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Sample records for adaptive functioning scores

  1. Effect of Incorporating Adaptive Functioning Scores on the Prevalence of Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Obianuju; Braun, Kim Van Naarden; Baio, Jon; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn; Devine, Owen; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2011-01-01

    Surveillance and epidemiologic research on intellectual disability often do not incorporate adaptive functioning (AF) data. Exclusion of AF data leads to overestimation of the prevalence of intellectual disability, the extent of which is not known. In this study, the authors evaluated the effect of incorporating AF data on overall intellectual…

  2. Equating Scores from Adaptive to Linear Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2006-01-01

    Two local methods for observed-score equating are applied to the problem of equating an adaptive test to a linear test. In an empirical study, the methods were evaluated against a method based on the test characteristic function (TCF) of the linear test and traditional equipercentile equating applied to the ability estimates on the adaptive test…

  3. Reliability and Construct Validity of Scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory: A Measure of Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarjoura, David; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Speight, Joan; Reuter, Jeanette

    1999-01-01

    Examined the reliability and construct validity in an older adult population (n=149 older adults and their informants) of scores on the Behavioral Competence Inventory (BCI) (P. Hartman-Stein). Results indicate that scores on the BCI's seven scales show adequate internal consistencies and represent seven overlapping but distinct constructs in this…

  4. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions. PMID:25647463

  5. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions.

  6. The Balthazar Scales of Adaptive Behavior. Measures of Program Development for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded. Section 1. Skills of Functional Independence. Part Three: Program Scoring Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Earl E.

    The scoring form for functional independence skills for the mentally retarded includes a section for recording subjects' demographic characteristics as well as tests used, date administered, and raw score. Other sections provide for a brief description of the program being used, an item scoring sheet for the Eating Scales (dependent feeding,…

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Turkish version of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical function Short-form (HOOS-PS).

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Gul, Ebru Demir; Bodur, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-Physical function Short-form (HOOS-PS) to Turkish language and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version in patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. After the translation from the source language (English) to the target language (Turkish), synthesis, back translation, revision, and pretest stages were done. Next, 50 patients with primary hip osteoarthritis were asked to fill out the Turkish version of the HOOS-PS two times with one week interval. Internal consistency was tested using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct validity was investigated by comparing the results of the HOOS-PS and WOMAC, Lequesne questionnaries using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Internal consistency was good with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.778 (>0.7) and ICC was 0.911 (>0.7). Both scores verify that the Turkish HOOS-PS is a reliable tool. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the HOOS-PS and overall WOMAC (r = 0.653), WOMAC physical functions (r = 0.626), WOMAC pain (r = 0.629) subscales, overall Lequesne (r = 0.650), and Lequesne daily living activities (r = 0.620) subscales were high (r > 0.6), and moderate correlations were found between the HOOS-PS and WOMAC stiffness (r = 0.511), Lequesne pain (r = 0.569), and Lequesne-walking distance (r = 0.578) subscales (0.6 > r > 0.2), thus providing proof for the validity of the Turkish form. The Turkish HOOS-PS was found to be reliable and valid for patients with primary hip osteoarthritis. PMID:24026527

  8. Missing gene identification using functional coherence scores

    PubMed Central

    Chitale, Meghana; Khan, Ishita K.; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing metabolic and signaling pathways is an effective way of interpreting a genome sequence. A challenge in a pathway reconstruction is that often genes in a pathway cannot be easily found, reflecting current imperfect information of the target organism. In this work, we developed a new method for finding missing genes, which integrates multiple features, including gene expression, phylogenetic profile, and function association scores. Particularly, for considering function association between candidate genes and neighboring proteins to the target missing gene in the network, we used Co-occurrence Association Score (CAS) and PubMed Association Score (PAS), which are designed for capturing functional coherence of proteins. We showed that adding CAS and PAS substantially improve the accuracy of identifying missing genes in the yeast enzyme-enzyme network compared to the cases when only the conventional features, gene expression, phylogenetic profile, were used. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the accuracy improves by considering indirect neighbors to the target enzyme position in the network using a proper network-topology-based weighting scheme. PMID:27552989

  9. Chain functions and scoring functions in genetic networks.

    PubMed

    Gat-Viks, I; Shamir, R

    2003-01-01

    One of the grand challenges of system biology is to reconstruct the network of regulatory control among genes and proteins. High throughput data, particularly from expression experiments, may gradually make this possible in the future. Here we address two key ingredients in any such 'reverse engineering' effort: The choice of a biologically relevant, yet restricted, set of potential regulation functions, and the appropriate score to evaluate candidate regulatory relations. We propose a set of regulation functions which we call chain functions, and argue for their ubiquity in biological networks. We analyze their complexity and show that their number is exponentially smaller than all boolean functions of the same dimension. We define two new scores: one evaluating the fitness of a candidate set of regulators of a particular gene, and the other evaluating a candidate function. Both scores use established statistical methods. Finally, we test our methods on experimental gene expression data from the yeast galactose pathway. We show the utility of using chain functions and the improved inference using our scores in comparison to several extant scores. We demonstrate that the combined use of the two scores gives an extra advantage. We expect both chain functions and the new scores to be helpful in future attempts to infer regulatory networks. PMID:12855446

  10. Adaptive Transfer Function Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, J.R. |

    1993-06-01

    Real-time pattern classification and time-series forecasting applications continue to drive artificial neural network (ANN) technology. As ANNs increase in complexity, the throughput of digital computer simulations decreases. A novel ANN, the Adaptive Transfer Function Network (ATF-Net), directly addresses the issue of throughput. ATF-Nets are global mapping equations generated by the superposition of ensembles of neurodes having arbitrary continuous functions receiving encoded input data. ATF-Nets may be implemented on parallel digital computers. An example is presented which illustrates a four-fold increase in computational throughput.

  11. Adaptive Transfer Function Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, J.R. Portland State Univ., OR . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    Real-time pattern classification and time-series forecasting applications continue to drive artificial neural network (ANN) technology. As ANNs increase in complexity, the throughput of digital computer simulations decreases. A novel ANN, the Adaptive Transfer Function Network (ATF-Net), directly addresses the issue of throughput. ATF-Nets are global mapping equations generated by the superposition of ensembles of neurodes having arbitrary continuous functions receiving encoded input data. ATF-Nets may be implemented on parallel digital computers. An example is presented which illustrates a four-fold increase in computational throughput.

  12. Scoring function to predict solubility mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mutagenesis is commonly used to engineer proteins with desirable properties not present in the wild type (WT) protein, such as increased or decreased stability, reactivity, or solubility. Experimentalists often have to choose a small subset of mutations from a large number of candidates to obtain the desired change, and computational techniques are invaluable to make the choices. While several such methods have been proposed to predict stability and reactivity mutagenesis, solubility has not received much attention. Results We use concepts from computational geometry to define a three body scoring function that predicts the change in protein solubility due to mutations. The scoring function captures both sequence and structure information. By exploring the literature, we have assembled a substantial database of 137 single- and multiple-point solubility mutations. Our database is the largest such collection with structural information known so far. We optimize the scoring function using linear programming (LP) methods to derive its weights based on training. Starting with default values of 1, we find weights in the range [0,2] so that predictions of increase or decrease in solubility are optimized. We compare the LP method to the standard machine learning techniques of support vector machines (SVM) and the Lasso. Using statistics for leave-one-out (LOO), 10-fold, and 3-fold cross validations (CV) for training and prediction, we demonstrate that the LP method performs the best overall. For the LOOCV, the LP method has an overall accuracy of 81%. Availability Executables of programs, tables of weights, and datasets of mutants are available from the following web page: http://www.wsu.edu/~kbala/OptSolMut.html. PMID:20929563

  13. Patterns of adaptation to conflict and schizoid personality scale scores.

    PubMed

    Rubino, I Alex; Mascis, Maria Cristina; Siracusano, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    A previous investigation gave no evidence of a significant relationship of patterns of adaptation to conflict, as measured with the Serial Color-Word Test, with the Schizoid Personality Scale of the Coolidge Axis II Inventory. As a new scoring algorithm has subsequently been proposed for the latter scale, a replication was done with the modified schizoid scale. A group of 75 consecutive nonpsychotic women outpatients was given the Serial Color-Word Test and Coolidge's inventory. Both multiple and logistic regressions selected two significant predictors of schizoid personality, corresponding to high values of linear change in reading times during Trials 3 and 5 of the Serial Color-Word Test, i.e., to an increasingly rigid and inflexible style of the adaptive process. A multivariate analysis of variance yielded an effect size of .22 (partial eta2). PMID:16673973

  14. Adaptive multiconfigurational wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Evangelista, Francesco A.

    2014-03-28

    A method is suggested to build simple multiconfigurational wave functions specified uniquely by an energy cutoff Λ. These are constructed from a model space containing determinants with energy relative to that of the most stable determinant no greater than Λ. The resulting Λ-CI wave function is adaptive, being able to represent both single-reference and multireference electronic states. We also consider a more compact wave function parameterization (Λ+SD-CI), which is based on a small Λ-CI reference and adds a selection of all the singly and doubly excited determinants generated from it. We report two heuristic algorithms to build Λ-CI wave functions. The first is based on an approximate prescreening of the full configuration interaction space, while the second performs a breadth-first search coupled with pruning. The Λ-CI and Λ+SD-CI approaches are used to compute the dissociation curve of N{sub 2} and the potential energy curves for the first three singlet states of C{sub 2}. Special attention is paid to the issue of energy discontinuities caused by changes in the size of the Λ-CI wave function along the potential energy curve. This problem is shown to be solvable by smoothing the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian. Our last example, involving the Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2}{sup 2+} core, illustrates an alternative use of the Λ-CI method: as a tool to both estimate the multireference character of a wave function and to create a compact model space to be used in subsequent high-level multireference coupled cluster computations.

  15. Evaluation of a Comprehensive Delivery Room Neonatal Resuscitation and Adaptation Score (NRAS) Compared to the Apgar Score: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Jurdi, Shadi R; Jayaram, Archana; Sima, Adam P; Hendricks Muñoz, Karen D

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the interrater reliability and perceived importance of components of a developed neonatal adaption score, Neonatal Resuscitation Adaptation Score (NRAS), for evaluation of resuscitation need in the delivery room for extremely premature to term infants. Similar to the Apgar, the NRAS highest score was 10, but greater weight was given to respiratory and cardiovascular parameters. Evaluation of provider (N = 17) perception and scoring pattern was recorded for 5 clinical scenarios of gestational ages 23 to 40 weeks at 1 and 5 minutes and documenting NRAS and Apgar score. Providers assessed the tool twice within a 1-month interval. NRAS showed superior interrater reliability (P < .001) and respiratory component reliability (P < .001) for all gestational ages compared to the Apgar score. These findings identify an objective tool in resuscitation assessment of infants, especially those of smaller gestation age, allowing for greater discrimination of postbirth transition in the delivery room.

  16. Vinardo: A Scoring Function Based on Autodock Vina Improves Scoring, Docking, and Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Marcos A.

    2016-01-01

    Autodock Vina is a very popular, and highly cited, open source docking program. Here we present a scoring function which we call Vinardo (Vina RaDii Optimized). Vinardo is based on Vina, and was trained through a novel approach, on state of the art datasets. We show that the traditional approach to train empirical scoring functions, using linear regression to optimize the correlation of predicted and experimental binding affinities, does not result in a function with optimal docking capabilities. On the other hand, a combination of scoring, minimization, and re-docking on carefully curated training datasets allowed us to develop a simplified scoring function with optimum docking performance. This article provides an overview of the development of the Vinardo scoring function, highlights its differences with Vina, and compares the performance of the two scoring functions in scoring, docking and virtual screening applications. Vinardo outperforms Vina in all tests performed, for all datasets analyzed. The Vinardo scoring function is available as an option within Smina, a fork of Vina, which is freely available under the GNU Public License v2.0 from http://smina.sf.net. Precompiled binaries, source code, documentation and a tutorial for using Smina to run the Vinardo scoring function are available at the same address. PMID:27171006

  17. Five Methods to Score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist and to Examine Group Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ze; Rohrer, David; Chuang, Chi-ching; Fujiki, Mayo; Herman, Keith; Reinke, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 5 scoring methods in terms of their statistical assumptions. They were then used to score the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Checklist, a measure consisting of 3 subscales and 21 Likert-type items. The 5 methods used were (a) sum/average scores of items, (b) latent factor scores with continuous indicators, (c)…

  18. Psychometric Evaluation of the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and the Hip Outcome Score

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Aoki, Stephen K.; Anderson, Mike B.; Kapron, Ashley L.; Peters, Christopher L.; Pelt, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The applicability and validity of many patient-reported outcome measures in the high-functioning population are not well understood. Purpose: To compare the psychometric properties of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) and sports (HOS-sports), and the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test (LE CAT). The hypotheses was that all instruments would perform well but that the LE CAT would show superiority psychometrically because a combination of CAT and a large item bank allows for a high degree of measurement precision. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Data were collected from 472 advanced-age, active participants from the Huntsman World Senior Games in 2012. Validity evidences were examined through item fit, dimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, differential item functioning, person raw score to measure correlation, and instrument coverage (ie, ceiling and floor effects), and reliability evidences were examined through Cronbach alpha and person separation index. Results: All instruments demonstrated good item fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, and person raw score to measure correlations. The HOS-ADL had high ceiling effects of 36.02%, and the mHHS had ceiling effects of 27.54%. The LE CAT had ceiling effects of 8.47%, and the HOS-sports had no ceiling effects. None of the instruments had any floor effects. The mHHS had a very low Cronbach alpha of 0.41 and an extremely low person separation index of 0.08. Reliabilities for the LE CAT were excellent and for the HOS-ADL and HOS-sports were good. Conclusion: The LE CAT showed better psychometric properties overall than the HOS-ADL, HOS-sports, and mHHS for the senior population. The mHHS demonstrated pronounced ceiling effects and poor reliabilities that should be of concern. The high ceiling effects for the HOS-ADL were also of concern. The LE CAT was superior

  19. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Helen E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups…

  20. Are Medical Students Assigning Proper Global Assessment of Functioning Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warsi, Mustafa K.; Sattar, S. Pirzada; Din, Amad U.; Petty, Frederick; Padala, Prasad R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article seeks to determine whether medical students can estimate the appropriate score for the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) compared with psychiatry residents and staff psychiatrists. The authors hypothesized that medical students' estimations of GAF scores for patients in clinical vignettes would differ from those…

  1. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Helen E; Smith, Isabel M; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-09-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups (N = 289). At school entry, 24 % of children met criteria for intellectual disability (cognitive and adaptive behaviour scores <70). No children with both scores ≥70 at diagnosis later met criteria for intellectual disability. Outcomes were more variable for children with initial delays in both areas (in 57 %, both scores remained <70). Findings are relevant to clinical decision-making, including specification of intellectual disability in young children with ASD.

  2. Drug efficiency indices for improvement of molecular docking scoring functions.

    PubMed

    García-Sosa, Alfonso T; Hetényi, Csaba; Maran, Uko

    2010-01-15

    A dataset of protein-drug complexes with experimental binding energy and crystal structure were analyzed and the performance of different docking engines and scoring functions (as well as components of these) for predicting the free energy of binding and several ligand efficiency indices were compared. The aim was not to evaluate the best docking method, but to determine the effect of different efficiency indices on the experimental and predicted free energy. Some ligand efficiency indices, such as DeltaG/W (Wiener index), DeltaG/NoC (number of carbons), and DeltaG/P (partition coefficient), improve the correlation between experimental and calculated values. This effect was shown to be valid across the different scoring functions and docking programs. It also removes the common bias of scoring functions in favor of larger ligands. For all scoring functions, the efficiency indices effectively normalize the free energy derived indices, to give values closer to experiment. Compound collection filtering can be done prior or after docking, using pharmacokinetic as well as pharmacodynamic profiles. Achieving these better correlations with experiment can improve the ability of docking scoring functions to predict active molecules in virtual screening.

  3. Evaluation of molecular docking using polynomial empirical scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Dias, Raquel; Timmers, Luis Fernando Saraiva Macedo; Caceres, Rafael Andrade; de Azevedo, Walter Filgueira

    2008-12-01

    Molecular docking simulations are of pivotal importance for analysis of protein-ligand interactions and also an essential resource for virtual-screening initiatives. In molecular docking simulations several possible docked structures are generated, which create an ensemble of structures representing binary complexes. Therefore, it is crucial to find the best solution for the simulation. One approach to this problem is to employ empirical scoring function to identify the best docked structure. It is expected that scoring functions show a descriptive funnel-shaped energy surface without many false minima to impair the efficiency of conformational sampling. We employed this methodology against a test set with 300 docked structures. Docking simulations of these ligands against enzyme binding pocket indicated a funnel-shaped behavior of the complexation for this system. This review compares a set of recently proposed polynomial empirical scoring functions, implemented in a program called POLSCORE, with two popular scoring function programs (XSCORE and DrugScore). Overall comparison indicated that POLSCORE works better to predict the correct docked position, for the ensemble of docked structures analyzed in the present work.

  4. Force fields and scoring functions for carbohydrate simulation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiuming; Chen, Zhaoqiang; Cossins, Benjamin P; Xu, Zhijian; Shao, Qiang; Ding, Kai; Zhu, Weiliang; Shi, Jiye

    2015-01-12

    Carbohydrate dynamics plays a vital role in many biological processes, but we are not currently able to probe this with experimental approaches. The highly flexible nature of carbohydrate structures differs in many aspects from other biomolecules, posing significant challenges for studies employing computational simulation. Over past decades, computational study of carbohydrates has been focused on the development of structure prediction methods, force field optimization, molecular dynamics simulation, and scoring functions for carbohydrate-protein interactions. Advances in carbohydrate force fields and scoring functions can be largely attributed to enhanced computational algorithms, application of quantum mechanics, and the increasing number of experimental structures determined by X-ray and NMR techniques. The conformational analysis of carbohydrates is challengeable and has gone into intensive study in elucidating the anomeric, the exo-anomeric, and the gauche effects. Here, we review the issues associated with carbohydrate force fields and scoring functions, which will have a broad application in the field of carbohydrate-based drug design.

  5. Functional movement screen scores in a group of running athletes.

    PubMed

    Loudon, Janice K; Parkerson-Mitchell, Amy J; Hildebrand, Laurie D; Teague, Connie

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the mean values of the functional movement screen (FMS) in a group of long-distance runners. The secondary aims were to investigate whether the FMS performance differed between sexes and between young and older runners. Forty-three runners, 16 women (mean age = 33.5 years, height = 165.2 cm, weight = 56.3 kg, and body mass index [BMI] = 20.6) and 27 men (mean age = 39.3 years, height = 177.6 cm, weight = 75.8 kg, and BMI = 24.2) performed the FMS. All the runners were injury-free and ran >30 km·wk. Independent t-tests were performed on the composite scores to examine the differences between men and women and also between young (<40 years) and older runners (>40 years). Contingency tables (2 × 2) were developed for each of the 7 screening tests to further look at the differences in groups for each single test. The χ values were calculated to determine significant differences. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. There was no significant difference in the composite score between women and men. There were significant differences between the sexes in the push-up and straight leg test scores, with the women scoring better on each test. A significant difference was found in the composite scores between younger and older runners (p < 0.000). Additional score differences were found for the squat, hurdle step, and in-line lunge tests with the younger runners scoring better. This study provided mean values for the FMS in a cohort of long-distance runners. These values can be used as a reference for comparing FMST scores in other runners who are screened with this tool.

  6. Adaptive memory: thinking about function.

    PubMed

    Bell, Raoul; Röer, Jan P; Buchner, Axel

    2015-07-01

    Rating the relevance of words for the imagined situation of being stranded in the grasslands without survival material leads to exceptionally good memory for these words. This survival processing effect has received much attention because it promises to elucidate the evolutionary foundations of memory. However, the proximate mechanisms of the survival processing effect have to be identified before informed speculations about its adaptive function are possible. Here, we test and contrast 2 promising accounts of the survival processing effect. According to the 1st account, the effect is the consequence of the prioritized processing of threat-related information. According to the 2nd account, thinking about the relevance of items for survival stimulates thinking about object function, which is a particularly elaborate form of encoding. Experiment 1 showed that the emotional properties of the survival scenario, as manipulated by the negative or positive framing of the scenario, did not influence recall. A focus on threat at encoding led to worse recall than a focus on function. The latter finding was replicated in Experiment 2, which further showed that focusing on threat did not lead to a memory advantage over a pleasantness control condition. The beneficial effect of inducing a functional focus at encoding even surpasses that of the standard survival processing instruction. Together, the results support the theory that thinking about function is an important component of the survival processing effect. PMID:25419817

  7. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment…

  8. A new scoring function for top-down spectral deconvolution

    DOE PAGES

    Kou, Qiang; Wu, Si; Liu, Xiaowen

    2014-12-18

    Background: Top-down mass spectrometry plays an important role in intact protein identification and characterization. Top-down mass spectra are more complex than bottom-up mass spectra because they often contain many isotopomer envelopes from highly charged ions, which may overlap with one another. As a result, spectral deconvolution, which converts a complex top-down mass spectrum into a monoisotopic mass list, is a key step in top-down spectral interpretation. Results: In this paper, we propose a new scoring function, L-score, for evaluating isotopomer envelopes. By combining L-score with MS-Deconv, a new software tool, MS-Deconv+, was developed for top-down spectral deconvolution. Experimental results showedmore » that MS-Deconv+ outperformed existing software tools in top-down spectral deconvolution. Conclusions: L-score shows high discriminative ability in identification of isotopomer envelopes. Using L-score, MS-Deconv+ reports many correct monoisotopic masses missed by other software tools, which are valuable for proteoform identification and characterization.« less

  9. A new scoring function for top-down spectral deconvolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Qiang; Wu, Si; Liu, Xiaowen

    2014-12-18

    Background: Top-down mass spectrometry plays an important role in intact protein identification and characterization. Top-down mass spectra are more complex than bottom-up mass spectra because they often contain many isotopomer envelopes from highly charged ions, which may overlap with one another. As a result, spectral deconvolution, which converts a complex top-down mass spectrum into a monoisotopic mass list, is a key step in top-down spectral interpretation. Results: In this paper, we propose a new scoring function, L-score, for evaluating isotopomer envelopes. By combining L-score with MS-Deconv, a new software tool, MS-Deconv+, was developed for top-down spectral deconvolution. Experimental results showed that MS-Deconv+ outperformed existing software tools in top-down spectral deconvolution. Conclusions: L-score shows high discriminative ability in identification of isotopomer envelopes. Using L-score, MS-Deconv+ reports many correct monoisotopic masses missed by other software tools, which are valuable for proteoform identification and characterization.

  10. Validity and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Persian Version of the Oxford Elbow Score

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H.; Kachooei, Amir Reza; Vahedi, Ehsan; Moradi, Ali; Mashayekhi, Zeinab; Hallaj-Moghaddam, Mohammad; Azami, Mehran; Birjandinejad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is a patient-reported questionnaire used to assess outcomes after elbow surgery. The aim of this study was to validate and adapt the OES into Persian language. After forward-backward translation of the OES into Persian, a total number of 92 patients after elbow surgeries completed the Persian OES along with the Persian DASH and SF-36. To assess test-retest reliability, 31 randomly selected patients (34%) completed the Persian OES again after three days while abstaining from all forms of therapeutic regimens. Reliability of the Persian OES was assessed by measuring intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the construct validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.92 showing excellent reliability. Cronbach's alpha for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales was 0.95, 0.86, and 0.85, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.85 for the overall questionnaire and 0.90, 0.76, and 0.75 for function, pain, and social-psychological subscales, respectively. Construct validity was confirmed as the Spearman correlation between OES and DASH was 0.80. Persian OES is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measure to assess postsurgical elbow status in Persian speaking population. PMID:25214845

  11. Optimizing an emperical scoring function for transmembrane protein structure determination.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Malin M.; Sale, Kenneth L.; Gray, Genetha Anne; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2003-10-01

    We examine the problem of transmembrane protein structure determination. Like many other questions that arise in biological research, this problem cannot be addressed by traditional laboratory experimentation alone. An approach that integrates experiment and computation is required. We investigate a procedure which states the transmembrane protein structure determination problem as a bound constrained optimization problem using a special empirical scoring function, called Bundler, as the objective function. In this paper, we describe the optimization problem and some of its mathematical properties. We compare and contrast results obtained using two different derivative free optimization algorithms.

  12. Using Patterns of Summed Scores in Paper-and-Pencil Tests and Computer-Adaptive Tests to Detect Misfitting Item Score Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meijer, Rob R.

    2004-01-01

    Two new methods have been proposed to determine unexpected sum scores on sub-tests (testlets) both for paper-and-pencil tests and computer adaptive tests. A method based on a conservative bound using the hypergeometric distribution, denoted p, was compared with a method where the probability for each score combination was calculated using a…

  13. Deep Learning for Cerebellar Ataxia Classification and Functional Score Regression

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Zhong, Shenghua; Carass, Aaron; Ying, Sarah H.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebellar ataxia is a progressive neuro-degenerative disease that has multiple genetic versions, each with a characteristic pattern of anatomical degeneration that yields distinctive motor and cognitive problems. Studying this pattern of degeneration can help with the diagnosis of disease subtypes, evaluation of disease stage, and treatment planning. In this work, we propose a learning framework using MR image data for discriminating a set of cerebellar ataxia types and predicting a disease related functional score. We address the difficulty in analyzing high-dimensional image data with limited training subjects by: 1) training weak classifiers/regressors on a set of image subdomains separately, and combining the weak classifier/regressor outputs to make the decision; 2) perturbing the image subdomain to increase the training samples; 3) using a deep learning technique called the stacked auto-encoder to develop highly representative feature vectors of the input data. Experiments show that our approach can reliably classify between one of four categories (healthy control and three types of ataxia), and predict the functional staging score for ataxia. PMID:25553339

  14. Reformulating the entropic contribution in molecular docking scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Procacci, Piero

    2016-07-15

    We have derived, in the context of the Rigid Rotor Harmonic Approximation (RRHO), a general mass and Planck's constant h independent expression for the dissociation free energy in ligand-receptor systems, featuring a systematically (anti-binding) additive negative entropic term depending on readily available ligand-receptor quantities. The proposed RRHO expression allows to straightforwardly compute the absolute standard dissociation free energy without resorting to expensive normal mode analysis or other dynamical matrix-based techniques for evaluating the entropic contribution, hence providing an effective scoring function for assessing docking poses with no adjustable parameters. Our RRHO formula was tested on a set of 55 ligand-receptor systems obtaining correlation coefficients and unsigned mean errors comparable to or better than those obtained with computationally demanding techniques for the dissociation entropy assessment. The proposed compact reformulation of the RRHO entropy term could constitute the basis for new and more effective scoring functions in molecular docking-based high-throughput virtual screening for drug discovery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27231844

  15. Executive Function and Adaptive Behavior in Muenke Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yarnell, Colin M.P.; Addissie, Yonit A.; Hadley, Donald W.; Sacoto, Maria J. Guillen; Agochukwu, Nneamaka B.; Hart, Rachel A.; Wiggs, Edythe A.; Platte, Petra; Paelecke, Yvonne; Collmann, Hartmut; Schweitzer, Tilmann; Kruszka, Paul; Muenke, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate executive function and adaptive behavior in persons with Muenke syndrome using validated instruments with a normative population and unaffected siblings as controls. Study design Participants in a cross sectional study included individuals with Muenke syndrome (P250R mutation in FGFR3) and their mutation negative siblings. Participants completed validated assessments of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function; BRIEF) and adaptive behavior skills (Adaptive Behavior Assessment System; ABAS-II). Results Forty-four FGFR3 mutation positive individuals, median age 9 years, range 7 months to 52 years were enrolled. Additionally, 10 unaffected siblings were used as controls (5 males, 5 females, median age of 13 years, range 3 to 18 years). For the General Executive Composite scale of the BRIEF, 32.1% of the cohort had scores greater than +1.5 SD, signifying ―Potential Clinical Significance. For the General Adaptive Composite of the ABAS-II, 28.2% of affected individuals scored in the 3rd – 8th percentile of the normative population and 56.4% were below the ―Average category (less than the 25th percentile). Multiple regression analysis did not show that craniosynostosis was a predictor of BRIEF (P = 0.7) and ABAS-II scores (P = 0.7). In the sibling pair analysis, affected siblings performed significantly poorer in the BRIEF General Executive Composite and the ABAS-II General Adaptive Composite. Conclusion Individuals with Muenke syndrome are at an increased risk for developing adaptive and executive function behavioral changes when compared with a normative population and unaffected siblings. PMID:26028288

  16. Alertness function of thalamus in conflict adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Xue, Gui; Chen, Antao

    2016-05-15

    Conflict adaptation reflects the ability to improve current conflict resolution based on previously experienced conflict, which is crucial for our goal-directed behaviors. In recent years, the roles of alertness are attracting increasing attention when discussing the generation of conflict adaptation. However, due to the difficulty of manipulating alertness, very limited progress has been made in this line. Inspired by that color may affect alertness, we manipulated background color of experimental task and found that conflict adaptation significantly presented in gray and red backgrounds but did not in blue background. Furthermore, behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging results revealed that the modulation of color on conflict adaptation was implemented through changing alertness level. In particular, blue background eliminated conflict adaptation by damping the alertness regulating function of thalamus and the functional connectivity between thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In contrast, in gray and red backgrounds where alertness levels are typically high, the thalamus and the right IFG functioned normally and conflict adaptations were significant. Therefore, the alertness function of thalamus is determinant to conflict adaptation, and thalamus and right IFG are crucial nodes of the neural circuit subserving this ability. Present findings provide new insights into the neural mechanisms of conflict adaptation. PMID:26908318

  17. Adaptive Confidence Bands for Nonparametric Regression Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cai, T. Tony; Low, Mark; Ma, Zongming

    2014-01-01

    A new formulation for the construction of adaptive confidence bands in non-parametric function estimation problems is proposed. Confidence bands are constructed which have size that adapts to the smoothness of the function while guaranteeing that both the relative excess mass of the function lying outside the band and the measure of the set of points where the function lies outside the band are small. It is shown that the bands adapt over a maximum range of Lipschitz classes. The adaptive confidence band can be easily implemented in standard statistical software with wavelet support. Numerical performance of the procedure is investigated using both simulated and real datasets. The numerical results agree well with the theoretical analysis. The procedure can be easily modified and used for other nonparametric function estimation models. PMID:26269661

  18. Detecting DIF for Polytomously Scored Items: An Adaptation of the SIBTEST Procedure. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Hua-Hua; And Others

    Recently, R. Shealy and W. Stout (1993) proposed a procedure for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) called SIBTEST. Current versions of SIBTEST can only be used for dichotomously scored items, but this paper presents an extension to handle polytomous items. The paper presents: (1) a discussion of an appropriate definition of DIF for…

  19. On the Variance of the Optimal Alignments Score for Binary Random Words and an Asymmetric Scoring Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdré, Christian; Matzinger, Heinrich

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the order of the variance of the optimal alignments (OA) score of two independent iid binary random words having the same length. The letters are equiprobable, but the scoring function is such that one letter has a larger score than the other. In this setting, we prove that the order of variance is linear in the common length. OAs constitute a generalization of longest common subsequences, they can be represented as optimal paths in a two-dimensional last passage percolation setting with dependent weights.

  20. Pain's Impact on Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breau, L. M.; Camfield, C. S.; McGrath, P. J.; Finley, G. A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pain interferes with the functioning of typical children, but no study has examined its effect on children with pre-existing intellectual disabilities (ID). Methods: Caregivers of 63 children observed their children for 2-h periods and recorded in 1-week diaries: pain presence, cause, intensity and duration. Caregivers also recorded…

  1. Adaptive bandwidth measurements of importance functions for speech intelligibility prediction

    PubMed Central

    Whitmal, Nathaniel A.; DeRoy, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Articulation Index (AI) and Speech Intelligibility Index (SII) predict intelligibility scores from measurements of speech and hearing parameters. One component in the prediction is the “importance function,” a weighting function that characterizes contributions of particular spectral regions of speech to speech intelligibility. Previous work with SII predictions for hearing-impaired subjects suggests that prediction accuracy might improve if importance functions for individual subjects were available. Unfortunately, previous importance function measurements have required extensive intelligibility testing with groups of subjects, using speech processed by various fixed-bandwidth low-pass and high-pass filters. A more efficient approach appropriate to individual subjects is desired. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of measuring importance functions for individual subjects with adaptive-bandwidth filters. In two experiments, ten subjects with normal-hearing listened to vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) nonsense words processed by low-pass and high-pass filters whose bandwidths were varied adaptively to produce specified performance levels in accordance with the transformed up-down rules of Levitt [(1971). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 467–477]. Local linear psychometric functions were fit to resulting data and used to generate an importance function for VCV words. Results indicate that the adaptive method is reliable and efficient, and produces importance function data consistent with that of the corresponding AI/SII importance function. PMID:22225057

  2. Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning after Liver Transplantation for Maple Syrup Urine Disease: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Shellmer, D. A.; Dabbs, A. DeVito; Dew, M. A.; Noll, R. B.; Feldman, H.; Strauss, K.; Morton, D. H.; Vockley, G.; Mazariegos, G. V.

    2011-01-01

    MSUD is a complex metabolic disorder that has been associated with central nervous system damage, developmental delays, and neurocognitive deficits. Although liver transplantation provides a metabolic cure for MSUD, changes in cognitive and adaptive functioning following transplantation have not been investigated. In this report we present data from 14 patients who completed cognitive and adaptive functioning testing pre- and one year and/or three years post-liver transplantation. Findings show either no significant change or improvement in IQ scores pre- to post-liver transplantation. Greater variability was observed in adaptive functioning scores, but the majority of patients evidenced either no significant change or improvement in adaptive scores. In general, findings may indicate that liver transplantation curtails additional central nervous system damage and neurocognitive decline providing an opportunity for stabilization or improvement in functioning. PMID:20946191

  3. Bacterial Adaptation through Loss of Function

    PubMed Central

    Donnell, Zachary N.; Liu, Julia C.; Tavazoie, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic capabilities and regulatory networks of bacteria have been optimized by evolution in response to selective pressures present in each species' native ecological niche. In a new environment, however, the same bacteria may grow poorly due to regulatory constraints or biochemical deficiencies. Adaptation to such conditions can proceed through the acquisition of new cellular functionality due to gain of function mutations or via modulation of cellular networks. Using selection experiments on transposon-mutagenized libraries of bacteria, we illustrate that even under conditions of extreme nutrient limitation, substantial adaptation can be achieved solely through loss of function mutations, which rewire the metabolism of the cell without gain of enzymatic or sensory function. A systematic analysis of similar experiments under more than 100 conditions reveals that adaptive loss of function mutations exist for many environmental challenges. Drawing on a wealth of examples from published articles, we detail the range of mechanisms through which loss-of-function mutations can generate such beneficial regulatory changes, without the need for rare, specific mutations to fine-tune enzymatic activities or network connections. The high rate at which loss-of-function mutations occur suggests that null mutations play an underappreciated role in the early stages of adaption of bacterial populations to new environments. PMID:23874220

  4. Functional group based Ligand binding affinity scoring function at atomic environmental level

    PubMed Central

    Varadwaj, Pritish Kumar; Lahiri, Tapobrata

    2009-01-01

    Use of knowledge based scoring function (KBSF) for virtual screening and molecular docking has become an established method for drug discovery. Lack of a precise and reliable free energy function that describes several interactions including water-mediated atomic interaction between amino-acid residues and ligand makes distance based statistical measure as the only alternative. Till now all the distance based scoring functions in KBSF arena use atom singularity concept, which neglects the environmental effect of the atom under consideration. We have developed a novel knowledge-based statistical energy function for protein-ligand complexes which takes atomic environment in to account hence functional group as a singular entity. The proposed knowledge based scoring function is fast, simple to construct, easy to use and moreover it tackle the existing problem of handling molecular orientation in active site pocket. We have designed and used Functional group based Ligand retrieval (FBLR) system which can identify and detect the orientation of functional groups in ligand. This decoy searching was used to build the above KBSF to quantify the activity and affinity of high resolution protein-ligand complexes. We have proposed the probable use of these decoys in molecular build-up as a de-novo drug designing approach. We have also discussed the possible use of the said KSBF in pharmacophore fragment detection and pseudo center based fragment alignment procedure. PMID:19255647

  5. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales as a summary of functional outcome of extremely low-birthweight children.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, P; Saigal, S; Szatmari, P; Hoult, L

    1995-07-01

    This study reports moderate to high Pearson correlations between Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) subscale and total scores and a variety of cognitive, academic and motor performance tests on a population of extremely low-birthweight infants assessed at eight years of age. The subscales describe adaptive behaviour in daily living, communication, motor function and socialization, as well as an adaptive behaviour composite score. Because it can provide a norm-referenced description of functional outcomes and can be used to assess all children regardless of disability, the authors believe that the VABS should be applied uniformly by all groups reporting school-age outcome of neonatal intensive-care populations.

  6. Developmental functional adaptation to high altitude: review.

    PubMed

    Frisancho, A Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Various approaches have been used to understand the origins of the functional traits that characterize the Andean high-altitude native. Based on the conceptual framework of developmental functional adaptation which postulates that environmental influences during the period of growth and development have long lasting effects that may be expressed during adulthood, we initiated a series of studies addressed at determining the pattern of physical growth and the contribution of growth and development to the attainment of full functional adaptation to high-altitude of low and high altitude natives living under rural and urban conditions. Current research indicate that: (a) the pattern of growth at high altitude due to limited nutritional resources, physical growth in body size is delayed but growth in lung volumes is accelerated because of hypoxic stress); (b) low-altitude male and female urban natives can attain a full functional adaptation to high altitude by exposure to high-altitude hypoxia during the period of growth and development; (c) both experimental studies on animals and comparative human studies indicate that exposure to high altitude during the period of growth and development results in the attainment of a large residual lung volume; (d) this developmentally acquired enlarged residual lung volume and its associated increase in alveolar area when combined with the increased tissue capillarization and moderate increase in red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration contributes to the successful functional adaptation of the Andean high-altitude native to hypoxia; and (e) any specific genetic traits that are related to the successful functional adaptation of Andean high-altitude natives have yet to be identified.

  7. Reconstruction based finger-knuckle-print verification with score level adaptive binary fusion.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guangwei; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, David

    2013-12-01

    Recently, a new biometrics identifier, namely finger knuckle print (FKP), has been proposed for personal authentication with very interesting results. One of the advantages of FKP verification lies in its user friendliness in data collection. However, the user flexibility in positioning fingers also leads to a certain degree of pose variations in the collected query FKP images. The widely used Gabor filtering based competitive coding scheme is sensitive to such variations, resulting in many false rejections. We propose to alleviate this problem by reconstructing the query sample with a dictionary learned from the template samples in the gallery set. The reconstructed FKP image can reduce much the enlarged matching distance caused by finger pose variations; however, both the intra-class and inter-class distances will be reduced. We then propose a score level adaptive binary fusion rule to adaptively fuse the matching distances before and after reconstruction, aiming to reduce the false rejections without increasing much the false acceptances. Experimental results on the benchmark PolyU FKP database show that the proposed method significantly improves the FKP verification accuracy. PMID:24043391

  8. Adaptive Neurotechnology for Making Neural Circuits Functional .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ranu

    2008-03-01

    Two of the most important trends in recent technological developments are that technology is increasingly integrated with biological systems and that it is increasingly adaptive in its capabilities. Neuroprosthetic systems that provide lost sensorimotor function after a neural disability offer a platform to investigate this interplay between biological and engineered systems. Adaptive neurotechnology (hardware and software) could be designed to be biomimetic, guided by the physical and programmatic constraints observed in biological systems, and allow for real-time learning, stability, and error correction. An example will present biomimetic neural-network hardware that can be interfaced with the isolated spinal cord of a lower vertebrate to allow phase-locked real-time neural control. Another will present adaptive neural network control algorithms for functional electrical stimulation of the peripheral nervous system to provide desired movements of paralyzed limbs in rodents or people. Ultimately, the frontier lies in being able to utilize the adaptive neurotechnology to promote neuroplasticity in the living system on a long-time scale under co-adaptive conditions.

  9. Post-docking virtual screening of diverse binding pockets: comparative study using DOCK, AMMOS, X-Score and FRED scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, Tania; Soumana, Oumarou Samna; Pajeva, Ilza; Miteva, Maria A

    2010-06-01

    Most of the benchmark studies on docking-scoring methods reported in the last decade conclude that no single scoring function performs well across different protein targets. In this study a comparison of thirteen commonly used force field and empirical scoring functions as implemented in DOCK, AMMOS, X-Score and FRED is carried out on five proteins with diverse binding pockets. The performance is analyzed in relation to the physicochemical properties of the binding sites. The solvation effects are considered via the Generalized Born/Surface Area (GBSA) solvation method for one of the assessed scoring functions. We examined the ability of these scoring functions to discriminate between active and inactive compounds over receptor-based focused libraries. Our results demonstrated that the employed here empirical scoring functions were more appropriate for the pocket of predominant hydrophobic nature while the force field scoring functions performed better on the mixed or polar pockets.

  10. Improving personality facet scores with multidimensional computer adaptive testing: an illustration with the NEO PI-R.

    PubMed

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A W

    2013-02-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated facets. This article investigates the possibility of increasing the precision of the NEO PI-R facet scores by scoring items with multidimensional item response theory and by efficiently administering and scoring items with multidimensional computer adaptive testing (MCAT). The increase in the precision of personality facet scores is obtained from exploiting the correlations between the facets. Results indicate that the NEO PI-R could be substantially shorter without attenuating precision when the MCAT methodology is used. Furthermore, the study shows that the MCAT methodology is particularly appropriate for constructs that have many highly correlated facets.

  11. Score level fusion scheme based on adaptive local Gabor features for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A multimodal biometric system has been considered a promising technique to overcome the defects of unimodal biometric systems. We have introduced a fusion scheme to gain a better understanding and fusion method for a face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric system. In our case, we use particle swarm optimization to train a set of adaptive Gabor filters in order to achieve the proper Gabor basic functions for each modality. For a closer analysis of texture information, two different local Gabor features for each modality are produced by the corresponding Gabor coefficients. Next, all matching scores of the two Gabor features for each modality are projected to a single-scalar score via a trained, supported, vector regression model for a final decision. A large-scale dataset is formed to validate the proposed scheme using the Facial Recognition Technology database-fafb and CASIA-V3-Interval together with FVC2004-DB2a datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that as well as achieving further powerful local Gabor features of multimodalities and obtaining better recognition performance by their fusion strategy, our architecture also outperforms some state-of-the-art individual methods and other fusion approaches for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric systems.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and clinical validation of the Neonatal Skin Condition Score to Brazilian Portuguese 1

    PubMed Central

    Schardosim, Juliana Machado; Ruschel, Luma Maiara; da Motta, Giordana de Cássia Pinheiro; da Cunha, Maria Luzia Chollopetz

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation and clinical validation of the Neonatal Skin Condition Score. METHODS: this methodological cross-cultural adaptation study included five steps: initial translation, synthesis of the initial translation, back translation, review by an Committee of Specialists and testing of the pre-final version, and an observational cross-sectional study with analysis of the psychometric properties using the Adjusted Kappa, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, and Bland-Altman Method statistical tests. A total of 38 professionals were randomly recruited to review the clarity of the adapted instrument, and 47 newborns hospitalized in the Neonatology Unit of the Clinical Hospital of Porto Alegre were selected by convenience for the clinical validation of the instrument. RESULTS: the adapted scale showed approximately 85% clarity. The statistical tests showed moderate to strong intra and interobserver item to item reliability and from strong to very strong in the total score, with a variation of less than 2 points among the scores assigned by the nurses to the patients. CONCLUSIONS: the scale was adapted and validated to Brazilian Portuguese. The psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Neonatal Skin Condition Score instrument were similar to the validation results of the original scale. PMID:25493680

  13. Adaptive functional systems: Learning with chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komarov, M. A.; Osipov, G. V.; Burtsev, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    We propose a new model of adaptive behavior that combines a winnerless competition principle and chaos to learn new functional systems. The model consists of a complex network of nonlinear dynamical elements producing sequences of goal-directed actions. Each element describes dynamics and activity of the functional system which is supposed to be a distributed set of interacting physiological elements such as nerve or muscle that cooperates to obtain certain goal at the level of the whole organism. During "normal" behavior, the dynamics of the system follows heteroclinic channels, but in the novel situation chaotic search is activated and a new channel leading to the target state is gradually created simulating the process of learning. The model was tested in single and multigoal environments and had demonstrated a good potential for generation of new adaptations.

  14. Resting-state functional connectivity predicts longitudinal change in autistic traits and adaptive functioning in autism.

    PubMed

    Plitt, Mark; Barnes, Kelly Anne; Wallace, Gregory L; Kenworthy, Lauren; Martin, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Although typically identified in early childhood, the social communication symptoms and adaptive behavior deficits that are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) persist throughout the lifespan. Despite this persistence, even individuals without cooccurring intellectual disability show substantial heterogeneity in outcomes. Previous studies have found various behavioral assessments [such as intelligence quotient (IQ), early language ability, and baseline autistic traits and adaptive behavior scores] to be predictive of outcome, but most of the variance in functioning remains unexplained by such factors. In this study, we investigated to what extent functional brain connectivity measures obtained from resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) could predict the variance left unexplained by age and behavior (follow-up latency and baseline autistic traits and adaptive behavior scores) in two measures of outcome--adaptive behaviors and autistic traits at least 1 y postscan (mean follow-up latency = 2 y, 10 mo). We found that connectivity involving the so-called salience network (SN), default-mode network (DMN), and frontoparietal task control network (FPTCN) was highly predictive of future autistic traits and the change in autistic traits and adaptive behavior over the same time period. Furthermore, functional connectivity involving the SN, which is predominantly composed of the anterior insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate, predicted reliable improvement in adaptive behaviors with 100% sensitivity and 70.59% precision. From rs-fcMRI data, our study successfully predicted heterogeneity in outcomes for individuals with ASD that was unaccounted for by simple behavioral metrics and provides unique evidence for networks underlying long-term symptom abatement.

  15. Translation, cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Oxford Shoulder Score questionnaire for Brazil, among patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lima, Eider da Silva; Natour, Jamil; Moreira, Emilia; Jones, Anamaria

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Although shoulder questionnaires validated for Brazil do exist, none of them are aimed at populations with rheumatic disease. We believe that the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) may be useful in this population. The objective of this study was to translate the OSS, adapt it to Brazilian culture and test its reproducibility. DESIGN AND SETTING Validation study conducted in university outpatient clinics. METHODS The OSS was translated into Portuguese by two English teachers and was then retranslated into English by two native English teachers. These translations were reviewed by a committee to establish the version of OSS-Brazil to be administered to 30 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and shoulder pain, in order to test the cultural adaptation. The validity and reproducibility was tested among another 30 patients with RA and shoulder pain, of both genders and aged 18 to 65 years. The internal consistency and reproducibility were analyzed. The following instruments were evaluated: OSS-Brazil; a numerical scale for shoulder pain; DASH; HAQ and SF-36. RESULTS The internal consistency was 0.957 and the intra and inter-rater reproducibility was 0.917 and 0.861, respectively. A high level of correlation was found between OSS-Brazil and the following: HAQ (-0.663), DASH (-0.731) and the SF-36 domains of functional capacity (0.589), physical aspects (0.507), pain (0.624), general state of health (0.444), vitality (0.634) and mental health (0.578). CONCLUSION OSS-Brazil was successfully translated and adapted, and this version exhibited good internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. PMID:26648280

  16. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Dutch Version of the Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS-NL)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Valid and reliable questionnaires to assess hip and groin pain are lacking. The Hip and Groin Outcome Score (HAGOS) is a valid and reliable self-reported measure to assess symptoms, activity limitations, participation restrictions and quality of life of persons with hip and/or groin complaints. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the HAGOS into Dutch (HAGOS-NL), and to evaluate its internal consistency, validity and reliability. Methods Translation and cross-cultural adaption of the Dutch version of the HAGOS (HAGOS-NL) was performed according to international guidelines. The study population consisted of 178 adult patients who had undergone groin hernia repair surgery in the previous year. All respondents filled in the HAGOS-NL, the SF-36, and the SMFA-NL for determining construct validity of the HAGOS-NL. To determine reliability, 81 respondents filled in the HAGOS-NL after a time interval of two weeks. Results Factor analysis confirmed the original six-factor solution of the HAGOS. Internal consistency was good for all the subscales of the HAGOS-NL. High correlations were observed between the HAGOS-NL and the SF-36 and SMFA-NL, indicating good construct validity. The HAGOS-NL showed high reliability, except for the subscale Participation in Physical Activities which was moderate. Conclusions The HAGOS was successfully translated and cross-culturally adapted from English into Dutch (HAGOS-NL). This study shows that the HAGOS-NL is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of functional status and health-related quality of life in patients with groin complaints. PMID:26821266

  17. A quantum mechanics-based halogen bonding scoring function for protein-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhuo; Liu, Yingtao; Chen, Zhaoqiang; Xu, Zhijian; Shi, Jiye; Chen, Kaixian; Zhu, Weiliang

    2015-06-01

    A quantum mechanics-based scoring function for halogen bonding interaction, namely XBScore(QM), is developed based on 18,135 sets of geometrical and energetical parameters optimized at M06-2X/aug-cc-pVDZ level. Applying the function on typical halogen bonding systems from Protein Data Bank demonstrates its strong ability of predicting halogen bonding as attractive interaction with strength up to -4 kcal mol(-1). With a diverse set of proteins complexed with halogenated ligands, a systematic evaluation demonstrates the integrative advantage of XBScore(QM) over 12 other scoring functions on halogen bonding in four aspects, viz. pseudo docking power, ranking power, scoring power, and genuine docking power. Thus, this study not only provides a practicable scoring function of halogen bonding for high throughput virtual screening, but also serves as a benchmark for evaluating the performance of current scoring functions on characterizing halogen bonding.

  18. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, Karen L; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and ASD + ADHD (n = 38). Results demonstrated lower socialisation and composite scores and greater discrepancy between cognitive and adaptive abilities in the ASD + ADHD group compared to the ADHD-only group. Significant associations were shown between reduced adaptive functioning and autism symptoms, but not ADHD symptoms. Children with ASD + ADHD present with exacerbated impairments in adaptive functioning relative to children with ADHD, associated with ASD symptoms. Disentangling variation in adaptive skills may aid the assessment of complex cases.

  19. [Formula: see text]Intellectual and adaptive functioning in Sturge-Weber Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kavanaugh, Brian; Sreenivasan, Aditya; Bachur, Catherine; Papazoglou, Aimilia; Comi, Anne; Zabel, T Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the intellectual and adaptive functioning in a sample of children and young adults with Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS). A total of 80 research participants from a SWS study database underwent full neurological evaluation as part of their participation or concurrent medical care. Twenty-nine of the participants received neuropsychological evaluations. Analyses indicated no significant demographic or neurological differences between those who did and did not receive neuropsychological evaluations. Overall, the neuropsychological evaluation sample displayed significantly lower functioning relative to published normative data across domains of intellectual and adaptive functioning. Thirty-two percent of the sample displayed impaired performance (standard score ≤ 75) in intellectual functioning and 58% displayed impaired performance in adaptive functioning. Hemiparesis status independently predicted overall adaptive functioning while seizure frequency independently predicted overall intellectual functioning. Younger participants displayed significantly higher (more intact) ratings in adaptive functioning compared to older participants, specifically in overall adaptive functioning, motor skills, and community living skills. A composite measure of neurological status (SWS-NRS) incorporating seizure and hemiparesis status effectively distinguished between individuals with impaired or nonimpaired adaptive and intellectual functioning and showed promise as a screening method for identifying individuals with more involved intellectual and/or adaptive needs. PMID:25952468

  20. IQ Scores among Homeless Older Adolescents: Characteristics of Intellectual Performance and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Noell, John; Ochs, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Study showed IQ scores of homeless adolescents (N=50) were comparable to population means, and unrelated to the duration of homelessness. Higher scores were significantly correlated with only a minority of the measures of psychosocial functioning, including less self-reported depression, lower reported delinquency, and less self-control in…

  1. dMM-PBSA: A New HADDOCK Scoring Function for Protein-Peptide Docking.

    PubMed

    Spiliotopoulos, Dimitrios; Kastritis, Panagiotis L; Melquiond, Adrien S J; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Musco, Giovanna; Rocchia, Walter; Spitaleri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Molecular-docking programs coupled with suitable scoring functions are now established and very useful tools enabling computational chemists to rapidly screen large chemical databases and thereby to identify promising candidate compounds for further experimental processing. In a broader scenario, predicting binding affinity is one of the most critical and challenging components of computer-aided structure-based drug design. The development of a molecular docking scoring function which in principle could combine both features, namely ranking putative poses and predicting complex affinity, would be of paramount importance. Here, we systematically investigated the performance of the MM-PBSA approach, using two different Poisson-Boltzmann solvers (APBS and DelPhi), in the currently rising field of protein-peptide interactions (PPIs), identifying the correct binding conformations of 19 different protein-peptide complexes and predicting their binding free energies. First, we scored the decoy structures from HADDOCK calculation via the MM-PBSA approach in order to assess the capability of retrieving near-native poses in the best-scoring clusters and of evaluating the corresponding free energies of binding. MM-PBSA behaves well in finding the poses corresponding to the lowest binding free energy, however the built-in HADDOCK score shows a better performance. In order to improve the MM-PBSA-based scoring function, we dampened the MM-PBSA solvation and coulombic terms by 0.2, as proposed in the HADDOCK score and LIE approaches. The new dampened MM-PBSA (dMM-PBSA) outperforms the original MM-PBSA and ranks the decoys structures as the HADDOCK score does. Second, we found a good correlation between the dMM-PBSA and HADDOCK scores for the near-native clusters of each system and the experimental binding energies, respectively. Therefore, we propose a new scoring function, dMM-PBSA, to be used together with the built-in HADDOCK score in the context of protein-peptide docking

  2. dMM-PBSA: A New HADDOCK Scoring Function for Protein-Peptide Docking

    PubMed Central

    Spiliotopoulos, Dimitrios; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Melquiond, Adrien S. J.; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Musco, Giovanna; Rocchia, Walter; Spitaleri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Molecular-docking programs coupled with suitable scoring functions are now established and very useful tools enabling computational chemists to rapidly screen large chemical databases and thereby to identify promising candidate compounds for further experimental processing. In a broader scenario, predicting binding affinity is one of the most critical and challenging components of computer-aided structure-based drug design. The development of a molecular docking scoring function which in principle could combine both features, namely ranking putative poses and predicting complex affinity, would be of paramount importance. Here, we systematically investigated the performance of the MM-PBSA approach, using two different Poisson–Boltzmann solvers (APBS and DelPhi), in the currently rising field of protein-peptide interactions (PPIs), identifying the correct binding conformations of 19 different protein-peptide complexes and predicting their binding free energies. First, we scored the decoy structures from HADDOCK calculation via the MM-PBSA approach in order to assess the capability of retrieving near-native poses in the best-scoring clusters and of evaluating the corresponding free energies of binding. MM-PBSA behaves well in finding the poses corresponding to the lowest binding free energy, however the built-in HADDOCK score shows a better performance. In order to improve the MM-PBSA-based scoring function, we dampened the MM-PBSA solvation and coulombic terms by 0.2, as proposed in the HADDOCK score and LIE approaches. The new dampened MM-PBSA (dMM-PBSA) outperforms the original MM-PBSA and ranks the decoys structures as the HADDOCK score does. Second, we found a good correlation between the dMM-PBSA and HADDOCK scores for the near-native clusters of each system and the experimental binding energies, respectively. Therefore, we propose a new scoring function, dMM-PBSA, to be used together with the built-in HADDOCK score in the context of protein-peptide docking

  3. dMM-PBSA: A New HADDOCK Scoring Function for Protein-Peptide Docking

    PubMed Central

    Spiliotopoulos, Dimitrios; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Melquiond, Adrien S. J.; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Musco, Giovanna; Rocchia, Walter; Spitaleri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Molecular-docking programs coupled with suitable scoring functions are now established and very useful tools enabling computational chemists to rapidly screen large chemical databases and thereby to identify promising candidate compounds for further experimental processing. In a broader scenario, predicting binding affinity is one of the most critical and challenging components of computer-aided structure-based drug design. The development of a molecular docking scoring function which in principle could combine both features, namely ranking putative poses and predicting complex affinity, would be of paramount importance. Here, we systematically investigated the performance of the MM-PBSA approach, using two different Poisson–Boltzmann solvers (APBS and DelPhi), in the currently rising field of protein-peptide interactions (PPIs), identifying the correct binding conformations of 19 different protein-peptide complexes and predicting their binding free energies. First, we scored the decoy structures from HADDOCK calculation via the MM-PBSA approach in order to assess the capability of retrieving near-native poses in the best-scoring clusters and of evaluating the corresponding free energies of binding. MM-PBSA behaves well in finding the poses corresponding to the lowest binding free energy, however the built-in HADDOCK score shows a better performance. In order to improve the MM-PBSA-based scoring function, we dampened the MM-PBSA solvation and coulombic terms by 0.2, as proposed in the HADDOCK score and LIE approaches. The new dampened MM-PBSA (dMM-PBSA) outperforms the original MM-PBSA and ranks the decoys structures as the HADDOCK score does. Second, we found a good correlation between the dMM-PBSA and HADDOCK scores for the near-native clusters of each system and the experimental binding energies, respectively. Therefore, we propose a new scoring function, dMM-PBSA, to be used together with the built-in HADDOCK score in the context of protein-peptide docking

  4. A New, Improved Hybrid Scoring Function for Molecular Docking and Scoring Based on AutoDock and AutoDock Vina.

    PubMed

    Tanchuk, Vsevolod Yu; Tanin, Volodymyr O; Vovk, Andriy I; Poda, Gennady

    2016-04-01

    Automated docking is one of the most important tools for structure-based drug design that allows prediction of ligand binding poses and also provides an estimate of how well small molecules fit in the binding site of a protein. A new scoring function based on AutoDock and AutoDock Vina has been introduced. The new hybrid scoring function is a linear combination of the two scoring function components derived from a multiple linear regression fitting procedure. The scoring function was built on a training set of 2412 protein-ligand complexes from pdbbind database (www.pdbbind.org.cn, version 2012). A test set of 313 complexes that appeared in the 2013 version was used for validation purposes. The new hybrid scoring function performed better than the original functions, both on training and test sets of protein-ligand complexes, as measured by the non-parametric Pearson correlation coefficient, R, mean absolute error (MAE), and root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the experimental binding affinities and the docking scores. The function also gave one of the best results among more than 20 scoring functions tested on the core set of the pdbbind database. The new AutoDock hybrid scoring function will be implemented in modified version of AutoDock.

  5. Improving Educational Assessment: A Computer-Adaptive Multiple Choice Assessment Using NRET as the Scoring Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sie Hoe, Lau; Ngee Kiong, Lau; Kian Sam, Hong; Bin Usop, Hasbee

    2009-01-01

    Assessment is central to any educational process. Number Right (NR) scoring method is a conventional scoring method for multiple choice items, where students need to pick one option as the correct answer. One point is awarded for the correct response and zero for any other responses. However, it has been heavily criticized for guessing and failure…

  6. An automated multi-modal object analysis approach to coronary calcium scoring of adaptive heart isolated MSCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing; Ferns, Gordon; Giles, John; Lewis, Emma

    2012-02-01

    Inter- and intra- observer variability is a problem often faced when an expert or observer is tasked with assessing the severity of a disease. This issue is keenly felt in coronary calcium scoring of patients suffering from atherosclerosis where in clinical practice, the observer must identify firstly the presence, followed by the location of candidate calcified plaques found within the coronary arteries that may prevent oxygenated blood flow to the heart muscle. This can be challenging for a human observer as it is difficult to differentiate calcified plaques that are located in the coronary arteries from those found in surrounding anatomy such as the mitral valve or pericardium. The inclusion or exclusion of false positive or true positive calcified plaques respectively will alter the patient calcium score incorrectly, thus leading to the possibility of incorrect treatment prescription. In addition to the benefits to scoring accuracy, the use of fast, low dose multi-slice CT imaging to perform the cardiac scan is capable of acquiring the entire heart within a single breath hold. Thus exposing the patient to lower radiation dose, which for a progressive disease such as atherosclerosis where multiple scans may be required, is beneficial to their health. Presented here is a fully automated method for calcium scoring using both the traditional Agatston method, as well as the Volume scoring method. Elimination of the unwanted regions of the cardiac image slices such as lungs, ribs, and vertebrae is carried out using adaptive heart isolation. Such regions cannot contain calcified plaques but can be of a similar intensity and their removal will aid detection. Removal of both the ascending and descending aortas, as they contain clinical insignificant plaques, is necessary before the final calcium scores are calculated and examined against ground truth scores of three averaged expert observer results. The results presented here are intended to show the requirement and

  7. Configural Scoring of Simulator Sickness, Cybersickness and Space Adaptation Syndrome: Similarities and Differences?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Robert S.; Drexler, Julie M.; Compton, Daniel E.; Stanney, Kay M.; Lanham, Susan; Harm, Deborah L.

    2001-01-01

    From a survey of ten U.S. Navy flight simulators a large number (N > 1,600 exposures) of self-reports of motion sickness symptomatology were obtained. Using these data, scoring algorithms were derived, which permit examination of groups of individuals that can be scored either for 1) their total sickness experience in a particular device; or, 2) according to three separable symptom clusters which emerged from a Factor Analysis. Scores from this total score are found to be proportional to other global motion sickness symptom checklist scores with which they correlate (r = 0.82). The factors that surfaced from the analysis include clusters of symptoms referable as nausea, oculomotor disturbances, and disorientation (N, 0, and D). The factor scores may have utility in differentiating the source of symptoms in different devices. The present chapter describes our experience with the use of both of these types of scores and illustrates their use with examples from flight simulators, space sickness and virtual environments.

  8. Evaluation of ligand-binding affinity using polynomial empirical scoring functions.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Walter Filgueira; Dias, Raquel

    2008-10-15

    Assessing protein-ligand interaction is of great importance for virtual screening initiatives in order to discover new drugs. The present work describes a set of empirical scoring functions to assess the binding affinity, involving terms for intermolecular hydrogen bonds and contact surface. The results show that our methodology works better to predict protein-ligand affinity when compared with XSCORE, a popular empirical scoring function.

  9. A SCORING SYSTEM TO IMPROVE DECISION MAKING AND OUTCOMES IN THE ADAPTATION OF RECENTLY CAPTURED WHITE RHINOCEROSES (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM) TO CAPTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Kruger, Milandie; Kruger, Marius; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Buss, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Ninety-four subadult and adult white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) were captured between February and October, 2009-11, in Kruger National Park and placed in holding bomas prior to translocation to other locations within South Africa. A simple three-category system was developed based on appetite, fecal consistency/volume, and behavior to assess adaptation to bomas. Individual animal and group daily median scores were used to determine trends and when rhinoceroses had successfully adapted to the boma. Seventeen rhinoceroses did not adapt to boma confinement, and 16 were released (1 mortality). No differences in boma scores were observed between rhinoceroses that adapted and those that did not, until day 8, when the first significant differences were observed (adapted score=13 versus nonadapted score=10). The time to reach a boma score determined as successful adaptation (median 19 d) matched subjective observations, which was approximately 3 wk for most rhinoceroses. Unsuccessful adaptation was indicated by an individual boma score of less than 15, typically during the first 2 wk, or a declining trend in scores within the first 7-14 d. This scoring system can be used for most locations and could also be easily adapted to other areas in which rhinoceroses are held in captivity. This tool also provides important information for assessing welfare in newly captured rhinoceroses.

  10. A SCORING SYSTEM TO IMPROVE DECISION MAKING AND OUTCOMES IN THE ADAPTATION OF RECENTLY CAPTURED WHITE RHINOCEROSES (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM) TO CAPTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Kruger, Milandie; Kruger, Marius; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Buss, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Ninety-four subadult and adult white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) were captured between February and October, 2009-11, in Kruger National Park and placed in holding bomas prior to translocation to other locations within South Africa. A simple three-category system was developed based on appetite, fecal consistency/volume, and behavior to assess adaptation to bomas. Individual animal and group daily median scores were used to determine trends and when rhinoceroses had successfully adapted to the boma. Seventeen rhinoceroses did not adapt to boma confinement, and 16 were released (1 mortality). No differences in boma scores were observed between rhinoceroses that adapted and those that did not, until day 8, when the first significant differences were observed (adapted score=13 versus nonadapted score=10). The time to reach a boma score determined as successful adaptation (median 19 d) matched subjective observations, which was approximately 3 wk for most rhinoceroses. Unsuccessful adaptation was indicated by an individual boma score of less than 15, typically during the first 2 wk, or a declining trend in scores within the first 7-14 d. This scoring system can be used for most locations and could also be easily adapted to other areas in which rhinoceroses are held in captivity. This tool also provides important information for assessing welfare in newly captured rhinoceroses. PMID:26845302

  11. Global optimum protein threading with gapped alignment and empirical pair score functions.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, R H; Smith, T F

    1996-02-01

    We describe a branch-and-bound search algorithm for finding the exact global optimum gapped sequence-structure alignment ("threading") between a protein sequence and a protein core or structural model, using an arbitrary amino acid pair score function (e.g. contact potentials, knowledge-based potentials, potentials of mean force, etc.). The search method imposes minimal conditions on how structural environments are defined or the form of the score function, and allows arbitrary sequence-specific functions for scoring loops and active site residues. Consequently the search method can be used with many different score functions and threading methodologies; this paper illustrates five from the literature. On a desktop workstation running LISP, we have found the global optimum protein sequence-structure alignment in NP-hard search spaces as large as 9.6 x 10(31), at rates ranging as high as 6.8 x 10(28) equivalent threadings per second (most of which are pruned before they ever are examined explicitly). Continuing the procedure past the global optimum enumerates successive candidate threadings in monotonically increasing score order. We give efficient algorithms for search space size, uniform random sampling, segment placement probabilities, mean, standard deviation and partition function. The method should prove useful for structure prediction, as well as for critical evaluation of new pair score functions. PMID:8568903

  12. Radiation dose reduction for coronary artery calcium scoring at 320-detector CT with adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D.

    PubMed

    Tatsugami, Fuminari; Higaki, Toru; Fukumoto, Wataru; Kaichi, Yoko; Fujioka, Chikako; Kiguchi, Masao; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kihara, Yasuki; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    To assess the possibility of reducing the radiation dose for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring by using adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR 3D) on a 320-detector CT scanner. Fifty-four patients underwent routine- and low-dose CT for CAC scoring. Low-dose CT was performed at one-third of the tube current used for routine-dose CT. Routine-dose CT was reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and low-dose CT was reconstructed with AIDR 3D. We compared the calculated Agatston-, volume-, and mass scores of these images. The overall percentage difference in the Agatston-, volume-, and mass scores between routine- and low-dose CT studies was 15.9, 11.6, and 12.6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the routine- and low-dose CT studies irrespective of the scoring algorithms applied. The CAC measurements of both imaging modalities were highly correlated with respect to the Agatston- (r = 0.996), volume- (r = 0.996), and mass score (r = 0.997; p < 0.001, all); the Bland-Altman limits of agreement scores were -37.4 to 51.4, -31.2 to 36.4 and -30.3 to 40.9%, respectively, suggesting that AIDR 3D was a good alternative for FBP. The mean effective radiation dose for routine- and low-dose CT was 2.2 and 0.7 mSv, respectively. The use of AIDR 3D made it possible to reduce the radiation dose by 67% for CAC scoring without impairing the quantification of coronary calcification.

  13. Radiation dose reduction for coronary artery calcium scoring at 320-detector CT with adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D.

    PubMed

    Tatsugami, Fuminari; Higaki, Toru; Fukumoto, Wataru; Kaichi, Yoko; Fujioka, Chikako; Kiguchi, Masao; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kihara, Yasuki; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    To assess the possibility of reducing the radiation dose for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring by using adaptive iterative dose reduction 3D (AIDR 3D) on a 320-detector CT scanner. Fifty-four patients underwent routine- and low-dose CT for CAC scoring. Low-dose CT was performed at one-third of the tube current used for routine-dose CT. Routine-dose CT was reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and low-dose CT was reconstructed with AIDR 3D. We compared the calculated Agatston-, volume-, and mass scores of these images. The overall percentage difference in the Agatston-, volume-, and mass scores between routine- and low-dose CT studies was 15.9, 11.6, and 12.6%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the routine- and low-dose CT studies irrespective of the scoring algorithms applied. The CAC measurements of both imaging modalities were highly correlated with respect to the Agatston- (r = 0.996), volume- (r = 0.996), and mass score (r = 0.997; p < 0.001, all); the Bland-Altman limits of agreement scores were -37.4 to 51.4, -31.2 to 36.4 and -30.3 to 40.9%, respectively, suggesting that AIDR 3D was a good alternative for FBP. The mean effective radiation dose for routine- and low-dose CT was 2.2 and 0.7 mSv, respectively. The use of AIDR 3D made it possible to reduce the radiation dose by 67% for CAC scoring without impairing the quantification of coronary calcification. PMID:25754302

  14. Lymphoedema functioning, disability and health questionnaire Turkish version: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation

    PubMed Central

    Kostanoglu, Alis; Hosbay, Zeynep; Tarakci, Ela

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to adapt the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire into the Turkish language, and to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Turkish version in patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema. [Subjects and Methods] After the translation, inter-rater and test-retest reliability were assessed between patients and physiotherapists using the intra-class correlation coefficient. Thirty patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema were asked to fill out the Turkish version of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire two times, one week apart. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach’s alpha, and the test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient. Construct validity was investigated by comparing the results of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health and Short Form-36 questionnaires. [Results] The test-retest reliability and inter-tester reliability of the Lymphedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire total score, physical function score, mental function score, household activities score, mobility activities score, life and social activities score were excellent. [Conclusion] The Turkish version of the Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire was found to be valid and reliable for patients with breast cancer related lymphedema. PMID:27390404

  15. TRANSLATION TO PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE AND CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF THE MODIFIED ROWE SCORE FOR OVERHEAD ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Marcondes, Freddy Beretta; de Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Antunes; Marchetto, Adriano; de Andrade, André Luis Lugnani; Filho, Américo Zoppi; Etchebehere, Maurício

    2015-01-01

    Objetctive: Study was to translate and culturally adapt the modified Rowe score for overhead athletes. Methods: The translation and cultural adaptation process initially involved the stages of translation, synthesis, back-translation, and revision by the Translation Group. It was than created the pre-final version of the questionnaire, being the areas “function” and “pain” applied to 20 athletes that perform overhead movements and that suffered SLAP lesions in the dominant shoulder and the areas “active compression test and anterior apprehension test” and “motion” were applied to 15 health professionals. Results: During the translation process there were made little modifications in the questionnaire in order to adapt it to Brazilian culture, without changing the semantics and the idiomatic concept originally described. Conclusion: The questionnaire was easily understood by the subjects of the study, being possible to obtain the Brazilian version of the modified Rowe score for overhead athletes that underwent surgical treatment of the SLAP lesion. PMID:27047903

  16. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test.

    PubMed

    Liebeschuetz, John W; Cole, Jason C; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions.

  17. Pose prediction and virtual screening performance of GOLD scoring functions in a standardized test.

    PubMed

    Liebeschuetz, John W; Cole, Jason C; Korb, Oliver

    2012-06-01

    The performance of all four GOLD scoring functions has been evaluated for pose prediction and virtual screening under the standardized conditions of the comparative docking and scoring experiment reported in this Edition. Excellent pose prediction and good virtual screening performance was demonstrated using unmodified protein models and default parameter settings. The best performing scoring function for both pose prediction and virtual screening was demonstrated to be the recently introduced scoring function ChemPLP. We conclude that existing docking programs already perform close to optimally in the cognate pose prediction experiments currently carried out and that more stringent pose prediction tests should be used in the future. These should employ cross-docking sets. Evaluation of virtual screening performance remains problematic and much remains to be done to improve the usefulness of publically available active and decoy sets for virtual screening. Finally we suggest that, for certain target/scoring function combinations, good enrichment may sometimes be a consequence of 2D property recognition rather than a modelling of the correct 3D interactions. PMID:22371207

  18. In Lumbar Fusion Patients, How Does Establishing a Comfort Function Goal Preoperatively Impact Postoperative Pain Scores?

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Winnie; Wagner, Elizabeth; Dumas, Bonnie P; Handley, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to determine the impact of establishing a comfort function goal preoperatively on postoperative pain scores and opiate requirements in lumbar fusion patients. A comfort function goal is defined as the pain score identified by the patient describing the level of pain tolerance to participate in healing activities such as deep breathing, ambulation and participation in activities of daily living. The design was prospective, nonrandomized, intervention group (n = 30) compared with retrospective chart review as control group (n = 30). Sample included patients scheduled for routine lumbar fusion in an urban southeastern hospital. The study intervention established a comfort function goal during a routine preoperative patient education class. No significant difference in pain score or opiate requirement was found for these data. However, a fundamental clinical question arose surrounding opiate requirements and dosing management. In our hospital, the norm for postoperative pain management is to categorize pain scores as mild (1-3), moderate (4-6), and severe (7-10) pain. Physician orders commonly use this differential to order opiate dose ranges. In this sample, the mean pain score for the intervention group at home is 5.8 and the mean comfort function goal is 4.9. Based on normative categories of pain scores, if a patient's baseline of tolerable pain is 4.9, this has potential impact on clinician responses to managing pain, as 4.9-5.8 is, for this patient, perhaps a mild range of pain, not moderate. If a patient reports a pain score of 7, and their norm is 5.8, the delta is only 1.2. Does this imply that the patient is experiencing mild or severe pain? Does the nurse deliver a dose of pain medication that is in the mild or severe dose range? PMID:26293197

  19. Functional benefit of an adaptive myoelectric prosthetic hand compared to a conventional myoelectric hand.

    PubMed

    Bergman, K; Ornholmer, L; Zackrisson, K; Thyberg, M

    1992-04-01

    Eight patients with a traumatic unilateral upper limb amputation, who used conventional myoelectric prostheses, were also fitted with a commercially available myoelectric prosthetic hand with an adaptive grip, in order to compare the functional benefit of the two types of prostheses. Comparisons were made regarding width of grip, force of grip, scores in a standardised grip function test and prosthesis preference. The conventional prosthesis showed significantly better results regarding these parameters. The adaptive hand does not appear to be fully developed for practical use in prosthetic rehabilitation.

  20. Function-specific virtual screening for GPCR ligands using a combined scoring method

    PubMed Central

    Kooistra, Albert J.; Vischer, Henry F.; McNaught-Flores, Daniel; Leurs, Rob; de Esch, Iwan J. P.; de Graaf, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The ability of scoring functions to correctly select and rank docking poses of small molecules in protein binding sites is highly target dependent, which presents a challenge for structure-based drug discovery. Here we describe a virtual screening method that combines an energy-based docking scoring function with a molecular interaction fingerprint (IFP) to identify new ligands based on G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crystal structures. The consensus scoring method is prospectively evaluated by: 1) the discovery of chemically novel, fragment-like, high affinity histamine H1 receptor (H1R) antagonists/inverse agonists, 2) the selective structure-based identification of ß2-adrenoceptor (ß2R) agonists, and 3) the experimental validation and comparison of the combined and individual scoring approaches. Systematic retrospective virtual screening simulations allowed the definition of scoring cut-offs for the identification of H1R and ß2R ligands and the selection of an optimal ß-adrenoceptor crystal structure for the discrimination between ß2R agonists and antagonists. The consensus approach resulted in the experimental validation of 53% of the ß2R and 73% of the H1R virtual screening hits with up to nanomolar affinities and potencies. The selective identification of ß2R agonists shows the possibilities of structure-based prediction of GPCR ligand function by integrating protein-ligand binding mode information. PMID:27339552

  1. Function-specific virtual screening for GPCR ligands using a combined scoring method.

    PubMed

    Kooistra, Albert J; Vischer, Henry F; McNaught-Flores, Daniel; Leurs, Rob; de Esch, Iwan J P; de Graaf, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The ability of scoring functions to correctly select and rank docking poses of small molecules in protein binding sites is highly target dependent, which presents a challenge for structure-based drug discovery. Here we describe a virtual screening method that combines an energy-based docking scoring function with a molecular interaction fingerprint (IFP) to identify new ligands based on G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) crystal structures. The consensus scoring method is prospectively evaluated by: 1) the discovery of chemically novel, fragment-like, high affinity histamine H1 receptor (H1R) antagonists/inverse agonists, 2) the selective structure-based identification of ß2-adrenoceptor (ß2R) agonists, and 3) the experimental validation and comparison of the combined and individual scoring approaches. Systematic retrospective virtual screening simulations allowed the definition of scoring cut-offs for the identification of H1R and ß2R ligands and the selection of an optimal ß-adrenoceptor crystal structure for the discrimination between ß2R agonists and antagonists. The consensus approach resulted in the experimental validation of 53% of the ß2R and 73% of the H1R virtual screening hits with up to nanomolar affinities and potencies. The selective identification of ß2R agonists shows the possibilities of structure-based prediction of GPCR ligand function by integrating protein-ligand binding mode information. PMID:27339552

  2. Dynamic Network-Based Relevance Score Reveals Essential Proteins and Functional Modules in Directed Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Chou; Lin, Che

    2015-01-01

    The induction of stem cells toward a desired differentiation direction is required for the advancement of stem cell-based therapies. Despite successful demonstrations of the control of differentiation direction, the effective use of stem cell-based therapies suffers from a lack of systematic knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying directed differentiation. Using dynamic modeling and the temporal microarray data of three differentiation stages, three dynamic protein-protein interaction networks were constructed. The interaction difference networks derived from the constructed networks systematically delineated the evolution of interaction variations and the underlying mechanisms. A proposed relevance score identified the essential components in the directed differentiation. Inspection of well-known proteins and functional modules in the directed differentiation showed the plausibility of the proposed relevance score, with the higher scores of several proteins and function modules indicating their essential roles in the directed differentiation. During the differentiation process, the proteins and functional modules with higher relevance scores also became more specific to the neuronal identity. Ultimately, the essential components revealed by the relevance scores may play a role in controlling the direction of differentiation. In addition, these components may serve as a starting point for understanding the systematic mechanisms of directed differentiation and for increasing the efficiency of stem cell-based therapies. PMID:25977693

  3. A machine learning based method to improve docking scoring functions and its application to drug repurposing

    PubMed Central

    Kinnings, Sarah L.; Liu, Nina; Tonge, Peter J.; Jackson, Richard M.; Xie, Lei; Bourne, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Docking scoring functions are notoriously weak predictors of binding affinity. They typically assign a common set of weights to the individual energy terms that contribute to the overall energy score, however, these weights should be gene family-dependent. In addition, they incorrectly assume that individual interactions contribute towards the total binding affinity in an additive manner. In reality, noncovalent interactions often depend on one another in a nonlinear manner. In this paper we show how the use of support vector machines (SVMs), trained by associating sets of individual energy terms retrieved from molecular docking with the known binding affinity of each compound from high-throughput screening experiments, can be used to improve the correlation between known binding affinities and those predicted by the docking program eHiTS. We construct two prediction models; a regression model trained using IC50 values from BindingDB, and a classification model trained using active and decoy compounds from the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). Moreover, to address the issue of overrepresentation of negative data in high-throughput screening data sets, we have designed a multiple-planar SVM training procedure for the classification model. The increased performance that both SVMs give when compared with the original eHiTS scoring function highlights the potential for using nonlinear methods when deriving overall energy scores from their individual components. We apply the above methodology to train a new scoring function for direct inhibitors of M.tuberculosis (M.tb) InhA. By combining ligand binding site comparison with the new scoring function, we propose that phosphodiesterase inhibitors can potentially be repurposed to target M.tb InhA. Our methodology may be applied to other gene families for which target structures and activity data are available, as demonstrated in the work presented here. PMID:21291174

  4. Nonlinear functional approximation with networks using adaptive neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tawel, Raoul

    1992-01-01

    A novel mathematical framework for the rapid learning of nonlinear mappings and topological transformations is presented. It is based on allowing the neuron's parameters to adapt as a function of learning. This fully recurrent adaptive neuron model (ANM) has been successfully applied to complex nonlinear function approximation problems such as the highly degenerate inverse kinematics problem in robotics.

  5. Changes in functional movement screen scores over a season in collegiate soccer and volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Peter A; Mokha, G Monique; Gatens, Dustin R

    2014-11-01

    Changes in many aspects of physical capacity and athletic performance have been documented through the course of a competitive season in collegiate athletes. Movement pattern quality as measured by the functional movement screen (FMS) has recently been linked to performance and injury risk. The purpose of this study was to document the changes in functional movement patterns over a competitive season. Fifty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association Division II athletes were screened using the FMS as part of the pre and post participation examination for their competitive seasons in 2012. Composite and individual FMS test scores for the preseason and postseason were compared with identified significant changes. The scores were also analyzed for changes in the number of asymmetries present and the frequency of a score of 1 in any of the tests. There were no significant interactions in the main effects for time or sport in the composite FMS scores. However, 4 individual tests did show significant change. The deep squat (Z = -3.260, p = 0.001) and in-line lunge scores (Z = -3.498, p < 0.001) improved across all athletes, and the active straight leg raise (Z = -2.496, p = 0.013) and rotary stability scores (Z = -2.530, p = 0.011) worsened across all athletes. A reduction in the number of asymmetries (χ = 4.258, p = 0.039) and scores of 1 (χ = 26.148, p < 0.001) were also found. Changes in individual fundamental movement patterns occur through the course of a competitive season.

  6. Logistic Discriminant Function Analysis for DIF Identification of Polytomously Scored Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Timothy R.; Spray, Judith A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents logistic discriminant analysis as a means of detecting differential item functioning (DIF) in items that are polytomously scored. Provides examples of DIF detection using a 27-item mathematics test with 1,977 examinees. The proposed method is simpler and more practical than polytomous extensions of the logistic regression DIF procedure.…

  7. Validity and Reliability of Scores Obtained on Multiple-Choice Questions: Why Functioning Distractors Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Syed Haris; Carr, Patrick A.; Ruit, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    Plausible distractors are important for accurate measurement of knowledge via multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This study demonstrates the impact of higher distractor functioning on validity and reliability of scores obtained on MCQs. Freeresponse (FR) and MCQ versions of a neurohistology practice exam were given to four cohorts of Year 1 medical…

  8. Oxford Shoulder Score: A Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study of the Persian Version in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H.; Birjandinejad, Ali; Razi, Shiva; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Reza Kachooei, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxford shoulder score is a specific 12-item patient-reported tool for evaluation of patients with inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the shoulder. Since its introduction, it has been translated and culturally adapted in some Western and Eastern countries. The aim of this study was to translate the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) in Persian and to test its validity and reliability in Persian speaking population in Iran. Methods: One hundred patients with degenerative or inflammatory shoulder problem participated in the survey in 2012. All patients completed the Persian version of OSS, Persian DASH and the SF-36 for testing validity. Randomly, 37 patients filled out the Persian OSS again three days after the initial visit to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. Results: Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.93. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93. In terms of validity, there was a significant correlation between the Persian OSS and DASH and SF-36 scores (P<0.001). Conclusion: The Persian version of the OSS proved to be a valid, reliable, and reproducible tool as demonstrated by high Cronbach’s alpha and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The Persian transcript of OSS is administrable to Persian speaking patients with shoulder condition and it is understandable by them. PMID:26379346

  9. A comparison of depression scores between aesthetic and functional rhinoplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Naraghi, Mohsen; Atari, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a mood state of sadness, gloom, and pessimistic ideation with loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities. This mood disorder has been reported to occur more frequently among cosmetic surgery patients. The purpose of the current study was to compare the score of depression among aesthetic rhinoplasty candidates and functional rhinoplasty patients as control group. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Depression (DE) subscale of Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) were administered on a sample of aesthetic rhinoplasty patients (n=21) as well as a sample of functional rhinoplasty patients (n=21). Those with both cosmetic and functional purposes were categorized regarding their primary objective. Questionnaires were given to patients preoperatively. Cohen's d was also calculated as a measure of Effect Size (ES). BDI and SCL-90-R-DE scores were analyzed using t-test for independent groups. Statistical analyses suggested that the mean BDI and SCL-90-R-DE scores of aesthetic surgery patients were significantly higher than those of functional surgery patients (P<0.05). The results showed that age, sex, and Socio-Economic Status (SES) were not significantly different between the two groups as they can be capable of influencing the depression score. Effect size was above the moderate level: d=0.51, d=0.72 for BDI and SCL-90-R-DE, respectively. Using two different depression instruments, the findings of this study showed that aesthetic rhinoplasty patients were more depressed in comparison with functional rhinoplasty patients. The measures of ES also supported the hypothesis that aesthetic rhinoplasty candidates had higher scores in depression. PMID:25701068

  10. Comparative assessment of scoring functions on an updated benchmark: 1. Compilation of the test set.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liu, Zhihai; Li, Jie; Han, Li; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Zhixiong; Wang, Renxiao

    2014-06-23

    Scoring functions are often applied in combination with molecular docking methods to predict ligand binding poses and ligand binding affinities or to identify active compounds through virtual screening. An objective benchmark for assessing the performance of current scoring functions is expected to provide practical guidance for the users to make smart choices among available methods. It can also elucidate the common weakness in current methods for future improvements. The primary goal of our comparative assessment of scoring functions (CASF) project is to provide a high-standard, publicly accessible benchmark of this type. Our latest study, i.e., CASF-2013, evaluated 20 popular scoring functions on an updated set of protein-ligand complexes. This data set was selected out of 8302 protein-ligand complexes recorded in the PDBbind database (version 2013) through a fairly complicated process. Sample selection was made by considering the quality of complex structures as well as binding data. Finally, qualified complexes were clustered by 90% similarity in protein sequences. Three representative complexes were chosen from each cluster to control sample redundancy. The final outcome, namely, the PDBbind core set (version 2013), consists of 195 protein-ligand complexes in 65 clusters with binding constants spanning nearly 10 orders of magnitude. In this data set, 82% of the ligand molecules are "druglike" and 78% of the protein molecules are validated or potential drug targets. Correlation between binding constants and several key properties of ligands are discussed. Methods and results of the scoring function evaluation will be described in a companion work in this issue (doi: 10.1021/ci500081m ). PMID:24716849

  11. A comparison of depression scores between aesthetic and functional rhinoplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Naraghi, Mohsen; Atari, Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Depression is a mood state of sadness, gloom, and pessimistic ideation with loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities. This mood disorder has been reported to occur more frequently among cosmetic surgery patients. The purpose of the current study was to compare the score of depression among aesthetic rhinoplasty candidates and functional rhinoplasty patients as control group. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Depression (DE) subscale of Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) were administered on a sample of aesthetic rhinoplasty patients (n=21) as well as a sample of functional rhinoplasty patients (n=21). Those with both cosmetic and functional purposes were categorized regarding their primary objective. Questionnaires were given to patients preoperatively. Cohen's d was also calculated as a measure of Effect Size (ES). BDI and SCL-90-R-DE scores were analyzed using t-test for independent groups. Statistical analyses suggested that the mean BDI and SCL-90-R-DE scores of aesthetic surgery patients were significantly higher than those of functional surgery patients (P<0.05). The results showed that age, sex, and Socio-Economic Status (SES) were not significantly different between the two groups as they can be capable of influencing the depression score. Effect size was above the moderate level: d=0.51, d=0.72 for BDI and SCL-90-R-DE, respectively. Using two different depression instruments, the findings of this study showed that aesthetic rhinoplasty patients were more depressed in comparison with functional rhinoplasty patients. The measures of ES also supported the hypothesis that aesthetic rhinoplasty candidates had higher scores in depression.

  12. The development and validation of a questionnaire for rotator cuff disorders: The Functional Shoulder Score

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Edward F; Petrou, Charalambos; Galanos, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to validate the Functional Shoulder Score (FSS), a new patient-reported outcome score specifically designed to evaluate patients with rotator cuff disorders. Methods One hundred and nineteen patients were assessed using two shoulder scoring systems [the FSS and the Constant–Murley Score (CMS)] at 3 weeks pre- and 6 months post-arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery. The reliability, validity, responsiveness and interpretability of the FSS were evaluated. Results Reliability analysis (test–retest) showed an intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.96 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.92 to 0.98]. Internal consistency analysis revealed a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.93. The Pearson correlation coefficient FSS-CMS was 0.782 pre-operatively and 0.737 postoperatively (p < 0.0005). There was a statistically significant increase in FSS scores postoperatively, an effect size of 3.06 and standardized response mean of 2.80. The value for minimal detectable change was ±8.38 scale points (based on a 90% CI) and the minimal clinically important difference for improvement was 24.7 ± 5.4 points. Conclusions The FSS is a patient-reported outcome measure that can easily be incorporated into clinical practice, providing a quick, reliable, valid and practical measure for rotator cuff problems. The questionnaire is highly sensitive to clinical change. PMID:27582986

  13. The effect of an intervention program on functional movement screen test scores in mixed martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Bodden, Jamie G; Needham, Robert A; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the basic fundamental movements of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes using the functional movement screen (FMS) assessment and determined if an intervention program was successful at improving results. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control groups. The intervention group was required to complete a corrective exercise program 4 times per week, and all participants were asked to continue their usual MMA training routine. A mid-intervention FMS test was included to examine if successful results were noticed sooner than the 8-week period. Results highlighted differences in FMS test scores between the control group and intervention group (p = 0.006). Post hoc testing revealed a significant increase in the FMS score of the intervention group between weeks 0 and 8 (p = 0.00) and weeks 0 and 4 (p = 0.00) and no significant increase between weeks 4 and 8 (p = 1.00). A χ analysis revealed that the intervention group participants were more likely to have an FMS score >14 than participants in the control group at week 4 (χ = 7.29, p < 0.01) and week 8 (χ = 5.2, p ≤ 0.05). Finally, a greater number of participants in the intervention group were free from asymmetry at week 4 and week 8 compared with the initial test period. The results of the study suggested that a 4-week intervention program was sufficient at improving FMS scores. Most if not all, the movements covered on the FMS relate to many aspects of MMA training. The knowledge that the FMS can identify movement dysfunctions and, furthermore, the fact that the issues can be improved through a standardized intervention program could be advantageous to MMA coaches, thus, providing the opportunity to adapt and implement new additions to training programs. PMID:23860293

  14. The effect of an intervention program on functional movement screen test scores in mixed martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Bodden, Jamie G; Needham, Robert A; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the basic fundamental movements of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes using the functional movement screen (FMS) assessment and determined if an intervention program was successful at improving results. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control groups. The intervention group was required to complete a corrective exercise program 4 times per week, and all participants were asked to continue their usual MMA training routine. A mid-intervention FMS test was included to examine if successful results were noticed sooner than the 8-week period. Results highlighted differences in FMS test scores between the control group and intervention group (p = 0.006). Post hoc testing revealed a significant increase in the FMS score of the intervention group between weeks 0 and 8 (p = 0.00) and weeks 0 and 4 (p = 0.00) and no significant increase between weeks 4 and 8 (p = 1.00). A χ analysis revealed that the intervention group participants were more likely to have an FMS score >14 than participants in the control group at week 4 (χ = 7.29, p < 0.01) and week 8 (χ = 5.2, p ≤ 0.05). Finally, a greater number of participants in the intervention group were free from asymmetry at week 4 and week 8 compared with the initial test period. The results of the study suggested that a 4-week intervention program was sufficient at improving FMS scores. Most if not all, the movements covered on the FMS relate to many aspects of MMA training. The knowledge that the FMS can identify movement dysfunctions and, furthermore, the fact that the issues can be improved through a standardized intervention program could be advantageous to MMA coaches, thus, providing the opportunity to adapt and implement new additions to training programs.

  15. Tests of executive functioning predict scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    PubMed

    Deckel, A W

    1999-02-01

    1. Previous work reported that tests of executive functioning (EF) predict the risk of alcoholism in subject populations selected for a "high density" of a family history of alcoholism and/or the presence of sociopathic traits. The current experiment examined the ability of EF tests to predict the risk of alcoholism, as measured by the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC), in outpatient subjects referred to a general neuropsychological testing service. 2. Sixty-eight male and female subjects referred for neuropsychological testing were assessed for their past drinking histories and administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Trails (Part B) Test, and the MAC. Principal Components analysis (PCA) reduced the number of EF tests to two measures, including one that loaded on the WCST, and one that loaded on the Similarities, Picture Arrangement, and Trails tests. Multiple hierarchical regression first removed the variance from demographic variables, alcohol consumption, and verbal (i.e., Vocabulary) and non-verbal (i.e., Block Design) IQ, and then entered the executive functioning factors into the prediction of the MAC. 3. Seventy-six percent of the subjects were classified as either light, infrequent, or non-drinkers on the Quantity-Frequency-Variability scale. The factor derived from the WCST on PCA significantly added to the prediction of risk on the MAC (p = .0063), as did scores on Block Design (p = .033). Relatively more impaired scores on the WCST factor and Block Design were predictive of higher scores on the MAC. The other factors were not associated with MAC scores. 4. These results support the hypothesis that decrements in EF are associated with risk factors for alcoholism, even in populations where the density of alcoholic behaviors are not unusually high. When taken in conjunction with other findings, these results implicate EF test scores, and prefrontal brain functioning, in the neurobiology of the risk for

  16. Adaptive function allocation reduces performance costs of static automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parasuraman, Raja; Mouloua, Mustapha; Molloy, Robert; Hilburn, Brian

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive automation offers the option of flexible function allocation between the pilot and on-board computer systems. One of the important claims for the superiority of adaptive over static automation is that such systems do not suffer from some of the drawbacks associated with conventional function allocation. Several experiments designed to test this claim are reported in this article. The efficacy of adaptive function allocation was examined using a laboratory flight-simulation task involving multiple functions of tracking, fuel-management, and systems monitoring. The results show that monitoring inefficiency represents one of the performance costs of static automation. Adaptive function allocation can reduce the performance cost associated with long-term static automation.

  17. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. Aim To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Materials and Methods Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. Results There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (p< 0.05, significant) which indicates that mindfulness meditation is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system and can thereby reduce the day-to-day perceived stress in pregnant women. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy. PMID:27190795

  18. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Morris J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6 years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System—Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine

  19. Application of independent component analysis for speech-music separation using an efficient score function estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishravian, Arash; Aghabozorgi Sahaf, Masoud Reza

    2012-12-01

    In this paper speech-music separation using Blind Source Separation is discussed. The separating algorithm is based on the mutual information minimization where the natural gradient algorithm is used for minimization. In order to do that, score function estimation from observation signals (combination of speech and music) samples is needed. The accuracy and the speed of the mentioned estimation will affect on the quality of the separated signals and the processing time of the algorithm. The score function estimation in the presented algorithm is based on Gaussian mixture based kernel density estimation method. The experimental results of the presented algorithm on the speech-music separation and comparing to the separating algorithm which is based on the Minimum Mean Square Error estimator, indicate that it can cause better performance and less processing time

  20. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-09-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  1. A candidate multimodal functional genetic network for thermal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Rachana; Prajapati, Indira; Bankston, Shannon; Thompson, Aprylle; Usher, Jaytriece; Isokpehi, Raphael D.

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate ectotherms such as reptiles provide ideal organisms for the study of adaptation to environmental thermal change. Comparative genomic and exomic studies can recover markers that diverge between warm and cold adapted lineages, but the genes that are functionally related to thermal adaptation may be difficult to identify. We here used a bioinformatics genome-mining approach to predict and identify functions for suitable candidate markers for thermal adaptation in the chicken. We first established a framework of candidate functions for such markers, and then compiled the literature on genes known to adapt to the thermal environment in different lineages of vertebrates. We then identified them in the genomes of human, chicken, and the lizard Anolis carolinensis, and established a functional genetic interaction network in the chicken. Surprisingly, markers initially identified from diverse lineages of vertebrates such as human and fish were all in close functional relationship with each other and more associated than expected by chance. This indicates that the general genetic functional network for thermoregulation and/or thermal adaptation to the environment might be regulated via similar evolutionarily conserved pathways in different vertebrate lineages. We were able to identify seven functions that were statistically overrepresented in this network, corresponding to four of our originally predicted functions plus three unpredicted functions. We describe this network as multimodal: central regulator genes with the function of relaying thermal signal (1), affect genes with different cellular functions, namely (2) lipoprotein metabolism, (3) membrane channels, (4) stress response, (5) response to oxidative stress, (6) muscle contraction and relaxation, and (7) vasodilation, vasoconstriction and regulation of blood pressure. This network constitutes a novel resource for the study of thermal adaptation in the closely related nonavian reptiles and other

  2. A candidate multimodal functional genetic network for thermal adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg Valero, Katharina C; Pathak, Rachana; Prajapati, Indira; Bankston, Shannon; Thompson, Aprylle; Usher, Jaytriece; Isokpehi, Raphael D

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate ectotherms such as reptiles provide ideal organisms for the study of adaptation to environmental thermal change. Comparative genomic and exomic studies can recover markers that diverge between warm and cold adapted lineages, but the genes that are functionally related to thermal adaptation may be difficult to identify. We here used a bioinformatics genome-mining approach to predict and identify functions for suitable candidate markers for thermal adaptation in the chicken. We first established a framework of candidate functions for such markers, and then compiled the literature on genes known to adapt to the thermal environment in different lineages of vertebrates. We then identified them in the genomes of human, chicken, and the lizard Anolis carolinensis, and established a functional genetic interaction network in the chicken. Surprisingly, markers initially identified from diverse lineages of vertebrates such as human and fish were all in close functional relationship with each other and more associated than expected by chance. This indicates that the general genetic functional network for thermoregulation and/or thermal adaptation to the environment might be regulated via similar evolutionarily conserved pathways in different vertebrate lineages. We were able to identify seven functions that were statistically overrepresented in this network, corresponding to four of our originally predicted functions plus three unpredicted functions. We describe this network as multimodal: central regulator genes with the function of relaying thermal signal (1), affect genes with different cellular functions, namely (2) lipoprotein metabolism, (3) membrane channels, (4) stress response, (5) response to oxidative stress, (6) muscle contraction and relaxation, and (7) vasodilation, vasoconstriction and regulation of blood pressure. This network constitutes a novel resource for the study of thermal adaptation in the closely related nonavian reptiles and other

  3. Fast adaptive estimation of multidimensional psychometric functions.

    PubMed

    DiMattina, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recently in vision science there has been great interest in understanding the perceptual representations of complex multidimensional stimuli. Therefore, it is becoming very important to develop methods for performing psychophysical experiments with multidimensional stimuli and efficiently estimating psychometric models that have multiple free parameters. In this methodological study, I analyze three efficient implementations of the popular Ψ method for adaptive data collection, two of which are novel approaches to psychophysical experiments. Although the standard implementation of the Ψ procedure is intractable in higher dimensions, I demonstrate that my implementations generalize well to complex psychometric models defined in multidimensional stimulus spaces and can be implemented very efficiently on standard laboratory computers. I show that my implementations may be of particular use for experiments studying how subjects combine multiple cues to estimate sensory quantities. I discuss strategies for speeding up experiments and suggest directions for future research in this rapidly growing area at the intersection of cognitive science, neuroscience, and machine learning.

  4. Fast adaptive estimation of multidimensional psychometric functions.

    PubMed

    DiMattina, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Recently in vision science there has been great interest in understanding the perceptual representations of complex multidimensional stimuli. Therefore, it is becoming very important to develop methods for performing psychophysical experiments with multidimensional stimuli and efficiently estimating psychometric models that have multiple free parameters. In this methodological study, I analyze three efficient implementations of the popular Ψ method for adaptive data collection, two of which are novel approaches to psychophysical experiments. Although the standard implementation of the Ψ procedure is intractable in higher dimensions, I demonstrate that my implementations generalize well to complex psychometric models defined in multidimensional stimulus spaces and can be implemented very efficiently on standard laboratory computers. I show that my implementations may be of particular use for experiments studying how subjects combine multiple cues to estimate sensory quantities. I discuss strategies for speeding up experiments and suggest directions for future research in this rapidly growing area at the intersection of cognitive science, neuroscience, and machine learning. PMID:26200886

  5. RAId_aPS: MS/MS analysis with multiple scoring functions and spectrum-specific statistics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Gelio; Ogurtsov, Aleksey Y; Yu, Yi-Kuo

    2010-11-16

    Statistically meaningful comparison/combination of peptide identification results from various search methods is impeded by the lack of a universal statistical standard. Providing an E-value calibration protocol, we demonstrated earlier the feasibility of translating either the score or heuristic E-value reported by any method into the textbook-defined E-value, which may serve as the universal statistical standard. This protocol, although robust, may lose spectrum-specific statistics and might require a new calibration when changes in experimental setup occur. To mitigate these issues, we developed a new MS/MS search tool, RAId_aPS, that is able to provide spectrum-specific-values for additive scoring functions. Given a selection of scoring functions out of RAId score, K-score, Hyperscore and XCorr, RAId_aPS generates the corresponding score histograms of all possible peptides using dynamic programming. Using these score histograms to assign E-values enables a calibration-free protocol for accurate significance assignment for each scoring function. RAId_aPS features four different modes: (i) compute the total number of possible peptides for a given molecular mass range, (ii) generate the score histogram given a MS/MS spectrum and a scoring function, (iii) reassign E-values for a list of candidate peptides given a MS/MS spectrum and the scoring functions chosen, and (iv) perform database searches using selected scoring functions. In modes (iii) and (iv), RAId_aPS is also capable of combining results from different scoring functions using spectrum-specific statistics. The web link is http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CBBresearch/Yu/raid_aps/index.html. Relevant binaries for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X are available from the same page.

  6. The role of emotion perception in adaptive functioning of people with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hudepohl, Margaret B; Robins, Diana L; King, Tricia Z; Henrich, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning has historically been used to predict adaptive outcomes of people with autism spectrum disorders; however, research shows that it is not a complete predictor. The current study explored whether emotion perception was a predictor of adaptive outcomes, and more specifically, hypothesized that emotion perception (Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy-2 error scores) would mediate adaptive functioning of people with autism spectrum disorder (Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition). People with autism spectrum disorders demonstrated significantly lower adaptive functioning and emotion perception skills compared to typically developing individuals. Emotion perception acted as a significant mediator for socialization, but not communication or daily living skills, highlighting that in people with autism spectrum disorders, lower socialization abilities is the result, in part, of emotion perception deficits. It was unexpected that emotion perception was not a mediator for communication skills. This may be related to sample restrictions, or the narrow focus on emotion perception. Future research should involve a larger, more inclusive autism spectrum disorder sample, broaden approaches to exploring relationships between social perception and adaptive outcomes, and relate findings to brain mechanisms underlying emotion perception. PMID:24335115

  7. Function approximation using adaptive and overlapping intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, R.B.

    1995-05-01

    A problem common to many disciplines is to approximate a function given only the values of the function at various points in input variable space. A method is proposed for approximating a function of several to one variable. The model takes the form of weighted averaging of overlapping basis functions defined over intervals. The number of such basis functions and their parameters (widths and centers) are automatically determined using given training data and a learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm can be seen as placing a nonuniform multidimensional grid in the input domain with overlapping cells. The non-uniformity and overlap of the cells is achieved by a learning algorithm to optimize a given objective function. This approach is motivated by the fuzzy modeling approach and a learning algorithms used for clustering and classification in pattern recognition. The basics of why and how the approach works are given. Few examples of nonlinear regression and classification are modeled. The relationship between the proposed technique, radial basis neural networks, kernel regression, probabilistic neural networks, and fuzzy modeling is explained. Finally advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  8. Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Severity on Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning during Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Renee; Chernoff, Miriam; Williams, Paige L.; Malee, Kathleen M.; Sirois, Patricia A.; Kammerer, Betsy; Wilkins, Megan; Nichols, Sharon; Mellins, Claude; Usitalo, Ann; Garvie, Patricia; Rutstein, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of disease severity on cognitive and adaptive functioning in perinatally infected youth with (PHIV+/C) and without (PHIV+/NoC) a previous AIDS-defining illness (CDC Class C event), compared to perinatally exposed but uninfected youth (PHEU) is not well understood. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of cognitive and adaptive functioning in PHIV+/C (n=88), PHIV+/NoC (n=270), and PHEU (n=200) youth aged 7 to 16 years, from a multi-site prospective cohort study. Youth and caregivers completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II) respectively. We compared means and rates of impairment between groups, and examined associations with other psychosocial factors. Results Overall mean scores on measures of cognitive and adaptive functioning were in the low average range for all three groups. After adjustment for covariates, mean full scale IQ (FSIQ) scores were significantly lower for the PHIV+/C group than the PHIV+/NoC and PHEU groups (mean=77.8 vs 83.4 and 83.3, respectively), while no significant differences were observed between the PHEU and PHIV+/NoC groups in any domain. Lower cognitive performance for the PHIV+/C group was primarily attributable to a prior diagnosis of encephalopathy. No significant differences between groups were observed in adaptive functioning. Conclusion For long-term survivors, youth with HIV infection and a prior CDC class C event have higher risk for cognitive but not adaptive impairment regardless of current health status; this finding appears attributable to a previous diagnosis of encephalopathy. Early preventive therapy may be critical in reducing risk of later neurodevelopmental impairments. PMID:22592486

  9. Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

  10. POEM: Parameter Optimization using Ensemble Methods: application to target specific scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Antes, Iris; Merkwirth, Christian; Lengauer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In computational biology processes such as docking, binding, and folding are often described by simplified, empirical models. These models are fitted to physical properties of the process by adjustable parameters. An appropriate choice of these parameters is crucial for the quality of the models. Locating the best choices for the parameters is often is a difficult task, depending on the complexity of the model. We describe a new method and program, POEM (Parameter Optimization using Ensemble Methods), for this task. In POEM we combine the DOE (Design Of Experiment) procedure with ensembles of different regression methods. We apply the method to the optimization of target specific scoring functions in molecular docking. The method consists of an iterative procedure that uses alternate evaluation and prediction steps. During each cycle of optimization we fit an approximate function to a defined loss function landscape and improve the quality of this fit from cycle to cycle by constantly augmenting our data set. As test applications we fitted the FlexX and Screenscore scoring functions to the kinase and ATPase protein classes. The results are promising: Starting from random parameters we are able to locate parameter sets which show superior performance compared to the original values. The POEM approach converges quickly and the approximated loss function landscapes are smooth, thus making the approach a suitable method for optimizations on rugged landscapes.

  11. Increasing Adaptive Behavior Skill Deficits From Childhood to Adolescence in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Role of Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Pugliese, Cara E.; Anthony, Laura; Strang, John F.; Dudley, Katerina; Wallace, Gregory L.; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Almost half of all children with autism spectrum disorder have average cognitive abilities, yet outcome remains poor. Because outcome in HFASD is more related to adaptive behavior skills than cognitive level it is important to identify predictors of adaptive behavior. This study examines cognitive and demographic factors related to adaptive behavior, with specific attention to the role of executive function (EF) in youth with HFASD aged 4–23. There was a negative relationship between age and adaptive behavior and the discrepancy between IQ and adaptive behavior increased with age. EF problems contributed to lower adaptive behavior scores across domains. As such, it is important to target adaptive skills, and the EF problems that may contribute to them, in youth with HFASD. PMID:25398602

  12. Optimizing Scoring Function of Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions with Both Affinity and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Protein-nucleic acid (protein-DNA and protein-RNA) recognition is fundamental to the regulation of gene expression. Determination of the structures of the protein-nucleic acid recognition and insight into their interactions at molecular level are vital to understanding the regulation function. Recently, quantitative computational approach has been becoming an alternative of experimental technique for predicting the structures and interactions of biomolecular recognition. However, the progress of protein-nucleic acid structure prediction, especially protein-RNA, is far behind that of the protein-ligand and protein-protein structure predictions due to the lack of reliable and accurate scoring function for quantifying the protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this work, we developed an accurate scoring function (named as SPA-PN, SPecificity and Affinity of the Protein-Nucleic acid interactions) for protein-nucleic acid interactions by incorporating both the specificity and affinity into the optimization strategy. Specificity and affinity are two requirements of highly efficient and specific biomolecular recognition. Previous quantitative descriptions of the biomolecular interactions considered the affinity, but often ignored the specificity owing to the challenge of specificity quantification. We applied our concept of intrinsic specificity to connect the conventional specificity, which circumvents the challenge of specificity quantification. In addition to the affinity optimization, we incorporated the quantified intrinsic specificity into the optimization strategy of SPA-PN. The testing results and comparisons with other scoring functions validated that SPA-PN performs well on both the prediction of binding affinity and identification of native conformation. In terms of its performance, SPA-PN can be widely used to predict the protein-nucleic acid structures and quantify their interactions. PMID:24098651

  13. Structural studies of human purine nucleoside phosphorylase: towards a new specific empirical scoring function.

    PubMed

    Timmers, Luis Fernando Saraiva Macedo; Caceres, Rafael Andrade; Vivan, Ana Luiza; Gava, Lisandra Marques; Dias, Raquel; Ducati, Rodrigo Gay; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diogenes Santiago; de Azevedo, Walter Filgueira

    2008-11-01

    Human purine nucleoside phosphorylase (HsPNP) is a target for inhibitor development aiming at T-cell immune response modulation. In this work, we report the development of a new set of empirical scoring functions and its application to evaluate binding affinities and docking results. To test these new functions, we solved the structure of HsPNP and 2-mercapto-4(3H)-quinazolinone (HsPNP:MQU) binary complex at 2.7A resolution using synchrotron radiation, and used these functions to predict ligand position obtained in docking simulations. We also employed molecular dynamics simulations to analyze HsPNP in two conditions, as apoenzyme and in the binary complex form, in order to assess the structural features responsible for stability. Analysis of the structural differences between systems provides explanation for inhibitor binding. The use of these scoring functions to evaluate binding affinities and molecular docking results may be used to guide future efforts on virtual screening focused on HsPNP.

  14. Association between Global Assessment of Functioning scores and indicators of functioning, severity, and prognosis in first-time schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Ole; Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Baandrup, Lone; Mors, Ole; Gasse, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of psychosocial functioning in people with schizophrenia is important. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF-F) scale represents a widely applied, easy, and quick tool, but its validity and reliability have been debated. The aim was to investigate whether GAF-F scores are associated with other indicators of functioning, severity, and hospitalization. Methods A Danish population-based cohort study of adults (≥18 years) with a recorded GAF-F score at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis during 2004–2011 was performed. The internal validity of GAF-F was evaluated by assessing its association with other baseline measures of functioning and illness severity. Risk of schizophrenia hospitalization within 2 years was evaluated using Cox regression stratified by sex and adjusted for age, year of diagnosis, and inpatient/outpatient status at diagnosis. Results We identified 2,837 cases of schizophrenia with a GAF-F score at first-time diagnosis (73.0% inpatients; 62.6% males). GAF-F was associated with several baseline measures of functioning and illness severity, such as female sex, being in work, and a longer baseline hospitalization. Lower GAF-F scores were associated with higher hospitalization risk among males (reference GAF-F 61–100): GAF-F 51–60: hazard rate ratio (HRR) =1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.89–1.75); GAF-F 41–50: HRR =1.31 (95% CI =0.97–1.77); GAF-F 31–40: HRR =1.36 (95% CI =1.01–1.82); GAF-F 21–30: HRR =1.50 (95% CI =1.09–2.06); and GAF-F 1–20: HRR =2.30 (95% CI =1.36–3.90), fitting a dose–response relationship (P=0.031). This association was not found in females. Conclusion GAF-F at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis showed good internal validity against other measures of functionality in a Danish hospital setting. Severe impairment (as measured by the GAF-F score) at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis was associated with a higher risk of 2-year hospitalization among males, which may indicate sex

  15. Association between Global Assessment of Functioning scores and indicators of functioning, severity, and prognosis in first-time schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, Ole; Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Baandrup, Lone; Mors, Ole; Gasse, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of psychosocial functioning in people with schizophrenia is important. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF-F) scale represents a widely applied, easy, and quick tool, but its validity and reliability have been debated. The aim was to investigate whether GAF-F scores are associated with other indicators of functioning, severity, and hospitalization. Methods A Danish population-based cohort study of adults (≥18 years) with a recorded GAF-F score at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis during 2004–2011 was performed. The internal validity of GAF-F was evaluated by assessing its association with other baseline measures of functioning and illness severity. Risk of schizophrenia hospitalization within 2 years was evaluated using Cox regression stratified by sex and adjusted for age, year of diagnosis, and inpatient/outpatient status at diagnosis. Results We identified 2,837 cases of schizophrenia with a GAF-F score at first-time diagnosis (73.0% inpatients; 62.6% males). GAF-F was associated with several baseline measures of functioning and illness severity, such as female sex, being in work, and a longer baseline hospitalization. Lower GAF-F scores were associated with higher hospitalization risk among males (reference GAF-F 61–100): GAF-F 51–60: hazard rate ratio (HRR) =1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI] =0.89–1.75); GAF-F 41–50: HRR =1.31 (95% CI =0.97–1.77); GAF-F 31–40: HRR =1.36 (95% CI =1.01–1.82); GAF-F 21–30: HRR =1.50 (95% CI =1.09–2.06); and GAF-F 1–20: HRR =2.30 (95% CI =1.36–3.90), fitting a dose–response relationship (P=0.031). This association was not found in females. Conclusion GAF-F at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis showed good internal validity against other measures of functionality in a Danish hospital setting. Severe impairment (as measured by the GAF-F score) at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis was associated with a higher risk of 2-year hospitalization among males, which may indicate sex

  16. Stochastic choice of basis functions in adaptive function approximation and the functional-link net.

    PubMed

    Igelnik, B; Pao, Y H

    1995-01-01

    A theoretical justification for the random vector version of the functional-link (RVFL) net is presented in this paper, based on a general approach to adaptive function approximation. The approach consists of formulating a limit-integral representation of the function to be approximated and subsequently evaluating that integral with the Monte-Carlo method. Two main results are: (1) the RVFL is a universal approximator for continuous functions on bounded finite dimensional sets, and (2) the RVFL is an efficient universal approximator with the rate of approximation error convergence to zero of order O(C/ radicaln), where n is number of basis functions and with C independent of n. Similar results are also obtained for neural nets with hidden nodes implemented as products of univariate functions or radial basis functions. Some possible ways of enhancing the accuracy of multivariate function approximations are discussed.

  17. Impact of adaptive functioning on readmission to alcohol detoxification among Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Bear, Ursula Running; Anderson, Heather; Manson, Spero M.; Shore, Jay H.; Prochazka, Allan V.; Novins, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined predictors associated with readmission to detoxification in a sample of adult Alaska Native patients admitted to inpatient alcohol detoxification. Even though Alaska Native people diagnosed with alcoholism have been identified as frequent utilizers of the health care system and at elevated risk of death, little is known about factors associated with readmission to detoxification for this group. Methods We sought to predict readmission using a retrospective cohort study. The sample included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to an inpatient detoxification unit and diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal during 2006 and 2007. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted associations with time to readmission within one year. Results Forty-two percent of the patients were readmitted within one year. Global Assessment Functioning (GAF; Axis V in the multi-axial diagnostic system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM IV]) score measured at the time of intake was associated with readmission. A one point increase in the GAF score (HR = .96, 95% CL = .94, .99, P = .002) was associated with a four percent decrease in readmission. The results also indicated that the GAF mediated the relationship between readmission and: employment and housing status. Conclusions The GAF measures both illness severity and adaptive functioning, is part of standard behavioral health assessments, and is easy to score. Readmission rates potentially could be decreased by creating clinical protocols that account for differences in adaptive functioning and illness severity during detoxification treatment and aftercare. PMID:24837583

  18. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Guan, Guiping; Fang, Jun; Martínez, Yordan; Chen, Shuai; Bin, Peng; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Gong, Ting; Tossou, Myrlene Carine B; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. PMID:27525260

  19. Predicting Functional Independence Measure Scores During Rehabilitation with Wearable Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sprint, Gina; Cook, Diane J.; Weeks, Douglas L.; Borisov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating patient progress and making discharge decisions regarding inpatient medical rehabilitation rely upon standard clinical assessments administered by trained clinicians. Wearable inertial sensors can offer more objective measures of patient movement and progress. We undertook a study to investigate the contribution of wearable sensor data to predict discharge functional independence measure (FIM) scores for 20 patients at an inpatient rehabilitation facility. The FIM utilizes a 7-point ordinal scale to measure patient independence while performing several activities of daily living, such as walking, grooming, and bathing. Wearable inertial sensor data were collected from ecological ambulatory tasks at two time points mid-stay during inpatient rehabilitation. Machine learning algorithms were trained with sensor-derived features and clinical information obtained from medical records at admission to the inpatient facility. While models trained only with clinical features predicted discharge scores well, we were able to achieve an even higher level of prediction accuracy when also including the wearable sensor-derived features. Correlations as high as 0.97 for leave-one-out cross validation predicting discharge FIM motor scores are reported. PMID:27054054

  20. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jun; Martínez, Yordan; Bin, Peng; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive), an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin), and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract). The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics. PMID:27525260

  1. Adaptation and validation of an adverse drug reaction preventability score for bleeding due to vitamin K antagonists.

    PubMed

    Liabeuf, Sophie; Masmoudi, Kamel; Scailteux, Lucie-Marie; Moragny, Julien; Masson, Henri; Brnet-Dufour, Valérie; Andrejak, Michel; Gras-Champel, Valérie

    2016-09-01

    Although drug therapy is inherently associated with the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), some of these events are preventable. The estimated proportion of preventable ADRs varies from one study or clinical context to another. Bleeding caused by antithrombotic agents (and particularly vitamin K antagonists, VKAs) constitutes one of the most frequent causes of ADR-related hospitalization.Hence, the objective of the present study was to adapt and validate an ADR preventability score for bleeding due to VKAs and evaluate the preventability of bleeding in 906 consecutive hospitalized, VKA-treated adult patients with a risk of major bleeding (defined as an international normalized ratio ≥5) over a 2-year period. A specific preventability scale for VKA-associated bleeding was developed by adapting a published tool.Overall, 241 of the 906 patients in the study experienced at least 1 VKA-associated bleeding event. The scale's reliability was tested by 2 different evaluators. The inter-rater reliability (evaluated by calculation of Cohen's kappa) ranged from "good" to "excellent." Lastly, the validated scale was used to assess the preventability of the VKA-associated bleeding. We estimated that bleeding was preventable or potentially preventable in 109 of the 241 affected patients (45.2%).We have developed a useful, reliable tool for evaluating the preventability of VKA-associated bleeding. Application of the scale in a prospective study revealed that a high proportion of VKA-associated bleeding events in hospitalized, at-risk adult patients were preventable or potentially preventable. PMID:27684801

  2. Kyphoplasty Increases Vertebral Height, Decreases Both Pain Score and Opiate Requirements While Improving Functional Status

    PubMed Central

    Tolba, Reda; Bolash, Robert B.; Shroll, Joshua; Costandi, Shrif; Dalton, Jarrod E.; Sanghvi, Chirag; Mekhail, Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can result from advanced osteoporosis, or less commonly from metastatic or traumatic insults to the vertebral column, and result in disabling pain and decreased functional capacity. Various vertebral augmentation options including kyphoplasty aim at preventing the sequelae of pain and immobility that can develop as the result of the vertebral fractures. The mechanism for pain relief following kyphoplasty is not entirely understood, and the restoration of a portion of the lost vertebral height is a subject of debate. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic imaging, pain relief, analgesic intake and functional outcomes in 67 consecutive patients who underwent single- or multilevel kyphoplasty with the primary goal of quantifying the restoration of lost vertebral height. We observed a mean of 45% of the lost vertebral height restored postprocedurally. Secondarily, kyphoplasty was associated with significant decreases in pain scores, daily morphine consumption and improvement in patient-reported functional measures. PMID:24165285

  3. Kyphoplasty increases vertebral height, decreases both pain score and opiate requirements while improving functional status.

    PubMed

    Tolba, Reda; Bolash, Robert B; Shroll, Joshua; Costandi, Shrif; Dalton, Jarrod E; Sanghvi, Chirag; Mekhail, Nagy

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can result from advanced osteoporosis, or less commonly from metastatic or traumatic insults to the vertebral column, and result in disabling pain and decreased functional capacity. Various vertebral augmentation options including kyphoplasty aim at preventing the sequelae of pain and immobility that can develop as the result of the vertebral fractures. The mechanism for pain relief following kyphoplasty is not entirely understood, and the restoration of a portion of the lost vertebral height is a subject of debate. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic imaging, pain relief, analgesic intake and functional outcomes in 67 consecutive patients who underwent single- or multilevel kyphoplasty with the primary goal of quantifying the restoration of lost vertebral height. We observed a mean of 45% of the lost vertebral height restored postprocedurally. Secondarily, kyphoplasty was associated with significant decreases in pain scores, daily morphine consumption and improvement in patient-reported functional measures.

  4. Kyphoplasty increases vertebral height, decreases both pain score and opiate requirements while improving functional status.

    PubMed

    Tolba, Reda; Bolash, Robert B; Shroll, Joshua; Costandi, Shrif; Dalton, Jarrod E; Sanghvi, Chirag; Mekhail, Nagy

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can result from advanced osteoporosis, or less commonly from metastatic or traumatic insults to the vertebral column, and result in disabling pain and decreased functional capacity. Various vertebral augmentation options including kyphoplasty aim at preventing the sequelae of pain and immobility that can develop as the result of the vertebral fractures. The mechanism for pain relief following kyphoplasty is not entirely understood, and the restoration of a portion of the lost vertebral height is a subject of debate. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic imaging, pain relief, analgesic intake and functional outcomes in 67 consecutive patients who underwent single- or multilevel kyphoplasty with the primary goal of quantifying the restoration of lost vertebral height. We observed a mean of 45% of the lost vertebral height restored postprocedurally. Secondarily, kyphoplasty was associated with significant decreases in pain scores, daily morphine consumption and improvement in patient-reported functional measures. PMID:24165285

  5. Empirical scoring functions for advanced protein-ligand docking with PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Korb, Oliver; Stützle, Thomas; Exner, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present two empirical scoring functions, PLANTS(CHEMPLP) and PLANTS(PLP), designed for our docking algorithm PLANTS (Protein-Ligand ANT System), which is based on ant colony optimization (ACO). They are related, regarding their functional form, to parts of already published scoring functions and force fields. The parametrization procedure described here was able to identify several parameter settings showing an excellent performance for the task of pose prediction on two test sets comprising 298 complexes in total. Up to 87% of the complexes of the Astex diverse set and 77% of the CCDC/Astex clean listnc (noncovalently bound complexes of the clean list) could be reproduced with root-mean-square deviations of less than 2 A with respect to the experimentally determined structures. A comparison with the state-of-the-art docking tool GOLD clearly shows that this is, especially for the druglike Astex diverse set, an improvement in pose prediction performance. Additionally, optimized parameter settings for the search algorithm were identified, which can be used to balance pose prediction reliability and search speed.

  6. Empirical scoring functions for advanced protein-ligand docking with PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Korb, Oliver; Stützle, Thomas; Exner, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present two empirical scoring functions, PLANTS(CHEMPLP) and PLANTS(PLP), designed for our docking algorithm PLANTS (Protein-Ligand ANT System), which is based on ant colony optimization (ACO). They are related, regarding their functional form, to parts of already published scoring functions and force fields. The parametrization procedure described here was able to identify several parameter settings showing an excellent performance for the task of pose prediction on two test sets comprising 298 complexes in total. Up to 87% of the complexes of the Astex diverse set and 77% of the CCDC/Astex clean listnc (noncovalently bound complexes of the clean list) could be reproduced with root-mean-square deviations of less than 2 A with respect to the experimentally determined structures. A comparison with the state-of-the-art docking tool GOLD clearly shows that this is, especially for the druglike Astex diverse set, an improvement in pose prediction performance. Additionally, optimized parameter settings for the search algorithm were identified, which can be used to balance pose prediction reliability and search speed. PMID:19125657

  7. A Bayesian Statistical Approach for Improving Scoring Functions for Protein-Ligand Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinter, Sam Z.; Zou, Xiaoqin

    2013-03-01

    Even with large training sets, knowledge-based scoring functions face the inevitable problem of sparse data. In this work, we present a novel approach for handing the sparse data problem, which is based on estimating the inaccuracy caused by sparse count data in a potential of mean force (PMF). Our new scoring function, STScore, uses a consensus approach to combine a PMF with a simple force-field-based potential (FFP), where the relative weight given to the PMF and FFP is a function of their estimated inaccuracies. This weighting scheme implies that less weight will be given to the PMF for any pairs or distances that occur rarely in the training data, thus providing a natural way to deal with the sparse data problem. Simultaneously, by providing the FFP as a substitute, the method provides an improved approximation of the interactions between rare chemical groups, which tend to be excluded or reduced in influence by purely PMF-based approaches. Using several common test sets for protein-ligand interaction studies, we demonstrate that this sparse data method effectively combines the PMF and FFP, exceeding the performance of either potential alone, and is competitive with other commonly-used sparse data methods.

  8. CT densitovolumetry in children with obliterative bronchiolitis: correlation with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results*,**

    PubMed Central

    Mocelin, Helena; Bueno, Gilberto; Irion, Klaus; Marchiori, Edson; Sarria, Edgar; Watte, Guilherme; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether air trapping (expressed as the percentage of air trapping relative to total lung volume [AT%]) correlates with clinical and functional parameters in children with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). METHODS: CT scans of 19 children with OB were post-processed for AT% quantification with the use of a fixed threshold of −950 HU (AT%950) and of thresholds selected with the aid of density masks (AT%DM). Patients were divided into three groups by AT% severity. We examined AT% correlations with oxygen saturation (SO2) at rest, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), minimum SO2 during the six-minute walk test (6MWT_SO2), FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and clinical parameters. RESULTS: The 6MWD was longer in the patients with larger normal lung volumes (r = 0.53). We found that AT%950 showed significant correlations (before and after the exclusion of outliers, respectively) with the clinical score (r = 0.72; 0.80), FVC (r = 0.24; 0.59), FEV1 (r = −0.58; −0.67), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.53; r = −0.62), as did AT%DM with the clinical score (r = 0.58; r = 0.63), SO2 at rest (r = −0.40; r = −0.61), 6MWT_SO2 (r = −0.24; r = −0.55), FVC (r = −0.44; r = −0.80), FEV1 (r = −0.65; r = −0.71), and FEV1/FVC (r = −0.41; r = −0.52). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that AT% correlates significantly with clinical scores and pulmonary function test results in children with OB. PMID:24473764

  9. The Kernel Levine Equipercentile Observed-Score Equating Function. Research Report. ETS RR-13-38

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Alina A.; Chen, Haiwen

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the observed-score equating methods for the nonequivalent groups with anchor test design, there are 3 fundamentally different ways of using the information provided by the anchor scores to equate the scores of a new form to those of an old form. One method uses the anchor scores as a conditioning variable, such as the Tucker…

  10. Model for end-stage liver disease-Na score or Maddrey discrimination function index, which score is best?

    PubMed Central

    Amieva-Balmori, Mercedes; Mejia-Loza, Scherezada María Isabel; Ramos-González, Roberto; Zamarripa-Dorsey, Felipe; García-Ruiz, Eli; Pérez y López, Nuria; Juárez-Valdés, Eumir I; López-Luria, Adriana; Remes-Troche, José María

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the ability of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD)-Na and Maddrey discrimination function index (DFI) to predict mortality at 30 and 90 d in patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH). METHODS: We prospectively assessed 52 patients with AH. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were obtained. MELD-Na and Maddrey DFI were calculated on admission. Short-term mortality was assessed at 30 and 90 d. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. RESULTS: Thirty-day and 90-d mortality was 44% and 58%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, sodium levels was associated with mortality at 30 and 90 d (P = 0.001 and P = 0.03). Child stage, encephalopathy, ascites, or types of treatment were not associated with mortality. MELD-Na was the only predictive factor for mortality at 90 d. For 30-d mortality area under the curve (AUC) was 0.763 (95%CI: 0.63-0.89) for Maddrey DFI and 0.784 for MELD-Na (95%CI: 0.65-0.91, P = 0.82). For 90-d mortality AUC was 0.685 (95%CI: 0.54-0.83) for Maddrey DFI and 0.8710 for MELD-Na (95%CI: 0.76-0.97, P = 0.041). CONCLUSION: AH is associated with high short-term mortality. Our results show that MELD-Na is a more valuable model than DFI to predict short-term mortality. PMID:26301054

  11. Upper Extremity Functional Evaluation by Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scoring Using Depth-Sensing Camera in Hemiplegic Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Dongyoub; Bang, Hyunwoo; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Virtual home-based rehabilitation is an emerging area in stroke rehabilitation. Functional assessment tools are essential to monitor recovery and provide current function-based rehabilitation. We developed the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) tool using Kinect (Microsoft, USA) and validated it for hemiplegic stroke patients. Forty-one patients with hemiplegic stroke were enrolled. Thirteen of 33 items were selected for upper extremity motor FMA. One occupational therapist assessed the motor FMA while recording upper extremity motion with Kinect. FMA score was calculated using principal component analysis and artificial neural network learning from the saved motion data. The degree of jerky motion was also transformed to jerky scores. Prediction accuracy for each of the 13 items and correlations between real FMA scores and scores using Kinect were analyzed. Prediction accuracies ranged from 65% to 87% in each item and exceeded 70% for 9 items. Correlations were high for the summed score for the 13 items between real FMA scores and scores obtained using Kinect (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.873, P<0.0001) and those between total upper extremity scores (66 in full score) and scores using Kinect (26 in full score) (Pearson’s correlation coefficient = 0.799, P<0.0001). Log transformed jerky scores were significantly higher in the hemiplegic side (1.81 ± 0.76) compared to non-hemiplegic side (1.21 ± 0.43) and showed significant negative correlations with Brunnstrom stage (3 to 6; Spearman correlation coefficient = -0.387, P = 0.046). FMA using Kinect is a valid way to assess upper extremity function and can provide additional results for movement quality in stroke patients. This may be useful in the setting of unsupervised home-based rehabilitation. PMID:27367518

  12. Upper Extremity Functional Evaluation by Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scoring Using Depth-Sensing Camera in Hemiplegic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Seok; Cho, Sungmin; Baek, Dongyoub; Bang, Hyunwoo; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Virtual home-based rehabilitation is an emerging area in stroke rehabilitation. Functional assessment tools are essential to monitor recovery and provide current function-based rehabilitation. We developed the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) tool using Kinect (Microsoft, USA) and validated it for hemiplegic stroke patients. Forty-one patients with hemiplegic stroke were enrolled. Thirteen of 33 items were selected for upper extremity motor FMA. One occupational therapist assessed the motor FMA while recording upper extremity motion with Kinect. FMA score was calculated using principal component analysis and artificial neural network learning from the saved motion data. The degree of jerky motion was also transformed to jerky scores. Prediction accuracy for each of the 13 items and correlations between real FMA scores and scores using Kinect were analyzed. Prediction accuracies ranged from 65% to 87% in each item and exceeded 70% for 9 items. Correlations were high for the summed score for the 13 items between real FMA scores and scores obtained using Kinect (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.873, P<0.0001) and those between total upper extremity scores (66 in full score) and scores using Kinect (26 in full score) (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.799, P<0.0001). Log transformed jerky scores were significantly higher in the hemiplegic side (1.81 ± 0.76) compared to non-hemiplegic side (1.21 ± 0.43) and showed significant negative correlations with Brunnstrom stage (3 to 6; Spearman correlation coefficient = -0.387, P = 0.046). FMA using Kinect is a valid way to assess upper extremity function and can provide additional results for movement quality in stroke patients. This may be useful in the setting of unsupervised home-based rehabilitation.

  13. Darwin's beautiful contrivances: evolutionary and functional evidence for floral adaptation.

    PubMed

    Harder, Lawrence D; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-08-01

    Although not 'a professed botanist', Charles Darwin made seminal contributions to understanding of floral and inflorescence function while seeking evidence of adaptation by natural selection. This review considers the legacy of Darwin's ideas from three perspectives. First, we examine the process of floral and inflorescence adaptation by surveying studies of phenotypic selection, heritability and selection responses. Despite widespread phenotypic and genetic capacity for natural selection, only one-third of estimates indicate phenotypic selection. Second, we evaluate experimental studies of floral and inflorescence function and find that they usually demonstrate that reproductive traits represent adaptations. Finally, we consider the role of adaptation in floral diversification. Despite different diversification modes (coevolution, divergent use of the same pollen vector, pollinator shifts), evidence of pollination ecotypes and phylogenetic patterns suggests that adaptation commonly contributes to floral diversity. Thus, this review reveals a contrast between the inconsistent occurrence of phenotypic selection and convincing experimental and comparative evidence that floral traits are adaptations. Rather than rejecting Darwin's hypotheses about floral evolution, this contrast suggests that the tempo of creative selection varies, with strong, consistent selection during episodes of diversification, but relatively weak and inconsistent selection during longer, 'normal' periods of relative phenotypic stasis.

  14. The functional basis of adaptive evolution in chemostats

    PubMed Central

    Gresham, David; Hong, Jungeui

    2014-01-01

    Two of the central problems in biology are determining the molecular basis of adaptive evolution and understanding how cells regulate their growth. The chemostat is a device for culturing cells that provides great utility in tackling both of these problems: it enables precise control of the selective pressure under which organisms evolve and it facilitates experimental control of cell growth rate. The aim of this review is to synthesize results from studies of the functional basis of adaptive evolution in long-term chemostat selections using Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We describe the principle of the chemostat, provide a summary of studies of experimental evolution in chemostats, and use these studies to assess our current understanding of selection in the chemostat. Functional studies of adaptive evolution in chemostats provide a unique means of interrogating the genetic networks that control cell growth, which complements functional genomic approaches and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in natural populations. An integrated approach to the study of adaptive evolution that accounts for both molecular function and evolutionary processes is critical to advancing our understanding of evolution. By renewing efforts to integrate these two research programs, experimental evolution in chemostats is ideally suited to extending the functional synthesis to the study of genetic networks. PMID:25098268

  15. Patellar resurfacing in total knee arthroplasty: functional outcome differs with different outcome scores

    PubMed Central

    Aunan, Eirik; Næss, Grethe; Clarke-Jenssen, John; Sandvik, Leiv; Kibsgård, Thomas Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Recent research on outcomes after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has raised the question of the ability of traditional outcome measures to distinguish between treatments. We compared functional outcomes in patients undergoing TKA with and without patellar resurfacing, using the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) as the primary outcome and 3 traditional outcome measures as secondary outcomes. Patients and methods — 129 knees in 115 patients (mean age 70 (42–82) years; 67 female) were evaluated in this single-center, randomized, double-blind study. Data were recorded preoperatively, at 1 year, and at 3 years, and were assessed using repeated-measures mixed models. Results — The mean subscores for the KOOS after surgery were statistically significantly in favor of patellar resurfacing: sport/recreation, knee-related quality of life, pain, and symptoms. No statistically significant differences between the groups were observed with the Knee Society clinical rating system, with the Oxford knee score, and with visual analog scale (VAS) for patient satisfaction. Interpretation — In the present study, the KOOS—but no other outcome measure used—indicated that patellar resurfacing may be beneficial in TKA. PMID:26540368

  16. Partially supervised P300 speller adaptation for eventual stimulus timing optimization: target confidence is superior to error-related potential score as an uncertain label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyl, Timothy; Yin, Erwei; Keightley, Michelle; Chau, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Error-related potentials (ErrPs) have the potential to guide classifier adaptation in BCI spellers, for addressing non-stationary performance as well as for online optimization of system parameters, by providing imperfect or partial labels. However, the usefulness of ErrP-based labels for BCI adaptation has not been established in comparison to other partially supervised methods. Our objective is to make this comparison by retraining a two-step P300 speller on a subset of confident online trials using naïve labels taken from speller output, where confidence is determined either by (i) ErrP scores, (ii) posterior target scores derived from the P300 potential, or (iii) a hybrid of these scores. We further wish to evaluate the ability of partially supervised adaptation and retraining methods to adjust to a new stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA), a necessary step towards online SOA optimization. Approach. Eleven consenting able-bodied adults attended three online spelling sessions on separate days with feedback in which SOAs were set at 160 ms (sessions 1 and 2) and 80 ms (session 3). A post hoc offline analysis and a simulated online analysis were performed on sessions two and three to compare multiple adaptation methods. Area under the curve (AUC) and symbols spelled per minute (SPM) were the primary outcome measures. Main results. Retraining using supervised labels confirmed improvements of 0.9 percentage points (session 2, p < 0.01) and 1.9 percentage points (session 3, p < 0.05) in AUC using same-day training data over using data from a previous day, which supports classifier adaptation in general. Significance. Using posterior target score alone as a confidence measure resulted in the highest SPM of the partially supervised methods, indicating that ErrPs are not necessary to boost the performance of partially supervised adaptive classification. Partial supervision significantly improved SPM at a novel SOA, showing promise for eventual online SOA

  17. Chinese adaptation and validation of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Roy T H; Ngai, Shirley P C; Ho, Kevin K W

    2016-10-01

    Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is a commonly used instrument to assess the symptoms and functional status in people with knee injuries, including knee osteoarthritis. While China ranked the top country in the absolute number of people aged 65 or above, yet there is no validated Chinese version of this outcome measurement. This study translated and validated the KOOS into Chinese version. Chinese KOOS was translated from the original English version following standard forward and backward translation procedures recommended by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. Survey was then conducted in clinical settings by a questionnaire comprised Chinese KOOS, WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index, and Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36). One hundred Chinese reading patients with knee osteoarthritis were recruited from the orthopaedic out-patient department in hospitals. Internal consistency of the instrument was measured by Cronbach alpha. Construct validity was examined by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (ρ) tests by comparing its score with the validated Chinese version of WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index and SF-36, while the test-retest reliability was evaluated by administering the questionnaires twice. Cronbach alpha values of individual questions and its overall value were above 0.70. Fairly strong association was found between the Chinese KOOS and the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index (ρ = -0.37 to -0.86, p < 0.001). Diverse relationship was observed between Chinese KOOS and SF-36. Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.89-0.92) was demonstrated. The Chinese translated version of KOOS is a reliable and valid instrument for patients with knee osteoarthritis. The findings of current study might promote multinational investigations in this patient group.

  18. Chinese adaptation and validation of the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Roy T H; Ngai, Shirley P C; Ho, Kevin K W

    2016-10-01

    Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is a commonly used instrument to assess the symptoms and functional status in people with knee injuries, including knee osteoarthritis. While China ranked the top country in the absolute number of people aged 65 or above, yet there is no validated Chinese version of this outcome measurement. This study translated and validated the KOOS into Chinese version. Chinese KOOS was translated from the original English version following standard forward and backward translation procedures recommended by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. Survey was then conducted in clinical settings by a questionnaire comprised Chinese KOOS, WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index, and Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36). One hundred Chinese reading patients with knee osteoarthritis were recruited from the orthopaedic out-patient department in hospitals. Internal consistency of the instrument was measured by Cronbach alpha. Construct validity was examined by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (ρ) tests by comparing its score with the validated Chinese version of WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index and SF-36, while the test-retest reliability was evaluated by administering the questionnaires twice. Cronbach alpha values of individual questions and its overall value were above 0.70. Fairly strong association was found between the Chinese KOOS and the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index (ρ = -0.37 to -0.86, p < 0.001). Diverse relationship was observed between Chinese KOOS and SF-36. Excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.89-0.92) was demonstrated. The Chinese translated version of KOOS is a reliable and valid instrument for patients with knee osteoarthritis. The findings of current study might promote multinational investigations in this patient group. PMID:27449346

  19. Hypnotizability as a Function of Repression, Adaptive Regression, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Maurice Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Forty male undergraduates were assessed in a personality assessment session and a hypnosis session. The personality traits studied were repressive style and adaptive regression, while the transitory variable was mood prior to hypnosis. Hypnotizability was a significant interactive function of repressive style and mood, but not of adaptive…

  20. Symmetry-adapted Wannier functions in the maximal localization procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, R.

    2013-06-01

    A procedure to construct symmetry-adapted Wannier functions in the framework of the maximally localized Wannier function approach [Marzari and Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.56.12847 56, 12847 (1997); Souza, Marzari, and Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.65.035109 65, 035109 (2001)] is presented. In this scheme, the minimization of the spread functional of the Wannier functions is performed with constraints that are derived from symmetry properties of the specified set of the Wannier functions and the Bloch functions used to construct them, therefore one can obtain a solution that does not necessarily yield the global minimum of the spread functional. As a test of this approach, results of atom-centered Wannier functions for GaAs and Cu are presented.

  1. Report on Adaptive Force, A Specific Neuromuscular Function.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Marko; Schaefer, Laura; Heinke, Nancy; Bittmann, Frank

    2015-09-11

    In real life motions, as well as in sports, the adaptation of the neuromuscular systems to externally applied forces plays an important role. The term Adaptive Force (AF) shall characterize the ability of the nerve-muscle-system to adapt to impacting external forces during isometric and eccentric muscle action. The focus in this paper is on the concept of this neuromuscular action, which is not yet described in this way. A measuring system was constructed and evaluated for this specific neuromuscular function, but only the main information of the evaluation of the measuring system and the preliminary reference values are mentioned here, while an article with detailed description will be published separately. This paper concentrates on the three following points: 1) What is the peculiarity of this neuromuscular function, introduced as AF? 2) Is the measuring system able to capture its specific characteristics and which phases of measurement occur? 3) It seems reasonable to discuss if AF can be distinguished and classified among the known force concepts. The article describes the measuring system and how it is able to capture special features of real life motions like submaximal intensities and the subjects' option to react adequately on external varying forces. Furthermore, within one measurement the system records three different force qualities: the isometric submaximal Adaptive Force (AFiso), the maximal isometric Adaptive Force (AFisomax) and the maximal eccentric Adaptive Force (AFeccmax). Each of these phases provide different and unique information on the nerve-muscle-system that are discussed in detail. Important, in terms of the Adaptive Force, seems to be the combination of conditional and coordinative abilities. This project was funded by the Federal Ministry of Economy and Technology (Project ZIM KF2262301FO9). PMID:26913155

  2. Obesity Has Minimal Impact on Short-Term Functional Scores After Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty for Rotator Cuff Tear Arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Morris, Brent J; Haigler, Richard E; Cochran, John M; Laughlin, Mitzi S; Elkousy, Hussein A; Gartsman, Gary M; Edwards, T Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The potential adverse effect of body mass index (BMI) on shoulder function scores after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) has not been investigated. We conducted a study to examine outcomes of RSA performed for rotator cuff tear arthropathy (RCTA) across BMI categories (normal weight, overweight, obese). We hypothesized that, compared with normal-weight patients, obese patients would have worse shoulder function scores, worse mobility, and more complications. Using a prospective shoulder arthroplasty registry, we identified 77 primary RSAs performed for RCTA with minimum 2-year follow-up. Thirty-four patients had normal weight (BMI <25 kg/m2), 21 were overweight (BMI 25-30 kg/m2), and 22 were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). Shoulder function scores, mobility, and satisfaction were evaluated before surgery and at final follow-up. The 3 BMI groups were not significantly different on demographic factors, preoperative shoulder function scores, or preoperative mobility (P > .05). For each group, shoulder function scores and mobility significantly improved between the preoperative and final follow-up assessments (P < .001). Patient satisfaction was similar between groups (P = .967). Improved shoulder function scores, mobility, and patient satisfaction can be expected after RSA for RCTA in patients regardless of BMI. PMID:27327923

  3. Clinical Correlates of Hachinski Ischemic Score and Vascular Factors in Cognitive Function of Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youn Ho

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between Hachinski ischemic score (HIS) and vascular factors as well as between HIS and the cognitive function in elderly community. Demographic characteristics, such as sex, age, education, history of drinking and smoking, family history of dementia and stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and dementia, were surveyed. Neurological examination was administered to every subject and HIS was checked by a neurologist. From a total of 392 participants aged 65 and over in a rural community, 348 completed the survey and were finally enrolled. Among the vascular factors, history of hypertension (P = 0.008), history of stroke (P < 0.001), family history of dementia (P = 0.01), and history of cardiac diseases (P = 0.012) showed a significant relationship with HIS. In the cognitive function tests, both Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clinical Dementia Rating (Global and Sum of Boxes) had a significant relationship with HIS. Our study suggested HIS may have an association with some vascular factors and cognitive scales in community dwelling elderly. In this study, the HIS seemed to contribute to the evaluation of the quantity of vascular factors and to the prediction of status of cognitive function. PMID:25247189

  4. Genomic islands predict functional adaptation in marine actinobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, Kevin; Jenkins, Caroline; Nett, Markus; Udwary, Daniel; Gontang, Erin; McGlinchey, Ryan; Foster, Brian; Lapidus, Alla; Podell, Sheila; Allen, Eric; Moore, Bradley; Jensen, Paul

    2009-04-01

    Linking functional traits to bacterial phylogeny remains a fundamental but elusive goal of microbial ecology 1. Without this information, it becomes impossible to resolve meaningful units of diversity and the mechanisms by which bacteria interact with each other and adapt to environmental change. Ecological adaptations among bacterial populations have been linked to genomic islands, strain-specific regions of DNA that house functionally adaptive traits 2. In the case of environmental bacteria, these traits are largely inferred from bioinformatic or gene expression analyses 2, thus leaving few examples in which the functions of island genes have been experimentally characterized. Here we report the complete genome sequences of Salinispora tropica and S. arenicola, the first cultured, obligate marine Actinobacteria 3. These two species inhabit benthic marine environments and dedicate 8-10percent of their genomes to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Despite a close phylogenetic relationship, 25 of 37 secondary metabolic pathways are species-specific and located within 21 genomic islands, thus providing new evidence linking secondary metabolism to ecological adaptation. Species-specific differences are also observed in CRISPR sequences, suggesting that variations in phage immunity provide fitness advantages that contribute to the cosmopolitan distribution of S. arenicola 4. The two Salinispora genomes have evolved by complex processes that include the duplication and acquisition of secondary metabolite genes, the products of which provide immediate opportunities for molecular diversification and ecological adaptation. Evidence that secondary metabolic pathways are exchanged by Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) yet are fixed among globally distributed populations 5 supports a functional role for their products and suggests that pathway acquisition represents a previously unrecognized force driving bacterial diversification

  5. Improving Personality Facet Scores with Multidimensional Computer Adaptive Testing: An Illustration with the Neo Pi-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when personality tests contain many highly correlated…

  6. Bayesian Adaptive Estimation of Psychometric Functions in Noisy Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Takatsugu; Kitajo, Keiichi; Nozaki, Daichi; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2007-07-01

    We propose a new psychometric model incorporating noise as well as stimulus effects, based on recent findings that noise can improve human perception via a mechanism of stochastic resonance (SR). This model assumes that the psychometric function can be regarded as a bivariate function of noise and stimulus intensities. The algorithm of the Ψ Bayesian adaptive estimation method is modified so that it is applicable to our new model. In computer simulations, our new procedure successfully estimates the bivariate psychometric function within a few hundred trials. We also demonstrate several examples in which the procedure is applied to actual psychophysical experiments.

  7. Bilingual brain organization: a functional magnetic resonance adaptation study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Denise; Zatorre, Robert J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Milner, Brenda; Crane, Joelle; Belin, Pascal; Bouffard, Marc

    2006-05-15

    We used functional magnetic resonance adaptation (fMRA) to examine whether intra-voxel functional specificity may be present for first (L1)- and second (L2)-language processing. We examined within- and across-language adaptation for spoken words in English-French bilinguals who had acquired their L2 after the age of 4 years. Subjects listened to words presented binaurally through earphones. In two control conditions (one for each language), six identical words were presented to obtain maximal adaptation. The remaining six conditions each consisted of five words that were identical followed by a sixth word that differed. There were thus a total of eight experimental conditions: no-change (sixth word identical to first five); a change in meaning (different final word in L1); a change in language (final item translated into L2); a change in meaning and language (different final word in L2). The same four conditions were presented in L2. The study also included a silent baseline. At the neural level, within- and across-language word changes resulted in release from adaptation. This was true for separate analyses of L1 and L2. We saw no evidence for greater recovery from adaptation in across-language relative to within-language conditions. While many brain regions were common to L1 and L2, we did observe differences in adaptation for forward translation (L1 to L2) as compared to backward translation (L2 to L1). The results support the idea that, at the lexical level, the neural substrates for L1 and L2 in bilinguals are shared, but with some populations of neurons within these shared regions showing language-specific responses.

  8. Consequences and risks of <1000-g birth weight for neuropsychological skills, achievement, and adaptive functioning.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Drotar, Dennis; Schluchter, Mark; Hack, Maureen

    2006-12-01

    A cohort of 219 children with extremely low birth weight (<1000 g, extremely low birth weight [ELBW]) born from 1992 to 1995 was followed to mean age 8 years to evaluate outcomes and identify risk factors. We compared 204 of these children with 176 term-born normal birth weight (NBW) controls on neuropsychological skills, academic achievement, and adaptive behavior. The ELBW group had worse outcomes than the NBW on all measures. Within the ELBW group, lower scores on NEPSY tests of executive function and memory were related to <750 g birth weight, B (SE) = -0.93 (0.36), p =.010; cranial ultrasound abnormality, B = -1.03 (0.22), p =.002; postnatal steroid therapy, B = -1.00 (0.33), p =.003; and necrotizing enterocolitis, B = -2.26 (0.75), p =.008. A lower score on the Test of Motor Proficiency was related to chronic lung disease, B = -7.33 (1.98), p <.001. Neuropsychological skills mediated the effects of neonatal risk on achievement and adaptive functioning. The findings document the neuropsychological consequences of ELBW at school age in a recently born cohort and identify risks for adverse outcomes.

  9. MM-ISMSA: An Ultrafast and Accurate Scoring Function for Protein-Protein Docking.

    PubMed

    Klett, Javier; Núñez-Salgado, Alfonso; Dos Santos, Helena G; Cortés-Cabrera, Álvaro; Perona, Almudena; Gil-Redondo, Rubén; Abia, David; Gago, Federico; Morreale, Antonio

    2012-09-11

    An ultrafast and accurate scoring function for protein-protein docking is presented. It includes (1) a molecular mechanics (MM) part based on a 12-6 Lennard-Jones potential; (2) an electrostatic component based on an implicit solvent model (ISM) with individual desolvation penalties for each partner in the protein-protein complex plus a hydrogen bonding term; and (3) a surface area (SA) contribution to account for the loss of water contacts upon protein-protein complex formation. The accuracy and performance of the scoring function, termed MM-ISMSA, have been assessed by (1) comparing the total binding energies, the electrostatic term, and its components (charge-charge and individual desolvation energies), as well as the per residue contributions, to results obtained with well-established methods such as APBSA or MM-PB(GB)SA for a set of 1242 decoy protein-protein complexes and (2) testing its ability to recognize the docking solution closest to the experimental structure as that providing the most favorable total binding energy. For this purpose, a test set consisting of 15 protein-protein complexes with known 3D structure mixed with 10 decoys for each complex was used. The correlation between the values afforded by MM-ISMSA and those from the other methods is quite remarkable (r(2) ∼ 0.9), and only 0.2-5.0 s (depending on the number of residues) are spent on a single calculation including an all vs all pairwise energy decomposition. On the other hand, MM-ISMSA correctly identifies the best docking solution as that closest to the experimental structure in 80% of the cases. Finally, MM-ISMSA can process molecular dynamics trajectories and reports the results as averaged values with their standard deviations. MM-ISMSA has been implemented as a plugin to the widely used molecular graphics program PyMOL, although it can also be executed in command-line mode. MM-ISMSA is distributed free of charge to nonprofit organizations.

  10. An accurate metalloprotein-specific scoring function and molecular docking program devised by a dynamic sampling and iteration optimization strategy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Fang; Liao, Sha; Gu, Junfeng; Jiang, Hualiang; Wang, Xicheng; Li, Honglin

    2015-04-27

    Metalloproteins, particularly zinc metalloproteins, are promising therapeutic targets, and recent efforts have focused on the identification of potent and selective inhibitors of these proteins. However, the ability of current drug discovery and design technologies, such as molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, to probe metal-ligand interactions remains limited because of their complicated coordination geometries and rough treatment in current force fields. Herein we introduce a robust, multiobjective optimization algorithm-driven metalloprotein-specific docking program named MpSDock, which runs on a scheme similar to consensus scoring consisting of a force-field-based scoring function and a knowledge-based scoring function. For this purpose, in this study, an effective knowledge-based zinc metalloprotein-specific scoring function based on the inverse Boltzmann law was designed and optimized using a dynamic sampling and iteration optimization strategy. This optimization strategy can dynamically sample and regenerate decoy poses used in each iteration step of refining the scoring function, thus dramatically improving both the effectiveness of the exploration of the binding conformational space and the sensitivity of the ranking of the native binding poses. To validate the zinc metalloprotein-specific scoring function and its special built-in docking program, denoted MpSDockZn, an extensive comparison was performed against six universal, popular docking programs: Glide XP mode, Glide SP mode, Gold, AutoDock, AutoDock4Zn, and EADock DSS. The zinc metalloprotein-specific knowledge-based scoring function exhibited prominent performance in accurately describing the geometries and interactions of the coordination bonds between the zinc ions and chelating agents of the ligands. In addition, MpSDockZn had a competitive ability to sample and identify native binding poses with a higher success rate than the other six docking programs.

  11. Adaptive Downregulation of Mitochondrial Function in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Helguera, Pablo; Seiglie, Jaqueline; Rodriguez, Jose; Hanna, Michael; Helguera, Gustavo; Busciglio, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are common features of Down syndrome (DS). However, the underlying mechanisms are not known. We investigated the relationship between abnormal energy metabolism and oxidative stress with transcriptional and functional changes in DS cells. Impaired mitochondrial activity correlated with altered mitochondrial morphology. Increasing fusion capacity prevented morphological but not functional alterations in DS mitochondria. Sustained stimulation restored mitochondrial functional parameters but increased ROS production and cell damage, suggesting that reduced DS mitochondrial activity is an adaptive response to avoid injury and preserve basic cellular functions. Network analysis of genes overexpressed in DS cells demonstrated functional integration in pathways involved in energy metabolism and oxidative stress. Thus, while preventing extensive oxidative damage, mitochondrial downregulation may contribute to increased susceptibility of DS individuals to clinical conditions in which altered energy metabolism may play a role such as Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, and some types of autistic spectrum disorders. PMID:23312288

  12. Adaptive Shape Functions and Internal Mesh Adaptation for Modelling Progressive Failure in Adhesively Bonded Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott; Gries, Thomas; Waas, Anthony M.; Pineda, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced finite elements are elements with an embedded analytical solution that can capture detailed local fields, enabling more efficient, mesh independent finite element analysis. The shape functions are determined based on the analytical model rather than prescribed. This method was applied to adhesively bonded joints to model joint behavior with one element through the thickness. This study demonstrates two methods of maintaining the fidelity of such elements during adhesive non-linearity and cracking without increasing the mesh needed for an accurate solution. The first method uses adaptive shape functions, where the shape functions are recalculated at each load step based on the softening of the adhesive. The second method is internal mesh adaption, where cracking of the adhesive within an element is captured by further discretizing the element internally to represent the partially cracked geometry. By keeping mesh adaptations within an element, a finer mesh can be used during the analysis without affecting the global finite element model mesh. Examples are shown which highlight when each method is most effective in reducing the number of elements needed to capture adhesive nonlinearity and cracking. These methods are validated against analogous finite element models utilizing cohesive zone elements.

  13. A 5-Year Investigation of Children's Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Radiation Therapy for Localized Ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu Shengjie; Xiong Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies have the potential to preserve cognitive outcomes in children with ependymoma; however, functional behavior remains uninvestigated. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intelligence quotient (IQ) and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years after irradiation in children diagnosed with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study cohort consisted of 123 children with intracranial ependymoma. Mean age at irradiation was 4.60 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.85-5.35). Serial neurocognitive evaluations, including an age-appropriate IQ measure and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), were completed before irradiation, 6 months after treatment, and annually for 5 years. A total of 579 neurocognitive evaluations were included in these analyses. Results: Baseline IQ and VABS were below normative means (P<.05), although within the average range. Linear mixed models revealed stable IQ and VABS across the follow-up period, except for the VABS Communication Index, which declined significantly (P=.015). Annual change in IQ (-.04 points) did not correlate with annual change in VABS (-.90 to +.44 points). Clinical factors associated with poorer baseline performance (P<.05) included preirradiation chemotherapy, cerebrospinal fluid shunt placement, number and extent of surgical resections, and younger age at treatment. No clinical factors significantly affected the rate of change in scores. Conclusions: Conformal and intensity modulated radiation therapies provided relative sparing of functional outcomes including IQ and adaptive behaviors, even in very young children. Communication skills remained vulnerable and should be the target of preventive and rehabilitative interventions.

  14. How MAP kinase modules function as robust, yet adaptable, circuits

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tianhai; Harding, Angus

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical studies have revealed that the diversity of cell types and developmental patterns evident within the animal kingdom is generated by a handful of conserved, core modules. Core biological modules must be robust, able to maintain functionality despite perturbations, and yet sufficiently adaptable for random mutations to generate phenotypic variation during evolution. Understanding how robust, adaptable modules have influenced the evolution of eukaryotes will inform both evolutionary and synthetic biology. One such system is the MAP kinase module, which consists of a 3-tiered kinase circuit configuration that has been evolutionarily conserved from yeast to man. MAP kinase signal transduction pathways are used across eukaryotic phyla to drive biological functions that are crucial for life. Here we ask the fundamental question, why do MAPK modules follow a conserved 3-tiered topology rather than some other number? Using computational simulations, we identify a fundamental 2-tiered circuit topology that can be readily reconfigured by feedback loops and scaffolds to generate diverse signal outputs. When this 2-kinase circuit is connected to proximal input kinases, a 3-tiered modular configuration is created that is both robust and adaptable, providing a biological circuit that can regulate multiple phenotypes and maintain functionality in an uncertain world. We propose that the 3-tiered signal transduction module has been conserved through positive selection, because it facilitated the generation of phenotypic variation during eukaryotic evolution. PMID:25483189

  15. Generalized pattern search algorithms with adaptive precision function evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, Elijah; Wetter, Michael

    2003-05-14

    In the literature on generalized pattern search algorithms, convergence to a stationary point of a once continuously differentiable cost function is established under the assumption that the cost function can be evaluated exactly. However, there is a large class of engineering problems where the numerical evaluation of the cost function involves the solution of systems of differential algebraic equations. Since the termination criteria of the numerical solvers often depend on the design parameters, computer code for solving these systems usually defines a numerical approximation to the cost function that is discontinuous with respect to the design parameters. Standard generalized pattern search algorithms have been applied heuristically to such problems, but no convergence properties have been stated. In this paper we extend a class of generalized pattern search algorithms to a form that uses adaptive precision approximations to the cost function. These numerical approximations need not define a continuous function. Our algorithms can be used for solving linearly constrained problems with cost functions that are at least locally Lipschitz continuous. Assuming that the cost function is smooth, we prove that our algorithms converge to a stationary point. Under the weaker assumption that the cost function is only locally Lipschitz continuous, we show that our algorithms converge to points at which the Clarke generalized directional derivatives are nonnegative in predefined directions. An important feature of our adaptive precision scheme is the use of coarse approximations in the early iterations, with the approximation precision controlled by a test. Such an approach leads to substantial time savings in minimizing computationally expensive functions.

  16. Neural-Network Scoring Functions Identify Structurally Novel Estrogen-Receptor Ligands.

    PubMed

    Durrant, Jacob D; Carlson, Kathryn E; Martin, Teresa A; Offutt, Tavina L; Mayne, Christopher G; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Amaro, Rommie E

    2015-09-28

    The magnitude of the investment required to bring a drug to the market hinders medical progress, requiring hundreds of millions of dollars and years of research and development. Any innovation that improves the efficiency of the drug-discovery process has the potential to accelerate the delivery of new treatments to countless patients in need. "Virtual screening," wherein molecules are first tested in silico in order to prioritize compounds for subsequent experimental testing, is one such innovation. Although the traditional scoring functions used in virtual screens have proven useful, improved accuracy requires novel approaches. In the current work, we use the estrogen receptor to demonstrate that neural networks are adept at identifying structurally novel small molecules that bind to a selected drug target, ultimately allowing experimentalists to test fewer compounds in the earliest stages of lead identification while obtaining higher hit rates. We describe 39 novel estrogen-receptor ligands identified in silico with experimentally determined Ki values ranging from 460 nM to 20 μM, presented here for the first time. PMID:26286148

  17. Adaptive filters and internal models: multilevel description of cerebellar function.

    PubMed

    Porrill, John; Dean, Paul; Anderson, Sean R

    2013-11-01

    Cerebellar function is increasingly discussed in terms of engineering schemes for motor control and signal processing that involve internal models. To address the relation between the cerebellum and internal models, we adopt the chip metaphor that has been used to represent the combination of a homogeneous cerebellar cortical microcircuit with individual microzones having unique external connections. This metaphor indicates that identifying the function of a particular cerebellar chip requires knowledge of both the general microcircuit algorithm and the chip's individual connections. Here we use a popular candidate algorithm as embodied in the adaptive filter, which learns to decorrelate its inputs from a reference ('teaching', 'error') signal. This algorithm is computationally powerful enough to be used in a very wide variety of engineering applications. However, the crucial issue is whether the external connectivity required by such applications can be implemented biologically. We argue that some applications appear to be in principle biologically implausible: these include the Smith predictor and Kalman filter (for state estimation), and the feedback-error-learning scheme for adaptive inverse control. However, even for plausible schemes, such as forward models for noise cancellation and novelty-detection, and the recurrent architecture for adaptive inverse control, there is unlikely to be a simple mapping between microzone function and internal model structure. This initial analysis suggests that cerebellar involvement in particular behaviours is therefore unlikely to have a neat classification into categories such as 'forward model'. It is more likely that cerebellar microzones learn a task-specific adaptive-filter operation which combines a number of signal-processing roles.

  18. Evaluation of the neural function of nonhuman primates with spinal cord injury using an evoked potential-based scoring system.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jichao; Ma, Mengjun; Xie, Zhongyu; Wang, Peng; Tang, Yong; Huang, Lin; Chen, Keng; Gao, Liangbin; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong; Zeng, Yuanshan

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primate models of spinal cord injury (SCI) have been widely used in evaluation of the efficacy and safety of experimental restorative interventions before clinical trials. However, no objective methods are currently available for the evaluation of neural function in nonhuman primates. In our long-term clinical practice, we have used evoked potential (EP) for neural function surveillance during operation and accumulated extensive experience. In the present study, a nonhuman primate model of SCI was established in 6 adult cynomologus monkeys through spinal cord contusion injury at T8-T9. The neural function before SCI and within 6 months after SCI was evaluated based on EP recording. A scoring system including somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and transcranial electrical stimulation-motor evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) was established for the evaluation of neural function of nonhuman primates with SCI. We compared the motor function scores of nonhuman primates before and after SCI. Our results showed that the EP below the injury level significantly changed during the 6 months after SCI. In addition, a positive correlation was identified between the EP scores and motor function. The EP-based scoring system is a reliable approach for evaluating the motor function changes in nonhuman primates with SCI. PMID:27629352

  19. Evaluation of the neural function of nonhuman primates with spinal cord injury using an evoked potential-based scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jichao; Ma, Mengjun; Xie, Zhongyu; Wang, Peng; Tang, Yong; Huang, Lin; Chen, Keng; Gao, Liangbin; Wu, Yanfeng; Shen, Huiyong; Zeng, Yuanshan

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primate models of spinal cord injury (SCI) have been widely used in evaluation of the efficacy and safety of experimental restorative interventions before clinical trials. However, no objective methods are currently available for the evaluation of neural function in nonhuman primates. In our long-term clinical practice, we have used evoked potential (EP) for neural function surveillance during operation and accumulated extensive experience. In the present study, a nonhuman primate model of SCI was established in 6 adult cynomologus monkeys through spinal cord contusion injury at T8–T9. The neural function before SCI and within 6 months after SCI was evaluated based on EP recording. A scoring system including somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and transcranial electrical stimulation-motor evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) was established for the evaluation of neural function of nonhuman primates with SCI. We compared the motor function scores of nonhuman primates before and after SCI. Our results showed that the EP below the injury level significantly changed during the 6 months after SCI. In addition, a positive correlation was identified between the EP scores and motor function. The EP-based scoring system is a reliable approach for evaluating the motor function changes in nonhuman primates with SCI. PMID:27629352

  20. Perspectives on functional adaptation of the high altitude native.

    PubMed

    Frisancho, A R

    1983-01-01

    The major physiological processes that enable humans to attain a complete acclimatization to high altitude are briefly reviewed. The available data indicate that: (a) complete acclimatization to high altitude is associated with changes of environmentally modifiable functional traits such as lung volume but not associated with the expression of genetically controlled features such as chest size; (b) as judged by measurements of maximal aerobic power, the high altitude native has attained at high altitude an adaptation that is comparable to that attained by the low altitude native at sea level; the available information suggests that such adaptation is acquired through growth and development in an hypoxic environment; at present, however, we do not know the developmental modifications that occur within each component of the oxygen transport system, such as ventilation, pulmonary diffusion, and oxygen transport, that enable a sea level native to attain a complete functional adaptation to high altitude; and (c) at comparable altitudes among high altitude natives, there are some inter-regional differences in hemopoietic response, so that the samples derived from mining regions of the Andes are characterized by higher hemoglobin concentration than those derived from non-mining areas or the Himalayas. The source of these differences remains to be investigated. PMID:6364176

  1. Translation and adaptation of functional auditory performance indicators (FAPI)

    PubMed Central

    FERREIRA, Karina; MORET, Adriane Lima Mortari; BEVILACQUA, Maria Cecilia; JACOB, Regina de Souza Tangerino

    2011-01-01

    Work with deaf children has gained new attention since the expectation and goal of therapy has expanded to language development and subsequent language learning. Many clinical tests were developed for evaluation of speech sound perception in young children in response to the need for accurate assessment of hearing skills that developed from the use of individual hearing aids or cochlear implants. These tests also allow the evaluation of the rehabilitation program. However, few of these tests are available in Portuguese. Evaluation with the Functional Auditory Performance Indicators (FAPI) generates a child's functional auditory skills profile, which lists auditory skills in an integrated and hierarchical order. It has seven hierarchical categories, including sound awareness, meaningful sound, auditory feedback, sound source localizing, auditory discrimination, short-term auditory memory, and linguistic auditory processing. FAPI evaluation allows the therapist to map the child's hearing profile performance, determine the target for increasing the hearing abilities, and develop an effective therapeutic plan. Objective Since the FAPI is an American test, the inventory was adapted for application in the Brazilian population. Material and Methods The translation was done following the steps of translation and back translation, and reproducibility was evaluated. Four translated versions (two originals and two back-translated) were compared, and revisions were done to ensure language adaptation and grammatical and idiomatic equivalence. Results The inventory was duly translated and adapted. Conclusion Further studies about the application of the translated FAPI are necessary to make the test practicable in Brazilian clinical use. PMID:22230992

  2. An Adaptive Complex Network Model for Brain Functional Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gomez Portillo, Ignacio J.; Gleiser, Pablo M.

    2009-01-01

    Brain functional networks are graph representations of activity in the brain, where the vertices represent anatomical regions and the edges their functional connectivity. These networks present a robust small world topological structure, characterized by highly integrated modules connected sparsely by long range links. Recent studies showed that other topological properties such as the degree distribution and the presence (or absence) of a hierarchical structure are not robust, and show different intriguing behaviors. In order to understand the basic ingredients necessary for the emergence of these complex network structures we present an adaptive complex network model for human brain functional networks. The microscopic units of the model are dynamical nodes that represent active regions of the brain, whose interaction gives rise to complex network structures. The links between the nodes are chosen following an adaptive algorithm that establishes connections between dynamical elements with similar internal states. We show that the model is able to describe topological characteristics of human brain networks obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. In particular, when the dynamical rules of the model allow for integrated processing over the entire network scale-free non-hierarchical networks with well defined communities emerge. On the other hand, when the dynamical rules restrict the information to a local neighborhood, communities cluster together into larger ones, giving rise to a hierarchical structure, with a truncated power law degree distribution. PMID:19738902

  3. An Adaptive Derivative-based Method for Function Approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, C

    2008-10-22

    To alleviate the high computational cost of large-scale multi-physics simulations to study the relationships between the model parameters and the outputs of interest, response surfaces are often used in place of the exact functional relationships. This report explores a method for response surface construction using adaptive sampling guided by derivative information at each selected sample point. This method is especially suitable for applications that can readily provide added information such as gradients and Hessian with respect to the input parameters under study. When higher order terms (third and above) in the Taylor series are negligible, the approximation error for this method can be controlled. We present details of the adaptive algorithm and numerical results on a few test problems.

  4. The evolved basis and adaptive functions of cognitive distortions.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, P

    1998-12-01

    This paper explores common cognitive distortions from the perspective of evolutionary psychology. It is suggested that cognitive distortions are natural consequences of using fast track defensive algorithms that are sensitive to threat. In various contexts, especially those of threat, humans evolved to think adaptively rather than logically. Hence cognitive distortions are not strictly errors in brain functioning and it can be useful to inform patients that 'negative thinking' may be dysfunctional but is a reflection of basic brain design and not personal irrationality. The evolved nature of cognitive distortions has been implicit in cognitive therapy from its early days (Beck, 1963; Ellis, 1962) but has not been fully articulated in what is now known about evolved mental processes. Many forms of cognitive distortion can be seen to use the (previously) adaptive heuristic of better safe than sorry.

  5. Information theory-based scoring function for the structure-based prediction of protein-ligand binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Kulharia, Mahesh; Goody, Roger S; Jackson, Richard M

    2008-10-01

    The development and validation of a new knowledge based scoring function (SIScoreJE) to predict binding energy between proteins and ligands is presented. SIScoreJE efficiently predicts the binding energy between a small molecule and its protein receptor. Protein-ligand atomic contact information was derived from a Non-Redundant Data set (NRD) of over 3000 X-ray crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes. This information was classified for individual "atom contact pairs" (ACP) which is used to calculate the atomic contact preferences. In addition to the two schemes generated in this study we have assessed a number of other common atom-type classification schemes. The preferences were calculated using an information theoretic relationship of joint entropy. Among 18 different atom-type classification schemes "ScoreJE Atom Type set2" (SATs2) was found to be the most suitable for our approach. To test the sensitivity of the method to the inclusion of solvent, Single-body Solvation Potentials (SSP) were also derived from the atomic contacts between the protein atom types and water molecules modeled using AQUARIUS2. Validation was carried out using an evaluation data set of 100 protein-ligand complexes with known binding energies to test the ability of the scoring functions to reproduce known binding affinities. In summary, it was found that a combined SSP/ScoreJE (SIScoreJE) performed significantly better than ScoreJE alone, and SIScoreJE and ScoreJE performed better than GOLD::GoldScore, GOLD::ChemScore, and XScore.

  6. Kinetic Adaptations of Myosins for Their Diverse Cellular Functions.

    PubMed

    Heissler, Sarah M; Sellers, James R

    2016-08-01

    Members of the myosin superfamily are involved in all aspects of eukaryotic life. Their function ranges from the transport of organelles and cargos to the generation of membrane tension, and the contraction of muscle. The diversity of physiological functions is remarkable, given that all enzymatically active myosins follow a conserved mechanoenzymatic cycle in which the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate is coupled to either actin-based transport or tethering of actin to defined cellular compartments. Kinetic capacities and limitations of a myosin are determined by the extent to which actin can accelerate the hydrolysis of ATP and the release of the hydrolysis products and are indispensably linked to its physiological tasks. This review focuses on kinetic competencies that - together with structural adaptations - result in myosins with unique mechanoenzymatic properties targeted to their diverse cellular functions.

  7. A New Scoring Function for Molecular Docking Based on AutoDock and AutoDock Vina.

    PubMed

    Tanchuk, Vsevolod Yu; Tanin, Volodymyr O; Vovk, Andriy I; Poda, Gennady

    2015-01-01

    Molecular docking of small molecules in the protein binding sites is the most widely used computational technique in modern structure-based drug discovery. Although accurate prediction of binding modes of small molecules can be achieved in most cases, estimation of their binding affinities remains mediocre at best. As an attempt to improve the correlation between the inhibitory constants, pKi, and scoring, we created a new, hybrid scoring function. The new function is a linear combination of the terms of the scoring functions of AutoDock and AutoDock Vina. It was trained on 2,412 protein-ligand complexes from the PDBbind database (www.pdbbind.org.cn, version 2012) and validated on a set of 313 complexes released in the 2013 version as a test set. The new function was included in a modified version of AutoDock. The hybrid scoring function showed a statistically significant improvement in both training and test sets in terms of correlation with and root mean square and mean absolute errors in prediction of pKi values. It was also tested on the CSAR 2014 Benchmark Exercise dataset (team T) and produced reasonably good results.

  8. Adaptive sigmoid function bihistogram equalization for image contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriaga-Garcia, Edgar F.; Sanchez-Yanez, Raul E.; Ruiz-Pinales, Jose; Garcia-Hernandez, Ma. de Guadalupe

    2015-09-01

    Contrast enhancement plays a key role in a wide range of applications including consumer electronic applications, such as video surveillance, digital cameras, and televisions. The main goal of contrast enhancement is to increase the quality of images. However, most state-of-the-art methods induce different types of distortion such as intensity shift, wash-out, noise, intensity burn-out, and intensity saturation. In addition, in consumer electronics, simple and fast methods are required in order to be implemented in real time. A bihistogram equalization method based on adaptive sigmoid functions is proposed. It consists of splitting the image histogram into two parts that are equalized independently by using adaptive sigmoid functions. In order to preserve the mean brightness of the input image, the parameter of the sigmoid functions is chosen to minimize the absolute mean brightness metric. Experiments on the Berkeley database have shown that the proposed method improves the quality of images and preserves their mean brightness. An application to improve the colorfulness of images is also presented.

  9. Adaptive radial basis function mesh deformation using data reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillebaart, T.; Blom, D. S.; van Zuijlen, A. H.; Bijl, H.

    2016-09-01

    Radial Basis Function (RBF) mesh deformation is one of the most robust mesh deformation methods available. Using the greedy (data reduction) method in combination with an explicit boundary correction, results in an efficient method as shown in literature. However, to ensure the method remains robust, two issues are addressed: 1) how to ensure that the set of control points remains an accurate representation of the geometry in time and 2) how to use/automate the explicit boundary correction, while ensuring a high mesh quality. In this paper, we propose an adaptive RBF mesh deformation method, which ensures the set of control points always represents the geometry/displacement up to a certain (user-specified) criteria, by keeping track of the boundary error throughout the simulation and re-selecting when needed. Opposed to the unit displacement and prescribed displacement selection methods, the adaptive method is more robust, user-independent and efficient, for the cases considered. Secondly, the analysis of a single high aspect ratio cell is used to formulate an equation for the correction radius needed, depending on the characteristics of the correction function used, maximum aspect ratio, minimum first cell height and boundary error. Based on the analysis two new radial basis correction functions are derived and proposed. This proposed automated procedure is verified while varying the correction function, Reynolds number (and thus first cell height and aspect ratio) and boundary error. Finally, the parallel efficiency is studied for the two adaptive methods, unit displacement and prescribed displacement for both the CPU as well as the memory formulation with a 2D oscillating and translating airfoil with oscillating flap, a 3D flexible locally deforming tube and deforming wind turbine blade. Generally, the memory formulation requires less work (due to the large amount of work required for evaluating RBF's), but the parallel efficiency reduces due to the limited

  10. APACHE II score, rather than cardiac function, may predict poor prognosis in patients with stress-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Joe, Byung-Hyun; Jo, Uk; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Park, Chang-Bum; Hwang, Hui-Jeong; Sohn, Il-Suk; Jin, Eun-Sun; Cho, Jin-Man; Park, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Chong-Jin

    2012-01-01

    While the disease course of stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SIC) is usually benign, it can be fatal. The prognostic factors to predict poorer outcome are not well established, however. We analyzed the Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score to assess its value for predicting poor prognosis in patients with SIC. Thirty-seven consecutive patients with SIC were followed prospectively during their hospitalization. Clinical factors, including APACHE II score, coronary angiogram, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes at presentation were analyzed. Of the 37 patients, 27 patients (73%) were women. The mean age was 66.1 ± 15.6 yr, and the most common presentation was chest pain (38%). Initial echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was 42.5% ± 9.3%, and the wall motion score index (WMSI) was 1.9 ± 0.3. Six patients (16%) expired during the follow-up period of hospitalization. Based on the analysis of characteristics and clinical factors, the only predictable variable in prognosis was APACHE II score. The patients with APACHE II score greater than 20 had tendency to expire than the others (P = 0.001). Based on present study, APACHE II score more than 20, rather than cardiac function, is associated with mortality in patients with SIC.

  11. Relationship between functional movement screen scores, core strength, posture, and body mass index in school children in Moldova.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Johnson, A Wayne; Adamson, Brynn

    2015-05-01

    The assessment of functionality should include parameters that consider postural control, limb asymmetries, range of motion limitations, proprioceptive deficits, and pain. An increasingly popular battery of tests, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), is purported to assess the above named parameters. The purpose of our study was twofold: (a) to report differences in total FMS scores in children, provide preliminary normative reference values of each of the 7 individual FMS scores for both genders and report on asymmetries and (b) to evaluate the relationship between total FMS scores, age, body mass index (BMI), core strength/stability, and postural angles to explore the possibility of using the FMS in the assessment of children's functional fitness. Descriptive data on 77 children aged 8-11 years were collected. The children performed core strength/stability exercises. Photographs were taken from a lateral view for later calculation of postural angles. The children performed the FMS while being videotaped for later review. The average total FMS score (of 21) was 14.9 (+1.9), and BMI was 16.4 (+2.2). Static posture is not related to results of the FMS. Core strength was positively correlated to the total FMS score (r = 0.31; p = 0.006). Over 60% demonstrated at least 1 asymmetry. The individual test scores indicate that none of the test items is too difficult for the children. Based on the screen's correlation to core strength, and the fact that it identifies areas of asymmetry, we suggest to further investigate its possible use in the assessment of children's functional fitness.

  12. The Mantel-Haenszel Method for Detecting Differential Item Functioning in Dichotomously Scored Items: A Multilevel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacInnes, Jann Marie Wise

    2009-01-01

    Multilevel data often exist in educational studies. The focus of this study is to consider differential item functioning (DIF) for dichotomous items from a multilevel perspective. One of the most often used methods for detecting DIF in dichotomously scored items is the Mantel-Haenszel log odds-ratio. However, the Mantel-Haenszel reduces the…

  13. Acrophobia Factor Scores As A Function Of Pole Height And Habituation.

    PubMed

    Royce, J R; Poley, W

    1976-04-01

    Thirty C57BL/ALB mice, fifteen male and fifteen female, were tested for "acrophobia" via the pole test. The animals were randomly distributed into three groups of 6, 12, or 24 inch (15.24, 30.48, or 60.96 cm) high poles:. Both factor scores and individual pole measures were analyzed by 2 x 3 x 5 ANOVA, with main effects for sex, pole height, and days of testing. The results provide experimental support for the interpretation of this factor as acrophobia-that is, the greater the pole height, the higher the factor score. The reduction of factor scores over days (habituation) is interpreted as an arousal-based response.

  14. Adapting ORAP to wind plants : industry value and functional requirements.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Strategic Power Systems (SPS) was contracted by Sandia National Laboratories to assess the feasibility of adapting their ORAP (Operational Reliability Analysis Program) tool for deployment to the wind industry. ORAP for Wind is proposed for use as the primary data source for the CREW (Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind) database which will be maintained by Sandia to enable reliability analysis of US wind fleet operations. The report primarily addresses the functional requirements of the wind-based system. The SPS ORAP reliability monitoring system has been used successfully for over twenty years to collect RAM (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability) and operations data for benchmarking and analysis of gas and steam turbine performance. This report documents the requirements to adapt the ORAP system for the wind industry. It specifies which existing ORAP design features should be retained, as well as key new requirements for wind. The latter includes alignment with existing and emerging wind industry standards (IEEE 762, ISO 3977 and IEC 61400). There is also a comprehensive list of thirty critical-to-quality (CTQ) functional requirements which must be considered and addressed to establish the optimum design for wind.

  15. Sleep and vestibular adaptation: implications for function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobson, J. A.; Stickgold, R.; Pace-Schott, E. F.; Leslie, K. R.

    1998-01-01

    Optimal human performance depends upon integrated sensorimotor and cognitive functions, both of which are known to be exquisitely sensitive to loss of sleep. Under the microgravity conditions of space flight, adaptation of both sensorimotor (especially vestibular) and cognitive functions (especially orientation) must occur quickly--and be maintained--despite any concurrent disruptions of sleep that may be caused by microgravity itself, or by the uncomfortable sleeping conditions of the spacecraft. It is the three-way interaction between sleep quality, general work efficiency, and sensorimotor integration that is the subject of this paper and the focus of new work in our laboratory. To record sleep under field conditions including microgravity, we utilize a novel system called the Nightcap that we have developed and extensively tested on normal and sleep-disordered subjects. To perturb the vestibular system in ground-based studies, we utilize a variety of experimental conditions including optokinetic stimulation and both minifying and reversing goggle paradigms that have been extensively studied in relation to plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Using these techniques we will test the hypothesis that vestibular adaptation both provokes and is enhanced by REM sleep under both ground-based and space conditions. In this paper we describe preliminary results of some of our studies.

  16. Nonlinear scoring functions for similarity-based ligand docking and binding affinity prediction.

    PubMed

    Brylinski, Michal

    2013-11-25

    A common strategy for virtual screening considers a systematic docking of a large library of organic compounds into the target sites in protein receptors with promising leads selected based on favorable intermolecular interactions. Despite a continuous progress in the modeling of protein-ligand interactions for pharmaceutical design, important challenges still remain, thus the development of novel techniques is required. In this communication, we describe eSimDock, a new approach to ligand docking and binding affinity prediction. eSimDock employs nonlinear machine learning-based scoring functions to improve the accuracy of ligand ranking and similarity-based binding pose prediction, and to increase the tolerance to structural imperfections in the target structures. In large-scale benchmarking using the Astex/CCDC data set, we show that 53.9% (67.9%) of the predicted ligand poses have RMSD of <2 Å (<3 Å). Moreover, using binding sites predicted by recently developed eFindSite, eSimDock models ligand binding poses with an RMSD of 4 Å for 50.0-39.7% of the complexes at the protein homology level limited to 80-40%. Simulations against non-native receptor structures, whose mean backbone rearrangements vary from 0.5 to 5.0 Å Cα-RMSD, show that the ratio of docking accuracy and the estimated upper bound is at a constant level of ∼0.65. Pearson correlation coefficient between experimental and predicted by eSimDock Ki values for a large data set of the crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes from BindingDB is 0.58, which decreases only to 0.46 when target structures distorted to 3.0 Å Cα-RMSD are used. Finally, two case studies demonstrate that eSimDock can be customized to specific applications as well. These encouraging results show that the performance of eSimDock is largely unaffected by the deformations of ligand binding regions, thus it represents a practical strategy for across-proteome virtual screening using protein models. eSimDock is freely

  17. Nonlinear scoring functions for similarity-based ligand docking and binding affinity prediction.

    PubMed

    Brylinski, Michal

    2013-11-25

    A common strategy for virtual screening considers a systematic docking of a large library of organic compounds into the target sites in protein receptors with promising leads selected based on favorable intermolecular interactions. Despite a continuous progress in the modeling of protein-ligand interactions for pharmaceutical design, important challenges still remain, thus the development of novel techniques is required. In this communication, we describe eSimDock, a new approach to ligand docking and binding affinity prediction. eSimDock employs nonlinear machine learning-based scoring functions to improve the accuracy of ligand ranking and similarity-based binding pose prediction, and to increase the tolerance to structural imperfections in the target structures. In large-scale benchmarking using the Astex/CCDC data set, we show that 53.9% (67.9%) of the predicted ligand poses have RMSD of <2 Å (<3 Å). Moreover, using binding sites predicted by recently developed eFindSite, eSimDock models ligand binding poses with an RMSD of 4 Å for 50.0-39.7% of the complexes at the protein homology level limited to 80-40%. Simulations against non-native receptor structures, whose mean backbone rearrangements vary from 0.5 to 5.0 Å Cα-RMSD, show that the ratio of docking accuracy and the estimated upper bound is at a constant level of ∼0.65. Pearson correlation coefficient between experimental and predicted by eSimDock Ki values for a large data set of the crystal structures of protein-ligand complexes from BindingDB is 0.58, which decreases only to 0.46 when target structures distorted to 3.0 Å Cα-RMSD are used. Finally, two case studies demonstrate that eSimDock can be customized to specific applications as well. These encouraging results show that the performance of eSimDock is largely unaffected by the deformations of ligand binding regions, thus it represents a practical strategy for across-proteome virtual screening using protein models. eSimDock is freely

  18. Cardiac function adaptations in hibernating grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T

    2010-03-01

    Research on the cardiovascular physiology of hibernating mammals may provide insight into evolutionary adaptations; however, anesthesia used to handle wild animals may affect the cardiovascular parameters of interest. To overcome these potential biases, we investigated the functional cardiac phenotype of the hibernating grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) during the active, transitional and hibernating phases over a 4 year period in conscious rather than anesthetized bears. The bears were captive born and serially studied from the age of 5 months to 4 years. Heart rate was significantly different from active (82.6 +/- 7.7 beats/min) to hibernating states (17.8 +/- 2.8 beats/min). There was no difference from the active to the hibernating state in diastolic and stroke volume parameters or in left atrial area. Left ventricular volume:mass was significantly increased during hibernation indicating decreased ventricular mass. Ejection fraction of the left ventricle was not different between active and hibernating states. In contrast, total left atrial emptying fraction was significantly reduced during hibernation (17.8 +/- 2.8%) as compared to the active state (40.8 +/- 1.9%). Reduced atrial chamber function was also supported by reduced atrial contraction blood flow velocities and atrial contraction ejection fraction during hibernation; 7.1 +/- 2.8% as compared to 20.7 +/- 3% during the active state. Changes in the diastolic cardiac filling cycle, especially atrial chamber contribution to ventricular filling, appear to be the most prominent macroscopic functional change during hibernation. Thus, we propose that these changes in atrial chamber function constitute a major adaptation during hibernation which allows the myocardium to conserve energy, avoid chamber dilation and remain healthy during a period of extremely low heart rates. These findings will aid in rational approaches to identifying underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:19940994

  19. Cardiac function adaptations in hibernating grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T

    2010-03-01

    Research on the cardiovascular physiology of hibernating mammals may provide insight into evolutionary adaptations; however, anesthesia used to handle wild animals may affect the cardiovascular parameters of interest. To overcome these potential biases, we investigated the functional cardiac phenotype of the hibernating grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) during the active, transitional and hibernating phases over a 4 year period in conscious rather than anesthetized bears. The bears were captive born and serially studied from the age of 5 months to 4 years. Heart rate was significantly different from active (82.6 +/- 7.7 beats/min) to hibernating states (17.8 +/- 2.8 beats/min). There was no difference from the active to the hibernating state in diastolic and stroke volume parameters or in left atrial area. Left ventricular volume:mass was significantly increased during hibernation indicating decreased ventricular mass. Ejection fraction of the left ventricle was not different between active and hibernating states. In contrast, total left atrial emptying fraction was significantly reduced during hibernation (17.8 +/- 2.8%) as compared to the active state (40.8 +/- 1.9%). Reduced atrial chamber function was also supported by reduced atrial contraction blood flow velocities and atrial contraction ejection fraction during hibernation; 7.1 +/- 2.8% as compared to 20.7 +/- 3% during the active state. Changes in the diastolic cardiac filling cycle, especially atrial chamber contribution to ventricular filling, appear to be the most prominent macroscopic functional change during hibernation. Thus, we propose that these changes in atrial chamber function constitute a major adaptation during hibernation which allows the myocardium to conserve energy, avoid chamber dilation and remain healthy during a period of extremely low heart rates. These findings will aid in rational approaches to identifying underlying molecular mechanisms.

  20. A computer adaptive testing approach for assessing physical functioning in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Haley, Stephen M; Ni, Pengsheng; Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Skrinar, Alison M; Corzo, Deyanira

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate: (1) the accuracy and (2) the reduction in amount of time and effort in assessing physical functioning (self-care and mobility domains) of children and adolescents using computer-adaptive testing (CAT). A CAT algorithm selects questions directly tailored to the child's ability level, based on previous responses. Using a CAT algorithm, a simulation study was used to determine the number of items necessary to approximate the score of a full-length assessment. We built simulated CAT (5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-item versions) for self-care and mobility domains and tested their accuracy in a normative sample (n=373; 190 males, 183 females; mean age 6y 11mo [SD 4y 2m], range 4mo to 14y 11mo) and a sample of children and adolescents with Pompe disease (n=26; 21 males, 5 females; mean age 6y 1mo [SD 3y 10mo], range 5mo to 14y 10mo). Results indicated that comparable score estimates (based on computer simulations) to the full-length tests can be achieved in a 20-item CAT version for all age ranges and for normative and clinical samples. No more than 13 to 16% of the items in the full-length tests were needed for any one administration. These results support further consideration of using CAT programs for accurate and efficient clinical assessments of physical functioning.

  1. Functional modules of sigma factor regulons guarantee adaptability and evolvability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Sebastian C.; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Schulz, Sebastian; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Franke, Raimo; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-02-01

    The focus of modern molecular biology turns from assigning functions to individual genes towards understanding the expression and regulation of complex sets of molecules. Here, we provide evidence that alternative sigma factor regulons in the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa largely represent insulated functional modules which provide a critical level of biological organization involved in general adaptation and survival processes. Analysis of the operational state of the sigma factor network revealed that transcription factors functionally couple the sigma factor regulons and significantly modulate the transcription levels in the face of challenging environments. The threshold quality of newly evolved transcription factors was reached faster and more robustly in in silico testing when the structural organization of sigma factor networks was taken into account. These results indicate that the modular structures of alternative sigma factor regulons provide P. aeruginosa with a robust framework to function adequately in its environment and at the same time facilitate evolutionary change. Our data support the view that widespread modularity guarantees robustness of biological networks and is a key driver of evolvability.

  2. Functional modules of sigma factor regulons guarantee adaptability and evolvability.

    PubMed

    Binder, Sebastian C; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Schulz, Sebastian; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Franke, Raimo; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The focus of modern molecular biology turns from assigning functions to individual genes towards understanding the expression and regulation of complex sets of molecules. Here, we provide evidence that alternative sigma factor regulons in the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa largely represent insulated functional modules which provide a critical level of biological organization involved in general adaptation and survival processes. Analysis of the operational state of the sigma factor network revealed that transcription factors functionally couple the sigma factor regulons and significantly modulate the transcription levels in the face of challenging environments. The threshold quality of newly evolved transcription factors was reached faster and more robustly in in silico testing when the structural organization of sigma factor networks was taken into account. These results indicate that the modular structures of alternative sigma factor regulons provide P. aeruginosa with a robust framework to function adequately in its environment and at the same time facilitate evolutionary change. Our data support the view that widespread modularity guarantees robustness of biological networks and is a key driver of evolvability. PMID:26915971

  3. Functional modules of sigma factor regulons guarantee adaptability and evolvability

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Sebastian C.; Eckweiler, Denitsa; Schulz, Sebastian; Bielecka, Agata; Nicolai, Tanja; Franke, Raimo; Häussler, Susanne; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The focus of modern molecular biology turns from assigning functions to individual genes towards understanding the expression and regulation of complex sets of molecules. Here, we provide evidence that alternative sigma factor regulons in the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa largely represent insulated functional modules which provide a critical level of biological organization involved in general adaptation and survival processes. Analysis of the operational state of the sigma factor network revealed that transcription factors functionally couple the sigma factor regulons and significantly modulate the transcription levels in the face of challenging environments. The threshold quality of newly evolved transcription factors was reached faster and more robustly in in silico testing when the structural organization of sigma factor networks was taken into account. These results indicate that the modular structures of alternative sigma factor regulons provide P. aeruginosa with a robust framework to function adequately in its environment and at the same time facilitate evolutionary change. Our data support the view that widespread modularity guarantees robustness of biological networks and is a key driver of evolvability. PMID:26915971

  4. Improving Sensorimotor Function and Adaptation using Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan, R. C.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Oman, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during adaption to G-transitions that occur when entering and exiting microgravity. Post space flight, these sensorimotor disturbances can include postural and gait instability, visual performance changes, manual control disruptions, spatial disorientation, and motion sickness, all of which can hinder the operational capabilities of the astronauts. Crewmember safety would be significantly increased if sensorimotor changes brought on by gravitational changes could be mitigated and adaptation could be facilitated. The goal of this research is to investigate and develop the use of electrical stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a countermeasure to augment sensorimotor function and facilitate adaptation. For this project, SVS will be applied via electrodes on the mastoid processes at imperceptible amplitude levels. We hypothesize that SVS will improve sensorimotor performance through the phenomena of stochastic resonance, which occurs when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. In line with the theory of stochastic resonance, a specific optimal level of SVS will be found and tested for each subject [1]. Three experiments are planned to investigate the use of SVS in sensory-dependent tasks and performance. The first experiment will aim to demonstrate stochastic resonance in the vestibular system through perception based motion recognition thresholds obtained using a 6-degree of freedom Stewart platform in the Jenks Vestibular Laboratory at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. A range of SVS amplitudes will be applied to each subject and the subjectspecific optimal SVS level will be identified as that which results in the lowest motion recognition threshold, through previously established, well developed methods [2,3,4]. The second experiment will investigate the use of optimal SVS in facilitating sensorimotor adaptation to system

  5. Relationship between functional movement screening score and history of injury and identifying the predictive value of the FMS for injury.

    PubMed

    Shojaedin, Seyyed Sadredin; Letafatkar, Amir; Hadadnezhad, Malihe; Dehkhoda, Mohamad Reza

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to reveal the functional ability of functional movement screening (FMS) scores in determining an athlete's predisposition to injury. One hundred (50 females and 50 males) university level athletes, weight of 69.44 ± 5.84 kg, height of 172.69 ± 7.26 cm, age of 22.56 ± 2.99 years and Baecke score 21.66 ± 1.73, practised in football, handball and basketball sports (at least for 5 years), with no recent (<6 weeks) history of musculoskeletal injury were recruited. Of the 100 subjects, 35 of them suffered an acute, lower extremity (ankle = 20 and knee = 15 subjects) injury. An odds ratio was calculated at 4.70, meaning that an athlete has an approximately 4.7 times greater chance of suffering a lower extremity injury during a regular competitive season if they score less than 17 on the FMS. This study provides FMS reference values for university level athletes that will assist in the interpretation of individual scores when screening athletes for musculoskeletal injury and performance factors. More research is still necessary before implementing the FMS into a pre-participation physical examination for athletics, but due to the low cost and its simplicity to implement, it should be considered by clinicians and researchers in the future.

  6. Status of point spread function determination for Keck adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragland, S.; Jolissaint, L.; Wizinowich, P.; Neyman, C.

    2014-07-01

    There is great interest in the adaptive optics (AO) science community to overcome the limitations imposed by incomplete knowledge of the point spread function (PSF). To address this limitation a program has been initiated at the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) to demonstrate PSF determination for observations obtained with Keck AO science instruments. This paper aims to give a broad view of the progress achieved in this area. The concept and the implementation are briefly described. The results from on-sky on-axis NGS AO measurements using the NIRC2 science instrument are presented. On-sky performance of the technique is illustrated by comparing the reconstructed PSFs to NIRC2 PSFs. Accuracy of the reconstructed PSFs in terms of Strehl ratio and FWHM are discussed. Science cases for the first phase of science verification have been identified. More technical details of the program are presented elsewhere in the conference.

  7. Site and Orbit Repeatabilities using Adaptive Mapping Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Camille; Gegout, Pascal; Soudarin, Laurent; Biancale, Richard; Perosanz, Felix

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic signals emitted by the satellite positioning systems travel at the speed of light in a straight line in a vacuum but are modified in their propagation through the neutral atmosphere by temporal and spatial changes of density, and composition and refractivity. These waves are slowed down and their trajectories are bent. This presentation summarizes the performances of the modeling of the tropospheric propagation by the ray tracing technique through the assimilations of the European Meteorological Centre (ECMWF) in the framework of realizing the geodetic reference frame. This goal is achieved by modeling the spatial variability of the propagation using the time variable three-dimensional physical parameters of the atmosphere. The tropospheric delays obtained by ray tracing in all directions throughout the meteorological model surrounding the geodetic site, are fitted by Adaptive Mapping Functions (AMF) parameterized by several tens of coefficients. The delays produced by the Horizon software are then experimented, kept unchanged or adjusted, when recovering a reference frame based on hundred sites using the GINS software. Without any adjustments of the tropospheric modeling, the subcentimetric performances of the AMF are demonstrated by the repeatability of sites positions and GPS satellites orbits. When some AMF coefficients are adjusted, the accuracy of orbits recovery in term of quadratic mean is 7 to 8 millimeters. This limit is imposed by the lack or deficiency of other models, such as non-tidal and tidal loading respectively. Hence the repeatability of the vertical position is not enhanced by changing the propagation model. At the contrary, the repeatability of the horizontal position of geodetic sites is greatly enhanced by accounting for the azimuthal variability provided by the realistic 3D shapes of the Atmosphere and the Earth and the rigorous interpolations of atmospheric parameters included in Adaptive Mapping Functions with respect

  8. Microscale laser surgery reveals adaptive function of male intromittent genitalia.

    PubMed

    Polak, Michal; Rashed, Arash

    2010-05-01

    The leading hypothesis for the evolution of male genital complexity proposes that genital traits evolve in response to post-insemination sexual selection; that is, via cryptic female choice or sperm competition. Here, we describe a laser ablation technique for high-precision manipulation of microscale body parts of insects, and employ it to discern the adaptive function of a rapidly evolving and taxonomically important genital trait: the intromittent claw-like genital spines of male Drosophila bipectinata Duda. We demonstrate experimentally and unambiguously that the genital spines of this species function to mechanically couple the genitalia together. The excision of the spines by laser ablation sharply reduced the ability of males both to copulate and to compete against rival males for mates. When spineless males did succeed to copulate, their insemination success and fertilization rate were not statistically different from controls, at odds with the post-insemination sexual selection hypothesis of genital function and evolution. The results provide direct experimental support for the hypothesis that genital traits evolve in response to sexual selection occurring prior to insemination.

  9. GATA-3 function in innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Tindemans, Irma; Serafini, Nicolas; Di Santo, James P; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2014-08-21

    The zinc-finger transcription factor GATA-3 has received much attention as a master regulator of T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, during which it controls interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13 expression. More recently, GATA-3 was shown to contribute to type 2 immunity through regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and function. Furthermore, during thymopoiesis, GATA-3 represses B cell potential in early T cell precursors, activates TCR signaling in pre-T cells, and promotes the CD4(+) T cell lineage after positive selection. GATA-3 also functions outside the thymus in hematopoietic stem cells, regulatory T cells, CD8(+) T cells, thymic natural killer cells, and ILC precursors. Here we discuss the varied functions of GATA-3 in innate and adaptive immune cells, with emphasis on its activity in T cells and ILCs, and examine the mechanistic basis for the dose-dependent, developmental-stage- and cell-lineage-specific activity of this transcription factor.

  10. Post-error adaptation in adults with high functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Bogte, Hans; Flamma, Bert; van der Meere, Jaap; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-04-01

    Deficits in executive function (EF), i.e. function of the prefrontal cortex, may be central in the etiology of autism. One of the various aspects of EF is error detection and adjusting behavior after an error. In cognitive tests, adults normally slow down their responding on the next trial after making an error, a compensatory mechanism geared toward improving performance on subsequent trials, and a faculty critically associated with activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The current study evaluated post-error slowing in people with high functioning autism (HFA) (n=36), taking symptom severity into account, compared to the performance of a normal control group (n=32). Symptom severity in the HFA group was defined in terms of level of adaptation: living independently (outpatients; n=12) and living residentially (inpatients; n=24). Half the group of inpatients was on medication; the results of their performance were analyzed separately. A computerized version of a memory search task was used with two response probability conditions. The subjects in the control group adjusted their reaction time (RT) substantially after an error, while the group of participants with HFA appeared to be overall slow, with no significant adjustment of RT after an error. This finding remained significant if the medication factor was taken into account, and was independent of the degree of severity of the autistic disorder, as defined by the dichotomy 'inpatient versus outpatient'. Possible causes and implications of the finding are discussed.

  11. Microscale laser surgery reveals adaptive function of male intromittent genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Michal; Rashed, Arash

    2010-01-01

    The leading hypothesis for the evolution of male genital complexity proposes that genital traits evolve in response to post-insemination sexual selection; that is, via cryptic female choice or sperm competition. Here, we describe a laser ablation technique for high-precision manipulation of microscale body parts of insects, and employ it to discern the adaptive function of a rapidly evolving and taxonomically important genital trait: the intromittent claw-like genital spines of male Drosophila bipectinata Duda. We demonstrate experimentally and unambiguously that the genital spines of this species function to mechanically couple the genitalia together. The excision of the spines by laser ablation sharply reduced the ability of males both to copulate and to compete against rival males for mates. When spineless males did succeed to copulate, their insemination success and fertilization rate were not statistically different from controls, at odds with the post-insemination sexual selection hypothesis of genital function and evolution. The results provide direct experimental support for the hypothesis that genital traits evolve in response to sexual selection occurring prior to insemination. PMID:20053645

  12. Proteasome function shapes innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kammerl, Ilona E; Meiners, Silke

    2016-08-01

    The proteasome system degrades more than 80% of intracellular proteins into small peptides. Accordingly, the proteasome is involved in many essential cellular functions, such as protein quality control, transcription, immune responses, cell signaling, and apoptosis. Moreover, degradation products are loaded onto major histocompatibility class I molecules to communicate the intracellular protein composition to the immune system. The standard 20S proteasome core complex contains three distinct catalytic active sites that are exchanged upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines to form the so-called immunoproteasome. Immunoproteasomes are constitutively expressed in immune cells and have different proteolytic activities compared with standard proteasomes. They are rapidly induced in parenchymal cells upon intracellular pathogen infection and are crucial for priming effective CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immune responses against infected cells. Beyond shaping these adaptive immune reactions, immunoproteasomes also regulate the function of immune cells by degradation of inflammatory and immune mediators. Accordingly, they emerge as novel regulators of innate immune responses. The recently unraveled impairment of immunoproteasome function by environmental challenges and by genetic variations of immunoproteasome genes might represent a currently underestimated risk factor for the development and progression of lung diseases. In particular, immunoproteasome dysfunction will dampen resolution of infections, thereby promoting exacerbations, may foster autoimmunity in chronic lung diseases, and possibly contributes to immune evasion of tumor cells. Novel pharmacological tools, such as site-specific inhibitors of the immunoproteasome, as well as activity-based probes, however, hold promises as innovative therapeutic drugs for respiratory diseases and biomarker profiling, respectively. PMID:27343191

  13. Proteasome function shapes innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kammerl, Ilona E; Meiners, Silke

    2016-08-01

    The proteasome system degrades more than 80% of intracellular proteins into small peptides. Accordingly, the proteasome is involved in many essential cellular functions, such as protein quality control, transcription, immune responses, cell signaling, and apoptosis. Moreover, degradation products are loaded onto major histocompatibility class I molecules to communicate the intracellular protein composition to the immune system. The standard 20S proteasome core complex contains three distinct catalytic active sites that are exchanged upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines to form the so-called immunoproteasome. Immunoproteasomes are constitutively expressed in immune cells and have different proteolytic activities compared with standard proteasomes. They are rapidly induced in parenchymal cells upon intracellular pathogen infection and are crucial for priming effective CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immune responses against infected cells. Beyond shaping these adaptive immune reactions, immunoproteasomes also regulate the function of immune cells by degradation of inflammatory and immune mediators. Accordingly, they emerge as novel regulators of innate immune responses. The recently unraveled impairment of immunoproteasome function by environmental challenges and by genetic variations of immunoproteasome genes might represent a currently underestimated risk factor for the development and progression of lung diseases. In particular, immunoproteasome dysfunction will dampen resolution of infections, thereby promoting exacerbations, may foster autoimmunity in chronic lung diseases, and possibly contributes to immune evasion of tumor cells. Novel pharmacological tools, such as site-specific inhibitors of the immunoproteasome, as well as activity-based probes, however, hold promises as innovative therapeutic drugs for respiratory diseases and biomarker profiling, respectively.

  14. Peer Mentoring Intervention Teaching Adaptive Skills to Individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarville, Edel

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with High Functioning ASD's (HFA) often have difficulties with adaptive functioning. Due to these deficits in independent functioning, many individuals with High-Functioning ASD's have limitations in adulthood. This study investigated if individuals with HFA would have a greater likelihood of learning independent adaptive daily living…

  15. PHOENIX: A Scoring Function for Affinity Prediction Derived Using High-Resolution Crystal Structures and Calorimetry Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yat T.; Marshall, Garland R.

    2011-01-01

    Binding affinity prediction is one of the most critical components to computer-aided structure-based drug design. Despite advances in first-principle methods for predicting binding affinity, empirical scoring functions that are fast and only relatively accurate are still widely used in structure-based drug design. With the increasing availability of X-ray crystallographic structures in the Protein Data Bank and continuing application of biophysical methods such as isothermal titration calorimetry to measure thermodynamic parameters contributing to binding free energy, sufficient experimental data exists that scoring functions can now be derived by separating enthalpic (ΔH) and entropic (TΔS) contributions to binding free energy (ΔG). PHOENIX, a scoring function to predict binding affinities of protein-ligand complexes, utilizes the increasing availability of experimental data to improve binding affinity predictions by the following: model training and testing using high-resolution crystallographic data to minimize structural noise, independent models of enthalpic and entropic contributions fitted to thermodynamic parameters assumed to be thermodynamically biased to calculate binding free energy, use of shape and volume descriptors to better capture entropic contributions. A set of 42 descriptors and 112 protein-ligand complexes were used to derive functions using partial least squares for change of enthalpy (ΔH) and change of entropy (TΔS) to calculate change of binding free energy (ΔG), resulting in a predictive r2 (r2pred) of 0.55 and a standard error (SE) of 1.34 kcal/mol. External validation using the 2009 version of the PDBbind “refined set” (n = 1612) resulted in a Pearson correlation coefficient (Rp) of 0.575 and a mean error (ME) of 1.41 pKd. Enthalpy and entropy predictions were of limited accuracy individually. However, their difference resulted in a relatively accurate binding free energy. While the development of an accurate and applicable

  16. Adaptive functional diversification of lysozyme in insectivorous bats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; He, Guimei; Xu, Huihui; Han, Xiuqun; Jones, Gareth; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2014-11-01

    The role of gene duplication in generating new genes and novel functions is well recognized and is exemplified by the digestion-related protein lysozyme. In ruminants, duplicated chicken-type lysozymes facilitate the degradation of symbiotic bacteria in the foregut. Chicken-type lysozyme has also been reported to show chitinase-like activity, yet no study has examined the molecular evolution of lysozymes in species that specialize on eating insects. Insectivorous bats number over 900 species, and lysozyme expression in the mouths of some of these species is associated with the ingestion of insect cuticle, suggesting a chitinase role. Here, we show that chicken-type lysozyme has undergone multiple duplication events in a major family of insect-eating bats (Vespertilionidae) and that new duplicates have undergone molecular adaptation. Examination of duplicates from two insectivorous bats-Pipistrellus abramus and Scotophilus kuhlii-indicated that the new copy was highly expressed in the tongue, whereas the other one was less tissue-specific. Functional assays applied to pipistrelle lysozymes confirmed that, of the two copies, the tongue duplicate was more efficient at breaking down glycol chitin, a chitin derivative. These results suggest that the evolution of lysozymes in vespertilionid bats has likely been driven in part by natural selection for insectivory.

  17. Adaptive tuning functions arise from visual observation of past movement

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Ian S.; Franklin, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Visual observation of movement plays a key role in action. For example, tennis players have little time to react to the ball, but still need to prepare the appropriate stroke. Therefore, it might be useful to use visual information about the ball trajectory to recall a specific motor memory. Past visual observation of movement (as well as passive and active arm movement) affects the learning and recall of motor memories. Moreover, when passive or active, these past contextual movements exhibit generalization (or tuning) across movement directions. Here we extend this work, examining whether visual motion also exhibits similar generalization across movement directions and whether such generalization functions can explain patterns of interference. Both the adaptation movement and contextual movement exhibited generalization beyond the training direction, with the visual contextual motion exhibiting much broader tuning. A second experiment demonstrated that this pattern was consistent with the results of an interference experiment where opposing force fields were associated with two separate visual movements. Overall, our study shows that visual contextual motion exhibits much broader (and shallower) tuning functions than previously seen for either passive or active movements, demonstrating that the tuning characteristics of past motion are highly dependent on their sensory modality. PMID:27341163

  18. Adaptive tuning functions arise from visual observation of past movement.

    PubMed

    Howard, Ian S; Franklin, David W

    2016-01-01

    Visual observation of movement plays a key role in action. For example, tennis players have little time to react to the ball, but still need to prepare the appropriate stroke. Therefore, it might be useful to use visual information about the ball trajectory to recall a specific motor memory. Past visual observation of movement (as well as passive and active arm movement) affects the learning and recall of motor memories. Moreover, when passive or active, these past contextual movements exhibit generalization (or tuning) across movement directions. Here we extend this work, examining whether visual motion also exhibits similar generalization across movement directions and whether such generalization functions can explain patterns of interference. Both the adaptation movement and contextual movement exhibited generalization beyond the training direction, with the visual contextual motion exhibiting much broader tuning. A second experiment demonstrated that this pattern was consistent with the results of an interference experiment where opposing force fields were associated with two separate visual movements. Overall, our study shows that visual contextual motion exhibits much broader (and shallower) tuning functions than previously seen for either passive or active movements, demonstrating that the tuning characteristics of past motion are highly dependent on their sensory modality. PMID:27341163

  19. Training compliance control yields improvements in drawing as a function of Beery scores.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Flatters, Ian; Fath, Aaron; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in sensori-motor learning. Previously, we developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement at a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. Here, we tested 7-8 year old children from several 2nd grade classrooms to determine whether 3D tracing performance could be predicted using the Beery VMI. We also examined whether 3D tracing training lead to improvements in drawing. Baseline testing included Beery, a drawing task on a tablet computer, and 3D tracing. We found that baseline performance in 3D tracing and drawing co-varied with the visual perception (VP) component of the Beery. Differences in 3D tracing between children scoring low versus high on the Beery VP replicated differences previously found between children with and without motor impairments, as did post-training performance that eliminated these differences. Drawing improved as a result of training in the 3D tracing task. The training method improved drawing and reduced differences predicted by Beery scores. PMID:24651280

  20. Functional cerebral distance and the effect of emotional music on spatial rotation scores in undergraduate women and men.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Sharon; Knee, H Donald; Webb, Jeffrey L

    2011-02-01

    The influence of listening to music on subsequent spatial rotation scores has a controversial history. The effect is unreliable, seeming to depend on several as yet unexplored factors. Using a large sample (167 women, 160 men; M age = 18.9 yr.), two related variables were investigated: participants' sex and the emotion conveyed by the music. Participants listened to 90 sec. of music that portrayed emotions of approach (happiness), or withdrawal (anger), or heard no music at all. They then performed a two-dimensional spatial rotation task. No significant difference was found in spatial rotation scores between groups exposed to music and those who were not. However, a significant interaction was found based on the sex of the participants and the emotion portrayed in the music they heard. Women's scores increased (relative to a no-music condition) only after hearing withdrawal-based music, while men's scores increased only after listening to the approach-based music. These changes were explained using the theory of functional cerebral distance.

  1. Cross cultural adaptation and validation of a Spanish version of the lower limb functional index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Lower Limb Functional Index (LLFI) is a relatively recently published regional outcome measure. The development article showed the LLFI had robust and valid clinimetric properties with sound psychometric and practical characteristics when compared to the Lower Limb Extremity Scale (LEFS) criterion standard. Objective The purpose of this study was cross cultural adaptation and validation of the LLFI Spanish-version (LLFI-Sp) in a Spanish population. Methods A two stage observational study was conducted. The LLFI was initially cross-culturally adapted to Spanish through double forward and single backward translation; then subsequently validated for the psychometric characteristics of validity, internal consistency, reliability, error score and factor structure. Participants (n = 136) with various lower limb conditions of >12 weeks duration completed the LLFI-Sp, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the Euroqol Health Questionnaire 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D-3 L). The full sample was employed to determine internal consistency, concurrent criterion validity, construct validity and factor structure; a subgroup (n = 45) determined reliability at seven days concurrently completing a global rating of change scale. Results The LLFI-Sp demonstrated high but not excessive internal consistency (α = 0.91) and high reliability (ICC = 0.96). The factor structure was one-dimensional which supported the construct validity. Criterion validity with the WOMAC was strong (r = 0.77) and with the EQ-5D-3 L fair and inversely correlated (r = -0.62). The study limitations included the lack of longitudinal data and the determination of responsiveness. Conclusions The LLFI-Sp supports the findings of the original English version as being a valid lower limb regional outcome measure. It demonstrated similar psychometric properties for internal consistency, validity, reliability, error score and factor structure. PMID

  2. Predicting stroke through genetic risk functions: The CHARGE risk score project

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Fornage, Myriam; Bis, Joshua C; Choi, Seung Hoan; Psaty, Bruce M; Meigs, James B; Rao, Madhu; Nalls, Mike; Fontes, Joao D; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Ehret, Georg B.; Fox, Caroline S; Malik, Rainer; Dichgans, Martin; Schmidt, Helena; Lahti, Jari; Heckbert, Susan R; Lumley, Thomas; Rice, Kenneth; Rotter, Jerome I; Taylor, Kent D; Folsom, Aaron R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Rosamond, Wayne D; Shahar, Eyal; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Koudstaal, Peter J; Amin, Najaf; Wieberdink, Renske G.; Dehghan, Abbas; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; DeStefano, Anita L.; Debette, Stephanie; Xue, Luting; Beiser, Alexa; Wolf, Philip A.; DeCarli, Charles; Ikram, M. Arfan; Seshadri, Sudha; Mosley, Thomas H; Longstreth, WT; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Launer, Lenore J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Beyond the Framingham Stroke Risk Score (FSRS), prediction of future stroke may improve with a genetic risk score (GRS) based on Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with stroke and its risk factors. Methods The study includes four population-based cohorts with 2,047 first incident strokes from 22,720 initially stroke-free European origin participants aged 55 years and older, who were followed for up to 20 years. GRS were constructed with 324 SNPs implicated in stroke and 9 risk factors. The association of the GRS to first incident stroke was tested using Cox regression; the GRS predictive properties were assessed with Area under the curve (AUC) statistics comparing the GRS to age sex, and FSRS models, and with reclassification statistics. These analyses were performed per cohort and in a meta-analysis of pooled data. Replication was sought in a case-control study of ischemic stroke (IS). Results In the meta-analysis, adding the GRS to the FSRS, age and sex model resulted in a significant improvement in discrimination (All stroke: Δjoint AUC =0.016, p-value=2.3*10-6; IS: Δ joint AUC =0.021, p-value=3.7*10−7), although the overall AUC remained low. In all studies there was a highly significantly improved net reclassification index (p-values <10−4). Conclusions The SNPs associated with stroke and its risk factors result only in a small improvement in prediction of future stroke compared to the classical epidemiological risk factors for stroke. PMID:24436238

  3. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghi; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and other technologies have been offering evidence and insights showing that altered brain functional networks are associated with neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease. Exploring brain networks of clinical populations compared to those of controls would be a key inquiry to reveal underlying neurological processes related to such illnesses. For such a purpose, group-level inference is a necessary first step in order to establish whether there are any genuinely disrupted brain subnetworks. Such an analysis is also challenging due to the high dimensionality of the parameters in a network model and high noise levels in neuroimaging data. We are still in the early stage of method development as highlighted by Varoquaux and Craddock (2013) that "there is currently no unique solution, but a spectrum of related methods and analytical strategies" to learn and compare brain connectivity. In practice the important issue of how to choose several critical parameters in estimating a network, such as what association measure to use and what is the sparsity of the estimated network, has not been carefully addressed, largely because the answers are unknown yet. For example, even though the choice of tuning parameters in model estimation has been extensively discussed in the literature, as to be shown here, an optimal choice of a parameter for network estimation may not be optimal in the current context of hypothesis testing. Arbitrarily choosing or mis-specifying such parameters may lead to extremely low-powered tests. Here we develop highly adaptive tests to detect group differences in brain connectivity while accounting for unknown optimal choices of some tuning parameters. The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only

  4. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghi; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and other technologies have been offering evidence and insights showing that altered brain functional networks are associated with neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease. Exploring brain networks of clinical populations compared to those of controls would be a key inquiry to reveal underlying neurological processes related to such illnesses. For such a purpose, group-level inference is a necessary first step in order to establish whether there are any genuinely disrupted brain subnetworks. Such an analysis is also challenging due to the high dimensionality of the parameters in a network model and high noise levels in neuroimaging data. We are still in the early stage of method development as highlighted by Varoquaux and Craddock (2013) that "there is currently no unique solution, but a spectrum of related methods and analytical strategies" to learn and compare brain connectivity. In practice the important issue of how to choose several critical parameters in estimating a network, such as what association measure to use and what is the sparsity of the estimated network, has not been carefully addressed, largely because the answers are unknown yet. For example, even though the choice of tuning parameters in model estimation has been extensively discussed in the literature, as to be shown here, an optimal choice of a parameter for network estimation may not be optimal in the current context of hypothesis testing. Arbitrarily choosing or mis-specifying such parameters may lead to extremely low-powered tests. Here we develop highly adaptive tests to detect group differences in brain connectivity while accounting for unknown optimal choices of some tuning parameters. The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only

  5. [A comparative study of clinical score and lung function tests in the classification of asthma by severity of disease].

    PubMed

    Nakaie, C M; Rozov, T; Manissadjian, A

    1998-01-01

    Fifty nine asthmatic children and adolescents, clinically stable, aged 6 to 15 years, 37 boys and 22 girls, from Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, were studied from September to November, 1994. The patients were classified by the clinical score of the International Consensus for Asthma Diagnosis and Management. They performed baseline spirometry and peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), before and after bronchodilator, and measured PEFR three times a day (6 pm, at bedtime and on waking), for one day, at home. Five PEF measurements were made serially and the best readings were considered. Variability of PFE was calculated for 24 hours, as assessed by maximal amplitude. The results were summited to statistical analysis of the Laboratorio de Informática Médica da Faculdade de Medicina da USP. The results of PEFR and it's variability were compared to spirometry, (functional score, FEV1-forced expiratory volume in the first second) and to the clinical score of the International Consensus for Asthma Diagnosis and Management. In case of disagreement between the clinical parameters, the more severe one was chosen. The clinical score classified 20.3% of our patients as mild obstruction, 49.2% as moderate and 30.5% as severely compromised. According to FEV1, 58% of patients were classified as normal while the PEFR and its variability classified as normal 76% and 71%. The PEFR and it's variability in 24 hours, correlated with the VEF1, as gold standard, showed good specificity, 91% and 76% respectively and low sensibility, 44% and 32%. It was detected a low level of agreement between FEV1, PEFR and it's variability in 24 hours, in the clinical severity classification of asthma. The results of this study showed that FEV1 and PEFR had a low level of agreement in the clinical severity classification of asthma and when they were correlated to the clinical score of the International Consensus, they both presented low sensitivity.

  6. Adaptive immune response, survival, and somatic cell score between postpartum Holstein and Norwegian Red × Holstein first-calf heifers.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, S L; Schaeffer, L R; Burnside, E B; Mallard, B A

    2012-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate antibody (AMIR) and cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR), survival, and somatic cell score (SCS) between purebred Holstein (HO) and crossbred Norwegian Red × Holstein (NRHO) first-calf heifers postpartum. Additionally, immune response traits observed as calves in a previous study were correlated with their immune response traits as first-calf heifers. Heifers, previously immunized as calves, were bled and reimmunized 6 to 9 d postcalving with known type 1 and type 2 antigens and human serum albumin (HSA). Seven days later, heifers were rebled, and background skinfold measurements of the tail fold were taken. Intradermal injections of PBS and type 1 antigen were administered on either side of the tail fold. On d 9 final skinfold measurements were taken and used to assess delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) as an indicator of CMIR. Blood samples were also collected for a final time on d 14 from heifers that received the antigen HSA. Serum was obtained from blood collected on d 0, 7, and 14 and analyzed by ELISA to assess AMIR. Data on survival and somatic cell count, which was converted to SCS, were obtained from CanWest Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI). All SCS, survival, and immune response data were analyzed using general linear models to determine significance between HO and NRHO first-calf heifers. To determine residual correlations between immune response traits observed in calves to their responses as first-calf heifers, residuals were obtained from models, and correlations between traits were determined using PROC CORR in SAS. Results showed NRHO had a greater primary IgG antibody response to HSA and greater tertiary IgG antibody response to the type 2 antigen compared with HO. Crossbreds (NRHO)also had significantly greater DTH response (P < 0.05) and, in general, greater survival from calving to 100 d in milk (dim), 100 to 305 dim, calving to 305 dim, and age at immune response testing as calf to 305 dim. No

  7. Functional connectivity patterns reflect individual differences in conflict adaptation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangpeng; Wang, Ting; Chen, Zhencai; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Yijun; Chen, Antao

    2015-04-01

    Individuals differ in the ability to utilize previous conflict information to optimize current conflict resolution, which is termed the conflict adaptation effect. Previous studies have linked individual differences in conflict adaptation to distinct brain regions. However, the network-based neural mechanisms subserving the individual differences of the conflict adaptation effect have not been studied. The present study employed a psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis with a color-naming Stroop task to examine this issue. The main results were as follows: (1) the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-seeded PPI revealed the involvement of the salience network (SN) in conflict adaptation, while the posterior parietal cortex (PPC)-seeded PPI revealed the engagement of the central executive network (CEN). (2) Participants with high conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-CEN connectivity and lower intra-SN connectivity; while those with low conflict adaptation effect showed higher intra-SN connectivity and lower intra-CEN connectivity. (3) The PPC-centered intra-CEN connectivity positively predicted the conflict adaptation effect; while the ACC-centered intra-SN connectivity had a negative correlation with this effect. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that conflict adaptation is likely supported by the CEN and the SN, providing a new perspective on studying individual differences in conflict adaptation on the basis of large-scale networks. PMID:25721566

  8. The Coevolution of Phycobilisomes: Molecular Structure Adapting to Functional Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Fei; Qin, Song; Wang, Yin-Chu

    2011-01-01

    Phycobilisome is the major light-harvesting complex in cyanobacteria and red alga. It consists of phycobiliproteins and their associated linker peptides which play key role in absorption and unidirectional transfer of light energy and the stability of the whole complex system, respectively. Former researches on the evolution among PBPs and linker peptides had mainly focused on the phylogenetic analysis and selective evolution. Coevolution is the change that the conformation of one residue is interrupted by mutation and a compensatory change selected for in its interacting partner. Here, coevolutionary analysis of allophycocyanin, phycocyanin, and phycoerythrin and covariation analysis of linker peptides were performed. Coevolution analyses reveal that these sites are significantly correlated, showing strong evidence of the functional and structural importance of interactions among these residues. According to interprotein coevolution analysis, less interaction was found between PBPs and linker peptides. Our results also revealed the correlations between the coevolution and adaptive selection in PBS were not directly related, but probably demonstrated by the sites coupled under physical-chemical interactions. PMID:21904470

  9. Applying Utility Functions to Adaptation Planning for Home Automation Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratskas, Pyrros; Paspallis, Nearchos; Kakousis, Konstantinos; Papadopoulos, George A.

    A pervasive computing environment typically comprises multiple embedded devices that may interact together and with mobile users. These users are part of the environment, and they experience it through a variety of devices embedded in the environment. This perception involves technologies which may be heterogeneous, pervasive, and dynamic. Due to the highly dynamic properties of such environments, the software systems running on them have to face problems such as user mobility, service failures, or resource and goal changes which may happen in an unpredictable manner. To cope with these problems, such systems must be autonomous and self-managed. In this chapter we deal with a special kind of a ubiquitous environment, a smart home environment, and introduce a user-preference-based model for adaptation planning. The model, which dynamically forms a set of configuration plans for resources, reasons automatically and autonomously, based on utility functions, on which plan is likely to best achieve the user's goals with respect to resource availability and user needs.

  10. Functional and cortical adaptations to central vision loss

    PubMed Central

    CHEUNG, SING-HANG; LEGGE, GORDON E.

    2005-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), affecting the retina, afflicts one out of ten people aged 80 years or older in the United States. AMD often results in vision loss to the central 15–20 deg of the visual field (i.e. central scotoma), and frequently afflicts both eyes. In most cases, when the central scotoma includes the fovea, patients will adopt an eccentric preferred retinal locus (PRL) for fixation. The onset of a central scotoma results in the absence of retinal inputs to corresponding regions of retinotopically mapped visual cortex. Animal studies have shown evidence for reorganization in adult mammals for such cortical areas following experimentally induced central scotomata. However, it is still unknown whether reorganization occurs in primary visual cortex (V1) of AMD patients. Nor is it known whether the adoption of a PRL corresponds to changes to the retinotopic mapping of V1. Two recent advances hold out the promise for addressing these issues and for contributing to the rehabilitation of AMD patients: improved methods for assessing visual function across the fields of AMD patients using the scanning laser ophthalmoscope, and the advent of brain-imaging methods for studying retinotopic mapping in humans. For the most part, specialists in these two areas come from different disciplines and communities, with few opportunities to interact. The purpose of this review is to summarize key findings on both the clinical and neuroscience issues related to questions about visual adaptation in AMD patients. PMID:15935111

  11. Augmented mandibular bone structurally adapts to functional loading.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, J W; Ruijter, J M; Koole, R; de Putter, C; Terlou, M; Cune, M S

    2013-12-01

    Long-term changes in trabecular bone structure during the 10 years following onlay grafting with simultaneous mandibular implant placement were studied. Extraoral radiographs of both mandibular sides in eight patients were taken regularly. Bone structure was analysed using a custom-written image analysis program. Parameters studied were trabecular area and perimeter and marrow cavity area and perimeter. After skeletonisation of the trabecular network, the number of end points and branching points, skeleton length, and branch angle were determined. The observed structural changes agree with the development of a more complex and more delicate or fine osseous structure. The bone shows more trabecular branching. All changes are most pronounced in the graft spongiosa, but are also found in the graft cortex and in the original mandible. The mean trabecular branch angle becomes more horizontal. The applied technique can be used to analyse long-term changes in the architecture of bone grafts. Changes found in the graft architecture correspond to changes expected after functional adaptation to loading. PMID:23791249

  12. The effect of floor surface on dairy cow immune function and locomotion score.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, K K M; Schutz, M M; Lossie, A C; Eicher, S D

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion, immune status, and expression of genes associated with lameness during the dry and periparturient periods. Cows were assigned to freestall housing with either rubber (RUB; n = 13) or concrete (CON; n = 14) at the feed-bunk and alley immediately after their first calving, and managed on this system during all subsequent lactations. At dry off, cows were moved to a straw bedded-pack dry cow pen, and remained there until about 2 d before subsequent calving. To investigate whether greater exposure to RUB or CON increased the differences between cows on each treatment, cows at the end of either their first (n = 16) or second (n = 11) lactations were included in the experiment. Locomotion scores and blood samples were obtained at -60 (beginning of the dry period), -30, 0 (after calving), +10 and +18 d relative to calving. Leukocyte counts were obtained by using an automated cell counter. Phagocytic activity, and cells positive for CD14 and CD18 expression were measured by flow cytometry using labeled microbeads and antibodies. Expression of tachikinin 1(TAC1), histamine receptor 1 (H1), and metalloproteinase (MMP)13 in blood leukocytes was estimated using quantitative real-time PCR. Treatment effects were determined using a repeated measures model. Provision of rubber flooring did not improve dairy cow locomotion during the subsequent study period. However, time relative to calving had an effect on locomotion score and speed, which were worst on d 0, probably because of the discomfort associated with calving. An interaction occurred between treatment and time for neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. The RUB cows had greater neutrophil and lesser lymphocyte numbers postpartum than CON. These cows also had more cells positive for CD14 postpartum compared with prepartum. Moreover, RUB cows showed upregulation of MMP13 and TAC1 compared with CON. These genes are associated with lameness and pain

  13. Assessing Adaptive Functioning in Preschoolers Referred for Diagnosis of Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Susan; McDonald, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive function is an essential dimension in the diagnosis of neurodevelopmental conditions in young children, assisting in determining the pattern of intellectual function and the amount and type of support required. Yet, little information is available on the accuracy of currently used adaptive function assessments for preschool children. This…

  14. Identifying Differential Item Functioning in Multi-Stage Computer Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis; Li, Johnson

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of CATSIB (Computer Adaptive Testing-Simultaneous Item Bias Test) for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) when items in the matching and studied subtest are administered adaptively in the context of a realistic multi-stage adaptive test (MST). MST was simulated using a 4-item…

  15. Comparing Methods of Assessing Differential Item Functioning in a Computerized Adaptive Testing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Chen, Shu-Ying; Yu, Lan

    2006-01-01

    Mantel-Haenszel and SIBTEST, which have known difficulty in detecting non-unidirectional differential item functioning (DIF), have been adapted with some success for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). This study adapts logistic regression (LR) and the item-response-theory-likelihood-ratio test (IRT-LRT), capable of detecting both unidirectional…

  16. Second Graders Learn Animal Adaptations through Form and Function Analogy Object Boxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Baldwin, Samantha; Schell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the use of form and function analogy object boxes to teach second graders (n = 21) animal adaptations. The study used a pretest-posttest design to examine animal adaptation content learned through focused analogy activities as compared with reading and Internet searches for information about adaptations of animals followed by…

  17. Age and Adaptive Functioning in Children and Adolescents with ASD: The Effects of Intellectual Functioning and ASD Symptom Severity.

    PubMed

    Hill, Trenesha L; Gray, Sarah A O; Kamps, Jodi L; Enrique Varela, R

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity on the relation between age and adaptive functioning in 220 youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Regression analysis indicated that intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity moderated the relation between age and adaptive functioning. For younger children with lower intellectual functioning, higher ASD symptom severity was associated with better adaptive functioning than that of those with lower ASD symptom severity. Similarly, for older children with higher intellectual functioning, higher ASD symptom severity was associated with better adaptive functioning than that of those with lower ASD symptom severity. Analyses by subscales suggest that this pattern is driven by the Conceptual subscale. Clinical and research implications are discussed.

  18. Age and Adaptive Functioning in Children and Adolescents with ASD: The Effects of Intellectual Functioning and ASD Symptom Severity.

    PubMed

    Hill, Trenesha L; Gray, Sarah A O; Kamps, Jodi L; Enrique Varela, R

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity on the relation between age and adaptive functioning in 220 youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Regression analysis indicated that intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity moderated the relation between age and adaptive functioning. For younger children with lower intellectual functioning, higher ASD symptom severity was associated with better adaptive functioning than that of those with lower ASD symptom severity. Similarly, for older children with higher intellectual functioning, higher ASD symptom severity was associated with better adaptive functioning than that of those with lower ASD symptom severity. Analyses by subscales suggest that this pattern is driven by the Conceptual subscale. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID:26174048

  19. Assessing Adaptive Functioning in Death Penalty Cases after Hall and DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Leigh D; Drogin, Eric Y; Guilmette, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    DSM-5 and Hall v. Florida (2014) have dramatically refocused attention on the assessment of adaptive functioning in death penalty cases. In this article, we address strategies for assessing the adaptive functioning of defendants who seek exemption from capital punishment pursuant to Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In particular, we assert that evaluations of adaptive functioning should address assets as well as deficits; seek to identify credible and reliable evidence concerning the developmental period and across the lifespan; distinguish incapacity from the mere absence of adaptive behavior; adhere faithfully to test manual instructions for using standardized measures of adaptive functioning; and account for potential bias on the part of informants. We conclude with brief caveats regarding the standard error of measurement (SEM) in light of Hall, with reference to examples of ordinary life activities that directly illuminate adaptive functioning relevant to capital cases.

  20. Assessing Adaptive Functioning in Death Penalty Cases after Hall and DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Hagan, Leigh D; Drogin, Eric Y; Guilmette, Thomas J

    2016-03-01

    DSM-5 and Hall v. Florida (2014) have dramatically refocused attention on the assessment of adaptive functioning in death penalty cases. In this article, we address strategies for assessing the adaptive functioning of defendants who seek exemption from capital punishment pursuant to Atkins v. Virginia (2002). In particular, we assert that evaluations of adaptive functioning should address assets as well as deficits; seek to identify credible and reliable evidence concerning the developmental period and across the lifespan; distinguish incapacity from the mere absence of adaptive behavior; adhere faithfully to test manual instructions for using standardized measures of adaptive functioning; and account for potential bias on the part of informants. We conclude with brief caveats regarding the standard error of measurement (SEM) in light of Hall, with reference to examples of ordinary life activities that directly illuminate adaptive functioning relevant to capital cases. PMID:26944749

  1. Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship Modeling of Electronic Properties of Graphene Using Atomic Radial Distribution Function Scores.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Michael; Shi, Hongqing; Barnard, Amanda S

    2015-12-28

    The intrinsic relationships between nanoscale features and electronic properties of nanomaterials remain poorly investigated. In this work, electronic properties of 622 computationally optimized graphene structures were mapped to their structures using partial-least-squares regression and radial distributions function (RDF) scores. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models were calibrated with 70% of a virtual data set of 622 passivated and nonpassivated graphenes, and we predicted the properties of the remaining 30% of the structures. The analysis of the optimum QSPR models revealed that the most relevant RDF scores appear at interatomic distances in the range of 2.0 to 10.0 Å for the energy of the Fermi level and the electron affinity, while the electronic band gap and the ionization potential correlate to RDF scores in a wider range from 3.0 to 30.0 Å. The predictions were more accurate for the energy of the Fermi level and the ionization potential, with more than 83% of explained data variance, while the electron affinity exhibits a value of ∼80% and the energy of the band gap a lower 70%. QSPR models have tremendous potential to rapidly identify hypothetical nanomaterials with desired electronic properties that could be experimentally prepared in the near future.

  2. Semantic Verbal Fluency Pattern, Dementia Rating Scores and Adaptive Behavior Correlate With Plasma Aβ42 Concentrations in Down Syndrome Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hoyo, Laura Del; Xicota, Laura; Sánchez-Benavides, Gonzalo; Cuenca-Royo, Aida; de Sola, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Fagundo, Ana B.; Farré, Magí; Dierssen, Mara; de la Torre, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is an intellectual disability (ID) disorder in which language and specifically, verbal fluency are strongly impaired domains; nearly all adults show neuropathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), including amyloid deposition by their fifth decade of life. In the general population, verbal fluency deficits are considered a strong AD predictor being the semantic verbal fluency task (SVFT) a useful tool for enhancing early diagnostic. However, there is a lack of information about the association between the semantic verbal fluency pattern (SVFP) and the biological amyloidosis markers in DS. In the current study, we used the SVFT in young adults with DS to characterize their SVFP, assessing total generated words, clustering, and switching. We then explored its association with early indicators of dementia, adaptive behavior and amyloidosis biomarkers, using the Dementia Questionnaire for Persons with Intellectual Disability (DMR), the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II), and plasma levels of Aβ peptides (Aβ40 and Aβ42), as a potent biomarker of AD. In DS, worse performance in SVFT and poorer communication skills were associated with higher plasma Aβ42 concentrations, a higher DMR score and impaired communication skills (ABAS–II). The total word production and switching ability in SVFT were good indicators of plasma Aβ42 concentration. In conclusion, we propose the SVFT as a good screening test for early detection of dementia and amyloidosis in young adults with DS. PMID:26635555

  3. Application of the 4D fingerprint method with a robust scoring function for scaffold-hopping and drug repurposing strategies.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Adel; Wagner, Jonathan M; Wei, Ning-Ning; Kwiatkowski, Stefan; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Watt, David S; Korotkov, Konstantin V

    2014-10-27

    Two factors contribute to the inefficiency associated with screening pharmaceutical library collections as a means of identifying new drugs: [1] the limited success of virtual screening (VS) methods in identifying new scaffolds; [2] the limited accuracy of computational methods in predicting off-target effects. We recently introduced a 3D shape-based similarity algorithm of the SABRE program, which encodes a consensus molecular shape pattern of a set of active ligands into a 4D fingerprint descriptor. Here, we report a mathematical model for shape similarity comparisons and ligand database filtering using this 4D fingerprint method and benchmarked the scoring function HWK (Hamza-Wei-Korotkov), using the 81 targets of the DEKOIS database. Subsequently, we applied our combined 4D fingerprint and HWK scoring function VS approach in scaffold-hopping and drug repurposing using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) databases, and we identified new inhibitors with different scaffolds of MycP1 protease from the mycobacterial ESX-1 secretion system. Experimental evaluation of nine compounds from the NCI database and three from the FDA database displayed IC50 values ranging from 70 to 100 μM against MycP1 and possessed high structural diversity, which provides departure points for further structure-activity relationship (SAR) optimization. In addition, this study demonstrates that the combination of our 4D fingerprint algorithm and the HWK scoring function may provide a means for identifying repurposed drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases and may be used in the drug-target profile strategy. PMID:25229183

  4. Application of the 4D Fingerprint Method with a Robust Scoring Function for Scaffold-Hopping and Drug Repurposing Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Two factors contribute to the inefficiency associated with screening pharmaceutical library collections as a means of identifying new drugs: [1] the limited success of virtual screening (VS) methods in identifying new scaffolds; [2] the limited accuracy of computational methods in predicting off-target effects. We recently introduced a 3D shape-based similarity algorithm of the SABRE program, which encodes a consensus molecular shape pattern of a set of active ligands into a 4D fingerprint descriptor. Here, we report a mathematical model for shape similarity comparisons and ligand database filtering using this 4D fingerprint method and benchmarked the scoring function HWK (Hamza–Wei–Korotkov), using the 81 targets of the DEKOIS database. Subsequently, we applied our combined 4D fingerprint and HWK scoring function VS approach in scaffold-hopping and drug repurposing using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) databases, and we identified new inhibitors with different scaffolds of MycP1 protease from the mycobacterial ESX-1 secretion system. Experimental evaluation of nine compounds from the NCI database and three from the FDA database displayed IC50 values ranging from 70 to 100 μM against MycP1 and possessed high structural diversity, which provides departure points for further structure–activity relationship (SAR) optimization. In addition, this study demonstrates that the combination of our 4D fingerprint algorithm and the HWK scoring function may provide a means for identifying repurposed drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases and may be used in the drug-target profile strategy. PMID:25229183

  5. Application of the 4D fingerprint method with a robust scoring function for scaffold-hopping and drug repurposing strategies.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Adel; Wagner, Jonathan M; Wei, Ning-Ning; Kwiatkowski, Stefan; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Watt, David S; Korotkov, Konstantin V

    2014-10-27

    Two factors contribute to the inefficiency associated with screening pharmaceutical library collections as a means of identifying new drugs: [1] the limited success of virtual screening (VS) methods in identifying new scaffolds; [2] the limited accuracy of computational methods in predicting off-target effects. We recently introduced a 3D shape-based similarity algorithm of the SABRE program, which encodes a consensus molecular shape pattern of a set of active ligands into a 4D fingerprint descriptor. Here, we report a mathematical model for shape similarity comparisons and ligand database filtering using this 4D fingerprint method and benchmarked the scoring function HWK (Hamza-Wei-Korotkov), using the 81 targets of the DEKOIS database. Subsequently, we applied our combined 4D fingerprint and HWK scoring function VS approach in scaffold-hopping and drug repurposing using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) databases, and we identified new inhibitors with different scaffolds of MycP1 protease from the mycobacterial ESX-1 secretion system. Experimental evaluation of nine compounds from the NCI database and three from the FDA database displayed IC50 values ranging from 70 to 100 μM against MycP1 and possessed high structural diversity, which provides departure points for further structure-activity relationship (SAR) optimization. In addition, this study demonstrates that the combination of our 4D fingerprint algorithm and the HWK scoring function may provide a means for identifying repurposed drugs for the treatment of infectious diseases and may be used in the drug-target profile strategy.

  6. Neuropsychological, Academic, and Adaptive Functioning in Children Who Survive In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest and Resuscitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robin D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study of 25 children, ages 2-15, who survived a cardiac arrest while hospitalized, found that a majority of subjects exhibited low-average to deficient levels of performance on neuropsychologic, achievement, and adaptive behavior measures. Duration of cardiac arrest and a medical risk score were significantly correlated with decreased…

  7. Comparison of molecular mechanics, semi-empirical quantum mechanical, and density functional theory methods for scoring protein-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Yilmazer, Nusret Duygu; Korth, Martin

    2013-07-11

    Correctly ranking protein-ligand interactions with respect to overall free energy of binding is a grand challenge for virtual drug design. Here we compare the performance of various quantum chemical approaches for tackling this so-called "scoring" problem. Relying on systematically generated benchmark sets of large protein/ligand model complexes based on the PDBbind database, we show that the performance depends first of all on the general level of theory. Comparing classical molecular mechanics (MM), semiempirical quantum mechanical (SQM), and density functional theory (DFT) based methods, we find that enhanced SQM approaches perform very similar to DFT methods and substantially different from MM potentials.

  8. Comparison of molecular mechanics, semi-empirical quantum mechanical, and density functional theory methods for scoring protein-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Yilmazer, Nusret Duygu; Korth, Martin

    2013-07-11

    Correctly ranking protein-ligand interactions with respect to overall free energy of binding is a grand challenge for virtual drug design. Here we compare the performance of various quantum chemical approaches for tackling this so-called "scoring" problem. Relying on systematically generated benchmark sets of large protein/ligand model complexes based on the PDBbind database, we show that the performance depends first of all on the general level of theory. Comparing classical molecular mechanics (MM), semiempirical quantum mechanical (SQM), and density functional theory (DFT) based methods, we find that enhanced SQM approaches perform very similar to DFT methods and substantially different from MM potentials. PMID:23758433

  9. The relationship between subjective knee scores, isokinetic testing, and functional testing in the ACL-reconstructed knee.

    PubMed

    Wilk, K E; Romaniello, W T; Soscia, S M; Arrigo, C A; Andrews, J R

    1994-08-01

    It is important to examine the functional relationships between commonly performed clinical tests and to resolve inconsistencies in previous investigative results. The purpose of this study was to determine if a correlation exists between three commonly performed clinical tests: isokinetic isolated knee concentric muscular testing, the single-leg hop test, and the subjective knee score in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knees. To determine if a relationship exists would be beneficial to clinicians in determining patient progression, treatment modification, and return-to-sport objective parameters. Several investigators have analyzed two of these parameters, but no one has investigated three parameters to date. Additionally, this study explored the concept of limb acceleration and deceleration during high-speed isokinetics and its relationship to function. Fifty patients were randomly selected (29 males) with a mean age of 23.7 years (range 15-52). The subjects completed a subjective knee score questionnaire that rated symptoms (pain, swelling, giving way) and specific sport function and completed an overall knee score assessment. The patients were then evaluated performing three one-legged functional tests: 1) hop for distance, 2) timed hop, and 3) cross-over triple hop. Isokinetic testing was performed on a Biodex dynamometer at 180, 300, and 450 degrees/sec for knee extension/flexion. The patients' mean value of the self-assessed knee rating was 86 points. Sixty-four percent of the patients exhibited normal limb symmetry (within 85%) on all three single-leg hop tests. Sixteen percent exhibited quadriceps strength at least 90% of the contralateral limb isokinetically. A positive correlation was noted between isokinetic knee extension peak torque (180, 300 degrees/sec) and subjective knee scores, and the three hop tests (p < 0.001). A statistical trend was noted between knee extension acceleration and deceleration range at 180 and 300 degrees/sec for the

  10. Contrast Sensitivity Function Scores, Choices of Illuminated Stand Magnifiers, and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerritsen, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Far too often, professionals focus almost solely on individuals' needs for magnification level for reading. Visual acuities are measured and decisions are made for low vision devices largely on the basis of acuity levels. Contrast sensitivity function is often overlooked as a critical need for and predictor of the selection and preference for low…

  11. Discriminating the native structure from decoys using scoring functions based on the residue packing in globular proteins

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Setting the rules for the identification of a stable conformation of a protein is of utmost importance for the efficient generation of structures in computer simulation. For structure prediction, a considerable number of possible models are generated from which the best model has to be selected. Results Two scoring functions, Rs and Rp, based on the consideration of packing of residues, which indicate if the conformation of an amino acid sequence is native-like, are presented. These are defined using the solvent accessible surface area (ASA) and the partner number (PN) (other residues that are within 4.5 Å) of a particular residue. The two functions evaluate the deviation from the average packing properties (ASA or PN) of all residues in a polypeptide chain corresponding to a model of its three-dimensional structure. While simple in concept and computationally less intensive, both the functions are at least as efficient as any other energy functions in discriminating the native structure from decoys in a large number of standard decoy sets, as well as on models submitted for the targets of CASP7. Rs appears to be slightly more effective than Rp, as determined by the number of times the native structure possesses the minimum value for the function and its separation from the average value for the decoys. Conclusion Two parameters, Rs and Rp, are discussed that can very efficiently recognize the native fold for a sequence from an ensemble of decoy structures. Unlike many other algorithms that rely on the use of composite scoring function, these are based on a single parameter, viz., the accessible surface area (or the number of residues in contact), but still able to capture the essential attribute of the native fold. PMID:20038291

  12. A fully functional rod visual pigment in a blind mammal. A case for adaptive functional reorganization?

    PubMed

    Janssen, J W; Bovee-Geurts, P H; Peeters, Z P; Bowmaker, J K; Cooper, H M; David-Gray, Z K; Nevo, E; DeGrip, W J

    2000-12-01

    In the blind subterranean mole rat Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies complete ablation of the visual image-forming capability has been accompanied by an expansion of the bilateral projection from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We have cloned the open reading frame of a visual pigment from Spalax that shows >90% homology with mammalian rod pigments. Baculovirus expression yields a membrane protein with all functional characteristics of a rod visual pigment (lambda(max) = 497 +/- 2 nm; pK(a) of meta I/meta II equilibrium = 6.5; rapid activation of transducin in the light). We not only provide evidence that this Spalax rod pigment is fully functional in vitro but also show that all requirements for a functional pigment are present in vivo. The physiological consequences of this unexpected finding are discussed. One attractive option is that during adaptation to a subterranean lifestyle, the visual system of this mammal has undergone mosaic reorganization, and the visual pigments have adapted to a function in circadian photoreception.

  13. Applications for protein sequence-function evolution data: mRNA/protein expression analysis and coding SNP scoring tools.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Paul D; Kejariwal, Anish; Guo, Nan; Mi, Huaiyu; Campbell, Michael J; Muruganujan, Anushya; Lazareva-Ulitsky, Betty

    2006-07-01

    The vast amount of protein sequence data now available, together with accumulating experimental knowledge of protein function, enables modeling of protein sequence and function evolution. The PANTHER database was designed to model evolutionary sequence-function relationships on a large scale. There are a number of applications for these data, and we have implemented web services that address three of them. The first is a protein classification service. Proteins can be classified, using only their amino acid sequences, to evolutionary groups at both the family and subfamily levels. Specific subfamilies, and often families, are further classified when possible according to their functions, including molecular function and the biological processes and pathways they participate in. The second application, then, is an expression data analysis service, where functional classification information can help find biological patterns in the data obtained from genome-wide experiments. The third application is a coding single-nucleotide polymorphism scoring service. In this case, information about evolutionarily related proteins is used to assess the likelihood of a deleterious effect on protein function arising from a single substitution at a specific amino acid position in the protein. All three web services are available at http://www.pantherdb.org/tools.

  14. Reducing uncertainty about objective functions in adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends the uncertainty framework of adaptive management to include uncertainty about the objectives to be used in guiding decisions. Adaptive decision making typically assumes explicit and agreed-upon objectives for management, but allows for uncertainty as to the structure of the decision process that generates change through time. Yet it is not unusual for there to be uncertainty (or disagreement) about objectives, with different stakeholders expressing different views not only about resource responses to management but also about the appropriate management objectives. In this paper I extend the treatment of uncertainty in adaptive management, and describe a stochastic structure for the joint occurrence of uncertainty about objectives as well as models, and show how adaptive decision making and the assessment of post-decision monitoring data can be used to reduce uncertainties of both kinds. Different degrees of association between model and objective uncertainty lead to different patterns of learning about objectives. ?? 2011.

  15. Net and Global Differential Item Functioning in PISA Polytomously Scored Science Items: Application of the Differential Step Functioning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akour, Mutasem; Sabah, Saed; Hammouri, Hind

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply two types of Differential Item Functioning (DIF), net and global DIF, as well as the framework of Differential Step Functioning (DSF) to real testing data to investigate measurement invariance related to test language. Data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)-2006 polytomously scored…

  16. Associations between Conceptual Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Adaptive Ability in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Walker, Jon D.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Goldstein, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract thinking is generally highly correlated with problem-solving ability which is predictive of better adaptive functioning. Measures of conceptual reasoning, an ecologically-valid laboratory measure of problem-solving, and a report measure of adaptive functioning in the natural environment, were administered to children and adults with and…

  17. Waking and Dreaming Need Profiles: An Exploratory Study of Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Robert Linton, II

    Research has defined the various adaptive, compensatory and complementary functions of dreams. To investigate the evidence of adaptive functioning in the dream state, 30 medical students (21 males, 9 females) from St. George's University, Grenada, completed personal surveys, a waking psychological profile, and a dreaming psychological profile…

  18. Translation, Validation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Simplified-Chinese Version of the Tegner Activity Score in Chinese Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongxia; Jiang, Yanfang; Yang, Jie; Feng, Tao; Gong, Xi; Wang, Jianquan; Ao, Yingfang

    2016-01-01

    Aims To translate the English version of Tegner Activity Score into a Simplified-Chinese version (Tegner-C) and evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods Tegner-C was cross-culturally adapted according to established guidelines. The validity and reliability of Tegner-C were assessed in 78 participants, with 19–20 participants in each of the four groups: before anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (pre-ACLR) group, 2–3 months after ACLR group, 3–12 months after ACLR group, and healthy control group. Each participant was asked to complete the Tegner-C and Chinese version of International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF-C) twice, with an interval of 5±2 days. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC2, 1) was used to assess the reliability and Spearman’s rank correlation was used for construct validity. Results The ICC2,1 was higher than 0.90 for all groups except in the pre-ACLR group, for which the ICC2,1 was 0.71 (0.41, 0.87) (All with p<0.001). The absolute reliability as evaluated by the smallest detectable change was 0.43, 2.12, 0.89, and 0.44 for the healthy control group, pre-ACLR group, 2–3 months after ACLR group, and 3–12 months after ACLR group, respectively. Neither a ceiling effect nor a floor effect was observed for any group. Significant difference was observed for both Tegner-C and IKDC-SKF-C scores between the control and the other three groups (all with p<0.001), and between pre-ACLR and the 2–3 months after ACLR group (p<0.001). Conclusions Tegner-C demonstrated comparable psychometric properties to the original English version and thus is reliable and valid for Chinese-speaking patients with ACL injury. PMID:27186880

  19. Cross-Cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Thiago; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pesce, Renata Pires

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the General Functioning Scale of the Family, a subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device, for the Brazilian population. METHODS The General Functioning Scale of the Family was translated into Portuguese and administered to 500 guardians of children in the second grade of elementary school in public schools of Sao Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. The types of equivalences investigated were: conceptual and of items, semantic, operational, and measurement. The study involved discussions with experts, translations and back-translations of the instrument, and psychometric assessment. Reliability and validity studies were carried out by internal consistency testing (Cronbach’s alpha), Guttman split-half correlation model, Pearson correlation coefficient, and confirmatory factor analysis. Associations between General Functioning of the Family and variables theoretically associated with the theme (father’s or mother’s drunkenness and violence between parents) were estimated by odds ratio. RESULTS Semantic equivalence was between 90.0% and 100%. Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.79 to 0.81, indicating good internal consistency of the instrument. Pearson correlation coefficient ranged between 0.303 and 0.549. Statistical association was found between the general functioning of the family score and the theoretically related variables, as well as good fit quality of the confirmatory analysis model. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate the feasibility of administering the instrument to the Brazilian population, as it is easy to understand and a good measurement of the construct of interest. PMID:27355464

  20. Prediction of individual clinical scores in patients with Parkinson's disease using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Hou, YanBing; Luo, ChunYan; Yang, Jing; Ou, RuWei; Song, Wei; Wei, QianQian; Cao, Bei; Zhao, Bi; Wu, Ying; Shang, Hui-Fang; Gong, QiYong

    2016-07-15

    Neuroimaging holds the promise that it may one day aid the clinical assessment. However, the vast majority of studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have reported average differences between Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy controls, which do not permit inferences at the level of individuals. This study was to develop a model for the prediction of PD illness severity ratings from individual fMRI brain scan. The resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 84 patients with PD and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III (UPDRS-III) scores were obtained before scanning. The RVR method was used to predict clinical scores (UPDRS-III) from fMRI scans. The application of RVR to whole-brain resting-state fMRI data allowed prediction of UPDRS-III scores with statistically significant accuracy (correlation=0.35, P-value=0.001; mean sum of squares=222.17, P-value=0.002). This prediction was informed strongly by negative weight areas including prefrontal lobe and medial occipital lobe, and positive weight areas including medial parietal lobe. It was suggested that fMRI scans contained sufficient information about neurobiological change in patients with PD to permit accurate prediction about illness severity, on an individual subject basis. Our results provided preliminary evidence, as proof-of-concept, to support that fMRI might be possible to be a clinically useful quantitative assessment aid in PD at individual level. This may enable clinicians to target those uncooperative patients and machines to replace human for a more efficient use of health care resources. PMID:27288771

  1. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD

    2014-01-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149

  2. A preliminary investigation into the relationship between functional movement screen scores and athletic physical performance in female team sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Rg; Schultz, Ab; Callaghan, Sj; Jordan, Ca; Luczo, Tm; Jeffriess, Md

    2015-03-01

    There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.

  3. Functional Genomics of Physiological Plasticity and Local Adaptation in Killifish

    PubMed Central

    Galvez, Fernando; Zhang, Shujun; Williams, Larissa M.; Oleksiak, Marjorie F.

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary solutions to the physiological challenges of life in highly variable habitats can span the continuum from evolution of a cosmopolitan plastic phenotype to the evolution of locally adapted phenotypes. Killifish (Fundulus sp.) have evolved both highly plastic and locally adapted phenotypes within different selective contexts, providing a comparative system in which to explore the genomic underpinnings of physiological plasticity and adaptive variation. Importantly, extensive variation exists among populations and species for tolerance to a variety of stressors, and we exploit this variation in comparative studies to yield insights into the genomic basis of evolved phenotypic variation. Notably, species of Fundulus occupy the continuum of osmotic habitats from freshwater to marine and populations within Fundulus heteroclitus span far greater variation in pollution tolerance than across all species of fish. Here, we explore how transcriptome regulation underpins extreme physiological plasticity on osmotic shock and how genomic and transcriptomic variation is associated with locally evolved pollution tolerance. We show that F. heteroclitus quickly acclimate to extreme osmotic shock by mounting a dramatic rapid transcriptomic response including an early crisis control phase followed by a tissue remodeling phase involving many regulatory pathways. We also show that convergent evolution of locally adapted pollution tolerance involves complex patterns of gene expression and genome sequence variation, which is confounded with body-weight dependence for some genes. Similarly, exploiting the natural phenotypic variation associated with other established and emerging model organisms is likely to greatly accelerate the pace of discovery of the genomic basis of phenotypic variation. PMID:20581107

  4. In silico structure-based screening of versatile P-glycoprotein inhibitors using polynomial empirical scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Shityakov, Sergey; Förster, Carola

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-binding cassette transporter that causes multidrug resistance of various chemotherapeutic substances by active efflux from mammalian cells. P-gp plays a pivotal role in limiting drug absorption and distribution in different organs, including the intestines and brain. Thus, the prediction of P-gp-drug interactions is of vital importance in assessing drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. To find the strongest P-gp blockers, we performed an in silico structure-based screening of P-gp inhibitor library (1,300 molecules) by the gradient optimization method, using polynomial empirical scoring (POLSCORE) functions. We report a strong correlation (r (2)=0.80, F=16.27, n=6, P<0.0157) of inhibition constants (Kiexp or pKiexp; experimental Ki or negative decimal logarithm of Kiexp) converted from experimental IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values with POLSCORE-predicted constants (KiPOLSCORE or pKiPOLSCORE), using a linear regression fitting technique. The hydrophobic interactions between P-gp and selected drug substances were detected as the main forces responsible for the inhibition effect. The results showed that this scoring technique might be useful in the virtual screening and filtering of databases of drug-like compounds at the early stage of drug development processes. PMID:24711707

  5. In silico structure-based screening of versatile P-glycoprotein inhibitors using polynomial empirical scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Shityakov, Sergey; Förster, Carola

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-binding cassette transporter that causes multidrug resistance of various chemotherapeutic substances by active efflux from mammalian cells. P-gp plays a pivotal role in limiting drug absorption and distribution in different organs, including the intestines and brain. Thus, the prediction of P-gp-drug interactions is of vital importance in assessing drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. To find the strongest P-gp blockers, we performed an in silico structure-based screening of P-gp inhibitor library (1,300 molecules) by the gradient optimization method, using polynomial empirical scoring (POLSCORE) functions. We report a strong correlation (r (2)=0.80, F=16.27, n=6, P<0.0157) of inhibition constants (Kiexp or pKiexp; experimental Ki or negative decimal logarithm of Kiexp) converted from experimental IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values with POLSCORE-predicted constants (KiPOLSCORE or pKiPOLSCORE), using a linear regression fitting technique. The hydrophobic interactions between P-gp and selected drug substances were detected as the main forces responsible for the inhibition effect. The results showed that this scoring technique might be useful in the virtual screening and filtering of databases of drug-like compounds at the early stage of drug development processes.

  6. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J.; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T.; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-07-01

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules.

  7. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules.

    PubMed

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules. PMID:27385551

  8. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules

    PubMed Central

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J.; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T.; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules. PMID:27385551

  9. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules.

    PubMed

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-07-07

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules.

  10. In silico structure-based screening of versatile P-glycoprotein inhibitors using polynomial empirical scoring functions

    PubMed Central

    Shityakov, Sergey; Förster, Carola

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-binding cassette transporter that causes multidrug resistance of various chemotherapeutic substances by active efflux from mammalian cells. P-gp plays a pivotal role in limiting drug absorption and distribution in different organs, including the intestines and brain. Thus, the prediction of P-gp–drug interactions is of vital importance in assessing drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. To find the strongest P-gp blockers, we performed an in silico structure-based screening of P-gp inhibitor library (1,300 molecules) by the gradient optimization method, using polynomial empirical scoring (POLSCORE) functions. We report a strong correlation (r2=0.80, F=16.27, n=6, P<0.0157) of inhibition constants (Kiexp or pKiexp; experimental Ki or negative decimal logarithm of Kiexp) converted from experimental IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values with POLSCORE-predicted constants (KiPOLSCORE or pKiPOLSCORE), using a linear regression fitting technique. The hydrophobic interactions between P-gp and selected drug substances were detected as the main forces responsible for the inhibition effect. The results showed that this scoring technique might be useful in the virtual screening and filtering of databases of drug-like compounds at the early stage of drug development processes. PMID:24711707

  11. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...

  12. Leisure activities in Prader-Wili syndrome: implications for health, cognition and adaptive functioning.

    PubMed

    Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2014-02-01

    Although hyperphagia and compulsivity in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are well described, recreation and adaptive skills are relatively unexplored. Parents of 123 participants with PWS (4-48 years) completed measures of their child's adaptive, recreation, and problem behaviors. Offspring received cognitive testing. Watching TV was the most frequent recreational activity, and was associated with compulsivity and skin picking. BMIs were negatively correlated with physical play, and highest in those who watched TV and played computer games. Computer games and physical activities were associated with higher IQ and adaptive scores. People with PWS and other disabilities need to watch less TV and be more engaged in physical activities, games, and leisure pursuits that are fun, and may bring cognitive or adaptive advantages.

  13. Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder Followed for 2 Years: Those Who Gained and Those Who Lost the Most in Terms of Adaptive Functioning Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedvall, Åsa; Westerlund, Joakim; Fernell, Elisabeth; Norrelgen, Fritjof; Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olsson, Martina Barnevik; Carlsson, Lotta Höglund; Eriksson, Mats A.; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Clinical predictors of 2-year outcome in preschoolers with ASD were studied in a population-based group of very young children with ASD (n = 208). Children who gained the most (n = 30) and lost the most (n = 23), i.e., increased or decreased their adaptive functioning outcome according to the Vineland Composite Score between study entry (T1) and…

  14. Age and Adaptive Functioning in Children and Adolescents with ASD: The Effects of Intellectual Functioning and ASD Symptom Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Trenesha L.; Gray, Sarah A. O.; Kamps, Jodi L.; Enrique Varela, R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity on the relation between age and adaptive functioning in 220 youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Regression analysis indicated that intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity moderated the relation between age and adaptive…

  15. Performance of the Framingham and SCORE cardiovascular risk prediction functions in a non-diabetic population of a Spanish health care centre: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Lourdes Cañón; Muro, Eloísa Cruces; Herrera, Natalio Díaz; Ochoa, Gerardo Fernández; Hueros, Juan Ignacio Calvo; Buitrago, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Objective To analyse the 10-year performance of the original Framingham coronary risk function and of the SCORE cardiovascular death risk function in a non-diabetic population of 40–65 years of age served by a Spanish healthcare centre. Also, to estimate the percentage of patients who are candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. Design Longitudinal, observational study of a retrospective cohort followed up for 10 years. Setting Primary care health centre. Patients A total of 608 non-diabetic patients of 40–65 years of age (mean 52.8 years, 56.7% women), without evidence of cardiovascular disease were studied. Main outcome measures Coronary risk at 10 years from the time of their recruitment, using the tables based on the original Framingham function, and of their 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease using the SCORE tables. Results The actual incidence rates of coronary and fatal cardiovascular events were 7.9% and 1.5%, respectively. The original Framingham equation over-predicted risk by 64%, while SCORE function over-predicted risk by 40%, but the SCORE model performed better than the Framingham one for discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function classified 18.3% of the population as high risk and SCORE 9.2%. The proportions of patients who would be candidates for lipid-lowering therapy were 31.0% and 23.8% according to the original Framingham and SCORE functions, respectively, and 36.8% and 31.2% for antihypertensive therapy. Conclusion The SCORE function showed better values than the original Framingham function for each of the discrimination and calibration statistics. The original Framingham function selected a greater percentage of candidates for antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy. PMID:20873973

  16. Integrating evolutionary and functional approaches to infer adaptation at specific loci.

    PubMed

    Storz, Jay F; Wheat, Christopher W

    2010-09-01

    Inferences about adaptation at specific loci are often exclusively based on the static analysis of DNA sequence variation. Ideally,population-genetic evidence for positive selection serves as a stepping-off point for experimental studies to elucidate the functional significance of the putatively adaptive variation. We argue that inferences about adaptation at specific loci are best achieved by integrating the indirect, retrospective insights provided by population-genetic analyses with the more direct, mechanistic insights provided by functional experiments. Integrative studies of adaptive genetic variation may sometimes be motivated by experimental insights into molecular function, which then provide the impetus to perform population genetic tests to evaluate whether the functional variation is of adaptive significance. In other cases, studies may be initiated by genome scans of DNA variation to identify candidate loci for recent adaptation. Results of such analyses can then motivate experimental efforts to test whether the identified candidate loci do in fact contribute to functional variation in some fitness-related phenotype. Functional studies can provide corroborative evidence for positive selection at particular loci, and can potentially reveal specific molecular mechanisms of adaptation.

  17. Poorer clock draw test scores are associated with greater functional impairment in peripheral artery disease: The Walking and Leg Circulation Study II

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Laura J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Liu, Kiang; Tian, Lu; Guralnik, Jack M; Criqui, Michael H; Liao, Yihua; McDermott, Mary M

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that, in the absence of clinically recognized dementia, cognitive dysfunction measured by the clock draw test (CDT) is associated with greater functional impairment in men and women with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Participants were men and women aged 60 years and older with Mini-Mental Status Examination scores ≥ 24 with PAD (n = 335) and without PAD (n = 234). We evaluated the 6-minute walk test, 4-meter walking velocity at usual and fastest pace, the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and accelerometer-measured physical activity. CDTs were scored using the Shulman system as follows: Category 1 (worst): CDT score 0–2; Category 2: CDT score 3; Category 3 (best): CDT score 4–5. Results were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, ankle–brachial index (ABI), and comorbidities. In individuals with PAD, lower CDT scores were associated with slower 4-meter usual-paced walking velocity (Category 1: 0.78 meters/second; Category 2: 0.83 meters/second; Category 3: 0.86 meters/second; p-trend = 0.025) and lower physical activity (Category 1: 420 activity units; Category 2: 677 activity units; Category 3: 701 activity units; p-trend = 0.045). Poorer CDT scores were also associated with worse functional performance in individuals without PAD (usual and fast-paced walking velocity and SPPB, p-trend = 0.022, 0.043, and 0.031, respectively). In conclusion, cognitive impairment identified with CDT is independently associated with greater functional impairment in older, dementia-free individuals with and without PAD. Longitudinal studies are necessary to explore whether baseline CDT scores and changes in CDT scores over time can predict long-term decline in functional performance in individuals with and without PAD. PMID:21636676

  18. Adaptive Functioning in Autism Spectrum Disorder during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Nicole L.; Smith, Christopher J.; Pollard, Elena; Ober-Reynolds, Sharman; Kirwan, Janet; Malligo, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of research regarding adaptive functioning during the transition to adulthood in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Profiles on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition were examined by age and intellectual ability in 75 participants with ASD (16-58 years). Results extend previous reports of a cognitive advantage over…

  19. Brief Report: Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD, ADHD and ASD + ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwood, Karen L.; Tye, Charlotte; Azadi, Bahare; Cartwright, Sally; Asherson, Philip; Bolton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occur. Children with ASD and ADHD demonstrate deficits in adaptive functioning, yet pure and comorbid groups have not been directly compared. Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS-II) data were examined in boys with ASD (n = 17), ADHD (n = 31) and…

  20. The Role of Emotion Perception in Adaptive Functioning of People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudepohl, Margaret B.; Robins, Diana L.; King, Tricia Z.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning has historically been used to predict adaptive outcomes of people with autism spectrum disorders; however, research shows that it is not a complete predictor. The current study explored whether emotion perception was a predictor of adaptive outcomes, and more specifically, hypothesized that emotion perception (Diagnostic…

  1. Early indications that low mental quality of life scores in recently unwell older people predict downstream functional decline

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, Alvin; Grimmer, Karen; Kennedy, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurately detecting markers of early functional decline (FD) are essential to support older people to successfully age in place; however, these markers are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that compromised mental quality of life after a minor health crisis could be an early predictor of FD. Methods This longitudinal observational cohort study was conducted in the emergency department (ED) of a large Australian hospital and in the community. Data were collected from 148 community-dwelling people aged 65+ years, who provided data at recruitment (baseline), and at 1 month and 3 months post discharge from the ED. Short Form-12 mental quality of life component scores (MCS) were regressed with patient descriptors taken at baseline (age, sex, socioeconomic status, education, Mini-Mental State Examination, and primary language), and over-time estimates of FD taken at baseline, and at 1 and 3 months post discharge (instrumental activities of daily living, frequency of falls and hospitalizations, use of gait aids, receipt of community services, living status, and requiring a carer). Results MCS at 1 month (MCS1) post ED discharge was significantly associated with instrumental activities of daily living at 1 (r=0.45, P<0.001) and 3 months (r=0.401, P=0.001) post ED discharge, but not at baseline (r=0.010, P>0.05). Subjects with lower than the population median MCS showed a significant linear decline in total instrumental activities of daily living scores over 3 months (P=0.025). There was no linear trend over time in the relationship between MCS1 with frequency of falls (P=0.20) or hospitalizations (P=0.42); however, there was a significant difference at 3 months post ED discharge for falls (P=0.036) and hospitalizations (P=0.039) between low and high MCS1 groups. There were no significant confounders. Conclusion Low MCS scores 1 month after a minor health crisis appear to significantly predict downstream FD. This finding needs to be tested in a larger

  2. Adaptively Learning an Importance Function Using Transport Constrained Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, T.E.

    1998-06-22

    It is well known that a Monte Carlo estimate can be obtained with zero-variance if an exact importance function for the estimate is known. There are many ways that one might iteratively seek to obtain an ever more exact importance function. This paper describes a method that has obtained ever more exact importance functions that empirically produce an error that is dropping exponentially with computer time. The method described herein constrains the importance function to satisfy the (adjoint) Boltzmann transport equation. This constraint is provided by using the known form of the solution, usually referred to as the Case eigenfunction solution.

  3. Quadratic function between arterial partial oxygen pressure and mortality risk in sepsis patients: an interaction with simplified acute physiology score

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Ji, Xuqing

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen therapy is widely used in emergency and critical care settings, while there is little evidence on its real therapeutic effect. The study aimed to explore the impact of arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) on clinical outcomes in patients with sepsis. A large clinical database was employed for the study. Subjects meeting the diagnostic criteria of sepsis were eligible for the study. All measurements of PaO2 were extracted. The primary endpoint was death from any causes during hospital stay. Survey data analysis was performed by using individual ICU admission as the primary sampling unit. Quadratic function was assumed for PaO2 and its interaction with other covariates were explored. A total of 199,125 PaO2 samples were identified for 11,002 ICU admissions. Each ICU stay comprised 18 PaO2 samples in average. The fitted multivariable model supported our hypothesis that the effect of PaO2 on mortality risk was in quadratic form. There was significant interaction between PaO2 and SAPS-I (p = 0.007). Furthermore, the main effect of PaO2 on SOFA score was nonlinear. The study shows that the effect of PaO2 on mortality risk is in quadratic function form, and there is significant interaction between PaO2 and severity of illness. PMID:27734905

  4. Classification of transporters using efficient radial basis function networks with position-specific scoring matrices and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yu-Yen; Chen, Shu-An; Gromiha, M Michael

    2010-05-15

    Transporters are proteins that are involved in the movement of ions or molecules across biological membranes. Transporters are generally classified into channels/pores, electrochemical transporters, and active transporters. Discriminating the specific class of transporters and their subfamilies are essential tasks in computational biology for the advancement of structural and functional genomics. We have systematically analyzed the amino acid composition, residue pair preference and amino acid properties in six different families of transporters. Utilizing the information, we have developed a radial basis function (RBF) network method based on profiles obtained with position specific scoring matrices for discriminating transporters belonging to three different classes and six families. Our method showed a fivefold cross validation accuracy of 76%, 73%, and 69% for discriminating transporters and nontransporters, three different classes and six different families of transporters, respectively. Further, the method was tested with independent datasets, which showed similar level of accuracy. A web server has been developed for discriminating transporters based on three classes and six families, and it is available at http://rbf.bioinfo.tw/ approximately sachen/tcrbf.html. We suggest that our method could be effectively used to identify transporters and discriminating them into different classes and families.

  5. Identification of efflux proteins using efficient radial basis function networks with position-specific scoring matrices and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yu-Yen; Chen, Shu-An; Chang, Yun-Min; Velmurugan, Devadasan; Fukui, Kazuhiko; Michael Gromiha, M

    2013-09-01

    Efflux proteins are membrane proteins, which are involved in the transportation of multidrugs. The annotation of efflux proteins in genomic sequences would aid to understand the function. Although the percentage of membrane proteins in genomes is estimated to be 25-30%, there is no information about the content of efflux proteins. For annotating such class of proteins it is necessary to develop a reliable method to identify efflux proteins from amino acid sequence information. In this work, we have developed a method based on radial basis function networks using position specific scoring matrices (PSSM) and amino acid properties. We noticed that the C-terminal domain of efflux proteins contain vital information for discrimination. Our method showed an accuracy of 78 and 92% in discriminating efflux proteins from transporters and membrane proteins, respectively using fivefold cross-validation. We utilized our method for annotating the genomes E. coli and P. aeruginosa and it predicted 8.7 and 9.2% of proteins as efflux proteins in these genomes, respectively. The predicted efflux proteins have been compared with available experimental data and we observed a very good agreement between them. Further, we developed a web server for classifying efflux proteins and it is freely available at http://rbf.bioinfo.tw/∼sachen/EFFLUXpredict/Efflux-RBF.php. We suggest that our method could be an effective tool for annotating efflux proteins in genomic sequences.

  6. Development of Maladaptive Coping: A Functional Adaptation to Chronic, Uncontrollable Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2015-01-01

    Health disparities are rooted in childhood and stem from adverse early environments that damage physiologic stress-response systems. Developmental psychobiological models of the effects of chronic stress account for both the negative effects of a stress-response system calibrated to a dangerous and unpredictable environment from a health perspective, and the positive effects of such an adaptively calibrated stress response from a functional perspective. Our research suggests that contexts that produce functionally adapted physiologic responses to stress also encourage a functionally adapted coping response—coping that can result in maladjustment in physical and mental health, but enables children to grow and develop within those contexts. In this article, I highlight the value of reframing maladaptive coping as functional adaptation to understand more completely the development of children’s coping in different contexts, and the value of such a conceptual shift for coping-based theory, research, and intervention. PMID:26019717

  7. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  8. Walking on an Oscillating Treadmill: Two Paths to Functional Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Rachel A.; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    We mounted a treadmill on top of a six degree-of-freedom motion base platform to investigate and characterize locomotor responses produced by healthy adults when introduced to a novel walking condition. Subjects were classified into two groups according to how their stride times were affected by the perturbation. Our data suggest that a person's choice of adaptation strategy is influenced by the relationship between his unique, natural stride frequency and the external frequency imposed by the motion base. Our data suggest that a person's stride time response while walking on a laterally oscillating treadmill is influenced by the relationship between his unique, natural stride frequency and the imposed external frequency of the motion base. This relationship may be useful for checking the efficacy of gait training and rehabilitation programs. Preselecting and manipulating a person's EST could be one way to draw him out of his preferred "entrainment well" during therapy or training.

  9. Light adaptation and the luminance-response function of the cone electroretinogram.

    PubMed

    Peachey, N S; Alexander, K R; Derlacki, D J; Fishman, G A

    1992-01-01

    Cone electroretinograms are typically isolated by presenting stimulus flashes against rod-desensitizing adapting fields. To investigate the manner in which adapting-field luminance affects cone electroretinogram response properties, we measured cone electroretinogram luminance-response functions of two normal subjects, with stimuli presented against adapting fields that ranged in luminance from -1.2 to 2.1 log cd/m2. A flicker rate of 31.1 Hz was used to isolate cone electroretinograms under all adaptation conditions. A hyperbolic equation of the form (R/Rmax) = Ln/(Ln + Kn) was fitted to each luminance-response function by a least-squares criterion. As adapting field luminance increased, the best-fit values of the variables K and n increased, which is in general agreement with results of electrophysiologic studies of light adaptation in retinal neurons. However, Rmax values also increased with adapting field luminance. The change in all three of these variables with adapting field luminance must be considered in the interpretation of cone electroretinogram luminance-response functions from patients with retinal disorders.

  10. fMRI-Adaptation Evidence of Overlapping Neural Representations for Objects Related in Function or Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Eiling; Drucker, Daniel M.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Sensorimotor-based theories of semantic memory contend that semantic information about an object is represented in the neural substrate invoked when we perceive or interact with it. We used fMRI adaptation to test this prediction, measuring brain activation as participants read pairs of words. Pairs shared function (flashlight–lantern), shape (marble–grape), both (pencil–pen), were unrelated (saucer–needle), or were identical (drill–drill). We observed adaptation for pairs with both function and shape similarity in left premotor cortex. Further, degree of function similarity was correlated with adaptation in three regions: two in the left temporal lobe (left medial temporal lobe, left middle temporal gyrus), which has been hypothesized to play a role in mutimodal integration, and one in left superior frontal gyrus. We also found that degree of manipulation (i.e., action) and function similarity were both correlated with adaptation in two regions: left premotor cortex and left intraparietal sulcus (involved in guiding actions). Additional considerations suggest that the adaptation in these two regions was driven by manipulation similarity alone; thus, these results imply that manipulation information about objects is encoded in brain regions involved in performing or guiding actions. Unexpectedly, these same two regions showed increased activation (rather than adaptation) for objects similar in shape. Overall, we found evidence (in the form of adaptation) that objects that share semantic features have overlapping representations. Further, the particular regions of overlap provide support for the existence of both sensorimotor and amodal/multimodal representations. PMID:20034582

  11. Social-adaptive and psychological functioning of patients affected by Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Laney, Dawn Alyssia; Gruskin, Daniel J; Fernhoff, Paul M; Cubells, Joseph F; Ousley, Opal Y; Hipp, Heather; Mehta, Ami J

    2010-12-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A. In addition to the debilitating physical symptoms of FD, there are also under-recognized and poorly characterized psychiatric features. As a first step toward characterizing psychiatric features of FD, we administered the Achenbach adult self report questionnaire to 30 FD patients and the Achenbach adult behavior checklist questionnaire to 28 partners/parents/friends of FD patients. Data from at least one of the questionnaires were available on 33 subjects. Analysis focused on social-adaptive functioning in various aspects of daily life and on criteria related to the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV (DSM-IV). Adaptive functioning scale values, which primarily measure social and relationship functioning and occupational success, showed that eight FD patients (six female and two male) had mean adaptive functioning deficits as compared to population norms. Greater rates of depression (P < 0.01), anxiety (P = 0.05), depression and anxiety (P = 0.03), antisocial personality (P < 0.001), attention-deficit/hyperactivity (AD/H; P < 0.01), hyperactivity-impulsivity (P < 0.01), and aggressive behavior (P = 0.03) were associated with poorer adaptive functioning. Decreased social-adaptive functioning in this study was not statistically significantly associated to disease severity, pain, or level of vitality. This study shows for the first time that FD patients, particularly women, are affected by decreased social-adaptive functioning. Comprehensive treatment plans for FD should consider assessments and interventions to evaluate and improve social, occupational, and psychological functioning. Attention to the behavioral aspects of FD could lead to improved treatment outcome and improved quality of life. Individuals affected by Fabry disease exhibited social-adaptive functioning deficits that were significantly correlated with anxiety

  12. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  13. Scored Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a classroom strategy to help students learn to analyze and discuss significant issues from history and current policy debates. Describes scored discussions in which small groups of students receive points for participation. Provides an example of a discussion on gold mining. Includes an agenda. Explores uses of scored discussions and…

  14. Functional error estimators for the adaptive discretization of inverse problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clason, Christian; Kaltenbacher, Barbara; Wachsmuth, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    So-called functional error estimators provide a valuable tool for reliably estimating the discretization error for a sum of two convex functions. We apply this concept to Tikhonov regularization for the solution of inverse problems for partial differential equations, not only for quadratic Hilbert space regularization terms but also for nonsmooth Banach space penalties. Examples include the measure-space norm (i.e., sparsity regularization) or the indicator function of an {L}∞ ball (i.e., Ivanov regularization). The error estimators can be written in terms of residuals in the optimality system that can then be estimated by conventional techniques, thus leading to explicit estimators. This is illustrated by means of an elliptic inverse source problem with the above-mentioned penalties, and numerical results are provided for the case of sparsity regularization.

  15. Functional and cellular adaptations of rodent skeletal muscle to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, Vincent J.; Haddad, Fadia; Baker, Michael J.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the affects of microgravity upon three key cellular levels (functional, protein, and mRNA) that are linked to one another. It is clear that at each of these levels, microgravity produces rapid and substantial alterations. One of the key challenges facing the life science community is the development of effective countermeasures that prevent the loss of muscle function as described in this paper. The development of optimal countermeasures, however, awaits a clearer understanding of events occurring at the levels of transcription, translation, and degradation.

  16. Graduate Student WAIS-III Scoring Accuracy Is a Function of Full Scale IQ and Complexity of Examiner Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Richard, David C. S.

    2005-01-01

    Research on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) suggests that practicing clinical psychologists and graduate students make item-level scoring errors that affect IQ, index, and subtest scores. Studies have been limited in that Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and examiner administration,…

  17. Adaptive optical radial basis function neural network for handwritten digit recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foor, Wesley E.; Neifeld, Mark A.

    1994-06-01

    An adaptive optical radial basis function classifier for handwritten digit recognition is experimentally demonstrated. We describe a spatially- multiplexed system incorporating on-line adaptation of weights and basis function widths to provide robustness to optical system imperfections and system noise. The optical system computes the Euclidean distances between a 100-dimensional input and 198 stored reference patterns in parallel using dual vector-matrix multipliers. For this experimental software is used to perform the on-line learning of the weights and basis function widths. An experimental recognition rate of 86.7% correct out of 300 testing samples is achieved with the adaptive training versus 52.3% correct for non-adaptive training. The experimental results from the optical system are compared with data from a computer model of the system in order to identify noise sources and indicate possible improvements for system performance.

  18. Change of liver function during adaptation of man to northern conditions.

    PubMed

    Gichev JuP

    1990-04-01

    The liver is known to play a central part in carrying out the main phases of intermediate metabolism, in supplying the other organs and tissues with structure and energy substances. The investigations on the liver function of man in the process of organism adaptation to a variety of factors in northern regions are practically non-existent. This article has as its purpose a combined clinical and biochemical investigation of the main functions of the liver in people with various length of stay in extreme northern regions. The analysis of changes in the indices of the basic liver functions in practically healthy people during the process of adaptation to the extreme environmental conditions of the North show, that with a short-term adaptation these shifts were generally of a temporary character, whereas with a long-term adaptation of the newcomers there were relatively permanent changes in a number of indices.

  19. Functional adaptation between yeast actin and its cognate myosin motors.

    PubMed

    Stark, Benjamin C; Wen, Kuo-Kuang; Allingham, John S; Rubenstein, Peter A; Lord, Matthew

    2011-09-01

    We employed budding yeast and skeletal muscle actin to examine the contribution of the actin isoform to myosin motor function. While yeast and muscle actin are highly homologous, they exhibit different charge density at their N termini (a proposed myosin-binding interface). Muscle myosin-II actin-activated ATPase activity is significantly higher with muscle versus yeast actin. Whether this reflects inefficiency in the ability of yeast actin to activate myosin is not known. Here we optimized the isolation of two yeast myosins to assess actin function in a homogenous system. Yeast myosin-II (Myo1p) and myosin-V (Myo2p) accommodate the reduced N-terminal charge density of yeast actin, showing greater activity with yeast over muscle actin. Increasing the number of negative charges at the N terminus of yeast actin from two to four (as in muscle) had little effect on yeast myosin activity, while other substitutions of charged residues at the myosin interface of yeast actin reduced activity. Thus, yeast actin functions most effectively with its native myosins, which in part relies on associations mediated by its outer domain. Compared with yeast myosin-II and myosin-V, muscle myosin-II activity was very sensitive to salt. Collectively, our findings suggest differing degrees of reliance on electrostatic interactions during weak actomyosin binding in yeast versus muscle. Our study also highlights the importance of native actin isoforms when considering the function of myosins. PMID:21757693

  20. Adaptive critic autopilot design of bank-to-turn missiles using fuzzy basis function networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chuan-Kai

    2005-04-01

    A new adaptive critic autopilot design for bank-to-turn missiles is presented. In this paper, the architecture of adaptive critic learning scheme contains a fuzzy-basis-function-network based associative search element (ASE), which is employed to approximate nonlinear and complex functions of bank-to-turn missiles, and an adaptive critic element (ACE) generating the reinforcement signal to tune the associative search element. In the design of the adaptive critic autopilot, the control law receives signals from a fixed gain controller, an ASE and an adaptive robust element, which can eliminate approximation errors and disturbances. Traditional adaptive critic reinforcement learning is the problem faced by an agent that must learn behavior through trial-and-error interactions with a dynamic environment, however, the proposed tuning algorithm can significantly shorten the learning time by online tuning all parameters of fuzzy basis functions and weights of ASE and ACE. Moreover, the weight updating law derived from the Lyapunov stability theory is capable of guaranteeing both tracking performance and stability. Computer simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive critic autopilot.

  1. A comparison between MRI, sonography and Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia methods in diagnosis, evaluation and classification of arthropathy in severe haemophilia A and B.

    PubMed

    Tasbihi, Mandana; Pishdad, Parisa; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Ardeshiri, Rezvan; Tavoosi, Hakimeh; Karimi, Mehran

    2016-03-01

    Evaluation of joints in children with haemophilia is important in detecting abnormalities, staging their severity and following the effects of treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation of FISH score (Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia) with the scores obtained by MRI and sonography for the diagnosis, evaluation and classification of arthropathy in severe haemophilia. In this cross-sectional study on 25 severe haemophilia patients, FISH, MRI and sonography procedures were performed in the elbow or knee joint. All patients' information, including age, type of haemophilia, affected joint, scores of MRI, sonography and FISH, dose of factor consumed, weight and prophylaxis protocol were collected and analysed. Among the 25 patients (age range of 11-70 years), 22 patients were haemophilia A and three patients were haemophilia B. Affected joints were right knee in 12 patients, left knee in nine and right elbow in four. There was only a statistically significant negative correlation between FISH and MRI Additive (A) scale (rs = -0.537, P = 0.006). Considering cartilage loss domain (related MRI A scale: 13-20), 20 patients (80%) were classified in this group with FISH scores ranged from 17 to 22. On the basis of our results, FISH scores in severe haemophilia patients were negatively correlated with MRI A scale. Also, it seems that a FISH score less than 22 could be considered as loss of cartilage; however, due to the small number of our patients, it needs further assessment in different populations.

  2. Neuromuscular adaptations and correlates of knee functionality following ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Adam L; Kelly, Jason; Hohmann, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the dynamic restraint mechanism by establishing the neuromuscular characteristics of lower extremity muscles in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) subjects. This study also investigated neuromuscular variables that relate to post-ACLR functional outcome. Thirteen patients having undergone ACLR using the bone patella tendon bone graft at least 6 months prior participated in this study. Knee functionality (0- to 100-point scale) was rated using the Cincinnati Knee Rating System. The median frequency of the electromyographic (EMG) recordings from the vastus medialis (VM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles together with the isokinetic quadriceps torque generated in 10 degrees intervals between 80 degrees and 10 degrees knee flexion was determined for the noninvolved and involved limbs. Lower limb musculotendinous stiffness was also assessed for the noninvolved and involved limbs. Limb symmetry indexes were calculated for each of the physiological measures. Compared to the noninvolved limb, the median frequency of the EMG from the involved limb VM and VL muscles was significantly lower as was the quadriceps torque generated at the seven knee flexion intervals. In contrast, musculotendinous stiffness was significantly higher in the involved lower limb compared to the noninvolved limb. Significant, moderate correlations were identified between knee functionality and symmetry indexes for all variables except for the isokinetic quadriceps torque produced between 80 degrees -70 degrees and 20 degrees -10 degrees knee flexion. More functional ACLR subjects demonstrated enhanced motor unit recruitment reflective of less quadriceps muscle fiber atrophy together with increased quadriceps strength and musculotendinous stiffness of the lower limb musculature.

  3. Probing the functions of contextual modulation by adapting images rather than observers

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Countless visual aftereffects have illustrated how visual sensitivity and perception can be biased by adaptation to the recent temporal context. This contextual modulation has been proposed to serve a variety of functions, but the actual benefits of adaptation remain uncertain. We describe an approach we have recently developed for exploring these benefits by adapting images instead of observers, to simulate how images should appear under theoretically optimal states of adaptation. This allows the long-term consequences of adaptation to be evaluated in ways that are difficult to probe by adapting observers, and provides a common framework for understanding how visual coding changes when the environment or the observer changes, or for evaluating how the effects of temporal context depend on different models of visual coding or the adaptation processes. The approach is illustrated for the specific case of adaptation to color, for which the initial neural coding and adaptation processes are relatively well understood, but can in principle be applied to examine the consequences of adaptation for any stimulus dimension. A simple calibration that adjusts each neuron’s sensitivity according to the stimulus level it is exposed to is sufficient to normalize visual coding and generate a host of benefits, from increased efficiency to perceptual constancy to enhanced discrimination. This temporal normalization may also provide an important precursor for the effective operation of contextual mechanisms operating across space or feature dimensions. To the extent that the effects of adaptation can be predicted, images from new environments could be “pre-adapted” to match them to the observer, eliminating the need for observers to adapt. PMID:25281412

  4. The structural, functional, and nutritional adaptation of college basketball players over a season.

    PubMed

    Bolonchuk, W W; Lukaski, H C; Siders, W A

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the structural, functional and nutritional adaptation of college basketball players over a season. Structure was determined by somatotype and body composition, function was determined by peak work capacity and work efficiency, and nutrition was determined by plasma metals analysis. The tests were performed twice on each of the eight subjects, one preseason (PRS) and one postseason (PST). A small structural adaptation was indicated by a mean decrease (less than 1 kg) in fat free weight and an increase in ectomorphy (less than 0.03). Body weight and skinfolds did not change significantly. Functional adaptation was indicated by a one minute decrease in running time for the work capacity test (p less than 0.002), and an increase (p less than 0.02) in VO2 for the work efficiency test. Nutritional adaptation was indicated by a greater mobilization of plasma Zn after exercise during PST than PRS. Plasma Cu apparently was mobilized during exercise in PST but the change during the season (-10 to -6.6%) was not statistically significant because of the large interindividual variability in response. Structural and functional adaptation to basketball training over a collegiate season is small; however, the change in Zn mobility and the tendency for a concomitant change in Cu mobilization offers a unique finding to help explain the nutritional adaptation to training.

  5. Two Simple and Efficient Algorithms to Compute the SP-Score Objective Function of a Multiple Sequence Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Ranwez, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a crucial step in many molecular analyses and many MSA tools have been developed. Most of them use a greedy approach to construct a first alignment that is then refined by optimizing the sum of pair score (SP-score). The SP-score estimation is thus a bottleneck for most MSA tools since it is repeatedly required and is time consuming. Results Given an alignment of n sequences and L sites, I introduce here optimized solutions reaching O(nL) time complexity for affine gap cost, instead of O(n2L), which are easy to implement. PMID:27505054

  6. Adaptive cyclic physiologic noise modeling and correction in functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Beall, Erik B

    2010-03-30

    Physiologic noise in BOLD-weighted MRI data is known to be a significant source of the variance, reducing the statistical power and specificity in fMRI and functional connectivity analyses. We show a dramatic improvement on current noise correction methods in both fMRI and fcMRI data that avoids overfitting. The traditional noise model is a Fourier series expansion superimposed on the periodicity of parallel measured breathing and cardiac cycles. Correction using this model results in removal of variance matching the periodicity of the physiologic cycles. Using this framework allows easy modeling of noise. However, using a large number of regressors comes at the cost of removing variance unrelated to physiologic noise, such as variance due to the signal of functional interest (overfitting the data). It is our hypothesis that there are a small variety of fits that describe all of the significantly coupled physiologic noise. If this is true, we can replace a large number of regressors used in the model with a smaller number of the fitted regressors and thereby account for the noise sources with a smaller reduction in variance of interest. We describe these extensions and demonstrate that we can preserve variance in the data unrelated to physiologic noise while removing physiologic noise equivalently, resulting in data with a higher effective SNR than with current corrections techniques. Our results demonstrate a significant improvement in the sensitivity of fMRI (up to a 17% increase in activation volume for fMRI compared with higher order traditional noise correction) and functional connectivity analyses.

  7. Effects of adaptation of vestibulo-ocular reflex function on manual target localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Merkle, L. A.; Barry, S. R.; Huebner, W. P.; Cohen, H. S.; Mueller, S. A.; Fordice, J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine if adaptive modulation of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) function is associated with commensurate alterations in manual target localization. To measure the effects of adapted VOR on manual responses we developed the Vestibular-Contingent Pointing Test (VCP). In the VCP test, subjects pointed to a remembered target following passive whole body rotation in the dark. In the first experiment, subjects performed VCP before and after wearing 0.5X minifying lenses that adaptively attenuate horizontal VOR gain. Results showed that adaptive reduction in horizontal VOR gain was accompanied by a commensurate change in VCP performance. In the second experiment, bilaterally labyrinthine deficient (LD) subjects were tested to confirm that vestibular cues were central to the spatial coding of both eye and hand movements during VCP. LD subjects performed significantly worse than normal subjects. These results demonstrate that adaptive change in VOR can lead to alterations in manual target localization.

  8. Adaptive merit function in SPGD algorithm for beam combining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guo-qing; Liu, Li-sheng; Jiang, Zhen-hua; Wang, Ting-feng; Guo, Jin

    2016-09-01

    The beam pointing is the most crucial issue for beam combining to achieve high energy laser output. In order to meet the turbulence situation, a beam pointing method that cooperates with the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is proposed. The power-in-the-bucket ( PIB) is chosen as the merit function, and its radius changes gradually during the correction process. The linear radius and the exponential radius are simulated. The results show that the exponential radius has great promise for beam pointing.

  9. Selection for increased mass-independent maximal metabolic rate suppresses innate but not adaptive immune function

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Cynthia J.; Brown, Jessi L.; Wone, Bernard; Donovan, Edward R.; Hunter, Kenneth; Hayes, Jack P.

    2013-01-01

    Both appropriate metabolic rates and sufficient immune function are essential for survival. Consequently, eco-immunologists have hypothesized that animals may experience trade-offs between metabolic rates and immune function. Previous work has focused on how basal metabolic rate (BMR) may trade-off with immune function, but maximal metabolic rate (MMR), the upper limit to aerobic activity, might also trade-off with immune function. We used mice artificially selected for high mass-independent MMR to test for trade-offs with immune function. We assessed (i) innate immune function by quantifying cytokine production in response to injection with lipopolysaccharide and (ii) adaptive immune function by measuring antibody production in response to injection with keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Selection for high mass-independent MMR suppressed innate immune function, but not adaptive immune function. However, analyses at the individual level also indicate a negative correlation between MMR and adaptive immune function. By contrast BMR did not affect immune function. Evolutionarily, natural selection may favour increasing MMR to enhance aerobic performance and endurance, but the benefits of high MMR may be offset by impaired immune function. This result could be important in understanding the selective factors acting on the evolution of metabolic rates. PMID:23303541

  10. Cognitive, Linguistic and Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: Trajectories from Early to Middle Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlin, Patricia; Elison, Sarah; Udwin, Orlee; Stinton, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about trajectories of cognitive functioning as individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) move though adulthood. Method: The present study investigated cognitive, linguistic and adaptive functioning in adults with WS aged 19-55 years, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Results: Data from the…

  11. Adapting CRISPR/Cas9 for functional genomics screens.

    PubMed

    Malina, Abba; Katigbak, Alexandra; Cencic, Regina; Maïga, Rayelle Itoua; Robert, Francis; Miura, Hisashi; Pelletier, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The use of CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein) for targeted genome editing has been widely adopted and is considered a "game changing" technology. The ease and rapidity by which this approach can be used to modify endogenous loci in a wide spectrum of cell types and organisms makes it a powerful tool for customizable genetic modifications as well as for large-scale functional genomics. The development of retrovirus-based expression platforms to simultaneously deliver the Cas9 nuclease and single guide (sg) RNAs provides unique opportunities by which to ensure stable and reproducible expression of the editing tools and a broad cell targeting spectrum, while remaining compatible with in vivo genetic screens. Here, we describe methods and highlight considerations for designing and generating sgRNA libraries in all-in-one retroviral vectors for such applications.

  12. Application of new WAIS-III/WMS-III discrepancy scores for evaluating memory functioning: relationship between intellectual and memory ability.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J

    2006-05-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between memory and intellectual ability has received some support as a means for evaluating memory impairment. Recently, comprehensive base rate tables for General Ability Index (GAI) minus memory discrepancy scores (i.e., GAI-memory) were developed using the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (Lange, Chelune, & Tulsky, in press). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of GAI-memory discrepancy scores to identify memory impairment in 34 patients with Alzheimer's type dementia (DAT) versus a sample of 34 demographically matched healthy participants. On average, patients with DAT obtained significantly lower scores on all WAIS-III and WMS-III indexes and had larger GAI-memory discrepancy scores. Clinical outcome analyses revealed that GAI-memory scores were useful at identifying memory impairment in patients with DAT versus matched healthy participants. However, GAI-memory discrepancy scores failed to provide unique interpretive information beyond that which is gained from the memory indexes alone. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  13. Application of new WAIS-III/WMS-III discrepancy scores for evaluating memory functioning: relationship between intellectual and memory ability.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J

    2006-05-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between memory and intellectual ability has received some support as a means for evaluating memory impairment. Recently, comprehensive base rate tables for General Ability Index (GAI) minus memory discrepancy scores (i.e., GAI-memory) were developed using the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (Lange, Chelune, & Tulsky, in press). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of GAI-memory discrepancy scores to identify memory impairment in 34 patients with Alzheimer's type dementia (DAT) versus a sample of 34 demographically matched healthy participants. On average, patients with DAT obtained significantly lower scores on all WAIS-III and WMS-III indexes and had larger GAI-memory discrepancy scores. Clinical outcome analyses revealed that GAI-memory scores were useful at identifying memory impairment in patients with DAT versus matched healthy participants. However, GAI-memory discrepancy scores failed to provide unique interpretive information beyond that which is gained from the memory indexes alone. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:16624786

  14. Interrelations between psychosocial functioning and adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits.

    PubMed

    Ro, Eunyoe; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    Decrements in one or more domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., poor job performance, poor interpersonal relations) are commonly observed in psychiatric patients. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of psychosocial functioning as a broad, multifaceted construct as well as its associations with both adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits in both nonclinical and psychiatric outpatient samples. The study was conducted in two phases. In Study 1, a nonclinical sample (N = 429) was administered seven psychosocial functioning and adaptive-range personality trait measures. In Study 2, psychiatric outpatients (N = 181) were administered the same psychosocial functioning measures, and maladaptive- as well as adaptive-range personality trait measures. Exploratory (both studies) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses indicated a common three-factor, hierarchical structure of psychosocial functioning-Well Being, Social/Interpersonal Functioning, and Basic Functioning. These psychosocial functioning domains were closely--and differentially--linked with personality traits, especially strongly so in patients. Across samples, Well Being was associated with both Neuroticism/Negative Affectivity and Extraversion/Positive Affectivity, Social/Interpersonal Functioning was associated with both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, and Basic Functioning was associated with Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, although only modestly in the nonclinical sample. These relations generally were maintained even after partialing out current general dysphoric symptoms. These findings have implications for considering psychosocial functioning as an important third domain in a tripartite model together with personality and psychopathology. PMID:24016019

  15. Developmental Pathways among Adaptive Functioning and Externalizing and Internalizing Behavioral Problems: Cascades from Childhood into Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T D

    2013-01-01

    A developmental cascade describes a longitudinal cross-domain unique relation. Here, a 3-wave multivariate design and developmental cascade analysis were used to investigate pathways among adaptive functioning and externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems in a community sample of 134 children seen at 4, 10, and 14 years. Children, mothers, and teachers provided data. Nested path analytic models tested the plausible cascades among the three domains apart from their covariation at each age and rank-order stability across age. Adaptive functioning in early adolescence was predicted by early childhood adaptive functioning and externalizing behavioral problems, with both effects mediated by late childhood adaptive functioning and internalizing behavioral problems; externalizing behavioral problems in early adolescence were predicted by early childhood internalizing behavioral problems with the effect mediated by late childhood externalizing behavioral problems. These developmental cascades obtained independent of child intelligence; child age and maternal education and social desirability were also considered but were not related to any outcome variables. The findings suggest that strategically timed and targeted interventions designed to address young children's behavioral problems may return investment in terms of an enhanced epidemiology of adaptively functioning teens. PMID:23585713

  16. Developmental Pathways among Adaptive Functioning and Externalizing and Internalizing Behavioral Problems: Cascades from Childhood into Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.

    2013-01-01

    A developmental cascade describes a longitudinal cross-domain unique relation. Here, a 3-wave multivariate design and developmental cascade analysis were used to investigate pathways among adaptive functioning and externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems in a community sample of 134 children seen at 4, 10, and 14 years. Children, mothers, and teachers provided data. Nested path analytic models tested the plausible cascades among the three domains apart from their covariation at each age and rank-order stability across age. Adaptive functioning in early adolescence was predicted by early childhood adaptive functioning and externalizing behavioral problems, with both effects mediated by late childhood adaptive functioning and internalizing behavioral problems; externalizing behavioral problems in early adolescence were predicted by early childhood internalizing behavioral problems with the effect mediated by late childhood externalizing behavioral problems. These developmental cascades obtained independent of child intelligence; child age and maternal education and social desirability were also considered but were not related to any outcome variables. The findings suggest that strategically timed and targeted interventions designed to address young children’s behavioral problems may return investment in terms of an enhanced epidemiology of adaptively functioning teens. PMID:23585713

  17. Adaptive Function in Preschoolers in Relation to Developmental Delay and Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Susan L.; McDonald, Jenny L.; Comino, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between developmental ability, autism and adaptive skills in preschoolers. Adaptive function was assessed in 152 preschoolers with autism, with and without developmental delay, and without autism, with and without developmental delay. Their overall adaptive function, measured by the general adaptive…

  18. Relationship of the sexual functions with the clinical parameters, radiological scores and the quality of life in male patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Sariyildiz, Mustafa Akif; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Dilek, Banu; Inanir, Ahmet; Bez, Yasin; Tahtasiz, Mehmet; Em, Serda; Cevik, Remzi

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and the disease-related variables on the patients' sexual function according to the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scoring system. A total of 70 sexually active male AS patients and 60 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Their demographic data were evaluated, and the pain was assessed according to the visual analogue scale (VAS). Laboratory tests were conducted in order to measure the C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) of the patients. The disease activity was evaluated using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Functional statement was evaluated with the help of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and with the scores obtained from the spinal measurements with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI). The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiology Index (BASRI) was used to evaluate the radiological damage. The disease-related quality of life was measured with the Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (ASQoL). The anxiety and depression level of the patients was revealed through the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). In comparison with the healthy control group, patients with AS had significantly lower scores in each of the 5 domains of the IIEF (p < 0.0001). The BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI, BASRI, ASQoL, HADS scores and CRP levels were negatively correlated with IIEF (p < 0.05). Orgasmic function and sexual desire scores were significantly lower in patients with peripheral arthritis (p < 0.05). No significant correlation was observed with the disease duration, smoking status, pain (VAS), and ESR levels when the total scores and the scores from the domains of IIEF were compared. The multivariate regression analyses indicated that BASFI and BASMI were independently associated with the sexual function. The sexual function is impaired in male patients

  19. Functional and structural adaptations of skeletal muscle to microgravity.

    PubMed

    Fitts, R H; Riley, D R; Widrick, J J

    2001-09-01

    Our purpose is to summarize the major effects of space travel on skeletal muscle with particular emphasis on factors that alter function. The primary deleterious changes are muscle atrophy and the associated decline in peak force and power. Studies on both rats and humans demonstrate a rapid loss of cell mass with microgravity. In rats, a reduction in muscle mass of up to 37% was observed within 1 week. For both species, the antigravity soleus muscle showed greater atrophy than the fast-twitch gastrocnemius. However, in the rat, the slow type I fibers atrophied more than the fast type II fibers, while in humans, the fast type II fibers were at least as susceptible to space-induced atrophy as the slow fiber type. Space flight also resulted in a significant decline in peak force. For example, the maximal voluntary contraction of the human plantar flexor muscles declined by 20-48% following 6 months in space, while a 21% decline in the peak force of the soleus type I fibers was observed after a 17-day shuttle flight. The reduced force can be attributed both to muscle atrophy and to a selective loss of contractile protein. The former was the primary cause because, when force was expressed per cross-sectional area (kNm(-2)), the human fast type II and slow type I fibers of the soleus showed no change and a 4% decrease in force, respectively. Microgravity has been shown to increase the shortening velocity of the plantar flexors. This increase can be attributed both to an elevated maximal shortening velocity (V(0)) of the individual slow and fast fibers and to an increased expression of fibers containing fast myosin. Although the cause of the former is unknown, it might result from the selective loss of the thin filament actin and an associated decline in the internal drag during cross-bridge cycling. Despite the increase in fiber V(0), peak power of the slow type I fiber was reduced following space flight. The decreased power was a direct result of the reduced force

  20. Functional and structural adaptations of skeletal muscle to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Riley, D. R.; Widrick, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    Our purpose is to summarize the major effects of space travel on skeletal muscle with particular emphasis on factors that alter function. The primary deleterious changes are muscle atrophy and the associated decline in peak force and power. Studies on both rats and humans demonstrate a rapid loss of cell mass with microgravity. In rats, a reduction in muscle mass of up to 37% was observed within 1 week. For both species, the antigravity soleus muscle showed greater atrophy than the fast-twitch gastrocnemius. However, in the rat, the slow type I fibers atrophied more than the fast type II fibers, while in humans, the fast type II fibers were at least as susceptible to space-induced atrophy as the slow fiber type. Space flight also resulted in a significant decline in peak force. For example, the maximal voluntary contraction of the human plantar flexor muscles declined by 20-48% following 6 months in space, while a 21% decline in the peak force of the soleus type I fibers was observed after a 17-day shuttle flight. The reduced force can be attributed both to muscle atrophy and to a selective loss of contractile protein. The former was the primary cause because, when force was expressed per cross-sectional area (kNm(-2)), the human fast type II and slow type I fibers of the soleus showed no change and a 4% decrease in force, respectively. Microgravity has been shown to increase the shortening velocity of the plantar flexors. This increase can be attributed both to an elevated maximal shortening velocity (V(0)) of the individual slow and fast fibers and to an increased expression of fibers containing fast myosin. Although the cause of the former is unknown, it might result from the selective loss of the thin filament actin and an associated decline in the internal drag during cross-bridge cycling. Despite the increase in fiber V(0), peak power of the slow type I fiber was reduced following space flight. The decreased power was a direct result of the reduced force

  1. Adaptive, optical, radial basis function neural network for handwritten digit recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foor, Wesley E.; Neifeld, Mark A.

    1995-11-01

    An adaptive, optical, radial basis function classifier for handwritten digit recognition is experimentally demonstrated. We describe a spatially multiplexed system that incorporates an on-line adaptation of weights and basis function widths to provide robustness to optical system imperfections and system noise. The optical system computes the Euclidean distances between a 100-dimensional input vector and 198 stored reference patterns in parallel by using dual vector-matrix multipliers and a contrast-reversing spatial light modulator. Software is used to emulate an electronic chip that performs the on-line learning of the weights and basis function widths. An experimental recognition rate of 92.7% correct out of 300 testing samples is achieved with the adaptive training, versus 31.0% correct for nonadaptive training. We compare the experimental results with a detailed computer model of the system in order to analyze the influence of various noise sources on the system performance.

  2. The relationships of personal and cultural identity to adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Seth J; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Wang, Sherry C

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which cultural identity would be associated with adaptive and maladaptive psychosocial functioning, both directly and indirectly through a personal identity consolidation. A sample of 773 White, Black, and Hispanic university students completed measures of cultural identity, personal identity consolidation, adaptive psychosocial functioning, internalizing symptoms, and proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. Both heritage and American cultural identity were positively related to adaptive psychosocial functioning; American-culture identity was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms; and heritage-culture identity was negatively related to proclivity toward externalizing symptoms. All of these findings were mediated by personal identity consolidation and were fully consistent across ethnic groups. We discuss implications in terms of broadening the study of identity to include both personal and cultural dimensions of self.

  3. Adaptive functioning in pediatric epilepsy: contributions of seizure-related variables and parental anxiety.

    PubMed

    Kerne, Valerie; Chapieski, Lynn

    2015-02-01

    Young people with epilepsy are less likely to achieve the level of independence attained by their peers. We examined the seizure-related variables that placed a group of 97 pediatric patients with intractable seizures at risk for poor adaptive functioning. Analyses evaluated both the direct effects of the medical variables and indirect effects that were mediated through increased parental anxiety about their child's epilepsy. Higher numbers of anticonvulsants, presence of seizures that secondarily generalize, longer duration of seizure disorder, and younger age at onset were all identified as risk factors for poor adaptive functioning. Depending on the specific behavioral domain of adaptive functioning, the effects were sometimes direct and sometimes indirect. Lower levels of parental education and positive family history of seizures were associated with higher levels of parental anxiety. Interventions that target parental anxiety about seizures may mitigate the deleterious effects of epilepsy on social development.

  4. A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Conditional Item Score Differences in Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-10-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tim; Miao, Jing; Dorans, Neil

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the accuracies of four differential item functioning (DIF) estimation methods, where each method makes use of only one of the following: raw data, logistic regression, loglinear models, or kernel smoothing. The major focus was on the estimation strategies' potential for estimating score-level, conditional DIF. A secondary focus…

  5. Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptations.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Julie A; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of central nervous system (CNS) functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and Parkinson's disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important CNS functions have yet to be clarified. Here we review murine evidence about the effects of exercise on discrete brain regions involved in important CNS functions. Exercise effects on circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, stress responses in the brain stem and hypothalamic pituitary axis, and movement are examined. The databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for articles investigating regional brain adaptations to exercise. Brain regions examined included the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. We found evidence of multiple regional adaptations to both forced and voluntary exercise. Exercise can induce molecular adaptations in neuronal function in many instances. Taken together, these findings suggest that the regional physiological adaptations that occur with exercise could constitute a promising field for elucidating molecular and cellular mechanisms of recovery in psychiatric and neurological health conditions.

  6. Validity of an adaptation of the Framingham cardiovascular risk function: the VERIFICA study

    PubMed Central

    Marrugat, Jaume; Subirana, Isaac; Comín, Eva; Cabezas, Carmen; Vila, Joan; Elosua, Roberto; Nam, Byung‐Ho; Ramos, Rafel; Sala, Joan; Solanas, Pascual; Cordón, Ferran; Gené‐Badia, Joan; D'Agostino, Ralph B

    2007-01-01

    Background To assess the reliability and accuracy of the Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk function adapted by the Registre Gironí del Cor (REGICOR) investigators in Spain. Methods A 5‐year follow‐up study was completed in 5732 participants aged 35–74 years. The adaptation consisted of using in the function the average population risk factor prevalence and the cumulative incidence observed in Spain instead of those from Framingham in a Cox proportional hazards model. Reliability and accuracy in estimating the observed cumulative incidence were tested with the area under the curve comparison and goodness‐of‐fit test, respectively. Results The Kaplan–Meier CHD cumulative incidence during the follow‐up was 4.0% in men and 1.7% in women. The original Framingham function and the REGICOR adapted estimates were 10.4% and 4.8%, and 3.6% and 2.0%, respectively. The REGICOR‐adapted function's estimate did not differ from the observed cumulated incidence (goodness of fit in men, p = 0.078, in women, p = 0.256), whereas all the original Framingham function estimates differed significantly (p<0.001). Reliabilities of the original Framingham function and of the best Cox model fit with the study data were similar in men (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve 0.68 and 0.69, respectively, p = 0.273), whereas the best Cox model fitted better in women (0.73 and 0.81, respectively, p<0.001). Conclusion The Framingham function adapted to local population characteristics accurately and reliably predicted the 5‐year CHD risk for patients aged 35–74 years, in contrast with the original function, which consistently overestimated the actual risk. PMID:17183014

  7. Mechanisms of β-cell functional adaptation to changes in workload.

    PubMed

    Wortham, M; Sander, M

    2016-09-01

    Insulin secretion must be tightly coupled to nutritional state to maintain blood glucose homeostasis. To this end, pancreatic β-cells sense and respond to changes in metabolic conditions, thereby anticipating insulin demands for a given physiological context. This is achieved in part through adjustments of nutrient metabolism, which is controlled at several levels including allosteric regulation, post-translational modifications, and altered expression of metabolic enzymes. In this review, we discuss mechanisms of β-cell metabolic and functional adaptation in the context of two physiological states that alter glucose-stimulated insulin secretion: fasting and insulin resistance. We review current knowledge of metabolic changes that occur in the β-cell during adaptation and specifically discuss transcriptional mechanisms that underlie β-cell adaptation. A more comprehensive understanding of how β-cells adapt to changes in nutrient state could identify mechanisms to be co-opted for therapeutically modulating insulin secretion in metabolic disease. PMID:27615135

  8. Longitudinal Investigation of Adaptive Functioning Following Conformal Irradiation for Pediatric Craniopharyngioma and Low-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Netson, Kelli L.; Conklin, Heather M.; Wu, Shengjie; Xiong, Xiaoping; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Children treated for brain tumors with conformal radiation therapy experience preserved cognitive outcomes. Early evidence suggests that adaptive functions or independent-living skills may be spared. This longitudinal investigation prospectively examined intellectual and adaptive functioning during the first 5 years following irradiation for childhood craniopharyngioma and low-grade glioma (LGG). The effect of visual impairment on adaptive outcomes was investigated. Methods and Materials: Children with craniopharyngioma (n=62) and LGG (n=77) were treated using conformal or intensity modulated radiation therapy. The median age was 8.05 years (3.21-17.64 years) and 8.09 years (2.20-19.27 years), respectively. Serial cognitive evaluations including measures of intelligence quotient (IQ) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were conducted at preirradiation baseline, 6 months after treatment, and annually through 5 years. Five hundred eighty-eight evaluations were completed during the follow-up period. Results: Baseline assessment revealed no deficits in IQ and VABS indices for children with craniopharyngioma, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline in VABS Communication and Socialization indices. Clinical factors associated with more rapid decline included females and preirradiation chemotherapy (interferon). The only change in VABS Daily Living Skills correlated with IQ change (r=0.34; P=.01) in children with craniopharyngioma. Children with LGG performed below population norms (P<.05) at baseline on VABS Communication, Daily Living Indices, and the Adaptive Behavior Composite, with significant (P<.05) longitudinal decline limited to VABS Communication. Older age at irradiation was a protective factor against longitudinal decline. Severe visual impairment did not independently correlate with poorer adaptive outcomes for either tumor group. Conclusions: There was relative sparing of postirradiation functional outcomes over time in this sample

  9. Follow-up evaluation of cognitive function in the randomized Alzheimer's Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT) and its Follow-up Study (ADAPT-FS)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Alzheimer's Disease Anti-Inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT) and follow-up study (ADAPT-FS) examined effects of naproxen and celecoxib on cognition in the elderly. We report here results describing trajectories of cognitive evaluation test scores. Methods 2356 participants completed baseline and at least one follow-up cognitive evaluation between 2001-2004. Study treatments were discontinued in 2004, but participants were followed until 2007. 1537 participants were re-evaluated in 2010-2011. Outcomes include seven cognitive evaluations administered yearly in-person in ADAPT and three of these evaluations that were administered by telephone near the end of ADAPT and again in ADAPT-FS. Results There were no important differences over time by treatment group on any ADAPT cognitive measure, a global composite, or the three cognitive measures re-assessed in ADAPT-FS by telephone. Conclusions Treatment for 1 – 3 years with naproxen or celecoxib did not protect against cognitive decline in older adults with a family history of AD. PMID:25022541

  10. Functional profiling of cyanobacterial genomes and its role in ecological adaptations.

    PubMed

    Prabha, Ratna; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Somvanshi, Pallavi; Rai, Anil

    2016-09-01

    With the availability of complete genome sequences of many cyanobacterial species, it is becoming feasible to study the broad prospective of the environmental adaptation and the overall changes at transcriptional and translational level in these organisms. In the evolutionary phase, niche-specific competitive forces have resulted in specific features of the cyanobacterial genomes. In this study, functional composition of the 84 different cyanobacterial genomes and their adaptations to different environments was examined by identifying the genomic composition for specific cellular processes, which reflect their genomic functional profile and ecological adaptation. It was identified that among cyanobacterial genomes, metabolic genes have major share over other categories and differentiation of genomic functional profile was observed for the species inhabiting different habitats. The cyanobacteria of freshwater and other habitats accumulate large number of poorly characterized genes. Strain specific functions were also reported in many cyanobacterial members, of which an important feature was the occurrence of phage-related sequences. From this study, it can be speculated that habitat is one of the major factors in giving the shape of functional composition of cyanobacterial genomes towards their ecological adaptations. PMID:27408818

  11. Number Right and Elimination Score as a Function of Item Arrangement, Knowledge of Arrangement, and Test Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; And Others

    Number right and elimination scores were analyzed on a 48-item college level mathematics test that was assembled from pretest data in three forms by varying the item orderings: easy-hard, uniform, or random. Half of the forms contained information explaining the item arrangement and suggesting strategies for taking the test. Several anxiety…

  12. Polytomous Differential Item Functioning and Violations of Ordering of the Expected Latent Trait by the Raw Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    The graded response (GR) and generalized partial credit (GPC) models do not imply that examinees ordered by raw observed score will necessarily be ordered on the expected value of the latent trait (OEL). Factors were manipulated to assess whether increased violations of OEL also produced increased Type I error rates in differential item…

  13. Test Score Measurement Error, Short-Term Knowledge, and Lagged Dependent Variables in Models of the Education Production Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Brian; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers are interested in the causal effects of educational inputs on student achievement. Unfortunately, it is not possible to directly observe student learning, so test score data is often used as an approximate measure. To measure their achievement at a given point in time (e.g., in the spring of the school year) students…

  14. Surgical Release of the First Extensor Compartment for Refractory de Quervain's Tenosynovitis: Surgical Findings and Functional Evaluation Using DASH Scores

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Poong-Taek; Aminata, Iman Widya; Hong, Han-Pyo; Yoon, Jong-Pil

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated surgical outcomes in patients with refractory de Quervain's disease using validated outcome measures. We assessed the clinical outcomes of dorsal release of the first extensor compartment for the treatment of de Quervain's disease using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score. Methods From October 2003 to May 2009, we retrospectively evaluated 33 patients (3 men and 30 women) who underwent surgical treatment for de Quervain's disease. All patients had a positive Finkelstein test and localized tenderness over the first dorsal compartment. All operations were performed under local anesthesia. A 2-cm-long transverse skin incision was made over the first extensor compartment and the dorsal retinaculum covering the extensor pollicis brevis was incised longitudinally. Preoperative and postoperative clinical evaluation included the use of DASH score, Finkelstein test, and visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Results In 18 patients (55%), the extensor pollicis brevis tendon compartment was separated from the abductor pollicis longus compartment. Eight patients had intracompartmental ganglia in the extensor pollicis brevis subcompartment. All patients except one had negative sign on Finkelstein test at the last follow-up. The average VAS score decreased from 7.42 preoperatively to 1.33 postoperatively (p < 0.05), and DASH score was improved from 53.2 to 3.45 (p < 0.05). There were no postoperative complications such as subluxation of the tendon of the first dorsal compartment or injury to the sensory branch of the radial nerve. Conclusions Intracompartment ganglia and the separate septum of extensor pollicis brevis are often related to de Quervain's disease. The release of the first extensor compartment for refractory de Quervain's disease resulted in good clinical outcomes with minimal morbidity. PMID:25436064

  15. Pedagogical content knowledge of experienced teachers in physical education: functional analysis of adaptations.

    PubMed

    Ayvazo, Shiri; Ward, Phillip

    2011-12-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is the teacher's ability to pedagogically adapt content to students of diverse abilities. In this study, we investigated how teachers' adaptations of instruction for individual students differed when teaching stronger and weaker instructional units. We used functional analysis (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003) of the instructional interaction to examine PCK. We observed and measured student-teacher interactions and their appropriateness. Participants were 2 experienced elementary physical educators who taught stronger and weaker units. Primarily, the appropriateness data indicated PCK differences between the stronger and weaker units. Results show that functional analysis of instructional adaptations is an effective strategy for examining PCK and that teachers were better able to meet students' needs in the stronger unit. PMID:22276409

  16. Characteristics of Youth Presenting to a Canadian Youth Concurrent Disorders Program: Clinical Complexity, Trauma, Adaptive Functioning and Treatment Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Catchpole, Rosalind E. H.; Brownlie, E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study describes clinical characteristics of youth presenting for service at a Canadian youth concurrent mental health and substance use disorders (SUD) program. Method: Participants were 100 adolescents and emerging adults (aged 14–25) who attended a Canadian concurrent mental health and substance use disorders outpatient program. SUDs were assigned using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Self-reported mental health symptoms, trauma exposure and adaptive functioning were also assessed. Results: Eighty-three percent of participants scored over the clinical cut-off on at least one mental health scale and 33% reported at least one suicide attempt. Sixty-six percent met criteria for a current SUD; 96% met lifetime criteria. Exposure to adverse events was nearly universal (94%). Almost half of female (46%) and almost a third of male (31%) participants endorsed symptoms consistent with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Youth reported impairment and need for support in multiple domains of functioning, including school, peer, family and mental health. Substance use was least likely to be identified as a treatment priority. Conclusions: High rates of adverse events and PTSD highlight the need for trauma-informed care when providing services to this vulnerable population. Functional impairment in domains related to developmental transitions and tasks underscores the need for a developmental lens and integrated treatment that goes beyond mental health and SUD symptoms and addresses developmentally relevant domains during this transitional age. PMID:27274746

  17. Are free energy calculations useful in practice? A comparison with rapid scoring functions for the p38 MAP kinase protein system.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, D A; Charifson, P S

    2001-10-11

    Precise thermodynamic integration free energy simulations have been applied to a congeneric series of 16 inhibitors to the p38 MAP kinase protein for which the experimental binding data (IC(50)) is known. The relative free energy of binding for each compound has been determined. For comparison, the same series of compounds have also scored using the best rapid scoring functions used in database screening. From the results of these calculations, we find (1) that precise free energy simulations allow predictions that are reliable and in good agreement with experiment; (2) that predictions of lower reliability, but still in good qualitative agreement with experiment, can be obtained using the OWFEG free energy grid method, at a much lower computational cost; (3) and that other methods, not based on free energy simulations yield results in much poorer agreement with experiment. A new predictive index, which measures the reliability of a prediction method in the context of normal use, is defined and calculated for each scoring method. Predictive indices of 0.84, 0.56, 0.04, -0.05, and 0.25 are calculated for thermodynamic integration, OWFEG, ChemScore, PLPScore, and Dock Energy Score, respectively, where +1.0 is perfect correct prediction, -1.0 is perfect incorrect prediction, and 0.0 is random.

  18. Avoidant Attachment Style Indicates Job Adaptation of People with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokotani, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the avoidant attachment style indicates job adaptation of people with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). HFASD are groups of developmental disorders characterized by impairment of social interaction and normal level of intelligence. Twenty-two people with HFASD…

  19. Spiders in Motion: Demonstrating Adaptation, Structure-Function Relationships, and Trade-Offs in Invertebrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowlin, Melissa S.; McLeer, Dorothy F.; Danielson-Francois, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary history and structural considerations constrain all aspects of animal physiology. Constraints on invertebrate locomotion are especially straightforward for students to observe and understand. In this exercise, students use spiders to investigate the concepts of adaptation, structure-function relationships, and trade-offs. Students…

  20. Adolescent Depression: Relationships of Self-Report to Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikam, Ramasamy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Self-report measures of depression, general psychopathology, and social skills were administered to 100 adolescents ranging from moderate mental retardation to above normal intelligence. Adolescents with mental retardation reported more depression and general psychopathology symptoms. Adaptive behavior functioned as a moderator variable, mediating…

  1. Adaptive Force Control in Grasping as a Function of Level of Developmental Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, R. L.; Deutsch, K. M.; Newell, K. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The adaptation to the task demands of grasping (grip mode and object mass) was investigated as a function of level of developmental disability. Methods: Subjects grasped objects of different grip widths and masses that were instrumented to record grip forces. Results: Proportionally, fewer participants from the profound compared with…

  2. Longitudinal Trajectories of Intellectual and Adaptive Functioning in Adolescents and Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, M. H.; Lense, M. D.; Dykens, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with a distinct cognitive-behavioural phenotype including mild to moderate intellectual disability, visual-spatial deficits, hypersociability, inattention and anxiety. Researchers typically characterise samples of individuals with WS by their intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour. Because…

  3. Comparative transcriptome analyses of seven anurans reveal functions and adaptations of amphibian skin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Li, Jun; Anboukaria, Housseni; Luo, Zhenhua; Zhao, Mian; Wu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Animal skin, which is the tissue that directly contacts the external surroundings, has evolved diverse functions to adapt to various environments. Amphibians represent the transitional taxon from aquatic to terrestrial life. Exploring the molecular basis of their skin function and adaptation is important to understand the survival and evolutionary mechanisms of vertebrates. However, comprehensive studies on the molecular mechanisms of skin functions in amphibians are scarce. In this study, we sequenced the skin transcriptomes of seven anurans belonging to three families and compared the similarities and differences in expressed genes and proteins. Unigenes and pathways related to basic biological processes and special functions, such as defense, immunity, and respiration, were enriched in functional annotations. A total of 108 antimicrobial peptides were identified. The highly expressed genes were similar in species of the same family but were different among families. Additionally, the positively selected orthologous groups were involved in biosynthesis, metabolism, immunity, and defense processes. This study is the first to generate extensive transcriptome data for the skin of seven anurans and provides unigenes and pathway candidates for further studies on amphibian skin function and adaptation. PMID:27040083

  4. Individual Variability in Sensorimotor Network Functional Connectivity Correlates With the Rate of Early Visuomotor Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, K.; Ruitenberg, M.; Koppelmans, V.; DeDios, Y.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S.; Reuter-Lorenz, P.; Riascos, R.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    Sensorimotor adaptation is a type of procedural motor learning that enables individuals to preserve accurate movements in the presence of external or internal perturbations. Adaptation learning can be divided into an early, more cognitively demanding stage, and a later, more automatic stage. In recent years, several investigations have identified significant associations between sensorimotor adaptation and brain structure and function. However, the question of whether individual variability in functional connectivity strength is predictive of sensorimotor adaptation performance has been largely unaddressed. In the present study, we investigate whether such variability in early sensorimotor adaptation is associated with individual differences in resting-state functional connectivity. We used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to estimate functional connectivity strength using hypothesis-driven (seed-to-voxel) and hypothesis-free (voxel-to-voxel) approaches. For the hypothesis-driven analysis, we selected several regions of interest (ROIs) from sensorimotor and default mode networks of the brain. We then correlated these connectivity measures with the rate of early learning during a visuomotor adaptation task in 16 healthy participants. For this task, participants lay supine in the MRI scanner and moved an MRI-compatible dual axis joystick with their right hand to hit targets presented on a screen. Each movement was initiated from the central position on the display screen. Participants were instructed to move the cursor to the target as quickly as possible by moving the joystick, and to hold the cursor within the target until it disappeared. They were then instructed to release the joystick handle after target disappearance, allowing the cursor to re-center for the next trial. Performance was assessed by measuring direction error (DE), defined as the angle between the line from the start to the target position, and the line from the start

  5. An Outcome Measure of Functionality and Pain in Patients with Low Back Disorder: A Validation Study of the Iranian version of Low Back Outcome Score

    PubMed Central

    Nayeb Aghaei, Hossein; Azhari, Shirzad; Shazadi, Sohrab; Khayat Kashany, Hamid; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Purpose This study aimed to cross-culturally translate and validate the low back outcome score (LBOS) in Iran. Overview of Literature Lumbar disc hernia (LDH) is the most common diagnoses of low back pain and imposes a heavy burden on both individual and society. Instruments measuring patient reported outcomes should satisfy cetain psychometric properties. Methods The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire was performed using Beaton's guideline. A total of 163 patients with LDH were asked to respond to the questionnaire at three points in time: preoperative and twice within 1-week interval after surgery assessments. The Oswestry disabilty index (ODI) was also completed. The internal consistency, test-retest, convergent validity, and responsiveness to change were assessed. Responsiveness to change also was assessed comparing patients' pre- and postoperative scores. Results The mean age of the cohort was 49.8 years (standard deviation=10.1). The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the LBOS at preoperative and postoperative assessments ranged from 0.77 to 0.79, indicating good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability as performed by intraclass correlation coefficient was found to be 0.82 (0.62–0.91). The instrument discriminated well between sub-groups of patients who differed in the Finneson-Cooper score. The ODI correlated strongly with the LBOS score, lending support to its good convergent validity (r=––0.83; p<0.001). Further analysis also indicated that the questionnaire was responsive to change (p<0.001). Conclusions The Iranian version of LBOS performed well and the findings suggest that it is a valid measure of back pain treatment evaluation among LDH patients. PMID:27559453

  6. Assessment of Postflight Locomotor Performance Utilizing a Test of Functional Mobility: Strategic and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Ruttley, T. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function, allowing crewmembers to operate in the unique microgravity environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a terrestrial environment. During a re-adaptation period upon their return to Earth, crewmembers experience alterations in sensorimotor function, causing various disturbances in perception, spatial orientation, posture, gait, and eye-head coordination. Following long duration space flight, sensorimotor dysfunction would prevent or extend the time required to make an emergency egress from the vehicle; compromising crew safety and mission objectives. We are investigating two types of motor learning that may interact with each other and influence a crewmember's ability to re-adapt to Earth's gravity environment. In strategic learning, crewmembers make rapid modifications in their motor control strategy emphasizing error reduction. This type of learning may be critical during the first minutes and hours after landing. In adaptive learning, long-term plastic transformations occur, involving morphological changes and synaptic modification. In recent literature these two behavioral components have been associated with separate brain structures that control the execution of motor strategies: the strategic component was linked to the posterior parietal cortex and the adaptive component was linked to the cerebellum (Pisella, et al. 2004). The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the relative contributions of the strategic and adaptive components to the re-adaptation process in locomotor control after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS). The Functional Mobility Test (FMT) was developed to assess crewmember s ability to ambulate postflight from an operational and functional perspective. Sixteen crewmembers were tested preflight (3 sessions) and postflight (days 1, 2, 4, 7, 25) following a long duration space flight (approx 6 months) on the ISS. We

  7. Surface reconstruction from volume data used for creating an adaptable functional brain atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Thurfjell, L. |; Bengtsson, E.

    1995-08-01

    Functions for creating adaptable atlas structures from volume data have now been included in the Karolinska Computerized Brain Atlas (CBA) software system. The main objective is to allow the user to create functional structures based on data from brain activation studies with Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The new structures will be related to the anatomy of the CBA data base brain. Thus, when the atlas is adapted to the anatomy of an individual, the new functional structures will be affected by the same transformation and can therefore be selected and displayed in relation to the anatomy of the individual. In this paper, the different steps involved in the creation of new atlas structures are explained and algorithms and data representations are described. The methods have been tested on data from activation studies. Such a study is chosen to illustrate how the proposed approach can be used.

  8. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  9. Associations of Cognitive Function Scores with Carbon Dioxide, Ventilation, and Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Workers: A Controlled Exposure Study of Green and Conventional Office Environments

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Joseph G.; MacNaughton, Piers; Satish, Usha; Santanam, Suresh; Vallarino, Jose; Spengler, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The indoor built environment plays a critical role in our overall well-being because of both the amount of time we spend indoors (~90%) and the ability of buildings to positively or negatively influence our health. The advent of sustainable design or green building strategies reinvigorated questions regarding the specific factors in buildings that lead to optimized conditions for health and productivity. Objective: We simulated indoor environmental quality (IEQ) conditions in “Green” and “Conventional” buildings and evaluated the impacts on an objective measure of human performance: higher-order cognitive function. Methods: Twenty-four participants spent 6 full work days (0900–1700 hours) in an environmentally controlled office space, blinded to test conditions. On different days, they were exposed to IEQ conditions representative of Conventional [high concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)] and Green (low concentrations of VOCs) office buildings in the United States. Additional conditions simulated a Green building with a high outdoor air ventilation rate (labeled Green+) and artificially elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels independent of ventilation. Results: On average, cognitive scores were 61% higher on the Green building day and 101% higher on the two Green+ building days than on the Conventional building day (p < 0.0001). VOCs and CO2 were independently associated with cognitive scores. Conclusions: Cognitive function scores were significantly better under Green+ building conditions than in the Conventional building conditions for all nine functional domains. These findings have wide-ranging implications because this study was designed to reflect conditions that are commonly encountered every day in many indoor environments. Citation: Allen JG, MacNaughton P, Satish U, Santanam S, Vallarino J, Spengler JD. 2016. Associations of cognitive function scores with carbon dioxide, ventilation, and volatile organic compound

  10. Topology adaptive vessel network skeleton extraction with novel medialness measuring function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Bo; Li, Bin; Tian, Lian-Fang; Li, Xiang-Xia; Chen, Qing-Lin

    2015-09-01

    Vessel tree skeleton extraction is widely applied in vascular structure segmentation, however, conventional approaches often suffer from the adjacent interferences and poor topological adaptability. To avoid these problems, a robust, topology adaptive tree-like structure skeleton extraction framework is proposed in this paper. Specifically, to avoid the adjacent interferences, a local message passing procedure called Gaussian affinity voting (GAV) is proposed to realize adaptive scale-growing of vessel voxels. Then the medialness measuring function (MMF) based on GAV, namely GAV-MMF, is constructed to extract medialness patterns robustly. In order to improve topological adaptability, a level-set graph embedded with GAV-MMF is employed to build initial curve skeletons without any user interaction. Furthermore, the GAV-MMF is embedded in stretching open active contours (SOAC) to drive the initial curves to the expected location, maintaining smoothness and continuity. In addition, to provide an accurate and smooth final skeleton tree topology, topological checks and skeleton network reconfiguration is proposed. The continuity and scalability of this method is validated experimentally on synthetic and clinical images for multi-scale vessels. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves acceptable topological adaptability for skeleton extraction of vessel trees. PMID:26134626

  11. Functional Genomic Insights into Regulatory Mechanisms of High-Altitude Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Storz, Jay F; Cheviron, Zachary A

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies of indigenous human populations at high altitude have provided proof-of-principle that genome scans of DNA polymorphism can be used to identify candidate loci for hypoxia adaptation. When integrated with experimental analyses of physiological phenotypes, genome-wide surveys of DNA polymorphism and tissue-specific transcriptional profiles can provide insights into actual mechanisms of adaptation. It has been suggested that adaptive phenotypic evolution is largely mediated by cis-regulatory changes in genes that are located at integrative control points in regulatory networks. This hypothesis can be tested by conducting transcriptomic analyses of hypoxic signaling pathways in conjunction with experimental measures of vascular oxygen supply and metabolic pathway flux. Such studies may reveal whether the architecture of gene regulatory networks can be used to predict which loci (and which types of loci) are likely to be "hot spots" for adaptive physiological evolution. Functional genomic studies of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) demonstrate how the integrated analysis of variation in tissue-specific transcriptomes, whole-animal physiological performance, and various subordinate traits can yield insights into the mechanistic underpinnings of high-altitude adaptation. PMID:27343092

  12. Conifer genomics and adaptation: at the crossroads of genetic diversity and genome function.

    PubMed

    Prunier, Julien; Verta, Jukka-Pekka; MacKay, John J

    2016-01-01

    Conifers have been understudied at the genomic level despite their worldwide ecological and economic importance but the situation is rapidly changing with the development of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. With NGS, genomics research has simultaneously gained in speed, magnitude and scope. In just a few years, genomes of 20-24 gigabases have been sequenced for several conifers, with several others expected in the near future. Biological insights have resulted from recent sequencing initiatives as well as genetic mapping, gene expression profiling and gene discovery research over nearly two decades. We review the knowledge arising from conifer genomics research emphasizing genome evolution and the genomic basis of adaptation, and outline emerging questions and knowledge gaps. We discuss future directions in three areas with potential inputs from NGS technologies: the evolutionary impacts of adaptation in conifers based on the adaptation-by-speciation model; the contributions of genetic variability of gene expression in adaptation; and the development of a broader understanding of genetic diversity and its impacts on genome function. These research directions promise to sustain research aimed at addressing the emerging challenges of adaptation that face conifer trees.

  13. Topology adaptive vessel network skeleton extraction with novel medialness measuring function.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Bo; Li, Bin; Tian, Lian-Fang; Li, Xiang-Xia; Chen, Qing-Lin

    2015-09-01

    Vessel tree skeleton extraction is widely applied in vascular structure segmentation, however, conventional approaches often suffer from the adjacent interferences and poor topological adaptability. To avoid these problems, a robust, topology adaptive tree-like structure skeleton extraction framework is proposed in this paper. Specifically, to avoid the adjacent interferences, a local message passing procedure called Gaussian affinity voting (GAV) is proposed to realize adaptive scale-growing of vessel voxels. Then the medialness measuring function (MMF) based on GAV, namely GAV-MMF, is constructed to extract medialness patterns robustly. In order to improve topological adaptability, a level-set graph embedded with GAV-MMF is employed to build initial curve skeletons without any user interaction. Furthermore, the GAV-MMF is embedded in stretching open active contours (SOAC) to drive the initial curves to the expected location, maintaining smoothness and continuity. In addition, to provide an accurate and smooth final skeleton tree topology, topological checks and skeleton network reconfiguration is proposed. The continuity and scalability of this method is validated experimentally on synthetic and clinical images for multi-scale vessels. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves acceptable topological adaptability for skeleton extraction of vessel trees.

  14. Adaptation to cell culture induces functional differences in measles virus proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bankamp, Bettina; Fontana, Judith M; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2008-01-01

    Background Live, attenuated measles virus (MeV) vaccine strains were generated by adaptation to cell culture. The genetic basis for the attenuation of the vaccine strains is unknown. We previously reported that adaptation of a pathogenic, wild-type MeV to Vero cells or primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) resulted in a loss of pathogenicity in rhesus macaques. The CEF-adapted virus (D-CEF) contained single amino acid changes in the C and matrix (M) proteins and two substitutions in the shared amino terminal domain of the phosphoprotein (P) and V protein. The Vero-adapted virus (D-VI) had a mutation in the cytoplasmic tail of the hemagglutinin (H) protein. Results In vitro assays were used to test the functions of the wild-type and mutant proteins. The substitution in the C protein of D-CEF decreased its ability to inhibit mini-genome replication, while the wild-type and mutant M proteins inhibited replication to the same extent. The substitution in the cytoplasmic tail of the D-VI H protein resulted in reduced fusion in a quantitative fusion assay. Co-expression of M proteins with wild-type fusion and H proteins decreased fusion activity, but the mutation in the M protein of D-CEF did not affect this function. Both mutations in the P and V proteins of D-CEF reduced the ability of these proteins to inhibit type I and II interferon signaling. Conclusion Adaptation of a wild-type MeV to cell culture selected for genetic changes that caused measurable functional differences in viral proteins. PMID:18954437

  15. Parent Cultural Adaptation and Child Functioning in Culturally Diverse, Urban Families of Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Calzada, Esther J.; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Huang, Keng-Yen; Bat-Chava, Yael; Kingston, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Parent cultural adaptation and preschool behavioral and socioemotional functioning were examined in a community sample of urban families from diverse cultural backgrounds. Participants were 130 families of children (mean age = 4.1 years) attending eight public Pre-Kindergarten programs in urban communities. Parents completed a measure of cultural adaptation that taps into acculturation and enculturation, and teachers reported on children’s externalizing problems, internalizing problems and adaptive behavior in the classroom. Parents’ ethnic identity was a significant predictor of children’s functioning. The retention of parents’ culture of origin and specific aspects of acculturation are related to positive outcomes in a sample of culturally diverse families of preschoolers living in urban communities. Bicultural parents (those with high ethnic and US American identity) had children with lower levels of internalizing problems and higher levels of adaptive behavior relative to parents who were not bicultural. Implications for enhancing positive child outcomes through the promotion of parental ethnic identity are discussed. PMID:20559417

  16. Adaptive automation of human-machine system information-processing functions.

    PubMed

    Kaber, David B; Wright, Melanie C; Prinzel, Lawrence J; Clamann, Michael P

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research was to describe the ability of human operators to interact with adaptive automation (AA) applied to various stages of complex systems information processing, defined in a model of human-automation interaction. Forty participants operated a simulation of an air traffic control task. Automated assistance was adaptively applied to information acquisition, information analysis, decision making, and action implementation aspects of the task based on operator workload states, which were measured using a secondary task. The differential effects of the forms of automation were determined and compared with a manual control condition. Results of two 20-min trials of AA or manual control revealed a significant effect of the type of automation on performance, particularly during manual control periods as part of the adaptive conditions. Humans appear to better adapt to AA applied to sensory and psychomotor information-processing functions (action implementation) than to AA applied to cognitive functions (information analysis and decision making), and AA is superior to completely manual control. Potential applications of this research include the design of automation to support air traffic controller information processing.

  17. When Adaptations Go Awry: Functional and Dysfunctional Aspects of Social Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Maner, Jon K.; Kenrick, Douglas T.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptations are psychological and behavioral mechanisms designed through evolution to serve specific purposes ultimately related to reproductive success. Although adaptations are inherently functional, in some cases their operation can nevertheless cause personal and social dysfunction. We describe a theoretical framework for understanding, predicting, and reducing the dysfunctional consequences of psychological adaptations. We discuss three general sources of dysfunction: a) the existence of adaptive tradeoffs, b) mismatches between current environments and ancestral environments, and c) individual differences. The paper applies this framework primarily to the topic of social anxiety, a psychological phenomenon marked by concerns pertaining to social rejection and embarrassment. Although social anxiety can serve useful functions, it can also involve excessive worry, negative affect, and avoidance of social situations, leading to significant distress and social impairment. We consider sources of dysfunction in social anxiety and discuss implications for policy, including recommendations for psychological, situational, and biological interventions. We also discuss broader applications of this theoretical framework to other areas of social life. PMID:21874134

  18. A hierarchical Bayesian approach to adaptive vision testing: A case study with the contrast sensitivity function

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hairong; Kim, Woojae; Hou, Fang; Lesmes, Luis Andres; Pitt, Mark A.; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Myung, Jay I.

    2016-01-01

    Measurement efficiency is of concern when a large number of observations are required to obtain reliable estimates for parametric models of vision. The standard entropy-based Bayesian adaptive testing procedures addressed the issue by selecting the most informative stimulus in sequential experimental trials. Noninformative, diffuse priors were commonly used in those tests. Hierarchical adaptive design optimization (HADO; Kim, Pitt, Lu, Steyvers, & Myung, 2014) further improves the efficiency of the standard Bayesian adaptive testing procedures by constructing an informative prior using data from observers who have already participated in the experiment. The present study represents an empirical validation of HADO in estimating the human contrast sensitivity function. The results show that HADO significantly improves the accuracy and precision of parameter estimates, and therefore requires many fewer observations to obtain reliable inference about contrast sensitivity, compared to the method of quick contrast sensitivity function (Lesmes, Lu, Baek, & Albright, 2010), which uses the standard Bayesian procedure. The improvement with HADO was maintained even when the prior was constructed from heterogeneous populations or a relatively small number of observers. These results of this case study support the conclusion that HADO can be used in Bayesian adaptive testing by replacing noninformative, diffuse priors with statistically justified informative priors without introducing unwanted bias. PMID:27105061

  19. Diagnosing Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Sample: Gender and Age Effects on the Relationship between Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The relationship between adaptive behaviour and cognitive functioning in offenders with intellectual disabilities is not well researched. This study aims to examine gender and age effects on the relationship between these two areas of functioning. Method: The "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales" (VABS) and the "Kaufman Brief…

  20. Unexpected Changes of Itinerary--Adaptive Functioning Difficulties in Daily Transitions for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydzewska, Ewelina

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive functioning skills, also known as adaptive behaviours, refer to a multifaceted concept defined as behaviours necessary for age-appropriate, independent functioning in social, communication, daily living or motor areas. In light of the growing population of children with ASD who will eventually become adults, increased understanding of…

  1. Functional Mobility Performance and Balance Confidence in Older Adults after Sensorimotor Adaptation Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buccello-Stout, Regina R.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Weaver, G. D.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates a main contributor of injury in older adults is from falling. The decline in sensory systems limits information needed to successfully maneuver through the environment. The objective of this study was to determine if prolonged exposure to the realignment of perceptual-motor systems increases adaptability of balance, and if balance confidence improves after training. A total of 16 older adults between ages 65-85 were randomized to a control group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a static visual scene) and an experimental group (walking on a treadmill while viewing a rotating visual scene). Prior to visual exposure, participants completed six trials of walking through a soft foamed obstacle course. Participants came in twice a week for 4 weeks to complete training of walking on a treadmill and viewing the visual scene for 20 minutes each session. Participants completed the obstacle course after training and four weeks later. Average time, penalty, and Activity Balance Confidence Scale scores were computed for both groups across testing times. The older adults who trained, significantly improved their time through the obstacle course F (2, 28) = 9.41, p < 0.05, as well as reduced their penalty scores F (2, 28) = 21.03, p < 0.05, compared to those who did not train. There was no difference in balance confidence scores between groups across testing times F (2, 28) = 0.503, p > 0.05. Although the training group improved mobility through the obstacle course, there were no differences between the groups in balance confidence.

  2. Lessons learned from studying the functional impact of adaptive seating interventions for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stephen E

    2016-03-01

    Little empirical evidence exists about the effectiveness of assistive technology interventions for children with cerebral palsy (CP) to inform clinical practice. This article reviews what we know about the functional impact of adaptive seating interventions - a common assistive technology type recommended for children with CP. A contemporary assistive technology outcomes framework is considered as a way to model the temporality and measure the effects of seating interventions and moderating cofactors. Three research studies are profiled to illustrate different research methods, measurement approaches, and follow-up periods to learn about adaptive seating outcomes. Recommendations for future research include the adoption of common measurement indicators, consideration of quality assessment criteria, and the use of varied methodologies to generate new knowledge about functional outcomes. It is suggested that the proposed strategies will lead to new understandings, clinical applications, and ultimately improvements in the everyday lives of children with CP and their families. PMID:27027612

  3. Hemodynamic correlates of visuomotor motor adaptation by functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Rodolphe J; Hadavi, Cyrus; Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2010-01-01

    The development of rehabilitation engineering technologies such as the design of smart prosthetics necessitates a deep understanding of brain mechanisms engaged in ecological situations when human interact with new tools and/or environments. Thus, we aimed to investigate potential hemodynamic signatures reflecting the level of cognitive-motor performance and/or the internal or mental states of individuals when learning a novel tool with unknown properties. These markers were derived from functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIR) signals. Our results indicate an increased level of oxy-hemoglobin in prefrontal sensors associated with enhanced kinematics during early compared with late learning. This is consistent with previous neuroimaging studies that revealed a higher contribution of prefrontal areas during early compare to late adaptation learning. These non-invasive functional hemodynamic markers may play a role in bioengineering applications such as smart neuroprosthesis and brain monitoring where adaptive behavior is important.

  4. [Coronary risk assessment in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. General population-based scores or specific scores?].

    PubMed

    Hernáez, Rubén; Choque, Lucía; Giménez, Margarita; Costa, Angels; Márquez, Juan I; Conget, Ignacio

    2004-06-01

    Coronary risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus can be calculated using population-based scores or diabetes-specific scores. Our objective was to compare the results with both scores in a group of patients with type 2 diabetes and no history of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the results for 101 patients aged 40 to 65 years with type 2 diabetes and no prior cardiovascular disease. Two scales were used, one based on the general population (Framingham function adapted from the REGICOR study), and the other based on the population with type 2 diabetes mellitus (UKPDS risk engine). The average 10-year likelihood of coronary events was 5.8 (2.5)% and 15.7 (8.4)% for the REGICOR risk score and the UKPDS risk score, respectively (P<.001), with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.525 (P<.01). Risk was higher in men (19.2 [8.7]% based on the UKPDS score, and 5.6 [2.8]% based on the REGICOR score, P<.001). The figures for women were 11.3 [5.9]% and 5.9 [2.1]% with the UKPDS and REGICOR scores, respectively (P<.001). Our results suggest that substantially different findings are obtained when general population-based scores or specific scores are used to assess cardiovascular risk in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

  5. Functional Assessment of Genetic Variants with Outcomes Adapted to Clinical Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Thouvenot, Pierre; Ben Yamin, Barbara; Fourrière, Lou; Lescure, Aurianne; Boudier, Thomas; Del Nery, Elaine; Chauchereau, Anne; Goldgar, David E.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Nicolas, Alain; Millot, Gaël A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the medical effect of an ever-growing number of human variants detected is a long term challenge in genetic counseling. Functional assays, based on in vitro or in vivo evaluations of the variant effects, provide essential information, but they require robust statistical validation, as well as adapted outputs, to be implemented in the clinical decision-making process. Here, we assessed 25 pathogenic and 15 neutral missense variants of the BRCA1 breast/ovarian cancer susceptibility gene in four BRCA1 functional assays. Next, we developed a novel approach that refines the variant ranking in these functional assays. Lastly, we developed a computational system that provides a probabilistic classification of variants, adapted to clinical interpretation. Using this system, the best functional assay exhibits a variant classification accuracy estimated at 93%. Additional theoretical simulations highlight the benefit of this ready-to-use system in the classification of variants after functional assessment, which should facilitate the consideration of functional evidences in the decision-making process after genetic testing. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of the system with the classification of siRNAs tested for human cell growth inhibition in high throughput screening. PMID:27272900

  6. Behavioral Implications of Adaption-Innovation: I. Managerial Effectiveness as a Function of Sex Differences in Adaption-Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Nicholas F.

    1989-01-01

    Three studies investigated relationship between effective management and position of male and female managers on Kirton's cognitive style dimension of adaption (doing things better) vs. innovation (doing things differently). Both sexes equated innovation with effective male management and adaption with effective female management. (Author/NB)

  7. BOLD coherence reveals segregated functional neural interactions when adapting to distinct torque perturbations

    PubMed Central

    Tunik, Eugene; Schmitt, Paul J.; Grafton, Scott T.

    2007-01-01

    In the natural world, we experience and adapt to multiple extrinsic perturbations. This poses a challenge to neural circuits in discriminating between different context-appropriate responses. Using event-related fMRI, we characterized the neural dynamics involved in this process by randomly delivering a position- or velocity-dependent torque perturbation to subjects’ arms during a target capture task. Each perturbation was color-cued during movement preparation to provide contextual information. Though trajectories differed between perturbations, subjects significantly reduced error under both conditions. This was paralleled by reduced BOLD signal in the right dentate nucleus, the left sensorimotor cortex, and the left intraparietal sulcus. Trials included ‘NoGo’ conditions to dissociate activity related to preparation from execution and adaptation. Subsequent analysis identified perturbation-specific neural processes underlying preparation (‘NoGo’) and adaptation (‘Go’) early and late into learning. Between-perturbation comparisons of BOLD magnitude revealed negligible differences for both preparation and adaptation trials. However, a network-level analysis of BOLD coherence revealed that by late learning, response preparation (‘NoGo’) was attributed to a relative focusing of coherence within cortical and basal ganglia networks in both perturbation conditions, demonstrating a common network interaction for establishing arbitrary visuomotor associations. Conversely, late-learning adaptation (‘Go’) was attributed to a focusing of BOLD coherence between a cortical-basal ganglia network in the viscous condition and between a cortical-cerebellar network in the positional condition. Our findings demonstrate that trial-to-trial acquisition of two distinct adaptive responses is attributed not to anatomically segregated regions, but to differential functional interactions within common sensorimotor circuits. PMID:17202232

  8. Family quality of life and ASD: the role of child adaptive functioning and behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Emily, Gardiner; Grace, Iarocci

    2015-04-01

    The family is the key support network for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in many cases into adulthood. The Family Quality of Life (FQOL) construct encompasses family satisfaction with both internal and external dynamics, as well as support availability. Therefore, although these families face considerable risk in raising a child with a disability, the FQOL outcome is conceptualized as representative of a continuum of family adaptation. This study examined the role of child characteristics, including adaptive functioning and behaviour problems, in relation to FQOL. Eighty-four caregivers of children and adolescents (range = 6-18 years) with ASD participated, completing questionnaires online and by telephone. Adaptive functioning, and specifically daily living skills, emerged as a significant predictor of FQOL satisfaction, after accounting for behavioural and demographic characteristics, including child age, gender, perceived disability severity, and behavioural problems, as well as family income. Furthermore, there were significant differences across each domain of FQOL when groups were separated by daily living skill functioning level ('low,' 'moderately low,' and 'adequate'). The results suggest that intervention strategies targeting daily living skills will likely have beneficial effects for both individual and family well-being, and may reduce family support demands.

  9. Acid stress mediated adaptive divergence in ion channel function during embryogenesis in Rana arvalis

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Longfei; Laurila, Anssi; Räsänen, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Ion channels and pumps are responsible for ion flux in cells, and are key mechanisms mediating cellular function. Many environmental stressors, such as salinity and acidification, are known to severely disrupt ionic balance of organisms thereby challenging fitness of natural populations. Although ion channels can have several vital functions during early life-stages (e.g. embryogenesis), it is currently not known i) how developing embryos maintain proper intracellular conditions when exposed to environmental stress and ii) to what extent environmental stress can drive intra-specific divergence in ion channels. Here we studied the moor frog, Rana arvalis, from three divergent populations to investigate the role of different ion channels and pumps for embryonic survival under acid stress (pH 4 vs 7.5) and whether populations adapted to contrasting acidities differ in the relative role of different ion channel/pumps. We found that ion channels that mediate Ca2+ influx are essential for embryonic survival under acidic pH, and, intriguingly, that populations differ in calcium channel function. Our results suggest that adaptive divergence in embryonic acid stress tolerance of amphibians may in part be mediated by Ca2+ balance. We suggest that ion flux may mediate adaptive divergence of natural populations at early life-stages in the face of environmental stress. PMID:26381453

  10. Differences between Mothers' and Fathers' Ratings of Family Functioning with the Family Assessment Device: The Validity of Combined Parent Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Dawson; Marais, Ida; Cavanagh, Robert; Kendall, Garth; Priddis, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device were examined using the Rasch Model (N = 237 couples). Mothers' and fathers' ratings of the General Functioning subscale of the McMaster Family Assessment Device are recommended, provided these are analyzed separately. More than a quarter of…

  11. [Monocyte functional activity and nonspecific antiviral cellular resistance in adaptation to the conditions of eastern Siberia].

    PubMed

    Zhiburt, E B; Filev, L V; Boĭchak, M P; Volchek, I V; Iakovlev, G P

    1993-01-01

    Monocyte functional activity and antiviral cellular resistance were studied in the newcomers to the Baikal region from the European Russia. A total of 105 patients with acute respiratory diseases and 30 normal subjects were examined. 46 healthy residents of St. Petersburg made up the reference group. The process of adaptation was found to be associated with changes in the functional activity of the immunocompetent cells. The authors came to a conclusion on the principal role of viral injury of the monocytes in the development of acute bronchitis or pneumonia.

  12. Testing Adaptive Hypotheses of Convergence with Functional Landscapes: A Case Study of Bone-Cracking Hypercarnivores

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack

    2013-01-01

    Morphological convergence is a well documented phenomenon in mammals, and adaptive explanations are commonly employed to infer similar functions for convergent characteristics. I present a study that adopts aspects of theoretical morphology and engineering optimization to test hypotheses about adaptive convergent evolution. Bone-cracking ecomorphologies in Carnivora were used as a case study. Previous research has shown that skull deepening and widening are major evolutionary patterns in convergent bone-cracking canids and hyaenids. A simple two-dimensional design space, with skull width-to-length and depth-to-length ratios as variables, was used to examine optimized shapes for two functional properties: mechanical advantage (MA) and strain energy (SE). Functionality of theoretical skull shapes was studied using finite element analysis (FEA) and visualized as functional landscapes. The distribution of actual skull shapes in the landscape showed a convergent trend of plesiomorphically low-MA and moderate-SE skulls evolving towards higher-MA and moderate-SE skulls; this is corroborated by FEA of 13 actual specimens. Nevertheless, regions exist in the landscape where high-MA and lower-SE shapes are not represented by existing species; their vacancy is observed even at higher taxonomic levels. Results highlight the interaction of biomechanical and non-biomechanical factors in constraining general skull dimensions to localized functional optima through evolution. PMID:23734244

  13. [Automated recognition of quasars based on adaptive radial basis function neural networks].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Fang; Luo, A-Li; Wu, Fu-Chao; Hu, Zhan-Yi

    2006-02-01

    Recognizing and certifying quasars through the research on spectra is an important method in the field of astronomy. This paper presents a novel adaptive method for the automated recognition of quasars based on the radial basis function neural networks (RBFN). The proposed method is composed of the following three parts: (1) The feature space is reduced by the PCA (the principal component analysis) on the normalized input spectra; (2) An adaptive RBFN is constructed and trained in this reduced space. At first, the K-means clustering is used for the initialization, then based on the sum of squares errors and a gradient descent optimization technique, the number of neurons in the hidden layer is adaptively increased to improve the recognition performance; (3) The quasar spectra recognition is effectively carried out by the above trained RBFN. The author's proposed adaptive RBFN is shown to be able to not only overcome the difficulty of selecting the number of neurons in hidden layer of the traditional RBFN algorithm, but also increase the stability and accuracy of recognition of quasars. Besides, the proposed method is particularly useful for automatic voluminous spectra processing produced from a large-scale sky survey project, such as our LAMOST, due to its efficiency.

  14. Comparative genomics and functional analysis of niche-specific adaptation in Pseudomonas putida

    SciTech Connect

    Wu X.; van der Lelie D.; Monchy, S.; Taghavi, S.; Zhu, W.; Ramos, J.

    2011-03-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a gram-negative rod-shaped gammaproteobacterium that is found throughout various environments. Members of the species P. putida show a diverse spectrum of metabolic activities, which is indicative of their adaptation to various niches, which includes the ability to live in soils and sediments contaminated with high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Pseudomonas putida strains are also found as plant growth-promoting rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. The genome sequences of several P. putida species have become available and provide a unique tool to study the specific niche adaptation of the various P. putida strains. In this review, we compare the genomes of four P. putida strains: the rhizospheric strain KT2440, the endophytic strain W619, the aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading strain F1 and the manganese-oxidizing strain GB-1. Comparative genomics provided a powerful tool to gain new insights into the adaptation of P. putida to specific lifestyles and environmental niches, and clearly demonstrated that horizontal gene transfer played a key role in this adaptation process, as many of the niche-specific functions were found to be encoded on clearly defined genomic islands.

  15. Comparative genomics and functional analysis of niche-specific adaptation in Pseudomonas putida

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Monchy, Sébastien; Taghavi, Safiyh; Zhu, Wei; Ramos, Juan; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida is a gram-negative rod-shaped gammaproteobacterium that is found throughout various environments. Members of the species P. putida show a diverse spectrum of metabolic activities, which is indicative of their adaptation to various niches, which includes the ability to live in soils and sediments contaminated with high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. Pseudomonas putida strains are also found as plant growth-promoting rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria. The genome sequences of several P. putida species have become available and provide a unique tool to study the specific niche adaptation of the various P. putida strains. In this review, we compare the genomes of four P. putida strains: the rhizospheric strain KT2440, the endophytic strain W619, the aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading strain F1 and the manganese-oxidizing strain GB-1. Comparative genomics provided a powerful tool to gain new insights into the adaptation of P. putida to specific lifestyles and environmental niches, and clearly demonstrated that horizontal gene transfer played a key role in this adaptation process, as many of the niche-specific functions were found to be encoded on clearly defined genomic islands. PMID:20796030

  16. Temperament as a Predictor of Symptomotology and Adaptive Functioning in Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Caley B.; Henderson, Heather A.; Inge, Anne P.; Zahka, Nicole E.; Coman, Drew C.; Kojkowski, Nicole M.; Hileman, Camilla M.; Mundy, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Variation in temperament is characteristic of all people but is rarely studied as a predictor of individual differences among individuals with autism. Relative to a matched comparison sample, adolescents with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) reported lower levels of Surgency and higher levels of Negative Affectivity. Variability in temperament…

  17. Optimizing the general linear model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy: an adaptive hemodynamic response function approach

    PubMed Central

    Uga, Minako; Dan, Ippeita; Sano, Toshifumi; Dan, Haruka; Watanabe, Eiju

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. An increasing number of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) studies utilize a general linear model (GLM) approach, which serves as a standard statistical method for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. While fMRI solely measures the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, fNIRS measures the changes of oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxy-hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) signals at a temporal resolution severalfold higher. This suggests the necessity of adjusting the temporal parameters of a GLM for fNIRS signals. Thus, we devised a GLM-based method utilizing an adaptive hemodynamic response function (HRF). We sought the optimum temporal parameters to best explain the observed time series data during verbal fluency and naming tasks. The peak delay of the HRF was systematically changed to achieve the best-fit model for the observed oxy- and deoxy-Hb time series data. The optimized peak delay showed different values for each Hb signal and task. When the optimized peak delays were adopted, the deoxy-Hb data yielded comparable activations with similar statistical power and spatial patterns to oxy-Hb data. The adaptive HRF method could suitably explain the behaviors of both Hb parameters during tasks with the different cognitive loads during a time course, and thus would serve as an objective method to fully utilize the temporal structures of all fNIRS data. PMID:26157973

  18. The Youth Throwing Score

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Christopher S.; Padaki, Ajay S.; Noticewala, Manish Suresh; Makhni, Eric Chugh; Popkin, Charles Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epidemic levels of shoulder and elbow injuries have been reported in youth and adolescent baseball players. Despite the concerning frequency of these injuries, no instrument has been validated to assess upper extremity injury in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity assessment tool specifically designed for youth baseball players. We hypothesize this tool will be reliable, responsive and valid. Methods: The Youth Throwing Score (YTS) was constructed by a multidisciplinary healthcare provider team in addition to baseball coaches as a tool to assess upper extremity injury in 10 to 18 year old baseball players. The instrument was comprised of a demographics section and a 14 item assessment of pain, fatigue and psychosocial health. The 14 items were scored from 1 to 5 and weighted equally, with higher scores reflecting fewer symptoms and less functional disability. The psychometric properties, including the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and responsiveness were calculated. Additionally, the Pearson correlation coefficient to 4 validated outcomes was determined. Results: A pilot form of the instrument was administered to 25 players to assess comprehension and mean item importance. Pilot analysis resulted in none of the 14 items receiving less than a 3 out of 5 mean athlete importance rating and the final instrument read at a Flesch-Kincaid level of 4.1, appropriate for patients age 9 and older. A total of 223 players completed the Youth Throwing Score, with an average player age of 14.3 ± 2.7 years old. The players self-assigned injury status, resulting in an average survey score of 59.7 ± 8.4 for the 148 players ‘playing without pain,’ 42.0 ± 11.5 for the 60 players ‘playing with pain,’ and 40.4 ± 10.5 for the 15 players ‘not playing due to pain.’ Players playing without pain scored significantly higher than those playing with pain (p < .001). The scoring tiers of the Youth

  19. A problem-solving task specialized for functional neuroimaging: validation of the Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ruocco, Anthony C; Rodrigo, Achala H; Lam, Jaeger; Di Domenico, Stefano I; Graves, Bryanna; Ayaz, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Problem-solving is an executive function subserved by a network of neural structures of which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is central. Whereas several studies have evaluated the role of the DLPFC in problem-solving, few standardized tasks have been developed specifically for use with functional neuroimaging. The current study adapted a measure with established validity for the assessment of problem-solving abilities to design a test more suitable for functional neuroimaging protocols. The Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) was administered to 38 healthy adults while hemodynamic oxygenation of the PFC was measured using 16-channel continuous-wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Compared to a baseline condition, problems that required two or three steps to achieve a goal configuration were associated with higher activation in the left DLPFC and deactivation in the medial PFC. Individuals scoring higher in trait deliberation showed consistently higher activation in the left DLPFC regardless of task difficulty, whereas individuals lower in this trait displayed less activation when solving simple problems. Based on these results, the S-TOL may serve as a standardized task to evaluate problem-solving abilities in functional neuroimaging studies.

  20. A problem-solving task specialized for functional neuroimaging: validation of the Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) using near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ruocco, Anthony C.; Rodrigo, Achala H.; Lam, Jaeger; Di Domenico, Stefano I.; Graves, Bryanna; Ayaz, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Problem-solving is an executive function subserved by a network of neural structures of which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is central. Whereas several studies have evaluated the role of the DLPFC in problem-solving, few standardized tasks have been developed specifically for use with functional neuroimaging. The current study adapted a measure with established validity for the assessment of problem-solving abilities to design a test more suitable for functional neuroimaging protocols. The Scarborough adaptation of the Tower of London (S-TOL) was administered to 38 healthy adults while hemodynamic oxygenation of the PFC was measured using 16-channel continuous-wave functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Compared to a baseline condition, problems that required two or three steps to achieve a goal configuration were associated with higher activation in the left DLPFC and deactivation in the medial PFC. Individuals scoring higher in trait deliberation showed consistently higher activation in the left DLPFC regardless of task difficulty, whereas individuals lower in this trait displayed less activation when solving simple problems. Based on these results, the S-TOL may serve as a standardized task to evaluate problem-solving abilities in functional neuroimaging studies. PMID:24734017

  1. A Functional Approach To Uncover the Low-Temperature Adaptation Strategies of the Archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri

    PubMed Central

    McCay, Paul; Fuszard, Matthew; Botting, Catherine H.; Abram, Florence; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Low-temperature anaerobic digestion (LTAD) technology is underpinned by a diverse microbial community. The methanogenic archaea represent a key functional group in these consortia, undertaking CO2 reduction as well as acetate and methylated C1 metabolism with subsequent biogas (40 to 60% CH4 and 30 to 50% CO2) formation. However, the cold adaptation strategies, which allow methanogens to function efficiently in LTAD, remain unclear. Here, a pure-culture proteomic approach was employed to study the functional characteristics of Methanosarcina barkeri (optimum growth temperature, 37°C), which has been detected in LTAD bioreactors. Two experimental approaches were undertaken. The first approach aimed to characterize a low-temperature shock response (LTSR) of M. barkeri DSMZ 800T grown at 37°C with a temperature drop to 15°C, while the second experimental approach aimed to examine the low-temperature adaptation strategies (LTAS) of the same strain when it was grown at 15°C. The latter experiment employed cell viability and growth measurements (optical density at 600 nm [OD600]), which directly compared M. barkeri cells grown at 15°C with those grown at 37°C. During the LTSR experiment, a total of 127 proteins were detected in 37°C and 15°C samples, with 20 proteins differentially expressed with respect to temperature, while in the LTAS experiment 39% of proteins identified were differentially expressed between phases of growth. Functional categories included methanogenesis, cellular information processing, and chaperones. By applying a polyphasic approach (proteomics and growth studies), insights into the low-temperature adaptation capacity of this mesophilically characterized methanogen were obtained which suggest that the metabolically diverse Methanosarcinaceae could be functionally relevant for LTAD systems. PMID:23645201

  2. Training-specific functional, neural, and hypertrophic adaptations to explosive- vs. sustained-contraction strength training.

    PubMed

    Balshaw, Thomas G; Massey, Garry J; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Tillin, Neale A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Training specificity is considered important for strength training, although the functional and underpinning physiological adaptations to different types of training, including brief explosive contractions, are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of 12 wk of explosive-contraction (ECT, n = 13) vs. sustained-contraction (SCT, n = 16) strength training vs. control (n = 14) on the functional, neural, hypertrophic, and intrinsic contractile characteristics of healthy young men. Training involved 40 isometric knee extension repetitions (3 times/wk): contracting as fast and hard as possible for ∼1 s (ECT) or gradually increasing to 75% of maximum voluntary torque (MVT) before holding for 3 s (SCT). Torque and electromyography during maximum and explosive contractions, torque during evoked octet contractions, and total quadriceps muscle volume (QUADSVOL) were quantified pre and post training. MVT increased more after SCT than ECT [23 vs. 17%; effect size (ES) = 0.69], with similar increases in neural drive, but greater QUADSVOL changes after SCT (8.1 vs. 2.6%; ES = 0.74). ECT improved explosive torque at all time points (17-34%; 0.54 ≤ ES ≤ 0.76) because of increased neural drive (17-28%), whereas only late-phase explosive torque (150 ms, 12%; ES = 1.48) and corresponding neural drive (18%) increased after SCT. Changes in evoked torque indicated slowing of the contractile properties of the muscle-tendon unit after both training interventions. These results showed training-specific functional changes that appeared to be due to distinct neural and hypertrophic adaptations. ECT produced a wider range of functional adaptations than SCT, and given the lesser demands of ECT, this type of training provides a highly efficient means of increasing function.

  3. Functional Based Adaptive and Fuzzy Sliding Controller for Non-Autonomous Active Suspension System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shiuh-Jer; Chen, Hung-Yi

    In this paper, an adaptive sliding controller is developed for controlling a vehicle active suspension system. The functional approximation technique is employed to substitute the unknown non-autonomous functions of the suspension system and release the model-based requirement of sliding mode control algorithm. In order to improve the control performance and reduce the implementation problem, a fuzzy strategy with online learning ability is added to compensate the functional approximation error. The update laws of the functional approximation coefficients and the fuzzy tuning parameters are derived from the Lyapunov theorem to guarantee the system stability. The proposed controller is implemented on a quarter-car hydraulic actuating active suspension system test-rig. The experimental results show that the proposed controller suppresses the oscillation amplitude of the suspension system effectively.

  4. A new adaptive videogame for training attention and executive functions: design principles and initial validation.

    PubMed

    Montani, Veronica; De Filippo De Grazia, Michele; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that action videogames could enhance a variety of cognitive skills and more specifically attention skills. The aim of this study was to develop a novel adaptive videogame to support the rehabilitation of the most common consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI), that is the impairment of attention and executive functions. TBI patients can be affected by psychomotor slowness and by difficulties in dealing with distraction, maintain a cognitive set for a long time, processing different simultaneously presented stimuli, and planning purposeful behavior. Accordingly, we designed a videogame that was specifically conceived to activate those functions. Playing involves visuospatial planning and selective attention, active maintenance of the cognitive set representing the goal, and error monitoring. Moreover, different game trials require to alternate between two tasks (i.e., task switching) or to perform the two tasks simultaneously (i.e., divided attention/dual-tasking). The videogame is controlled by a multidimensional adaptive algorithm that calibrates task difficulty on-line based on a model of user performance that is updated on a trial-by-trial basis. We report simulations of user performance designed to test the adaptive game as well as a validation study with healthy participants engaged in a training protocol. The results confirmed the involvement of the cognitive abilities that the game is supposed to enhance and suggested that training improved attentional control during play.

  5. Wavelet approximation of correlated wave functions. II. Hyperbolic wavelets and adaptive approximation schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hongjun; Kolb, Dietmar; Flad, Heinz-Jurgen; Hackbusch, Wolfgang; Koprucki, Thomas

    2002-08-01

    We have studied various aspects concerning the use of hyperbolic wavelets and adaptive approximation schemes for wavelet expansions of correlated wave functions. In order to analyze the consequences of reduced regularity of the wave function at the electron-electron cusp, we first considered a realistic exactly solvable many-particle model in one dimension. Convergence rates of wavelet expansions, with respect to L2 and H1 norms and the energy, were established for this model. We compare the performance of hyperbolic wavelets and their extensions through adaptive refinement in the cusp region, to a fully adaptive treatment based on the energy contribution of individual wavelets. Although hyperbolic wavelets show an inferior convergence behavior, they can be easily refined in the cusp region yielding an optimal convergence rate for the energy. Preliminary results for the helium atom are presented, which demonstrate the transferability of our observations to more realistic systems. We propose a contraction scheme for wavelets in the cusp region, which reduces the number of degrees of freedom and yields a favorable cost to benefit ratio for the evaluation of matrix elements.

  6. Reliability and consistency of plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle function using an adapted force sledge apparatus.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Laura-Anne M; Harrison, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    There are various limitations to existing methods of studying plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanics, predominantly related to measurement validity and reliability. This study utilizes an innovative adaptation to a force sledge which isolates the plantarflexors and ankle for analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the sledge loading protocol to be used, most appropriate method of data analysis and measurement reliability in a group of healthy, non-injured subjects. Twenty subjects (11 males, 9 females; age: 23.5 ±2.3 years; height: 1.73 ±0.08 m; mass: 74.2 ±11.3 kg) completed 11 impacts at five different loadings rated on a scale of perceived exertion from 1 to 5, where 5 is a loading that the subject could only complete the 11 impacts using the adapted sledge. Analysis of impacts 4-8 or 5-7 using loading 2 provided consistent results that were highly reliable (single intra-class correlation, ICC > 0.85, average ICC > 0.95) and replicated kinematics found in hopping and running. Results support use of an adapted force sledge apparatus as an ecologically valid, reliable method of investigating plantarflexor SSC function and MTU mechanics in a dynamic controlled environment.

  7. Functional identification of biological neural networks using reservoir adaptation for point processes.

    PubMed

    Gürel, Tayfun; Rotter, Stefan; Egert, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    The complexity of biological neural networks does not allow to directly relate their biophysical properties to the dynamics of their electrical activity. We present a reservoir computing approach for functionally identifying a biological neural network, i.e. for building an artificial system that is functionally equivalent to the reference biological network. Employing feed-forward and recurrent networks with fading memory, i.e. reservoirs, we propose a point process based learning algorithm to train the internal parameters of the reservoir and the connectivity between the reservoir and the memoryless readout neurons. Specifically, the model is an Echo State Network (ESN) with leaky integrator neurons, whose individual leakage time constants are also adapted. The proposed ESN algorithm learns a predictive model of stimulus-response relations in in vitro and simulated networks, i.e. it models their response dynamics. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicates that these ESNs can imitate the response signal of a reference biological network. Reservoir adaptation improved the performance of an ESN over readout-only training methods in many cases. This also held for adaptive feed-forward reservoirs, which had no recurrent dynamics. We demonstrate the predictive power of these ESNs on various tasks with cultured and simulated biological neural networks.

  8. A new adaptive videogame for training attention and executive functions: design principles and initial validation

    PubMed Central

    Montani, Veronica; De Filippo De Grazia, Michele; Zorzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that action videogames could enhance a variety of cognitive skills and more specifically attention skills. The aim of this study was to develop a novel adaptive videogame to support the rehabilitation of the most common consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI), that is the impairment of attention and executive functions. TBI patients can be affected by psychomotor slowness and by difficulties in dealing with distraction, maintain a cognitive set for a long time, processing different simultaneously presented stimuli, and planning purposeful behavior. Accordingly, we designed a videogame that was specifically conceived to activate those functions. Playing involves visuospatial planning and selective attention, active maintenance of the cognitive set representing the goal, and error monitoring. Moreover, different game trials require to alternate between two tasks (i.e., task switching) or to perform the two tasks simultaneously (i.e., divided attention/dual-tasking). The videogame is controlled by a multidimensional adaptive algorithm that calibrates task difficulty on-line based on a model of user performance that is updated on a trial-by-trial basis. We report simulations of user performance designed to test the adaptive game as well as a validation study with healthy participants engaged in a training protocol. The results confirmed the involvement of the cognitive abilities that the game is supposed to enhance and suggested that training improved attentional control during play. PMID:24860529

  9. Adaptive mapping functions to the azimuthal anisotropy of the neutral atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gegout, P.; Biancale, R.; Soudarin, L.

    2011-10-01

    The anisotropy of propagation of radio waves used by global navigation satellite systems is investigated using high-resolution observational data assimilations produced by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast. The geometry and the refractivity of the neutral atmosphere are built introducing accurate geodetic heights and continuous formulations of the refractivity and its gradient. Hence the realistic ellipsoidal shape of the refractivity field above the topography is properly represented. Atmospheric delays are obtained by ray-tracing through the refractivity field, integrating the eikonal differential system. Ray-traced delays reveal the anisotropy of the atmosphere. With the aim to preserve the classical mapping function strategy, mapping functions can evolve to adapt to high-frequency atmospheric fluctuations and to account for the anisotropy of propagation by fitting at each site and time the zenith delays and the mapping functions coefficients. Adaptive mapping functions (AMF) are designed with coefficients of the continued fraction form which depend on azimuth. The basic idea is to expand the azimuthal dependency of the coefficients in Fourier series introducing a multi-scale azimuthal decomposition which slightly changes the elevation functions with the azimuth. AMF are used to approximate thousands of atmospheric ray-traced delays using a few tens of coefficients. Generic recursive definitions of the AMF and their partial derivatives lead to observe that the truncation of the continued fraction form at the third term and the truncation of the azimuthal Fourier series at the fourth term are sufficient in usual meteorological conditions. Delays' and elevations' mapping functions allow to store and to retrieve the ray-tracing results to solve the parallax problem at the observation level. AMF are suitable to fit the time-variable isotropic and anisotropic parts of the ray-traced delays at each site at each time step and to provide GPS range

  10. Functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals a noncategorical representation of hue in early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Andrew S; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L; Butt, Omar H; Brainard, David H; Aguirre, Geoffrey K

    2015-01-01

    Color names divide the fine-grained gamut of color percepts into discrete categories. A categorical transition must occur somewhere between the initial encoding of the continuous spectrum of light by the cones and the verbal report of the name of a color stimulus. Here, we used a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation experiment to examine the representation of hue in the early visual cortex. Our stimuli varied in hue between blue and green. We found in the early visual areas (V1, V2/3, and hV4) a smoothly increasing recovery from adaptation with increasing hue distance between adjacent stimuli during both passive viewing (Experiment 1) and active categorization (Experiment 2). We examined the form of the adaptation effect and found no evidence that a categorical representation mediates the release from adaptation for stimuli that cross the blue-green color boundary. Examination of the direct effect of stimulus hue on the fMRI response did, however, reveal an enhanced response to stimuli near the blue-green category border. This was largest in hV4 and when subjects were engaged in active categorization of the stimulus hue. In contrast with a recent report from another laboratory (Bird, Berens, Horner, & Franklin, 2014), we found no evidence for a categorical representation of color in the middle frontal gyrus. A post hoc whole-brain analysis, however, revealed several regions in the frontal cortex with a categorical effect in the adaptation response. Overall, our results support the idea that the representation of color in the early visual cortex is primarily fine grained and does not reflect color categories. PMID:26024465

  11. Genomic islands link secondary metabolism to functional adaptation in marine Actinobacteria.

    PubMed

    Penn, Kevin; Jenkins, Caroline; Nett, Markus; Udwary, Daniel W; Gontang, Erin A; McGlinchey, Ryan P; Foster, Brian; Lapidus, Alla; Podell, Sheila; Allen, Eric E; Moore, Bradley S; Jensen, Paul R

    2009-10-01

    Genomic islands have been shown to harbor functional traits that differentiate ecologically distinct populations of environmental bacteria. A comparative analysis of the complete genome sequences of the marine Actinobacteria Salinispora tropica and Salinispora arenicola reveals that 75% of the species-specific genes are located in 21 genomic islands. These islands are enriched in genes associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis providing evidence that secondary metabolism is linked to functional adaptation. Secondary metabolism accounts for 8.8% and 10.9% of the genes in the S. tropica and S. arenicola genomes, respectively, and represents the major functional category of annotated genes that differentiates the two species. Genomic islands harbor all 25 of the species-specific biosynthetic pathways, the majority of which occur in S. arenicola and may contribute to the cosmopolitan distribution of this species. Genome evolution is dominated by gene duplication and acquisition, which in the case of secondary metabolism provide immediate opportunities for the production of new bioactive products. Evidence that secondary metabolic pathways are exchanged horizontally, coupled with earlier evidence for fixation among globally distributed populations, supports a functional role and suggests that the acquisition of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters represents a previously unrecognized force driving bacterial diversification. Species-specific differences observed in clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat sequences suggest that S. arenicola may possess a higher level of phage immunity, whereas a highly duplicated family of polymorphic membrane proteins provides evidence for a new mechanism of marine adaptation in Gram-positive bacteria.

  12. Functional adaptation of bovine mesenteric lymphatic vessels to mesenteric venous hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Criscione, John C.; Kotiya, Akhilesh; Dongaonkar, Ranjeet M.; Hardy, Joanne; Wilson, Emily; Gashev, Anatoliy A.; Laine, Glen A.; Stewart, Randolph H.

    2014-01-01

    Lymph flow is the primary mechanism for returning interstitial fluid to the blood circulation. Currently, the adaptive response of lymphatic vessels to mesenteric venous hypertension is not known. This study sought to determine the functional responses of postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels. We surgically occluded bovine mesenteric veins to create mesenteric venous hypertension to elevate mesenteric lymph flow. Three days after surgery, postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels from mesenteric venous hypertension (MVH; n = 7) and sham surgery (Sham; n = 6) group animals were evaluated and compared. Contraction frequency (MVH: 2.98 ± 0.75 min−1; Sham: 5.42 ± 0.81 min−1) and fractional pump flow (MVH: 1.14 ± 0.30 min−1; Sham: 2.39 ± 0.32 min−1) were significantly lower in the venous occlusion group. These results indicate that postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels adapt to mesenteric venous hypertension by reducing intrinsic contractile activity. PMID:24671245

  13. woptic: Optical conductivity with Wannier functions and adaptive k-mesh refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assmann, E.; Wissgott, P.; Kuneš, J.; Toschi, A.; Blaha, P.; Held, K.

    2016-05-01

    We present an algorithm for the adaptive tetrahedral integration over the Brillouin zone of crystalline materials, and apply it to compute the optical conductivity, dc conductivity, and thermopower. For these quantities, whose contributions are often localized in small portions of the Brillouin zone, adaptive integration is especially relevant. Our implementation, the woptic package, is tied into the WIEN2WANNIER framework and allows including a local many-body self energy, e.g. from dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). Wannier functions and dipole matrix elements are computed with the DFT package WIEN2k and Wannier90. For illustration, we show DFT results for fcc-Al and DMFT results for the correlated metal SrVO3.

  14. Functional adaptation of bovine mesenteric lymphatic vessels to mesenteric venous hypertension.

    PubMed

    Quick, Christopher M; Criscione, John C; Kotiya, Akhilesh; Dongaonkar, Ranjeet M; Hardy, Joanne; Wilson, Emily; Gashev, Anatoliy A; Laine, Glen A; Stewart, Randolph H

    2014-06-15

    Lymph flow is the primary mechanism for returning interstitial fluid to the blood circulation. Currently, the adaptive response of lymphatic vessels to mesenteric venous hypertension is not known. This study sought to determine the functional responses of postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels. We surgically occluded bovine mesenteric veins to create mesenteric venous hypertension to elevate mesenteric lymph flow. Three days after surgery, postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels from mesenteric venous hypertension (MVH; n = 7) and sham surgery (Sham; n = 6) group animals were evaluated and compared. Contraction frequency (MVH: 2.98 ± 0.75 min(-1); Sham: 5.42 ± 0.81 min(-1)) and fractional pump flow (MVH: 1.14 ± 0.30 min(-1); Sham: 2.39 ± 0.32 min(-1)) were significantly lower in the venous occlusion group. These results indicate that postnodal mesenteric lymphatic vessels adapt to mesenteric venous hypertension by reducing intrinsic contractile activity.

  15. Acetic acid bacteria genomes reveal functional traits for adaptation to life in insect guts.

    PubMed

    Chouaia, Bessem; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Crotti, Elena; Comandatore, Francesco; Degli Esposti, Mauro; Ricci, Irene; Alma, Alberto; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2014-04-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) live in sugar rich environments, including food matrices, plant tissues, and the gut of sugar-feeding insects. By comparing the newly sequenced genomes of Asaia platycodi and Saccharibacter sp., symbionts of Anopheles stephensi and Apis mellifera, respectively, with those of 14 other AAB, we provide a genomic view of the evolutionary pattern of this bacterial group and clues on traits that explain the success of AAB as insect symbionts. A specific pre-adaptive trait, cytochrome bo3 ubiquinol oxidase, appears ancestral in AAB and shows a phylogeny that is congruent with that of the genomes. The functional properties of this terminal oxidase might have allowed AAB to adapt to the diverse oxygen levels of arthropod guts.

  16. A cascade reaction network mimicking the basic functional steps of adaptive immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Da; Wu, Cuichen; You, Mingxu; Zhang, Tao; Wan, Shuo; Chen, Tao; Qiu, Liping; Zheng, Zheng; Liang, Hao; Tan, Weihong

    2015-10-01

    Biological systems use complex ‘information-processing cores’ composed of molecular networks to coordinate their external environment and internal states. An example of this is the acquired, or adaptive, immune system (AIS), which is composed of both humoral and cell-mediated components. Here we report the step-by-step construction of a prototype mimic of the AIS that we call an adaptive immune response simulator (AIRS). DNA and enzymes are used as simple artificial analogues of the components of the AIS to create a system that responds to specific molecular stimuli in vitro. We show that this network of reactions can function in a manner that is superficially similar to the most basic responses of the vertebrate AIS, including reaction sequences that mimic both humoral and cellular responses. As such, AIRS provides guidelines for the design and engineering of artificial reaction networks and molecular devices.

  17. Acetic Acid Bacteria Genomes Reveal Functional Traits for Adaptation to Life in Insect Guts

    PubMed Central

    Chouaia, Bessem; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Crotti, Elena; Comandatore, Francesco; Degli Esposti, Mauro; Ricci, Irene; Alma, Alberto; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) live in sugar rich environments, including food matrices, plant tissues, and the gut of sugar-feeding insects. By comparing the newly sequenced genomes of Asaia platycodi and Saccharibacter sp., symbionts of Anopheles stephensi and Apis mellifera, respectively, with those of 14 other AAB, we provide a genomic view of the evolutionary pattern of this bacterial group and clues on traits that explain the success of AAB as insect symbionts. A specific pre-adaptive trait, cytochrome bo3 ubiquinol oxidase, appears ancestral in AAB and shows a phylogeny that is congruent with that of the genomes. The functional properties of this terminal oxidase might have allowed AAB to adapt to the diverse oxygen levels of arthropod guts. PMID:24682158

  18. Biomechanical analysis of functional adaptation of metatarsal bones in statically deformed feet.

    PubMed

    Madjarevic, Mladen; Kolundzic, Robert; Trkulja, Vladimir; Mirkovic, Maja; Pecina, Marko

    2009-02-01

    We analysed the functional adaptation of the first and second metatarsal bones to altered strain in flexible flatfoot. Fifty consecutive women (20-40 years of age) were enrolled: 31 patients with a flexible flatfoot and metatarsalgia (59 feet) and 19 controls with asymptomatic feet (37 feet). They were compared for cortical thickness (medial, lateral, dorsal and plantar) of the two bones. The null hypothesis of no overall difference between the deformed and healthy feet with regard to cortical thicknesses of the two bones was rejected in a multivariate test (p = 0.046). The groups differed significantly only regarding dorsal cortical thickness of the second metatarsal, which was around 18.1% greater in the deformed feet (95% confidence interval: 7.7-28.4%, p < 0.001). Hypertrophy of the dorsal corticalis of the second metatarsal bone appears to be the main metatarsal adaptive reaction to altered strain in the flexible flatfoot.

  19. Behavioral and neural Darwinism: selectionist function and mechanism in adaptive behavior dynamics.

    PubMed

    McDowell, J J

    2010-05-01

    An evolutionary theory of behavior dynamics and a theory of neuronal group selection share a common selectionist framework. The theory of behavior dynamics instantiates abstractly the idea that behavior is selected by its consequences. It implements Darwinian principles of selection, reproduction, and mutation to generate adaptive behavior in virtual organisms. The behavior generated by the theory has been shown to be quantitatively indistinguishable from that of live organisms. The theory of neuronal group selection suggests a mechanism whereby the abstract principles of the evolutionary theory may be implemented in the nervous systems of biological organisms. According to this theory, groups of neurons subserving behavior may be selected by synaptic modifications that occur when the consequences of behavior activate value systems in the brain. Together, these theories constitute a framework for a comprehensive account of adaptive behavior that extends from brain function to the behavior of whole organisms in quantitative detail.

  20. Assessment of Postflight Locomotor Performance Utilizing a Test of Functional Mobility: Strategic and Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, L. E.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Ruttley, T. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    Space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function, allowing crewmembers to operate in the unique microgravity environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a terrestrial environment. During a re-adaptation period upon their return to Earth, crewmembers experience alterations in sensorimotor function, causing various disturbances in perception, spatial orientation, posture, gait, and eye-head coordination. Following long duration space flight, sensorimotor dysfunction would prevent or extend the time required to make an emergency egress from the vehicle; compromising crew safety and mission objectives. We are investigating two types of motor learning that may interact with each other and influence a crewmember's ability to re-adapt to Earth's gravity environment. In strategic learning, crewmembers make rapid modifications in their motor control strategy emphasizing error reduction. This type of learning may be critical during the first minutes and hours after landing. In adaptive learning, long-term plastic transformations occur, involving morphological changes and synaptic modification. In recent literature these two behavioral components have been associated with separate brain structures that control the execution of motor strategies: the strategic component was linked to the posterior parietal cortex and the adaptive component was linked to the cerebellum (Pisella, et al. 2004). The goal of this paper was to demonstrate the relative contributions of the strategic and adaptive components to the re-adaptation process in locomotor control after long duration space flight missions on the International Space Station (ISS). The Functional Mobility Test (FMT) was developed to assess crewmember s ability to ambulate postflight from an operational and functional perspective. Sixteen crewmembers were tested preflight (3 sessions) and postflight (days 1, 2, 4, 7, 25) following a long duration space flight (approx 6 months) on the ISS. We

  1. The Scoring of Writing Portfolios: Phase 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Edward M.

    2005-01-01

    Although most portfolio evaluation currently uses some adaptation of holistic scoring, the problems with scoring portfolios holistically are many, much more than for essays, and the problems are not readily resolvable. Indeed, many aspects of holistic scoring work against the principles behind portfolio assessment. We have from the start needed a…

  2. Parent-Youth Rating Concordance for Hair Pulling Variables, Functional Impairment, and Anxiety Scale Scores in Trichotillomania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keuthen, Nancy J.; Flessner, Christopher A.; Woods, Douglas W.; Franklin, Martin E.; Piacentini, John A.; Khanna, Muniya; Moore, Phoebe; Cashin, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of cross-informant rating concordance is critical for the assessment of child and adolescent problems in clinical and research settings. We explored parent-youth rating concordance for hair pulling variables, functional impairment, and anxiety symptoms in a sample of child and adolescent hair pullers (n = 133) satisfying conservative…

  3. Functional connectivity underlying postural motor adaptation in people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fling, Brett W; Gera Dutta, Geetanjali; Horak, Fay B

    2015-01-01

    A well-characterized neural network is associated with motor learning, involving several brain regions known to have functional and structural deficits in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). However, it is not known how MS affects postural motor learning or the neural networks involved. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the neural networks underlying adaptation of postural responses within PwMS. Participants stood on a hydraulically driven, servo-controlled platform that translated horizontally forward and backward in a continuous sinusoidal pattern across multiple trials over two consecutive days. Our results show similar postural adaptation between PwMS and age-matched control participants despite overall deficits in postural motor control in PwMS. Moreover, PwMS demonstrated better retention the following day. PwMS had significantly reduced functional connectivity within both the cortico-cerebellar and cortico-striatal motor loops; neural networks that subserve implicit motor learning. In PwMS, greater connectivity strength within the cortico-cerebellar circuit was strongly related to better baseline postural control, but not to postural adaptation as it was in control participants. Further, anti-correlated cortico-striatal connectivity within the right hemisphere was related to improved postural adaptation in both groups. Taken together with previous studies showing a reduced reliance on cerebellar- and proprioceptive-related feedback control in PwMS, we suggest that PwMS may rely on cortico-striatal circuitry to a greater extent than cortico-cerebellar circuitry for the acquisition and retention of motor skills. PMID:26106552

  4. Functional connectivity underlying postural motor adaptation in people with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fling, Brett W.; Gera Dutta, Geetanjali; Horak, Fay B.

    2015-01-01

    A well-characterized neural network is associated with motor learning, involving several brain regions known to have functional and structural deficits in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). However, it is not known how MS affects postural motor learning or the neural networks involved. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the neural networks underlying adaptation of postural responses within PwMS. Participants stood on a hydraulically driven, servo-controlled platform that translated horizontally forward and backward in a continuous sinusoidal pattern across multiple trials over two consecutive days. Our results show similar postural adaptation between PwMS and age-matched control participants despite overall deficits in postural motor control in PwMS. Moreover, PwMS demonstrated better retention the following day. PwMS had significantly reduced functional connectivity within both the cortico-cerebellar and cortico-striatal motor loops; neural networks that subserve implicit motor learning. In PwMS, greater connectivity strength within the cortico-cerebellar circuit was strongly related to better baseline postural control, but not to postural adaptation as it was in control participants. Further, anti-correlated cortico-striatal connectivity within the right hemisphere was related to improved postural adaptation in both groups. Taken together with previous studies showing a reduced reliance on cerebellar- and proprioceptive-related feedback control in PwMS, we suggest that PwMS may rely on cortico-striatal circuitry to a greater extent than cortico-cerebellar circuitry for the acquisition and retention of motor skills. PMID:26106552

  5. Trajectories of Pain and Function after Primary Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: The ADAPT Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lenguerrand, Erik; Wylde, Vikki; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Sayers, Adrian; Brunton, Luke; Beswick, Andrew D.; Dieppe, Paul; Blom, Ashley W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Pain and function improve dramatically in the first three months after hip and knee arthroplasty but the trajectory after three months is less well described. It is also unclear how pre-operative pain and function influence short- and long-term recovery. We explored the trajectory of change in function and pain until and beyond 3-months post-operatively and the influence of pre-operative self-reported symptoms. Methods The study was a prospective cohort study of 164 patients undergoing primary hip (n = 80) or knee (n = 84) arthroplasty in the United Kingdom. Self-reported measures of pain and function using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index were collected pre-operatively and at 3 and 12 months post-operatively. Hip and knee arthroplasties were analysed separately, and patients were split into two groups: those with high or low symptoms pre-operatively. Multilevel regression models were used for each outcome (pain and function), and the trajectories of change were charted (0–3 months and 3–12 months). Results Hip: Most improvement occurred within the first 3 months following hip surgery and patients with worse pre-operative scores had greater changes. The mean changes observed between 3 and twelve months were statistically insignificant. One year after surgery, patients with worse pre-operative scores had post-operative outcomes similar to those observed among patients with less severe pre-operative symptoms. Knee: Most improvement occurred in the first 3 months following knee surgery with no significant change thereafter. Despite greater mean change during the first three months, patients with worse pre-operative scores had not ‘caught-up’ with those with less severe pre-operative symptoms 12 months after their surgery. Conclusion Most symptomatic improvement occurred within the first 3 months after surgery with no significant change between 3–12 months. Further investigations are now required to

  6. Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Genetic Score and Risk of Decreased Renal Function and Albuminuria: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang; Huang, Ya; Xie, Lan; Hao, Mingli; Zhao, Zhiyun; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Sun, Yimin; Qi, Lu; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for dysregulation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria. However, whether the association is causal remains unestablished. Research Design and Methods We performed a Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis in 11,502 participants aged 40 and above, from a well-defined community in Shanghai during 2011–2013, to explore the causal association between T2D and decreased estimated GFR (eGFR) and increased urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR). We genotyped 34 established T2D common variants in East Asians, and created a T2D-genetic risk score (GRS). We defined decreased eGFR as eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 and increased uACR as uACR ≥ 30 mg/g. We used the T2D_GRS as the instrumental variable (IV) to quantify the causal effect of T2D on decreased eGFR and increased uACR. Results Each 1-standard deviation (SD, 3.90 points) increment in T2D_GRS was associated with decreased eGFR: odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.30). In the MR analysis, we demonstrated a causal relationship between genetically determined T2D and decreased eGFR (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.88, P = 0.0003). When grouping the genetic loci according to their relations with either insulin secretion (IS) or insulin resistance (IR), we found both IS_GRS and IR_GRS were significantly related to decreased eGFR (both P < 0.02). In addition, T2D_GRS and IS_GRS were significantly associated with Log-uACR (both P = 0.04). Conclusion Our results provide novel evidence for a causal association between T2D and decreased eGFR by using MR approach in a Chinese population. PMID:27211558

  7. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    PubMed

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta

    2016-04-15

    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  8. Adapting environmental function analysis for management of protected areas in small islands--case of Pico Island (the Azores).

    PubMed

    Calado, Helena; Bragagnolo, Chiara; Silva, Susana; Vergílio, Marta

    2016-04-15

    Protected areas (PAs) are considered key priorities for ensuring long-term sustainability of small islands. The traditional approach of conservation versus development is currently being replaced by an approach of "win-win" relationships. During the last decades PAs have been increasingly requested to simultaneously ensure biodiversity conservation, mainstream ecosystem services into main development policies, and accounting for leisure-related revenues to sustain local and regional economies. Following this new paradigm, the Smartparks project (Planning and Management System for Small Islands Protected Areas), encompassing this study, aimed at an innovative approach for supporting the management of PAs in small islands. In this study, we propose a methodology based on Environmental Functional Analyses (EFA) to compare the potential for conservation and the potential for use of PAs that can be used not only on small islands but also in other territories. For this purpose, a set of environmental and socio-economic components was defined and selected indicators describing each component to calculate conservation and use/development functions of PAs were established. Pico Island, in the Azores archipelago (Portugal), was selected as the case study for testing the methodology. The EFA for all PAs of Pico Island was performed identifying those with more potential for conservation or for development of human activities, and also those with high levels of conflict. A total of 34 indicators was applied (assigning a value from 1 to 3) to the 22 PAs composing the INP of Pico Island: 44% were scored with a value of 1, in both ecological and social components; 22% and 29% were scored 3 in ecological and social components respectively. Social indicators were generally considered less important than environmental ones. In general, PAs presented higher values for conservation. The results further show that the potential for conservation and/or development was consistent with the

  9. Self-organizing radial basis function networks for adaptive flight control and aircraft engine state estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Praveen

    The performance of nonlinear control algorithms such as feedback linearization and dynamic inversion is heavily dependent on the fidelity of the dynamic model being inverted. Incomplete or incorrect knowledge of the dynamics results in reduced performance and may lead to instability. Augmenting the baseline controller with approximators which utilize a parametrization structure that is adapted online reduces the effect of this error between the design model and actual dynamics. However, currently existing parameterizations employ a fixed set of basis functions that do not guarantee arbitrary tracking error performance. To address this problem, we develop a self-organizing parametrization structure that is proven to be stable and can guarantee arbitrary tracking error performance. The training algorithm to grow the network and adapt the parameters is derived from Lyapunov theory. In addition to growing the network of basis functions, a pruning strategy is incorporated to keep the size of the network as small as possible. This algorithm is implemented on a high performance flight vehicle such as F-15 military aircraft. The baseline dynamic inversion controller is augmented with a Self-Organizing Radial Basis Function Network (SORBFN) to minimize the effect of the inversion error which may occur due to imperfect modeling, approximate inversion or sudden changes in aircraft dynamics. The dynamic inversion controller is simulated for different situations including control surface failures, modeling errors and external disturbances with and without the adaptive network. A performance measure of maximum tracking error is specified for both the controllers a priori. Excellent tracking error minimization to a pre-specified level using the adaptive approximation based controller was achieved while the baseline dynamic inversion controller failed to meet this performance specification. The performance of the SORBFN based controller is also compared to a fixed RBF network

  10. Structural and Functional Dissection of the Abp1 ADFH Actin-binding Domain Reveals Versatile In Vivo Adapter Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero-Monzon,O.; Rodal, A.; Strokopytov, B.; Almo, S.; Goode, B.

    2005-01-01

    Abp1 is a multidomain protein that regulates the Arp2/3 complex and links proteins involved in endocytosis to the actin cytoskeleton. All of the proposed cellular functions of Abp1 involve actin filament binding, yet the actin binding site(s) on Abp1 have not been identified, nor has the importance of actin binding for Abp1 localization and function in vivo been tested. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Abp1 actin-binding actin depolymerizing factor homology (ADFH) domain and dissect its activities by mutagenesis. Abp1-ADFH domain and ADF/cofilin structures are similar, and they use conserved surfaces to bind actin; however, there are also key differences that help explain their differential effects on actin dynamics. Using point mutations, we demonstrate that actin binding is required for localization of Abp1 in vivo, the lethality caused by Abp1 overexpression, and the ability of Abp1 to activate Arp2/3 complex. Furthermore, we genetically uncouple ABP1 functions that overlap with SAC6, SLA1, and SLA2, showing they require distinct combinations of activities and interactions. Together, our data provide the first structural and functional view of the Abp1-actin interaction and show that Abp1 has distinct cellular roles as an adapter, linking different sets of ligands for each function.

  11. Adaptation, equivalence, and validation of the changes in sexual functioning questionnaire-drugs in a sample of drug-dependent men.

    PubMed

    Vallejo-Medina, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to adapt and validate the changes in sexual functioning questionnaire-short form in a sample of drug-dependent men, achieving equivalence. Participants were 301 drug-dependent and 202 non-drug-dependent men took part in this study. The analysis of invariance revealed strong factor equivalence (RMSEA = .06; χ2/df = 2.66 and ΔCFI = -.01) for the 4-factor model (desire, pleasure, arousal, and orgasm). This model has shown the best fit indices. No items showed differential item functioning (ΔR (2) Nagelkerke < .035). Reliability ranged from α = 0.83 for pleasure to α = 0.61 for orgasm. A comparison between the scores of control and experimental participants showed significant differences (CI = 99%) in all the dimensions. Thus, a worse sexual functioning has been observed in the drug consumer group. The adaptation of the Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire-short form to drug-dependent individuals showed good psychometric properties. PMID:23421763

  12. Adaptive landscape and functional diversity of Neotropical cichlids: implications for the ecology and evolution of Cichlinae (Cichlidae; Cichliformes).

    PubMed

    Arbour, J H; López-Fernández, H

    2014-11-01

    Morphological, lineage and ecological diversity can vary substantially even among closely related lineages. Factors that influence morphological diversification, especially in functionally relevant traits, can help to explain the modern distribution of disparity across phylogenies and communities. Multivariate axes of feeding functional morphology from 75 species of Neotropical cichlid and a stepwise-AIC algorithm were used to estimate the adaptive landscape of functional morphospace in Cichlinae. Adaptive landscape complexity and convergence, as well as the functional diversity of Cichlinae, were compared with expectations under null evolutionary models. Neotropical cichlid feeding function varied primarily between traits associated with ram feeding vs. suction feeding/biting and secondarily with oral jaw muscle size and pharyngeal crushing capacity. The number of changes in selective regimes and the amount of convergence between lineages was higher than expected under a null model of evolution, but convergence was not higher than expected under a similarly complex adaptive landscape. Functional disparity was compatible with an adaptive landscape model, whereas the distribution of evolutionary change through morphospace corresponded with a process of evolution towards a single adaptive peak. The continentally distributed Neotropical cichlids have evolved relatively rapidly towards a number of adaptive peaks in functional trait space. Selection in Cichlinae functional morphospace is more complex than expected under null evolutionary models. The complexity of selective constraints in feeding morphology has likely been a significant contributor to the diversity of feeding ecology in this clade. PMID:25302771

  13. Effects of Risperidone and Parent Training on Adaptive Functioning in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Serious Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scahill, Lawrence; McDougle, Christopher J.; Aman, Michael G.; Johnson, Cynthia; Handen, Benjamin; Bearss, Karen; Dziura, James; Butter, Eric; Swiezy, Naomi G.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Sukhodolsky, Denis D.; Lecavalier, Luc; Pozdol, Stacie L.; Nikolov, Roumen; Hollway, Jill A.; Korzekwa, Patricia; Gavaletz, Allison; Kohn, Arlene E.; Koenig, Kathleen; Grinnon, Stacie; Mulick, James A.; Yu, Sunkyung; Vitiello, Benedetto

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs) have social interaction deficits, delayed communication, and repetitive behaviors as well as impairments in adaptive functioning. Many children actually show a decline in adaptive skills compared with age mates over time. Method: This 24-week, three-site, controlled clinical trial…

  14. Translation, cultural adaptation and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chiari, Aline; de Souza Sardim, Carla Caires; Natour, Jamil

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To translate, to perform a cultural adaptation of and to test the reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire for Brazil. METHODS: First, the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was translated into Portuguese and was then back-translated into French. These translations were reviewed by a committee to establish a Brazilian version of the questionnaire to be tested. The validity and reproducibility of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale questionnaire was evaluated. Patients of both sexes, who were aged 18 to 60 years and presented with rheumatoid arthritis affecting their hands, were interviewed. The patients were initially interviewed by two observers and were later interviewed by a single rater. First, the Visual Analogue Scale for hand pain, the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Disability questionnaire and the Health Assessment Questionnaire were administered. The third administration of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was performed fifteen days after the first administration. Ninety patients were assessed in the present study. RESULTS: Two questions were modified as a result of the assessment of cultural equivalence. The Cronbach's alpha value for this assessment was 0.93. The intraclass intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients were 0.76 and 0.96, respectively. The Spearman's coefficient indicated that there was a low level of correlation between the Cochin Hand Functional Scale and the Visual Analogue Scale for pain (0.46) and that there was a moderate level of correlation of the Cochin Scale with the Health Assessment Questionnaire (0.66) and with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (0.63). The average administration time for the Cochin Scale was three minutes. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian version of the Cochin Hand Functional Scale was successfully translated and adapted, and this version exhibited good internal consistency, reliability and construct validity. PMID:21789372

  15. Executive Functions and Adaptive Behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorders with and without Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Elia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been often investigated, although results seem to be rather inconsistent. The first aim of this study was to detect which EF components are common to the ASD continuum (from high- to low-functioning ASD) and identify a possible EF profile for ASD people. Planning, mental flexibility, inhibition of response, generativity, and ecologic EF were investigated. This study was extended not only to high-functioning ASD, but also to ASD with intellectual disability (ID). The second aim was to find EF aspects correlating with adaptive skills in ASD. A total of 61 children participated in the study (27 ASD with and without ID and 34 controls). Results highlight an executive profile characterised by impaired flexibility and deficient planning; these deficits are associated with decreased adaptive ability, particularly socialization, and a deficient shifting in ecologic conditions. These features are present in all ASD subgroups with and without ID; for this reason, they might be assumed as being specific features in ASD. PMID:24829905

  16. Executive Functions and Adaptive Behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorders with and without Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Elia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been often investigated, although results seem to be rather inconsistent. The first aim of this study was to detect which EF components are common to the ASD continuum (from high- to low-functioning ASD) and identify a possible EF profile for ASD people. Planning, mental flexibility, inhibition of response, generativity, and ecologic EF were investigated. This study was extended not only to high-functioning ASD, but also to ASD with intellectual disability (ID). The second aim was to find EF aspects correlating with adaptive skills in ASD. A total of 61 children participated in the study (27 ASD with and without ID and 34 controls). Results highlight an executive profile characterised by impaired flexibility and deficient planning; these deficits are associated with decreased adaptive ability, particularly socialization, and a deficient shifting in ecologic conditions. These features are present in all ASD subgroups with and without ID; for this reason, they might be assumed as being specific features in ASD.

  17. Executive Functions and Adaptive Behaviour in Autism Spectrum Disorders with and without Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Ferri, Raffaele; Genitori D'Arrigo, Valentina; Elia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been often investigated, although results seem to be rather inconsistent. The first aim of this study was to detect which EF components are common to the ASD continuum (from high- to low-functioning ASD) and identify a possible EF profile for ASD people. Planning, mental flexibility, inhibition of response, generativity, and ecologic EF were investigated. This study was extended not only to high-functioning ASD, but also to ASD with intellectual disability (ID). The second aim was to find EF aspects correlating with adaptive skills in ASD. A total of 61 children participated in the study (27 ASD with and without ID and 34 controls). Results highlight an executive profile characterised by impaired flexibility and deficient planning; these deficits are associated with decreased adaptive ability, particularly socialization, and a deficient shifting in ecologic conditions. These features are present in all ASD subgroups with and without ID; for this reason, they might be assumed as being specific features in ASD. PMID:24829905

  18. A NAP-Family Histone Chaperone Functions in Abiotic Stress Response and Adaptation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Ashwani; Singla-Pareek, Sneh Lata

    2016-01-01

    Modulation of gene expression is one of the most significant molecular mechanisms of abiotic stress response in plants. Via altering DNA accessibility, histone chaperones affect the transcriptional competence of genomic loci. However, in contrast to other factors affecting chromatin dynamics, the role of plant histone chaperones in abiotic stress response and adaptation remains elusive. Here, we studied the physiological function of a stress-responsive putative rice (Oryza sativa) histone chaperone of the NAP superfamily: OsNAPL6. We show that OsNAPL6 is a nuclear-localized H3/H4 histone chaperone capable of assembling a nucleosome-like structure. Utilizing overexpression and knockdown approaches, we found a positive correlation between OsNAPL6 expression levels and adaptation to multiple abiotic stresses. Results of comparative transcriptome profiling and promoter-recruitment studies indicate that OsNAPL6 functions during stress response via modulation of expression of various genes involved in diverse functions. For instance, we show that OsNAPL6 is recruited to OsRad51 promoter, activating its expression and leading to more efficient DNA repair and abrogation of programmed cell death under salinity and genotoxic stress conditions. These results suggest that the histone chaperone OsNAPL6 may serve a regulatory role in abiotic stress physiology possibly via modulating nucleosome dynamics at various stress-associated genomic loci. Taken together, our findings establish a hitherto unknown link between histone chaperones and abiotic stress response in plants. PMID:27342307

  19. The OTOLITH Experiment - Assessment of Otolith Function During Postflight Re-adaption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, A. H.; Wood, S. J.; Schoenfeld, U.

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing "Otolith" experiment is designed to comprehensively assess the otolith function during the re-adaptation phase after spaceflight. The novel protocol includes unilateral testing of each of the two otolith organs the utricle and the saccule. To assess utricle function, the otolith-ocular response (OOR) and the subjective visual vertical (SVV) are measured during unilateral centrifugation, which permits independent stimulation of the right and left ear. Measurement of the unilateral otolith-ocular response (uOOR) yields information on the response behaviour of the right and left peripheral utricles, whereas the SVV reflects the behaviour of the entire pathway from the peripheral otolith receptors to the vestibular cortex. Thus, by comparative evaluation of the results from the two tests, the degree of peripheral versus central adaptation during the post-flight period can be determined. To assess unilateral saccule function, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are recorded. Since the saccules are predominantly aligned to gravity, and interplay with the antigravity muscles, it is hypothesised that these potentials shall be altered after spaceflight. To date the study has been conducted with 5 of a planned 8 short-flight Shuttle astronauts. Preliminary results will be discussed together with those from clinical studies of dizziness patients, where the same test protocol is employed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work is supported by the German Aerospace Center (Grant DLR W130729) and is conducted under the auspices of ESA, in cooperation with NASA.

  20. Adaptation of the communicative brain to post-lingual deafness. Evidence from functional imaging.

    PubMed

    Lazard, Diane S; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Barone, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Not having access to one sense profoundly modifies our interactions with the environment, in turn producing changes in brain organization. Deafness and its rehabilitation by cochlear implantation offer a unique model of brain adaptation during sensory deprivation and recovery. Functional imaging allows the study of brain plasticity as a function of the times of deafness and implantation. Even long after the end of the sensitive period for auditory brain physiological maturation, some plasticity may be observed. In this way the mature brain that becomes deaf after language acquisition can adapt to its modified sensory inputs. Oral communication difficulties induced by post-lingual deafness shape cortical reorganization of brain networks already specialized for processing oral language. Left hemisphere language specialization tends to be more preserved than functions of the right hemisphere. We hypothesize that the right hemisphere offers cognitive resources re-purposed to palliate difficulties in left hemisphere speech processing due to sensory and auditory memory degradation. If cochlear implantation is considered, this reorganization during deafness may influence speech understanding outcomes positively or negatively. Understanding brain plasticity during post-lingual deafness should thus inform the development of cognitive rehabilitation, which promotes positive reorganization of the brain networks that process oral language before surgery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. PMID:23973562

  1. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy prediction of modulation transfer function of optical lens system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Md Nasir, Mohd Hairul Nizam; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Akib, Shatirah

    2014-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of image quality is an important consideration in any type of imaging system. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a graphical description of the sharpness and contrast of an imaging system or of its individual components. The MTF is also known and spatial frequency response. The MTF curve has different meanings according to the corresponding frequency. The MTF of an optical system specifies the contrast transmitted by the system as a function of image size, and is determined by the inherent optical properties of the system. In this study, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) estimator is designed and adapted to predict MTF value of the actual optical system. Neural network in ANFIS adjusts parameters of membership function in the fuzzy logic of the fuzzy inference system. The back propagation learning algorithm is used for training this network. This intelligent estimator is implemented using MATLAB/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  2. Modulation transfer function estimation of optical lens system by adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Kiah, Miss Laiha Mat

    2014-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of image quality is an important consideration in any type of imaging system. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a graphical description of the sharpness and contrast of an imaging system or of its individual components. The MTF is also known and spatial frequency response. The MTF curve has different meanings according to the corresponding frequency. The MTF of an optical system specifies the contrast transmitted by the system as a function of image size, and is determined by the inherent optical properties of the system. In this study, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) estimator is designed and adapted to estimate MTF value of the actual optical system. Neural network in ANFIS adjusts parameters of membership function in the fuzzy logic of the fuzzy inference system. The back propagation learning algorithm is used for training this network. This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  3. Adaptation of the communicative brain to post-lingual deafness. Evidence from functional imaging.

    PubMed

    Lazard, Diane S; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Barone, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Not having access to one sense profoundly modifies our interactions with the environment, in turn producing changes in brain organization. Deafness and its rehabilitation by cochlear implantation offer a unique model of brain adaptation during sensory deprivation and recovery. Functional imaging allows the study of brain plasticity as a function of the times of deafness and implantation. Even long after the end of the sensitive period for auditory brain physiological maturation, some plasticity may be observed. In this way the mature brain that becomes deaf after language acquisition can adapt to its modified sensory inputs. Oral communication difficulties induced by post-lingual deafness shape cortical reorganization of brain networks already specialized for processing oral language. Left hemisphere language specialization tends to be more preserved than functions of the right hemisphere. We hypothesize that the right hemisphere offers cognitive resources re-purposed to palliate difficulties in left hemisphere speech processing due to sensory and auditory memory degradation. If cochlear implantation is considered, this reorganization during deafness may influence speech understanding outcomes positively or negatively. Understanding brain plasticity during post-lingual deafness should thus inform the development of cognitive rehabilitation, which promotes positive reorganization of the brain networks that process oral language before surgery. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging.

  4. Hedgehog signaling mediates adaptive variation in a dynamic functional system in the cichlid feeding apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yinan; Albertson, R. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive variation in the craniofacial skeleton is a key component of resource specialization and habitat divergence in vertebrates, but the proximate genetic mechanisms that underlie complex patterns of craniofacial variation are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway mediates widespread variation across a complex functional system that affects the kinematics of lower jaw depression—the opercular four-bar linkage apparatus—among Lake Malawi cichlids. By using a combined quantitative trait locus mapping and population genetics approach, we show that allelic variation in the Hh receptor, ptch1, affects the development of distinct bony elements in the head that represent two of three movable links in this functional system. The evolutionarily derived allele is found in species that feed from the water column, and is associated with shifts in anatomy that translate to a four-bar system capable of faster jaw rotation. Alternatively, the ancestral allele is found in species that feed on attached algae, and is associated with the development of a four-bar system that predicts slower jaw movement. Experimental manipulation of the Hh pathway during cichlid development recapitulates functionally salient natural variation in craniofacial geometry. In all, these results significantly extend our understanding of the mechanisms that fine-tune the craniofacial skeletal complex during adaptation to new foraging niches. PMID:24912175

  5. On residual stresses and homeostasis: an elastic theory of functional adaptation in living matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletta, P.; Destrade, M.; Gower, A. L.

    2016-04-01

    Living matter can functionally adapt to external physical factors by developing internal tensions, easily revealed by cutting experiments. Nonetheless, residual stresses intrinsically have a complex spatial distribution, and destructive techniques cannot be used to identify a natural stress-free configuration. This work proposes a novel elastic theory of pre-stressed materials. Imposing physical compatibility and symmetry arguments, we define a new class of free energies explicitly depending on the internal stresses. This theory is finally applied to the study of arterial remodelling, proving its potential for the non-destructive determination of the residual tensions within biological materials.

  6. On residual stresses and homeostasis: an elastic theory of functional adaptation in living matter

    PubMed Central

    Ciarletta, P.; Destrade, M.; Gower, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Living matter can functionally adapt to external physical factors by developing internal tensions, easily revealed by cutting experiments. Nonetheless, residual stresses intrinsically have a complex spatial distribution, and destructive techniques cannot be used to identify a natural stress-free configuration. This work proposes a novel elastic theory of pre-stressed materials. Imposing physical compatibility and symmetry arguments, we define a new class of free energies explicitly depending on the internal stresses. This theory is finally applied to the study of arterial remodelling, proving its potential for the non-destructive determination of the residual tensions within biological materials. PMID:27113413

  7. Adaptive molecular evolution of a defence gene in sexual but not functionally asexual evening primroses.

    PubMed

    Hersch-Green, E I; Myburg, H; Johnson, M T J

    2012-08-01

    Theory predicts that sexual reproduction provides evolutionary advantages over asexual reproduction by reducing mutational load and increasing adaptive potential. Here, we test the latter prediction in the context of plant defences against pathogens because pathogens frequently reduce plant fitness and drive the evolution of plant defences. Specifically, we ask whether sexual evening primrose plant lineages (Onagraceae) have faster rates of adaptive molecular evolution and altered gene expression of a class I chitinase, a gene implicated in defence against pathogens, than functionally asexual evening primrose lineages. We found that the ratio of amino acid to silent substitutions (K(a) /K(s) = 0.19 vs. 0.11 for sexual and asexual lineages, respectively), the number of sites identified to be under positive selection (four vs. zero for sexual and asexual lineages, respectively) and the expression of chitinase were all higher in sexual than in asexual lineages. Our results are congruent with the conclusion that a loss of sexual recombination and segregation in the Onagraceae negatively affects adaptive structural and potentially regulatory evolution of a plant defence protein.

  8. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (p<0.05). Bench press total work was also significantly impaired, although maximal isometric force and power were not significantly affected. No changes were noted for measurements of central activation or force steadiness. Results for ISS crew were not analyzed due to the current small sample size. DISCUSSION: Significant reductions in lower body muscle performance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely

  9. Cranial functional morphology of fossil dogs and adaptation for durophagy in Borophagus and Epicyon (Carnivora, Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack; Wang, Xiaoming

    2010-11-01

    Morphological specialization is a complex interplay of adaptation and constraint, as similarly specialized features often evolve convergently in unrelated species, indicating that there are universally adaptive aspects to these morphologies. The evolutionary history of carnivores offers outstanding examples of convergent specialization. Among larger predators, borophagine canids were highly abundant during the tertiary of North America and are regarded as the ecological vicars of Afro-Eurasian hyenas. Borophaginae is an extinct group of 60+ species, the largest forms evolving robust skulls with prominently domed foreheads, short snouts, and hypertrophied fourth premolars. These specializations have been speculated to enhance bone cracking. To test the extent that the skulls of derived borophagines were adapted for producing large bite forces and withstanding the mechanical stresses associated with bone cracking relative to their nonrobust sister clades, we manipulated muscle forces in models of six canid skulls and analyzed their mechanical response using 3D finite element analysis. Performance measures of bite force production efficiency and deformation minimization showed that skulls of derived borophagines Borophagus secundus and Epicyon haydeni are particularly strong in the frontal region; maximum stresses are lower and more evenly distributed over the skull than in other canids. Frontal strength is potentially coupled with a temporalis-driven bite to minimize cranial stress during biting in the two derived genera, as tensile stress incurred by contracting temporalis muscles is dissipated rostro-ventrally across the forehead and face. Comparison of estimated masticatory muscle cross section areas suggests that the temporalis-masseter ratio is not strongly associated with morphological adaptations for bone cracking in Borophagus and Epicyon; larger body size may explain relatively larger temporalis muscles in the latter. When compared with previous studies, the

  10. Biological control of crystal texture: A widespread strategy for adapting crystal properties to function

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, A.; Leiserowitz, L.; Weiner, S.; Addadi, L. ); Hanson, J.; Koetzle, T.F. )

    1993-02-05

    Textures of calcite crystals from a variety of mineralized tissues belong to organisms from four phyla were examined with high-resolution synchrotron x-ray radiation. Significant differences in coherence length and angular spread were observed between taxonomic groups. Crystals from polycrystalline skeletal ensembles were more perfect than those that function as single-crystal elements. Different anistropic effects on crystal texture were observed for sea urchin and mollusk calcite crystals, whereas none was found for the foraminifer, Patellina, and the control calcite crystals. These results show that the manipulation of crystal texture in different organisms is under biological control and that crystal textures in some tissues are adapted to function. A better understanding of this apparently widespread biological phenomenon may provide new insights for improving synthetic crystal-containing materials. 18 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer with full control over the complex pupil functions.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Christina; Prieto, Pedro M; Fernández, Enrique J; Artal, Pablo

    2011-12-15

    We present a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer fully capable of controlling both amplitude and phase of the two complex pupil functions in each eye of the subject. A special feature of the instrument is its comparatively simple setup. A single reflective liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator working in pure phase modulation generates the phase profiles for both pupils simultaneously. In addition, another liquid crystal spatial light modulator working in transmission operates in pure intensity modulation to produce a large variety of pupil masks for each eye. Subjects perform visual tasks through any predefined variations of the complex pupil function for both eyes. As an example of the system efficiency, we recorded images of the stimuli through the system as they were projected at the subject's retina. This instrument proves to be extremely versatile for designing and testing novel ophthalmic elements and simulating visual outcomes, as well as for further research of binocular vision.

  12. Interactions of innate and adaptive immunity in brain development and function

    PubMed Central

    Filiano, Anthony J.; Gadani, Sachin P.; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for decades that the immune system has a tremendous impact on behavior. Most work has described the negative role of immune cells on the central nervous system. However, we and others have demonstrated over the last decade that a well-regulated immune system is needed for proper brain function. Here we discuss several neuro-immune interactions, using examples from brain homeostasis and disease states. We will highlight our understanding of the consequences of malfunctioning immunity on neurodevelopment and will discuss the roles of the innate and adaptive immune system in neurodevelopment and how T cells maintain a proper innate immune balance in the brain surroundings and within its parenchyma. Also, we describe how immune imbalance impairs higher order brain functioning, possibly leading to behavioral and cognitive impairment. Lastly, we propose our hypothesis that some behavioral deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as in autism spectrum disorder, are the consequence of malfunctioning immunity. PMID:25110235

  13. Goal functional evaluations for phase-field fracture using PU-based DWR mesh adaptivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a posteriori error estimation and goal-oriented mesh adaptivity are developed for phase-field fracture propagation. Goal functionals are computed with the dual-weighted residual (DWR) method, which is realized by a recently introduced novel localization technique based on a partition-of-unity (PU). This technique is straightforward to apply since the weak residual is used. The influence of neighboring cells is gathered by the PU. Consequently, neither strong residuals nor jumps over element edges are required. Therefore, this approach facilitates the application of the DWR method to coupled (nonlinear) multiphysics problems such as fracture propagation. These developments then allow for a systematic investigation of the discretization error for certain quantities of interest. Specifically, our focus on the relationship between the phase-field regularization and the spatial discretization parameter in terms of goal functional evaluations is novel.

  14. Enhanced response inhibition during intensive meditation training predicts improvements in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning.

    PubMed

    Sahdra, Baljinder K; MacLean, Katherine A; Ferrer, Emilio; Shaver, Phillip R; Rosenberg, Erika L; Jacobs, Tonya L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Bridwell, David A; Mangun, George R; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

    2011-04-01

    We examined the impact of training-induced improvements in self-regulation, operationalized in terms of response inhibition, on longitudinal changes in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning. Data were collected from participants undergoing 3 months of intensive meditation training in an isolated retreat setting (Retreat 1) and a wait-list control group that later underwent identical training (Retreat 2). A 32-min response inhibition task (RIT) was designed to assess sustained self-regulatory control. Adaptive functioning (AF) was operationalized as a single latent factor underlying self-report measures of anxious and avoidant attachment, mindfulness, ego resilience, empathy, the five major personality traits (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), difficulties in emotion regulation, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. Participants in Retreat 1 improved in RIT performance and AF over time whereas the controls did not. The control participants later also improved on both dimensions during their own retreat (Retreat 2). These improved levels of RIT performance and AF were sustained in follow-up assessments conducted approximately 5 months after the training. Longitudinal dynamic models with combined data from both retreats showed that improvement in RIT performance during training influenced the change in AF over time, which is consistent with a key claim in the Buddhist literature that enhanced capacity for self-regulation is an important precursor of changes in emotional well-being. PMID:21500899

  15. Adaptive function of soil consumption: an in vitro study modeling the human stomach and small intestine.

    PubMed

    Dominy, Nathaniel J; Davoust, Estelle; Minekus, Mans

    2004-01-01

    Despite occurring in a wide variety of taxa, deliberate soil consumption (geophagy) is a poorly understood behavior. In humans, geophagy is sometimes considered aberrant or a sign of metabolic dysfunction. However, geophagy is normally assigned an adaptive function in nonhuman primates and various other organisms. One hypothesis submits that clay-rich soil adsorbs intestinal insults, namely plant metabolites or diarrhoea-causing enterotoxins. Here we test the capacity of kaolin, a commonly ingested clay, to adsorb quinine (an alkaloid) and two types of tannin (digestion-inhibitors). Trials were conducted in vitro using the TNO Intestinal Model, a device that closely simulates digestion by the human stomach and small intestine. Kaolin reduced the bioavailability of each compound by < or =30%. However, because we could not replicate clay-epithelial adhesion and reduced motility, these results may underestimate adsorption in vivo. We also show that kaolin fails to render calcium oxalate soluble. We conclude that gastrointestinal adsorption is the most plausible function of human geophagy. Adaptive advantages include greater exploitation of marginal plant foods and reduced energetic costs of diarrhoea, factors that could account for the high frequency of geophagy in children and pregnant women across the tropics.

  16. Adaptive Immunity in Schizophrenia: Functional Implications of T Cells in the Etiology, Course and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Monojit

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and highly complex neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiopathology. Recently, immunopathogenesis has emerged as one of the most compelling etiological models of schizophrenia. Over the past few years considerable research has been devoted to the role of innate immune responses in schizophrenia. The findings of such studies have helped to conceptualize schizophrenia as a chronic low-grade inflammatory disorder. Although the contribution of adaptive immune responses has also been emphasized, however, the precise role of T cells in the underlying neurobiological pathways of schizophrenia is yet to be ascertained comprehensively. T cells have the ability to infiltrate brain and mediate neuro-immune cross-talk. Conversely, the central nervous system and the neurotransmitters are capable of regulating the immune system. Neurotransmitter like dopamine, implicated widely in schizophrenia risk and progression can modulate the proliferation, trafficking and functions of T cells. Within brain, T cells activate microglia, induce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as reactive oxygen species and subsequently lead to neuroinflammation. Importantly, such processes contribute to neuronal injury/death and are gradually being implicated as mediators of neuroprogressive changes in schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs, commonly used to treat schizophrenia are also known to affect adaptive immune system; interfere with the differentiation and functions of T cells. This understanding suggests a pivotal role of T cells in the etiology, course and treatment of schizophrenia and forms the basis of this review.

  17. Adaptation of β-Cell and Endothelial Function to Carbohydrate Loading: Influence of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hurwitz, Barry E.; Schneiderman, Neil; Marks, Jennifer B.; Mendez, Armando J.; Gonzalez, Alex; Llabre, Maria M.; Smith, Steven R.; Bizzotto, Roberto; Santini, Eleonora; Manca, Maria Laura; Skyler, Jay S.; Mari, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    High-carbohydrate diets have been associated with β-cell strain, dyslipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction. We examined how β-cell and endothelial function adapt to carbohydrate overloading and the influence of insulin resistance. On sequential days in randomized order, nondiabetic subjects (classified as insulin-sensitive [IS] [n = 64] or insulin-resistant [IR] [n = 79] by euglycemic clamp) received four mixed meals over 14 h with either standard (300 kcal) or double carbohydrate content. β-Cell function was reconstructed by mathematical modeling; brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured before and after each meal. Compared with IS, IR subjects showed higher glycemia and insulin hypersecretion due to greater β-cell glucose and rate sensitivity; potentiation of insulin secretion, however, was impaired. Circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) were less suppressed in IR than IS subjects. Baseline FMD was reduced in IR, and postprandial FMD attenuation occurred after each meal, particularly with high carbohydrate, similarly in IR and IS. Throughout the two study days, higher FFA levels were significantly associated with lower (incretin-induced) potentiation and impaired FMD. In nondiabetic individuals, enhanced glucose sensitivity and potentiation upregulate the insulin secretory response to carbohydrate overloading. With insulin resistance, this adaptation is impaired. Defective suppression of endogenous FFA is one common link between impaired potentiation and vascular endothelial dysfunction. PMID:25754957

  18. Compensatory structural adaptive modifications of vagina in response to functional demand in goat.

    PubMed

    Hussin, Amer M; Zaid, Nazih W; Hussain, S O

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal biopsies and smears were collected from ten adult local healthy goats. Routine histological methods were carried out on vaginal biopsies and then stained with PAS stain. The smears were stained with Methylene blue. All samples were inspected under light microscope. The present study found that many constituents of the wall of the vagina, which have an important functional role, were absent; among these were the vaginal glands, goblet cells, muscularis mucosa, and lymphatic nodules. On the other hand, vagina showed special compensatory histological mechanisms, namely, the deep epithelial folds, the well-developed germinated stratum basale, the apparent basement membrane, and the profuse defensive cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and mast cells. The general stains of this study could not recognize dendritic cells although they play an important functional role. Moreover, the herein study declared also that the vaginal smears showing many adaptive cellular mechanisms among these were, the keratinization, the process of sheet formation that lines the vaginal lumen, the process of metachromasia which is related to the cellular activity in protein synthesis, keratin, and finally the presence of endogenous microorganisms. It was concluded that all the above cellular compensatory adaptive mechanisms may compensate the lacking vaginal constituents and act to raise the immune response of the vagina.

  19. DUF1220 copy number is linearly associated with increased cognitive function as measured by total IQ and mathematical aptitude scores.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jonathon M; Searles, Veronica B; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Raznahan, Armin; Horwood, L John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Giedd, Jay; Sikela, James M

    2015-01-01

    DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the greatest human lineage-specific copy number expansion of any protein-coding sequence in the genome, and variation in DUF1220 copy number has been linked to both brain size in humans and brain evolution among primates. Given these findings, we examined associations between DUF1220 subtypes CON1 and CON2 and cognitive aptitude. We identified a linear association between CON2 copy number and cognitive function in two independent populations of European descent. In North American males, an increase in CON2 copy number corresponded with an increase in WISC IQ (R (2) = 0.13, p = 0.02), which may be driven by males aged 6-11 (R (2) = 0.42, p = 0.003). We utilized ddPCR in a subset as a confirmatory measurement. This group had 26-33 copies of CON2 with a mean of 29, and each copy increase of CON2 was associated with a 3.3-point increase in WISC IQ (R (2) = 0.22, p = 0.045). In individuals from New Zealand, an increase in CON2 copy number was associated with an increase in math aptitude ability (R (2) = 0.10 p = 0.018). These were not confounded by brain size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a replicated association between copy number of a gene coding sequence and cognitive aptitude. Remarkably, dosage variations involving DUF1220 sequences have now been linked to human brain expansion, autism severity and cognitive aptitude, suggesting that such processes may be genetically and mechanistically inter-related. The findings presented here warrant expanded investigations in larger, well-characterized cohorts.

  20. DUF1220 copy number is linearly associated with increased cognitive function as measured by total IQ and mathematical aptitude scores.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jonathon M; Searles, Veronica B; Anderson, Nathan; Keeney, Jonathon; Raznahan, Armin; Horwood, L John; Fergusson, David M; Kennedy, Martin A; Giedd, Jay; Sikela, James M

    2015-01-01

    DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the greatest human lineage-specific copy number expansion of any protein-coding sequence in the genome, and variation in DUF1220 copy number has been linked to both brain size in humans and brain evolution among primates. Given these findings, we examined associations between DUF1220 subtypes CON1 and CON2 and cognitive aptitude. We identified a linear association between CON2 copy number and cognitive function in two independent populations of European descent. In North American males, an increase in CON2 copy number corresponded with an increase in WISC IQ (R (2) = 0.13, p = 0.02), which may be driven by males aged 6-11 (R (2) = 0.42, p = 0.003). We utilized ddPCR in a subset as a confirmatory measurement. This group had 26-33 copies of CON2 with a mean of 29, and each copy increase of CON2 was associated with a 3.3-point increase in WISC IQ (R (2) = 0.22, p = 0.045). In individuals from New Zealand, an increase in CON2 copy number was associated with an increase in math aptitude ability (R (2) = 0.10 p = 0.018). These were not confounded by brain size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report a replicated association between copy number of a gene coding sequence and cognitive aptitude. Remarkably, dosage variations involving DUF1220 sequences have now been linked to human brain expansion, autism severity and cognitive aptitude, suggesting that such processes may be genetically and mechanistically inter-related. The findings presented here warrant expanded investigations in larger, well-characterized cohorts. PMID:25287832

  1. Automatic classification of schizophrenia using resting-state functional language network via an adaptive learning algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Maohu; Jie, Nanfeng; Jiang, Tianzi

    2014-03-01

    A reliable and precise classification of schizophrenia is significant for its diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel tool increasingly used in schizophrenia research. Recent advances in statistical learning theory have led to applying pattern classification algorithms to access the diagnostic value of functional brain networks, discovered from resting state fMRI data. The aim of this study was to propose an adaptive learning algorithm to distinguish schizophrenia patients from normal controls using resting-state functional language network. Furthermore, here the classification of schizophrenia was regarded as a sample selection problem where a sparse subset of samples was chosen from the labeled training set. Using these selected samples, which we call informative vectors, a classifier for the clinic diagnosis of schizophrenia was established. We experimentally demonstrated that the proposed algorithm incorporating resting-state functional language network achieved 83.6% leaveone- out accuracy on resting-state fMRI data of 27 schizophrenia patients and 28 normal controls. In contrast with KNearest- Neighbor (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and l1-norm, our method yielded better classification performance. Moreover, our results suggested that a dysfunction of resting-state functional language network plays an important role in the clinic diagnosis of schizophrenia.

  2. Motor programme activating therapy influences adaptive brain functions in multiple sclerosis: clinical and MRI study.

    PubMed

    Rasova, Kamila; Prochazkova, Marie; Tintera, Jaroslav; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Zimova, Denisa; Stetkarova, Ivana

    2015-03-01

    There is still little scientific evidence for the efficacy of neurofacilitation approaches and their possible influence on brain plasticity and adaptability. In this study, the outcome of a new kind of neurofacilitation approach, motor programme activating therapy (MPAT), was evaluated on the basis of a set of clinical functions and with MRI. Eighteen patients were examined four times with standardized clinical tests and diffusion tensor imaging to monitor changes without therapy, immediately after therapy and 1 month after therapy. Moreover, the strength of effective connectivity was analysed before and after therapy. Patients underwent a 1-h session of MPAT twice a week for 2 months. The data were analysed by nonparametric tests of association and were subsequently statistically evaluated. The therapy led to significant improvement in clinical functions, significant increment of fractional anisotropy and significant decrement of mean diffusivity, and decrement of effective connectivity at supplementary motor areas was observed immediately after the therapy. Changes in clinical functions and diffusion tensor images persisted 1 month after completing the programme. No statistically significant changes in clinical functions and no differences in MRI-diffusion tensor images were observed without physiotherapy. Positive immediate and long-term effects of MPAT on clinical and brain functions, as well as brain microstructure, were confirmed.

  3. Comparison of scores on the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale for children with low functioning autism, high functioning autism, Asperger's disorder, ADHD, and typical development.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L; Murray, Michael J; Morrow, Jill D; Yurich, Kirsten K L; Mahr, Fauzia; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Bouder, James N; Petersen, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    Reliability and validity for three autism instruments were compared for 190 children with low functioning autism (LFA), 190 children with high functioning autism or Asperger's disorder (HFA), 76 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and 64 typical children. The instruments were the Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder (designed for children with LFA and HFA), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for children with LFA, and Gilliam Asperger's Disorder Scale (GADS). For children with LFA or ADHD, classification accuracy was 100% for the Checklist and 98% for the CARS clinician scores. For children with HFA or ADHD, classification accuracy was 99% for the Checklist and 93% for the GADS clinician scores. Clinician-parent diagnostic agreement was high (90% Checklist, 90% CARS, and 84% GADS).

  4. Relationships between adaptive and neutral genetic diversity and ecological structure and functioning: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Raj

    2014-07-01

    Understanding the effects of intraspecific genetic diversity on the structure and functioning of ecological communities is a fundamentally important part of evolutionary ecology and may also have conservation relevance in identifying the situations in which genetic diversity coincides with species-level diversity.Early studies within this field documented positive relationships between genetic diversity and ecological structure, but recent studies have challenged these findings. Conceptual synthesis has been hampered because studies have used different measures of intraspecific variation (phenotypically adaptive vs. neutral) and have considered different measures of ecological structure in different ecological and spatial contexts. The aim of this study is to strengthen conceptual understanding by providing an empirical synthesis quantifying the relationship between genetic diversity and ecological structure.Here, I present a meta-analysis of the relationship between genetic diversity within plant populations and the structure and functioning of associated ecological communities (including 423 effect sizes from 70 studies). I used Bayesian meta-analyses to examine (i) the strength and direction of this relationship, (ii) the extent to which phenotypically adaptive and neutral (molecular) measures of diversity differ in their association with ecological structure and (iii) variation in outcomes among different measures of ecological structure and in different ecological contexts.Effect sizes measuring the relationship between adaptive diversity (genotypic richness) and both community- and ecosystem-level ecological responses were small, but significantly positive. These associations were supported by genetic effects on species richness and productivity, respectively.There was no overall association between neutral genetic diversity and measures of ecological structure, but a positive correlation was observed under a limited set of demographic conditions. These

  5. Relationships between adaptive and neutral genetic diversity and ecological structure and functioning: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Raj

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of intraspecific genetic diversity on the structure and functioning of ecological communities is a fundamentally important part of evolutionary ecology and may also have conservation relevance in identifying the situations in which genetic diversity coincides with species-level diversity.Early studies within this field documented positive relationships between genetic diversity and ecological structure, but recent studies have challenged these findings. Conceptual synthesis has been hampered because studies have used different measures of intraspecific variation (phenotypically adaptive vs. neutral) and have considered different measures of ecological structure in different ecological and spatial contexts. The aim of this study is to strengthen conceptual understanding by providing an empirical synthesis quantifying the relationship between genetic diversity and ecological structure.Here, I present a meta-analysis of the relationship between genetic diversity within plant populations and the structure and functioning of associated ecological communities (including 423 effect sizes from 70 studies). I used Bayesian meta-analyses to examine (i) the strength and direction of this relationship, (ii) the extent to which phenotypically adaptive and neutral (molecular) measures of diversity differ in their association with ecological structure and (iii) variation in outcomes among different measures of ecological structure and in different ecological contexts.Effect sizes measuring the relationship between adaptive diversity (genotypic richness) and both community- and ecosystem-level ecological responses were small, but significantly positive. These associations were supported by genetic effects on species richness and productivity, respectively.There was no overall association between neutral genetic diversity and measures of ecological structure, but a positive correlation was observed under a limited set of demographic conditions. These

  6. Finding Symmetry-adapted Wannier Functions from L1 Sparse Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiatong; Yin, Ke; Xia, Yi; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Osher, Stanley; Caflisch, Russel

    2015-03-01

    Wannier functions have applications in numerous fields of condensed matter physics, from polarization and orbital magnetization to topological insulators and linear-scaling methods for electronic structure calculations. We present a technique to calculate symmetry-adapted Wannier functions that are strictly localized within a finite region based on the framework of compressed Wannier modes [V. Ozolins, R. Lai, R. Caflisch, S. Osher. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2014 111 (5) 1691-1696]. Our method does not require a prior computation of the band structure, but directly minimizes a functional that is the sum of the total energy and an L1 regularization term 1/μ ∫ | Ψ | dr , which drives strict localization. One parameter μ controls the trade-off between the localization and the energy accuracy. Here we show how symmetry constraints can be incorporated in this formalism, leading to Wannier functions that form irreducible representations of the crystal group. Since only k points from the irreducible wedge of the Brillouin zone need to be considered, the computational effort is similar to that required for conventional band structure calculations.

  7. Seniority number in spin-adapted spaces and compactness of configuration interaction wave functions.

    PubMed

    Alcoba, Diego R; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E; Oña, Ofelia B

    2013-08-28

    This work extends the concept of seniority number, which has been widely used for classifying N-electron Slater determinants, to wave functions of N electrons and spin S, as well as to N-electron spin-adapted Hilbert spaces. We propose a spin-free formulation of the seniority number operator and perform a study on the behavior of the expectation values of this operator under transformations of the molecular basis sets. This study leads to propose a quantitative evaluation for the convergence of the expansions of the wave functions in terms of Slater determinants. The non-invariant character of the seniority number operator expectation value of a wave function with respect to a unitary transformation of the molecular orbital basis set, allows us to search for a change of basis which minimizes that expectation value. The results found in the description of wave functions of selected atoms and molecules show that the expansions expressed in these bases exhibit a more rapid convergence than those formulated in the canonical molecular orbital bases and even in the natural orbital ones. PMID:24006970

  8. Toad heart utilizes exclusively slow skeletal muscle troponin T: an evolutionary adaptation with potential functional benefits.

    PubMed

    Feng, Han-Zhong; Chen, Xuequn; Hossain, M Moazzem; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2012-08-24

    The three isoforms of vertebrate troponin T (TnT) are normally expressed in a muscle type-specific manner. Here we report an exception that the cardiac muscle of toad (Bufo) expresses exclusively slow skeletal muscle TnT (ssTnT) together with cardiac forms of troponin I and myosin as determined using immunoblotting, cDNA cloning, and/or LC-MS/MS. Using RT-PCR and 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends on toad cardiac mRNA, we cloned full-length cDNAs encoding two alternatively spliced variants of ssTnT. Expression of the cloned cDNAs in Escherichia coli confirmed that the toad cardiac muscle expresses solely ssTnT, predominantly the low molecular weight variant with the exon 5-encoded NH(2)-terminal segment spliced out. Functional studies were performed in ex vivo working toad hearts and compared with the frog (Rana) hearts. The results showed that toad hearts had higher contractile and relaxation velocities and were able to work against a significantly higher afterload than that of frog hearts. Therefore, the unique evolutionary adaptation of utilizing exclusively ssTnT in toad cardiac muscle corresponded to a fitness value from improving systolic function of the heart. The data demonstrated a physiological importance of the functional diversity of TnT isoforms. The structure-function relationship of TnT may be explored for the development of new treatment of heart failure.

  9. Toad heart utilizes exclusively slow skeletal muscle troponin T: an evolutionary adaptation with potential functional benefits.

    PubMed

    Feng, Han-Zhong; Chen, Xuequn; Hossain, M Moazzem; Jin, Jian-Ping

    2012-08-24

    The three isoforms of vertebrate troponin T (TnT) are normally expressed in a muscle type-specific manner. Here we report an exception that the cardiac muscle of toad (Bufo) expresses exclusively slow skeletal muscle TnT (ssTnT) together with cardiac forms of troponin I and myosin as determined using immunoblotting, cDNA cloning, and/or LC-MS/MS. Using RT-PCR and 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends on toad cardiac mRNA, we cloned full-length cDNAs encoding two alternatively spliced variants of ssTnT. Expression of the cloned cDNAs in Escherichia coli confirmed that the toad cardiac muscle expresses solely ssTnT, predominantly the low molecular weight variant with the exon 5-encoded NH(2)-terminal segment spliced out. Functional studies were performed in ex vivo working toad hearts and compared with the frog (Rana) hearts. The results showed that toad hearts had higher contractile and relaxation velocities and were able to work against a significantly higher afterload than that of frog hearts. Therefore, the unique evolutionary adaptation of utilizing exclusively ssTnT in toad cardiac muscle corresponded to a fitness value from improving systolic function of the heart. The data demonstrated a physiological importance of the functional diversity of TnT isoforms. The structure-function relationship of TnT may be explored for the development of new treatment of heart failure. PMID:22778265

  10. Adaptations in medial prefrontal cortex function associated with amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Gulley, Joshua M.; Stanis, Jessica J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroadaptations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are hypothesized to play an important role in the behavioral changes associated with repeated psychostimulant exposure, but there are few published studies that measure neuronal activity during the development and expression of sensitization. To address this, we recorded single neuron activity in the medial PFC (mPFC) of male rats that were exposed for five days to saline or amphetamine (AMPH; 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and then given saline or AMPH challenges following a three-day withdrawal. We found that rats exposed to AMPH developed locomotor sensitization to the drug that emerged on the fifth treatment session and became statistically significant at AMPH challenge. This was associated with no change in baseline (i.e., pre-injection) activity of mPFC neurons across the treatment or challenge sessions. Following the first AMPH injection, mPFC neurons responded primarily with reductions in firing, with the overall pattern and magnitude of responses remaining largely similar following repeated treatment. The exception was in the minority of cells that respond to AMPH with increases in firing rate. In this population, the magnitude of excitations peaked during the fifth AMPH exposure and was still relatively elevated at the AMPH challenge. Furthermore, these units increased firing during a saline challenge that was given to assess associative conditioning. These results suggest that AMPH-induced adaptations in mPFC function are not as apparent as AMPH-induced adaptations in behavior. When mPFC adaptations do occur, they appear limited to the population of neurons that increase their firing in response to AMPH. PMID:20035836

  11. Loss of floral repressor function adapts rice to higher latitudes in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Ariza, Jorge; Galbiati, Francesca; Goretti, Daniela; Brambilla, Vittoria; Shrestha, Roshi; Pappolla, Andrea; Courtois, Brigitte; Fornara, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to discriminate variations in day length allows plants to align flowering with the most favourable season of the year. This capacity has been altered by artificial selection when cultivated varieties became adapted to environments different from those of initial domestication. Rice flowering is promoted by short days when HEADING DATE 1 (Hd1) and EARLY HEADING DATE 1 (Ehd1) induce the expression of florigenic proteins encoded by HEADING DATE 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1). Repressors of flowering antagonize such induction under long days, maintaining vegetative growth and delaying flowering. To what extent artificial selection of long day repressor loci has contributed to expand rice cultivation to Europe is currently unclear. This study demonstrates that European varieties activate both Hd3a and RFT1 expression regardless of day length and their induction is caused by loss-of-function mutations at major long day floral repressors. However, their contribution to flowering time control varies between locations. Pyramiding of mutations is frequently observed in European germplasm, but single mutations are sufficient to adapt rice to flower at higher latitudes. Expression of Ehd1 is increased in varieties showing reduced or null Hd1 expression under natural long days, as well as in single hd1 mutants in isogenic backgrounds. These data indicate that loss of repressor genes has been a key strategy to expand rice cultivation to Europe, and that Ehd1 is a central node integrating floral repressive signals. PMID:25732533

  12. Tooth form and function: insights into adaptation through the analysis of dental microwear.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian molar form is clearly adapted to fracture foods with specific material properties. Studies of dental functional morphology can therefore offer important clues about the diets of fossil taxa. That said, analyses of tooth form provide insights into ability to fracture resistant foods rather than the food preferences of individuals. Recent work suggests that specialized occlusal morphology can relate to either preferred foods, or to occasionally eaten fallback items critical for survival. This paper reviews dental microwear texture analysis, a new approach that can be used to infer fracture properties of foods eaten in life. High-resolution 3D point clouds of microwear surfaces are collected and analyzed using scale-sensitive fractal analyses. Resulting data are free from operator measurement error, and allow the characterization and comparison of within-species variation in microwear texture attributes. Examples given here include four extant primate species (two folivores and two hard object fallback feeders), and two fossil hominin taxa. All groups show at least some individuals with simple microwear surfaces that suggest a lack of consumption of hard and brittle abrasive foods during the last few meals. On the other hand, some hard object fallback specimens have very complex surfaces consistent with consumption of hard, brittle foods. The latter pattern is also found in one hominin species. These results suggest that dental microwear texture analysis can help us determine whether craniodental specializations in fossil species are adaptations to preferred foods, or to less often but still critical fallback items.

  13. Spiders in motion: demonstrating adaptation, structure-function relationships, and trade-offs in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bowlin, Melissa S; McLeer, Dorothy F; Danielson-Francois, Anne M

    2014-03-01

    Evolutionary history and structural considerations constrain all aspects of animal physiology. Constraints on invertebrate locomotion are especially straightforward for students to observe and understand. In this exercise, students use spiders to investigate the concepts of adaptation, structure-function relationships, and trade-offs. Students measure burst and endurance performance in several taxonomic families of spiders whose ecological niches have led to different locomotory adaptations. Based on observations of spiders in their natural habitat and prior background information, students make predictions about spider performance. Students then construct their own knowledge by performing a hands-on, inquiry-based scientific experiment where the results are not necessarily known. Depending on the specific families chosen, students can observe that web-dwelling spiders have more difficulty navigating complex terrestrial terrain than ground-dwelling spiders and that there is a trade-off between burst performance and endurance performance in spiders. Our inexpensive runway design allows for countless variations on this basic experiment; for example, we have successfully used runways to show students how the performance of heterothermic ectotherms varies with temperature. High levels of intra- and interindividual variation in performance underscore the importance of using multiple trials and statistical tests. Finally, this laboratory activity can be completely student driven or standardized, depending on the instructor's preference.

  14. Adaptive evolution in locomotor performance: How selective pressures and functional relationships produce diversity.

    PubMed

    Scales, Jeffrey A; Butler, Marguerite A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the complexity of nature, most comparative studies of phenotypic evolution consider selective pressures in isolation. When competing pressures operate on the same system, it is commonly expected that trade-offs will occur that will limit the evolution of phenotypic diversity, however, it is possible that interactions among selective pressures may promote diversity instead. We explored the evolution of locomotor performance in lizards in relation to possible selective pressures using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Here, we show that a combination of selection based on foraging mode and predator escape is required to explain variation in performance phenotypes. Surprisingly, habitat use contributed little explanatory power. We find that it is possible to evolve very different abilities in performance which were previously thought to be tightly correlated, supporting a growing literature that explores the many-to-one mapping of morphological design. Although we generally find the expected trade-off between maximal exertion and speed, this relationship surprisingly disappears when species experience selection for both performance types. We conclude that functional integration need not limit adaptive potential, and that an integrative approach considering multiple major influences on a phenotype allows a more complete understanding of adaptation and the evolution of diversity.

  15. SIRT1 Gain of Function Does Not Mimic or Enhance the Adaptations to Intermittent Fasting.

    PubMed

    Boutant, Marie; Kulkarni, Sameer S; Joffraud, Magali; Raymond, Frédéric; Métairon, Sylviane; Descombes, Patrick; Cantó, Carles

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to prevent the onset of insulin resistance and to delay age-related physiological decline in mammalian organisms. SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase enzyme, has been suggested to mediate the adaptive responses to CR, leading to the speculation that SIRT1 activation could be therapeutically used as a CR-mimetic strategy. Here, we used a mouse model of moderate SIRT1 overexpression to test whether SIRT1 gain of function could mimic or boost the metabolic benefits induced by every-other-day feeding (EODF). Our results indicate that SIRT1 transgenesis does not affect the ability of EODF to decrease adiposity and improve insulin sensitivity. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that SIRT1 transgenesis and EODF promote very distinct adaptations in individual tissues, some of which can be even be metabolically opposite, as in brown adipose tissue. Therefore, whereas SIRT1 overexpression and CR both improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, the etiologies of these benefits are largely different. PMID:26923584

  16. SIRT1 Gain of Function Does Not Mimic or Enhance the Adaptations to Intermittent Fasting.

    PubMed

    Boutant, Marie; Kulkarni, Sameer S; Joffraud, Magali; Raymond, Frédéric; Métairon, Sylviane; Descombes, Patrick; Cantó, Carles

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to prevent the onset of insulin resistance and to delay age-related physiological decline in mammalian organisms. SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase enzyme, has been suggested to mediate the adaptive responses to CR, leading to the speculation that SIRT1 activation could be therapeutically used as a CR-mimetic strategy. Here, we used a mouse model of moderate SIRT1 overexpression to test whether SIRT1 gain of function could mimic or boost the metabolic benefits induced by every-other-day feeding (EODF). Our results indicate that SIRT1 transgenesis does not affect the ability of EODF to decrease adiposity and improve insulin sensitivity. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that SIRT1 transgenesis and EODF promote very distinct adaptations in individual tissues, some of which can be even be metabolically opposite, as in brown adipose tissue. Therefore, whereas SIRT1 overexpression and CR both improve glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity, the etiologies of these benefits are largely different.

  17. A trait-based framework for predicting when and where microbial adaptation to climate change will affect ecosystem functioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Hall, Edward K.

    2012-01-01

    As the earth system changes in response to human activities, a critical objective is to predict how biogeochemical process rates (e.g. nitrification, decomposition) and ecosystem function (e.g. net ecosystem productivity) will change under future conditions. A particular challenge is that the microbial communities that drive many of these processes are capable of adapting to environmental change in ways that alter ecosystem functioning. Despite evidence that microbes can adapt to temperature, precipitation regimes, and redox fluctuations, microbial communities are typically not optimally adapted to their local environment. For example, temperature optima for growth and enzyme activity are often greater than in situ temperatures in their environment. Here we discuss fundamental constraints on microbial adaptation and suggest specific environments where microbial adaptation to climate change (or lack thereof) is most likely to alter ecosystem functioning. Our framework is based on two principal assumptions. First, there are fundamental ecological trade-offs in microbial community traits that occur across environmental gradients (in time and space). These trade-offs result in shifting of microbial function (e.g. ability to take up resources at low temperature) in response to adaptation of another trait (e.g. limiting maintenance respiration at high temperature). Second, the mechanism and level of microbial community adaptation to changing environmental parameters is a function of the potential rate of change in community composition relative to the rate of environmental change. Together, this framework provides a basis for developing testable predictions about how the rate and degree of microbial adaptation to climate change will alter biogeochemical processes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems across the planet.

  18. Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) haploinsufficiency with lower adaptive behaviour and reduced cognitive functioning in WAGR/11p13 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Han, Joan C; Thurm, Audrey; Golden Williams, Christine; Joseph, Lisa A; Zein, Wadih M; Brooks, Brian P; Butman, John A; Brady, Sheila M; Fuhr, Shannon R; Hicks, Melanie D; Huey, Amanda E; Hanish, Alyson E; Danley, Kristen M; Raygada, Margarita J; Rennert, Owen M; Martinowich, Keri; Sharp, Stephen J; Tsao, Jack W; Swedo, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    In animal studies, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an important regulator of central nervous system development and synaptic plasticity. WAGR (Wilms tumour, Aniridia, Genitourinary anomalies, and mental Retardation) syndrome is caused by 11p13 deletions of variable size near the BDNF locus and can serve as a model for studying human BDNF haploinsufficiency (+/-). We hypothesized that BDNF+/- would be associated with more severe cognitive impairment in subjects with WAGR syndrome. Twenty-eight subjects with WAGR syndrome (6-28 years), 12 subjects with isolated aniridia due to PAX6 mutations/microdeletions (7-54 years), and 20 healthy controls (4-32 years) received neurocognitive assessments. Deletion boundaries for the subjects in the WAGR group were determined by high-resolution oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization. Within the WAGR group, BDNF+/- subjects (n = 15), compared with BDNF intact (+/+) subjects (n = 13), had lower adaptive behaviour (p = .02), reduced cognitive functioning (p = .04), higher levels of reported historical (p = .02) and current (p = .02) social impairment, and higher percentage meeting cut-off score for autism (p = .047) on Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. These differences remained nominally significant after adjusting for visual acuity. Using diagnostic measures and clinical judgement, 3 subjects (2 BDNF+/- and 1 BDNF+/+) in the WAGR group (10.7%) were classified with autism spectrum disorder. A comparison group of visually impaired subjects with isolated aniridia had cognitive functioning comparable to that of healthy controls. In summary, among subjects with WAGR syndrome, BDNF+/- subjects had a mean Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Compose score that was 14-points lower and a mean intelligence quotient (IQ) that was 20-points lower than BDNF+/+ subjects. Our findings support the hypothesis that BDNF plays an important role in human neurocognitive development.

  19. An update on pediatric bleeding disorders: bleeding scores, benign joint hypermobility, and platelet function testing in the evaluation of the child with bleeding symptoms.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Sarah H

    2012-05-01

    Evaluating a child with symptoms of easy bruising and/or bleeding remains a challenge in pediatric hematology, and there is no "one size fits all" approach. This review focuses on recent research in three elements of the evaluation of a child with a suspected bleeding disorder. We will first discuss the development of the standardized Pediatric Bleeding Questionnaire, and its applications in research and clinical settings. We will then discuss the relationship between benign hypermobility syndromes and hemostasis, and the importance of including a Beighton Score in the physical examination of any child presenting with unusual bruising or bleeding. While prolonged bleeding times and abnormal platelet aggregation are common findings in children with benign hypermobility, normal coagulation studies do not exclude the presence of a connective tissue disorder in a child presenting with easy bleeding and joint hypermobility on examination. Finally, we will discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the laboratory evaluation of platelet function in children. Platelet function disorders are among the most common inherited bleeding disorders. However, testing for such disorders is time-consuming and requires a step-wise approach. We will review the indications for and limitations of the most commonly utilized platelet function laboratory studies.

  20. Discriminate protein decoys from native by using a scoring function based on ubiquitous Phi and Psi angles computed for all atom.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Avdesh; Iqbal, Sumaiya; Hoque, Md Tamjidul

    2016-06-01

    The success of solving the protein folding and structure prediction problems in molecular and structural biology relies on an accurate energy function. With the rapid advancement in the computational biology and bioinformatics fields, there is a growing need of solving unknown fold and structure faster and thus an accurate energy function is indispensable. To address this need, we develop a new potential function, namely 3DIGARS3.0, which is a linearly weighted combination of 3DIGARS, mined accessible surface area (ASA) and ubiquitously computed Phi (uPhi) and Psi (uPsi) energies - optimized by a Genetic Algorithm (GA). We use a dataset of 4332 protein-structures to generate uPhi and uPsi based score libraries to be used within the core 3DIGARS method. The optimized weight of each component is obtained by applying Genetic Algorithm based optimization on three challenging decoy sets. The improved 3DIGARS3.0 outperformed state-of-the-art methods significantly based on a set of independent test datasets.

  1. Functional adaptation and phenotypic plasticity at the cellular and whole plant level.

    PubMed

    Niklas, Karl J

    2009-10-01

    The ability to adaptively alter morphological, anatomical, or physiological functional traits to local environmental variations using external environmental cues is especially well expressed by all terrestrial and most aquatic plants. A ubiquitous cue eliciting these plastic phenotypic responses is mechanical perturbation (MP), which can evoke dramatic differences in the size, shape, or mechanical properties of conspecifics. Current thinking posits that MP is part of a very ancient "stress-perception response system" that involves receptors located at the cell membrane/cell wall interface capable of responding to a broad spectrum of stress-inducing factors. This hypothesis is explored here from the perspective of cell wall evolution and the control of cell wall architecture by unicellular and multicellular plants. Among the conclusions that emerge from this exploration is the perspective that the plant cell is phenotypically plastic. PMID:19920346

  2. Anxiety dissociates the adaptive functions of sensory and motor response enhancements to social threats.

    PubMed

    El Zein, Marwa; Wyart, Valentin; Grèzes, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Efficient detection and reaction to negative signals in the environment is essential for survival. In social situations, these signals are often ambiguous and can imply different levels of threat for the observer, thereby making their recognition susceptible to contextual cues - such as gaze direction when judging facial displays of emotion. However, the mechanisms underlying such contextual effects remain poorly understood. By computational modeling of human behavior and electrical brain activity, we demonstrate that gaze direction enhances the perceptual sensitivity to threat-signaling emotions - anger paired with direct gaze, and fear paired with averted gaze. This effect arises simultaneously in ventral face-selective and dorsal motor cortices at 200 ms following face presentation, dissociates across individuals as a function of anxiety, and does not reflect increased attention to threat-signaling emotions. These findings reveal that threat tunes neural processing in fast, selective, yet attention-independent fashion in sensory and motor systems, for different adaptive purposes. PMID:26712157

  3. Head anatomy of adult Sisyra terminalis (Insecta: Neuroptera: Sisyridae)--functional adaptations and phylogenetic implications.

    PubMed

    Randolf, Susanne; Zimmermann, Dominique; Aspöck, Ulrike

    2013-11-01

    The external and internal head anatomy of Sisyra terminalis is described in detail and compared with data from literature. A salivary pump consisting of a peculiar reservoir and a hitherto unknown muscle, M. ductus salivarii, is newly described for Neuroptera. The upward folded paraglossae form a secondary prolongation of the salivary system. These structures are discussed as functional adaptations for feeding on aphids and desiccated honeydew. In a phylogenetic analysis the basal position of the Sisyridae within Neuroptera is retrieved. The following new synapomorphies are postulated: (1) for Neuropterida, the presence of a M. submentomentalis and prepharyngeal ventral transverse muscles, and the absence of a M. submentopraementalis; (2) for Neuroptera and Sialidae, the presence of a mandibular gland; (3) for Neuroptera, the presence of four scapopedicellar muscles; (4) for Neuroptera exclusive Nevrorthidae and Sisyridae, the weakening of dorsal tentorial arms, the presence of a M. tentoriomandibularis medialis superior and the shifted origin of M. tentoriocardinalis.

  4. Social Influences on Executive Functions Development in Children and Adolescents: Steps Toward a Social Neuroscience of Predictive Adaptive Responses.

    PubMed

    Dishion, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the findings and implications of four empirical papers that establish a reciprocal, longitudinal link between the social environment and executive functions from childhood to adolescence. Two future directions are suggested by this work. The first is a call for measurement research to clarify the nomological network of various measurements of self-regulation and executive functions across a variety of methods and procedures. The second new direction is to broaden the analysis of executive function to include a wider array of predictive adaptive responses to various environmental conditions, including those where youth are chronically marginalized or otherwise stressed. Findings from these studies suggest that the executive functions within the brain guide adaptation in both deviant as well as competent responses to the social environment. Understanding various forms of adaptation will enhance the potential for prevention as well as avoid iatrogenic intervention strategies with misinformed targets. PMID:26729426

  5. Willems II. Non-gender-specific dental maturity scores.

    PubMed

    Willems, G; Thevissen, P W; Belmans, A; Liversidge, H M

    2010-09-10

    Demirjian's dental maturity scoring system has been adapted for a Belgian Caucasian population for males and females. The purpose of this study was to adapt Demirjian's dental maturity scoring system from a Belgian Caucasian population to provide non-gender-specific scores. We selected 2116 orthopantomograms of 1029 boys and 1087 girls aged 3-16 years. A weighted ANOVA was performed in order to adapt the scoring system for this Belgian population. A second test sample of 273 orthopantomograms of individuals with immature dentitions aged 3-16 years was used to evaluate the accuracy of the original method, gender-specific scores and non-gender-specific scores of the adapted method. Mean/median difference between dental age and real age was calculated as well as other measures of accuracy. The adapted scoring system resulted in new age scores expressed in years and in a higher accuracy compared to the original method in Belgian Caucasians. PMID:20483551

  6. Resistance exercise induces region-specific adaptations in anterior pituitary gland structure and function in rats.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, William J; Flanagan, Shawn D; Volek, Jeff S; Nindl, Bradley C; Vingren, Jakob L; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Comstock, Brett A; Hooper, David R; Szivak, Tunde K; Looney, David P; Maresh, Carl M; Hymer, Wesley C

    2013-12-01

    The anterior pituitary gland (AP) increases growth hormone (GH) secretion in response to resistance exercise (RE), but the nature of AP adaptations to RE is unknown. To that end, we examined the effects of RE on regional AP somatotroph GH release, structure, and relative quantity. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of four groups: 1) no training or acute exercise (NT-NEX); 2) no training with acute exercise (NT-EX); 3) resistance training without acute exercise (RT-NEX); 4) resistance training with acute exercise (RT-EX). RE incorporated 10, 1 m-weighted ladder climbs at an 85° angle. RT groups trained 3 days/wk for 7 wk, progressively. After death, trunk blood was collected, and each AP was divided into quadrants (ventral-dorsal and left-right). We measured: 1) trunk plasma GH; 2) somatotroph GH release; 3) somatotroph size; 4) somatotroph secretory content; and 5) percent of AP cells identified as somatotrophs. Trunk GH differed by group (NT-NEX, 8.9 ± 2.4 μg/l; RT-NEX, 9.2 ± 3.5 μg/l; NT-EX, 15.6 ± 3.4 μg/l; RT-EX, 23.4 ± 4.6 μg/l). RT-EX demonstrated greater somatotroph GH release than all other groups, predominantly in ventral regions (P < 0.05-0.10). Ventral somatotrophs were larger in NT-EX and RT-NEX compared with RT-EX (P < 0.05-0.10). RT-NEX exhibited significantly greater secretory granule content than all other groups but in the ventral-right region only (P < 0.05-0.10). Our findings indicate reproducible patterns of spatially distinct, functionally different somatotroph subpopulations in the rat pituitary gland. RE training appears to induce dynamic adaptations in somatotroph structure and function.

  7. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term Growth Hormone Treatment on Adaptive Functioning in Infants With Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lo, Sin T; Festen, Dederieke A M; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, Roderick F A; Collin, Philippe J L; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of growth hormone treatment on adaptive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) was assessed during a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and after 7 years of growth hormone treatment. In the RCT, 75 children (42 infants and 33 prepubertal children) with Prader-Willi syndrome were included. Subsequently, 53 children were treated with long-term growth hormone. Our study demonstrates a marked delay in adaptive functioning in infants and children with Prader-Willi syndrome, which was associated with older age and lower intelligence. Results of the repeated measurements show that the earlier growth hormone treatment was started during infancy, the better the adaptive skills were on the long-term. PMID:26161469

  8. A New Modified Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Exponential Function Adaptive Steps

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Wei; Li, Hao-ru

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most recent popular swarm intelligence techniques, artificial bee colony algorithm is poor at exploitation and has some defects such as slow search speed, poor population diversity, the stagnation in the working process, and being trapped into the local optimal solution. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new modified artificial bee colony algorithm in view of the initial population structure, subpopulation groups, step updating, and population elimination. Further, depending on opposition-based learning theory and the new modified algorithms, an improved S-type grouping method is proposed and the original way of roulette wheel selection is substituted through sensitivity-pheromone way. Then, an adaptive step with exponential functions is designed for replacing the original random step. Finally, based on the new test function versions CEC13, six benchmark functions with the dimensions D = 20 and D = 40 are chosen and applied in the experiments for analyzing and comparing the iteration speed and accuracy of the new modified algorithms. The experimental results show that the new modified algorithm has faster and more stable searching and can quickly increase poor population diversity and bring out the global optimal solutions. PMID:27293426

  9. Substrate adaptabilities of Thermotogae mannan binding proteins as a function of their evolutionary histories.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Nathalie; Noll, Kenneth M

    2016-09-01

    The Thermotogae possess a large number of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including two mannan binding proteins, ManD and CelE (previously called ManE). We show that a gene encoding an ancestor of these was acquired by the Thermotogae from the archaea followed by gene duplication. To address the functional evolution of these proteins as a consequence of their evolutionary histories, we measured the binding affinities of ManD and CelE orthologs from representative Thermotogae. Both proteins bind cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, β-1,4-mannotriose, and β-1,4-mannotetraose. The CelE orthologs additionally bind β-1,4-mannobiose, laminaribiose, laminaritriose and sophorose while the ManD orthologs additionally only weakly bind β-1,4-mannobiose. The CelE orthologs have higher unfolding temperatures than the ManD orthologs. An examination of codon sites under positive selection revealed that many of these encode residues located near or in the binding site, suggesting that the proteins experienced selective pressures in regions that might have changed their functions. The gene arrangement, phylogeny, binding properties, and putative regulatory networks suggest that the ancestral mannan binding protein was a CelE ortholog which gave rise to the ManD orthologs. This study provides a window on how one class of proteins adapted to new functions and temperatures to fit the physiologies of their new hosts. PMID:27457081

  10. NFAT5 in cellular adaptation to hypertonic stress - regulations and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chris Yk; Ko, Ben Cb

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells-5 (NFAT5), also known as OREBP or TonEBP, is a member of the nuclear factors of the activated T cells family of transcription factors. It is also the only known tonicity-regulated transcription factor in mammals. NFAT5 was initially known for its role in the hypertonic kidney inner medulla for orchestrating a genetic program to restore the cellular homeostasis. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that NFAT5 might play a more diverse functional role, including a pivotal role in blood pressure regulation and the development of autoimmune diseases. Despite the growing significance of NFAT5 in physiology and diseases, our understanding of how its activity is regulated remains very limited. Furthermore, how changes in tonicities are converted into functional outputs via NFAT5 remains elusive. Therefore, this review aims to summarize our current knowledge on the functional roles of NFAT5 in osmotic stress adaptation and the signaling pathways that regulate its activity. PMID:23618372

  11. Bayesian adaptive estimation of the contrast sensitivity function: The quick CSF method

    PubMed Central

    Lesmes, Luis Andres; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Baek, Jongsoo; Albright, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The contrast sensitivity function (CSF) predicts functional vision better than acuity, but long testing times prevent its psychophysical assessment in clinical and practical applications. This study presents the quick CSF (qCSF) method, a Bayesian adaptive procedure that applies a strategy developed to estimate multiple parameters of the psychometric function (A. B. Cobo-Lewis, 1996; L. L. Kontsevich & C. W. Tyler, 1999). Before each trial, a one-step-ahead search finds the grating stimulus (defined by frequency and contrast) that maximizes the expected information gain (J. V. Kujala & T. J. Lukka, 2006; L. A. Lesmes et al., 2006), about four CSF parameters. By directly estimating CSF parameters, data collected at one spatial frequency improves sensitivity estimates across all frequencies. A psychophysical study validated that CSFs obtained with 100 qCSF trials (~10 min) exhibited good precision across spatial frequencies (SD < 2–3 dB) and excellent agreement with CSFs obtained independently (mean RMSE = 0.86 dB). To estimate the broad sensitivity metric provided by the area under the log CSF (AULCSF), only 25 trials were needed to achieve a coefficient of variation of 15–20%. The current study demonstrates the method’s value for basic and clinical investigations. Further studies, applying the qCSF to measure wider ranges of normal and abnormal vision, will determine how its efficiency translates to clinical assessment. PMID:20377294

  12. Economy-oriented vehicle adaptive cruise control with coordinating multiple objectives function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eben Li, Shengbo; Li, Keqiang; Wang, Jianqiang

    2013-01-01

    A recent design issue of adaptive cruise control systems is how to reduce fuel consumption when following a preceding vehicle. High fuel economy is achievable through reducing acceleration level, however, it is also significantly restrained by two other functional demands, track capability and driver desired response. In the framework of multi-objective coordination, this paper develops and experimentally validates an economy-oriented headway control algorithm for a passenger car with internal combustion engine. The control algorithm is synthesised in a hierarchical structure. The upper controller, undertaking a major coordinating task, is designed based on the model predictive control theory. Fuel economy, tracking capability, and the driver desired response are formulated as its cost function and constraints in a finite prediction horizon. As further analysis indicated, such a design inevitably results in infeasible control inputs in some extreme cases, e.g. urgent situations involving rapid acceleration/deceleration. A constraint softening method is adopted to enlarge the feasible region in the cost of somewhat sacrificing the optimality of the original cost function. Finally, a prototyping controller is developed based on xPC toolbox and equipped in a passenger car. The followed field tests show that, compared to a linear quadratic controller, such an algorithm improves both fuel economy and tracking capability while also being more responsive to driver car-following behaviours.

  13. A New Modified Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Exponential Function Adaptive Steps.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wei; Lan, Heng-You; Li, Hao-Ru

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most recent popular swarm intelligence techniques, artificial bee colony algorithm is poor at exploitation and has some defects such as slow search speed, poor population diversity, the stagnation in the working process, and being trapped into the local optimal solution. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new modified artificial bee colony algorithm in view of the initial population structure, subpopulation groups, step updating, and population elimination. Further, depending on opposition-based learning theory and the new modified algorithms, an improved S-type grouping method is proposed and the original way of roulette wheel selection is substituted through sensitivity-pheromone way. Then, an adaptive step with exponential functions is designed for replacing the original random step. Finally, based on the new test function versions CEC13, six benchmark functions with the dimensions D = 20 and D = 40 are chosen and applied in the experiments for analyzing and comparing the iteration speed and accuracy of the new modified algorithms. The experimental results show that the new modified algorithm has faster and more stable searching and can quickly increase poor population diversity and bring out the global optimal solutions. PMID:27293426

  14. Effortful Control and Adaptive Functioning of Homeless Children: Variable-Focused and Person-Focused Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obradovic, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Homeless children show significant developmental delays across major domains of adaptation, yet research on protective processes that may contribute to resilient adaptation in this highly disadvantaged group of children is extremely rare. This study examined the role of effortful control for adaption in 58 homeless children, ages 5-6, during their…

  15. Revenge without redundancy: functional outcomes do not require discrete adaptations for vengeance or forgiveness.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, Colin; Fessler, Daniel M T; Gervais, Matthew M

    2013-02-01

    We question whether the postulated revenge and forgiveness systems constitute true adaptations. Revenge and forgiveness are the products of multiple motivational systems and capacities, many of which did not exclusively evolve to support deterrence. Anger is more aptly construed as an adaptation that organizes independent mechanisms to deter transgressors than as the mediator of a distinct revenge adaptation.

  16. Hamstring Architectural and Functional Adaptations Following Long vs. Short Muscle Length Eccentric Training.

    PubMed

    Guex, Kenny; Degache, Francis; Morisod, Cynthia; Sailly, Matthieu; Millet, Gregoire P

    2016-01-01

    functional adaptations. However, further investigations are required to confirm the hypothesis that performing eccentric exercises at LML may lead to greater adaptations than a similar training performed at SML. PMID:27536252

  17. Hamstring Architectural and Functional Adaptations Following Long vs. Short Muscle Length Eccentric Training

    PubMed Central

    Guex, Kenny; Degache, Francis; Morisod, Cynthia; Sailly, Matthieu; Millet, Gregoire P.

    2016-01-01

    functional adaptations. However, further investigations are required to confirm the hypothesis that performing eccentric exercises at LML may lead to greater adaptations than a similar training performed at SML. PMID:27536252

  18. Adaptive phylogeography: functional divergence between haemoglobins derived from different glacial refugia in the bank vole

    PubMed Central

    Kotlík, Petr; Marková, Silvia; Vojtek, Libor; Stratil, Antonín; Šlechta, Vlastimil; Hyršl, Pavel; Searle, Jeremy B.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, researchers have used presumptively neutral molecular variation to infer the origins of current species' distributions in northern latitudes (especially Europe). However, several reported examples of genic and chromosomal replacements suggest that end-glacial colonizations of particular northern areas may have involved genetic input from different source populations at different times, coupled with competition and selection. We investigate the functional consequences of differences between two bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) haemoglobins deriving from different glacial refugia, one of which partially replaced the other in Britain during end-glacial climate warming. This allows us to examine their adaptive divergence and hence a possible role of selection in the replacement. We determine the amino acid substitution Ser52Cys in the major expressed β-globin gene as the allelic difference. We use structural modelling to reveal that the protein environment renders the 52Cys thiol a highly reactive functional group and we show its reactivity in vitro. We demonstrate that possessing the reactive thiol in haemoglobin increases the resistance of bank vole erythrocytes to oxidative stress. Our study thus provides striking evidence for physiological differences between products of genic variants that spread at the expense of one another during colonization of an area from different glacial refugia. PMID:24827438

  19. Adaptive phylogeography: functional divergence between haemoglobins derived from different glacial refugia in the bank vole.

    PubMed

    Kotlík, Petr; Marková, Silvia; Vojtek, Libor; Stratil, Antonín; Slechta, Vlastimil; Hyršl, Pavel; Searle, Jeremy B

    2014-07-01

    Over the years, researchers have used presumptively neutral molecular variation to infer the origins of current species' distributions in northern latitudes (especially Europe). However, several reported examples of genic and chromosomal replacements suggest that end-glacial colonizations of particular northern areas may have involved genetic input from different source populations at different times, coupled with competition and selection. We investigate the functional consequences of differences between two bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) haemoglobins deriving from different glacial refugia, one of which partially replaced the other in Britain during end-glacial climate warming. This allows us to examine their adaptive divergence and hence a possible role of selection in the replacement. We determine the amino acid substitution Ser52Cys in the major expressed β-globin gene as the allelic difference. We use structural modelling to reveal that the protein environment renders the 52Cys thiol a highly reactive functional group and we show its reactivity in vitro. We demonstrate that possessing the reactive thiol in haemoglobin increases the resistance of bank vole erythrocytes to oxidative stress. Our study thus provides striking evidence for physiological differences between products of genic variants that spread at the expense of one another during colonization of an area from different glacial refugia.

  20. Cas9 specifies functional viral targets during CRISPR-Cas adaptation.

    PubMed

    Heler, Robert; Samai, Poulami; Modell, Joshua W; Weiner, Catherine; Goldberg, Gregory W; Bikard, David; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2015-03-12

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci and their associated (Cas) proteins provide adaptive immunity against viral infection in prokaryotes. Upon infection, short phage sequences known as spacers integrate between CRISPR repeats and are transcribed into small RNA molecules that guide the Cas9 nuclease to the viral targets (protospacers). Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 cleavage of the viral genome requires the presence of a 5'-NGG-3' protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) sequence immediately downstream of the viral target. It is not known whether and how viral sequences flanked by the correct PAM are chosen as new spacers. Here we show that Cas9 selects functional spacers by recognizing their PAM during spacer acquisition. The replacement of cas9 with alleles that lack the PAM recognition motif or recognize an NGGNG PAM eliminated or changed PAM specificity during spacer acquisition, respectively. Cas9 associates with other proteins of the acquisition machinery (Cas1, Cas2 and Csn2), presumably to provide PAM-specificity to this process. These results establish a new function for Cas9 in the genesis of prokaryotic immunological memory.

  1. An Automated, Adaptive Framework for Optimizing Preprocessing Pipelines in Task-Based Functional MRI.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Nathan W; Spring, Robyn; Afshin-Pour, Babak; Dong, Fan; Strother, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    BOLD fMRI is sensitive to blood-oxygenation changes correlated with brain function; however, it is limited by relatively weak signal and significant noise confounds. Many preprocessing algorithms have been developed to control noise and improve signal detection in fMRI. Although the chosen set of preprocessing and analysis steps (the "pipeline") significantly affects signal detection, pipelines are rarely quantitatively validated in the neuroimaging literature, due to complex preprocessing interactions. This paper outlines and validates an adaptive resampling framework for evaluating and optimizing preprocessing choices by optimizing data-driven metrics of task prediction and spatial reproducibility. Compared to standard "fixed" preprocessing pipelines, this optimization approach significantly improves independent validation measures of within-subject test-retest, and between-subject activation overlap, and behavioural prediction accuracy. We demonstrate that preprocessing choices function as implicit model regularizers, and that improvements due to pipeline optimization generalize across a range of simple to complex experimental tasks and analysis models. Results are shown for brief scanning sessions (<3 minutes each), demonstrating that with pipeline optimization, it is possible to obtain reliable results and brain-behaviour correlations in relatively small datasets.

  2. An error function minimization approach for the inverse problem of adaptive mirrors tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannoni, Maurizio; Yang, Fan; Siewert, Frank; Sinn, Harald

    2014-09-01

    Adaptive x-ray optics are more and more used in synchrotron beamlines, and it is probable that they will be considered for the future high-power free-electron laser sources, as the European XFEL now under construction in Hamburg, or similar projects now in discussion. These facilities will deliver a high power x-ray beam, with an expected high heat load delivered on the optics. For this reason, bendable mirrors are required to actively compensate the resulting wavefront distortion. On top of that, the mirror could have also intrinsic surface defects, as polishing errors or mounting stresses. In order to be able to correct the mirror surface with a high precision to maintain its challenging requirements, the mirror surface is usually characterized with a high accuracy metrology to calculate the actuators pulse functions and to assess its initial shape. After that, singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to find the signals to be applied into the actuators, to reach the desired surface deformation or correction. But in some cases this approach could be not robust enough for the needed performance. We present here a comparison between the classical SVD method and an error function minimization based on root-mean-square calculation. Some examples are provided, using a simulation of the European XFEL mirrors design as a case of study, and performances of the algorithms are evaluated in order to reach the ultimate quality in different scenarios. The approach could be easily generalized to other situations as well.

  3. Functional responses and adaptation of mesophilic microbial communities to psychrophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Gunnigle, Eoin; Nielsen, Jeppe L; Fuszard, Matthew; Botting, Catherine H; Sheahan, Jerome; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Abram, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Psychrophilic (<20°C) anaerobic digestion (AD) represents an attractive alternative to mesophilic wastewater treatment. In order to investigate the AD microbiome response to temperature change, with particular emphasis on methanogenic archaea, duplicate laboratory-scale AD bioreactors were operated at 37°C followed by a temperature drop to 15°C. A volatile fatty acid-based wastewater (composed of propionic acid, butyric acid, acetic acid and ethanol) was used to provide substrates representing the later stages of AD. Community structure was monitored using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, as well as DNA and cDNA-based DGGE analysis, while the abundance of relevant methanogens was followed using qPCR. In addition, metaproteomics, microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization, and methanogenic activity measurements were employed to investigate microbial activities and functions. Methanomicrobiales abundance increased at low temperature, which correlated with an increased contribution of CH4 production from hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at 15°C. Methanosarcinales utilized acetate and H2/CO2 as CH4 precursors at both temperatures and a partial shift from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was observed for this archaeal population at 15°C. An upregulation of protein expression was reported at low temperature as well as the detection of chaperones indicating that mesophilic communities experienced stress during long-term exposure to 15°C. Overall, changes in microbial community structure and function were found to underpin the adaptation of mesophilic sludge to psychrophilic AD.

  4. Functional responses and adaptation of mesophilic microbial communities to psychrophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Gunnigle, Eoin; Nielsen, Jeppe L; Fuszard, Matthew; Botting, Catherine H; Sheahan, Jerome; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Abram, Florence

    2015-12-01

    Psychrophilic (<20°C) anaerobic digestion (AD) represents an attractive alternative to mesophilic wastewater treatment. In order to investigate the AD microbiome response to temperature change, with particular emphasis on methanogenic archaea, duplicate laboratory-scale AD bioreactors were operated at 37°C followed by a temperature drop to 15°C. A volatile fatty acid-based wastewater (composed of propionic acid, butyric acid, acetic acid and ethanol) was used to provide substrates representing the later stages of AD. Community structure was monitored using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, as well as DNA and cDNA-based DGGE analysis, while the abundance of relevant methanogens was followed using qPCR. In addition, metaproteomics, microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization, and methanogenic activity measurements were employed to investigate microbial activities and functions. Methanomicrobiales abundance increased at low temperature, which correlated with an increased contribution of CH4 production from hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at 15°C. Methanosarcinales utilized acetate and H2/CO2 as CH4 precursors at both temperatures and a partial shift from acetoclastic to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was observed for this archaeal population at 15°C. An upregulation of protein expression was reported at low temperature as well as the detection of chaperones indicating that mesophilic communities experienced stress during long-term exposure to 15°C. Overall, changes in microbial community structure and function were found to underpin the adaptation of mesophilic sludge to psychrophilic AD. PMID:26507125

  5. An Automated, Adaptive Framework for Optimizing Preprocessing Pipelines in Task-Based Functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Nathan W.; Spring, Robyn; Afshin-Pour, Babak; Dong, Fan; Strother, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    BOLD fMRI is sensitive to blood-oxygenation changes correlated with brain function; however, it is limited by relatively weak signal and significant noise confounds. Many preprocessing algorithms have been developed to control noise and improve signal detection in fMRI. Although the chosen set of preprocessing and analysis steps (the “pipeline”) significantly affects signal detection, pipelines are rarely quantitatively validated in the neuroimaging literature, due to complex preprocessing interactions. This paper outlines and validates an adaptive resampling framework for evaluating and optimizing preprocessing choices by optimizing data-driven metrics of task prediction and spatial reproducibility. Compared to standard “fixed” preprocessing pipelines, this optimization approach significantly improves independent validation measures of within-subject test-retest, and between-subject activation overlap, and behavioural prediction accuracy. We demonstrate that preprocessing choices function as implicit model regularizers, and that improvements due to pipeline optimization generalize across a range of simple to complex experimental tasks and analysis models. Results are shown for brief scanning sessions (<3 minutes each), demonstrating that with pipeline optimization, it is possible to obtain reliable results and brain-behaviour correlations in relatively small datasets. PMID:26161667

  6. Cohesion and Adaptability in Mexican-American and Anglo Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, William A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined cohesion and adaptability as two dimensions of family functioning in 294 Anglo- and Mexican-American parents of school-age children. Revealed no significant differences in mean scores or distributions between ethnic groups for cohesion or adaptability, even when acculturation was controlled. (Author/NB)

  7. Assessing Dynamic Spectral Causality by Lagged Adaptive Directed Transfer Function and Instantaneous Effect Factor

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haojie; Lu, Yunfeng; Zhu, Shanan

    2014-01-01

    It is of significance to assess the dynamic spectral causality among physiological signals. Several practical estimators adapted from spectral Granger causality have been exploited to track dynamic causality based on the framework of time-varying multivariate autoregressive (tvMVAR) models. The non-zero covariance of the model’s residuals has been used to describe the instantaneous effect phenomenon in some causality estimators. However, for the situations with Gaussian residuals in some autoregressive models, it is challenging to distinguish the directed instantaneous causality if the sufficient prior information about the “causal ordering” is missing. Here, we propose a new algorithm to assess the time-varying causal ordering of tvMVAR model under the assumption that the signals follow the same acyclic causal ordering for all time lags and to estimate the instantaneous effect factor (IEF) value in order to track the dynamic directed instantaneous connectivity. The time-lagged adaptive directed transfer function (ADTF) is also estimated to assess the lagged causality after removing the instantaneous effect. In the present study, we firstly investigated the performance of the causal-ordering estimation algorithm and the accuracy of IEF value. Then, we presented the results of IEF and time-lagged ADTF method by comparing with the conventional ADTF method through simulations of various propagation models. Statistical analysis results suggest that the new algorithm could accurately estimate the causal ordering and give a good estimation of the IEF values in the Gaussian residual conditions. Meanwhile, the time-lagged ADTF approach is also more accurate in estimating the time-lagged dynamic interactions in a complex nervous system after extracting the instantaneous effect. In addition to the simulation studies, we applied the proposed method to estimate the dynamic spectral causality on real visual evoked potential (VEP) data in a human subject. Its usefulness in

  8. Higher-order adaptive finite-element methods for Kohn–Sham density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Motamarri, P.; Nowak, M.R.; Leiter, K.; Knap, J.; Gavini, V.

    2013-11-15

    We present an efficient computational approach to perform real-space electronic structure calculations using an adaptive higher-order finite-element discretization of Kohn–Sham density-functional theory (DFT). To this end, we develop an a priori mesh-adaption technique to construct a close to optimal finite-element discretization of the problem. We further propose an efficient solution strategy for solving the discrete eigenvalue problem by using spectral finite-elements in conjunction with Gauss–Lobatto quadrature, and a Chebyshev acceleration technique for computing the occupied eigenspace. The proposed approach has been observed to provide a staggering 100–200-fold computational advantage over the solution of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Using the proposed solution procedure, we investigate the computational efficiency afforded by higher-order finite-element discretizations of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. Our studies suggest that staggering computational savings—of the order of 1000-fold—relative to linear finite-elements can be realized, for both all-electron and local pseudopotential calculations, by using higher-order finite-element discretizations. On all the benchmark systems studied, we observe diminishing returns in computational savings beyond the sixth-order for accuracies commensurate with chemical accuracy, suggesting that the hexic spectral-element may be an optimal choice for the finite-element discretization of the Kohn–Sham DFT problem. A comparative study of the computational efficiency of the proposed higher-order finite-element discretizations suggests that the performance of finite-element basis is competing with the plane-wave discretization for non-periodic local pseudopotential calculations, and compares to the Gaussian basis for all-electron calculations to within an order of magnitude. Further, we demonstrate the capability of the proposed approach to compute the electronic structure of a metallic system containing 1688

  9. Osmoregulation and salinity-induced oxidative stress: is oxidative adaptation determined by gill function?

    PubMed

    Rivera-Ingraham, Georgina A; Barri, Kiam; Boël, Mélanie; Farcy, Emilie; Charles, Anne-Laure; Geny, Bernard; Lignot, Jehan-Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Osmoregulating decapods such as the Mediterranean green crab Carcinus aestuarii possess two groups of spatially segregated gills: anterior gills serve mainly respiratory purposes, while posterior gills contain osmoregulatory structures. The co-existence of similar tissues serving different functions allows the study of differential adaptation, in terms of free radical metabolism, upon salinity change. Crabs were immersed for 2 weeks in seawater (SW, 37 ppt), diluted SW (dSW, 10 ppt) and concentrated SW (cSW, 45 ppt). Exposure to dSW was the most challenging condition, elevating respiration rates of whole animals and free radical formation in hemolymph (assessed fluorometrically using C-H2DFFDA). Further analyses considered anterior and posterior gills separately, and the results showed that posterior gills are the main tissues fueling osmoregulatory-related processes because their respiration rates in dSW were 3.2-fold higher than those of anterior gills, and this was accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial density (citrate synthase activity) and increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation (1.4-fold greater, measured through electron paramagnetic resonance). Paradoxically, these posterior gills showed undisturbed caspase 3/7 activity, used here as a marker for apoptosis. This may only be due to the high antioxidant protection that posterior gills benefit from [superoxide dismutase (SOD) in posterior gills was over 6 times higher than in anterior gills]. In conclusion, osmoregulating posterior gills are better adapted to dSW exposure than respiratory anterior gills because they are capable of controlling the deleterious effects of the ROS production resulting from this salinity-induced stress.

  10. Automated Adaptive Brightness in Wireless Capsule Endoscopy Using Image Segmentation and Sigmoid Function.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Ravi; Mohammed, Shahed K; Hasan, Md Mehedi; Zhang, Xuechao; Wahid, Khan A

    2016-08-01

    Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) plays an important role in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) diseases by capturing images of human small intestine. Accurate diagnosis of endoscopic images depends heavily on the quality of captured images. Along with image and frame rate, brightness of the image is an important parameter that influences the image quality which leads to the design of an efficient illumination system. Such design involves the choice and placement of proper light source and its ability to illuminate GI surface with proper brightness. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) are normally used as sources where modulated pulses are used to control LED's brightness. In practice, instances like under- and over-illumination are very common in WCE, where the former provides dark images and the later provides bright images with high power consumption. In this paper, we propose a low-power and efficient illumination system that is based on an automated brightness algorithm. The scheme is adaptive in nature, i.e., the brightness level is controlled automatically in real-time while the images are being captured. The captured images are segmented into four equal regions and the brightness level of each region is calculated. Then an adaptive sigmoid function is used to find the optimized brightness level and accordingly a new value of duty cycle of the modulated pulse is generated to capture future images. The algorithm is fully implemented in a capsule prototype and tested with endoscopic images. Commercial capsules like Pillcam and Mirocam were also used in the experiment. The results show that the proposed algorithm works well in controlling the brightness level accordingly to the environmental condition, and as a result, good quality images are captured with an average of 40% brightness level that saves power consumption of the capsule. PMID:27333609

  11. Thriving while engaging in risk? Examining trajectories of adaptive functioning, delinquency, and substance use in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents.

    PubMed

    Warren, Michael T; Wray-Lake, Laura; Rote, Wendy M; Shubert, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in positive youth development theory and research explicate complex associations between adaptive functioning and risk behavior, acknowledging that high levels of both co-occur in the lives of some adolescents. However, evidence on nuanced overlapping developmental trajectories of adaptive functioning and risk has been limited to 1 sample of youth and a single conceptualization of adaptive functioning. We build on prior work by utilizing a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 1,665) followed from 7th grade until after high school and using a measure of adaptive functioning that was validated in a secondary sample of older adolescents (N = 93). In using dual trajectory growth mixture modeling to investigate links between developmental trajectories of adaptive functioning and delinquency and substance use, respectively, results provided evidence of heterogeneity in the overlap between adaptive functioning and risk trajectories. Males were more likely to be in the highest adaptive functioning group as well as the most at-risk delinquency class. The magnitude of negative associations between adaptive functioning and both risk behaviors decreased at Wave 3, indicating a decoupling of adaptive functioning and risk as youth aged. These findings converge in underscoring the need to generate a cohesive theory that specifies factors that promote adaptive functioning and risk in concert.

  12. Cocoa flavanol intake improves endothelial function and Framingham Risk Score in healthy men and women: a randomised, controlled, double-masked trial: the Flaviola Health Study.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Roberto; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Heuel, Jan; Falk, David; Schuler, Dominik; Wagstaff, Rabea; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte; Heiss, Christian

    2015-10-28

    Cocoa flavanol (CF) intake improves endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. We investigated the effects of CF on surrogate markers of cardiovascular health in low risk, healthy, middle-aged individuals without history, signs or symptoms of CVD. In a 1-month, open-label, one-armed pilot study, bi-daily ingestion of 450 mg of CF led to a time-dependent increase in endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD)) that plateaued after 2 weeks. Subsequently, in a randomised, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01799005), 100 healthy, middle-aged (35-60 years) men and women consumed either the CF-containing drink (450 mg) or a nutrient-matched CF-free control bi-daily for 1 month. The primary end point was FMD. Secondary end points included plasma lipids and blood pressure, thus enabling the calculation of Framingham Risk Scores and pulse wave velocity. At 1 month, CF increased FMD over control by 1·2 % (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4 %). CF decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4·4 mmHg (95 % CI 7·9, 0·9 mmHg) and 3·9 mmHg (95 % CI 6·7, 0·9 mmHg), pulse wave velocity by 0·4 m/s (95 % CI 0·8, 0·04 m/s), total cholesterol by 0·20 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·39, 0·01 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol by 0·17 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·32, 0·02 mmol/l), whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 0·10 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·04, 0·17 mmol/l). By applying the Framingham Risk Score, CF predicted a significant lowering of 10-year risk for CHD, myocardial infarction, CVD, death from CHD and CVD. In healthy individuals, regular CF intake improved accredited cardiovascular surrogates of cardiovascular risk, demonstrating that dietary flavanols have the potential to maintain cardiovascular health even in low-risk subjects.

  13. A general approach for developing system-specific functions to score protein-ligand docked complexes using support vector inductive logic programming.

    PubMed

    Amini, Ata; Shrimpton, Paul J; Muggleton, Stephen H; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2007-12-01

    Despite the increased recent use of protein-ligand and protein-protein docking in the drug discovery process due to the increases in computational power, the difficulty of accurately ranking the binding affinities of a series of ligands or a series of proteins docked to a protein receptor remains largely unsolved. This problem is of major concern in lead optimization procedures and has lead to the development of scoring functions tailored to rank the binding affinities of a series of ligands to a specific system. However, such methods can take a long time to develop and their transferability to other systems remains open to question. Here we demonstrate that given a suitable amount of background information a new approach using support vector inductive logic programming (SVILP) can be used to produce system-specific scoring functions. Inductive logic programming (ILP) learns logic-based rules for a given dataset that can be used to describe properties of each member of the set in a qualitative manner. By combining ILP with support vector machine regression, a quantitative set of rules can be obtained. SVILP has previously been used in a biological context to examine datasets containing a series of singular molecular structures and properties. Here we describe the use of SVILP to produce binding affinity predictions of a series of ligands to a particular protein. We also for the first time examine the applicability of SVILP techniques to datasets consisting of protein-ligand complexes. Our results show that SVILP performs comparably with other state-of-the-art methods on five protein-ligand systems as judged by similar cross-validated squares of their correlation coefficients. A McNemar test comparing SVILP to CoMFA and CoMSIA across the five systems indicates our method to be significantly better on one occasion. The ability to graphically display and understand the SVILP-produced rules is demonstrated and this feature of ILP can be used to derive hypothesis for

  14. Cocoa flavanol intake improves endothelial function and Framingham Risk Score in healthy men and women: a randomised, controlled, double-masked trial: the Flaviola Health Study.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Roberto; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Heuel, Jan; Falk, David; Schuler, Dominik; Wagstaff, Rabea; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Schroeter, Hagen; Merx, Marc W; Kelm, Malte; Heiss, Christian

    2015-10-28

    Cocoa flavanol (CF) intake improves endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. We investigated the effects of CF on surrogate markers of cardiovascular health in low risk, healthy, middle-aged individuals without history, signs or symptoms of CVD. In a 1-month, open-label, one-armed pilot study, bi-daily ingestion of 450 mg of CF led to a time-dependent increase in endothelial function (measured as flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD)) that plateaued after 2 weeks. Subsequently, in a randomised, controlled, double-masked, parallel-group dietary intervention trial (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01799005), 100 healthy, middle-aged (35-60 years) men and women consumed either the CF-containing drink (450 mg) or a nutrient-matched CF-free control bi-daily for 1 month. The primary end point was FMD. Secondary end points included plasma lipids and blood pressure, thus enabling the calculation of Framingham Risk Scores and pulse wave velocity. At 1 month, CF increased FMD over control by 1·2 % (95 % CI 1·0, 1·4 %). CF decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4·4 mmHg (95 % CI 7·9, 0·9 mmHg) and 3·9 mmHg (95 % CI 6·7, 0·9 mmHg), pulse wave velocity by 0·4 m/s (95 % CI 0·8, 0·04 m/s), total cholesterol by 0·20 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·39, 0·01 mmol/l) and LDL-cholesterol by 0·17 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·32, 0·02 mmol/l), whereas HDL-cholesterol increased by 0·10 mmol/l (95 % CI 0·04, 0·17 mmol/l). By applying the Framingham Risk Score, CF predicted a significant lowering of 10-year risk for CHD, myocardial infarction, CVD, death from CHD and CVD. In healthy individuals, regular CF intake improved accredited cardiovascular surrogates of cardiovascular risk, demonstrating that dietary flavanols have the potential to maintain cardiovascular health even in low-risk subjects. PMID:26348767

  15. Tracking adaptive evolution in the structure, function and molecular phylogeny of haemoglobin in non-Antarctic notothenioid fish species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, Cinzia; Parisi, Elio; di Prisco, Guido

    2006-04-01

    With the notable exception of Antarctic icefishes, haemoglobin (Hb) is present in all vertebrates. In polar fish, Hb evolution has included adaptations with implications at the biochemical, physiological and molecular levels. Cold adaptation has been shown to be also linked to small changes in primary structure and post-translational modifications in proteins, including hydrophobic remodelling and increased flexibility. A wealth of knowledge is available on the oxygen-transport system of fish inhabiting Antarctic waters, but very little is known on the structure and function of Hb of non-Antarctic notothenioid fishes. The comparison of the biochemical and physiological adaptations between cold-adapted and non-cold-adapted species is a powerful tool to understand whether (and to what extent) extreme environments require specific adaptations or simply select for phenotypically different life styles. This study focuses on structure, function and molecular phylogeny of Hb in Antarctic and non-Antarctic notothenioid fishes. The rationale is to use the primary structure of Hb as tool of choice to gain insight into the pathways of the evolution history of α and β globins of notothenioids and also as a basis for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships among Antarctic and non-Antarctic species.

  16. Adaptive evolution of class 5 fimbrial genes in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and its functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sujay; Tchesnokova, Veronika; McVeigh, Annette; Kisiela, Dagmara I; Dori, Kathleen; Navarro, Armando; Sokurenko, Evgeni V; Savarino, Stephen J

    2012-02-24

    Class 5 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) comprise eight serologically discrete colonization factors that mediate small intestinal adhesion. Their differentiation has been attributed to the pressure imposed by host adaptive immunity. We sequenced the major pilin and minor adhesin subunit genes of a geographically diverse population of ETEC elaborating CFA/I (n = 31), CS17 (n = 20), and CS2 (n = 18) and elucidated the functional effect of microevolutionary processes. Between the fimbrial types, the pairwise nucleotide diversity for the pilin or adhesin genes ranged from 35-43%. Within each fimbrial type, there were 17 non-synonymous and 1 synonymous point mutations among all pilin or adhesin gene copies, implying that each fimbrial type was acquired by ETEC strains very recently, consistent with a recent origin of this E. coli pathotype. The 17 non-synonymous allelic differences occurred in the CFA/I pilin gene cfaB (two changes) and adhesin gene cfaE (three changes), and CS17 adhesin gene csbD (12 changes). All but one amino acid change in the adhesins clustered around the predicted ligand-binding pocket. Functionally, these changes conferred an increase in cell adhesion in a flow chamber assay. In contrast, the two mutations in the non-adhesive CfaB subunit localized to the intersubunit interface and significantly reduced fimbrial adhesion in this assay. In conclusion, naturally occurring mutations in the ETEC adhesive and non-adhesive subunits altered function, were acquired under positive selection, and are predicted to impact bacteria-host interactions. PMID:22215679

  17. Sexually dimorphic adaptation of cardiac function: roles of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jun; Le, Yicong; Froogh, Ghezal; Kandhi, Sharath; Jiang, Houli; Luo, Meng; Sun, Dong; Huang, An

    2016-06-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cardioprotective mediators metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form corresponding diols (DHETs). As a sex-susceptible target, sEH is involved in the sexually dimorphic regulation of cardiovascular function. Thus, we hypothesized that the female sex favors EET-mediated potentiation of cardiac function via downregulation of sEH expression, followed by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Hearts were isolated from male (M) and female (F) wild-type (WT) and sEH-KO mice, and perfused with constant flow at different preloads. Basal coronary flow required to maintain the perfusion pressure at 100 mmHg was significantly greater in females than males, and sEH-KO than WT mice. All hearts displayed a dose-dependent decrease in coronary resistance and increase in cardiac contractility, represented as developed tension in response to increases in preload. These responses were also significantly greater in females than males, and sEH-KO than WT 14,15-EEZE abolished the sex-induced (F vs. M) and transgenic model-dependent (KO vs. WT) differences in the cardiac contractility, confirming an EET-driven response. Compared with M-WT controls, F-WT hearts expressed downregulation of sEH, associated with increased EETs and reduced DHETs, a pattern comparable to that observed in sEH-KO hearts. Coincidentally, F-WT and sEH-KO hearts exhibited increased PPARα expression, but comparable expression of eNOS, PPARβ, and EET synthases. In conclusion, female-specific downregulation of sEH initiates an EET-dependent adaptation of cardiac function, characterized by increased coronary flow via reduction in vascular resistance, and promotion of cardiac contractility, a response that could be further intensified by PPARα.

  18. Bayer patterned high dynamic range image reconstruction using adaptive weighting function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hee; Lee, Suk Ho; Song, Ki Sun; Kang, Moon Gi

    2014-12-01

    It is not easy to acquire a desired high dynamic range (HDR) image directly from a camera due to the limited dynamic range of most image sensors. Therefore, generally, a post-process called HDR image reconstruction is used, which reconstructs an HDR image from a set of differently exposed images to overcome the limited dynamic range. However, conventional HDR image reconstruction methods suffer from noise factors and ghost artifacts. This is due to the fact that the input images taken with a short exposure time contain much noise in the dark regions, which contributes to increased noise in the corresponding dark regions of the reconstructed HDR image. Furthermore, since input images are acquired at different times, the images contain different motion information, which results in ghost artifacts. In this paper, we propose an HDR image reconstruction method which reduces the impact of the noise factors and prevents ghost artifacts. To reduce the influence of the noise factors, the weighting function, which determines the contribution of a certain input image to the reconstructed HDR image, is designed to adapt to the exposure time and local motions. Furthermore, the weighting function is designed to exclude ghosting regions by considering the differences of the luminance and the chrominance values between several input images. Unlike conventional methods, which generally work on a color image processed by the image processing module (IPM), the proposed method works directly on the Bayer raw image. This allows for a linear camera response function and also improves the efficiency in hardware implementation. Experimental results show that the proposed method can reconstruct high-quality Bayer patterned HDR images while being robust against ghost artifacts and noise factors.

  19. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure, Adaptive Function, and Entry into Adult Roles in a Prospective Study of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Mary Ellen; Kable, Julie A.; Coles, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although many studies have demonstrated effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on physical, cognitive, and behavioral development in children, few have focused on the long term effects on adults. In this study, data are presented on adaptive function and entry into adult roles in a community sample of young adults with PAE. The expectation was that prenatally exposed adults would show lower adaptive functioning and more difficulty with entry into adult roles than the non-exposed control group and that these effects would be related to the severity of PAE effects. Method The predominantly African-American, low income sample included adults with a wide range of prenatal exposure (n = 123) as well as control groups for socioeconomic (SES) (n = 59) and disability (n = 54) status. The mothers of the alcohol-exposed and SES-control group participants were recruited before birth and offspring have been followed up periodically. The disability control group was recruited in adolescence. The adults were interviewed about adaptive function in day-to-day life and adult role entry. Collateral adults who were well-acquainted with each participant were interviewed concerning adaptive function. Results Results showed that adults who were dysmorphic and/or cognitively affected by PAE had difficulty with adaptive function and entry into adult roles. Males showing cognitive effects with no physical effects were the most severely affected. Results for exposed adults not showing physical or cognitive effects were similar to or more positive than those of the control group for most outcomes. Conclusion PAE has long-term effects on adaptive outcomes in early adulthood. Additional research should focus on possible interventions at this transition and on factors contributing to the adjustment of the exposed, but unaffected participants. PMID:26247662

  20. An Equipercentile Version of the Levine Linear Observed-Score Equating Function Using the Methods of Kernel Equating. Research Report. ETS RR-07-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Davier, Alina A.; Fournier-Zajac, Stephanie; Holland, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    In the nonequivalent groups with anchor test (NEAT) design, there are several ways to use the information provided by the anchor in the equating process. One of the NEAT-design equating methods is the linear observed-score Levine method (Kolen & Brennan, 2004). It is based on a classical test theory model of the true scores on the test forms…

  1. Effect of a community intervention programme promoting social interactions on functional disability prevention for older adults: propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses, JAGES Taketoyo study

    PubMed Central

    Hikichi, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori; Aida, Jun; Takeda, Tokunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Background The efficacy of promoting social interactions to improve the health of older adults is not fully established due to residual confounding and selection bias. Methods The government of Taketoyo town, Aichi Prefecture, Japan, developed a resident-centred community intervention programme called ‘community salons’, providing opportunities for social interactions among local older residents. To evaluate the impact of the programme, we conducted questionnaire surveys for all older residents of Taketoyo. We carried out a baseline survey in July 2006 (prior to the introduction of the programme) and assessed the onset of functional disability during March 2012. We analysed the data of 2421 older people. In addition to the standard Cox proportional hazard regression, we conducted Cox regression with propensity score matching (PSM) and an instrumental variable (IV) analysis, using the number of community salons within a radius of 350 m from th