naim, Shiri; Hirschberger, Gilad; Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Mikulincer, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Romantic couples (N = 127) engaged in a relationship conflict interaction during which their autonomic physiology, emotional experience, and emotional behavior were recorded. Couples were assigned randomly to one of two interventions, or to a control condition: In the affective suppression condition, one partner was instructed to refrain from expressing emotions. In the positive mindset condition, one partner was instructed to think about the positive aspects of the relationship. Results revealed that emotion regulation interventions influenced the physiology, emotional behavior, and emotional experience of both the manipulated person and his or her partner, who was oblivious to regulation manipulations. Specifically, suppression increased, and positive mindset decreased cardiovascular arousal and negative affect. These effects were generally exacerbated among those high on attachment anxiety and attenuated among those high on attachment avoidance. The results of this research corroborate and extend the Temporal Interpersonal Emotion Systems model (Butler, 2011) in the context of relationship conflict interactions.

  6. Knife-Like Mouth and Tofu-Like Heart: Emotion Regulation by Chinese Teachers in Classroom Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Hongbiao

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to bring together two lines of enquiry into teacher emotion, emotional labor and emotion regulation, arguing that the process of teachers' emotional labor is their regulation of feelings and expressions to achieve professional goals. Through the analysis of qualitative data collected from two projects concerning teacher emotion…

  7. Divergent Associations of Antecedent- and Response-Focused Emotion Regulation Strategies with Midlife Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Loucks, Eric B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not known whether various forms of emotion regulation are differentially related to cardiovascular disease risk. Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess whether antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation would have divergent associations with likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease. Methods Two emotion regulation strategies were examined: reappraisal (antecedent-focused) and suppression (response-focused). Cardiovascular disease risk was assessed with a validated Framingham algorithm that estimates the likelihood of developing CVD in 10 years. Associations were assessed among 373 adults via multiple linear regression. Pathways and gender-specific associations were also considered. Results One standard deviation increases in reappraisal and suppression were associated with 5.9 % lower and 10.0 % higher 10-year cardiovascular disease risk, respectively, in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Divergent associations of antecedent and response-focused emotion regulation with cardiovascular disease risk were observed. Effective emotion regulation may promote cardiovascular health. PMID:24570218

  8. Frontal EEG and Emotion Regulation: Electrocortical Activity in Response to Emotional Film Clips is Associated with Reduced Mood Induction and Attention Interference Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Solomon, Beylul

    2010-01-01

    Frontal EEG activity is thought to reflect affective dispositions, but may also reflect the emotional demands of a specific context combined with the capability to regulate emotions in that context. The present study examined this hypothesis by testing whether frontal EEG activity during mood inductions versus a resting baseline predicted emotion regulation. EEG was recorded while participants (N = 66, 40 females) received a fearful, sad, or neutral mood induction. Emotion regulation was measured following the mood inductions as self-reported change in negative mood and as attention interference in a task with mood-congruent emotional distracters. Greater frontal EEG activity during the mood inductions versus baseline was associated with more effective emotion regulation: less post-induction sadness and anxiety and reduced mood-congruent attention interference effects. Effects did not differ between the left and right hemispheres. Results support the hypothesis that frontal EEG activity reflects both emotional context and emotion-regulatory capabilities. PMID:20863872

  9. The impact of emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies on the relation of illness-related negative emotions to subjective health.

    PubMed

    Karademas, Evangelos C; Tsalikou, Calliope; Tallarou, Maria-Christina

    2011-04-01

    In this study we examined whether emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies mediate and/ or moderate the relation of illness-related negative emotions to patients' subjective health. One hundred and thirty-five cardiac patients participated in the study. Illness-focused coping strategies were found to mediate the relation of emotions to physical functioning, whereas emotion regulation strategies mediated the relation to psychological well-being. Moreover, an emotion regulation strategy (i.e. emotion suppression) and two illness-focused coping strategies (instrumental coping and adherence) moderated the two relationships. These findings suggest that both emotion regulation and illness-focused coping strategies are integral parts of the illness-related negative emotions-health relationship.

  10. Bidirectional regulation of emotional memory by 5-HT1B receptors involves hippocampal p11.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, T M; Alvarsson, A; Stan, T L; Zhang, X; Hascup, K N; Hascup, E R; Kehr, J; Gerhardt, G A; Warner-Schmidt, J; Arango-Lievano, M; Kaplitt, M G; Ogren, S O; Greengard, P; Svenningsson, P

    2013-10-01

    Cognitive impairments are common in depression and involve dysfunctional serotonin neurotransmission. The 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT(1B)R) regulates serotonin transmission, via presynaptic receptors, but can also affect transmitter release at heterosynaptic sites. This study aimed at investigating the roles of the 5-HT(1B)R, and its adapter protein p11, in emotional memory and object recognition memory processes by the use of p11 knockout (p11KO) mice, a genetic model for aspects of depression-related states. 5-HT(1B)R agonist treatment induced an impairing effect on emotional memory in wild type (WT) mice. In comparison, p11KO mice displayed reduced long-term emotional memory performance. Unexpectedly, 5-HT(1B)R agonist stimulation enhanced memory in p11KO mice, and this atypical switch was reversed after hippocampal adeno-associated virus mediated gene transfer of p11. Notably, 5-HT(1B)R stimulation increased glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus in p11KO mice, but not in WT mice, as measured by both pre- and postsynaptic criteria. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated global hippocampal reductions of inhibitory GABA, which may contribute to the memory enhancement and potentiation of pre- and post-synaptic measures of glutamate transmission by a 5-HT(1B)R agonist in p11KO mice. It is concluded that the level of hippocampal p11 determines the directionality of 5-HT(1B)R action on emotional memory processing and modulates hippocampal functionality. These results emphasize the importance of using relevant disease models when evaluating the role of serotonin neurotransmission in cognitive deficits related to psychiatric disorders.

  11. Bidirectional regulation of emotional memory by 5-HT1B receptors involves hippocampal p11

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, T M; Alvarsson, A; Stan, T L; Zhang, X; Hascup, K N; Hascup, E R; Kehr, J; Gerhardt, G A; Warner-Schmidt, J; Arango-Lievano, M; Kaplitt, M G; Ögren, S O; Greengard, P; Svenningsson, P

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are common in depression and involve dysfunctional serotonin neurotransmission. The 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR) regulates serotonin transmission, via presynaptic receptors, but can also affect transmitter release at heterosynaptic sites. This study aimed at investigating the roles of the 5-HT1BR, and its adapter protein p11, in emotional memory and object recognition memory processes by the use of p11 knockout (p11KO) mice, a genetic model for aspects of depression-related states. 5-HT1BR agonist treatment induced an impairing effect on emotional memory in wild type (WT) mice. In comparison, p11KO mice displayed reduced long-term emotional memory performance. Unexpectedly, 5-HT1BR agonist stimulation enhanced memory in p11KO mice, and this atypical switch was reversed after hippocampal adeno-associated virus mediated gene transfer of p11. Notably, 5-HT1BR stimulation increased glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus in p11KO mice, but not in WT mice, as measured by both pre- and postsynaptic criteria. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated global hippocampal reductions of inhibitory GABA, which may contribute to the memory enhancement and potentiation of pre- and post-synaptic measures of glutamate transmission by a 5-HT1BR agonist in p11KO mice. It is concluded that the level of hippocampal p11 determines the directionality of 5-HT1BR action on emotional memory processing and modulates hippocampal functionality. These results emphasize the importance of using relevant disease models when evaluating the role of serotonin neurotransmission in cognitive deficits related to psychiatric disorders. PMID:23032875

  12. Adaptation and Validation of the Basque Version of the Emotional Creativity Inventory in Higher Education.

    PubMed

    Soroa, Goretti; Aritzeta, Aitor; Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa

    2016-01-01

    Emotional creativity is defined as the ability to feel and express emotions in a new, effective and authentic way. There are currently no Basque-language self-report instruments to provide valid and reliable measures of this construct. Thus, this paper describes the process of adapting and validating the Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI) for the Basque-speaking population. The sample was comprised of 594 higher education students (388 women and 206 men) aged between 18 and 32 years old (Mage = 20.47; SD = 2.48). The Basque version of the ECI was administered along with the TMMS-23, NEO PI-R, and PANAS. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on the Basque ECI corroborated the original scale's three-factor structure (preparedness, novelty, and effectiveness/authenticity). Those dimensions showed acceptable indexes of internal consistency (α = .80, .83, and .83) and temporal stability (r = .70, .69, and .74). The study also provided some evidence of external validity (p < .05) based on the relationships found between emotional creativity and emotional intelligence, personality, affect, and sex. The Basque ECI can be regarded as a useful tool to evaluate perceived emotional creativity during the preparation and verification phases of the creative process. PMID:27255801

  13. Trauma exposure interacts with impulsivity in predicting emotion regulation and depressive mood

    PubMed Central

    Ceschi, Grazia; Billieux, Joël; Hearn, Melissa; Fürst, Guillaume; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic exposure may modulate the expression of impulsive behavioral dispositions and change the implementation of emotion regulation strategies associated with depressive mood. Past studies resulted in only limited comprehension of these relationships, especially because they failed to consider impulsivity as a multifactorial construct. Objective Based on Whiteside and Lynam's multidimensional model that identifies four distinct dispositional facets of impulsive-like behaviors, namely urgency, (lack of) premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, and sensation seeking (UPPS), the current study used a sample of community volunteers to investigate whether an interaction exists between impulsivity facets and lifetime trauma exposure in predicting cognitive emotion regulation and depressive mood. Methods Ninety-three adults completed questionnaires measuring lifetime trauma exposure, impulsivity, cognitive emotion regulation, and depressive mood. Results Results showed that trauma-exposed participants with a strong disposition toward urgency (predisposition to act rashly in intense emotional contexts) tended to use fewer appropriate cognitive emotion regulation strategies than other individuals. Unexpectedly, participants lacking in perseverance (predisposition to have difficulties concentrating on demanding tasks) used more appropriate emotion regulation strategies if they had experienced traumatic events during their life than if they had not. Emotion regulation mediated the path between these two impulsivity facets and depressive mood. Conclusions Together, these findings suggest that impulsivity has a differential impact on emotion regulation and depressive mood depending on lifetime exposure to environmental factors, especially traumatic events. PMID:25317255

  14. Emotion regulation and adolescent suicide: a proposal for physician education.

    PubMed

    Rice, Timothy R

    2015-05-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents aged 14-19 years. Pediatricians report strong interest in receiving additional training to reduce suicide mortality, and physician education is one of the most robust means of suicide prevention. However, many studies suggest that existing educational methods and means leave much room for improvement. In light of the emerging evidence that emotion regulation (ER) deficits are significantly associated with adolescent suicide, this paper proposes the untested hypothesis that a module on the brain-based ER system may strengthen existing methods of provider education. The ER system and the evidence supporting its association with adolescent suicide are reviewed. The ability to ground an approach to suicide prevention within this brain-based medical model may be appealing to pediatricians; its transdiagnostic breadth and dimensional makeup may also be appealing to pediatricians. Most importantly, its emphasis on the negative effects of impoverished self-regulation broaden non-specialist concern from a restriction upon withdrawn, depressed adolescents to those with a wide range of psychopathology. Implications and further considerations are discussed.

  15. Perfectionism, Emotion Regulation and Their Relationship to Negative Affect in Patients with Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Rukmini, Systla; Sudhir, Paulomi M.; Math, Suresh Bada

    2014-01-01

    Context: Research on the perfectionism and emotion regulation strategies in anxiety disorders has gained increased attention. These have an important implication for formulation of therapies. Aims: We examined perfectionism, emotion regulation were examined in 30 patients with social phobia (SP) and 30 community participants. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional design using a clinical and a community control sample was adopted in this exploratory study. Materials and Methods: Participants were assessed on The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Frost's-Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Ruminative Response Scale of the response style questionnaire, cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Beck's Depression Inventory. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using independents samples t-test and Pearson's Product moment correlations and step-wise linear regression. Results: Individuals with SP had higher perfectionism (mean = 100.30, SD = ±17.73, t = 7.29, P < 0.001), rumination (mean = 61.47, SD = ±11.96, t = 6.71, P < 0.001) and lower levels of positive reappraisal (mean = 11.53, SD = ±3.85, t = 4.90, P < 0.001). Perfectionism was correlated with social anxiety (r = 0.44, P < 0.05) and rumination (r = 0.43, P < 0.05), but not with depression. Rumination was positively correlated with both social anxiety (r = 0.513, P < 0.01) and depression (r = 0.485, P < 0.01). Positive reappraisal was negatively correlated with depression (r = -0.396, P < 0.05) and anxiety (r = -0.335, P < 0.05). Acceptance was found to be significantly correlated only to the reflective pondering subscale of rumination. Parental criticism was a significant predictor of social anxiety (F = 11.11, P < 0.01) and brooding predicted depression (F = 10.49, P < 0.01). Conclusions: This study highlights the role of perfectionism as a maintaining factor in SP and the importance of adaptive forms of emotion regulation that need to be addressed

  16. Mindful attention to breath regulates emotions via increased amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity.

    PubMed

    Doll, Anselm; Hölzel, Britta K; Mulej Bratec, Satja; Boucard, Christine C; Xie, Xiyao; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Sorg, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Mindfulness practice is beneficial for emotion regulation; however, the neural mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. The current study focuses on effects of attention-to-breath (ATB) as a basic mindfulness practice on aversive emotions at behavioral and brain levels. A key finding across different emotion regulation strategies is the modulation of amygdala and prefrontal activity. It is unclear how ATB relevant brain areas in the prefrontal cortex integrate with amygdala activation during emotional stimulation. We proposed that, during emotional stimulation, ATB down-regulates activation in the amygdala and increases its integration with prefrontal regions. To address this hypothesis, 26 healthy controls were trained in mindfulness-based attention-to-breath meditation for two weeks and then stimulated with aversive pictures during both attention-to-breath and passive viewing while undergoing fMRI. Data were controlled for breathing frequency. Results indicate that (1) ATB was effective in regulating aversive emotions. (2) Left dorso-medial prefrontal cortex was associated with ATB in general. (3) A fronto-parietal network was additionally recruited during emotional stimulation. (4) ATB down regulated amygdala activation and increased amygdala-prefrontal integration, with such increased integration being associated with mindfulness ability. Results suggest amygdala-dorsal prefrontal cortex integration as a potential neural pathway of emotion regulation by mindfulness practice. PMID:27033686

  17. Yoga and Emotion Regulation in High School Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Daly, Leslie A; Haden, Sara C; Hagins, Marshall; Papouchis, Nicholas; Ramirez, Paul Michael

    2015-01-01

    Middle adolescents (15-17 years old) are prone to increased risk taking and emotional instability. Emotion dysregulation contributes to a variety of psychosocial difficulties in this population. A discipline such as yoga offered during school may increase emotion regulation, but research in this area is lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of a yoga intervention on the emotion regulation of high school students as compared to physical education (PE). In addition, the potential mediating effects of mindful attention, self-compassion, and body awareness on the relationship between yoga and emotion regulation were examined. High school students were randomized to participate in a 16-week yoga intervention (n = 19) or regular PE (n = 18). Pre-post data analyses revealed that emotion regulation increased significantly in the yoga group as compared to the PE group (F (1,32) = 7.50, p = .01, and eta(2) = .19). No significant relationship was discovered between the changes in emotion regulation and the proposed mediating variables. Preliminary results suggest that yoga increases emotion regulation capacities of middle adolescents and provides benefits beyond that of PE alone. PMID:26356561

  18. [Emotional deprivation and narcissistic regulation--development and treatment of depressive crises in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    du Bois, Reinmar

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines developmental and treatment issues of depression in childhood and adolescence. Impairment of parental empathy based on emotional disturbances of a parent leads to adaptive reactions as the child is confronted with threats of loss and separation. Hereditary vulnerability as well as insecure attachment patterns and the effects of explicit trauma must be viewed as further facilitating factors. Anxiety in children and--with the advent of adolescence--suicidal behaviour are described as important tools for narcissistic regulation and reconciliation and for mobilising help. Accordingly the last section of the paper is dedicated to therapeutic approaches to adolescent despair, depression, risk taking and suicidal behaviour. Guiding suicidal adolescents out of their crises can be a tightrope walk between attempts to limit life threatening acting-out behaviours, leniency toward the patients' grandiosity along with sensitivity for narcissistic injuries and the building of a viable narcissistic transference.

  19. When regulating emotions at work pays off: a diary and an intervention study on emotion regulation and customer tips in service jobs.

    PubMed

    Hülsheger, Ute R; Lang, Jonas W B; Schewe, Anna F; Zijlstra, Fred R H

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between deep acting, automatic regulation and customer tips with 2 different study designs. The first study was a daily diary study using a sample of Dutch waiters and taxi-drivers and assessed the link of employees' daily self-reported levels of deep acting and automatic regulation with the amount of tips provided by customers (N = 166 measurement occasions nested in 34 persons). Whereas deep acting refers to deliberate attempts to modify felt emotions and involves conscious effort, automatic regulation refers to automated emotion regulatory processes that result in the natural experience of desired emotions and do not involve deliberate control and effort. Multilevel analyses revealed that both types of emotion regulation were positively associated with customer tips. The second study was an experimental field study using a sample of German hairdressers (N = 41). Emotion regulation in terms of both deep acting and automatic regulation was manipulated using a brief self-training intervention and daily instructions to use cognitive change and attentional deployment. Results revealed that participants in the intervention group received significantly more tips than participants in the control group. PMID:25384203

  20. When regulating emotions at work pays off: a diary and an intervention study on emotion regulation and customer tips in service jobs.

    PubMed

    Hülsheger, Ute R; Lang, Jonas W B; Schewe, Anna F; Zijlstra, Fred R H

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the relationship between deep acting, automatic regulation and customer tips with 2 different study designs. The first study was a daily diary study using a sample of Dutch waiters and taxi-drivers and assessed the link of employees' daily self-reported levels of deep acting and automatic regulation with the amount of tips provided by customers (N = 166 measurement occasions nested in 34 persons). Whereas deep acting refers to deliberate attempts to modify felt emotions and involves conscious effort, automatic regulation refers to automated emotion regulatory processes that result in the natural experience of desired emotions and do not involve deliberate control and effort. Multilevel analyses revealed that both types of emotion regulation were positively associated with customer tips. The second study was an experimental field study using a sample of German hairdressers (N = 41). Emotion regulation in terms of both deep acting and automatic regulation was manipulated using a brief self-training intervention and daily instructions to use cognitive change and attentional deployment. Results revealed that participants in the intervention group received significantly more tips than participants in the control group.

  1. Psychophysiological evidence for the role of emotion in adaptive memory.

    PubMed

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Dekraker, Jordan; Köhler, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    Studies demonstrating a mnemonic benefit for encoding words in a survival scenario have revived interest in how human memory is shaped by evolutionary pressures. Prior work on the survival-processing advantage has largely examined cognitive factors as potential proximate mechanisms. The current study, by contrast, focused on the role of perceived threat. Guided by the idea that a survival scenario implies threat, we combined measures of heart rate (HR) with affective ratings to probe the potential presence of fear bradycardia as a marker of freezing--a parasympathetically dominated HR deceleration that reflects the initial stage of the defensive engagement. We replicated the mnemonic advantage in behavior and found that the survival scenario was rated higher in perceived negative arousal than a commonly used control scenario. Critically, words encountered in the survival scenario were associated with more extensive HR deceleration, and this effect was directly related to subsequent recall performance. Our findings point to a role for the involvement of neurobiological fear responses in producing the survival processing advantage, as well as potential links between autonomic changes and cognitive processing in adaptive memory. PMID:26280160

  2. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Philippe R; Gross, James J

    2010-02-01

    Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an established program shown to reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. MBSR is believed to alter emotional responding by modifying cognitive-affective processes. Given that social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by emotional and attentional biases as well as distorted negative self-beliefs, we examined MBSR-related changes in the brain-behavior indices of emotional reactivity and regulation of negative self-beliefs in patients with SAD. Sixteen patients underwent functional MRI while reacting to negative self-beliefs and while regulating negative emotions using 2 types of attention deployment emotion regulation-breath-focused attention and distraction-focused attention. Post-MBSR, 14 patients completed neuroimaging assessments. Compared with baseline, MBSR completers showed improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem. During the breath-focused attention task (but not the distraction-focused attention task), they also showed (a) decreased negative emotion experience, (b) reduced amygdala activity, and (c) increased activity in brain regions implicated in attentional deployment. MBSR training in patients with SAD may reduce emotional reactivity while enhancing emotion regulation. These changes might facilitate reduction in SAD-related avoidance behaviors, clinical symptoms, and automatic emotional reactivity to negative self-beliefs in adults with SAD.

  3. The Effects of Alcohol, Emotion Regulation, and Emotional Arousal on the Dating Aggression Intentions of Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Fromme, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Verbal and physical dating aggression is prevalent among college-aged men and women, especially a pattern of mutual aggression in which both partners engage in aggression. Alcohol intoxication and anger arousal have both been implicated in the occurrence of aggression, and the ability to regulate one’s emotions may interact with both alcohol intoxication and emotional arousal to predict dating aggression. The current study is the first known experimental investigation to examine the effects of alcohol intoxication, alcohol expectancies, emotion regulation, and emotional arousal on dating aggression. Participants were randomized to receive alcohol (n=48), placebo (n=48), or no alcohol (n=48). Intoxicated men and women expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those in the no alcohol condition, and individuals in the placebo condition did not significantly differ from those in the alcohol and no alcohol conditions. These results suggest that the pharmacological effects of alcohol were important to the occurrence of dating aggression, whereas the effects of expectancy are less clear. Among those less able to engage in cognitive reappraisal, individuals who consumed alcohol or believed they consumed alcohol expressed more verbal and physical aggression intentions than those who received no alcohol. Those with higher arousal who were better able to suppress their emotions expressed fewer verbal and physical aggression intentions than those with lower arousal. In addition to reducing alcohol consumption, interventions to prevent dating aggression might incorporate emotion regulation skills, with a focus on understanding the circumstances in which cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression are relatively more effective. PMID:23586449

  4. Amygdalar function reflects common individual differences in emotion and pain regulation success

    PubMed Central

    Lapate, R.C.; Lee, H.; Salomons, T.V.; van Reekum, C.M.; Greischar, L.L.; Davidson, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of negative affect and pain is well recognized, the mechanism underlying their association is unclear. To examine whether a common self-regulatory ability impacts the experience of both emotion and pain, we integrated neuroimaging, behavioral and physiological measures obtained from three assessments separated by substantial temporal intervals. Our results demonstrated that individual differences in emotion regulation ability as indexed by an objective measure of emotional state, corrugator electromyography, predicted self-reported success while regulating pain. In both emotion and pain paradigms, the amygdala reflected regulatory success. Notably, we found that greater emotion regulation success was associated with greater change of amygdalar activity following pain regulation. Furthermore, individual differences in degree of amygdalar change following emotion regulation were a strong predictor of pain regulation success, as well as of the degree of amygdalar engagement following pain regulation. These findings suggest that common individual differences in emotion and pain regulatory success are reflected in a neural structure known to contribute to appraisal processes. PMID:21861676

  5. Parental Influences on Children's Self-Regulation of Energy Intake: Insights from Developmental Literature on Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Leslie A.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; O'Connor, Teresia M.; Power, Thomas G.; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Hazen, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    The following article examines the role of parents in the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake. Various paths of parental influence are offered based on the literature on parental influences on children's emotion self-regulation. The parental paths include modeling, responses to children's behavior, assistance in helping children self-regulate, and motivating children through rewards and punishments. Additionally, sources of variation in parental influences on regulation are examined, including parenting style, child temperament, and child-parent attachment security. Parallels in the nature of parents' role in socializing children's regulation of emotions and energy intake are examined. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22545206

  6. Recognition of human emotion using sensor agent robot for interactive and adaptive living spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Sozo; Mita, Akira

    2011-04-01

    Safer, more comfortable and energy-efficient living spaces are always demanded. However, most buildings are designed based on prescribed scenarios so that they do not act on abrupt changes of environments. We propose "Biofication of Living Spaces" that has functions of learning occupants' lifestyles and taking actions based on collected information. By doing so, we can incorporate the high adaptability to the building. Our goal is to make living spaces more "comfortable". However, human beings have emotion that implies the meaning of "comfortable" depends on each individual. Therefore our study focuses on recognition of human emotion. We suggest using robots as sensor agents. By using robots equipped with various sensors, they can interact with occupants and environment. We use a sensor agent robot called "e-bio". In this research, we construct a human tracking system and identified emotions of residents using their walking information. We focus on the influences of illuminance and sound. We classified emotions by calculating the distance of the mapped points in comfortable and uncomfortable spaces with parametric eigen space method, in which parameters are determined by a mapping of tracks in the space. As a method of pattern recognition, a weighted k-nearest neighbor is used. Experiments considering illuminance and sound environments, illustrates good correlation between emotion and environments.

  7. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  8. Emotional sensitivity, emotion regulation and impulsivity in borderline personality disorder: a critical review of fMRI studies.

    PubMed

    van Zutphen, Linda; Siep, Nicolette; Jacob, Gitta A; Goebel, Rainer; Arntz, Arnoud

    2015-04-01

    Emotional sensitivity, emotion regulation and impulsivity are fundamental topics in research of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Studies using fMRI examining the neural correlates concerning these topics is growing and has just begun understanding the underlying neural correlates in BPD. However, there are strong similarities but also important differences in results of different studies. It is therefore important to know in more detail what these differences are and how we should interpret these. In present review a critical light is shed on the fMRI studies examining emotional sensitivity, emotion regulation and impulsivity in BPD patients. First an outline of the methodology and the results of the studies will be given. Thereafter important issues that remained unanswered and topics to improve future research are discussed. Future research should take into account the limited power of previous studies and focus more on BPD specificity with regard to time course responses, different regulation strategies, manipulation of self-regulation, medication use, a wider range of stimuli, gender effects and the inclusion of a clinical control group. PMID:25616185

  9. Behavioural and neural correlates of self-focused emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gaebler, Michael; Daniels, Judith K.; Lamke, Jan-Peter; Fydrich, Thomas; Walter, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background In healthy individuals, voluntary modification of self-relevance has proven effective in regulating subjective emotional experience as well as physiologic responses evoked by emotive stimuli. As social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by both altered emotional and self-related processing, we tested if emotion regulation through self-focused reappraisal is effective in individuals with SAD. Methods While undergoing 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging, individuals with SAD and matched healthy controls either passively viewed neutral and aversive pictures or actively increased or decreased their negative emotional experience through the modification of self-relevance or personal distance to aversive pictures. Participants rated all pictures with regard to the intensity of elicited emotions and self-relatedness. Results We included 21 individuals with SAD and 23 controls in our study. Individuals with SAD reported significantly stronger emotional intensity across conditions and showed a nonsignificant tendency to judge pictures as more self-related than controls. Compared with controls, individuals with SAD showed an overactivation in bilateral temporoparietal regions and in the posterior midcingulate cortex during the passive viewing of aversive compared with neutral pictures. During instructed emotion regulation, activation patterns normalized and no significant group differences were detected. Limitations As no positive pictures were presented, results might be limited to the regulation of negative emotion. Conclusion During passive viewing of aversive images, individuals with SAD showed evidence of neural hyperreactivity that may be interpreted as increased bodily self-consciousness and heightened perspective-taking. During voluntary increase and decrease of negative emotional intensity, group differences disappeared, suggesting self-focused reappraisal as a successful emotion regulation strategy for individuals with SAD. PMID:24690369

  10. Social anxiety and emotion regulation in daily life: spillover effects on positive and negative social events.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Antonina Savostyanova; Kashdan, Todd B

    2012-01-01

    To minimize the possibility of scrutiny, people with social anxiety difficulties exert great effort to manage their emotions, particularly during social interactions. We examined how the use of two emotion regulation strategies, emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal, predict the generation of emotions and social events in daily life. Over 14 consecutive days, 89 participants completed daily diary entries on emotions, positive and negative social events, and their regulation of emotions. Using multilevel modeling, we found that when people high in social anxiety relied more on positive emotion suppression, they reported fewer positive social events and less positive emotion on the subsequent day. In contrast, people low in social anxiety reported fewer negative social events on days subsequent to using cognitive reappraisal to reduce distress; the use of cognitive reappraisal did not influence the daily lives of people high in social anxiety. Our findings support theories of emotion regulation difficulties associated with social anxiety. In particular, for people high in social anxiety, maladaptive strategy use contributed to diminished reward responsiveness. PMID:22428662

  11. The Longitudinal Relations of Regulation and Emotionality to Quality of Indonesian Children’s Socioemotional Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Liew, Jeffrey; Pidada, Sri Untari

    2005-01-01

    Data regarding individual differences in children’s regulation, emotionality, quality of socioemotional functioning, and shyness were obtained from teachers and peers for 112 Indonesian 6th graders. Similar data (plus parents’ reports) also were collected when these children were in 3rd grade. For boys, regulation and low negative emotionality generally predicted positive socioemotional functioning (e.g., social skills, adjustment, prosocial tendencies and peer liking, sympathy) within and across time and across reporters, even at the follow-up when initial levels of regulation or negative emotionality were controlled. For girls, relations were obtained primarily for concurrent teacher reports, probably because girls tended to be fairly well regulated and socially competent and variability in their scores was relatively low. Shyness for both sexes tended to be associated with concurrent measures of low regulation, high negative emotionality, and low quality of social competence. PMID:15355166

  12. Unconventional metaphors and emotional-cognitive regulation in a metacognitive interpersonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Gelo, Omar Carlo Gioacchino; Mergenthaler, Erhard

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between unconventional (i.e., creative) metaphors and emotional-cognitive regulation in a metacognitive interpersonal therapy (MIT). The occurrence of unconventional metaphor was identified using the Metaphor Analysis in Psychotherapy (MAP) model, and emotional-cognitive regulation was assessed by the Therapeutic Cycles Model (TCM). The results showed that the dyad's frequency of unconventional metaphors is significantly related to emotional-cognitive integration, reflective processes and moments of therapeutic engagement based on the quality of such regulation. More specifically, client metaphors were associated with emotional-cognitive integration and moments of therapeutic engagement, while therapist metaphors were associated with reflective processes. The results suggest that unconventional metaphors may be considered markers for different cognitive-emotional regulatory processes and moments of heightened therapeutic work and change in MIT.

  13. When feeling bad is expected to be good: emotion regulation and outcome expectancies in social conflicts.

    PubMed

    Tamir, Maya; Ford, Brett Q

    2012-08-01

    According to the instrumental approach to emotion regulation, people may want to experience even unpleasant emotions to attain instrumental benefits. Building on value-expectancy models of self-regulation, we tested whether people want to feel bad in certain contexts specifically because they expect such feelings to be useful to them. In two studies, participants were more likely to try to increase their anger before a negotiation when motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) a negotiation partner. Participants motivated to confront (vs. collaborate with) their partner expected anger to be more useful to them, and this expectation in turn, led them to try to increase their anger before negotiating. The subsequent experience of anger, following random assignment to emotion inductions (Study 1) or engagement in self-selected emotion regulation activities (Study 2), led participants to be more successful at getting others to concede to their demands, demonstrating that emotional preferences have important pragmatic implications.

  14. Preschool Children's Views on Emotion Regulation: Functional Associations and Implications for Social-Emotional Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Tracy A.; Kelemen, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that preschool children view negative emotions as susceptible to intentional control. However, the extent of this understanding and links with child social-emotional adjustment are poorly understood. To examine this, 62 3- and 4-year-olds were presented with puppet scenarios in which characters experienced anger, sadness, and…

  15. Regulation of the adaptation to zinc deficiency in plants

    PubMed Central

    Schat, Henk; Aarts, Mark GM

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which plants sense their micronutrient status, and adapt to their environment in order to ensure a sufficient micronutrient supply, are poorly understood. Zinc is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms. when facing a shortage in zinc supply, plants adapt by enhancing the zinc uptake capacity. The molecular regulators controlling this adaptation were recently identified. in this mini-review, we highlight recent progress in understanding the adaptation to zinc deficiency in plants and discuss the future challenges to fully unravel its molecular basis. PMID:21139426

  16. Emotion Regulation as the Foundation of Political Attitudes: Does Reappraisal Decrease Support for Conservative Policies?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Sohn, Yunkyu; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy – reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes. PMID:24367583

  17. The moderator role of emotion regulation ability in the link between stress and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the moderating role of a central core dimension of emotional intelligence—emotion-regulation ability—in the relationship between perceived stress and indicators of well-being (depression and subjective happiness) in a sample from a community adult population. The relationships for males and females on these dimensions were also compared. Results revealed that emotion-regulation abilities moderated both the association between perceived stress and depression/happiness for the total sample. However, a gender-specific analysis showed that the moderation effect was only significant for males. In short, when males reported a high level of perceived stress, those with high scores in regulating emotions reported higher scores in subjective happiness and lower depression symptoms than those with low regulating emotions. However, no interaction effect of regulating emotions and stress for predicting subjective happiness and depression was found for females. In developing stress management programmes for reducing depression and increasing well-being, these findings suggest that training in emotional regulation may be more beneficial for males than females. Our findings are discussed in terms of the need for future research to understand the different gender associations and to consider these differences in further intervention programmes. PMID:26579017

  18. The moderator role of emotion regulation ability in the link between stress and well-being.

    PubMed

    Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the moderating role of a central core dimension of emotional intelligence-emotion-regulation ability-in the relationship between perceived stress and indicators of well-being (depression and subjective happiness) in a sample from a community adult population. The relationships for males and females on these dimensions were also compared. Results revealed that emotion-regulation abilities moderated both the association between perceived stress and depression/happiness for the total sample. However, a gender-specific analysis showed that the moderation effect was only significant for males. In short, when males reported a high level of perceived stress, those with high scores in regulating emotions reported higher scores in subjective happiness and lower depression symptoms than those with low regulating emotions. However, no interaction effect of regulating emotions and stress for predicting subjective happiness and depression was found for females. In developing stress management programmes for reducing depression and increasing well-being, these findings suggest that training in emotional regulation may be more beneficial for males than females. Our findings are discussed in terms of the need for future research to understand the different gender associations and to consider these differences in further intervention programmes. PMID:26579017

  19. Adaptive immune regulation in autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Concetta; La Cava, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. The pathogenesis of T1D is complex and multifactorial and involves a genetic susceptibility that predisposes to abnormal immune responses in the presence of ill-defined environmental insults to the pancreatic islets. This review discusses how adaptive immunoregulatory T cells contribute to the modulation of the development and evolution of T1D, together with potential approaches that target these cells for new therapies in the disease. PMID:26631820

  20. A Longitudinal Examination of Maternal Emotions in Relation to Young Children's Developing Self-Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Pamela M.; LeDonne, Emily N.; Tan, Patricia Z.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study examines how young children’s emotion and behavior relate to maternal emotions concurrently and as a function of children’s developmental changes in self-regulation. Design Mothers and their children (N = 120) participated in an 8 min waiting task at children’s ages 18, 24, 36, and 48 months. Children’s emotion expressions, misbehavior, and regulatory efforts were observed, and mothers rated their own emotions during the wait. Results Children’s emotion and behavior and maternal emotions related in expected directions at most time points. Over time, maternal positive emotion increased more if children were less angry, more content, or more engaged in regulatory efforts relative to age mates. Maternal negative emotion decreased more if children engaged more in regulatory efforts but less if children were angrier relative to age mates. Conclusions Individual differences in children’s emotions may influence parental emotions. Over time, only the intra-individual decline in children’s anger, not the decrease in their misbehavior or the increase in their regulatory efforts, predicted improvements in maternal emotions. PMID:23585731

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Adaptive Success of Nurses Caring for People with Mental Retardation and Severe Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerits, Linda; Derksen, Jan J. L.; Verbruggen, Antoine B.

    2004-01-01

    The emotional intelligence profiles, gender differences, and adaptive success of 380 Dutch nurses caring for people with mental retardation and accompanying severe behavior problems are reported. Data were collected with the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, Utrecht-Coping List, Utrecht-Burnout Scale, MMPI-2, and GAMA. Absence due to illness…

  2. Cognitive emotion regulation in patients with schizophrenia: Evidence for effective reappraisal and distraction.

    PubMed

    Grezellschak, Sarah; Lincoln, Tania M; Westermann, Stefan

    2015-09-30

    Negative emotions trigger psychotic symptoms, according to a growing body of evidence. Thus, there is a need for effective emotion regulation in schizophrenia. Reappraisal is an effective, cognitive emotion regulation strategy in healthy individuals. However, it is an open research question whether individuals with schizophrenia have difficulties in successfully applying reappraisal. This study experimentally tests the efficacy of reappraisal compared to distraction in patients with schizophrenia and non-clinical controls. An experimental design with group as between-subject factor (non-clinical controls versus patients with schizophrenia) and emotion regulation during anxiety induction as within-subject factor (reappraisal, distraction, no regulation). Seventeen patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy participants were instructed to respond to anxiety-inducing stimuli by either using reappraisal, distraction or by just watching. Both reappraisal and distraction were effective in down-regulating anxiety, compared to no regulation. The main effect of group and the interaction of emotion regulation condition and group were not significant indicating that the efficacy of both cognitive emotion regulation strategies was independent of group. Patients with schizophrenia are able to apply reappraisal successfully under experimental conditions. Conclusions are limited by the small sample size of this pilot study. Clinical implications for cognitive behavioral therapy for psychosis are discussed. PMID:26231583

  3. Neural network of cognitive emotion regulation — An ALE meta-analysis and MACM analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, N.; Eickhoff, S.B.; Scheller, M.; Laird, A.R.; Fox, P.T.; Habel, U.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive regulation of emotions is a fundamental prerequisite for intact social functioning which impacts on both well being and psychopathology. The neural underpinnings of this process have been studied intensively in recent years, without, however, a general consensus. We here quantitatively summarize the published literature on cognitive emotion regulation using activation likelihood estimation in fMRI and PET (23 studies/479 subjects). In addition, we assessed the particular functional contribution of identified regions and their interactions using quantitative functional inference and meta-analytic connectivity modeling, respectively. In doing so, we developed a model for the core brain network involved in emotion regulation of emotional reactivity. According to this, the superior temporal gyrus, angular gyrus and (pre) supplementary motor area should be involved in execution of regulation initiated by frontal areas. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be related to regulation of cognitive processes such as attention, while the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex may not necessarily reflect the regulatory process per se, but signals salience and therefore the need to regulate. We also identified a cluster in the anterior middle cingulate cortex as a region, which is anatomically and functionally in an ideal position to influence behavior and subcortical structures related to affect generation. Hence this area may play a central, integrative role in emotion regulation. By focusing on regions commonly active across multiple studies, this proposed model should provide important a priori information for the assessment of dysregulated emotion regulation in psychiatric disorders. PMID:24220041

  4. Interface of physical and emotional stress regulation through the endogenous opioid system and mu-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Saulo C; Kennedy, Susan E; Smith, Yolanda R; Stohler, Christian S; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

    2005-12-01

    Unraveling the pathways and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the regulation of physical and emotional stress responses in humans is of critical importance to understand vulnerability and resiliency factors to the development of a number of complex physical and psychopathological states. Dysregulation of central stress response circuits have been implicated in the establishment of conditions as diverse as persistent pain, mood and personality disorders and substance abuse and dependence. The present review examines the contribution of the endogenous opioid system and mu-opioid receptors to the modulation and adaptation of the organism to challenges, such as sustained pain and negative emotional states, which threaten its internal homeostasis. Data accumulated in animal models, and more recently in humans, point to this neurotransmitter system as a critical modulator of the transition from acute (warning signals) to sustained (stressor) environmental adversity. The existence of pathways and regulatory mechanisms common to the regulation of both physical and emotional states transcend classical categorical disease classifications, and point to the need to utilize dimensional, "symptom"-related approximations to their study. Possible future areas of study at the interface of "mind" (cognitive-emotional) and "body" (physical) functions are delineated in this context.

  5. Capturing the Family Context of Emotion Regulation: A Family Systems Model Comparison Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Grych, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Several dimensions of family functioning are recognized as formative influences on children's emotion regulation. Historically, they have been studied separately, limiting our ability to understand how they function within the family system. The present investigation tested models including family emotional climate, interparental conflict,…

  6. Impact of Child Maltreatment and Interadult Violence on Children's Emotion Regulation Abilities and Socioemotional Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, Angeline; Cicchetti, Dante

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of child maltreatment and interadult violence on children's developing strategies of emotion regulation and socioemotional development, and the role of emotion dysregulation in mediating the link between children's pathogenic relational experiences and behavioral outcomes for 3- to 6-year-olds. Found that maltreatment history…

  7. Self-Regulation of Emotion, Functional Impairment, and Comorbidity among Children with AD/HD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Smith, Taylor F.; Garrett, Melanie E.; Morrissey-Kane, Erin; Schatz, Nicole K.; Sommer, Jennifer L.; Kollins, Scott H.; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the role of self-regulation of emotion in relation to functional impairment and comorbidity among children with and without AD/HD. Method: A total of 358 probands and their siblings participated in the study, with 74% of the sample participants affected by AD/HD. Parent-rated levels of emotional lability served…

  8. Emotion regulation of the affect-modulated startle reflex during different picture categories.

    PubMed

    Conzelmann, Annette; McGregor, Victoria; Pauli, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies on emotion regulation of the startle reflex found an increase in startle amplitude from down-, to non-, to up-regulation for pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. We wanted to clarify whether this regulation effect remains stable for different picture categories within pleasant and unpleasant picture sets. We assessed startle amplitude of 31 participants during down-, non-, or up-regulation of feelings elicited by pleasant erotic and adventure and unpleasant victim and threat pictures. Startle amplitude was smaller during adventure and erotic compared to victim and threat pictures and increased from down-, to non-, to up-regulation independently of the picture category. Results indicate that the motivational priming effect on startle modulation elicited by different picture categories is independent of emotion regulation instructions. In addition, the emotion regulation effect is independent of motivational priming effects. PMID:26061976

  9. Epigenetic Regulation of Adaptive NK Cell Diversification.

    PubMed

    Tesi, Bianca; Schlums, Heinrich; Cichocki, Frank; Bryceson, Yenan T

    2016-07-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells were previously considered to represent short-lived, innate lymphocytes. However, mouse models have revealed expansion and persistence of differentiated NK cell subsets in response to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, paralleling antigen-specific T cell differentiation. Congruently, analyses of humans have uncovered CMV-associated NK cell subsets characterized by epigenetic diversification processes that lead to altered target cell specificities and functional capacities. Here, focusing on responses to viruses, we review similarities and differences between mouse and human adaptive NK cells, identifying molecular analogies that may be key to transcriptional reprogramming and functional alterations. We discuss possible molecular mechanisms underlying epigenetic diversification and hypothesize that processes driving epigenetic diversification may represent a more widespread mechanism for fine-tuning and optimization of cellular immunity.

  10. Experiential versus analytical emotion regulation and sleep: breaking the link between negative events and sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Vandekerckhove, Marie; Kestemont, Jenny; Weiss, Rolf; Schotte, Chris; Exadaktylos, Vasilis; Haex, Bart; Verbraecken, Johan; Gross, James J

    2012-12-01

    Despite a long history of interest in emotion regulation as well as in the mechanisms that regulate sleep, the relationship between emotion regulation and sleep is not yet well understood. The present study investigated whether "an experiential approach"-defined by coping through affectively acknowledging, understanding, and expressing actual emotional experience and affective feeling about a situation-compared with a "cognitive analytical approach"-defined by the cognitive analysis of the causes, meanings and implications of the situation for the own self-would buffer the impact of an emotional failure experience on (1) emotional experience and (2) sleep structure assessed by EEG polysomnography. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in this study. A direct comparison of the two emotion regulation strategies revealed that participants who were instructed to apply an experiential approach showed less fragmentation of sleep than participants who were instructed to apply an analytical approach. The use of an experiential approach resulted in a longer sleep time, higher sleep efficiency, fewer awakenings, less % time awake, and fewer minutes wake after sleep onset. Implications of the differential effects of these two forms of emotion regulation on sleep are discussed.

  11. Age-related differences in emotion regulation strategies: Examining the role of contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2016-09-01

    Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and young adults. Forty-eight older adults and forty-nine young adults completed a retrospective survey inquiring about the use of emotion regulation strategies in emotion-eliciting situations experienced over the preceding 2 weeks. We used factor analysis to establish clusters of emotion regulation strategies, resulting in cognitive strategies, acceptance, and maladaptive strategies. Overall, we found context-dependent age-related differences in emotion regulation strategy use. Specifically, older adults reported greater use of acceptance than young adults in situations of moderate intensity and in situations that evoke anxiety and sadness. In addition, older adults reported using maladaptive strategies to a lesser extent in high- and moderate-intensity situations and in situations that elicit anxiety and sadness when compared with young adults. There were no age-related differences in the use of cognitive strategies across contexts. Older adults, compared to young adults, reported less use of maladaptive strategies and greater use of acceptance than young adults, which suggests that the enhanced emotional functioning observed later in life may be due to a shift in strategy implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570980

  12. Beliefs about emotions as a metacognitive construct: initial development of a self-report questionnaire measure and preliminary investigation in relation to emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Manser, Rachel; Cooper, Myra; Trefusis, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Metacognitive theory, amongst other theories, gives an important role to beliefs about mental states, including beliefs about emotions, in the maintenance of distress. Mentalization theory as well as the dialectical behaviour therapy and emotion-focused therapy literature specifies particular beliefs thought to be related to emotion dysregulation and therefore to a label of borderline personality disorder. The current study aimed to develop a questionnaire to measure the beliefs about emotions as specified by this literature and to test the relationship of this new measure to various aspects of emotion regulation in a non-clinical sample of 289 participants. A factor analysis extracted six factors, which described beliefs about emotions as (a) overwhelming and uncontrollable; (b) shameful and irrational; (c) invalid and meaningless; (d) useless; (e) damaging; and (f) contagious. The final measure showed some promising psychometric properties. All of the questionnaire subscales were related to aspects of emotion dysregulation including distress, borderline personality disorder symptoms and behaviours associated with dysregulation of emotion, suggesting that beliefs about emotions could be an important metacognitive construct involved in the ability to regulate emotions. Beliefs about emotions may be a useful direct or indirect target for treatment of difficulties regulating emotions, and this could be achieved through the use of various therapeutic modalities.

  13. Emotion regulation strategies that promote learning: reappraisal enhances children's memory for educational information.

    PubMed

    Davis, Elizabeth L; Levine, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    The link between emotion regulation and academic achievement is well documented. Less is known about specific emotion regulation strategies that promote learning. Six- to 13-year-olds (N = 126) viewed a sad film and were instructed to reappraise the importance, reappraise the outcome, or ruminate about the sad events; another group received no regulation instructions. Children viewed an educational film, and memory for this was later assessed. As predicted, reappraisal strategies more effectively attenuated children's self-reported emotional processing. Reappraisal enhanced memory for educational details relative to no instructions. Rumination did not lead to differences in memory from the other instructions. Memory benefits of effective instructions were pronounced for children with poorer emotion regulation skill, suggesting the utility of reappraisal in learning contexts.

  14. A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on ADHD and Comorbid Conditions: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Elizabeth A; Drabick, Deborah A G

    2015-12-01

    Research investigating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and co-occurring disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety, and depression has surged in popularity; however, the developmental relations between ADHD and these comorbid conditions remain poorly understood. The current paper uses a developmental psychopathology perspective to examine conditions commonly comorbid with ADHD during late childhood through adolescence. First, we present evidence for ADHD and comorbid disorders. Next, we discuss emotion regulation and its associations with ADHD. The role of parenting behaviors in the development and maintenance of emotion regulation difficulties and comorbid disorders among children with ADHD is explored. An illustrative example of emotion regulation and parenting over the course of development is provided to demonstrate bidirectional relations among these constructs. We then present an integrated conceptual model of emotion regulation as a shared risk process that may lead to different comorbid conditions among children with ADHD. Implications and directions for future research are presented.

  15. No fear, no panic: probing negation as a means for emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Cornelia; Deutsch, Roland; Platte, Petra; Pauli, Paul

    2013-08-01

    This electroencephalographic study investigated if negating one's emotion results in paradoxical effects or leads to effective emotional downregulation. Healthy participants were asked to downregulate their emotions to happy and fearful faces by using negated emotional cue words (e.g., no fun, no fear). Cue words were congruent with the emotion depicted in the face and presented prior to each face. Stimuli were presented in blocks of happy and fearful faces. Blocks of passive stimulus viewing served as control condition. Active regulation reduced amplitudes of early event-related brain potentials (early posterior negativity, but not N170) and the late positive potential for fearful faces. A fronto-central negativity peaking at about 250 ms after target face onset showed larger amplitude modulations during downregulation of fearful and happy faces. Behaviorally, negating was more associated with reappraisal than with suppression. Our results suggest that in an emotional context, negation processing could be quite effective for emotional downregulation but that its effects depend on the type of the negated emotion (pleasant vs unpleasant). Results are discussed in the context of dual process models of cognition and emotion regulation. PMID:22490924

  16. Prolonged institutional rearing is associated with atypically larger amygdala volume and difficulties in emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Quinn, Brian T.; McCarry, Thomas W.; Nurse, Marcella; Gilhooly, Tara; Milner, Alex; Galvan, Adriana; Davidson, Matthew C.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Freed, Peter; Booma, Elizabeth S.; Gunnar, Megan; Altemus, Margaret; Aronson, Jane; Casey, BJ

    2009-01-01

    Early adversity, for example poor caregiving, can have profound effects on emotional development. Orphanage rearing, even in the best circumstances, lies outside of the bounds of a species-typical caregiving environment. The long-term effects of this early adversity on the neurobiological development associated with socio-emotional behaviors are not well understood. Seventy-eight children, who include those who have experienced orphanage care and a comparison group, were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure volumes of whole brain and limbic structures (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus). Emotion regulation was assessed with an emotional go-nogo paradigm, and anxiety and internalizing behaviors were assessed using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, the Child Behavior Checklist, and a structured clinical interview. Late adoption was associated with larger corrected amygdala volumes, poorer emotion regulation, and increased anxiety. Although more than 50% of the children who experienced orphanage rearing met criteria for a psychiatric disorder, with a third having an anxiety disorder, the group differences observed in amygdala volume were not driven by the presence of an anxiety disorder. The findings are consistent with previous reports describing negative effects of prolonged orphanage care on emotional behavior and with animal models that show long term changes in the amygdala and emotional behavior following early postnatal stress. These changes in limbic circuitry may underlie residual emotional and social problems experienced by children who have been internationally adopted. PMID:20121862

  17. Functional overlap of top-down emotion regulation and generation: an fMRI study identifying common neural substrates between cognitive reappraisal and cognitively generated emotions.

    PubMed

    Otto, Benjamin; Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya; McRae, Kateri

    2014-09-01

    One factor that influences the success of emotion regulation is the manner in which the regulated emotion was generated. Recent research has suggested that reappraisal, a top-down emotion regulation strategy, is more effective in decreasing self-reported negative affect when emotions were generated from the top-down, versus the bottom-up. On the basis of a process overlap framework, we hypothesized that the neural regions active during reappraisal would overlap more with emotions that were generated from the top-down, rather than from the bottom-up. In addition, we hypothesized that increased neural overlap between reappraisal and the history effects of top-down emotion generation would be associated with increased reappraisal success. The results of several analyses suggested that reappraisal and emotions that were generated from the top-down share a core network of prefrontal, temporal, and cingulate regions. This overlap is specific; no such overlap was observed between reappraisal and emotions that were generated in a bottom-up fashion. This network consists of regions previously implicated in linguistic processing, cognitive control, and self-relevant appraisals, which are processes thought to be crucial to both reappraisal and top-down emotion generation. Furthermore, individuals with high reappraisal success demonstrated greater neural overlap between reappraisal and the history of top-down emotion generation than did those with low reappraisal success. The overlap of these key regions, reflecting overlapping processes, provides an initial insight into the mechanism by which generation history may facilitate emotion regulation.

  18. The nexus between decision making and emotion regulation: a review of convergent neurocognitive substrates.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Derek G V

    2011-02-01

    Emotional information, such as reward or punishment, gains rapid and often preferential access to neurocognitive resources. This ability to quickly evaluate and integrate emotion-related information is thought to benefit a range of behaviours critical for survival. Conversely, the improper use of, or preoccupation with, emotional information is associated with disruptions in functioning and psychiatric disorders. Optimally, an organism utilizes emotional information when it is significant, and minimizes its influence when it is not. Recently, similar regions of prefrontal cortex have been identified that are associated with regulating both behavioural conflict (motor response selection or inhibition) and affective conflict (emotional representation and awareness). In this review, data will be examined that concerns this convergence between decision making (modulating what we do) and emotion regulation (modulating how we feel) and an informal model will be proposed linking these processes at a neurocognitive level. The studies reviewed collectively support the conclusion that overlapping areas of prefrontal cortex perform similar computations whether the functional objective is to modulate an operant response, or an emotional one. Specifically, the idea is raised that key aspects of decision making and emotion regulation are bound by a common functional objective in which internal representations of conditioned stimuli and reinforcers are modulated to facilitate optimal behaviour or states. Emphasis is placed on dorsomedial, dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and ventromedial regions of prefrontal cortex. PMID:21055420

  19. Alterations of consciousness in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: emotion, emotion regulation and dissociation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Nicole A; Reuber, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of consciousness and reduced self-control are key features of most psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs), although, compared with patients with epilepsy, those with PNESs demonstrate greater conscious awareness during their seizures. The neurobiological underpinnings of PNESs and of alterations of awareness associated with PNESs remain relatively unknown. We suggest that an understanding of conscious experiences and discrepancies between subjective impairment of consciousness and the lack of objectifiable neurobiological changes in PNESs may benefit from an examination of emotion processing, including understanding sensory, situational, and emotional triggers of PNESs; emotional and physiological changes during the attacks; and styles of emotional reactivity and regulatory capacity. We also suggest that in addition to the typical comparisons between patients with PNESs and those with epilepsy, studies of PNESs would benefit from the inclusion of comparison groups such as those with PTSD, dissociation, and other forms of psychopathology where dissociative and emotion regulatory mechanisms have been explored more fully. We conclude that current evidence and theory suggest that impairment of consciousness in PNESs is only "dissociative" in one subgroup of these seizures, when consciousness is suppressed as a collateral effect of the excessive inhibition of emotion processing. We propose that PNES behaviors and experiences of reduced control or awareness may also represent direct behavioral manifestation of overwhelming emotions, or that minor emotional fluctuations or relatively neutral stimuli may trigger PNESs through conditioning or other preconscious processes. Future studies exploring the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning PNESs are likely to be more fruitful if researchers bear in mind that it is unlikely that all PNESs result from the same processes in the brain.

  20. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Morris J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6 years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System—Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine

  1. Up-regulation of emotional responses to reward-predicting stimuli: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W

    2013-09-01

    Altered reward processing is a hallmark symptom of many psychiatric disorders. It has recently been shown that people are capable of down-regulating reward processing. Here, we examined whether people are capable of up-regulating emotional responses to reward-predicting stimuli. Participants passively viewed colored squares that predicted a reward or no reward, and up- or down-regulated their emotional responses to these reward-predicting stimuli by focusing on the reward meaning or the color of the squares respectively. The amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) was taken as an objective index of regulation success. The LPP in response to reward-predicting squares was enhanced by up-regulation, suggesting that up-regulation of emotional responses to reward-predicting stimuli using a cognitive strategy is feasible. These results are highly relevant for the treatment of disorders characterized by diminished motivation, and for reward-based decision making in daily life. PMID:23770414

  2. Prevalence of Disordered Eating and Its Association With Emotion Regulation in Female College Athletes.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Wollenberg, Gena; Gates, Gale E

    2016-06-01

    The number of females participating in college sports in the U.S. has increased in last two decades. While female college athletes might be at a high risk, research examining disordered eating in this population is limited and difficult to summarize due to differences in methodologies. Factors contributing to disordered eating in female college athletes are not well established, but emotional regulation may be a potential correlate. The main purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of disordered eating and explore potential differences between weight-sensitive and less weight-sensitive sports in a sample of female college athletes. The second purpose was to examine emotional regulation, body dissatisfaction, sport type, a family history of eating disorder, and BMI as potential predictors of disordered eating. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 and the Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey were used to estimate disordered eating prevalence in a sample of 151 athletes. Emotion regulation was assessed by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. The prevalence of disordered eating was 6.6% and 10.6%, respectively, with no differences by sport type. The multiple regression model explained 11% of the EAT-26 variance, F(5, 150) = 3.74, p < .01. Greater emotional regulation difficulties (β = .174, t = 2.191, p = .03) and body dissatisfaction (β = .276, t = 2.878, p = .005) were significant predictors of disordered eating. Further examination of emotional regulation and body dissatisfaction in relation to disordered eating in female college athletes is warranted. PMID:26568582

  3. Dealing with Feeling: A Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Strategies Derived from the Process Model of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Thomas L.; Miles, Eleanor; Sheeran, Paschal

    2012-01-01

    The present meta-analysis investigated the effectiveness of strategies derived from the process model of emotion regulation in modifying emotional outcomes as indexed by experiential, behavioral, and physiological measures. A systematic search of the literature identified 306 experimental comparisons of different emotion regulation (ER)…

  4. How Is Impulsivity Related to Depression in Adolescence? Evidence from a French Validation of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu.; Van der Linden, Martial

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a French version of the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ; Garnefski, N., Kraaij, V., & Spinhoven, P., 2001. Negative life events, cognitive emotion regulation and emotional problems. "Personality and Individual Differences, 30," 1311-1327) and to explore its relationships with impulsivity and…

  5. Incremental Validity of the Subscales of the Emotional Regulation Related to Testing Scale for Predicting Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Ronald; Lindley, Kyla; Louison, Rebecca; Roe, Allison; Timm, Megan; Utinkova, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    The Emotional Regulation Related to Testing Scale (ERT Scale) assesses strategies students use to regulate emotion related to academic testing. It has four dimensions: Cognitive Appraising Processes (CAP), Emotion-Focusing Processes (EFP), Task-Focusing Processes (TFP), and Regaining Task-Focusing Processes (RTFP). The study examined the factor…

  6. Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Anxious and Nonanxious Youth: A Cell-Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Patricia Z.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reviews have highlighted anxious youths' affective disturbances, specifically, elevated negative emotions and reliance on ineffective emotion regulation strategies. However, no study has examined anxious youth's emotional reactivity and regulation in real-world contexts. Methods: This study utilized an ecological momentary assessment…

  7. Comparing the Effectiveness of School-Based and Community-Based Delivery of an Emotional Regulation Skills Program for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhues, Anne; Hanbidge, Alice Schmidt; Gebotys, Robert; Hammond, Angela

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a school-based emotion regulation group program or a community-based emotion regulation group program for children in grades one through six identified as at risk for emotional and behavioral problems is most effective in improving student functioning. Outcome measures included emotional…

  8. Emotions and emotion regulation in survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the importance of “disgust” in traumatic stress and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Eimear; Karatzias, Thanos; Summers, Andy; Power, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. Objective This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. Method A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109) completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES)—Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist—Civilian Version (PCL-C); and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Results Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES—General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. Conclusions The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and psychopathology in CSA

  9. Neuroticism and Depression in Children: The Role of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Andrés, María Laura; Richaud de Minzi, María Cristina; Castañeiras, Claudia; Canet-Juric, Lorena; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This study's general objective was to analyze whether different types of cognitive emotion regulation strategies (CERS), namely adaptive strategies-specifically positive refocusing and positive reappraisal-and maladaptive strategies-self-blame, catastrophizing, and rumination-mediated the neuroticism-depression relationship in children 9-12 years old, and whether gender and school transition moderated the relationships proposed. A self-reporting measure was administered to 315 children to evaluate said variables. The resulting data were analyzed using structural equations. The study verified that maladaptive CERS partially mediated neuroticism's relationship with depression, while adaptive CERS, though negatively associated with depression, did not show a mediating effect on this relationship. The results provide evidence of the mediating function of maladaptive CERS on the neuroticism-depression relationship. Gender and school transition did not moderate the relationships proposed. Because, by their very nature, these strategies are modifiable, these results constitute an important finding that can be transferred to the design and content of child mental health prevention and promotion programs.

  10. Tuned In Emotion Regulation Program Using Music Listening: Effectiveness for Adolescents in Educational Settings

    PubMed Central

    Dingle, Genevieve A.; Hodges, Joseph; Kunde, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an effectiveness study of Tuned In, a novel emotion regulation intervention that uses participant selected music to evoke emotions in session and teaches participants emotional awareness and regulation skills. The group program content is informed by a two dimensional model of emotion (arousal, valence), along with music psychology theories about how music evokes emotional responses. The program has been evaluated in two samples of adolescents: 41 “at risk” adolescents (76% males; Mage = 14.8 years) attending an educational re-engagement program and 216 students (100% females; Mage = 13.6 years) attending a mainstream secondary school. Results showed significant pre- to post-program improvements in measures of emotion awareness, identification, and regulation (p < 0.01 to p = 0.06 in the smaller “at risk” sample and all p < 0.001 in the mainstream school sample). Participant ratings of engagement and likelihood of using the strategies learned in the program were high. Tuned In shows promise as a brief emotion regulation intervention for adolescents, and these findings extend an earlier study with young adults. Tuned In is a-theoretical in regard to psychotherapeutic approach and could be integrated with other program components as required. PMID:27375537

  11. Tuned In Emotion Regulation Program Using Music Listening: Effectiveness for Adolescents in Educational Settings.

    PubMed

    Dingle, Genevieve A; Hodges, Joseph; Kunde, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an effectiveness study of Tuned In, a novel emotion regulation intervention that uses participant selected music to evoke emotions in session and teaches participants emotional awareness and regulation skills. The group program content is informed by a two dimensional model of emotion (arousal, valence), along with music psychology theories about how music evokes emotional responses. The program has been evaluated in two samples of adolescents: 41 "at risk" adolescents (76% males; M age = 14.8 years) attending an educational re-engagement program and 216 students (100% females; M age = 13.6 years) attending a mainstream secondary school. Results showed significant pre- to post-program improvements in measures of emotion awareness, identification, and regulation (p < 0.01 to p = 0.06 in the smaller "at risk" sample and all p < 0.001 in the mainstream school sample). Participant ratings of engagement and likelihood of using the strategies learned in the program were high. Tuned In shows promise as a brief emotion regulation intervention for adolescents, and these findings extend an earlier study with young adults. Tuned In is a-theoretical in regard to psychotherapeutic approach and could be integrated with other program components as required.

  12. Allopregnanolone Elevations Following Pregnenolone Administration are Associated with Enhanced Activation of Emotion Regulation Neurocircuits

    PubMed Central

    Sripada, Rebecca K.; Marx, Christine E.; King, Anthony P.; Rampton, Jessica C.; Ho, Shaun; Liberzon, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Background The neurosteroid allopregnanolone is a potent allosteric modulator of the GABA(A) receptor with anxiolytic properties. Exogenous administration of allopregnanolone reduces anxiety, and allopregnanolone blockade impairs social and affective functioning. However, the neural mechanism whereby allopregnanolone improves mood and reduces anxiety is unknown. In particular, brain imaging has not been used to link neurosteroid effects to emotion regulation neurocircuitry. Methods To investigate the brain basis of allopregnanolone’s impact on emotion regulation, participants were administered 400mg of pregnenolone (N=16) or placebo (N=15) and underwent 3T fMRI while performing the Shifted-Attention Emotion Appraisal Task (SEAT), which probes emotional processing and regulation. Results Compared to placebo, allopregnanolone was associated with reduced activity in the amygdala and insula across all conditions. During the appraisal condition, allopregnanolone increased activity in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex and enhanced connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, an effect that was associated with reduced self-reported anxiety. Conclusions These results demonstrate that in response to emotional stimuli, allopregnanolone reduces activity in regions associated with generation of negative emotion. Furthermore, allopregnanolone may enhance activity in regions linked to regulatory processes. Aberrant activity in these regions has been linked to anxiety psychopathology. These results thus provide initial neuroimaging evidence that allopregnanolone may be a target for pharmacological intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders, and suggest potential future directions for research into neurosteroid effects on emotion regulation neurocircuitry. PMID:23348009

  13. Tuned In Emotion Regulation Program Using Music Listening: Effectiveness for Adolescents in Educational Settings.

    PubMed

    Dingle, Genevieve A; Hodges, Joseph; Kunde, Ashleigh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an effectiveness study of Tuned In, a novel emotion regulation intervention that uses participant selected music to evoke emotions in session and teaches participants emotional awareness and regulation skills. The group program content is informed by a two dimensional model of emotion (arousal, valence), along with music psychology theories about how music evokes emotional responses. The program has been evaluated in two samples of adolescents: 41 "at risk" adolescents (76% males; M age = 14.8 years) attending an educational re-engagement program and 216 students (100% females; M age = 13.6 years) attending a mainstream secondary school. Results showed significant pre- to post-program improvements in measures of emotion awareness, identification, and regulation (p < 0.01 to p = 0.06 in the smaller "at risk" sample and all p < 0.001 in the mainstream school sample). Participant ratings of engagement and likelihood of using the strategies learned in the program were high. Tuned In shows promise as a brief emotion regulation intervention for adolescents, and these findings extend an earlier study with young adults. Tuned In is a-theoretical in regard to psychotherapeutic approach and could be integrated with other program components as required. PMID:27375537

  14. Facial Expression Aftereffect Revealed by Adaption to Emotion-Invisible Dynamic Bubbled Faces

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chengwen; Wang, Qingyun; Schyns, Philippe G.; Kingdom, Frederick A. A.; Xu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Visual adaptation is a powerful tool to probe the short-term plasticity of the visual system. Adapting to local features such as the oriented lines can distort our judgment of subsequently presented lines, the tilt aftereffect. The tilt aftereffect is believed to be processed at the low-level of the visual cortex, such as V1. Adaptation to faces, on the other hand, can produce significant aftereffects in high-level traits such as identity, expression, and ethnicity. However, whether face adaptation necessitate awareness of face features is debatable. In the current study, we investigated whether facial expression aftereffects (FEAE) can be generated by partially visible faces. We first generated partially visible faces using the bubbles technique, in which the face was seen through randomly positioned circular apertures, and selected the bubbled faces for which the subjects were unable to identify happy or sad expressions. When the subjects adapted to static displays of these partial faces, no significant FEAE was found. However, when the subjects adapted to a dynamic video display of a series of different partial faces, a significant FEAE was observed. In both conditions, subjects could not identify facial expression in the individual adapting faces. These results suggest that our visual system is able to integrate unrecognizable partial faces over a short period of time and that the integrated percept affects our judgment on subsequently presented faces. We conclude that FEAE can be generated by partial face with little facial expression cues, implying that our cognitive system fills-in the missing parts during adaptation, or the subcortical structures are activated by the bubbled faces without conscious recognition of emotion during adaptation. PMID:26717572

  15. Development of a digital adaptive optimal linear regulator flight controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, P.; Kaufman, H.

    1975-01-01

    Digital adaptive controllers have been proposed as a means for retaining uniform handling qualities over the flight envelope of a high-performance aircraft. Towards such an implementation, an explicit adaptive controller, which makes direct use of online parameter identification, has been developed and applied to the linearized lateral equations of motion for a typical fighter aircraft. The system is composed of an online weighted least-squares parameter identifier, a Kalman state filter, and a model following control law designed using optimal linear regulator theory. Simulation experiments with realistic measurement noise indicate that the proposed adaptive system has the potential for onboard implementation.

  16. Can Contrast Effects Regulate Emotions? A Follow-Up Study of Vital Loss Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xianyun; Luo, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies focus on the how contrast effects can impact cognitive evaluations, the question of whether emotions are regulated by such contrast effects is still the subject of considerable debate, especially in the study of loss-related decisions. To address this gap in the literature, we designed three decision making loss conditions: (i) both losses are trivial (TT), (ii) one loss is trivial and the other loss is vital (TV), or (iii) one loss is trivial and the other loss is routine (TR). In study 1, which compared the difference between the negative emotion ratings in TT and TV, we found that negative emotions were affected by the contrast effects. In study 2, which compared the difference between the importance of trivial options in TT and TV, we found that the contrast effects differentially changed the importance of trivial options in the two conditions, which in turn down-regulated negative emotions. In study 3, the impact of decision difficulty was controlled by predetermining the items to be lost. In this study, we found that, when comparing the differences between the negative emotions of losing trivial options in TV and TR, the contrast effects still modulated the loss-related emotions. We concluded that the contrast effects could down-regulate emotions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that contrast effects can alleviate negative affect in loss-related decision making. This study will enrich and extend the literature on emotion regulation theory, and it will provide a new cost-effective mitigation strategy for regulating negative emotions. PMID:22905170

  17. Can contrast effects regulate emotions? A follow-up study of vital loss decisions.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Qi, Yue; Liu, Xianyun; Luo, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies focus on the how contrast effects can impact cognitive evaluations, the question of whether emotions are regulated by such contrast effects is still the subject of considerable debate, especially in the study of loss-related decisions. To address this gap in the literature, we designed three decision making loss conditions: (i) both losses are trivial (TT), (ii) one loss is trivial and the other loss is vital (TV), or (iii) one loss is trivial and the other loss is routine (TR). In study 1, which compared the difference between the negative emotion ratings in TT and TV, we found that negative emotions were affected by the contrast effects. In study 2, which compared the difference between the importance of trivial options in TT and TV, we found that the contrast effects differentially changed the importance of trivial options in the two conditions, which in turn down-regulated negative emotions. In study 3, the impact of decision difficulty was controlled by predetermining the items to be lost. In this study, we found that, when comparing the differences between the negative emotions of losing trivial options in TV and TR, the contrast effects still modulated the loss-related emotions. We concluded that the contrast effects could down-regulate emotions. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that contrast effects can alleviate negative affect in loss-related decision making. This study will enrich and extend the literature on emotion regulation theory, and it will provide a new cost-effective mitigation strategy for regulating negative emotions. PMID:22905170

  18. Preliminary data on an acceptance-based emotion regulation group intervention for deliberate self-harm among women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Kim L; Gunderson, John G

    2006-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and deliberate self-harm are clinically important conditions for which additional economically and clinically feasible interventions are needed. Literature on both the emotion regulating and experientially avoidant function of self-harm and the role of emotional dysfunction in BPD provided the rationale for developing a group intervention targeting emotion dysregulation among self-harming women with BPD. This study provides preliminary data on the efficacy of this new, 14-week, emotion regulation group intervention, designed to teach self-harming women with BPD more adaptive ways of responding to their emotions so as to reduce the frequency of their self-harm behavior. Participants were matched on level of emotion dysregulation and lifetime frequency of self-harm and randomly assigned to receive this group in addition to their current outpatient therapy (N = 12), or to continue with their current outpatient therapy alone for 14 weeks (N = 10). Results indicate that the group intervention had positive effects on self-harm, emotion dysregulation, experiential avoidance, and BPD-specific symptoms, as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Participants in the group treatment condition evidenced significant changes over time on all measures, and reached normative levels of functioning on most. While these preliminary results are promising, the study's limitations require their replication in a larger-scale randomized controlled trial.

  19. Getting to the Heart of Emotion Regulation in Youth: The Role of Interoceptive Sensitivity, Heart Rate Variability, and Parental Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Sütterlin, Stefan; Braet, Caroline; Mueller, Sven C.

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation and associated autonomic activation develop throughout childhood and adolescence under the influence of the family environment. Specifically, physiological indicators of autonomic nervous system activity such as interoceptive sensitivity and vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) can inform on emotion regulation. Although the effect of parental emotion socialization on emotion regulation appears to be influenced by autonomic processes, research on physiological regulation and the influence of parental factors remains scarce. This study investigated the relationship between self-reported habitual emotion regulation strategies and HRV at rest as well as interoceptive sensitivity in forty-six youngsters (27 female; age: M = 13.00, SD = 2.13). Secondly, the association between these autonomic correlates and parental psychopathology was also studied. Whereas better interoceptive sensitivity was related to reduced maladaptive emotion regulation, specifically rumination, high HRV was related to more use of external emotion regulation strategies (i.e., support seeking). In addition, increased HRV and decreased interoceptive sensitivity were associated with maternal internalizing and there was evidence for a possible mediation effect of HRV in the relationship between maternal internalizing and child external emotion regulation. This study elucidates the link between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and underlying physiological regulation in adolescents but also indicates a putative influence of maternal internalizing symptoms on emotion regulation in their offspring. PMID:27741261

  20. Sensitive Periods of Emotion Regulation: Influences of Parental Care on Frontoamygdala Circuitry and Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gee, Dylan G

    2016-09-01

    Early caregiving experiences play a central role in shaping emotional development, stress physiology, and refinement of limbic circuitry. Converging evidence across species delineates a sensitive period of heightened neuroplasticity when frontoamygdala circuitry is especially amenable to caregiver inputs early in life. During this period, parental buffering regulates emotional behaviors and stress physiology as emotion regulation circuitry continues to mature. By contrast, disorganized or poor quality caregiving has profound and lasting consequences on the maturation of frontoamygdala circuitry essential for emotion regulation, even following termination of this early life stressor (e.g., adoption from orphanage). This article highlights how interactions between caregiving experiences and the biological state of the developing brain have broad implications for long-term health. PMID:27589500

  1. Relationships between leaders' and subordinates' emotion regulation and satisfaction and affect at work.

    PubMed

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos; Nezlek, John B; Vassilakou, Thanai

    2012-01-01

    The study examined relationships between leaders' emotion regulation and leaders' and subordinates' work-related outcomes. Fifty-one school directors and 281 teachers reported on their strategies of emotion regulation (reappraisal, suppression), job satisfaction, and affect at work. For subordinates, suppression was negatively related to job satisfaction and was positively related to negative affect and emotional exhaustion, and reappraisal was positively related to job satisfaction and negatively to negativ affect. In contrast, multilevel analyses found that directors' use of reappraisal was neg atively related to subordinates' job satisfaction, and directors' use of suppression wa positively related to subordinates' positive affect. Leaders' suppression interacted wit group cohesion to predict subordinates' negative affect. This is one of the first studies to find evidence for the possible tension between leaders' emotion regulation competencie and organizational-role interests. PMID:22822684

  2. Pathways to social anxiety: the role of reinforcement sensitivities and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Elodie J; Staiger, Petra K; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Smillie, Luke D

    2014-12-30

    Past research has demonstrated a strong relationship between threat sensitivity and social anxiety; however, the relationship between reward sensitivity and social anxiety is less clear. Further, the role that emotion regulation (ER) may play in the expression of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is rarely considered. The current study tested whether two emotion regulation strategies (emotional suppression and cognitive reappraisal) mediated associations between threat sensitivity and reward sensitivity and social anxiety in a community sample (402 adults, 78% female; Mage=32.49, S.D.age=11.53). Path analyses indicated that low reappraisal mediated the relationship between high threat sensitivity and high social anxiety; and both low reappraisal and high suppression mediated the relationship between low reward sensitivity and high social anxiety. These results highlight the potential role that emotion regulation plays in the relationship between trait motivation and social anxiety.

  3. Getting Back to the Woods: Familial Perspectives on Culture and Preschoolers' Acquisition of Self-Regulation and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2013-01-01

    Discourse on culture is vital to early childhood educators' understanding of the young child in various socio-cultural experiences in family and community settings. In this article, the author will present a contemporary definition of culture. This article will then discuss the developmental constructs of self-regulation and emotion regulation and…

  4. Parental influences on children's self-regulation of energy intake: Insights from developmental literature on emotion regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article examines the role of parents in the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake. Various paths of parental influence are offered based on the literature on parental influences on children's emotion self-regulation. The parental paths include modeling, responses to childre...

  5. Crossing the Glass Wall: Using Preschool Educators' Knowledge to Enhance Parental Understanding of Children's Self-Regulation and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological research investigated what fifteen preschool educators have come to know about children's self-regulation and emotion regulation development, and how we can better enable them to communicate with parents about their children's development. The data sources included over 100 pages of transcripts, field notes and journal…

  6. Individual Differences in Trajectories of Emotion Regulation Processes: The Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptomatology and Children's Physiological Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O'Brien, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of emotion regulation processes were examined in a community sample of 269 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using hierarchical linear modeling. Maternal depressive symptomatology (Symptom Checklist-90) and children's physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and vagal regulation ([delta]RSA) were explored as…

  7. Emotional Development across Adulthood: Differential Age-Related Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation in a Negative Mood Induction Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliegel, Matthias; Jager, Theodor; Phillips, Louise H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the hypothesis that older adults might differentially react to a negative versus neutral mood induction procedure than younger adults. The rationale for this expectation was derived from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), which postulates differential salience of emotional information and ability to regulate…

  8. Implications of emotion regulation strategies for empathic concern, social attitudes, and helping behavior.

    PubMed

    Lebowitz, Matthew S; Dovidio, John F

    2015-04-01

    Empathic concern-a sense of caring and compassion in response to the needs of others-is a type of emotional response to the plights and misfortunes of others that predicts positive social attitudes and altruistic interpersonal behaviors. One psychological process that has been posited to facilitate empathic concern is the ability to regulate one's own emotions. However, existing research links some emotion-regulation approaches (e.g., suppression) to social outcomes that would appear at odds with empathic concern, such as decreased interpersonal closeness. In the present research, we tested whether relying on suppression to regulate one's emotions would lead to decreases in empathic concern-and related downstream variables, such as negative social attitudes and unwillingness to engage in altruistic behavior-when learning about another person's misfortune. In Study 1, dispositional and instructionally induced suppression was negatively associated with empathic concern, which led to increased stigmatizing attitudes. By contrast, instructing participants to use another emotion-regulation strategy examined for comparison-reappraisal-did not decrease empathic concern, and dispositional reliance on reappraisal was actually positively associated with empathic concern. In Study 2, the findings of Study 1 regarding the effects of habitual use of reappraisal and suppression were replicated, and reliance on suppression was also found to be associated with reluctance to engage in helping behaviors. These findings are situated within the existing literature and employed to shed new light on the interpersonal consequences of intrapersonal emotion-regulation strategies.

  9. Implications of emotion regulation strategies for empathic concern, social attitudes, and helping behavior.

    PubMed

    Lebowitz, Matthew S; Dovidio, John F

    2015-04-01

    Empathic concern-a sense of caring and compassion in response to the needs of others-is a type of emotional response to the plights and misfortunes of others that predicts positive social attitudes and altruistic interpersonal behaviors. One psychological process that has been posited to facilitate empathic concern is the ability to regulate one's own emotions. However, existing research links some emotion-regulation approaches (e.g., suppression) to social outcomes that would appear at odds with empathic concern, such as decreased interpersonal closeness. In the present research, we tested whether relying on suppression to regulate one's emotions would lead to decreases in empathic concern-and related downstream variables, such as negative social attitudes and unwillingness to engage in altruistic behavior-when learning about another person's misfortune. In Study 1, dispositional and instructionally induced suppression was negatively associated with empathic concern, which led to increased stigmatizing attitudes. By contrast, instructing participants to use another emotion-regulation strategy examined for comparison-reappraisal-did not decrease empathic concern, and dispositional reliance on reappraisal was actually positively associated with empathic concern. In Study 2, the findings of Study 1 regarding the effects of habitual use of reappraisal and suppression were replicated, and reliance on suppression was also found to be associated with reluctance to engage in helping behaviors. These findings are situated within the existing literature and employed to shed new light on the interpersonal consequences of intrapersonal emotion-regulation strategies. PMID:25706828

  10. Behavioral differences in aggressive children linked with neural mechanisms of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Marc D; Granic, Isabela; Lamm, Connie

    2006-12-01

    Children with aggressive behavior problems may have difficulties regulating negative emotions, resulting in harmful patterns of interpersonal behavior at home and in the schoolyard. Ventral and dorsal regions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been associated with response inhibition and self-control-key components of emotion regulation. Our research program aims to explore differences among aggressive and normal children in the activation of these cortical regions during emotional episodes, to the extent possible using electrophysiological techniques, to identify diagnostic subtypes, gain insights into their interpersonal difficulties, and help develop effective treatment strategies. This report reviews several recent studies investigating individual and developmental differences in cortical mechanisms of emotion regulation, corresponding with different patterns of interpersonal behavior. Our methods include event-related potentials (ERPs) and cortical source modeling, using dense-array electroencephalography (EEG) technology, as well as videotaped observations of parent-child interactions, with both normal and aggressive children. By relating patterns of brain activation to observed behavioral differences, we find (i) a steady decrease in cortical activation subserving self-regulation across childhood and adolescence, (ii) different cortical activation patterns as well as behavioral constellations distinguishing subtypes of aggressive children, and (iii) robust correlations between the activation of cortical mediators of emotion regulation and flexibility in parent-child emotional communication in children referred for aggressive behavior problems. These findings point toward models of developmental psychopathology based on the interplay among biological, psychological, and social factors. PMID:17347349

  11. The impact of stimulus arousal level on emotion regulation effectiveness in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Skye; Kuo, Janice R

    2016-07-30

    Basic emotion theory suggests that the effectiveness of different emotion regulation strategies vary with the intensity of the emotionally-salient stimulus. Although findings from studies using healthy samples are concordant with what is proposed by theory, it is unclear whether these relationships hold true among individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Twenty-five individuals with BPD and 30 HCs were exposed to negative images of varying levels of emotional arousal and were instructed to either react as they normally would, distract, or use mindful awareness. Self-reported negativity ratings, heart rate, and skin conductance level (SCL) were monitored throughout. SCL data indicated that increases in image arousal resulted in larger reductions in SCL when distracting but not when implementing mindful awareness. Self-report data suggested that, in HCs, the effectiveness of mindful awareness decreased to a greater extent than distraction when image arousal increased. These findings are consistent with basic emotion research and suggest that some forms of emotion regulation (distraction) are more suited to high emotion arousal contexts than others (mindful awareness) and that, compared with HCs, individuals with BPD may be more resilient to the deteriorating effectiveness of mindful awareness with respect to increasing emotional arousal. PMID:27203152

  12. Can enriching emotional intelligence improve medical students’ proactivity and adaptability during OB/GYN clerkships?

    PubMed Central

    Guseh, Stephanie H.; Chen, Xiaodong P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this pilot study was to examine our hypothesis that enriching workplace emotional intelligence through resident coaches could improve third-year medical students’ adaptability and proactivity on the Obstetrics and Gynecology clerkship. Methods An observational pilot study was conducted in a teaching hospital. Fourteen 3rd year medical students from two cohorts of clerkships were randomly divided into two groups, and equally assigned to trained resident coaches and untrained resident coaches. Data was collected through onsite naturalistic observation of students’ adaptability and proactivity in clinical settings using a checklist with a 4-point Likert scale (1=poor to 4=excellent). Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the differences between these two groups. Results A total of 280 data points were collected through onsite observations conducted by investigators. All (n=14) students’ adaptability and proactivity performance significantly improved from an average of 3.04 to 3.45 (p=0.014) over 6-week clerkship. Overall, students with trained resident coaches adapted significantly faster and were more proactive in the obstetrics and gynecology clinical setting than the students with untrained coaches (3.31 vs. 3.24, p=0.019). Conclusions Findings from our pilot study supported our hypothesis that enriching workplace emotional intelligence knowledge through resident coaches was able to help medical students adapt into obstetrics and gynecology clinical settings faster and become more proactive in learning. Clerkship programs can incorporate the concept of a resident coach in their curriculum to help bridge medical students into clinical settings and to help them engage in self-directed learning throughout the rotation. PMID:26708233

  13. The development of emotion regulation: an fMRI study of cognitive reappraisal in children, adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gross, James J.; Weber, Jochen; Robertson, Elaine R.; Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Ray, Rebecca D.; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to use cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions is an adaptive skill in adulthood, but little is known about its development. Because reappraisal is thought to be supported by linearly developing prefrontal regions, one prediction is that reappraisal ability develops linearly. However, recent investigations into socio-emotional development suggest that there are non-linear patterns that uniquely affect adolescents. We compared older children (10–13), adolescents (14–17) and young adults (18–22) on a task that distinguishes negative emotional reactivity from reappraisal ability. Behaviorally, we observed no age differences in self-reported emotional reactivity, but linear and quadratic relationships between reappraisal ability and age. Neurally, we observed linear age-related increases in activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, previously identified in adult reappraisal. We observed a quadratic pattern of activation with age in regions associated with social cognitive processes like mental state attribution (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior temporal cortex). In these regions, we observed relatively lower reactivity-related activation in adolescents, but higher reappraisal-related activation. This suggests that (i) engagement of the cognitive control components of reappraisal increases linearly with age and (ii) adolescents may not normally recruit regions associated with mental state attribution, but (iii) this can be reversed with reappraisal instructions. PMID:22228751

  14. Overlapping neural substrates between intentional and incidental down-regulation of negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Payer, Doris E; Baicy, Kate; Lieberman, Matthew D; London, Edythe D

    2012-04-01

    Emotion regulation can be achieved in various ways, but few studies have evaluated the extent to which the neurocognitive substrates of these distinct operations overlap. In the study reported here, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure activity in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex of 10 participants who completed two independent tasks of emotion regulation-reappraisal, measuring intentional emotion regulation, and affect labeling, measuring incidental emotion regulation-with the objective of identifying potential overlap in the neural substrates underlying each task. Analyses focused on a priori regions of interest in the amygdala and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). For both tasks, fMRI showed decreased amygdala activation during emotion regulation compared with emotion conditions. During reappraisal, this decrease in amygdala activation was accompanied by a proportional decrease in emotional intensity ratings; during affect labeling, the decrease in amygdala activation correlated with self-reported aggression. Importantly, across participants, the magnitude of decrease in amygdala activation during reappraisal correlated with the magnitude of decrease during affect labeling, even though the tasks were administered on separate days, and values indexing amygdala activation during each task were extracted independently of one another. In addition, IFG-amygdala connectivity, assessed via psychophysiological interaction analysis, overlapped between tasks in two regions within the right IFG. The results suggest that the two tasks recruit overlapping regions of prefrontal cortex, resulting in similar reductions in amygdala activation, regardless of the strategy employed. Intentional and incidental forms of emotion regulation, despite their phenomenological differences, may therefore converge on a common neurocognitive pathway.

  15. Fluid cognitive ability is a resource for successful emotion regulation in older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Philipp C; Lee, Ihno A; Gross, James J; Urry, Heather L

    2014-01-01

    The Selection, Optimization, and Compensation with Emotion Regulation (SOC-ER) framework suggests that (1) emotion regulation (ER) strategies require resources and that (2) higher levels of relevant resources may increase ER success. In the current experiment, we tested the specific hypothesis that individual differences in one internal class of resources, namely cognitive ability, would contribute to greater success using cognitive reappraisal (CR), a form of ER in which one reinterprets the meaning of emotion-eliciting situations. To test this hypothesis, 60 participants (30 younger and 30 older adults) completed standardized neuropsychological tests that assess fluid and crystallized cognitive ability, as well as a CR task in which participants reinterpreted the meaning of sad pictures in order to alter (increase or decrease) their emotions. In a control condition, they viewed the pictures without trying to change how they felt. Throughout the task, we indexed subjective emotional experience (self-reported ratings of emotional intensity), expressive behavior (corrugator muscle activity), and autonomic physiology (heart rate and electrodermal activity) as measures of emotional responding. Multilevel models were constructed to explain within-subjects variation in emotional responding as a function of ER contrasts comparing increase or decrease conditions with the view control condition and between-subjects variation as a function of cognitive ability and/or age group (older, younger). As predicted, higher fluid cognitive ability-indexed by perceptual reasoning, processing speed, and working memory-was associated with greater success using reappraisal to alter emotional responding. Reappraisal success did not vary as a function of crystallized cognitive ability or age group. Collectively, our results provide support for a key tenet of the SOC-ER framework that higher levels of relevant resources may confer greater success at emotion regulation. PMID:24987387

  16. Limbic Activity Modulation Guided by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Inspired Electroencephalography Improves Implicit Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Keynan, Jackob N; Meir-Hasson, Yehudit; Gilam, Gadi; Cohen, Avihay; Jackont, Gilan; Kinreich, Sivan; Ikar, Limor; Or-Borichev, Ayelet; Etkin, Amit; Gyurak, Anett; Klovatch, Ilana; Intrator, Nathan; Hendler, Talma

    2016-09-15

    The amygdala has a pivotal role in processing traumatic stress; hence, gaining control over its activity could facilitate adaptive mechanism and recovery. To date, amygdala volitional regulation could be obtained only via real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a highly inaccessible procedure. The current article presents high-impact neurobehavioral implications of a novel imaging approach that enables bedside monitoring of amygdala activity using fMRI-inspired electroencephalography (EEG), hereafter termed amygdala-electrical fingerprint (amyg-EFP). Simultaneous EEG/fMRI indicated that the amyg-EFP reliably predicts amygdala-blood oxygen level-dependent activity. Implementing the amyg-EFP in neurofeedback demonstrated that learned downregulation of the amyg-EFP facilitated volitional downregulation of amygdala-blood oxygen level-dependent activity via real-time fMRI and manifested as reduced amygdala reactivity to visual stimuli. Behavioral evidence further emphasized the therapeutic potential of this approach by showing improved implicit emotion regulation following amyg-EFP neurofeedback. Additional EFP models denoting different brain regions could provide a library of localized activity for low-cost and highly accessible brain-based diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Limbic Activity Modulation Guided by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Inspired Electroencephalography Improves Implicit Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Keynan, Jackob N; Meir-Hasson, Yehudit; Gilam, Gadi; Cohen, Avihay; Jackont, Gilan; Kinreich, Sivan; Ikar, Limor; Or-Borichev, Ayelet; Etkin, Amit; Gyurak, Anett; Klovatch, Ilana; Intrator, Nathan; Hendler, Talma

    2016-09-15

    The amygdala has a pivotal role in processing traumatic stress; hence, gaining control over its activity could facilitate adaptive mechanism and recovery. To date, amygdala volitional regulation could be obtained only via real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a highly inaccessible procedure. The current article presents high-impact neurobehavioral implications of a novel imaging approach that enables bedside monitoring of amygdala activity using fMRI-inspired electroencephalography (EEG), hereafter termed amygdala-electrical fingerprint (amyg-EFP). Simultaneous EEG/fMRI indicated that the amyg-EFP reliably predicts amygdala-blood oxygen level-dependent activity. Implementing the amyg-EFP in neurofeedback demonstrated that learned downregulation of the amyg-EFP facilitated volitional downregulation of amygdala-blood oxygen level-dependent activity via real-time fMRI and manifested as reduced amygdala reactivity to visual stimuli. Behavioral evidence further emphasized the therapeutic potential of this approach by showing improved implicit emotion regulation following amyg-EFP neurofeedback. Additional EFP models denoting different brain regions could provide a library of localized activity for low-cost and highly accessible brain-based diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26996601

  18. The consequences of effortful emotion regulation when processing distressing material: A comparison of suppression and acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Barnaby D.; Billotti, Danielle; Murphy, Vicky; Dalgleish, Tim

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the consequences of different forms of emotion regulation. Eighty nine healthy participants viewed a distressing video of the aftermath of road traffic accidents under either suppression (of both felt and expressed affect), acceptance, or no-regulation control instructions and the immediate and longer-term consequences on emotion, mood, and memory were examined. Suppression (relative to control) led to reduced subjective experience of fear when viewing the video, but did not alter electrodermal (EDA) or heart rate (HR) response. Subsequently, suppression led to a less marked subjective emotional reaction to positive but not negative emotional images, reduced free recall memory of the video, and a greater likelihood of experiencing zero intrusions of the video's content. Acceptance (relative to control) had no impact when viewing the video, was associated with a less marked increase in EDA activity in the 5 min period immediately after viewing the video, a more marked HR deceleration and EDA response to both positive and negative images, and elevated negative affect at one week follow-up. These findings suggest, contrary to the current clinical zeitgeist, that emotion suppression can successfully lead to an ongoing down-regulation of emotion and memory, whereas acceptance may elevate subsequent emotionality. PMID:19559401

  19. Work Environment Characteristics and Teacher Well-Being: The Mediation of Emotion Regulation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hongbiao; Huang, Shenghua; Wang, Wenlan

    2016-01-01

    Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers' work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues) and two indicators of teachers' well-being (i.e., teaching satisfaction and emotional exhaustion). In particular, the study focused on how emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) mediate these relationships. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 1115 primary school teachers in Hong Kong was analyzed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) the emotional job demands of teaching were detrimental to teacher well-being, whereas trust in colleagues was beneficial; (2) both emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationships between both emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and teacher well-being; and (3) teachers who tend to use more reappraisal may be psychologically healthier than those tend to adopt more suppression. These findings support the applicability of the JD-R model to school settings and highlight the role of teachers' emotion regulation in teachers' well-being. Implications for the improvement of school environments and teachers' well-being are identified. PMID:27649216

  20. Work Environment Characteristics and Teacher Well-Being: The Mediation of Emotion Regulation Strategies.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hongbiao; Huang, Shenghua; Wang, Wenlan

    2016-09-13

    Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers' work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues) and two indicators of teachers' well-being (i.e., teaching satisfaction and emotional exhaustion). In particular, the study focused on how emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) mediate these relationships. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 1115 primary school teachers in Hong Kong was analyzed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) the emotional job demands of teaching were detrimental to teacher well-being, whereas trust in colleagues was beneficial; (2) both emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationships between both emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and teacher well-being; and (3) teachers who tend to use more reappraisal may be psychologically healthier than those tend to adopt more suppression. These findings support the applicability of the JD-R model to school settings and highlight the role of teachers' emotion regulation in teachers' well-being. Implications for the improvement of school environments and teachers' well-being are identified.

  1. Work Environment Characteristics and Teacher Well-Being: The Mediation of Emotion Regulation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hongbiao; Huang, Shenghua; Wang, Wenlan

    2016-01-01

    Based on an adjusted Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that considers the mediation of personal resources, this study examined the relationships between two characteristics of teachers’ work environment (i.e., emotional job demands and trust in colleagues) and two indicators of teachers’ well-being (i.e., teaching satisfaction and emotional exhaustion). In particular, the study focused on how emotion regulation strategies (i.e., reappraisal and suppression) mediate these relationships. Data collected from a questionnaire survey of 1115 primary school teachers in Hong Kong was analyzed to test the hypothesized relationships. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that: (1) the emotional job demands of teaching were detrimental to teacher well-being, whereas trust in colleagues was beneficial; (2) both emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationships between both emotional job demands and trust in colleagues and teacher well-being; and (3) teachers who tend to use more reappraisal may be psychologically healthier than those tend to adopt more suppression. These findings support the applicability of the JD-R model to school settings and highlight the role of teachers’ emotion regulation in teachers’ well-being. Implications for the improvement of school environments and teachers’ well-being are identified. PMID:27649216

  2. Down-Regulation of Negative Emotional Processing by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Effects of Personality Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Gómez, Cleofé; Vidal-Piñeiro, Dídac; Clemente, Immaculada C.; Pascual-Leone, Álvaro; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies indicates that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a core region in emotional processing, particularly during down-regulation of negative emotional conditions. However, emotional regulation is a process subject to major inter-individual differences, some of which may be explained by personality traits. In the present study we used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left DLPFC to investigate whether transiently increasing the activity of this region resulted in changes in the ratings of positive, neutral and negative emotional pictures. Results revealed that anodal, but not cathodal, tDCS reduced the perceived degree of emotional valence for negative stimuli, possibly due to an enhancement of cognitive control of emotional expression. We also aimed to determine whether personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) might condition the impact of tDCS. We found that individuals with higher scores on the introversion personality dimension were more permeable than extraverts to the modulatory effects of the stimulation. The present study underlines the role of the left DLPFC in emotional regulation, and stresses the importance of considering individual personality characteristics as a relevant variable, although replication is needed given the limited sample size of our study. PMID:21829522

  3. The role of maternal emotion regulation in overreactive and lax discipline.

    PubMed

    Lorber, Michael F

    2012-08-01

    The roles of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression as intentional methods mothers use to regulate their own emotion were investigated in relation to mothers' experience and expression of negative emotion and their overreactive and lax discipline practices. Eighty-two mothers of toddlers completed questionnaires that measured these constructs. Emotion regulation strategies were more consistently associated with overreactive than with lax discipline. More suppression in discipline encounters was associated with less overreactivity, an association partially mediated by expressed negative emotion. Reappraisal, both globally and in the context of discipline encounters, was inversely associated with overreactive discipline. The association of global reappraisal and overreactivity was mediated in parallel by experienced and expressed negative emotion. Surprisingly, global reappraisal, relative to reappraisal in discipline encounters, appears to have more consistent implications for mothers' emotion and parenting practices in discipline encounters. A reconceptualization of the nature of reappraisal in discipline encounters is suggested. The study is the first to systematically apply methods and concepts from the better-developed basic research literature on adults' emotion regulation to the domain of parenting.

  4. Deliberative Democracy and Emotional Intelligence: An Internal Mechanism to Regulate the Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Deliberative democracy, it is claimed, is essential for the legitimisation of public policy and law. It is built upon an assumption that citizens will be capable of constructing and defending reasons for their moral and political beliefs. However, critics of deliberative democracy suggest that citizens' emotions are not properly considered in this…

  5. 77 FR 66287 - Adaptation of Regulations To Incorporate Swaps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... in a final rule in a separate release. \\4\\ Adaptation of Regulations to Incorporate Swaps, 76 FR... Commission Merchants, 77 FR 20128 (Apr. 3, 2012) (adopting for SDs and MSPs reporting and recordkeeping... General Provisions and Core Principles, 76 FR 69334 (Nov. 8, 2011). \\18\\ Requirements for DCOs, DCMs,...

  6. Assessing embodied interpersonal emotion regulation in somatic symptom disorders: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Okur Güney, Zeynep; Sattel, Heribert; Cardone, Daniela; Merla, Arcangelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the intra- and interpersonal emotion regulation of patients with somatic symptom disorders (SSDs) during interactions with significant others (i.e., romantic partners). We presented two case couples for analysis. The first couple consisted of a patient with SSD and his healthy partner, whereas the second couple consisted of two healthy partners. The couples underwent an interpersonal experiment that involved baseline, anger and relaxation tasks. During each task, partners’ cutaneous facial temperature, heart rate and skin conductance levels were measured simultaneously. Participants’ trait-emotion regulation, state-affect reports for self and other, and attachment styles were also examined. The experimental phases were successful in creating variations in physiological processes and affective experience. As expected, emotion regulation difficulties predicted higher increase in the course of temperature at each phase. Besides, the patient showed restricted awareness and reflection to emotions despite his higher autonomic activity compared to healthy controls. Both partners of the first couple revealed limited ability in understanding the other’s emotions, whereas the second couple performed relatively better in that domain. The temperature variations between the patient and his partner were significantly correlated while the correlations of temperature changes between the second couple were negligible except anger task. The study supported the merits of an embodied interpersonal approach in clinical studies. The tentative results of the cases were discussed in the light of findings in emotion regulation and attachment research. PMID:25713544

  7. The Role of the Family Context in the Development of Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Silk, Jennifer S.; Steinberg, Laurence; Myers, Sonya S.; Robinson, Lara Rachel

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews current literature examining associations between components of the family context and children and adolescents’ emotion regulation (ER). The review is organized around a tripartite model of familial influence. Firstly, it is posited that children learn about ER through observational learning, modeling and social referencing. Secondly, parenting practices specifically related to emotion and emotion management affect ER. Thirdly, ER is affected by the emotional climate of the family via parenting style, the attachment relationship, family expressiveness and the marital relationship. The review ends with discussions regarding the ways in which child characteristics such as negative emotionality and gender affect ER, how socialization practices change as children develop into adolescents, and how parent characteristics such as mental health affect the socialization of ER. PMID:19756175

  8. Parent-child cohesion, friend companionship and left-behind children's emotional adaptation in rural China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingxin; Liu, Xia; Wang, Meifang

    2015-10-01

    Using cross-sectional data from rural left-behind children aged 10-17 years in the Henan Province of China, the present study examined the roles of father-child cohesion, mother-child cohesion, and friend companionship in emotional adaptation (loneliness, depression, and life satisfaction) among children left behind by both of their rural-to-urban migrant parents compared to those with only a migrating father. The results indicated that the children with two migrating parents were disadvantaged according to their demonstration of depression but not in loneliness or life satisfaction. Both parent-child cohesion and friend companionship were directly associated with, to varying extents, the left-behind children's emotional outcomes. Moreover, friend companionship moderated the association between father-child cohesion and emotional outcomes among children with two migrating parents, but the moderating effects of friend companionship did not exist among children with only a migrating father. The implications of these findings for interventions directed at left-behind children are discussed. PMID:26190190

  9. Parent-child cohesion, friend companionship and left-behind children's emotional adaptation in rural China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingxin; Liu, Xia; Wang, Meifang

    2015-10-01

    Using cross-sectional data from rural left-behind children aged 10-17 years in the Henan Province of China, the present study examined the roles of father-child cohesion, mother-child cohesion, and friend companionship in emotional adaptation (loneliness, depression, and life satisfaction) among children left behind by both of their rural-to-urban migrant parents compared to those with only a migrating father. The results indicated that the children with two migrating parents were disadvantaged according to their demonstration of depression but not in loneliness or life satisfaction. Both parent-child cohesion and friend companionship were directly associated with, to varying extents, the left-behind children's emotional outcomes. Moreover, friend companionship moderated the association between father-child cohesion and emotional outcomes among children with two migrating parents, but the moderating effects of friend companionship did not exist among children with only a migrating father. The implications of these findings for interventions directed at left-behind children are discussed.

  10. Using Movement to Regulate Emotion: Neurophysiological Findings and Their Application in Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Shafir, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Emotion regulation is a person’s active attempt to manage their emotional state by enhancing or decreasing specific feelings. Peripheral theories of emotion argue that the origins of emotions stem from bodily responses. This notion has been reformulated in neurophysiological terms by Damasio, who claimed that emotions are generated by conveying the current state of the body to the brain through interoceptive and proprioceptive afferent input. The resulting brain activation patterns represent unconscious emotions and correlate with conscious feelings. This proposition implies that through deliberate control of motor behavior and its consequent proprioception and interoception, one could regulate his emotions and affect his feelings. This concept is used in dance/movement (psycho)therapy where, by guiding to move in a certain way, the therapist helps the client to evoke, process, and regulate specific emotions. Exploration and practice of new and unfamiliar motor patterns can help the client to experience new unaccustomed feelings. The idea that certain motor qualities enhance specific emotions is utilized by the therapist also when she mirrors the client’s movements or motor qualities in order to feel what the client feels, and empathize with them. Because of the mirror neurons, feeling what the client feels is enabled also through observation and imagination of their movements and posture. This principle can be used by verbal therapists as well, who should be aware of its bi-directionality: clients seeing the therapist’s motor behavior are unconsciously affected by the therapist’s bodily expressions. Additional implications for psychotherapy, of findings regarding mirror neurons activation, are discussed. PMID:27721801

  11. [Gender differences in emotion regulation in response to texts with violent content].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, N E; Davydov, D M

    2012-01-01

    We investigated gender differences in emotion regulation depending on the cognitive disclosure of negative emotive content of 3 different texts after their presentations. For the purposes of the study we varied order between (i) completing of special checklists, created for specification of emotive and arousing attributes of the text contents and (ii) readings of autonomic activity. Results suggested that completing of the checklists increased engagement in processing of the most arousing text's content in men, while no effect was found in women, who were proposed to be engaged in content processing already during the text presentation. Results of the present study are discussed in the context of the recent findings on the emotional regulation. PMID:23101362

  12. Young Brazilian and Norwegian Children’s Concepts of Strategies and Goals for Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vikan, Arne; Karstad, Silja Berg; Dias, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Four-hundred-and-eighty children in the age groups of four and six years, 240 each from Brazil and Norway, were asked how their feelings of anger, sadness and fear were reduced in a recollected episode, to propose emotion regulation strategies for protagonists and to envisage the result of regulation strategies. A majority of even the youngest…

  13. The Relations of Regulation and Emotionality to Children's Externalizing and Internalizing Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Reiser, Mark; Murphy, Bridget C.; LoSaga, Sandra H.; Guthrie, Ivanna K.

    2001-01-01

    Examined relation of different types of negative emotion and regulation and control to 55- to 97-month-olds' internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Found that children with externalizing problems, compared to children with internalizing problems and nondisordered children, were more prone to anger, impulsivity, and low regulation.…

  14. Randomized Trial Comparison of Emotion Regulation and Relational Psychotherapies for PTSD with Girls Involved in Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Steinberg, Karen L.; Hawke, Josephine; Levine, Joan; Zhang, Wanli

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is prevalent in youth involved in delinquency, but it is often not effectively treated. A randomized clinical trial was conducted comparing the outcomes of an emotion regulation therapy (Trauma Affect Regulation: Guide for Education and Therapy, or TARGET) with a relational supportive therapy (Enhanced…

  15. Contextual Emotion-Regulation Therapy for Childhood Depression: Description and Pilot Testing of a New Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Maria; Sherrill, Joel; George, Charles J.; Pollock, Myrna; Tumuluru, Rameshwari V.; Ho, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To pilot test the acceptability and efficacy of contextual emotion-regulation therapy (CERT), a new, developmentally appropriate intervention for childhood depression, which focuses on the self-regulation of dysphoria. Method: Two samples of convenience (n = 29, n = 2) served to verify some CERT constructs; it was then operationalized…

  16. Stereotype Threat and Executive Resource Depletion: Examining the Influence of Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Michael; Inzlicht, Michael; Schmader, Toni

    2008-01-01

    Research shows that stereotype threat reduces performance by diminishing executive resources, but less is known about the psychological processes responsible for these impairments. The authors tested the idea that targets of stereotype threat try to regulate their emotions and that this regulation depletes executive resources, resulting in…

  17. The Sex Differences in Regulating Unpleasant Emotion by Expressive Suppression: Extraversion Matters

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ayan; Lou, Yixue; Long, Quanshan; Yuan, Jiajin

    2016-01-01

    Males are known for more suppression of emotional displays than females. However, when the emotion regulation effect of expressive suppression is greater in males, and how this sex difference varies with emotion display-related personality (e.g., extraversion), are undetermined. Event-related potentials were recorded while male and female participants different in extraversion were required to attend to or suppress emotional expression to negative pictures. Sex and extraversion did not modulate self-reported emotional experience. However, late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes showed an extraversion-moderated sex difference in the 2000–3000 ms and the 3000–4000 ms time epochs. LPP amplitudes were decreased during suppression versus viewing conditions in ambivert males, while this effect was absent in ambivert females. However, the LPP amplitudes of extraverts were similar for suppression and viewing conditions, irrespective of sex and timing. Regardless of early, middle, or late time windows, LPP amplitudes were positively related to self-reported emotion. These results suggest a male advantage for using expressive suppression for emotion regulation in non-extraverted, ambivert individuals. PMID:27458408

  18. EEG-Based Emotion Recognition Using Deep Learning Network with Principal Component Based Covariate Shift Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Jirayucharoensak, Suwicha; Pan-Ngum, Setha; Israsena, Pasin

    2014-01-01

    Automatic emotion recognition is one of the most challenging tasks. To detect emotion from nonstationary EEG signals, a sophisticated learning algorithm that can represent high-level abstraction is required. This study proposes the utilization of a deep learning network (DLN) to discover unknown feature correlation between input signals that is crucial for the learning task. The DLN is implemented with a stacked autoencoder (SAE) using hierarchical feature learning approach. Input features of the network are power spectral densities of 32-channel EEG signals from 32 subjects. To alleviate overfitting problem, principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract the most important components of initial input features. Furthermore, covariate shift adaptation of the principal components is implemented to minimize the nonstationary effect of EEG signals. Experimental results show that the DLN is capable of classifying three different levels of valence and arousal with accuracy of 49.52% and 46.03%, respectively. Principal component based covariate shift adaptation enhances the respective classification accuracy by 5.55% and 6.53%. Moreover, DLN provides better performance compared to SVM and naive Bayes classifiers. PMID:25258728

  19. Effectiveness of Gross Model-Based Emotion Regulation Strategies Training on Anger Reduction in Drug-Dependent Individuals and its Sustainability in Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Massah, Omid; Sohrabi, Faramarz; A’azami, Yousef; Doostian, Younes; Farhoudian, Ali; Daneshmand, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Emotion plays an important role in adapting to life changes and stressful events. Difficulty regulating emotions is one of the problems drug abusers often face, and teaching these individuals to express and manage their emotions can be effective on improving their difficult circumstances. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Gross model-based emotion regulation strategies training on anger reduction in drug-dependent individuals. Patients and Methods The present study had a quasi-experimental design wherein pretest-posttest evaluations were applied using a control group. The population under study included addicts attending Marivan’s methadone maintenance therapy centers in 2012 - 2013. Convenience sampling was used to select 30 substance-dependent individuals undergoing maintenance treatment who were then randomly assigned to the experiment and control groups. The experiment group received its training in eight two-hour sessions. Data were analyzed using analysis of co-variance and paired t-test. Results There was significant reduction in anger symptoms of drug-dependent individuals after gross model based emotion regulation training (ERT) (P < 0.001). Moreover, the effectiveness of the training on anger was persistent in the follow-up period. Conclusions Symptoms of anger in drug-dependent individuals of this study were reduced by gross model-based emotion regulation strategies training. Based on the results of this study, we may conclude that the gross model based emotion regulation strategies training can be applied alongside other therapies to treat drug abusers undergoing rehabilitation. PMID:27162759

  20. Regulating with imagery and the complexity of basic emotions. Comment on "The quartet theory of human emotions: An integrative and neurofunctional model" by S. Koelsch et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Marcel; Kuchinke, Lars

    2015-06-01

    Literature, music and the arts have long attested to the complexity of human emotions. Hitherto, psychological and biological theories of emotions have largely neglected this rich heritage. In their review Koelsch and colleagues [1] have embarked upon the pioneering endeavour of integrating the diverse perspectives in emotion research. Noting that the focus of prior neurobiological theories relies mainly on animal studies, the authors sought to complement this body of research with a model of complex ("moral") emotions in humans (henceforth: complex emotions). According to this novel framework, there are four main interacting affective centres in the brain. Each centre is associated with a dominant affective function, such as ascending activation (brainstem), pain/pleasure (diencephalon), attachment-related affects (hippocampus) or moral emotions and unconscious cognitive appraisal (orbitofrontal cortex). Furthermore, language is ascribed a key role in (a) the communication of subjective feeling (reconfiguration) and (b) in the conscious regulation of emotions (by means of logic and rational thought).

  1. The effects of emotion regulation strategies on the pain experience: a structured laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Amy J D; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Gagnon, Michelle M; Williams, Jaime; Clark, David

    2015-05-01

    Although emotion regulation modulates the pain experience, inconsistencies have been identified regarding the impact of specific regulation strategies on pain. Our goal was to examine the effects of emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal on automatic (ie, nonverbal) and cognitively mediated (ie, verbal) pain expressions. Nonclinical participants were randomized into either a suppression (n = 58), reappraisal (n = 51), or monitoring control (n = 42) condition. Upon arrival to the laboratory, participants completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, to quantify self-reported suppression and reappraisal tendencies. Subsequently, they completed a thermal pain threshold and tolerance task. They were then provided with instructions to use, depending on their experimental condition, suppression, reappraisal, or monitoring strategies. Afterward, they were exposed to experimentally induced pain. Self-report measures of pain, anxiety, and tension were administered, and facial expressions, heart rate, and galvanic skin response were recorded. The Facial Action Coding System was used to quantify general and pain-related facial activity (ie, we defined facial actions that occurred during at least 5% of pain stimulation periods as "pain-related actions"). Reappraisal and suppression induction led to reductions in nonverbal and verbal indices of pain. Moreover, self-reported tendencies to use suppression and reappraisal (as measured by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire) did not interact with experimental condition in the determination of participants' responses. Results suggest that consciously applying emotion regulation strategies during a painful task can moderate both cognitively mediated (e.g., verbal) and automatic (e.g., facial activity) expressions of pain.

  2. Emotion regulation in broadly defined anorexia nervosa: association with negative affective memory bias.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Amy; Wade, Tracey D

    2013-08-01

    Theoretical models in anorexia nervosa (AN) implicate difficulties with emotion regulation as a maintaining factor. To date little is known about how different factors might maintain these difficulties. Forty eight women were recruited, 24 receiving treatment for AN (called broadly defined AN) and 24 healthy controls. Self-report measures of difficulties with emotion regulation and current depression were used in addition to computerized tasks which provided measures of social attentional bias and anger-threat bias, as well negative affective memory and recognition bias. Compared to controls, women with AN had significantly higher levels of difficulties with emotion regulation, depression, and negative affective memory bias, as well as lower bias for anger-threat. Simultaneous examination of the two variables that met pre-conditions for mediation of the relationship between group membership and difficulties with emotion regulation (anger-threat bias and negative affective memory) indicated negative affective memory bias to be a mediator, accounting for around one-third of the total effect a diagnosis of AN has on difficulties with emotion regulation. The association of these variables with AN may indicate shared risk factors with depression, and the variety of therapeutic approaches found to be effective with depression may be useful to further incorporate into treatments for AN.

  3. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. PMID:26047678

  4. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed.

  5. Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation: A Balancing Act in Two Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Boker, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    An equilibrium involves a balancing of forces. Just as one maintains upright posture in standing or walking, many self-regulatory and interpersonal behaviors can be framed as a balancing act between an ever changing environment and within-person processes. The emerging balance between person and environment, the equilibria, are dynamic and adaptive in response to development and learning. A distinction is made between equilibrium achieved solely due to a short timescale balancing of forces and a longer timescale preferred equilibrium which we define as a state towards which the system slowly adapts. Together, these are developed into a framework that this article calls Adaptive Equilibrium Regulation (ÆR), which separates a regulatory process into two timescales: a faster regulation that automatically balances forces and a slower timescale adaptation process that reconfigures the fast regulation so as to move the system towards its preferred equilibrium when an environmental force persists over the longer timescale. This way of thinking leads to novel models for the interplay between multiple timescales of behavior, learning, and development. PMID:27066197

  6. Effects of Empathic Paraphrasing – Extrinsic Emotion Regulation in Social Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Seehausen, Maria; Kazzer, Philipp; Bajbouj, Malek; Prehn, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of empathic paraphrasing as an extrinsic emotion regulation technique in social conflict. We hypothesized that negative emotions elicited by social conflict can be regulated extrinsically in a conversation by a listener following the narrator’s perspective and verbally expressing cognitive empathy. Twenty participants were interviewed on an ongoing or recently self-experienced social conflict. The interviewer utilized 10 standardized open questions inviting participants to describe their perception of the conflict. After each of the 10 descriptions, the interviewer responded by either paraphrasing or taking notes (control condition). Valence ratings pertaining to the current emotional state were assessed during the interview along with psychophysiological and voice recordings. Participants reported feeling less negative after hearing the interviewer paraphrase what they had said. In addition, we found a lower sound intensity of participants’ voices when answering to questions following a paraphrase. At the physiological level, skin conductance response, as well as heart rate, were higher during paraphrasing than during taking notes, while blood volume pulse amplitude was lower during paraphrasing, indicating higher autonomic arousal. The results show that demonstrating cognitive empathy through paraphrasing can extrinsically regulate negative emotion on a short-term basis. Paraphrasing led to enhanced autonomic activation in recipients, while at the same time influencing emotional valence in the direction of feeling better. A possible explanation for these results is that being treated in an empathic manner may stimulate a more intense emotion processing helping to transform and resolve the conflict. PMID:23162516

  7. [Knowledge, emotions and regulation of actions or the reason of feelings].

    PubMed

    Dörner, D

    1993-01-01

    This paper concerns the interaction of emotion and knowledge in action regulation. First a new theory of emotions is developed. Emotions are considered as modulations of cognitive processes. Such a modulation is for instance the change of the resolution level of cognitive processes. Another modulation is the change of the "updating rate" of the image of the environment. A theory is developed how these modulations are dependent on "context parameters". Action regulation is a process, which is considered as consisting of three levels. The first one is the level of the automatisms. The second level is reasoning and planning, the third level is information collection by observation or trial and error behaviour. The change between these levels is dependent on the state of the knowledge about the respective domain of reality. It can be shown, that the concept of emotion and emotional change as consisting on a context dependent change of the modulation of cognitive processes and the three stage theory of action regulation is sufficient to explain emotional forms of behaviour.

  8. What Makes a Good Student? How Emotions, Self-Regulated Learning, and Motivation Contribute to Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mega, Carolina; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The authors propose a theoretical model linking emotions, self-regulated learning, and motivation to academic achievement. This model was tested with 5,805 undergraduate students. They completed the Self-Regulated Learning, Emotions, and Motivation Computerized Battery (LEM-B) composed of 3 self-report questionnaires: the Self-Regulated Learning…

  9. Longitudinal Effects of Social Support and Adaptive Coping on the Emotional Well-Being of Survivors of Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Eric S.; Penedo, Frank J.; Bustillo, Natalie E.; Benedict, Catherine; Rasheed, Mikal; Lechner, Suzanne; Soloway, Mark; Kava, Bruce R.; Schneiderman, Neil; Antoni, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Survivors of prostate cancer experience treatment-related physical side effects that can compromise emotional well-being for years post treatment. There is limited research investigating how social support and the use of coping may affect the emotional well-being of this population following treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate how social support and coping impact emotional well-being 2 years after treatment in survivors of localized prostate cancer who have received either radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy. Psychosocial and disease-specific measures were administered to an ethnically and demographically diverse sample of 180 men treated for localized prostate cancer at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. Regression analyses demonstrated that higher levels of social support at baseline predicted better emotional well-being 2 years later. Furthermore, higher levels of adaptive coping at baseline partially mediated the relationship between social support and emotional well-being. Supportive relationships may contribute to improved emotional well-being following treatment by facilitating the use of adaptive coping strategies. Attention should be given to strengthening social support networks and educating survivors of prostate cancer on adaptive coping techniques. PMID:21086876

  10. Social Daydreaming and Adjustment: An Experience-Sampling Study of Socio-Emotional Adaptation During a Life Transition.

    PubMed

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, one's current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university) using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation.

  11. Social Daydreaming and Adjustment: An Experience-Sampling Study of Socio-Emotional Adaptation During a Life Transition

    PubMed Central

    Poerio, Giulia L.; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, one’s current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university) using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation. PMID:26834685

  12. Promoting social-emotional learning in adolescent Latino ELLs: a study of the culturally adapted Strong Teens program.

    PubMed

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted Jóvenes Fuertes (Strong Teens) Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's effects on students' knowledge of SEL and resiliency. A sample of 102 Spanish-dominant Latino ELLs enrolled in middle or high school participated in this study. The results indicated significant intervention effects on SEL knowledge and social-emotional resiliency. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for preventive, culturally responsive SEL programs in school settings. PMID:24708282

  13. Promoting social-emotional learning in adolescent Latino ELLs: a study of the culturally adapted Strong Teens program.

    PubMed

    Castro-Olivo, Sara M

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the culturally adapted Jóvenes Fuertes (Strong Teens) Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) program on the social-emotional outcomes of Latino English language learners (ELLs). A quasi-experimental design with random assignment by classrooms was used to assess the intervention's effects on students' knowledge of SEL and resiliency. A sample of 102 Spanish-dominant Latino ELLs enrolled in middle or high school participated in this study. The results indicated significant intervention effects on SEL knowledge and social-emotional resiliency. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for preventive, culturally responsive SEL programs in school settings.

  14. Examining the associations between emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, and eating disorder severity among inpatients with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Haynos, Ann F.; Roberto, Christina A.; Attia, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is growing interest in the role of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). Although anxiety is also hypothesized to impact symptoms of AN, little is known about how emotion regulation, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms interact in AN. In this study, we examined the associations between emotion regulation, anxiety, and eating disorder symptom severity in AN. Methods Questionnaires and interviews assessing emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, eating disorder symptoms, and eating disorder-related clinical impairment were collected from group of underweight individuals with AN (n = 59) at admission to inpatient treatment. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to examine the associations of emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, and the interaction of these constructs with eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related clinical impairment. Results Emotion regulation difficulties were significantly positively associated with eating disorder symptoms and related clinical impairment only when anxiety levels were low and anxiety was significantly positively associated with eating disorder symptoms and related clinical impairment only when emotion regulation problems were not elevated. Conclusions This study adds to a growing literature suggesting that emotion regulation deficits are associated with eating disorder symptoms in AN. Certain individuals with AN may especially benefit from a focus on developing emotion regulation skills in the acute stages of illness. PMID:25842195

  15. The Interactive Roles of Parenting, Emotion Regulation and Executive Functioning in Moral Reasoning during Middle Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Nelson, Jackie A.; O’Brien, Marion; Keane, Susan P.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined mother-child cooperative behavior, children’s emotion regulation and executive function, as well as combinations of these factors, as predictors of moral reasoning in 89 10-year-old children. Dyadic cooperation was coded from videotaped observations of laboratory puzzle and speech tasks. Emotion regulation was derived from maternal report, and executive functioning was assessed with the Tower of London task. Moral reasoning was coded during mother-child conversations about morally ambiguous, peer-conflict situations. Two significant interactions indicated that children from more cooperative dyads who also had higher executive function skills had higher moral reasoning scores than other children, and children lower in both emotion regulation and executive function had lower moral reasoning scores than other children. The results contribute to the literature on the multiple and interactive levels of influence on moral reasoning in childhood. PMID:23650955

  16. Customer emotion regulation in the service interactions: its relationship to employee ingratiation, satisfaction and loyalty intentions.

    PubMed

    Medler-Liraz, Hana; Yagil, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have explored emotional regulation on the part of service employees, and its antecedents. However, customers' emotional regulation in general, and how it is affected by service employee behavior in particular, have received only scant attention. The present article explores a model suggesting that service employees' ingratiatory behavior relates to customer emotion regulation strategies, which in turn are related to customer satisfaction and loyalty. The model was tested with 131 service employee-customer dyads. The results show that service employee ingratiation was positively related to customers' deep acting but not related to surface acting. Customers' deep acting was positively related to their satisfaction. A positive relationship was found between customer satisfaction and loyalty. PMID:23724700

  17. Stereotype threat and executive resource depletion: examining the influence of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Johns, Michael; Inzlicht, Michael; Schmader, Toni

    2008-11-01

    Research shows that stereotype threat reduces performance by diminishing executive resources, but less is known about the psychological processes responsible for these impairments. The authors tested the idea that targets of stereotype threat try to regulate their emotions and that this regulation depletes executive resources, resulting in underperformance. Across 4 experiments, they provide converging evidence that targets of stereotype threat spontaneously attempt to control their expression of anxiety and that such emotion regulation depletes executive resources needed to perform well on tests of cognitive ability. They also demonstrate that providing threatened individuals with a means to effectively cope with negative emotions--by reappraising the situation or the meaning of their anxiety--can restore executive resources and improve test performance. They discuss these results within the framework of an integrated process model of stereotype threat, in which affective and cognitive processes interact to undermine performance.

  18. The interactive roles of parenting, emotion regulation and executive functioning in moral reasoning during middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Nelson, Jackie A; O'Brien, Marion; Keane, Susan P; Calkins, Susan D

    2013-01-01

    We examined mother-child co-operative behaviour, children's emotion regulation and executive function, as well as combinations of these factors, as predictors of moral reasoning in 89 10-year-old children. Dyadic co-operation was coded from videotaped observations of laboratory puzzle and speech tasks. Emotion regulation was derived from maternal report, and executive functioning was assessed with the Tower of London task. Moral reasoning was coded during mother-child conversations about morally ambiguous, peer-conflict situations. Two significant interactions indicated that children from more co-operative dyads who also had higher executive function skills had higher moral reasoning scores than other children, and children lower in both emotion regulation and executive function had lower moral reasoning scores than other children. The results contribute to the literature on the multiple and interactive levels of influence on moral reasoning in childhood. PMID:23650955

  19. Customer emotion regulation in the service interactions: its relationship to employee ingratiation, satisfaction and loyalty intentions.

    PubMed

    Medler-Liraz, Hana; Yagil, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have explored emotional regulation on the part of service employees, and its antecedents. However, customers' emotional regulation in general, and how it is affected by service employee behavior in particular, have received only scant attention. The present article explores a model suggesting that service employees' ingratiatory behavior relates to customer emotion regulation strategies, which in turn are related to customer satisfaction and loyalty. The model was tested with 131 service employee-customer dyads. The results show that service employee ingratiation was positively related to customers' deep acting but not related to surface acting. Customers' deep acting was positively related to their satisfaction. A positive relationship was found between customer satisfaction and loyalty.

  20. Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Regulation: Insights from the Polyvagal Theory

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Marilyn A.; Riniolo, Todd C.; Porges, Stephen W.

    2007-01-01

    The current study provides the first published evidence that the parasympathetic component of the autonomic nervous system differentiates the response profiles between individuals diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and controls. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a non-invasive marker of the influence of the myelinated vagal fibers on the heart, and heart period were collected during the presentation of film clips of varying emotional content. The BPD and control groups had similar initial levels of RSA and heart period. However, during the experiment the groups exhibited contrasting trajectories, with the BPD group decreasing RSA and heart period and the control group increasing RSA and heart period. By the end of the experiment, the groups different significantly on both RSA and heart period. The correlation between the changes in RSA and heart period was significant only for the control group, suggesting that vagal mechanisms mediated the heart period responses only in the control group. The findings were consistent with the Polyvagal Theory (Porges, 1995, 2001, 2003), illustrating different adaptive shifts in autonomic state throughout the course of the experiment. The BPD group ended in a physiological state that supports the mobilization behaviors of fight and flight, while the control group ended in a physiological state that supports social engagement behaviors. These finding are consistent with other published studies demonstrating atypical vagal regulation of the heart with other psychiatric disorders. PMID:17659821