#### Sample records for adaptive grid algorithm

1. An adaptive grid algorithm for one-dimensional nonlinear equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gutierrez, William E.; Hills, Richard G.

1990-01-01

Richards' equation, which models the flow of liquid through unsaturated porous media, is highly nonlinear and difficult to solve. Step gradients in the field variables require the use of fine grids and small time step sizes. The numerical instabilities caused by the nonlinearities often require the use of iterative methods such as Picard or Newton interation. These difficulties result in large CPU requirements in solving Richards equation. With this in mind, adaptive and multigrid methods are investigated for use with nonlinear equations such as Richards' equation. Attention is focused on one-dimensional transient problems. To investigate the use of multigrid and adaptive grid methods, a series of problems are studied. First, a multigrid program is developed and used to solve an ordinary differential equation, demonstrating the efficiency with which low and high frequency errors are smoothed out. The multigrid algorithm and an adaptive grid algorithm is used to solve one-dimensional transient partial differential equations, such as the diffusive and convective-diffusion equations. The performance of these programs are compared to that of the Gauss-Seidel and tridiagonal methods. The adaptive and multigrid schemes outperformed the Gauss-Seidel algorithm, but were not as fast as the tridiagonal method. The adaptive grid scheme solved the problems slightly faster than the multigrid method. To solve nonlinear problems, Picard iterations are introduced into the adaptive grid and tridiagonal methods. Burgers' equation is used as a test problem for the two algorithms. Both methods obtain solutions of comparable accuracy for similar time increments. For the Burgers' equation, the adaptive grid method finds the solution approximately three times faster than the tridiagonal method. Finally, both schemes are used to solve the water content formulation of the Richards' equation. For this problem, the adaptive grid method obtains a more accurate solution in fewer work units and

2. A geometry-based adaptive unstructured grid generation algorithm for complex geological media

Bahrainian, Seyed Saied; Dezfuli, Alireza Daneh

2014-07-01

In this paper a novel unstructured grid generation algorithm is presented that considers the effect of geological features and well locations in grid resolution. The proposed grid generation algorithm presents a strategy for definition and construction of an initial grid based on the geological model, geometry adaptation of geological features, and grid resolution control. The algorithm is applied to seismotectonic map of the Masjed-i-Soleiman reservoir. Comparison of grid results with the “Triangle” program shows a more suitable permeability contrast. Immiscible two-phase flow solutions are presented for a fractured porous media test case using different grid resolutions. Adapted grid on the fracture geometry gave identical results with that of a fine grid. The adapted grid employed 88.2% less CPU time when compared to the solutions obtained by the fine grid.

3. SIMULATION OF DISPERSION OF A POWER PLANT PLUME USING AN ADAPTIVE GRID ALGORITHM

EPA Science Inventory

A new dynamic adaptive grid algorithm has been developed for use in air quality modeling. This algorithm uses a higher order numerical scheme?the piecewise parabolic method (PPM)?for computing advective solution fields; a weight function capable of promoting grid node clustering ...

4. SIMULATION OF DISPERSION OF A POWER PLANT PLUME USING AN ADAPTIVE GRID ALGORITHM. (R827028)

EPA Science Inventory

A new dynamic adaptive grid algorithm has been developed for use in air quality modeling. This algorithm uses a higher order numerical scheme––the piecewise parabolic method (PPM)––for computing advective solution fields; a weight function capable o...

5. An Adaptive Reputation-Based Algorithm for Grid Virtual Organization Formation

Cui, Yongrui; Li, Mingchu; Ren, Yizhi; Sakurai, Kouichi

A novel adaptive reputation-based virtual organization formation is proposed. It restrains the bad performers effectively based on the consideration of the global experience of the evaluator and evaluates the direct trust relation between two grid nodes accurately by consulting the previous trust value rationally. It also consults and improves the reputation evaluation process in PathTrust model by taking account of the inter-organizational trust relationship and combines it with direct and recommended trust in a weighted way, which makes the algorithm more robust against collusion attacks. Additionally, the proposed algorithm considers the perspective of the VO creator and takes required VO services as one of the most important fine-grained evaluation criterion, which makes the algorithm more suitable for constructing VOs in grid environments that include autonomous organizations. Simulation results show that our algorithm restrains the bad performers and resists against fake transaction attacks and badmouth attacks effectively. It provides a clear advantage in the design of a VO infrastructure.

6. A solution-adaptive mesh algorithm for dynamic/static refinement of two and three dimensional grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Benson, Rusty A.; Mcrae, D. S.

1991-01-01

An adaptive grid algorithm has been developed in two and three dimensions that can be used dynamically with a solver or as part of a grid refinement process. The algorithm employs a transformation from the Cartesian coordinate system to a general coordinate space, which is defined as a parallelepiped in three dimensions. A weighting function, independent for each coordinate direction, is developed that will provide the desired refinement criteria in regions of high solution gradient. The adaptation is performed in the general coordinate space and the new grid locations are returned to the Cartesian space via a simple, one-step inverse mapping. The algorithm for relocation of the mesh points in the parametric space is based on the center of mass for distributed weights. Dynamic solution-adaptive results are presented for laminar flows in two and three dimensions.

7. Validation of elastic registration algorithms based on adaptive irregular grids for medical applications

Franz, Astrid; Carlsen, Ingwer C.; Renisch, Steffen; Wischmann, Hans-Aloys

2006-03-01

Elastic registration of medical images is an active field of current research. Registration algorithms have to be validated in order to show that they fulfill the requirements of a particular clinical application. Furthermore, validation strategies compare the performance of different registration algorithms and can hence judge which algorithm is best suited for a target application. In the literature, validation strategies for rigid registration algorithms have been analyzed. For a known ground truth they assess the displacement error at a few landmarks, which is not sufficient for elastic transformations described by a huge number of parameters. Hence we consider the displacement error averaged over all pixels in the whole image or in a region-of-interest of clinical relevance. Using artificially, but realistically deformed images of the application domain, we use this quality measure to analyze an elastic registration based on transformations defined on adaptive irregular grids for the following clinical applications: Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of freely moving joints for orthopedic investigations, thoracic Computed Tomography (CT) images for the detection of pulmonary embolisms, and transmission images as used for the attenuation correction and registration of independently acquired Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and CT images. The definition of a region-of-interest allows to restrict the analysis of the registration accuracy to clinically relevant image areas. The behaviour of the displacement error as a function of the number of transformation control points and their placement can be used for identifying the best strategy for the initial placement of the control points.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Banks, D. W.; Hafez, M. M.

1996-01-01

Grid adaptation for structured meshes is the art of using information from an existing, but poorly resolved, solution to automatically redistribute the grid points in such a way as to improve the resolution in regions of high error, and thus the quality of the solution. This involves: (1) generate a grid vis some standard algorithm, (2) calculate a solution on this grid, (3) adapt the grid to this solution, (4) recalculate the solution on this adapted grid, and (5) repeat steps 3 and 4 to satisfaction. Steps 3 and 4 can be repeated until some 'optimal' grid is converged to but typically this is not worth the effort and just two or three repeat calculations are necessary. They also may be repeated every 5-10 time steps for unsteady calculations.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nielsen, Eric J.

2006-01-01

Schemes based on discrete adjoint algorithms present several exciting opportunities for significantly advancing the current state of the art in computational fluid dynamics. Such methods provide an extremely efficient means for obtaining discretely consistent sensitivity information for hundreds of design variables, opening the door to rigorous, automated design optimization of complex aerospace configuration using the Navier-Stokes equation. Moreover, the discrete adjoint formulation provides a mathematically rigorous foundation for mesh adaptation and systematic reduction of spatial discretization error. Error estimates are also an inherent by-product of an adjoint-based approach, valuable information that is virtually non-existent in today's large-scale CFD simulations. An overview of the adjoint-based algorithm work at NASA Langley Research Center is presented, with examples demonstrating the potential impact on complex computational problems related to design optimization as well as mesh adaptation.

10. A new algorithm for high-dimensional uncertainty quantification based on dimension-adaptive sparse grid approximation and reduced basis methods

Chen, Peng; Quarteroni, Alfio

2015-10-01

In this work we develop an adaptive and reduced computational algorithm based on dimension-adaptive sparse grid approximation and reduced basis methods for solving high-dimensional uncertainty quantification (UQ) problems. In order to tackle the computational challenge of "curse of dimensionality" commonly faced by these problems, we employ a dimension-adaptive tensor-product algorithm [16] and propose a verified version to enable effective removal of the stagnation phenomenon besides automatically detecting the importance and interaction of different dimensions. To reduce the heavy computational cost of UQ problems modelled by partial differential equations (PDE), we adopt a weighted reduced basis method [7] and develop an adaptive greedy algorithm in combination with the previous verified algorithm for efficient construction of an accurate reduced basis approximation. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated by several numerical experiments.

11. Parallel Domain Connectivity Algorithm for Unsteady Flow Computations using Overlapping and Adaptive Grids

DTIC Science & Technology

2010-01-01

ARC3DC code employs third-order temporal discretizations using a multi-stage Runge – Kutta time-stepping framework and is capable of up to fifth-order...lean cache-friendly data structure and flow solution procedures for isotropic Carte- sian grids and (2) explicit time stepping (using 3-stage Runge ...fringes and holes (termed hole-cutting) can be done in one of two ways, explicitly or implicitly. Explicit hole cutting means the hole boundaries are

12. Structured adaptive grid generation using algebraic methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yang, Jiann-Cherng; Soni, Bharat K.; Roger, R. P.; Chan, Stephen C.

1993-01-01

The accuracy of the numerical algorithm depends not only on the formal order of approximation but also on the distribution of grid points in the computational domain. Grid adaptation is a procedure which allows optimal grid redistribution as the solution progresses. It offers the prospect of accurate flow field simulations without the use of an excessively timely, computationally expensive, grid. Grid adaptive schemes are divided into two basic categories: differential and algebraic. The differential method is based on a variational approach where a function which contains a measure of grid smoothness, orthogonality and volume variation is minimized by using a variational principle. This approach provided a solid mathematical basis for the adaptive method, but the Euler-Lagrange equations must be solved in addition to the original governing equations. On the other hand, the algebraic method requires much less computational effort, but the grid may not be smooth. The algebraic techniques are based on devising an algorithm where the grid movement is governed by estimates of the local error in the numerical solution. This is achieved by requiring the points in the large error regions to attract other points and points in the low error region to repel other points. The development of a fast, efficient, and robust algebraic adaptive algorithm for structured flow simulation applications is presented. This development is accomplished in a three step process. The first step is to define an adaptive weighting mesh (distribution mesh) on the basis of the equidistribution law applied to the flow field solution. The second, and probably the most crucial step, is to redistribute grid points in the computational domain according to the aforementioned weighting mesh. The third and the last step is to reevaluate the flow property by an appropriate search/interpolate scheme at the new grid locations. The adaptive weighting mesh provides the information on the desired concentration

13. Transonic airfoil calculations using solution-adaptive grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holst, T. L.; Brown, D.

1981-01-01

A new algorithm for generating solution-adaptive grids (SAG) about airfoil configurations embedded in transonic flow is presented. The present SAG approach uses only the airfoil surface solution to recluster grid points on the airfoil surface, i.e., the reclustering problem is one dimension smaller than the flow-field calculation problem. Special controls automatically built into the elliptic grid generation procedure are then used to obtain grids with suitable interior behavior. This concept of redistributing grid points greatly simplifies the idea of solution-adaptive grids. Numerical results indicate significant improvements in accuracy for SAG grids relative to standard grids using the same number of points.

14. LAPS Grid generation and adaptation

Pagliantini, Cecilia; Delzanno, Gia Luca; Guo, Zehua; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xianzhu; Chacon, Luis

2011-10-01

LAPS uses a common-data framework in which a general purpose grid generation and adaptation package in toroidal and simply connected domains is implemented. The initial focus is on implementing the Winslow/Laplace-Beltrami method for generating non-overlapping block structured grids. This is to be followed by a grid adaptation scheme based on Monge-Kantorovich optimal transport method [Delzanno et al., J. Comput. Phys,227 (2008), 9841-9864], that equidistributes application-specified error. As an initial set of applications, we will lay out grids for an axisymmetric mirror, a field reversed configuration, and an entire poloidal cross section of a tokamak plasma reconstructed from a CMOD experimental shot. These grids will then be used for computing the plasma equilibrium and transport in accompanying presentations. A key issue for Monge-Kantorovich grid optimization is the choice of error or monitor function for equi-distribution. We will compare the Operator Recovery Error Source Detector (ORESD) [Lapenta, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng,59 (2004) 2065-2087], the Tau method and a strategy based on the grid coarsening [Zhang et al., AIAA J,39 (2001) 1706-1715] to find an ``optimal'' grid. Work supported by DOE OFES.

15. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-Fitted Grid Systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

1995-01-01

To be truly compatible with structured grids, an AMR algorithm should employ a block structure for the refined grids to allow flow solvers to take advantage of the strengths of unstructured grid systems, such as efficient solution algorithms for implicit discretizations and multigrid schemes. One such algorithm, the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella, has been applied to and adapted for use with body-fitted structured grid systems. Results are presented for a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil (AGARD-03 test case) and a reflection of a shock over a double wedge.

16. Anisotropic grid adaptation in LES

2016-11-01

The modeling errors depend directly on the grid (or filter) spacing in turbulence-resolving simulations (LES, DNS, DES, etc), and are typically at least as significant as the numerical errors. This makes adaptive grid-refinement complicated, since it prevents the estimation of the local error sources through numerical analysis. The present work attempts to address this difficulty with a physics-based error-source indicator that accounts for the anisotropy in the smallest resolved scales, which can thus be used to drive an anisotropic grid-adaptation process. The proposed error indicator is assessed on a sequence of problems, including turbulent channel flow and flows in more complex geometries. The formulation is geometrically general and applicable to complex geometries.

17. Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

2016-01-01

A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.

18. Conservative treatment of boundary interfaces for overlaid grids and multi-level grid adaptations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moon, Young J.; Liou, Meng-Sing

1989-01-01

Conservative algorithms for boundary interfaces of overlaid grids are presented. The basic method is zeroth order, and is extended to a higher order method using interpolation and subcell decomposition. The present method, strictly based on a conservative constraint, is tested with overlaid grids for various applications of unsteady and steady supersonic inviscid flows with strong shock waves. The algorithm is also applied to a multi-level grid adaptation in which the next level finer grid is overlaid on the coarse base grid with an arbitrary orientation.

19. Automatic adaptive grid refinement for the Euler equations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Berger, M. J.; Jameson, A.

1983-01-01

A method of adaptive grid refinement for the solution of the steady Euler equations for transonic flow is presented. Algorithm automatically decides where the coarse grid accuracy is insufficient, and creates locally uniform refined grids in these regions. This typically occurs at the leading and trailing edges. The solution is then integrated to steady state using the same integrator (FLO52) in the interior of each grid. The boundary conditions needed on the fine grids are examined and the importance of treating the fine/coarse grid inerface conservatively is discussed. Numerical results are presented.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Luong, Phu Vinh; Thompson, J. F.; Gatlin, B.; Mastin, C. W.; Kim, H. J.

1992-01-01

In the effort described here, the elliptic grid generation procedure in the EAGLE grid code was separated from the main code into a subroutine, and a new subroutine which evaluates several grid quality measures at each grid point was added. The elliptic grid routine can now be called, either by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to generate a new adaptive grid based on flow variables and quality measures through multiple adaptation, or by the EAGLE main code to generate a grid based on quality measure variables through static adaptation. Arrays of flow variables can be read into the EAGLE grid code for use in static adaptation as well. These major changes in the EAGLE adaptive grid system make it easier to convert any CFD code that operates on a block-structured grid (or single-block grid) into a multiple adaptive code.

1. Elliptic Solvers for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Grids

SciTech Connect

Quinlan, D.J.; Dendy, J.E., Jr.; Shapira, Y.

1999-06-03

We are developing multigrid methods that will efficiently solve elliptic problems with anisotropic and discontinuous coefficients on adaptive grids. The final product will be a library that provides for the simplified solution of such problems. This library will directly benefit the efforts of other Laboratory groups. The focus of this work is research on serial and parallel elliptic algorithms and the inclusion of our black-box multigrid techniques into this new setting. The approach applies the Los Alamos object-oriented class libraries that greatly simplify the development of serial and parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications. In the final year of this LDRD, we focused on putting the software together; in particular we completed the final AMR++ library, we wrote tutorials and manuals, and we built example applications. We implemented the Fast Adaptive Composite Grid method as the principal elliptic solver. We presented results at the Overset Grid Conference and other more AMR specific conferences. We worked on optimization of serial and parallel performance and published several papers on the details of this work. Performance remains an important issue and is the subject of continuing research work.

2. Interactive solution-adaptive grid generation procedure

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Henderson, Todd L.; Choo, Yung K.; Lee, Ki D.

1992-01-01

TURBO-AD is an interactive solution adaptive grid generation program under development. The program combines an interactive algebraic grid generation technique and a solution adaptive grid generation technique into a single interactive package. The control point form uses a sparse collection of control points to algebraically generate a field grid. This technique provides local grid control capability and is well suited to interactive work due to its speed and efficiency. A mapping from the physical domain to a parametric domain was used to improve difficulties encountered near outwardly concave boundaries in the control point technique. Therefore, all grid modifications are performed on the unit square in the parametric domain, and the new adapted grid is then mapped back to the physical domain. The grid adaption is achieved by adapting the control points to a numerical solution in the parametric domain using control sources obtained from the flow properties. Then a new modified grid is generated from the adapted control net. This process is efficient because the number of control points is much less than the number of grid points and the generation of the grid is an efficient algebraic process. TURBO-AD provides the user with both local and global controls.

3. An Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method by Grid Subdivision, Local Remeshing, and Grid Movement

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1999-01-01

An unstructured grid adaptation technique has been developed and successfully applied to several three dimensional inviscid flow test cases. The approach is based on a combination of grid subdivision, local remeshing, and grid movement. For solution adaptive grids, the surface triangulation is locally refined by grid subdivision, and the tetrahedral grid in the field is partially remeshed at locations of dominant flow features. A grid redistribution strategy is employed for geometric adaptation of volume grids to moving or deforming surfaces. The method is automatic and fast and is designed for modular coupling with different solvers. Several steady state test cases with different inviscid flow features were tested for grid/solution adaptation. In all cases, the dominant flow features, such as shocks and vortices, were accurately and efficiently predicted with the present approach. A new and robust method of moving tetrahedral "viscous" grids is also presented and demonstrated on a three-dimensional example.

4. A generic efficient adaptive grid scheme for rocket propulsion modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mo, J. D.; Chow, Alan S.

1993-01-01

The objective of this research is to develop an efficient, time-accurate numerical algorithm to discretize the Navier-Stokes equations for the predictions of internal one-, two-dimensional and axisymmetric flows. A generic, efficient, elliptic adaptive grid generator is implicitly coupled with the Lower-Upper factorization scheme in the development of ALUNS computer code. The calculations of one-dimensional shock tube wave propagation and two-dimensional shock wave capture, wave-wave interactions, shock wave-boundary interactions show that the developed scheme is stable, accurate and extremely robust. The adaptive grid generator produced a very favorable grid network by a grid speed technique. This generic adaptive grid generator is also applied in the PARC and FDNS codes and the computational results for solid rocket nozzle flowfield and crystal growth modeling by those codes will be presented in the conference, too. This research work is being supported by NASA/MSFC.

5. The fundamentals of adaptive grid movement

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eiseman, Peter R.

1990-01-01

Basic grid point movement schemes are studied. The schemes are referred to as adaptive grids. Weight functions and equidistribution in one dimension are treated. The specification of coefficients in the linear weight, attraction to a given grid or a curve, and evolutionary forces are considered. Curve by curve and finite volume methods are described. The temporal coupling of partial differential equations solvers and grid generators was discussed.

6. Parallel algorithms for dynamically partitioning unstructured grids

SciTech Connect

Diniz, P.; Plimpton, S.; Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

1994-10-01

Grid partitioning is the method of choice for decomposing a wide variety of computational problems into naturally parallel pieces. In problems where computational load on the grid or the grid itself changes as the simulation progresses, the ability to repartition dynamically and in parallel is attractive for achieving higher performance. We describe three algorithms suitable for parallel dynamic load-balancing which attempt to partition unstructured grids so that computational load is balanced and communication is minimized. The execution time of algorithms and the quality of the partitions they generate are compared to results from serial partitioners for two large grids. The integration of the algorithms into a parallel particle simulation is also briefly discussed.

7. SAGE: The Self-Adaptive Grid Code. 3

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

1999-01-01

The multi-dimensional self-adaptive grid code, SAGE, is an important tool in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It provides an efficient method to improve the accuracy of flow solutions while simultaneously reducing computer processing time. Briefly, SAGE enhances an initial computational grid by redistributing the mesh points into more appropriate locations. The movement of these points is driven by an equal-error-distribution algorithm that utilizes the relationship between high flow gradients and excessive solution errors. The method also provides a balance between clustering points in the high gradient regions and maintaining the smoothness and continuity of the adapted grid, The latest version, Version 3, includes the ability to change the boundaries of a given grid to more efficiently enclose flow structures and provides alternative redistribution algorithms.

Xu, Songcen; de Lamare, Rodrigo C.; Poor, H. Vincent

2015-12-01

This paper presents adaptive link selection algorithms for distributed estimation and considers their application to wireless sensor networks and smart grids. In particular, exhaustive search-based least mean squares (LMS) / recursive least squares (RLS) link selection algorithms and sparsity-inspired LMS / RLS link selection algorithms that can exploit the topology of networks with poor-quality links are considered. The proposed link selection algorithms are then analyzed in terms of their stability, steady-state, and tracking performance and computational complexity. In comparison with the existing centralized or distributed estimation strategies, the key features of the proposed algorithms are as follows: (1) more accurate estimates and faster convergence speed can be obtained and (2) the network is equipped with the ability of link selection that can circumvent link failures and improve the estimation performance. The performance of the proposed algorithms for distributed estimation is illustrated via simulations in applications of wireless sensor networks and smart grids.

Moreno, Jaime A.; Negrete, Daniel Y.; Torres-González, Victor; Fridman, Leonid

2016-09-01

In this paper, an adaptive continuous twisting algorithm (ACTA) is presented. For double integrator, ACTA produces a continuous control signal ensuring finite time convergence of the states to zero. Moreover, the control signal generated by ACTA compensates the Lipschitz perturbation in finite time, i.e. its value converges to the opposite value of the perturbation. ACTA also keeps its convergence properties, even in the case that the upper bound of the derivative of the perturbation exists, but it is unknown.

10. Grid adaption using Chimera composite overlapping meshes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

1993-01-01

The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite over-lapping meshes in regions of large gradient to capture the salient features accurately during computation. The Chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using tri-linear interpolation. Applications to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to a shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well resolved.

11. Grid adaptation using chimera composite overlapping meshes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

1994-01-01

The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite overlapping meshes in regions of large gradient to accurately capture the salient features during computation. The chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using trilinear interpolation. Application to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well-resolved.

12. Grid adaptation using Chimera composite overlapping meshes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

1993-01-01

The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite over-lapping meshes in regions of large gradient to capture the salient features accurately during computation. The Chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using tri-linear interpolation. Applications to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to a shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well resolved.

13. Three-dimensional adaptive grid-embedding Euler technique

Davis, Roger L.; Dannenhoffer, John F., III

1994-06-01

A new three-dimensional adaptive-grid Euler procedure is presented that automatically detects high-gradient regions in the flow and locally subdivides the computational grid in these regions to provide a uniform, high level of accuracy over the entire domain. A tunable, semistructured data system is utilized that provides global topological unstructured-grid flexibility along with the efficiency of a local, structured-grid system. In addition, this structure data allows for the flow solution algorithm to be executed on a wide variety of parallel/vector computing platforms. An explicit, time-marching, control volume procedure is used to integrate the Euler equations to a steady state. In addition, a multiple-grid procedure is used throughout the embedded-grid regions as well as on subgrids coarser than the initial grid to accelerate convergence and properly propagate disturbance waves through refined-grid regions. Upon convergence, high flow gradient regions, where it is assumed that large truncation errors in the solution exist, are detected using a combination of directional refinement vectors that have large components in areas of these gradients. The local computational grid is directionally subdivided in these regions and the flow solution is reinitiated. Overall convergence occurs when a prespecified level of accuracy is reached. Solutions are presented that demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the present procedure.

14. SAGE - MULTIDIMENSIONAL SELF-ADAPTIVE GRID CODE

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davies, C. B.

1994-01-01

15. Adaptive refinement tools for tetrahedral unstructured grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pao, S. Paul (Inventor); Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

An exemplary embodiment providing one or more improvements includes software which is robust, efficient, and has a very fast run time for user directed grid enrichment and flow solution adaptive grid refinement. All user selectable options (e.g., the choice of functions, the choice of thresholds, etc.), other than a pre-marked cell list, can be entered on the command line. The ease of application is an asset for flow physics research and preliminary design CFD analysis where fast grid modification is often needed to deal with unanticipated development of flow details.

16. Adaptive 3D single-block grids for the computation of viscous flows around wings

SciTech Connect

Hagmeijer, R.; Kok, J.C.

1996-12-31

A robust algorithm for the adaption of a 3D single-block structured grid suitable for the computation of viscous flows around a wing is presented and demonstrated by application to the ONERA M6 wing. The effects of grid adaption on the flow solution and accuracy improvements is analyzed. Reynolds number variations are studied.

17. Hierarchy-Direction Selective Approach for Locally Adaptive Sparse Grids

SciTech Connect

Stoyanov, Miroslav K

2013-09-01

We consider the problem of multidimensional adaptive hierarchical interpolation. We use sparse grids points and functions that are induced from a one dimensional hierarchical rule via tensor products. The classical locally adaptive sparse grid algorithm uses an isotropic refinement from the coarser to the denser levels of the hierarchy. However, the multidimensional hierarchy provides a more complex structure that allows for various anisotropic and hierarchy selective refinement techniques. We consider the more advanced refinement techniques and apply them to a number of simple test functions chosen to demonstrate the various advantages and disadvantages of each method. While there is no refinement scheme that is optimal for all functions, the fully adaptive family-direction-selective technique is usually more stable and requires fewer samples.

18. Cartesian-cell based grid generation and adaptive mesh refinement

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coirier, William J.; Powell, Kenneth G.

1993-01-01

Viewgraphs on Cartesian-cell based grid generation and adaptive mesh refinement are presented. Topics covered include: grid generation; cell cutting; data structures; flow solver formulation; adaptive mesh refinement; and viscous flow.

19. A grid interfacing zonal algorithm for three-dimensional transonic flows about aircraft configurations

An efficient grid interfacing zonal algorithm has been developed for computing the transonic flow field about three-dimensional multicomponent configurations. The algorithm uses the full-potential formulation and the fully-implicit approximate factorization scheme (AF2). The flow field solution is computed using a component adaptive grid approach in which separate grids are employed for the individual components in the multicomponent configuration, where each component grid is optimized for a particular geometry. The component grids are allowed to overlap, and flow field information is transmitted from one grid to another through the overlap region. An overlapped-grid scheme is implemented for a wing and a wing/pylon/nacelle configuration. Numerical results show that the present algorithm is stable, accurate, and can be used effectively to compute the flow field about complex configurations.

20. Error sensitivity to refinement: a criterion for optimal grid adaptation

Luchini, Paolo; Giannnetti, Flavio; Citro, Vincenzo

2016-11-01

Most indicators used for automatic grid refinement are suboptimal, in the sense that they do not really minimize the global solution error. This paper concerns with a new indicator, related to the sensitivity map of global stability problems, suitable for an optimal grid refinement that minimizes the global solution error. The new criterion is derived from the properties of the adjoint operator and provides a map of the sensitivity of the global error (or its estimate) to a local mesh refinement. Examples are presented for both a scalar partial differential equation and for the system of Navier-Stokes equations. In the last case, we also present a grid-adaptation algorithm based on the new estimator and on the FreeFem++ software that improves the accuracy of the solution of almost two order of magnitude by redistributing the nodes of the initial computational mesh.

1. Self-Avoiding Walks over Adaptive Triangular Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heber, Gerd; Biswas, Rupak; Gao, Guang R.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

In this paper, we present a new approach to constructing a "self-avoiding" walk through a triangular mesh. Unlike the popular approach of visiting mesh elements using space-filling curves which is based on a geometric embedding, our approach is combinatorial in the sense that it uses the mesh connectivity only. We present an algorithm for constructing a self-avoiding walk which can be applied to any unstructured triangular mesh. The complexity of the algorithm is O(n x log(n)), where n is the number of triangles in the mesh. We show that for hierarchical adaptive meshes, the algorithm can be easily parallelized by taking advantage of the regularity of the refinement rules. The proposed approach should be very useful in the run-time partitioning and load balancing of adaptive unstructured grids.

2. Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement Using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo

Garcia, Alejandro L.; Bell, John B.; Crutchfield, William Y.; Alder, Berni J.

1999-09-01

Adaptive mesh and algorithm refinement (AMAR) embeds a particle method within a continuum method at the finest level of an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) hierarchy. The coupling between the particle region and the overlaying continuum grid is algorithmically equivalent to that between the fine and coarse levels of AMR. Direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) is used as the particle algorithm embedded within a Godunov-type compressible Navier-Stokes solver. Several examples are presented and compared with purely continuum calculations.

3. Fast autodidactic adaptive equalization algorithms

Hilal, Katia

Autodidactic equalization by adaptive filtering is addressed in a mobile radio communication context. A general method, using an adaptive stochastic gradient Bussgang type algorithm, to deduce two low cost computation algorithms is given: one equivalent to the initial algorithm and the other having improved convergence properties thanks to a block criteria minimization. Two start algorithms are reworked: the Godard algorithm and the decision controlled algorithm. Using a normalization procedure, and block normalization, the performances are improved, and their common points are evaluated. These common points are used to propose an algorithm retaining the advantages of the two initial algorithms. This thus inherits the robustness of the Godard algorithm and the precision and phase correction of the decision control algorithm. The work is completed by a study of the stable states of Bussgang type algorithms and of the stability of the Godard algorithms, initial and normalized. The simulation of these algorithms, carried out in a mobile radio communications context, and under severe conditions on the propagation channel, gave a 75% reduction in the number of samples required for the processing in relation with the initial algorithms. The improvement of the residual error was of a much lower return. These performances are close to making possible the use of autodidactic equalization in the mobile radio system.

4. Solution adaptive grids applied to low Reynolds number flow

de With, G.; Holdø, A. E.; Huld, T. A.

2003-08-01

A numerical study has been undertaken to investigate the use of a solution adaptive grid for flow around a cylinder in the laminar flow regime. The main purpose of this work is twofold. The first aim is to investigate the suitability of a grid adaptation algorithm and the reduction in mesh size that can be obtained. Secondly, the uniform asymmetric flow structures are ideal to validate the mesh structures due to mesh refinement and consequently the selected refinement criteria. The refinement variable used in this work is a product of the rate of strain and the mesh cell size, and contains two variables Cm and Cstr which determine the order of each term. By altering the order of either one of these terms the refinement behaviour can be modified.

5. A parallel adaptive mesh refinement algorithm

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quirk, James J.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.

1993-01-01

Over recent years, Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) algorithms which dynamically match the local resolution of the computational grid to the numerical solution being sought have emerged as powerful tools for solving problems that contain disparate length and time scales. In particular, several workers have demonstrated the effectiveness of employing an adaptive, block-structured hierarchical grid system for simulations of complex shock wave phenomena. Unfortunately, from the parallel algorithm developer's viewpoint, this class of scheme is quite involved; these schemes cannot be distilled down to a small kernel upon which various parallelizing strategies may be tested. However, because of their block-structured nature such schemes are inherently parallel, so all is not lost. In this paper we describe the method by which Quirk's AMR algorithm has been parallelized. This method is built upon just a few simple message passing routines and so it may be implemented across a broad class of MIMD machines. Moreover, the method of parallelization is such that the original serial code is left virtually intact, and so we are left with just a single product to support. The importance of this fact should not be underestimated given the size and complexity of the original algorithm.

6. Parallel architectures for iterative methods on adaptive, block structured grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gannon, D.; Vanrosendale, J.

1983-01-01

A parallel computer architecture well suited to the solution of partial differential equations in complicated geometries is proposed. Algorithms for partial differential equations contain a great deal of parallelism. But this parallelism can be difficult to exploit, particularly on complex problems. One approach to extraction of this parallelism is the use of special purpose architectures tuned to a given problem class. The architecture proposed here is tuned to boundary value problems on complex domains. An adaptive elliptic algorithm which maps effectively onto the proposed architecture is considered in detail. Two levels of parallelism are exploited by the proposed architecture. First, by making use of the freedom one has in grid generation, one can construct grids which are locally regular, permitting a one to one mapping of grids to systolic style processor arrays, at least over small regions. All local parallelism can be extracted by this approach. Second, though there may be a regular global structure to the grids constructed, there will be parallelism at this level. One approach to finding and exploiting this parallelism is to use an architecture having a number of processor clusters connected by a switching network. The use of such a network creates a highly flexible architecture which automatically configures to the problem being solved.

7. Adaptive grid methods for RLV environment assessment and nozzle analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thornburg, Hugh J.

1996-01-01

Rapid access to highly accurate data about complex configurations is needed for multi-disciplinary optimization and design. In order to efficiently meet these requirements a closer coupling between the analysis algorithms and the discretization process is needed. In some cases, such as free surface, temporally varying geometries, and fluid structure interaction, the need is unavoidable. In other cases the need is to rapidly generate and modify high quality grids. Techniques such as unstructured and/or solution-adaptive methods can be used to speed the grid generation process and to automatically cluster mesh points in regions of interest. Global features of the flow can be significantly affected by isolated regions of inadequately resolved flow. These regions may not exhibit high gradients and can be difficult to detect. Thus excessive resolution in certain regions does not necessarily increase the accuracy of the overall solution. Several approaches have been employed for both structured and unstructured grid adaption. The most widely used involve grid point redistribution, local grid point enrichment/derefinement or local modification of the actual flow solver. However, the success of any one of these methods ultimately depends on the feature detection algorithm used to determine solution domain regions which require a fine mesh for their accurate representation. Typically, weight functions are constructed to mimic the local truncation error and may require substantial user input. Most problems of engineering interest involve multi-block grids and widely disparate length scales. Hence, it is desirable that the adaptive grid feature detection algorithm be developed to recognize flow structures of different type as well as differing intensity, and adequately address scaling and normalization across blocks. These weight functions can then be used to construct blending functions for algebraic redistribution, interpolation functions for unstructured grid generation

8. On Accuracy of Adaptive Grid Methods for Captured Shocks

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yamaleev, Nail K.; Carpenter, Mark H.

2002-01-01

The accuracy of two grid adaptation strategies, grid redistribution and local grid refinement, is examined by solving the 2-D Euler equations for the supersonic steady flow around a cylinder. Second- and fourth-order linear finite difference shock-capturing schemes, based on the Lax-Friedrichs flux splitting, are used to discretize the governing equations. The grid refinement study shows that for the second-order scheme, neither grid adaptation strategy improves the numerical solution accuracy compared to that calculated on a uniform grid with the same number of grid points. For the fourth-order scheme, the dominant first-order error component is reduced by the grid adaptation, while the design-order error component drastically increases because of the grid nonuniformity. As a result, both grid adaptation techniques improve the numerical solution accuracy only on the coarsest mesh or on very fine grids that are seldom found in practical applications because of the computational cost involved. Similar error behavior has been obtained for the pressure integral across the shock. A simple analysis shows that both grid adaptation strategies are not without penalties in the numerical solution accuracy. Based on these results, a new grid adaptation criterion for captured shocks is proposed.

9. Three-dimensional self-adaptive grid method for complex flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Djomehri, M. Jahed; Deiwert, George S.

1988-01-01

A self-adaptive grid procedure for efficient computation of three-dimensional complex flow fields is described. The method is based on variational principles to minimize the energy of a spring system analogy which redistributes the grid points. Grid control parameters are determined by specifying maximum and minimum grid spacing. Multidirectional adaptation is achieved by splitting the procedure into a sequence of successive applications of a unidirectional adaptation. One-sided, two-directional constraints for orthogonality and smoothness are used to enhance the efficiency of the method. Feasibility of the scheme is demonstrated by application to a multinozzle, afterbody, plume flow field. Application of the algorithm for initial grid generation is illustrated by constructing a three-dimensional grid about a bump-like geometry.

10. A chimera grid scheme. [multiple overset body-conforming mesh system for finite difference adaptation to complex aircraft configurations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steger, J. L.; Dougherty, F. C.; Benek, J. A.

1983-01-01

A mesh system composed of multiple overset body-conforming grids is described for adapting finite-difference procedures to complex aircraft configurations. In this so-called 'chimera mesh,' a major grid is generated about a main component of the configuration and overset minor grids are used to resolve all other features. Methods for connecting overset multiple grids and modifications of flow-simulation algorithms are discussed. Computational tests in two dimensions indicate that the use of multiple overset grids can simplify the task of grid generation without an adverse effect on flow-field algorithms and computer code complexity.

11. Techniques for grid manipulation and adaptation. [computational fluid dynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Choo, Yung K.; Eisemann, Peter R.; Lee, Ki D.

1992-01-01

Two approaches have been taken to provide systematic grid manipulation for improved grid quality. One is the control point form (CPF) of algebraic grid generation. It provides explicit control of the physical grid shape and grid spacing through the movement of the control points. It works well in the interactive computer graphics environment and hence can be a good candidate for integration with other emerging technologies. The other approach is grid adaptation using a numerical mapping between the physical space and a parametric space. Grid adaptation is achieved by modifying the mapping functions through the effects of grid control sources. The adaptation process can be repeated in a cyclic manner if satisfactory results are not achieved after a single application.

12. Adaptive protection algorithm and system

DOEpatents

Hedrick, Paul [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M [Mars, PA

2009-04-28

An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.

13. Comparing Anisotropic Output-Based Grid Adaptation Methods by Decomposition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Park, Michael A.; Loseille, Adrien; Krakos, Joshua A.; Michal, Todd

2015-01-01

Anisotropic grid adaptation is examined by decomposing the steps of flow solution, ad- joint solution, error estimation, metric construction, and simplex grid adaptation. Multiple implementations of each of these steps are evaluated by comparison to each other and expected analytic results when available. For example, grids are adapted to analytic metric fields and grid measures are computed to illustrate the properties of multiple independent implementations of grid adaptation mechanics. Different implementations of each step in the adaptation process can be evaluated in a system where the other components of the adaptive cycle are fixed. Detailed examination of these properties allows comparison of different methods to identify the current state of the art and where further development should be targeted.

14. Adaptively-refined overlapping grids for the numerical solution of systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brislawn, Kristi D.; Brown, David L.; Chesshire, Geoffrey S.; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

1995-01-01

Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in conjunction with higher-order upwind finite-difference methods have been used effectively on a variety of problems in two and three dimensions. In this paper we introduce an approach for resolving problems that involve complex geometries in which resolution of boundary geometry is important. The complex geometry is represented by using the method of overlapping grids, while local resolution is obtained by refining each component grid with the AMR algorithm, appropriately generalized for this situation. The CMPGRD algorithm introduced by Chesshire and Henshaw is used to automatically generate the overlapping grid structure for the underlying mesh.

15. A multigrid method for steady Euler equations on unstructured adaptive grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Riemslagh, Kris; Dick, Erik

1993-01-01

A flux-difference splitting type algorithm is formulated for the steady Euler equations on unstructured grids. The polynomial flux-difference splitting technique is used. A vertex-centered finite volume method is employed on a triangular mesh. The multigrid method is in defect-correction form. A relaxation procedure with a first order accurate inner iteration and a second-order correction performed only on the finest grid, is used. A multi-stage Jacobi relaxation method is employed as a smoother. Since the grid is unstructured a Jacobi type is chosen. The multi-staging is necessary to provide sufficient smoothing properties. The domain is discretized using a Delaunay triangular mesh generator. Three grids with more or less uniform distribution of nodes but with different resolution are generated by successive refinement of the coarsest grid. Nodes of coarser grids appear in the finer grids. The multigrid method is started on these grids. As soon as the residual drops below a threshold value, an adaptive refinement is started. The solution on the adaptively refined grid is accelerated by a multigrid procedure. The coarser multigrid grids are generated by successive coarsening through point removement. The adaption cycle is repeated a few times. Results are given for the transonic flow over a NACA-0012 airfoil.

PubMed

Huang, Debin

2006-06-01

This paper is motivated by giving the detailed proofs and some interesting remarks on the results the author obtained in a series of papers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 214101 (2004); Phys. Rev. E 71, 037203 (2005); 69, 067201 (2004)], where an adaptive-feedback algorithm was proposed to effectively stabilize and synchronize chaotic systems. This note proves in detail the strictness of this algorithm from the viewpoint of mathematics, and gives some interesting remarks for its potential applications to chaos control & synchronization. In addition, a significant comment on synchronization-based parameter estimation is given, which shows some techniques proposed in literature less strict and ineffective in some cases.

17. Moving and adaptive grid methods for compressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trepanier, Jean-Yves; Camarero, Ricardo

1995-01-01

This paper describes adaptive grid methods developed specifically for compressible flow computations. The basic flow solver is a finite-volume implementation of Roe's flux difference splitting scheme or arbitrarily moving unstructured triangular meshes. The grid adaptation is performed according to geometric and flow requirements. Some results are included to illustrate the potential of the methodology.

18. Cosmos++: Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics on Unstructured Grids with Local Adaptive Refinement

SciTech Connect

Anninos, P; Fragile, P C; Salmonson, J D

2005-05-06

A new code and methodology are introduced for solving the fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) equations using time-explicit, finite-volume discretization. The code has options for solving the GRMHD equations using traditional artificial-viscosity (AV) or non-oscillatory central difference (NOCD) methods, or a new extended AV (eAV) scheme using artificial-viscosity together with a dual energy-flux-conserving formulation. The dual energy approach allows for accurate modeling of highly relativistic flows at boost factors well beyond what has been achieved to date by standard artificial viscosity methods. it provides the benefit of Godunov methods in capturing high Lorentz boosted flows but without complicated Riemann solvers, and the advantages of traditional artificial viscosity methods in their speed and flexibility. Additionally, the GRMHD equations are solved on an unstructured grid that supports local adaptive mesh refinement using a fully threated oct-tree (in three dimensions) network to traverse the grid hierarchy across levels and immediate neighbors. A number of tests are presented to demonstrate robustness of the numerical algorithms and adaptive mesh framework over a wide spectrum of problems, boosts, and astrophysical applications, including relativistic shock tubes, shock collisions, magnetosonic shocks, Alfven wave propagation, blast waves, magnetized Bondi flow, and the magneto-rotational instability in Kerr black hole spacetimes.

19. A 3D finite-volume scheme for the Euler equations on adaptive tetrahedral grids

SciTech Connect

Vijayan, P.; Kallinderis, Y. )

1994-08-01

The paper describes the development and application of a new Euler solver for adaptive tetrahedral grids. Spatial discretization uses a finite-volume, node-based scheme that is of central-differencing type. A second-order Taylor series expansion is employed to march the solution in time according to the Lax-Wendroff approach. Special upwind-like smoothing operators for unstructured grids are developed for shock-capturing, as well as for suppression of solution oscillations. The scheme is formulated so that all operations are edge-based, which reduces the computational effort significantly. An adaptive grid algorithm is employed in order to resolve local flow features. This is achieved by dividing the tetrahedral cells locally, guided by a flow feature detection algorithm. Application cases include transonic flow around the ONERA M6 wing and transonic flow past a transport aircraft configuration. Comparisons with experimental data evaluate accuracy of the developed adaptive solver. 31 refs., 33 figs.

20. Adaptive Numerical Algorithms in Space Weather Modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Toth, Gabor; vanderHolst, Bart; Sokolov, Igor V.; DeZeeuw, Darren; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Fang, Fang; Manchester, Ward B.; Meng, Xing; Nakib, Dalal; Powell, Kenneth G.; Stout, Quentin F.; Glocer, Alex; Ma, Ying-Juan; Opher, Merav

2010-01-01

Space weather describes the various processes in the Sun-Earth system that present danger to human health and technology. The goal of space weather forecasting is to provide an opportunity to mitigate these negative effects. Physics-based space weather modeling is characterized by disparate temporal and spatial scales as well as by different physics in different domains. A multi-physics system can be modeled by a software framework comprising of several components. Each component corresponds to a physics domain, and each component is represented by one or more numerical models. The publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) can execute and couple together several components distributed over a parallel machine in a flexible and efficient manner. The framework also allows resolving disparate spatial and temporal scales with independent spatial and temporal discretizations in the various models. Several of the computationally most expensive domains of the framework are modeled by the Block-Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code that can solve various forms of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, including Hall, semi-relativistic, multi-species and multi-fluid MHD, anisotropic pressure, radiative transport and heat conduction. Modeling disparate scales within BATS-R-US is achieved by a block-adaptive mesh both in Cartesian and generalized coordinates. Most recently we have created a new core for BATS-R-US: the Block-Adaptive Tree Library (BATL) that provides a general toolkit for creating, load balancing and message passing in a 1, 2 or 3 dimensional block-adaptive grid. We describe the algorithms of BATL and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling properties for various problems. BATS-R-US uses several time-integration schemes to address multiple time-scales: explicit time stepping with fixed or local time steps, partially steady-state evolution, point-implicit, semi-implicit, explicit/implicit, and fully implicit numerical

1. Adaptive numerical algorithms in space weather modeling

Tóth, Gábor; van der Holst, Bart; Sokolov, Igor V.; De Zeeuw, Darren L.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Fang, Fang; Manchester, Ward B.; Meng, Xing; Najib, Dalal; Powell, Kenneth G.; Stout, Quentin F.; Glocer, Alex; Ma, Ying-Juan; Opher, Merav

2012-02-01

Space weather describes the various processes in the Sun-Earth system that present danger to human health and technology. The goal of space weather forecasting is to provide an opportunity to mitigate these negative effects. Physics-based space weather modeling is characterized by disparate temporal and spatial scales as well as by different relevant physics in different domains. A multi-physics system can be modeled by a software framework comprising several components. Each component corresponds to a physics domain, and each component is represented by one or more numerical models. The publicly available Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) can execute and couple together several components distributed over a parallel machine in a flexible and efficient manner. The framework also allows resolving disparate spatial and temporal scales with independent spatial and temporal discretizations in the various models. Several of the computationally most expensive domains of the framework are modeled by the Block-Adaptive Tree Solarwind Roe-type Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) code that can solve various forms of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, including Hall, semi-relativistic, multi-species and multi-fluid MHD, anisotropic pressure, radiative transport and heat conduction. Modeling disparate scales within BATS-R-US is achieved by a block-adaptive mesh both in Cartesian and generalized coordinates. Most recently we have created a new core for BATS-R-US: the Block-Adaptive Tree Library (BATL) that provides a general toolkit for creating, load balancing and message passing in a 1, 2 or 3 dimensional block-adaptive grid. We describe the algorithms of BATL and demonstrate its efficiency and scaling properties for various problems. BATS-R-US uses several time-integration schemes to address multiple time-scales: explicit time stepping with fixed or local time steps, partially steady-state evolution, point-implicit, semi-implicit, explicit/implicit, and fully implicit

2. Extending the MODPATH Algorithm to Rectangular Unstructured Grids.

PubMed

Pollock, David W

2016-01-01

The recent release of MODFLOW-USG, which allows model grids to have irregular, unstructured connections, requires a modification of the particle-tracking algorithm used by MODPATH. This paper describes a modification of the semi-analytical particle-tracking algorithm used by MODPATH that allows it to be extended to rectangular-based unstructured grids by dividing grid cells with multi-cell face connections into sub-cells. The new method will be incorporated in the next version of MODPATH which is currently under development.

3. Extending the MODPATH algorithm to rectangular unstructured grids

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pollock, David W.

2016-01-01

The recent release of MODFLOW-USG, which allows model grids to have irregular, unstructured connections, requires a modification of the particle-tracking algorithm used by MODPATH. This paper describes a modification of the semi-analytical particle-tracking algorithm used by MODPATH that allows it to be extended to rectangular-based unstructured grids by dividing grid cells with multi-cell face connections into sub-cells. The new method will be incorporated in the next version of MODPATH which is currently under development.

4. Workshop on adaptive grid methods for fusion plasmas

SciTech Connect

Wiley, J.C.

1995-07-01

The author describes a general `hp` finite element method with adaptive grids. The code was based on the work of Oden, et al. The term `hp` refers to the method of spatial refinement (h), in conjunction with the order of polynomials used as a part of the finite element discretization (p). This finite element code seems to handle well the different mesh grid sizes occuring between abuted grids with different resolutions.

5. New multigrid approach for three-dimensional unstructured, adaptive grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parthasarathy, Vijayan; Kallinderis, Y.

1994-01-01

A new multigrid method with adaptive unstructured grids is presented. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved on tetrahedral grids that are adaptively refined or coarsened locally. The multigrid method is employed to propagate the fine grid corrections more rapidly by redistributing the changes-in-time of the solution from the fine grid to the coarser grids to accelerate convergence. A new approach is employed that uses the parent cells of the fine grid cells in an adapted mesh to generate successively coaser levels of multigrid. This obviates the need for the generation of a sequence of independent, nonoverlapping grids as well as the relatively complicated operations that need to be performed to interpolate the solution and the residuals between the independent grids. The solver is an explicit, vertex-based, finite volume scheme that employs edge-based data structures and operations. Spatial discretization is of central-differencing type combined with a special upwind-like smoothing operators. Application cases include adaptive solutions obtained with multigrid acceleration for supersonic and subsonic flow over a bump in a channel, as well as transonic flow around the ONERA M6 wing. Two levels of multigrid resulted in reduction in the number of iterations by a factor of 5.

6. New multigrid approach for three-dimensional unstructured, adaptive grids

Parthasarathy, Vijayan; Kallinderis, Y.

1994-05-01

A new multigrid method with adaptive unstructured grids is presented. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved on tetrahedral grids that are adaptively refined or coarsened locally. The multigrid method is employed to propagate the fine grid corrections more rapidly by redistributing the changes-in-time of the solution from the fine grid to the coarser grids to accelerate convergence. A new approach is employed that uses the parent cells of the fine grid cells in an adapted mesh to generate successively coarser levels of multigrid. This obviates the need for the generation of a sequence of independent, nonoverlapping grids as well as the relatively complicated operations that need to be performed to interpolate the solution and the residuals between the independent grids. The solver is an explicit, vertex-based, finite volume scheme that employs edge-based data structures and operations. Spatial discretization is of central-differencing type combined with special upwind-like smoothing operators. Application cases include adaptive solutions obtained with multigrid acceleration for supersonic and subsonic flow over a bump in a channel, as well as transonic flow around the ONERA M6 wing. Two levels of multigrid resulted in reduction in the number of iterations by a factor of 5.

7. New multigrid approach for three-dimensional unstructured, adaptive grids

Parthasarathy, Vijayan; Kallinderis, Y.

1994-05-01

A new multigrid method with adaptive unstructured grids is presented. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved on tetrahedral grids that are adaptively refined or coarsened locally. The multigrid method is employed to propagate the fine grid corrections more rapidly by redistributing the changes-in-time of the solution from the fine grid to the coarser grids to accelerate convergence. A new approach is employed that uses the parent cells of the fine grid cells in an adapted mesh to generate successively coaser levels of multigrid. This obviates the need for the generation of a sequence of independent, nonoverlapping grids as well as the relatively complicated operations that need to be performed to interpolate the solution and the residuals between the independent grids. The solver is an explicit, vertex-based, finite volume scheme that employs edge-based data structures and operations. Spatial discretization is of central-differencing type combined with a special upwind-like smoothing operators. Application cases include adaptive solutions obtained with multigrid acceleration for supersonic and subsonic flow over a bump in a channel, as well as transonic flow around the ONERA M6 wing. Two levels of multigrid resulted in reduction in the number of iterations by a factor of 5.

8. Rapid Structured Volume Grid Smoothing and Adaption Technique

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alter, Stephen J.

2006-01-01

A rapid, structured volume grid smoothing and adaption technique, based on signal processing methods, was developed and applied to the Shuttle Orbiter at hypervelocity flight conditions in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation. Because of the fast pace of the investigation, computational aerothermodynamicists, applying hypersonic viscous flow solving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, refined and enhanced a grid for an undamaged baseline vehicle to assess a variety of damage scenarios. Of the many methods available to modify a structured grid, most are time-consuming and require significant user interaction. By casting the grid data into different coordinate systems, specifically two computational coordinates with arclength as the third coordinate, signal processing methods are used for filtering the data [Taubin, CG v/29 1995]. Using a reverse transformation, the processed data are used to smooth the Cartesian coordinates of the structured grids. By coupling the signal processing method with existing grid operations within the Volume Grid Manipulator tool, problems related to grid smoothing are solved efficiently and with minimal user interaction. Examples of these smoothing operations are illustrated for reductions in grid stretching and volume grid adaptation. In each of these examples, other techniques existed at the time of the Columbia accident, but the incorporation of signal processing techniques reduced the time to perform the corrections by nearly 60%. This reduction in time to perform the corrections therefore enabled the assessment of approximately twice the number of damage scenarios than previously possible during the allocated investigation time.

9. Rapid Structured Volume Grid Smoothing and Adaption Technique

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Alter, Stephen J.

2004-01-01

A rapid, structured volume grid smoothing and adaption technique, based on signal processing methods, was developed and applied to the Shuttle Orbiter at hypervelocity flight conditions in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation. Because of the fast pace of the investigation, computational aerothermodynamicists, applying hypersonic viscous flow solving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, refined and enhanced a grid for an undamaged baseline vehicle to assess a variety of damage scenarios. Of the many methods available to modify a structured grid, most are time-consuming and require significant user interaction. By casting the grid data into different coordinate systems, specifically two computational coordinates with arclength as the third coordinate, signal processing methods are used for filtering the data [Taubin, CG v/29 1995]. Using a reverse transformation, the processed data are used to smooth the Cartesian coordinates of the structured grids. By coupling the signal processing method with existing grid operations within the Volume Grid Manipulator tool, problems related to grid smoothing are solved efficiently and with minimal user interaction. Examples of these smoothing operations are illustrated for reduction in grid stretching and volume grid adaptation. In each of these examples, other techniques existed at the time of the Columbia accident, but the incorporation of signal processing techniques reduced the time to perform the corrections by nearly 60%. This reduction in time to perform the corrections therefore enabled the assessment of approximately twice the number of damage scenarios than previously possible during the allocated investigation time.

10. 3-D adaptive grid Navier-Stokes rocket plume calculations

Holcomb, J. Eric

1991-01-01

Three-dimensional adaptive-grid full Navier-Stokes calculations performed for the base region and plume of the Minuteman first stage and a simplified version of the Titan first stage are used to demonstrate the applicability of the Navier-Stokes flow solver, EAGLE adaptive grid generator, and k-epsilon turbulence model to rocket plume flowfields. The calculations include realistic exhaust gas thermodynamic properties, with frozen chemistry.

11. An Improved Ant Algorithm for Grid Task Scheduling Strategy

Wei, Laizhi; Zhang, Xiaobin; Li, Yun; Li, Yujie

Task scheduling is an important factor that directly influences the performance and efficiency of the system. Grid resources are usually distributed in different geographic locations, belonging to different organizations and resources' properties are vastly different, in order to complete efficiently, intelligently task scheduling, the choice of scheduling strategy is essential. This paper proposes an improved ant algorithm for grid task scheduling strategy, by introducing a new type pheromone and a new node redistribution selection rule. On the one hand, the algorithm can track performances of resources and tag it. On the other hand, add algorithm to deal with task scheduling unsuccessful situations that improve the algorithm's robustness and the successful probability of task allocation and reduce unnecessary overhead of system, shortening the total time to complete tasks. The data obtained from simulation experiment shows that use this algorithm to resolve schedule problem better than traditional ant algorithm.

12. An adaptive Cartesian grid generation method for Dirty geometry

Wang, Z. J.; Srinivasan, Kumar

2002-07-01

Traditional structured and unstructured grid generation methods need a water-tight boundary surface grid to start. Therefore, these methods are named boundary to interior (B2I) approaches. Although these methods have achieved great success in fluid flow simulations, the grid generation process can still be very time consuming if non-water-tight geometries are given. Significant user time can be taken to repair or clean a dirty geometry with cracks, overlaps or invalid manifolds before grid generation can take place. In this paper, we advocate a different approach in grid generation, namely the interior to boundary (I2B) approach. With an I2B approach, the computational grid is first generated inside the computational domain. Then this grid is intelligently connected to the boundary, and the boundary grid is a result of this connection. A significant advantage of the I2B approach is that dirty geometries can be handled without cleaning or repairing, dramatically reducing grid generation time. An I2B adaptive Cartesian grid generation method is developed in this paper to handle dirty geometries without geometry repair. Comparing with a B2I approach, the grid generation time with the I2B approach for a complex automotive engine can be reduced by three orders of magnitude. Copyright

PubMed

Khooban, Mohammad-Hassan; Niknam, Taher; Blaabjerg, Frede; Davari, Pooya; Dragicevic, Tomislav

2016-11-01

The goal of this study is to introduce a novel robust load frequency control (LFC) strategy for micro-grid(s) (MG(s)) in islanded mode operation. Admittedly, power generators in MG(s) cannot supply steady electric power output and sometimes cause unbalance between supply and demand. Battery energy storage system (BESS) is one of the effective solutions to these problems. Due to the high cost of the BESS, a new idea of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) is that a battery of Electric-Vehicle (EV) can be applied as a tantamount large-scale BESS in MG(s). As a result, a new robust control strategy for an islanded micro-grid (MG) is introduced that can consider electric vehicles׳ (EV(s)) effect. Moreover, in this paper, a new combination of the General Type II Fuzzy Logic Sets (GT2FLS) and the Modified Harmony Search Algorithm (MHSA) technique is applied for adaptive tuning of proportional-integral (PI) controller. Implementing General Type II Fuzzy Systems is computationally expensive. However, using a recently introduced α-plane representation, GT2FLS can be seen as a composition of several Interval Type II Fuzzy Logic Systems (IT2FLS) with a corresponding level of α for each. Real-data from an offshore wind farm in Sweden and solar radiation data in Aberdeen (United Kingdom) was used in order to examine the performance of the proposed novel controller. A comparison is made between the achieved results of Optimal Fuzzy-PI (OFPI) controller and those of Optimal Interval Type II Fuzzy-PI (IT2FPI) controller, which are of most recent advances in the area at hand. The Simulation results prove the successfulness and effectiveness of the proposed controller.

14. Efficient Dynamic Replication Algorithm Using Agent for Data Grid

PubMed Central

Vashisht, Priyanka; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Anju

2014-01-01

In data grids scientific and business applications produce huge volume of data which needs to be transferred among the distributed and heterogeneous nodes of data grids. Data replication provides a solution for managing data files efficiently in large grids. The data replication helps in enhancing the data availability which reduces the overall access time of the file. In this paper an algorithm, namely, EDRA using agents for data grid, has been proposed and implemented. EDRA consists of dynamic replication of hierarchical structure taken into account for the selection of best replica. Decision for selecting the best replica is based on scheduling parameters. The scheduling parameters are bandwidth, load gauge, and computing capacity of the node. The scheduling in data grid helps in reducing the data access time. The distribution of the load on the nodes of data grid is done evenly by considering scheduling parameters. EDRA is implemented using data grid simulator, namely, OptorSim. European Data Grid CMS test bed topology is used in this experiment. The simulation results are obtained by comparing BHR, LRU, No Replication, and EDRA. The result shows the efficiency of EDRA algorithm in terms of mean job execution time, network usage, and storage usage of node. PMID:25028680

15. Topology and grid adaption for high-speed flow computations

Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

1989-03-01

This study investigates the effects of grid topology and grid adaptation on numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. In the first part of this study, a general procedure is presented for computation of high-speed flow over complex three-dimensional configurations. The flow field is simulated on the surface of a Butler wing in a uniform stream. Results are presented for Mach number 3.5 and a Reynolds number of 2,000,000. The O-type and H-type grids have been used for this study, and the results are compared together and with other theoretical and experimental results. The results demonstrate that while the H-type grid is suitable for the leading and trailing edges, a more accurate solution can be obtained for the middle part of the wing with an O-type grid. In the second part of this study, methods of grid adaption are reviewed and a method is developed with the capability of adapting to several variables. This method is based on a variational approach and is an algebraic method. Also, the method has been formulated in such a way that there is no need for any matrix inversion. This method is used in conjunction with the calculation of hypersonic flow over a blunt-nose body. A movie has been produced which shows simultaneously the transient behavior of the solution and the grid adaption.

16. Topology and grid adaption for high-speed flow computations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

1989-01-01

This study investigates the effects of grid topology and grid adaptation on numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. In the first part of this study, a general procedure is presented for computation of high-speed flow over complex three-dimensional configurations. The flow field is simulated on the surface of a Butler wing in a uniform stream. Results are presented for Mach number 3.5 and a Reynolds number of 2,000,000. The O-type and H-type grids have been used for this study, and the results are compared together and with other theoretical and experimental results. The results demonstrate that while the H-type grid is suitable for the leading and trailing edges, a more accurate solution can be obtained for the middle part of the wing with an O-type grid. In the second part of this study, methods of grid adaption are reviewed and a method is developed with the capability of adapting to several variables. This method is based on a variational approach and is an algebraic method. Also, the method has been formulated in such a way that there is no need for any matrix inversion. This method is used in conjunction with the calculation of hypersonic flow over a blunt-nose body. A movie has been produced which shows simultaneously the transient behavior of the solution and the grid adaption.

17. Grid adaptation and remapping for arbitrary lagrangian eulerian (ALE) methods

SciTech Connect

Lapenta, G. M.

2002-01-01

Methods to include automatic grid adaptation tools within the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method are described. Two main developments will be described. First, a new grid adaptation approach is described, based on an automatic and accurate estimate of the local truncation error. Second, a new method to remap the information between two grids is presented, based on the MPDATA approach. The Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method solves hyperbolic equations by splitting the operators is two phases. First, in the Lagrangian phase, the equations under consideration are written in a Lagrangian frame and are discretized. In this phase, the grid moves with the solution, the velocity of each node being the local fluid velocity. Second, in the Eulerian phase, a new grid is generated and the information is transferred to the new grid. The advantage of considering this second step is the possibility of avoiding mesh distortion and tangling typical of pure Lagrangian methods. The second phase of the ALE method is the primary topic of the present communication. In the Eulerian phase two tasks need to be completed. First, a new grid need to be created (we will refer to this task as rezoning). Second, the information is transferred from the grid available at the end of the Lagrangian phase to the new grid (we will refer to this task as remapping). New techniques are presented for the two tasks of the Eulerian phase: rezoning and remapping.

18. Algorithms and data structures for adaptive multigrid elliptic solvers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vanrosendale, J.

1983-01-01

Adaptive refinement and the complicated data structures required to support it are discussed. These data structures must be carefully tuned, especially in three dimensions where the time and storage requirements of algorithms are crucial. Another major issue is grid generation. The options available seem to be curvilinear fitted grids, constructed on iterative graphics systems, and unfitted Cartesian grids, which can be constructed automatically. On several grounds, including storage requirements, the second option seems preferrable for the well behaved scalar elliptic problems considered here. A variety of techniques for treatment of boundary conditions on such grids are reviewed. A new approach, which may overcome some of the difficulties encountered with previous approaches, is also presented.

19. IIR algorithms for adaptive line enhancement

SciTech Connect

David, R.A.; Stearns, S.D.; Elliott, G.R.; Etter, D.M.

1983-01-01

We introduce a simple IIR structure for the adaptive line enhancer. Two algorithms based on gradient-search techniques are presented for adapting the structure. Results from experiments which utilized real data as well as computer simulations are provided.

20. Eddy-current NDE inverse problem with sparse grid algorithm

Zhou, Liming; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Murphy, R. Kim; Bernacchi, William; Aldrin, John C.; Forsyth, David; Lindgren, Eric

2016-02-01

In model-based inverse problems, the unknown parameters (such as length, width, depth) need to be estimated. When the unknown parameters are few, the conventional mathematical methods are suitable. But the increasing number of unknown parameters will make the computation become heavy. To reduce the burden of computation, the sparse grid algorithm was used in our work. As a result, we obtain a powerful interpolation method that requires significantly fewer support nodes than conventional interpolation on a full grid.

1. Parallel grid generation algorithm for distributed memory computers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moitra, Stuti; Moitra, Anutosh

1994-01-01

A parallel grid-generation algorithm and its implementation on the Intel iPSC/860 computer are described. The grid-generation scheme is based on an algebraic formulation of homotopic relations. Methods for utilizing the inherent parallelism of the grid-generation scheme are described, and implementation of multiple levELs of parallelism on multiple instruction multiple data machines are indicated. The algorithm is capable of providing near orthogonality and spacing control at solid boundaries while requiring minimal interprocessor communications. Results obtained on the Intel hypercube for a blended wing-body configuration are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. Fortran implementations bAsed on the native programming model of the iPSC/860 computer and the Express system of software tools are reported. Computational gains in execution time speed-up ratios are given.

2. Methods for prismatic/tetrahedral grid generation and adaptation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kallinderis, Y.

1995-01-01

The present work involves generation of hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is a method for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) type of aircraft geometry is considered. The generated hybrid grid required only 170 K tetrahedra instead of an estimated two million had a tetrahedral mesh been used in the prisms region as well. A solution adaptive scheme for viscous computations on hybrid grids is also presented. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples 3-D, isotropic division of tetrahedra and 2-D, directional division of prisms.

3. Efficient Unstructured Grid Adaptation Methods for Sonic Boom Prediction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Campbell, Richard L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Waithe, Kenrick A.

2008-01-01

This paper examines the use of two grid adaptation methods to improve the accuracy of the near-to-mid field pressure signature prediction of supersonic aircraft computed using the USM3D unstructured grid flow solver. The first method (ADV) is an interactive adaptation process that uses grid movement rather than enrichment to more accurately resolve the expansion and compression waves. The second method (SSGRID) uses an a priori adaptation approach to stretch and shear the original unstructured grid to align the grid with the pressure waves and reduce the cell count required to achieve an accurate signature prediction at a given distance from the vehicle. Both methods initially create negative volume cells that are repaired in a module in the ADV code. While both approaches provide significant improvements in the near field signature (< 3 body lengths) relative to a baseline grid without increasing the number of grid points, only the SSGRID approach allows the details of the signature to be accurately computed at mid-field distances (3-10 body lengths) for direct use with mid-field-to-ground boom propagation codes.

4. Methods for prismatic/tetrahedral grid generation and adaptation

Kallinderis, Y.

1995-10-01

The present work involves generation of hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is a method for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) type of aircraft geometry is considered. The generated hybrid grid required only 170 K tetrahedra instead of an estimated two million had a tetrahedral mesh been used in the prisms region as well. A solution adaptive scheme for viscous computations on hybrid grids is also presented. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples 3-D, isotropic division of tetrahedra and 2-D, directional division of prisms.

5. Fast Outlier Detection Using a Grid-Based Algorithm.

PubMed

Lee, Jihwan; Cho, Nam-Wook

2016-01-01

As one of data mining techniques, outlier detection aims to discover outlying observations that deviate substantially from the reminder of the data. Recently, the Local Outlier Factor (LOF) algorithm has been successfully applied to outlier detection. However, due to the computational complexity of the LOF algorithm, its application to large data with high dimension has been limited. The aim of this paper is to propose grid-based algorithm that reduces the computation time required by the LOF algorithm to determine the k-nearest neighbors. The algorithm divides the data spaces in to a smaller number of regions, called as a "grid", and calculates the LOF value of each grid. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed method, several experiments incorporating different parameters were conducted. The proposed method demonstrated a significant computation time reduction with predictable and acceptable trade-off errors. Then, the proposed methodology was successfully applied to real database transaction logs of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. As a result, we show that for a very large dataset, the grid-LOF can be considered as an acceptable approximation for the original LOF. Moreover, it can also be effectively used for real-time outlier detection.

6. Scheduling in Sensor Grid Middleware for Telemedicine Using ABC Algorithm.

PubMed

Vigneswari, T; Mohamed, M A Maluk

2014-01-01

Advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanotechnology have enabled design of low power wireless sensor nodes capable of sensing different vital signs in our body. These nodes can communicate with each other to aggregate data and transmit vital parameters to a base station (BS). The data collected in the base station can be used to monitor health in real time. The patient wearing sensors may be mobile leading to aggregation of data from different BS for processing. Processing real time data is compute-intensive and telemedicine facilities may not have appropriate hardware to process the real time data effectively. To overcome this, sensor grid has been proposed in literature wherein sensor data is integrated to the grid for processing. This work proposes a scheduling algorithm to efficiently process telemedicine data in the grid. The proposed algorithm uses the popular swarm intelligence algorithm for scheduling to overcome the NP complete problem of grid scheduling. Results compared with other heuristic scheduling algorithms show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

7. A structured multi-block solution-adaptive mesh algorithm with mesh quality assessment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ingram, Clint L.; Laflin, Kelly R.; Mcrae, D. Scott

1995-01-01

The dynamic solution adaptive grid algorithm, DSAGA3D, is extended to automatically adapt 2-D structured multi-block grids, including adaption of the block boundaries. The extension is general, requiring only input data concerning block structure, connectivity, and boundary conditions. Imbedded grid singular points are permitted, but must be prevented from moving in space. Solutions for workshop cases 1 and 2 are obtained on multi-block grids and illustrate both increased resolution of and alignment with the solution. A mesh quality assessment criteria is proposed to determine how well a given mesh resolves and aligns with the solution obtained upon it. The criteria is used to evaluate the grid quality for solutions of workshop case 6 obtained on both static and dynamically adapted grids. The results indicate that this criteria shows promise as a means of evaluating resolution.

8. ICASE/LaRC Workshop on Adaptive Grid Methods

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

South, Jerry C., Jr. (Editor); Thomas, James L. (Editor); Vanrosendale, John (Editor)

1995-01-01

Solution-adaptive grid techniques are essential to the attainment of practical, user friendly, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. In this three-day workshop, experts gathered together to describe state-of-the-art methods in solution-adaptive grid refinement, analysis, and implementation; to assess the current practice; and to discuss future needs and directions for research. This was accomplished through a series of invited and contributed papers. The workshop focused on a set of two-dimensional test cases designed by the organizers to aid in assessing the current state of development of adaptive grid technology. In addition, a panel of experts from universities, industry, and government research laboratories discussed their views of needs and future directions in this field.

Rosen, A. L.; Krumholz, M. R.; Oishi, J. S.; Lee, A. T.; Klein, R. I.

2017-02-01

We present a highly-parallel multi-frequency hybrid radiation hydrodynamics algorithm that combines a spatially-adaptive long characteristics method for the radiation field from point sources with a moment method that handles the diffuse radiation field produced by a volume-filling fluid. Our Hybrid Adaptive Ray-Moment Method (HARM2) operates on patch-based adaptive grids, is compatible with asynchronous time stepping, and works with any moment method. In comparison to previous long characteristics methods, we have greatly improved the parallel performance of the adaptive long-characteristics method by developing a new completely asynchronous and non-blocking communication algorithm. As a result of this improvement, our implementation achieves near-perfect scaling up to O (103) processors on distributed memory machines. We present a series of tests to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the method.

10. Improved LMS algorithm for adaptive beamforming

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Godara, Lal C.

1990-01-01

Two adaptive algorithms which make use of all the available samples to estimate the required gradient are proposed and studied. The first algorithm is referred to as the recursive LMS (least mean squares) and is applicable to a general array. The second algorithm is referred to as the improved LMS algorithm and exploits the Toeplitz structure of the ACM (array correlation matrix); it can be used only for an equispaced linear array.

11. A Grid Sourcing and Adaptation Study Using Unstructured Grids for Supersonic Boom Prediction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.

2008-01-01

NASA created the Supersonics Project as part of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program to advance technology that will make a supersonic flight over land viable. Computational flow solvers have lacked the ability to accurately predict sonic boom from the near to far field. The focus of this investigation was to establish gridding and adaptation techniques to predict near-to-mid-field (<10 body lengths below the aircraft) boom signatures at supersonic speeds using the USM3D unstructured grid flow solver. The study began by examining sources along the body the aircraft, far field sourcing and far field boundaries. The study then examined several techniques for grid adaptation. During the course of the study, volume sourcing was introduced as a new way to source grids using the grid generation code VGRID. Two different methods of using the volume sources were examined. The first method, based on manual insertion of the numerous volume sources, made great improvements in the prediction capability of USM3D for boom signatures. The second method (SSGRID), which uses an a priori adaptation approach to stretch and shear the original unstructured grid to align the grid and pressure waves, showed similar results with a more automated approach. Due to SSGRID s results and ease of use, the rest of the study focused on developing a best practice using SSGRID. The best practice created by this study for boom predictions using the CFD code USM3D involved: 1) creating a small cylindrical outer boundary either 1 or 2 body lengths in diameter (depending on how far below the aircraft the boom prediction is required), 2) using a single volume source under the aircraft, and 3) using SSGRID to stretch and shear the grid to the desired length.

12. Adaptive hybrid prismatic-tetrahedral grids for viscous flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kallinderis, Yannis; Khawaja, Aly; Mcmorris, Harlan

1995-01-01

The paper presents generation of adaptive hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is an Automatic Receding Method (ARM) for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples division of tetrahedra, as well as 2-D directional division of prisms.

13. Adaptive hybrid prismatic-tetrahedral grids for viscous flows

Kallinderis, Yannis; Khawaja, Aly; McMorris, Harlan

1995-03-01

The paper presents generation of adaptive hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is an Automatic Receding Method (ARM) for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples division of tetrahedra, as well as 2-D directional division of prisms.

14. Parallel computation of three-dimensional flows using overlapping grids with adaptive mesh refinement

Henshaw, William D.; Schwendeman, Donald W.

2008-08-01

This paper describes an approach for the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations in complex three-dimensional domains. The domains are represented by overlapping structured grids, and block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is employed to locally increase the grid resolution. In addition, the numerical method is implemented on parallel distributed-memory computers using a domain-decomposition approach. The implementation is flexible so that each base grid within the overlapping grid structure and its associated refinement grids can be independently partitioned over a chosen set of processors. A modified bin-packing algorithm is used to specify the partition for each grid so that the computational work is evenly distributed amongst the processors. All components of the AMR algorithm such as error estimation, regridding, and interpolation are performed in parallel. The parallel time-stepping algorithm is illustrated for initial-boundary-value problems involving a linear advection-diffusion equation and the (nonlinear) reactive Euler equations. Numerical results are presented for both equations to demonstrate the accuracy and correctness of the parallel approach. Exact solutions of the advection-diffusion equation are constructed, and these are used to check the corresponding numerical solutions for a variety of tests involving different overlapping grids, different numbers of refinement levels and refinement ratios, and different numbers of processors. The problem of planar shock diffraction by a sphere is considered as an illustration of the numerical approach for the Euler equations, and a problem involving the initiation of a detonation from a hot spot in a T-shaped pipe is considered to demonstrate the numerical approach for the reactive case. For both problems, the accuracy of the numerical solutions is assessed quantitatively through an estimation of the errors from a grid convergence study. The parallel performance of the

15. Parallel Computation of Three-Dimensional Flows using Overlapping Grids with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

SciTech Connect

Henshaw, W; Schwendeman, D

2007-11-15

This paper describes an approach for the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations in complex three-dimensional domains. The domains are represented by overlapping structured grids, and block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is employed to locally increase the grid resolution. In addition, the numerical method is implemented on parallel distributed-memory computers using a domain-decomposition approach. The implementation is flexible so that each base grid within the overlapping grid structure and its associated refinement grids can be independently partitioned over a chosen set of processors. A modified bin-packing algorithm is used to specify the partition for each grid so that the computational work is evenly distributed amongst the processors. All components of the AMR algorithm such as error estimation, regridding, and interpolation are performed in parallel. The parallel time-stepping algorithm is illustrated for initial-boundary-value problems involving a linear advection-diffusion equation and the (nonlinear) reactive Euler equations. Numerical results are presented for both equations to demonstrate the accuracy and correctness of the parallel approach. Exact solutions of the advection-diffusion equation are constructed, and these are used to check the corresponding numerical solutions for a variety of tests involving different overlapping grids, different numbers of refinement levels and refinement ratios, and different numbers of processors. The problem of planar shock diffraction by a sphere is considered as an illustration of the numerical approach for the Euler equations, and a problem involving the initiation of a detonation from a hot spot in a T-shaped pipe is considered to demonstrate the numerical approach for the reactive case. For both problems, the solutions are shown to be well resolved on the finest grid. The parallel performance of the approach is examined in detail for the shock diffraction problem.

16. Adaptivity and smart algorithms for fluid-structure interaction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oden, J. Tinsley

1990-01-01

This paper reviews new approaches in CFD which have the potential for significantly increasing current capabilities of modeling complex flow phenomena and of treating difficult problems in fluid-structure interaction. These approaches are based on the notions of adaptive methods and smart algorithms, which use instantaneous measures of the quality and other features of the numerical flowfields as a basis for making changes in the structure of the computational grid and of algorithms designed to function on the grid. The application of these new techniques to several problem classes are addressed, including problems with moving boundaries, fluid-structure interaction in high-speed turbine flows, flow in domains with receding boundaries, and related problems.

17. A simplified self-adaptive grid method, SAGE

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davies, C.; Venkatapathy, E.

1989-01-01

The formulation of the Self-Adaptive Grid Evolution (SAGE) code, based on the work of Nakahashi and Deiwert, is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide which explains the input and execution of the code, and provides many examples. Application of the SAGE code, by Ames Research Center and by others, in the solution of various flow problems has been an indication of the code's general utility and success. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for single, zonal, and multiple grids. Modifications to the methodology and the simplified input options make this current version a flexible and user-friendly code.

18. A novel hyperbolic grid generation procedure with inherent adaptive dissipation

SciTech Connect

Tai, C.H.; Yin, S.L.; Soong, C.Y.

1995-01-01

This paper reports a novel hyperbolic grid-generation with an inherent adaptive dissipation (HGAD), which is capable of improving the oscillation and overlapping of grid lines. In the present work upwinding differencing is applied to discretize the hyperbolic system and, thereby, to develop the adaptive dissipation coefficient. Complex configurations with the features of geometric discontinuity, exceptional concavity and convexity are used as the test cases for comparison of the present HGAD procedure with the conventional hyerbolic and elliptic ones. The results reveal that the HGAD method is superior in orthogonality and smoothness of the grid system. In addition, the computational efficiency of the flow solver may be improved by using the present HGAD procedure. 15 refs., 8 figs.

19. The multidimensional Self-Adaptive Grid code, SAGE, version 2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

1995-01-01

This new report on Version 2 of the SAGE code includes all the information in the original publication plus all upgrades and changes to the SAGE code since that time. The two most significant upgrades are the inclusion of a finite-volume option and the ability to adapt and manipulate zonal-matching multiple-grid files. In addition, the original SAGE code has been upgraded to Version 1.1 and includes all options mentioned in this report, with the exception of the multiple grid option and its associated features. Since Version 2 is a larger and more complex code, it is suggested (but not required) that Version 1.1 be used for single-grid applications. This document contains all the information required to run both versions of SAGE. The formulation of the adaption method is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide that explains the input and execution of the code. The third section provides many examples. Successful application of the SAGE code in both two and three dimensions for the solution of various flow problems has proven the code to be robust, portable, and simple to use. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for complex grid structures. Modifications to the method and the simple but extensive input options make this a flexible and user-friendly code. The SAGE code can accommodate two-dimensional and three-dimensional, finite-difference and finite-volume, single grid, and zonal-matching multiple grid flow problems.

20. Adaptive grids and implicit differencing applied to plasma simulation

SciTech Connect

Brackbill, J.U.; Forslund, D.W.; Vu, Hoanh.

1990-01-01

To understand the kinetic processes that determine energy confinement and impurity production in magnetic confinement experiments, we are developing methods to model kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic time scales in realistic geometries. We are using implicit methods and adaptive grids to achieve this goal. 9 refs., 2 figs.

1. QPSO-based adaptive DNA computing algorithm.

PubMed

Karakose, Mehmet; Cigdem, Ugur

2013-01-01

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) computing that is a new computation model based on DNA molecules for information storage has been increasingly used for optimization and data analysis in recent years. However, DNA computing algorithm has some limitations in terms of convergence speed, adaptability, and effectiveness. In this paper, a new approach for improvement of DNA computing is proposed. This new approach aims to perform DNA computing algorithm with adaptive parameters towards the desired goal using quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO). Some contributions provided by the proposed QPSO based on adaptive DNA computing algorithm are as follows: (1) parameters of population size, crossover rate, maximum number of operations, enzyme and virus mutation rate, and fitness function of DNA computing algorithm are simultaneously tuned for adaptive process, (2) adaptive algorithm is performed using QPSO algorithm for goal-driven progress, faster operation, and flexibility in data, and (3) numerical realization of DNA computing algorithm with proposed approach is implemented in system identification. Two experiments with different systems were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach with comparative results. Experimental results obtained with Matlab and FPGA demonstrate ability to provide effective optimization, considerable convergence speed, and high accuracy according to DNA computing algorithm.

2. Parallel level-set methods on adaptive tree-based grids

2016-10-01

We present scalable algorithms for the level-set method on dynamic, adaptive Quadtree and Octree Cartesian grids. The algorithms are fully parallelized and implemented using the MPI standard and the open-source p4est library. We solve the level set equation with a semi-Lagrangian method which, similar to its serial implementation, is free of any time-step restrictions. This is achieved by introducing a scalable global interpolation scheme on adaptive tree-based grids. Moreover, we present a simple parallel reinitialization scheme using the pseudo-time transient formulation. Both parallel algorithms scale on the Stampede supercomputer, where we are currently using up to 4096 CPU cores, the limit of our current account. Finally, a relevant application of the algorithms is presented in modeling a crystallization phenomenon by solving a Stefan problem, illustrating a level of detail that would be impossible to achieve without a parallel adaptive strategy. We believe that the algorithms presented in this article will be of interest and useful to researchers working with the level-set framework and modeling multi-scale physics in general.

3. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes calculations using solution-adapted grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Henderson, T. L.; Huang, W.; Lee, K. D.; Choo, Y. K.

1993-01-01

A three-dimensional solution-adaptive grid generation technique is presented. The adaptation technique redistributes grid points to improve the accuracy of a flow solution without increasing the number of grid points. It is applicable to structured grids with a multiblock topology. The method uses a numerical mapping and potential theory to modify the initial grid distribution based on the properties of the flow solution on the initial grid. The technique is demonstrated with two examples - a transonic finite wing and a supersonic blunt fin. The advantages are shown by comparing flow solutions on the adapted grids with those on the initial grids.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

1997-01-01

Mesh adaption is a powerful tool for efficient unstructured- grid computations but causes load imbalance among processors on a parallel machine. We present a novel method to dynamically balance the processor workloads with a global view. This paper presents, for the first time, the implementation and integration of all major components within our dynamic load balancing strategy for adaptive grid calculations. Mesh adaption, repartitioning, processor assignment, and remapping are critical components of the framework that must be accomplished rapidly and efficiently so as not to cause a significant overhead to the numerical simulation. Previous results indicated that mesh repartitioning and data remapping are potential bottlenecks for performing large-scale scientific calculations. We resolve these issues and demonstrate that our framework remains viable on a large number of processors.

5. Decomposition algorithms for stochastic programming on a computational grid.

SciTech Connect

Linderoth, J.; Wright, S.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Axioma Inc.

2003-01-01

We describe algorithms for two-stage stochastic linear programming with recourse and their implementation on a grid computing platform. In particular, we examine serial and asynchronous versions of the L-shaped method and a trust-region method. The parallel platform of choice is the dynamic, heterogeneous, opportunistic platform provided by the Condor system. The algorithms are of master-worker type (with the workers being used to solve second-stage problems), and the MW runtime support library (which supports master-worker computations) is key to the implementation. Computational results are presented on large sample-average approximations of problems from the literature.

6. A parallel second-order adaptive mesh algorithm for incompressible flow in porous media.

PubMed

Pau, George S H; Almgren, Ann S; Bell, John B; Lijewski, Michael J

2009-11-28

In this paper, we present a second-order accurate adaptive algorithm for solving multi-phase, incompressible flow in porous media. We assume a multi-phase form of Darcy's law with relative permeabilities given as a function of the phase saturation. The remaining equations express conservation of mass for the fluid constituents. In this setting, the total velocity, defined to be the sum of the phase velocities, is divergence free. The basic integration method is based on a total-velocity splitting approach in which we solve a second-order elliptic pressure equation to obtain a total velocity. This total velocity is then used to recast component conservation equations as nonlinear hyperbolic equations. Our approach to adaptive refinement uses a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular grids with simultaneous refinement of the grids in both space and time. The integration algorithm on the grid hierarchy is a recursive procedure in which coarse grids are advanced in time, fine grids are advanced multiple steps to reach the same time as the coarse grids and the data at different levels are then synchronized. The single-grid algorithm is described briefly, but the emphasis here is on the time-stepping procedure for the adaptive hierarchy. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the algorithm's accuracy and convergence properties and to illustrate the behaviour of the method.

7. A Parallel Second-Order Adaptive Mesh Algorithm for Incompressible Flow in Porous Media

SciTech Connect

Pau, George Shu Heng; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Lijewski, Michael J.

2008-04-01

In this paper we present a second-order accurate adaptive algorithm for solving multiphase, incompressible flows in porous media. We assume a multiphase form of Darcy's law with relative permeabilities given as a function of the phase saturation. The remaining equations express conservation of mass for the fluid constituents. In this setting the total velocity, defined to be the sum of the phase velocities, is divergence-free. The basic integration method is based on a total-velocity splitting approach in which we solve a second-order elliptic pressure equation to obtain a total velocity. This total velocity is then used to recast component conservation equations as nonlinear hyperbolic equations. Our approach to adaptive refinement uses a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular grids with simultaneous refinement of the grids in both space and time. The integration algorithm on the grid hierarchy is a recursive procedure in which coarse grids are advanced in time, fine grids areadvanced multiple steps to reach the same time as the coarse grids and the data atdifferent levels are then synchronized. The single grid algorithm is described briefly,but the emphasis here is on the time-stepping procedure for the adaptive hierarchy. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the algorithm's accuracy and convergence properties and to illustrate the behavior of the method.

8. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

DOE PAGES

Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.

2015-01-01

In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this papermore » we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.« less

9. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

SciTech Connect

Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.

2015-01-01

In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this paper we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.

10. A Cell-Centered Multigrid Algorithm for All Grid Sizes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gjesdal, Thor

1996-01-01

Multigrid methods are optimal; that is, their rate of convergence is independent of the number of grid points, because they use a nested sequence of coarse grids to represent different scales of the solution. This nesting does, however, usually lead to certain restrictions of the permissible size of the discretised problem. In cases where the modeler is free to specify the whole problem, such constraints are of little importance because they can be taken into consideration from the outset. We consider the situation in which there are other competing constraints on the resolution. These restrictions may stem from the physical problem (e.g., if the discretised operator contains experimental data measured on a fixed grid) or from the need to avoid limitations set by the hardware. In this paper we discuss a modification to the cell-centered multigrid algorithm, so that it can be used br problems with any resolution. We discuss in particular a coarsening strategy and choice of intergrid transfer operators that can handle grids with both an even or odd number of cells. The method is described and applied to linear equations obtained by discretization of two- and three-dimensional second-order elliptic PDEs.

11. On the dynamics of some grid adaption schemes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sweby, Peter K.; Yee, Helen C.

1994-01-01

The dynamics of a one-parameter family of mesh equidistribution schemes coupled with finite difference discretisations of linear and nonlinear convection-diffusion model equations is studied numerically. It is shown that, when time marched to steady state, the grid adaption not only influences the stability and convergence rate of the overall scheme, but can also introduce spurious dynamics to the numerical solution procedure.

12. Unstructured Adaptive Grid Computations on an Array of SMPs

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biswas, Rupak; Pramanick, Ira; Sohn, Andrew; Simon, Horst D.

1996-01-01

Dynamic load balancing is necessary for parallel adaptive methods to solve unsteady CFD problems on unstructured grids. We have presented such a dynamic load balancing framework called JOVE, in this paper. Results on a four-POWERnode POWER CHALLENGEarray demonstrated that load balancing gives significant performance improvements over no load balancing for such adaptive computations. The parallel speedup of JOVE, implemented using MPI on the POWER CHALLENCEarray, was significant, being as high as 31 for 32 processors. An implementation of JOVE that exploits 'an array of SMPS' architecture was also studied; this hybrid JOVE outperformed flat JOVE by up to 28% on the meshes and adaption models tested. With large, realistic meshes and actual flow-solver and adaption phases incorporated into JOVE, hybrid JOVE can be expected to yield significant advantage over flat JOVE, especially as the number of processors is increased, thus demonstrating the scalability of an array of SMPs architecture.

13. Optimal Hops-Based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm

Xuan, Xin; Chen, Jian; Zhen, Shanshan; Kuo, Yonghong

This paper proposes an optimal hops-based adaptive clustering algorithm (OHACA). The algorithm sets an energy selection threshold before the cluster forms so that the nodes with less energy are more likely to go to sleep immediately. In setup phase, OHACA introduces an adaptive mechanism to adjust cluster head and load balance. And the optimal distance theory is applied to discover the practical optimal routing path to minimize the total energy for transmission. Simulation results show that OHACA prolongs the life of network, improves utilizing rate and transmits more data because of energy balance.

14. Adaptive Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Unconstrained Optimization

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

Modification of the intensification and diversification approaches in the recently developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is performed. The alteration involves the implementation of adaptive step size adjustment strategy, and thus enabling faster convergence to the global optimal solutions. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is validated against benchmark optimization functions, where the obtained results demonstrate a marked improvement over the standard CSA, in all the cases. PMID:25298971

15. Adaptive cuckoo search algorithm for unconstrained optimization.

PubMed

Ong, Pauline

2014-01-01

Modification of the intensification and diversification approaches in the recently developed cuckoo search algorithm (CSA) is performed. The alteration involves the implementation of adaptive step size adjustment strategy, and thus enabling faster convergence to the global optimal solutions. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is validated against benchmark optimization functions, where the obtained results demonstrate a marked improvement over the standard CSA, in all the cases.

16. An Upwind Multigrid Algorithm for Calculating Flows on Unstructured Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bonhaus, Daryl L.

1993-01-01

An algorithm is described that calculates inviscid, laminar, and turbulent flows on triangular meshes with an upwind discretization. A brief description of the base solver and the multigrid implementation is given, followed by results that consist mainly of convergence rates for inviscid and viscous flows over a NACA four-digit airfoil section. The results show that multigrid does accelerate convergence when the same relaxation parameters that yield good single-grid performance are used; however, larger gains in performance can be realized by doing less work in the relaxation scheme.

17. Irregular Grid Generation and Rapid 3D Color Display Algorithm

SciTech Connect

Wilson D. Chin, Ph.D.

2000-05-10

Computationally efficient and fast methods for irregular grid generation are developed to accurately characterize wellbore and fracture boundaries, and farfield reservoir boundaries, in oil and gas petroleum fields. Advanced reservoir simulation techniques are developed for oilfields described by such ''boundary conforming'' mesh systems. Very rapid, three-dimensional color display algorithms are also developed that allow users to ''interrogate'' 3D earth cubes using ''slice, rotate, and zoom'' functions. Based on expert system ideas, the new methods operate much faster than existing display methodologies and do not require sophisticated computer hardware or software. They are designed to operate with PC based applications.

18. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

PubMed

Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

2015-11-01

Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

19. The multidimensional self-adaptive grid code, SAGE

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

1992-01-01

This report describes the multidimensional self-adaptive grid code SAGE. A two-dimensional version of this code was described in an earlier report by the authors. The formulation of the multidimensional version is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide that explains the input and execution of the code and provides many examples. Successful application of the SAGE code in both two and three dimensions for the solution of various flow problems has proven the code to be robust, portable, and simple to use. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for complex grid structures. Modifications to the method and the simplified input options make this a flexible and user-friendly code. The new SAGE code can accommodate both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow problems.

20. OMEGA: The operational multiscale environment model with grid adaptivity

SciTech Connect

Bacon, D.P.

1995-07-01

This review talk describes the OMEGA code, used for weather simulation and the modeling of aerosol transport through the atmosphere. Omega employs a 3D mesh of wedge shaped elements (triangles when viewed from above) that adapt with time. Because wedges are laid out in layers of triangular elements, the scheme can utilize structured storage and differencing techniques along the elevation coordinate, and is thus a hybrid of structured and unstructured methods. The utility of adaptive gridding in this moded, near geographic features such as coastlines, where material properties change discontinuously, is illustrated. Temporal adaptivity was used additionally to track moving internal fronts, such as clouds of aerosol contaminants. The author also discusses limitations specific to this problem, including manipulation of huge data bases and fixed turn-around times. In practice, the latter requires a carefully tuned optimization between accuracy and computation speed.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biswas, Rupak; Oliker, Leonid

1996-01-01

Mesh adaption is a powerful tool for efficient unstructured-grid computations but causes load imbalance among processors on a parallel machine. A dynamic load balancing method is presented that balances the workload across all processors with a global view. After each parallel tetrahedral mesh adaption, the method first determines if the new mesh is sufficiently unbalanced to warrant a repartitioning. If so, the adapted mesh is repartitioned, with new partitions assigned to processors so that the redistribution cost is minimized. The new partitions are accepted only if the remapping cost is compensated by the improved load balance. Results indicate that this strategy is effective for large-scale scientific computations on distributed-memory multiprocessors.

2. Neural network algorithm for image reconstruction using the "grid-friendly" projections.

PubMed

Cierniak, Robert

2011-09-01

The presented paper describes a development of original approach to the reconstruction problem using a recurrent neural network. Particularly, the "grid-friendly" angles of performed projections are selected according to the discrete Radon transform (DRT) concept to decrease the number of projections required. The methodology of our approach is consistent with analytical reconstruction algorithms. Reconstruction problem is reformulated in our approach to optimization problem. This problem is solved in present concept using method based on the maximum likelihood methodology. The reconstruction algorithm proposed in this work is consequently adapted for more practical discrete fan beam projections. Computer simulation results show that the neural network reconstruction algorithm designed to work in this way improves obtained results and outperforms conventional methods in reconstructed image quality.

3. Staggered grid lagrangian method with local structured adaptive mesh refinement for modeling shock hydrodynamics

SciTech Connect

Anderson, R W; Pember, R B; Elliot, N S

2000-09-26

A new method for the solution of the unsteady Euler equations has been developed. The method combines staggered grid Lagrangian techniques with structured local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). This method is a precursor to a more general adaptive arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE-AMR) algorithm under development, which will facilitate the solution of problems currently at and beyond the boundary of soluble problems by traditional ALE methods by focusing computational resources where they are required. Many of the core issues involved in the development of the ALE-AMR method hinge upon the integration of AMR with a Lagrange step, which is the focus of the work described here. The novel components of the method are mainly driven by the need to reconcile traditional AMR techniques, which are typically employed on stationary meshes with cell-centered quantities, with the staggered grids and grid motion employed by Lagrangian methods. These new algorithmic components are first developed in one dimension and are then generalized to two dimensions. Solutions of several model problems involving shock hydrodynamics are presented and discussed.

4. A Solution Adaptive Technique Using Tetrahedral Unstructured Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2000-01-01

An adaptive unstructured grid refinement technique has been developed and successfully applied to several three dimensional inviscid flow test cases. The method is based on a combination of surface mesh subdivision and local remeshing of the volume grid Simple functions of flow quantities are employed to detect dominant features of the flowfield The method is designed for modular coupling with various error/feature analyzers and flow solvers. Several steady-state, inviscid flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving practical three-dimensional problems. In all cases, accurate solutions featuring complex, nonlinear flow phenomena such as shock waves and vortices have been generated automatically and efficiently.

5. An adaptive grid for graph-based segmentation in retinal OCT

PubMed Central

Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Calabresi, Peter A.; Ying, Howard S.; Prince, Jerry L.

2016-01-01

Graph-based methods for retinal layer segmentation have proven to be popular due to their efficiency and accuracy. These methods build a graph with nodes at each voxel location and use edges connecting nodes to encode the hard constraints of each layer’s thickness and smoothness. In this work, we explore deforming the regular voxel grid to allow adjacent vertices in the graph to more closely follow the natural curvature of the retina. This deformed grid is constructed by fixing node locations based on a regression model of each layer’s thickness relative to the overall retina thickness, thus we generate a subject specific grid. Graph vertices are not at voxel locations, which allows for control over the resolution that the graph represents. By incorporating soft constraints between adjacent nodes, segmentation on this grid will favor smoothly varying surfaces consistent with the shape of the retina. Our final segmentation method then follows our previous work. Boundary probabilities are estimated using a random forest classifier followed by an optimal graph search algorithm on the new adaptive grid to produce a final segmentation. Our method is shown to produce a more consistent segmentation with an overall accuracy of 3.38 μm across all boundaries. PMID:27773959

6. Grid and basis adaptive polynomial chaos techniques for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

SciTech Connect

Perkó, Zoltán Gilli, Luca Lathouwers, Danny Kloosterman, Jan Leen

2014-03-01

The demand for accurate and computationally affordable sensitivity and uncertainty techniques is constantly on the rise and has become especially pressing in the nuclear field with the shift to Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty methodologies in the licensing of nuclear installations. Besides traditional, already well developed methods – such as first order perturbation theory or Monte Carlo sampling – Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) has been given a growing emphasis in recent years due to its simple application and good performance. This paper presents new developments of the research done at TU Delft on such Polynomial Chaos (PC) techniques. Our work is focused on the Non-Intrusive Spectral Projection (NISP) approach and adaptive methods for building the PCE of responses of interest. Recent efforts resulted in a new adaptive sparse grid algorithm designed for estimating the PC coefficients. The algorithm is based on Gerstner's procedure for calculating multi-dimensional integrals but proves to be computationally significantly cheaper, while at the same it retains a similar accuracy as the original method. More importantly the issue of basis adaptivity has been investigated and two techniques have been implemented for constructing the sparse PCE of quantities of interest. Not using the traditional full PC basis set leads to further reduction in computational time since the high order grids necessary for accurately estimating the near zero expansion coefficients of polynomial basis vectors not needed in the PCE can be excluded from the calculation. Moreover the sparse PC representation of the response is easier to handle when used for sensitivity analysis or uncertainty propagation due to the smaller number of basis vectors. The developed grid and basis adaptive methods have been implemented in Matlab as the Fully Adaptive Non-Intrusive Spectral Projection (FANISP) algorithm and were tested on four analytical problems. These show consistent good performance both

7. Consensus algorithm in smart grid and communication networks

Alfagee, Husain Abdulaziz

On a daily basis, consensus theory attracts more and more researches from different areas of interest, to apply its techniques to solve technical problems in a way that is faster, more reliable, and even more precise than ever before. A power system network is one of those fields that consensus theory employs extensively. The use of the consensus algorithm to solve the Economic Dispatch and Load Restoration Problems is a good example. Instead of a conventional central controller, some researchers have explored an algorithm to solve the above mentioned problems, in a distribution manner, using the consensus algorithm, which is based on calculation methods, i.e., non estimation methods, for updating the information consensus matrix. Starting from this point of solving these types of problems mentioned, specifically, in a distribution fashion, using the consensus algorithm, we have implemented a new advanced consensus algorithm. It is based on the adaptive estimation techniques, such as the Gradient Algorithm and the Recursive Least Square Algorithm, to solve the same problems. This advanced work was tested on different case studies that had formerly been explored, as seen in references 5, 7, and 18. Three and five generators, or agents, with different topologies, correspond to the Economic Dispatch Problem and the IEEE 16-Bus power system corresponds to the Load Restoration Problem. In all the cases we have studied, the results met our expectations with extreme accuracy, and completely matched the results of the previous researchers. There is little question that this research proves the capability and dependability of using the consensus algorithm, based on the estimation methods as the Gradient Algorithm and the Recursive Least Square Algorithm to solve such power problems.

8. A numerical study of 2D detonation waves with adaptive finite volume methods on unstructured grids

Hu, Guanghui

2017-02-01

In this paper, a framework of adaptive finite volume solutions for the reactive Euler equations on unstructured grids is proposed. The main ingredients of the algorithm include a second order total variation diminishing Runge-Kutta method for temporal discretization, and the finite volume method with piecewise linear solution reconstruction of the conservative variables for the spatial discretization in which the least square method is employed for the reconstruction, and weighted essentially nonoscillatory strategy is used to restrain the potential numerical oscillation. To resolve the high demanding on the computational resources due to the stiffness of the system caused by the reaction term and the shock structure in the solutions, the h-adaptive method is introduced. OpenMP parallelization of the algorithm is also adopted to further improve the efficiency of the implementation. Several one and two dimensional benchmark tests on the ZND model are studied in detail, and numerical results successfully show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

9. An Adaptive Integration Model of Vector Polyline to DEM Data Based on Spherical Degeneration Quadtree Grids

Zhao, X. S.; Wang, J. J.; Yuan, Z. Y.; Gao, Y.

2013-10-01

Traditional geometry-based approach can maintain the characteristics of vector data. However, complex interpolation calculations limit its applications in high resolution and multi-source spatial data integration at spherical scale in digital earth systems. To overcome this deficiency, an adaptive integration model of vector polyline and spherical DEM is presented. Firstly, Degenerate Quadtree Grid (DQG) which is one of the partition models for global discrete grids, is selected as a basic framework for the adaptive integration model. Secondly, a novel shift algorithm is put forward based on DQG proximity search. The main idea of shift algorithm is that the vector node in a DQG cell moves to the cell corner-point when the displayed area of the cell is smaller or equal to a pixel of screen in order to find a new vector polyline approximate to the original one, which avoids lots of interpolation calculations and achieves seamless integration. Detailed operation steps are elaborated and the complexity of algorithm is analyzed. Thirdly, a prototype system has been developed by using VC++ language and OpenGL 3D API. ASTER GDEM data and DCW roads data sets of Jiangxi province in China are selected to evaluate the performance. The result shows that time consumption of shift algorithm decreased about 76% than that of geometry-based approach. Analysis on the mean shift error from different dimensions has been implemented. In the end, the conclusions and future works in the integration of vector data and DEM based on discrete global grids are also given.

10. Damping of spurious numerical reflections off of coarse-fine adaptive mesh refinement grid boundaries

Chilton, Sven; Colella, Phillip

2010-11-01

Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is an efficient technique for solving systems of partial differential equations numerically. The underlying algorithm determines where and when a base spatial and temporal grid must be resolved further in order to achieve the desired precision and accuracy in the numerical solution. However, propagating wave solutions prove problematic for AMR. In systems with low degrees of dissipation (e.g. the Maxwell-Vlasov system) a wave traveling from a finely resolved region into a coarsely resolved region encounters a numerical impedance mismatch, resulting in spurious reflections off of the coarse-fine grid boundary. These reflected waves then become trapped inside the fine region. Here, we present a scheme for damping these spurious reflections. We demonstrate its application to the scalar wave equation and an implementation for Maxwell's Equations. We also discuss a possible extension to the Maxwell-Vlasov system.

11. Adaptive sparse grid expansions of the vibrational Hamiltonian

SciTech Connect

Strobusch, D.; Scheurer, Ch.

2014-02-21

The vibrational Hamiltonian involves two high dimensional operators, the kinetic energy operator (KEO), and the potential energy surface (PES). Both must be approximated for systems involving more than a few atoms. Adaptive approximation schemes are not only superior to truncated Taylor or many-body expansions (MBE), they also allow for error estimates, and thus operators of predefined precision. To this end, modified sparse grids (SG) are developed that can be combined with adaptive MBEs. This MBE/SG hybrid approach yields a unified, fully adaptive representation of the KEO and the PES. Refinement criteria, based on the vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) and vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) methods, are presented. The combination of the adaptive MBE/SG approach and the VSCF plus VCI methods yields a black box like procedure to compute accurate vibrational spectra. This is demonstrated on a test set of molecules, comprising water, formaldehyde, methanimine, and ethylene. The test set is first employed to prove convergence for semi-empirical PM3-PESs and subsequently to compute accurate vibrational spectra from CCSD(T)-PESs that agree well with experimental values.

12. Adaptive Algorithms for HF Antenna Arrays.

DTIC Science & Technology

1987-07-01

SUBJECT TERMS (Contnue on reverse dfnoceaq and identiy by bkICk numnber) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP HP Adaptive Arrays HrF Comunications Systems 4 HP...Although their heavy computational load renders them impractical *1 for many applications, the advancements in cheap, fast digital hardware have...or digital form. For many applications, the LMS algorithm represents a good trade off between speed of convergence* and implementational The speed of

13. Adaptive grid embedding for the two-dimensional flux-split Euler equations. M.S. Thesis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Warren, Gary Patrick

1990-01-01

A numerical algorithm is presented for solving the 2-D flux-split Euler equations using a multigrid method with adaptive grid embedding. The method uses an unstructured data set along with a system of pointers for communication on the irregularly shaped grid topologies. An explicit two-stage time advancement scheme is implemented. A multigrid algorithm is used to provide grid level communication and to accelerate the convergence of the solution to steady state. Results are presented for a subcritical airfoil and a transonic airfoil with 3 levels of adaptation. Comparisons are made with a structured upwind Euler code which uses the same flux integration techniques of the present algorithm. Good agreement is obtained with converged surface pressure coefficients. The lift coefficients of the adaptive code are within 2 1/2 percent of the structured code for the sub-critical case and within 4 1/2 percent of the structured code for the transonic case using approximately one-third the number of grid points.

14. Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Priority Flows in a Network

DTIC Science & Technology

2012-06-14

ADAPTIVE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR PRIORITY FLOWS IN A NETWORK THESIS Timothy J. Carbino, Captain...ADAPTIVE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR PRIORITY FLOWS IN A NETWORK THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer... Thesis 20 Aug 10 – 14 Jun 12 Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Priority Flows in a Network 12629PCarbino, Timothy J, Captain, USAF Air Force Institute of

15. A Mass Conservation Algorithm for Adaptive Unrefinement Meshes Used by Finite Element Methods

DTIC Science & Technology

2012-01-01

dimensional mesh generation. In: Proc. 4th ACM-SIAM Symp. on Disc. Algorithms. (1993) 83–92 [9] Weatherill, N., Hassan, O., Marcum, D., Marchant, M.: Grid ...Conference on Computational Science, ICCS 2012 A Mass Conservation Algorithm For Adaptive Unrefinement Meshes Used By Finite Element Methods Hung V. Nguyen...velocity fields, and chemical distribution, as well as conserve mass, especially for water quality applications. Solution accuracy depends highly on mesh

16. Adaptive path planning: Algorithm and analysis

SciTech Connect

Chen, Pang C.

1993-03-01

Path planning has to be fast to support real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To alleviate this problem, we present a learning algorithm that uses past experience to enhance future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful subgoals is learned to support faster planning. The algorithm is suitable for both stationary and incrementally-changing environments. To analyze our algorithm, we use a previously developed stochastic model that quantifies experience utility. Using this model, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, and provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior. The results are demonstrated with problems in manipulator planning. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently general that they may also be applied to task planning or other planning domains in which experience is useful.

17. Anisotropic Solution Adaptive Unstructured Grid Generation Using AFLR

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marcum, David L.

2007-01-01

An existing volume grid generation procedure, AFLR3, was successfully modified to generate anisotropic tetrahedral elements using a directional metric transformation defined at source nodes. The procedure can be coupled with a solver and an error estimator as part of an overall anisotropic solution adaptation methodology. It is suitable for use with an error estimator based on an adjoint, optimization, sensitivity derivative, or related approach. This offers many advantages, including more efficient point placement along with robust and efficient error estimation. It also serves as a framework for true grid optimization wherein error estimation and computational resources can be used as cost functions to determine the optimal point distribution. Within AFLR3 the metric transformation is implemented using a set of transformation vectors and associated aspect ratios. The modified overall procedure is presented along with details of the anisotropic transformation implementation. Multiple two-and three-dimensional examples are also presented that demonstrate the capability of the modified AFLR procedure to generate anisotropic elements using a set of source nodes with anisotropic transformation metrics. The example cases presented use moderate levels of anisotropy and result in usable element quality. Future testing with various flow solvers and methods for obtaining transformation metric information is needed to determine practical limits and evaluate the efficacy of the overall approach.

18. An evaluation of biosurveillance grid--dynamic algorithm distribution across multiple computer nodes.

PubMed

Tsai, Ming-Chi; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Wagner, Michael M

2007-10-11

Performing fast data analysis to detect disease outbreaks plays a critical role in real-time biosurveillance. In this paper, we described and evaluated an Algorithm Distribution Manager Service (ADMS) based on grid technologies, which dynamically partition and distribute detection algorithms across multiple computers. We compared the execution time to perform the analysis on a single computer and on a grid network (3 computing nodes) with and without using dynamic algorithm distribution. We found that algorithms with long runtime completed approximately three times earlier in distributed environment than in a single computer while short runtime algorithms performed worse in distributed environment. A dynamic algorithm distribution approach also performed better than static algorithm distribution approach. This pilot study shows a great potential to reduce lengthy analysis time through dynamic algorithm partitioning and parallel processing, and provides the opportunity of distributing algorithms from a client to remote computers in a grid network.

19. Adaptive Trajectory Prediction Algorithm for Climbing Flights

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schultz, Charles Alexander; Thipphavong, David P.; Erzberger, Heinz

2012-01-01

Aircraft climb trajectories are difficult to predict, and large errors in these predictions reduce the potential operational benefits of some advanced features for NextGen. The algorithm described in this paper improves climb trajectory prediction accuracy by adjusting trajectory predictions based on observed track data. It utilizes rate-of-climb and airspeed measurements derived from position data to dynamically adjust the aircraft weight modeled for trajectory predictions. In simulations with weight uncertainty, the algorithm is able to adapt to within 3 percent of the actual gross weight within two minutes of the initial adaptation. The root-mean-square of altitude errors for five-minute predictions was reduced by 73 percent. Conflict detection performance also improved, with a 15 percent reduction in missed alerts and a 10 percent reduction in false alerts. In a simulation with climb speed capture intent and weight uncertainty, the algorithm improved climb trajectory prediction accuracy by up to 30 percent and conflict detection performance, reducing missed and false alerts by up to 10 percent.

20. Developing Information Power Grid Based Algorithms and Software

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dongarra, Jack

1998-01-01

This was an exploratory study to enhance our understanding of problems involved in developing large scale applications in a heterogeneous distributed environment. It is likely that the large scale applications of the future will be built by coupling specialized computational modules together. For example, efforts now exist to couple ocean and atmospheric prediction codes to simulate a more complete climate system. These two applications differ in many respects. They have different grids, the data is in different unit systems and the algorithms for inte,-rating in time are different. In addition the code for each application is likely to have been developed on different architectures and tend to have poor performance when run on an architecture for which the code was not designed, if it runs at all. Architectural differences may also induce differences in data representation which effect precision and convergence criteria as well as data transfer issues. In order to couple such dissimilar codes some form of translation must be present. This translation should be able to handle interpolation from one grid to another as well as construction of the correct data field in the correct units from available data. Even if a code is to be developed from scratch, a modular approach will likely be followed in that standard scientific packages will be used to do the more mundane tasks such as linear algebra or Fourier transform operations. This approach allows the developers to concentrate on their science rather than becoming experts in linear algebra or signal processing. Problems associated with this development approach include difficulties associated with data extraction and translation from one module to another, module performance on different nodal architectures, and others. In addition to these data and software issues there exists operational issues such as platform stability and resource management.

1. A wavelet-optimized, very high order adaptive grid and order numerical method

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jameson, Leland

1996-01-01

Differencing operators of arbitrarily high order can be constructed by interpolating a polynomial through a set of data followed by differentiation of this polynomial and finally evaluation of the polynomial at the point where a derivative approximation is desired. Furthermore, the interpolating polynomial can be constructed from algebraic, trigonometric, or, perhaps exponential polynomials. This paper begins with a comparison of such differencing operator construction. Next, the issue of proper grids for high order polynomials is addressed. Finally, an adaptive numerical method is introduced which adapts the numerical grid and the order of the differencing operator depending on the data. The numerical grid adaptation is performed on a Chebyshev grid. That is, at each level of refinement the grid is a Chebvshev grid and this grid is refined locally based on wavelet analysis.

2. Three-dimensional adaptive grid generation for body-fitted coordinate system

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chen, S. C.

1988-01-01

This report describes a numerical method for generating 3-D grids for general configurations. The basic method involves the solution of a set of quasi-linear elliptic partial differential equations via pointwise relaxation with a local relaxation factor. It allows specification of the grid spacing off the boundary surfaces and the grid orthogonality at the boundary surfaces. It includes adaptive mechanisms to improve smoothness, orthogonality, and flow resolution in the grid interior.

3. Fast Grid Search Algorithm for Seismic Source Location

SciTech Connect

ALDRIDGE,DAVID F.

2000-07-01

The spatial and temporal origin of a seismic energy source are estimated with a first grid search technique. This approach has greater likelihood of finding the global rninirnum of the arrival time misiit function compared with conventional linearized iterative methods. Assumption of a homogeneous and isotropic seismic velocity model allows for extremely rapid computation of predicted arrival times, but probably limits application of the method to certain geologic environments and/or recording geometries. Contour plots of the arrival time misfit function in the vicinity of the global minimum are extremely useful for (i) quantizing the uncertainty of an estimated hypocenter solution and (ii) analyzing the resolving power of a given recording configuration. In particular, simultaneous inversion of both P-wave and S-wave arrival times appears to yield a superior solution in the sense of being more precisely localized in space and time. Future research with this algorithm may involve (i) investigating the utility of nonuniform residual weighting schemes, (ii) incorporating linear and/or layered velocity models into the calculation of predicted arrival times, and (iii) applying it toward rational design of microseismic monitoring networks.

4. FUN3D Grid Refinement and Adaptation Studies for the Ares Launch Vehicle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bartels, Robert E.; Vasta, Veer; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Park, Mike; Mineck, Raymond E.

2010-01-01

This paper presents grid refinement and adaptation studies performed in conjunction with computational aeroelastic analyses of the Ares crew launch vehicle (CLV). The unstructured grids used in this analysis were created with GridTool and VGRID while the adaptation was performed using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code FUN3D with a feature based adaptation software tool. GridTool was developed by ViGYAN, Inc. while the last three software suites were developed by NASA Langley Research Center. The feature based adaptation software used here operates by aligning control volumes with shock and Mach line structures and by refining/de-refining where necessary. It does not redistribute node points on the surface. This paper assesses the sensitivity of the complex flow field about a launch vehicle to grid refinement. It also assesses the potential of feature based grid adaptation to improve the accuracy of CFD analysis for a complex launch vehicle configuration. The feature based adaptation shows the potential to improve the resolution of shocks and shear layers. Further development of the capability to adapt the boundary layer and surface grids of a tetrahedral grid is required for significant improvements in modeling the flow field.

5. A time-accurate adaptive grid method and the numerical simulation of a shock-vortex interaction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bockelie, Michael J.; Eiseman, Peter R.

1990-01-01

A time accurate, general purpose, adaptive grid method is developed that is suitable for multidimensional steady and unsteady numerical simulations. The grid point movement is performed in a manner that generates smooth grids which resolve the severe solution gradients and the sharp transitions in the solution gradients. The temporal coupling of the adaptive grid and the PDE solver is performed with a grid prediction correction method that is simple to implement and ensures the time accuracy of the grid. Time accurate solutions of the 2-D Euler equations for an unsteady shock vortex interaction demonstrate the ability of the adaptive method to accurately adapt the grid to multiple solution features.

6. The use of the spectral method within the fast adaptive composite grid method

SciTech Connect

McKay, S.M.

1994-12-31

The use of efficient algorithms for the solution of partial differential equations has been sought for many years. The fast adaptive composite grid (FAC) method combines an efficient algorithm with high accuracy to obtain low cost solutions to partial differential equations. The FAC method achieves fast solution by combining solutions on different grids with varying discretizations and using multigrid like techniques to find fast solution. Recently, the continuous FAC (CFAC) method has been developed which utilizes an analytic solution within a subdomain to iterate to a solution of the problem. This has been shown to achieve excellent results when the analytic solution can be found. The CFAC method will be extended to allow solvers which construct a function for the solution, e.g., spectral and finite element methods. In this discussion, the spectral methods will be used to provide a fast, accurate solution to the partial differential equation. As spectral methods are more accurate than finite difference methods, the ensuing accuracy from this hybrid method outside of the subdomain will be investigated.

7. Cartesian Off-Body Grid Adaption for Viscous Time- Accurate Flow Simulation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

An improved solution adaption capability has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid CFD code. Building on the Cartesian off-body approach inherent in OVERFLOW and the original adaptive refinement method developed by Meakin, the new scheme provides for automated creation of multiple levels of finer Cartesian grids. Refinement can be based on the undivided second-difference of the flow solution variables, or on a specific flow quantity such as vorticity. Coupled with load-balancing and an inmemory solution interpolation procedure, the adaption process provides very good performance for time-accurate simulations on parallel compute platforms. A method of using refined, thin body-fitted grids combined with adaption in the off-body grids is presented, which maximizes the part of the domain subject to adaption. Two- and three-dimensional examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness and performance of the adaption scheme.

8. Re-architecting flow-control adaptation for grid environments

SciTech Connect

Engelhart, A.; Gardner, M. K.; Feng, W. C.

2004-01-01

The performance of TCP in wide-area networks (WANs) is becoming increasingly important with the deployment of computational and data grids. At WAN speeds, TCP does not provide good performance for data-intensive applications without the tuning of flow-control buffer sizes. Manual adjustment of buffer sizes is tedious even for network experts. For scientists, tuning is often an impediment to getting work done. Thus, buffer tuning should be automated. Existing techniques for automatic buffer tuning only measure the bandwidth-delay product (BDP) during connection establishment. This ignores the (large) fluctuation of the BDP over the lifetime of the connection. In contrast, the Dynamic Right-Sizing algorithm dynamically changes buffer sizes in response to changing network conditions. In this paper, we describe a new user-space implementation of Dynamic Right-Sizing in FTP (drsFTP) that supports third-party data transfers, a mainstay of scientific computing. In addition to comparing the performance of the new implementation with the old, we give performance results over a live WAN. The new implementation gives transfer rates of up to five times higher than untuned FTP.

9. Analysis of a Major Electric Grid -- Stability and Adaptive Protection

Alanzi, Sultan

10. Adaptive RED algorithm based on minority game

Wei, Jiaolong; Lei, Ling; Qian, Jingjing

2007-11-01

With more and more applications appearing and the technology developing in the Internet, only relying on terminal system can not satisfy the complicated demand of QoS network. Router mechanisms must be participated into protecting responsive flows from the non-responsive. Routers mainly use active queue management mechanism (AQM) to avoid congestion. In the point of interaction between the routers, the paper applies minority game to describe the interaction of the users and observes the affection on the length of average queue. The parameters α, β of ARED being hard to confirm, adaptive RED based on minority game can depict the interactions of main body and amend the parameter α, β of ARED to the best. Adaptive RED based on minority game optimizes ARED and realizes the smoothness of average queue length. At the same time, this paper extends the network simulator plat - NS by adding new elements. Simulation has been implemented and the results show that new algorithm can reach the anticipative objects.

11. Automated Grid Disruption Response System: Robust Adaptive Topology Control (RATC)

SciTech Connect

2012-03-01

GENI Project: The RATC research team is using topology control as a mechanism to improve system operations and manage disruptions within the electric grid. The grid is subject to interruption from cascading faults caused by extreme operating conditions, malicious external attacks, and intermittent electricity generation from renewable energy sources. The RATC system is capable of detecting, classifying, and responding to grid disturbances by reconfiguring the grid in order to maintain economically efficient operations while guaranteeing reliability. The RATC system would help prevent future power outages, which account for roughly \$80 billion in losses for businesses and consumers each year. Minimizing the time it takes for the grid to respond to expensive interruptions will also make it easier to integrate intermittent renewable energy sources into the grid.

12. Aeroacoustic Simulation of Nose Landing Gear on Adaptive Unstructured Grids With FUN3D

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vatsa, Veer N.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Park, Michael A.; Lockhard, David P.

2013-01-01

Numerical simulations have been performed for a partially-dressed, cavity-closed nose landing gear configuration that was tested in NASA Langley s closed-wall Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and in the University of Florida's open-jet acoustic facility known as the UFAFF. The unstructured-grid flow solver FUN3D, developed at NASA Langley Research center, is used to compute the unsteady flow field for this configuration. Starting with a coarse grid, a series of successively finer grids were generated using the adaptive gridding methodology available in the FUN3D code. A hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large eddy simulation (RANS/LES) turbulence model is used for these computations. Time-averaged and instantaneous solutions obtained on these grids are compared with the measured data. In general, the correlation with the experimental data improves with grid refinement. A similar trend is observed for sound pressure levels obtained by using these CFD solutions as input to a FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings noise propagation code to compute the farfield noise levels. In general, the numerical solutions obtained on adapted grids compare well with the hand-tuned enriched fine grid solutions and experimental data. In addition, the grid adaption strategy discussed here simplifies the grid generation process, and results in improved computational efficiency of CFD simulations.

13. Improving GPU-accelerated adaptive IDW interpolation algorithm using fast kNN search.

PubMed

Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong; Xu, Liangliang

2016-01-01

This paper presents an efficient parallel Adaptive Inverse Distance Weighting (AIDW) interpolation algorithm on modern Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The presented algorithm is an improvement of our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm by adopting fast k-nearest neighbors (kNN) search. In AIDW, it needs to find several nearest neighboring data points for each interpolated point to adaptively determine the power parameter; and then the desired prediction value of the interpolated point is obtained by weighted interpolating using the power parameter. In this work, we develop a fast kNN search approach based on the space-partitioning data structure, even grid, to improve the previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm. The improved algorithm is composed of the stages of kNN search and weighted interpolating. To evaluate the performance of the improved algorithm, we perform five groups of experimental tests. The experimental results indicate: (1) the improved algorithm can achieve a speedup of up to 1017 over the corresponding serial algorithm; (2) the improved algorithm is at least two times faster than our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm; and (3) the utilization of fast kNN search can significantly improve the computational efficiency of the entire GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm.

14. A Domain-Decomposed Multilevel Method for Adaptively Refined Cartesian Grids with Embedded Boundaries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Adomavicius, G.

2000-01-01

Preliminary verification and validation of an efficient Euler solver for adaptively refined Cartesian meshes with embedded boundaries is presented. The parallel, multilevel method makes use of a new on-the-fly parallel domain decomposition strategy based upon the use of space-filling curves, and automatically generates a sequence of coarse meshes for processing by the multigrid smoother. The coarse mesh generation algorithm produces grids which completely cover the computational domain at every level in the mesh hierarchy. A series of examples on realistically complex three-dimensional configurations demonstrate that this new coarsening algorithm reliably achieves mesh coarsening ratios in excess of 7 on adaptively refined meshes. Numerical investigations of the scheme's local truncation error demonstrate an achieved order of accuracy between 1.82 and 1.88. Convergence results for the multigrid scheme are presented for both subsonic and transonic test cases and demonstrate W-cycle multigrid convergence rates between 0.84 and 0.94. Preliminary parallel scalability tests on both simple wing and complex complete aircraft geometries shows a computational speedup of 52 on 64 processors using the run-time mesh partitioner.

15. Efficient algorithms for finding disjoint paths in grids

SciTech Connect

Chan, Wun-Tat; Chin, F.Y.L.

1997-06-01

The reconfiguration problem on VLSI/WSI processor arrays in the presence of faulty processors can be stated as the following integral multi-source routing problem: Given a set of N nodes (faulty processors or sources) in am m x n rectangular grid where m, n {le} N, the problem to be solved is to connect the N nodes to distinct nodes at the grid boundary using a set of {open_quotes}disjoint{close_quotes} paths. This problem can be referred to as an escape problem which can be solved trivially in O(mnN) time. By exploiting all the properties of the network, planarity and regularity of a grid, integral flow, and unit capacity source/sink/flow, we can optimally compress the size of the grid from O(mn) to O({radical}mnN) and solve the problem in O(d{radical}mnN), where d is the maximum number of disjoint paths found, for both the edge-disjoint and vertex-disjoint cases. In the worst case, d, m, n are O(N) and the result is O(N{sup 2.5}). Note that this routing problem can also be solved with the same time complexity even if the disjoint paths have to be ended at another set of N nodes (sinks) in the grid instead of the grid boundary.

16. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system

PubMed Central

Khan, Laiq

2017-01-01

The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm. PMID:28329015

17. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system.

PubMed

Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq

2017-01-01

The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm.

18. Synchronization Algorithms for Co-Simulation of Power Grid and Communication Networks

SciTech Connect

Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Agarwal, Khushbu; Fuller, Jason C.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.

2014-09-11

The ongoing modernization of power grids consists of integrating them with communication networks in order to achieve robust and resilient control of grid operations. To understand the operation of the new smart grid, one approach is to use simulation software. Unfortunately, current power grid simulators at best utilize inadequate approximations to simulate communication networks, if at all. Cooperative simulation of specialized power grid and communication network simulators promises to more accurately reproduce the interactions of real smart grid deployments. However, co-simulation is a challenging problem. A co-simulation must manage the exchange of informa- tion, including the synchronization of simulator clocks, between all simulators while maintaining adequate computational perfor- mance. This paper describes two new conservative algorithms for reducing the overhead of time synchronization, namely Active Set Conservative and Reactive Conservative. We provide a detailed analysis of their performance characteristics with respect to the current state of the art including both conservative and optimistic synchronization algorithms. In addition, we provide guidelines for selecting the appropriate synchronization algorithm based on the requirements of the co-simulation. The newly proposed algorithms are shown to achieve as much as 14% and 63% im- provement, respectively, over the existing conservative algorithm.

19. Adaptive Grid Generation for Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations.

DTIC Science & Technology

1983-12-01

RETURN 65 Bibliography 1. Thompson , J . F ., "A Survey of Grid Generation Tecniques in Computational Fluid Dynamics," AIAA Paper No. 83-0447, 1-36...edited by K. N. Ghia and U. Ghia. ASME FED, 5: 35-47 (1983). 3. Thompson , J . F ., Thames, F. C., and Mastin, C. W., "Automated Numerical Generation...Equations," Numerical Grid Generation, Edited by J. F. Thompson. New York: North Holland, 1982. 10. Thompson , J . F ., and Mastin, C. W., "Grid Generation

20. Adaptive Energy Forecasting and Information Diffusion for Smart Power Grids

SciTech Connect

Simmhan, Yogesh; Agarwal, Vaibhav; Aman, Saim; Kumbhare, Alok; Natarajan, Sreedhar; Rajguru, Nikhil; Robinson, Ian; Stevens, Samuel; Yin, Wei; Zhou, Qunzhi; Prasanna, Viktor

2012-05-16

Smart Power Grids exemplify an emerging class of Cyber Physical Applications that exhibit dynamic, distributed and data intensive (D3) characteristics along with an always-on paradigm to support operational needs. Smart Grids are an outcome of instrumentation, such as Phasor Measurement Units and Smart Power Meters, that is being deployed across the transmission and distribution network of electric grids. These sensors provide utilities with improved situation awareness on near-realtime electricity usage by individual consumers, and the power quality and stability of the transmission network.

1. An Adaptive Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

SciTech Connect

2014-11-03

In this paper, we propose a new adaptive unified differential evolution algorithm for single-objective global optimization. Instead of the multiple mutation strate- gies proposed in conventional differential evolution algorithms, this algorithm employs a single equation unifying multiple strategies into one expression. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexibility for broader exploration of the space of mutation operators. By making all control parameters in the proposed algorithm self-adaptively evolve during the process of optimization, it frees the application users from the burden of choosing appro- priate control parameters and also improves the performance of the algorithm. In numerical tests using thirteen basic unimodal and multimodal functions, the proposed adaptive unified algorithm shows promising performance in compari- son to several conventional differential evolution algorithms.

2. A grid algorithm for high throughput fitting of dose-response curve data.

PubMed

Wang, Yuhong; Jadhav, Ajit; Southal, Noel; Huang, Ruili; Nguyen, Dac-Trung

2010-10-21

We describe a novel algorithm, Grid algorithm, and the corresponding computer program for high throughput fitting of dose-response curves that are described by the four-parameter symmetric logistic dose-response model. The Grid algorithm searches through all points in a grid of four dimensions (parameters) and finds the optimum one that corresponds to the best fit. Using simulated dose-response curves, we examined the Grid program's performance in reproducing the actual values that were used to generate the simulated data and compared it with the DRC package for the language and environment R and the XLfit add-in for Microsoft Excel. The Grid program was robust and consistently recovered the actual values for both complete and partial curves with or without noise. Both DRC and XLfit performed well on data without noise, but they were sensitive to and their performance degraded rapidly with increasing noise. The Grid program is automated and scalable to millions of dose-response curves, and it is able to process 100,000 dose-response curves from high throughput screening experiment per CPU hour. The Grid program has the potential of greatly increasing the productivity of large-scale dose-response data analysis and early drug discovery processes, and it is also applicable to many other curve fitting problems in chemical, biological, and medical sciences.

3. An Algorithm for Converting Contours to Elevation Grids.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reid-Green, Keith S.

Some of the test questions for the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards deal with the site, including drainage, regrading, and the like. Some questions are most easily scored by examining contours, but others, such as water flow questions, are best scored from a grid in which each element is assigned its average elevation. This…

4. An adaptive remeshing scheme for vortex dominated flows using three-dimensional unstructured grids

Parikh, Paresh

1995-10-01

An adaptive remeshing procedure for vortex dominated flows is described, which uses three-dimensional unstructured grids. Surface grid adaptation is achieved using the static pressure as an adaptation parameter, while entropy is used in the field to accurately identify high vorticity regions. An emphasis has been placed in making the scheme as automatic as possible so that a minimum user interaction is required between remeshing cycles. Adapted flow solutions are obtained on two sharp-edged configurations at low speed, high angle-of-attack flow conditions. The results thus obtained are compared with fine grid CFD solutions and experimental data, and conclusions are drawn as to the efficiency of the adaptive procedure.

5. Error and Symmetry Analysis of Misner's Algorithm for Spherical Harmonic Decomposition on a Cubic Grid

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fiske, David R.

2004-01-01

In an earlier paper, Misner (2004, Class. Quant. Grav., 21, S243) presented a novel algorithm for computing the spherical harmonic components of data represented on a cubic grid. I extend Misner s original analysis by making detailed error estimates of the numerical errors accrued by the algorithm, by using symmetry arguments to suggest a more efficient implementation scheme, and by explaining how the algorithm can be applied efficiently on data with explicit reflection symmetries.

6. A novel color filter array and demosaicking algorithm for hexagonal grids

Fröhlich, Alexander; Unterweger, Andreas

2015-03-01

We propose a new color filter array for hexagonal sampling grids and a corresponding demosaicking algorithm. By exploiting properties of the human visual system in their design, we show that our proposed color filter array and its demosaicking algorithm are able to outperform the widely used Bayer pattern with state-of-the-art demosaicking algorithms in terms of both, objective and subjective image quality.

7. An Off-Grid Turbo Channel Estimation Algorithm for Millimeter Wave Communications.

PubMed

Han, Lingyi; Peng, Yuexing; Wang, Peng; Li, Yonghui

2016-09-22

The bandwidth shortage has motivated the exploration of the millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency spectrum for future communication networks. To compensate for the severe propagation attenuation in the mmWave band, massive antenna arrays can be adopted at both the transmitter and receiver to provide large array gains via directional beamforming. To achieve such array gains, channel estimation (CE) with high resolution and low latency is of great importance for mmWave communications. However, classic super-resolution subspace CE methods such as multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and estimation of signal parameters via rotation invariant technique (ESPRIT) cannot be applied here due to RF chain constraints. In this paper, an enhanced CE algorithm is developed for the off-grid problem when quantizing the angles of mmWave channel in the spatial domain where off-grid problem refers to the scenario that angles do not lie on the quantization grids with high probability, and it results in power leakage and severe reduction of the CE performance. A new model is first proposed to formulate the off-grid problem. The new model divides the continuously-distributed angle into a quantized discrete grid part, referred to as the integral grid angle, and an offset part, termed fractional off-grid angle. Accordingly, an iterative off-grid turbo CE (IOTCE) algorithm is proposed to renew and upgrade the CE between the integral grid part and the fractional off-grid part under the Turbo principle. By fully exploiting the sparse structure of mmWave channels, the integral grid part is estimated by a soft-decoding based compressed sensing (CS) method called improved turbo compressed channel sensing (ITCCS). It iteratively updates the soft information between the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) estimator and the sparsity combiner. Monte Carlo simulations are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, and the results show that it enhances the angle detection

8. An Off-Grid Turbo Channel Estimation Algorithm for Millimeter Wave Communications

PubMed Central

Han, Lingyi; Peng, Yuexing; Wang, Peng; Li, Yonghui

2016-01-01

The bandwidth shortage has motivated the exploration of the millimeter wave (mmWave) frequency spectrum for future communication networks. To compensate for the severe propagation attenuation in the mmWave band, massive antenna arrays can be adopted at both the transmitter and receiver to provide large array gains via directional beamforming. To achieve such array gains, channel estimation (CE) with high resolution and low latency is of great importance for mmWave communications. However, classic super-resolution subspace CE methods such as multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and estimation of signal parameters via rotation invariant technique (ESPRIT) cannot be applied here due to RF chain constraints. In this paper, an enhanced CE algorithm is developed for the off-grid problem when quantizing the angles of mmWave channel in the spatial domain where off-grid problem refers to the scenario that angles do not lie on the quantization grids with high probability, and it results in power leakage and severe reduction of the CE performance. A new model is first proposed to formulate the off-grid problem. The new model divides the continuously-distributed angle into a quantized discrete grid part, referred to as the integral grid angle, and an offset part, termed fractional off-grid angle. Accordingly, an iterative off-grid turbo CE (IOTCE) algorithm is proposed to renew and upgrade the CE between the integral grid part and the fractional off-grid part under the Turbo principle. By fully exploiting the sparse structure of mmWave channels, the integral grid part is estimated by a soft-decoding based compressed sensing (CS) method called improved turbo compressed channel sensing (ITCCS). It iteratively updates the soft information between the linear minimum mean square error (LMMSE) estimator and the sparsity combiner. Monte Carlo simulations are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, and the results show that it enhances the angle detection

9. Adaptivity via mesh movement with three-dimensional block-structured grids

SciTech Connect

Catherall, D.

1996-12-31

The method described here is one in which grid nodes are redistributed so that they are attracted towards regions of high solution activity. The major difficulty in attempting this arises from the degree of grid smoothness and orthogonality required by the flow solver. These requirements are met by suitable choice of grid equations, to be satisfied by the adapted grid, and by the inclusion of certain source terms, for added control in regions where grid movement is limited by the local geometry. The method has been coded for multiblock grids, so that complex configurations may be treated. It is demonstrated here for inviscid supercritical flow with two test cases: an ONERA M6 wing with a rounded tip, and a forward-swept wing/fuselage configuration (M151).

10. A well-balanced numerical scheme for shallow water simulation on adaptive grids

Zhang, H. J.; Zhou, J. Z.; Bi, S.; Li, Q. Q.; Fan, Y.

2014-04-01

The efficiency of solving two-dimensional shallow-water equations (SWEs) is vital for simulation of large-scale flood inundation. For flood flows over real topography, local high-resolution method, which uses adaptable grids, is required in order to prevent the loss of accuracy of the flow pattern while saving computational cost. This paper introduces an adaptive grid model, which uses an adaptive criterion calculated on the basis of the water lever. The grid adaption is performed by manipulating subdivision levels of the computation grids. As the flow feature varies during the shallow wave propagation, the local grid density changes adaptively and the stored information of neighbor relationship updates correspondingly, achieving a balance between the model accuracy and running efficiency. In this work, a well-balanced (WB) scheme for solving SWEs is introduced. In reconstructions of Riemann state, the definition of the unique bottom elevation on grid interfaces is modified, and the numerical scheme is pre-balanced automatically. By the validation against two idealist test cases, the proposed model is applied to simulate flood inundation due to a dam-break of Zhanghe Reservoir, Hubei province, China. The results show that the presented model is robust and well-balanced, has nice computational efficiency and numerical stability, and thus has bright application prospects.

11. An Efficient Algorithm for Mapping Imaging Data to 3D Unstructured Grids in Computational Biomechanics

SciTech Connect

Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Carson, James P.; Einstein, David M.; Corley, Richard A.; Jacob, Rick E.

2013-01-01

Geometries for organ scale and multiscale simulations of organ function are now routinely derived from imaging data. However, medical images may also contain spatially heterogeneous information other than geometry that are relevant to such simulations either as initial conditions or in the form of model parameters. In this manuscript, we present an algorithm for the efficient and robust mapping of such data to imaging based unstructured polyhedral grids in parallel. We then illustrate the application of our mapping algorithm to three different mapping problems: 1) the mapping of MRI diffusion tensor data to an unstuctured ventricular grid; 2) the mapping of serial cyro-section histology data to an unstructured mouse brain grid; and 3) the mapping of CT-derived volumetric strain data to an unstructured multiscale lung grid. Execution times and parallel performance are reported for each case.

12. Application of adaptive hierarchical sparse grid collocation to the uncertainty quantification of nuclear reactor simulators

SciTech Connect

Yankov, A.; Downar, T.

2013-07-01

Recent efforts in the application of uncertainty quantification to nuclear systems have utilized methods based on generalized perturbation theory and stochastic sampling. While these methods have proven to be effective they both have major drawbacks that may impede further progress. A relatively new approach based on spectral elements for uncertainty quantification is applied in this paper to several problems in reactor simulation. Spectral methods based on collocation attempt to couple the approximation free nature of stochastic sampling methods with the determinism of generalized perturbation theory. The specific spectral method used in this paper employs both the Smolyak algorithm and adaptivity by using Newton-Cotes collocation points along with linear hat basis functions. Using this approach, a surrogate model for the outputs of a computer code is constructed hierarchically by adaptively refining the collocation grid until the interpolant is converged to a user-defined threshold. The method inherently fits into the framework of parallel computing and allows for the extraction of meaningful statistics and data that are not within reach of stochastic sampling and generalized perturbation theory. This paper aims to demonstrate the advantages of spectral methods-especially when compared to current methods used in reactor physics for uncertainty quantification-and to illustrate their full potential. (authors)

13. Multi-agent coordination algorithms for control of distributed energy resources in smart grids

Cortes, Andres

Sustainable energy is a top-priority for researchers these days, since electricity and transportation are pillars of modern society. Integration of clean energy technologies such as wind, solar, and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), is a major engineering challenge in operation and management of power systems. This is due to the uncertain nature of renewable energy technologies and the large amount of extra load that PEVs would add to the power grid. Given the networked structure of a power system, multi-agent control and optimization strategies are natural approaches to address the various problems of interest for the safe and reliable operation of the power grid. The distributed computation in multi-agent algorithms addresses three problems at the same time: i) it allows for the handling of problems with millions of variables that a single processor cannot compute, ii) it allows certain independence and privacy to electricity customers by not requiring any usage information, and iii) it is robust to localized failures in the communication network, being able to solve problems by simply neglecting the failing section of the system. We propose various algorithms to coordinate storage, generation, and demand resources in a power grid using multi-agent computation and decentralized decision making. First, we introduce a hierarchical vehicle-one-grid (V1G) algorithm for coordination of PEVs under usage constraints, where energy only flows from the grid in to the batteries of PEVs. We then present a hierarchical vehicle-to-grid (V2G) algorithm for PEV coordination that takes into consideration line capacity constraints in the distribution grid, and where energy flows both ways, from the grid in to the batteries, and from the batteries to the grid. Next, we develop a greedy-like hierarchical algorithm for management of demand response events with on/off loads. Finally, we introduce distributed algorithms for the optimal control of distributed energy resources, i

14. An Adaptive Mesh Algorithm: Mesh Structure and Generation

SciTech Connect

Scannapieco, Anthony J.

2016-06-21

The purpose of Adaptive Mesh Refinement is to minimize spatial errors over the computational space not to minimize the number of computational elements. The additional result of the technique is that it may reduce the number of computational elements needed to retain a given level of spatial accuracy. Adaptive mesh refinement is a computational technique used to dynamically select, over a region of space, a set of computational elements designed to minimize spatial error in the computational model of a physical process. The fundamental idea is to increase the mesh resolution in regions where the physical variables are represented by a broad spectrum of modes in k-space, hence increasing the effective global spectral coverage of those physical variables. In addition, the selection of the spatially distributed elements is done dynamically by cyclically adjusting the mesh to follow the spectral evolution of the system. Over the years three types of AMR schemes have evolved; block, patch and locally refined AMR. In block and patch AMR logical blocks of various grid sizes are overlaid to span the physical space of interest, whereas in locally refined AMR no logical blocks are employed but locally nested mesh levels are used to span the physical space. The distinction between block and patch AMR is that in block AMR the original blocks refine and coarsen entirely in time, whereas in patch AMR the patches change location and zone size with time. The type of AMR described herein is a locally refi ned AMR. In the algorithm described, at any point in physical space only one zone exists at whatever level of mesh that is appropriate for that physical location. The dynamic creation of a locally refi ned computational mesh is made practical by a judicious selection of mesh rules. With these rules the mesh is evolved via a mesh potential designed to concentrate the nest mesh in regions where the physics is modally dense, and coarsen zones in regions where the physics is modally

15. Parallel and Grid-Based Data Mining - Algorithms, Models and Systems for High-Performance KDD

Congiusta, Antonio; Talia, Domenico; Trunfio, Paolo

Data Mining often is a computing intensive and time requiring process. For this reason, several Data Mining systems have been implemented on parallel computing platforms to achieve high performance in the analysis of large data sets. Moreover, when large data repositories are coupled with geographical distribution of data, users and systems, more sophisticated technologies are needed to implement high-performance distributed KDD systems. Since computational Grids emerged as privileged platforms for distributed computing, a growing number of Grid-based KDD systems has been proposed. In this chapter we first discuss different ways to exploit parallelism in the main Data Mining techniques and algorithms, then we discuss Grid-based KDD systems. Finally, we introduce the Knowledge Grid, an environment which makes use of standard Grid middleware to support the development of parallel and distributed knowledge discovery applications.

16. Adaptive Grid Techniques for Elliptic Fluid-Flow Problems,

DTIC Science & Technology

1985-12-01

J . F . (1984), "Grid Generation Techniques in Computational Fluid Dynamics," AIAA Jnl., Vol. 22, No. 11, pp. 1505-1523. Thompson , J . F . (1983...Procedure," Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Computer Science, Stanford University, Calif. Tang, W. P., W. Skamarock, and J. Oliger (1985). To appear. Thompson

17. Locally adapted space-wise grids from GOCE data

Reguzzoni, Mirko; Gatti, Andrea; De Gaetani, Carlo; Migliaccio, Federica; Sansò, Fernando

2014-05-01

GOCE data are usually translated into a spherical harmonic global model that can be used to generate various functionals of the Earth's gravitational field. An alternative representation of the information coming from GOCE is to project the observed along-track gradients onto a spherical grid at mean satellite altitude. This is the solution pursued in this work by exploiting the so called space-wise approach. In particular, once the data are filtered along the orbit in order to reduce variance and correlation of the observation noise, a gridding procedure is implemented by least-squares collocation on local data patches. Crucial points are the new way in which data are subdivided and local covariances are modeled. Basically the idea is to consider clouds of observation points around each grid knot reducing as much as possible the data undersampling in order to catch their local information. Inside the point cloud a signal covariance model based on local degree variances is used. The method has been applied on a subset of GOCE data. The resulting grid values are compared with those synthesized from a global model based on the same observation time span, showing the differences between the two representations.

18. A Hierarchical and Distributed Approach for Mapping Large Applications to Heterogeneous Grids using Genetic Algorithms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sanyal, Soumya; Jain, Amit; Das, Sajal K.; Biswas, Rupak

2003-01-01

In this paper, we propose a distributed approach for mapping a single large application to a heterogeneous grid environment. To minimize the execution time of the parallel application, we distribute the mapping overhead to the available nodes of the grid. This approach not only provides a fast mapping of tasks to resources but is also scalable. We adopt a hierarchical grid model and accomplish the job of mapping tasks to this topology using a scheduler tree. Results show that our three-phase algorithm provides high quality mappings, and is fast and scalable.

19. Computations of Unsteady Viscous Compressible Flows Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-fitted Grid Systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steinthorsson, E.; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

1994-01-01

A methodology for accurate and efficient simulation of unsteady, compressible flows is presented. The cornerstones of the methodology are a special discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on structured body-fitted grid systems and an efficient solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique for structured grids. The discretization employs an explicit multidimensional upwind scheme for the inviscid fluxes and an implicit treatment of the viscous terms. The mesh refinement technique is based on the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella. In this approach, cells on each level of refinement are organized into a small number of topologically rectangular blocks, each containing several thousand cells. The small number of blocks leads to small overhead in managing data, while their size and regular topology means that a high degree of optimization can be achieved on computers with vector processors.

20. Bayesian strong gravitational-lens modelling on adaptive grids: objective detection of mass substructure in Galaxies

Vegetti, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

2009-01-01

We introduce a new adaptive and fully Bayesian grid-based method to model strong gravitational lenses with extended images. The primary goal of this method is to quantify the level of luminous and dark mass substructure in massive galaxies, through their effect on highly magnified arcs and Einstein rings. The method is adaptive on the source plane, where a Delaunay tessellation is defined according to the lens mapping of a regular grid on to the source plane. The Bayesian penalty function allows us to recover the best non-linear potential-model parameters and/or a grid-based potential correction and to objectively quantify the level of regularization for both the source and potential. In addition, we implement a Nested-Sampling technique to quantify the errors on all non-linear mass model parameters - marginalized over all source and regularization parameters - and allow an objective ranking of different potential models in terms of the marginalized evidence. In particular, we are interested in comparing very smooth lens mass models with ones that contain mass substructures. The algorithm has been tested on a range of simulated data sets, created from a model of a realistic lens system. One of the lens systems is characterized by a smooth potential with a power-law density profile, 12 include a Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) dark matter substructure of different masses and at different positions and one contains two NFW dark substructures with the same mass but with different positions. Reconstruction of the source and lens potential for all of these systems shows the method is able, in a realistic scenario, to identify perturbations with masses >~107Msolar when located on the Einstein ring. For positions both inside and outside of the ring, masses of at least 109Msolar are required (i.e. roughly the Einstein ring of the perturber needs to overlap with that of the main lens). Our method provides a fully novel and objective test of mass substructure in massive

1. An Adaptive Cauchy Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Numerical Optimization

PubMed Central

Choi, Tae Jong; Ahn, Chang Wook; An, Jinung

2013-01-01

Adaptation of control parameters, such as scaling factor (F), crossover rate (CR), and population size (NP), appropriately is one of the major problems of Differential Evolution (DE) literature. Well-designed adaptive or self-adaptive parameter control method can highly improve the performance of DE. Although there are many suggestions for adapting the control parameters, it is still a challenging task to properly adapt the control parameters for problem. In this paper, we present an adaptive parameter control DE algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, each individual has its own control parameters. The control parameters of each individual are adapted based on the average parameter value of successfully evolved individuals' parameter values by using the Cauchy distribution. Through this, the control parameters of each individual are assigned either near the average parameter value or far from that of the average parameter value which might be better parameter value for next generation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is more robust than the standard DE algorithm and several state-of-the-art adaptive DE algorithms in solving various unimodal and multimodal problems. PMID:23935445

2. An adaptive Cauchy differential evolution algorithm for global numerical optimization.

PubMed

Choi, Tae Jong; Ahn, Chang Wook; An, Jinung

2013-01-01

Adaptation of control parameters, such as scaling factor (F), crossover rate (CR), and population size (NP), appropriately is one of the major problems of Differential Evolution (DE) literature. Well-designed adaptive or self-adaptive parameter control method can highly improve the performance of DE. Although there are many suggestions for adapting the control parameters, it is still a challenging task to properly adapt the control parameters for problem. In this paper, we present an adaptive parameter control DE algorithm. In the proposed algorithm, each individual has its own control parameters. The control parameters of each individual are adapted based on the average parameter value of successfully evolved individuals' parameter values by using the Cauchy distribution. Through this, the control parameters of each individual are assigned either near the average parameter value or far from that of the average parameter value which might be better parameter value for next generation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is more robust than the standard DE algorithm and several state-of-the-art adaptive DE algorithms in solving various unimodal and multimodal problems.

3. An Adaptive Grid Algorithm for Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Flows

DTIC Science & Technology

1990-04-01

to nodesj and k are: FIGURE 3.9 Variation of property u showing degeneracy of smoothing operator near boundaries. at the interio nodej ; Dj=DA+D- (3.25...simply mirror images of A and B. The boundary conditions for such nodes is clear. Using the notation of Figure 3.12, the change at nodej is: 8Uj= 28UA)j

4. New method adaptive to geospatial information acquisition and share based on grid

Fu, Yingchun; Yuan, Xiuxiao

2005-11-01

As we all know, it is difficult and time-consuming to acquire and share multi-source geospatial information in grid computing environment, especially for the data of different geo-reference benchmark. Although middleware for data format transformation has been applied by many grid applications and GIS software systems, it remains difficult to on demand realize spatial data assembly jobs among various geo-reference benchmarks because of complex computation of rigorous coordinate transformation model. To address the problem, an efficient hierarchical quadtree structure referred as multi-level grids is designed and coded to express the multi-scale global geo-space. The geospatial objects located in a certain grid of multi-level grids may be expressed as an increment value which is relative to the grid central point and is constant in different geo-reference benchmark. A mediator responsible for geo-reference transformation function with multi-level grids has been developed and aligned with grid service. With help of the mediator, a map or query spatial data sets from individual source of different geo-references can be merged into an uniform composite result. Instead of complex data pre-processing prior to compatible spatial integration, the introduced method is adaptive to be integrated with grid-enable service.

5. Adaptive Unstructured Grid Generation for Modeling of Coastal Margins

DTIC Science & Technology

1999-09-30

applied to the 2+1D simulations of the barotropic circulation in the Tagus estuary (Fortunato et al. 1997). The approach, denoted localized sigma...analysis. Application to the Tagus does not appear to have produced new pathologies relative to a conventional sigma-coordinate discretization, and reduced...particular, adopt and provide additional testbeds and technical feedback for our grid generation software. The Columbia River estuary and plume have provided

6. Adaptive local grid refinement for the compressible 3-D Euler equations

Schoenfeld, Thilo

A method is presented based on a three-dimensional Euler code, using the explicit finite volume technique and a Runge-Kutta scheme, and applied in an adaptive version for the transonic flow around wings. The method allows embedded subgrids at two levels of refinement. Computations are performed with both various fixed refined grids and in an adaptive version applying a pressure or density gradient sensor. When comparing the results of embedded grid computations with calculations on only a total coarse or fine mesh, it can be stated that the local grid refinement technique is an effective framework to obtain well-resolved solutions with, at the same time, a minimum of grid points.

7. FLAG: A multi-dimensional adaptive free-Lagrange code for fully unstructured grids

SciTech Connect

Burton, D.E.; Miller, D.S.; Palmer, T.

1995-07-01

The authors describe FLAG, a 3D adaptive free-Lagrange method for unstructured grids. The grid elements were 3D polygons, which move with the flow, and are refined or reconnected as necessary to achieve uniform accuracy. The authors stressed that they were able to construct a 3D hydro version of this code in 3 months, using an object-oriented FORTRAN approach.

8. A fast image super-resolution algorithm using an adaptive Wiener filter.

PubMed

Hardie, Russell

2007-12-01

A computationally simple super-resolution algorithm using a type of adaptive Wiener filter is proposed. The algorithm produces an improved resolution image from a sequence of low-resolution (LR) video frames with overlapping field of view. The algorithm uses subpixel registration to position each LR pixel value on a common spatial grid that is referenced to the average position of the input frames. The positions of the LR pixels are not quantized to a finite grid as with some previous techniques. The output high-resolution (HR) pixels are obtained using a weighted sum of LR pixels in a local moving window. Using a statistical model, the weights for each HR pixel are designed to minimize the mean squared error and they depend on the relative positions of the surrounding LR pixels. Thus, these weights adapt spatially and temporally to changing distributions of LR pixels due to varying motion. Both a global and spatially varying statistical model are considered here. Since the weights adapt with distribution of LR pixels, it is quite robust and will not become unstable when an unfavorable distribution of LR pixels is observed. For translational motion, the algorithm has a low computational complexity and may be readily suitable for real-time and/or near real-time processing applications. With other motion models, the computational complexity goes up significantly. However, regardless of the motion model, the algorithm lends itself to parallel implementation. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated here in a number of experimental results using simulated and real video sequences. A computational analysis is also presented.

9. Adaptive phase aberration correction based on imperialist competitive algorithm.

PubMed

Yazdani, R; Hajimahmoodzadeh, M; Fallah, H R

2014-01-01

We investigate numerically the feasibility of phase aberration correction in a wavefront sensorless adaptive optical system, based on the imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA). Considering a 61-element deformable mirror (DM) and the Strehl ratio as the cost function of ICA, this algorithm is employed to search the optimum surface profile of DM for correcting the phase aberrations in a solid-state laser system. The correction results show that ICA is a powerful correction algorithm for static or slowly changing phase aberrations in optical systems, such as solid-state lasers. The correction capability and the convergence speed of this algorithm are compared with those of the genetic algorithm (GA) and stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm. The results indicate that these algorithms have almost the same correction capability. Also, ICA and GA are almost the same in convergence speed and SPGD is the fastest of these algorithms.

10. Application of a self-adaptive grid method to complex flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Deiwert, G. S.; Venkatapathy, E.; Davies, C.; Djomehri, J.; Abrahamson, K.

1989-01-01

A directional-split, modular, user-friendly grid point distribution code is applied to several test problems. The code is self-adaptive in the sense that grid point spacing is determined by user-specified constants denoting maximum and minimum grid spacings and constants relating the relative influence of smoothness and orthogonality. Estimates of truncation error, in terms of flow-field gradients and/or geometric features, are used to determine the point distribution. Points are redistributed along grid lines in a specified direction in an elliptic manner over a user-specified subdomain, while orthogonality and smoothness are controlled in a parabolic (marching) manner in the remaining directions. Multidirectional adaption is achieved by sequential application of the method in each coordinate direction. The flow-field solution is redistributed onto the newly distributed grid points after each unidirectional adaption by a simple one-dimensional interpolation scheme. For time-accurate schemes such interpolation is not necessary and time-dependent metrics are carried in the fluid dynamic equations to account for grid movement.

11. Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution Algorithm With Zoning Evolution of Control Parameters and Adaptive Mutation Strategies.

PubMed

Fan, Qinqin; Yan, Xuefeng

2016-01-01

The performance of the differential evolution (DE) algorithm is significantly affected by the choice of mutation strategies and control parameters. Maintaining the search capability of various control parameter combinations throughout the entire evolution process is also a key issue. A self-adaptive DE algorithm with zoning evolution of control parameters and adaptive mutation strategies is proposed in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, the mutation strategies are automatically adjusted with population evolution, and the control parameters evolve in their own zoning to self-adapt and discover near optimal values autonomously. The proposed algorithm is compared with five state-of-the-art DE algorithm variants according to a set of benchmark test functions. Furthermore, seven nonparametric statistical tests are implemented to analyze the experimental results. The results indicate that the overall performance of the proposed algorithm is better than those of the five existing improved algorithms.

12. Unstructured Grid Adaptation: Status, Potential Impacts, and Recommended Investments Toward CFD Vision 2030

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Park, Michael A.; Krakos, Joshua A.; Michal, Todd; Loseille, Adrien; Alonso, Juan J.

2016-01-01

Unstructured grid adaptation is a powerful tool to control discretization error for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It has enabled key increases in the accuracy, automation, and capacity of some fluid simulation applications. Slotnick et al. provides a number of case studies in the CFD Vision 2030 Study: A Path to Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences to illustrate the current state of CFD capability and capacity. The authors forecast the potential impact of emerging High Performance Computing (HPC) environments forecast in the year 2030 and identify that mesh generation and adaptivity continue to be significant bottlenecks in the CFD work flow. These bottlenecks may persist because very little government investment has been targeted in these areas. To motivate investment, the impacts of improved grid adaptation technologies are identified. The CFD Vision 2030 Study roadmap and anticipated capabilities in complementary disciplines are quoted to provide context for the progress made in grid adaptation in the past fifteen years, current status, and a forecast for the next fifteen years with recommended investments. These investments are specific to mesh adaptation and impact other aspects of the CFD process. Finally, a strategy is identified to diffuse grid adaptation technology into production CFD work flows.

13. A self-adaptive-grid method with application to airfoil flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nakahashi, K.; Deiwert, G. S.

1985-01-01

A self-adaptive-grid method is described that is suitable for multidimensional steady and unsteady computations. Based on variational principles, a spring analogy is used to redistribute grid points in an optimal sense to reduce the overall solution error. User-specified parameters, denoting both maximum and minimum permissible grid spacings, are used to define the all-important constants, thereby minimizing the empiricism and making the method self-adaptive. Operator splitting and one-sided controls for orthogonality and smoothness are used to make the method practical, robust, and efficient. Examples are included for both steady and unsteady viscous flow computations about airfoils in two dimensions, as well as for a steady inviscid flow computation and a one-dimensional case. These examples illustrate the precise control the user has with the self-adaptive method and demonstrate a significant improvement in accuracy and quality of the solutions.

14. Adaptive Local Grid Refinement in Computational Fluid Mechanics.

DTIC Science & Technology

1987-11-01

Adaptive mesh refinements in reservoir simulation applications (R.E. Ew- ing), Proceedings Intl. Conference on Accuracy Est. and Adaptive Refine... reservoir simulation (R.E. Ewing and .J.V. 1{oebbe), Innovati’ve Numerical Mlethods in Engineering, (R.P. Shaw, J. Pc- riaux, A. Chaudouet, J. Wu...Universities, Cheyenne, Wyoming, February 21, 1986, O 9. Finite element techniques for reservoir simulation , Fourth International Sym- posium on Numerical

15. Optimal Pid Controller Design Using Adaptive Vurpso Algorithm

2015-04-01

The purpose of this paper is to improve theVelocity Update Relaxation Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (VURPSO). The improved algorithm is called Adaptive VURPSO (AVURPSO) algorithm. Then, an optimal design of a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller is obtained using the AVURPSO algorithm. An adaptive momentum factor is used to regulate a trade-off between the global and the local exploration abilities in the proposed algorithm. This operation helps the system to reach the optimal solution quickly and saves the computation time. Comparisons on the optimal PID controller design confirm the superiority of AVURPSO algorithm to the optimization algorithms mentioned in this paper namely the VURPSO algorithm, the Ant Colony algorithm, and the conventional approach. Comparisons on the speed of convergence confirm that the proposed algorithm has a faster convergence in a less computation time to yield a global optimum value. The proposed AVURPSO can be used in the diverse areas of optimization problems such as industrial planning, resource allocation, scheduling, decision making, pattern recognition and machine learning. The proposed AVURPSO algorithm is efficiently used to design an optimal PID controller.

16. Developing Information Power Grid Based Algorithms and Software

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dongarra, Jack

1998-01-01

This exploratory study initiated our effort to understand performance modeling on parallel systems. The basic goal of performance modeling is to understand and predict the performance of a computer program or set of programs on a computer system. Performance modeling has numerous applications, including evaluation of algorithms, optimization of code implementations, parallel library development, comparison of system architectures, parallel system design, and procurement of new systems. Our work lays the basis for the construction of parallel libraries that allow for the reconstruction of application codes on several distinct architectures so as to assure performance portability. Following our strategy, once the requirements of applications are well understood, one can then construct a library in a layered fashion. The top level of this library will consist of architecture-independent geometric, numerical, and symbolic algorithms that are needed by the sample of applications. These routines should be written in a language that is portable across the targeted architectures.

17. An object-oriented approach for parallel self adaptive mesh refinement on block structured grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lemke, Max; Witsch, Kristian; Quinlan, Daniel

1993-01-01

Self-adaptive mesh refinement dynamically matches the computational demands of a solver for partial differential equations to the activity in the application's domain. In this paper we present two C++ class libraries, P++ and AMR++, which significantly simplify the development of sophisticated adaptive mesh refinement codes on (massively) parallel distributed memory architectures. The development is based on our previous research in this area. The C++ class libraries provide abstractions to separate the issues of developing parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications into those of parallelism, abstracted by P++, and adaptive mesh refinement, abstracted by AMR++. P++ is a parallel array class library to permit efficient development of architecture independent codes for structured grid applications, and AMR++ provides support for self-adaptive mesh refinement on block-structured grids of rectangular non-overlapping blocks. Using these libraries, the application programmers' work is greatly simplified to primarily specifying the serial single grid application and obtaining the parallel and self-adaptive mesh refinement code with minimal effort. Initial results for simple singular perturbation problems solved by self-adaptive multilevel techniques (FAC, AFAC), being implemented on the basis of prototypes of the P++/AMR++ environment, are presented. Singular perturbation problems frequently arise in large applications, e.g. in the area of computational fluid dynamics. They usually have solutions with layers which require adaptive mesh refinement and fast basic solvers in order to be resolved efficiently.

18. Adapting a commercial power system simulator for smart grid based system study and vulnerability assessment

Navaratne, Uditha Sudheera

The smart grid is the future of the power grid. Smart meters and the associated network play a major role in the distributed system of the smart grid. Advance Metering Infrastructure (AMI) can enhance the reliability of the grid, generate efficient energy management opportunities and many innovations around the future smart grid. These innovations involve intense research not only on the AMI network itself but as also on the influence an AMI network can have upon the rest of the power grid. This research describes a smart meter testbed with hardware in loop that can facilitate future research in an AMI network. The smart meters in the testbed were developed such that their functionality can be customized to simulate any given scenario such as integrating new hardware components into a smart meter or developing new encryption algorithms in firmware. These smart meters were integrated into the power system simulator to simulate the power flow variation in the power grid on different AMI activities. Each smart meter in the network also provides a communication interface to the home area network. This research delivers a testbed for emulating the AMI activities and monitoring their effect on the smart grid.

19. Adaptive grid finite element model of the tokamak scrapeoff layer

SciTech Connect

Kuprat, A.P.; Glasser, A.H.

1995-07-01

The authors discuss unstructured grids for application to transport in the tokamak edge SOL. They have developed a new metric with which to judge element elongation and resolution requirements. Using this method, the authors apply a standard moving finite element technique to advance the SOL equations while inserting/deleting dynamically nodes that violate an elongation criterion. In a tokamak plasma, this method achieves a more uniform accuracy, and results in highly stretched triangular finite elements, except near separatrix X-point where transport is more isotropic.

20. A Multiconstrained Grid Scheduling Algorithm with Load Balancing and Fault Tolerance.

PubMed

Keerthika, P; Suresh, P

2015-01-01

Grid environment consists of millions of dynamic and heterogeneous resources. A grid environment which deals with computing resources is computational grid and is meant for applications that involve larger computations. A scheduling algorithm is said to be efficient if and only if it performs better resource allocation even in case of resource failure. Allocation of resources is a tedious issue since it has to consider several requirements such as system load, processing cost and time, user's deadline, and resource failure. This work attempts to design a resource allocation algorithm which is budget constrained and also targets load balancing, fault tolerance, and user satisfaction by considering the above requirements. The proposed Multiconstrained Load Balancing Fault Tolerant algorithm (MLFT) reduces the schedule makespan, schedule cost, and task failure rate and improves resource utilization. The proposed MLFT algorithm is evaluated using Gridsim toolkit and the results are compared with the recent algorithms which separately concentrate on all these factors. The comparison results ensure that the proposed algorithm works better than its counterparts.

1. Classification of adaptive memetic algorithms: a comparative study.

PubMed

Ong, Yew-Soon; Lim, Meng-Hiot; Zhu, Ning; Wong, Kok-Wai

2006-02-01

Adaptation of parameters and operators represents one of the recent most important and promising areas of research in evolutionary computations; it is a form of designing self-configuring algorithms that acclimatize to suit the problem in hand. Here, our interests are on a recent breed of hybrid evolutionary algorithms typically known as adaptive memetic algorithms (MAs). One unique feature of adaptive MAs is the choice of local search methods or memes and recent studies have shown that this choice significantly affects the performances of problem searches. In this paper, we present a classification of memes adaptation in adaptive MAs on the basis of the mechanism used and the level of historical knowledge on the memes employed. Then the asymptotic convergence properties of the adaptive MAs considered are analyzed according to the classification. Subsequently, empirical studies on representatives of adaptive MAs for different type-level meme adaptations using continuous benchmark problems indicate that global-level adaptive MAs exhibit better search performances. Finally we conclude with some promising research directions in the area.

2. The PCNN adaptive segmentation algorithm based on visual perception

Zhao, Yanming

To solve network adaptive parameter determination problem of the pulse coupled neural network (PCNN), and improve the image segmentation results in image segmentation. The PCNN adaptive segmentation algorithm based on visual perception of information is proposed. Based on the image information of visual perception and Gabor mathematical model of Optic nerve cells receptive field, the algorithm determines adaptively the receptive field of each pixel of the image. And determines adaptively the network parameters W, M, and β of PCNN by the Gabor mathematical model, which can overcome the problem of traditional PCNN parameter determination in the field of image segmentation. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the region connectivity and edge regularity of segmentation image. And also show the PCNN of visual perception information for segmentation image of advantage.

3. A Domain-Decomposed Multi-Level Method for Adaptively Refined Cartesian Grids with Embedded Boundaries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Adomavicius, G.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

The work presents a new method for on-the-fly domain decomposition technique for mapping grids and solution algorithms to parallel machines, and is applicable to both shared-memory and message-passing architectures. It will be demonstrated on the Cray T3E, HP Exemplar, and SGI Origin 2000. Computing time has been secured on all these platforms. The decomposition technique is an outgrowth of techniques used in computational physics for simulations of N-body problems and the event horizons of black holes, and has not been previously used by the CFD community. Since the technique offers on-the-fly partitioning, it offers a substantial increase in flexibility for computing in heterogeneous environments, where the number of available processors may not be known at the time of job submission. In addition, since it is dynamic it permits the job to be repartitioned without global communication in cases where additional processors become available after the simulation has begun, or in cases where dynamic mesh adaptation changes the mesh size during the course of a simulation. The platform for this partitioning strategy is a completely new Cartesian Euler solver tarcreted at parallel machines which may be used in conjunction with Ames' "Cart3D" arbitrary geometry simulation package.

4. Adaptively resizing populations: Algorithm, analysis, and first results

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smith, Robert E.; Smuda, Ellen

1993-01-01

Deciding on an appropriate population size for a given Genetic Algorithm (GA) application can often be critical to the algorithm's success. Too small, and the GA can fall victim to sampling error, affecting the efficacy of its search. Too large, and the GA wastes computational resources. Although advice exists for sizing GA populations, much of this advice involves theoretical aspects that are not accessible to the novice user. An algorithm for adaptively resizing GA populations is suggested. This algorithm is based on recent theoretical developments that relate population size to schema fitness variance. The suggested algorithm is developed theoretically, and simulated with expected value equations. The algorithm is then tested on a problem where population sizing can mislead the GA. The work presented suggests that the population sizing algorithm may be a viable way to eliminate the population sizing decision from the application of GA's.

5. Fast 3-D large-scale gravity and magnetic modeling using unstructured grids and an adaptive multilevel fast multipole method

Ren, Zhengyong; Tang, Jingtian; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Maurer, Hansruedi

2017-01-01

A novel fast and accurate algorithm is developed for large-scale 3-D gravity and magnetic modeling problems. An unstructured grid discretization is used to approximate sources with arbitrary mass and magnetization distributions. A novel adaptive multilevel fast multipole (AMFM) method is developed to reduce the modeling time. An observation octree is constructed on a set of arbitrarily distributed observation sites, while a source octree is constructed on a source tetrahedral grid. A novel characteristic is the independence between the observation octree and the source octree, which simplifies the implementation of different survey configurations such as airborne and ground surveys. Two synthetic models, a cubic model and a half-space model with mountain-valley topography, are tested. As compared to analytical solutions of gravity and magnetic signals, excellent agreements of the solutions verify the accuracy of our AMFM algorithm. Finally, our AMFM method is used to calculate the terrain effect on an airborne gravity data set for a realistic topography model represented by a triangular surface retrieved from a digital elevation model. Using 16 threads, more than 5800 billion interactions between 1,002,001 observation points and 5,839,830 tetrahedral elements are computed in 453.6 s. A traditional first-order Gaussian quadrature approach requires 3.77 days. Hence, our new AMFM algorithm not only can quickly compute the gravity and magnetic signals for complicated problems but also can substantially accelerate the solution of 3-D inversion problems.

6. Adaptive Grid Based Localized Learning for Multidimensional Data

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Saini, Sheetal

2012-01-01

Rapid advances in data-rich domains of science, technology, and business has amplified the computational challenges of "Big Data" synthesis necessary to slow the widening gap between the rate at which the data is being collected and analyzed for knowledge. This has led to the renewed need for efficient and accurate algorithms, framework,…

7. A De-centralized Scheduling and Load Balancing Algorithm for Heterogeneous Grid Environments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arora, Manish; Das, Sajal K.; Biswas, Rupak

2002-01-01

In the past two decades, numerous scheduling and load balancing techniques have been proposed for locally distributed multiprocessor systems. However, they all suffer from significant deficiencies when extended to a Grid environment: some use a centralized approach that renders the algorithm unscalable, while others assume the overhead involved in searching for appropriate resources to be negligible. Furthermore, classical scheduling algorithms do not consider a Grid node to be N-resource rich and merely work towards maximizing the utilization of one of the resources. In this paper, we propose a new scheduling and load balancing algorithm for a generalized Grid model of N-resource nodes that not only takes into account the node and network heterogeneity, but also considers the overhead involved in coordinating among the nodes. Our algorithm is decentralized, scalable, and overlaps the node coordination time with that of the actual processing of ready jobs, thus saving valuable clock cycles needed for making decisions. The proposed algorithm is studied by conducting simulations using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) paradigm.

8. A De-Centralized Scheduling and Load Balancing Algorithm for Heterogeneous Grid Environments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arora, Manish; Das, Sajal K.; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

In the past two decades, numerous scheduling and load balancing techniques have been proposed for locally distributed multiprocessor systems. However, they all suffer from significant deficiencies when extended to a Grid environment: some use a centralized approach that renders the algorithm unscalable, while others assume the overhead involved in searching for appropriate resources to be negligible. Furthermore, classical scheduling algorithms do not consider a Grid node to be N-resource rich and merely work towards maximizing the utilization of one of the resources. In this paper we propose a new scheduling and load balancing algorithm for a generalized Grid model of N-resource nodes that not only takes into account the node and network heterogeneity, but also considers the overhead involved in coordinating among the nodes. Our algorithm is de-centralized, scalable, and overlaps the node coordination time of the actual processing of ready jobs, thus saving valuable clock cycles needed for making decisions. The proposed algorithm is studied by conducting simulations using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) paradigm.

9. Refinements and practical implementation of a power based loss of grid detection algorithm for embedded generators

Barrett, James

The incorporation of small, privately owned generation operating in parallel with, and supplying power to, the distribution network is becoming more widespread. This method of operation does however have problems associated with it. In particular, a loss of the connection to the main utility supply which leaves a portion of the utility load connected to the embedded generator will result in a power island. This situation presents possible dangers to utility personnel and the public, complications for smooth system operation and probable plant damage should the two systems be reconnected out-of-synchronism. Loss of Grid (or Islanding), as this situation is known, is the subject of this thesis. The work begins by detailing the requirements for operation of generation embedded in the utility supply with particular attention drawn to the requirements for a loss of grid protection scheme. The mathematical basis for a new loss of grid protection algorithm is developed and the inclusion of the algorithm in an integrated generator protection scheme described. A detailed description is given on the implementation of the new algorithm in a microprocessor based relay hardware to allow practical tests on small embedded generation facilities, including an in-house multiple generator test facility. The results obtained from the practical tests are compared with those obtained from simulation studies carried out in previous work and the differences are discussed. The performance of the algorithm is enhanced from the theoretical algorithm developed using the simulation results with simple filtering together with pattern recognition techniques. This provides stability during severe load fluctuations under parallel operation and system fault conditions and improved performance under normal operating conditions and for loss of grid detection. In addition to operating for a loss of grid connection, the algorithm will respond to load fluctuations which occur within a power island

10. An assessment of the adaptive unstructured tetrahedral grid, Euler Flow Solver Code FELISA

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Djomehri, M. Jahed; Erickson, Larry L.

1994-01-01

A three-dimensional solution-adaptive Euler flow solver for unstructured tetrahedral meshes is assessed, and the accuracy and efficiency of the method for predicting sonic boom pressure signatures about simple generic models are demonstrated. Comparison of computational and wind tunnel data and enhancement of numerical solutions by means of grid adaptivity are discussed. The mesh generation is based on the advancing front technique. The FELISA code consists of two solvers, the Taylor-Galerkin and the Runge-Kutta-Galerkin schemes, both of which are spacially discretized by the usual Galerkin weighted residual finite-element methods but with different explicit time-marching schemes to steady state. The solution-adaptive grid procedure is based on either remeshing or mesh refinement techniques. An alternative geometry adaptive procedure is also incorporated.

11. Parallel Implementation of an Adaptive Scheme for 3D Unstructured Grids on the SP2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Strawn, Roger C.

1996-01-01

Dynamic mesh adaption on unstructured grids is a powerful tool for computing unsteady flows that require local grid modifications to efficiently resolve solution features. For this work, we consider an edge-based adaption scheme that has shown good single-processor performance on the C90. We report on our experience parallelizing this code for the SP2. Results show a 47.OX speedup on 64 processors when 10% of the mesh is randomly refined. Performance deteriorates to 7.7X when the same number of edges are refined in a highly-localized region. This is because almost all mesh adaption is confined to a single processor. However, this problem can be remedied by repartitioning the mesh immediately after targeting edges for refinement but before the actual adaption takes place. With this change, the speedup improves dramatically to 43.6X.

12. Parallel implementation of an adaptive scheme for 3D unstructured grids on the SP2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strawn, Roger C.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

1996-01-01

Dynamic mesh adaption on unstructured grids is a powerful tool for computing unsteady flows that require local grid modifications to efficiently resolve solution features. For this work, we consider an edge-based adaption scheme that has shown good single-processor performance on the C90. We report on our experience parallelizing this code for the SP2. Results show a 47.0X speedup on 64 processors when 10 percent of the mesh is randomly refined. Performance deteriorates to 7.7X when the same number of edges are refined in a highly-localized region. This is because almost all the mesh adaption is confined to a single processor. However, this problem can be remedied by repartitioning the mesh immediately after targeting edges for refinement but before the actual adaption takes place. With this change, the speedup improves dramatically to 43.6X.

13. Grid-Adapted FUN3D Computations for the Second High Lift Prediction Workshop

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lee-Rausch, E. M.; Rumsey, C. L.; Park, M. A.

2014-01-01

Contributions of the unstructured Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code FUN3D to the 2nd AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop are described, and detailed comparisons are made with experimental data. Using workshop-supplied grids, results for the clean wing configuration are compared with results from the structured code CFL3D Using the same turbulence model, both codes compare reasonably well in terms of total forces and moments, and the maximum lift is similarly over-predicted for both codes compared to experiment. By including more representative geometry features such as slat and flap brackets and slat pressure tube bundles, FUN3D captures the general effects of the Reynolds number variation, but under-predicts maximum lift on workshop-supplied grids in comparison with the experimental data, due to excessive separation. However, when output-based, off-body grid adaptation in FUN3D is employed, results improve considerably. In particular, when the geometry includes both brackets and the pressure tube bundles, grid adaptation results in a more accurate prediction of lift near stall in comparison with the wind-tunnel data. Furthermore, a rotation-corrected turbulence model shows improved pressure predictions on the outboard span when using adapted grids.

14. Adaptive wavelet transform algorithm for image compression applications

Pogrebnyak, Oleksiy B.; Manrique Ramirez, Pablo

2003-11-01

A new algorithm of locally adaptive wavelet transform is presented. The algorithm implements the integer-to-integer lifting scheme. It performs an adaptation of the wavelet function at the prediction stage to the local image data activity. The proposed algorithm is based on the generalized framework for the lifting scheme that permits to obtain easily different wavelet coefficients in the case of the (N~,N) lifting. It is proposed to perform the hard switching between (2, 4) and (4, 4) lifting filter outputs according to an estimate of the local data activity. When the data activity is high, i.e., in the vicinity of edges, the (4, 4) lifting is performed. Otherwise, in the plain areas, the (2,4) decomposition coefficients are calculated. The calculations are rather simples that permit the implementation of the designed algorithm in fixed point DSP processors. The proposed adaptive transform possesses the perfect restoration of the processed data and possesses good energy compactation. The designed algorithm was tested on different images. The proposed adaptive transform algorithm can be used for image/signal lossless compression.

15. Composite-Grid Techniques and Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Computational Fluid Dynamics

DTIC Science & Technology

1990-01-01

the equations govern- ing the flow. The patched adaptive mesh refinement technique, devised at Stanford by Oliger, et al ., copes with these sources of...patched adaptive mesh refinement technique, devised at Stanford by Oliger et al . [OL184], copes with these sources of error efficiently by refining...differential equation, as in the numerical grid generation methods proposed by Thompson et al . [THO85], or simply a list of pairs of points in

16. Generalized Monge-Kantorovich optimization for grid generation and adaptation in LP

SciTech Connect

Delzanno, G L; Finn, J M

2009-01-01

The Monge-Kantorovich grid generation and adaptation scheme of is generalized from a variational principle based on L{sub 2} to a variational principle based on L{sub p}. A generalized Monge-Ampere (MA) equation is derived and its properties are discussed. Results for p > 1 are obtained and compared in terms of the quality of the resulting grid. We conclude that for the grid generation application, the formulation based on L{sub p} for p close to unity leads to serious problems associated with the boundary. Results for 1.5 {approx}< p {approx}< 2.5 are quite good, but there is a fairly narrow range around p = 2 where the results are close to optimal with respect to grid distortion. Furthermore, the Newton-Krylov methods used to solve the generalized MA equation perform best for p = 2.

17. Stability of a modified Peaceman-Rachford method for the paraxial Helmholtz equation on adaptive grids

Sheng, Qin; Sun, Hai-wei

2016-11-01

This study concerns the asymptotic stability of an eikonal, or ray, transformation based Peaceman-Rachford splitting method for solving the paraxial Helmholtz equation with high wave numbers. Arbitrary nonuniform grids are considered in transverse and beam propagation directions. The differential equation targeted has been used for modeling propagations of high intensity laser pulses over a long distance without diffractions. Self-focusing of high intensity beams may be balanced with the de-focusing effect of created ionized plasma channel in the situation, and applications of grid adaptations are frequently essential. It is shown rigorously that the fully discretized oscillation-free decomposition method on arbitrary adaptive grids is asymptotically stable with a stability index one. Simulation experiments are carried out to illustrate our concern and conclusions.

18. A Hyperspherical Adaptive Sparse-Grid Method for High-Dimensional Discontinuity Detection

SciTech Connect

Zhang, Guannan; Webster, Clayton G.; Gunzburger, Max D.; Burkardt, John V.

2015-06-24

This study proposes and analyzes a hyperspherical adaptive hierarchical sparse-grid method for detecting jump discontinuities of functions in high-dimensional spaces. The method is motivated by the theoretical and computational inefficiencies of well-known adaptive sparse-grid methods for discontinuity detection. Our novel approach constructs a function representation of the discontinuity hypersurface of an N-dimensional discontinuous quantity of interest, by virtue of a hyperspherical transformation. Then, a sparse-grid approximation of the transformed function is built in the hyperspherical coordinate system, whose value at each point is estimated by solving a one-dimensional discontinuity detection problem. Due to the smoothness of the hypersurface, the new technique can identify jump discontinuities with significantly reduced computational cost, compared to existing methods. In addition, hierarchical acceleration techniques are also incorporated to further reduce the overall complexity. Rigorous complexity analyses of the new method are provided as are several numerical examples that illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

19. Exploiting a geometrically sampled grid in the steered response power algorithm for localization improvement.

PubMed

Salvati, D; Drioli, C; Foresti, G L

2017-01-01

The steered response power phase transform (SRP-PHAT) is a beamformer method very attractive in acoustic localization applications due to its robustness in reverberant environments. This paper presents a spatial grid design procedure, called the geometrically sampled grid (GSG), which aims at computing the spatial grid by taking into account the discrete sampling of time difference of arrival (TDOA) functions and the desired spatial resolution. A SRP-PHAT localization algorithm based on the GSG method is also introduced. The proposed method exploits the intersections of the discrete hyperboloids representing the TDOA information domain of the sensor array, and projects the whole TDOA information on the space search grid. The GSG method thus allows one to design the sampled spatial grid which represents the best search grid for a given sensor array, it allows one to perform a sensitivity analysis of the array and to characterize its spatial localization accuracy, and it may assist the system designer in the reconfiguration of the array. Experimental results using both simulated data and real recordings show that the localization accuracy is substantially improved both for high and for low spatial resolution, and that it is closely related to the proposed power response sensitivity measure.

20. Algebraic grid adaptation method using non-uniform rational B-spline surface modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yang, Jiann-Cherng; Soni, B. K.

1992-01-01

An algebraic adaptive grid system based on equidistribution law and utilized by the Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) surface for redistribution is presented. A weight function, utilizing a properly weighted boolean sum of various flow field characteristics is developed. Computational examples are presented to demonstrate the success of this technique.

1. Integration of hp-Adaptivity and a Two Grid Solver. II. Electromagnetic Problems

DTIC Science & Technology

2005-01-01

for lower order FE spaces. More precisely, let T be a grid,M the associated lowest order Nedelec subspaces ofHD(curl; Ω) of the first kind [24], and W... Nedelec , Mixed finite elements in IR3., Numer. Math., 35 (1980), pp. 315–341. [25] D. Pardo and L. Demkowicz, Integration of hp-adaptivity with a two

2. White Light Schlieren Optics Using Bacteriorhodopsin as an Adaptive Image Grid

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Peale, Robert; Ruffin, Boh; Donahue, Jeff; Barrett, Carolyn

1996-01-01

A Schlieren apparatus using a bacteriorhodopsin film as an adaptive image grid with white light illumination is demonstrated for the first time. The time dependent spectral properties of the film are characterized. Potential applications include a single-ended Schlieren system for leak detection.

3. Automatic DarkAdaptation Threshold Detection Algorithm.

PubMed

G de Azevedo, Dario; Helegda, Sergio; Glock, Flavio; Russomano, Thais

2005-01-01

This paper describes an algorithm used to automatically determine the threshold sensitivity in a new dark adaptometer. The new instrument is controlled by a personal computer and can be used in the investigation of several retinal diseases. The stimulus field is delivered to the eye through the modified optics of a fundus camera. An automated light stimulus source was developed to operate together with this fundus camera. New control parameters were developed in this instrument to improve the traditional Goldmann-Weekers dark adaptometer.

4. Time-accurate unstructured grid algorithms for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations

Okong'o, Nora Anyango

Unstructured grid algorithms for the solution of the finite volume form of the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations have been developed. The algorithms employ triangular cells in two-dimensions and tetrahedral cells in three-dimensions. Cell-averaged values are stored at the centroid of each cell, in a cell-centered storage scheme. Inviscid flux computations are performed by applying a Riemann solver across each face, the values at the points on the faces being obtained by function reconstruction from the cell-averaged values. The viscous fluxes and heat transfer are obtained by application of Gauss' theorem. The first unstructured grid algorithm is a two-dimensional implicit algorithm for laminar flows. Tests using flow into a supersonic compression comer showed that preconditioning in the iterative linear solver dramatically reduced the CPU time. Computations were then performed for a NACA0012 airfoil pitching about the quarter-chord at a freestream Mach number Minfinity=0.2 and Reynolds numbers Rec=104 and 2 x 104 at a dimensionless pitching rate W+o=0.2 . The results for Rec=104 are in excellent agreement with previous computations using an explicit unstructured Navier-Stokes algorithm. New results for Rec=2x104 indicate that the principal effect of increasing Reynolds number is to reduce the angle at which the primary recirculation region appears, and to cause it to form closer to the leading edge. This trend, confirmed by a grid refinement study, is consistent with previous results obtained at Minfinity=0.5 . The second unstructured grid algorithm is a three-dimensional explicit algorithm for turbulent flows. Function reconstruction via a least squares method capable of second- or third-order accuracy was implemented. Tests on the nonlinear propagation of an acoustic wave showed improved accuracy using third-order schemes but a substantial CPU-time cost. However, the second-order least squares is more accurate than the previous second-order scheme

5. GENOCOP Algorithm and Hierarchical Grid Transformation for Image Warping of Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoretic Maps.

PubMed

Robotti, Elisa; Marengo, Emilio; Demartini, Marco

2016-01-01

Hierarchical grid transformation is a powerful hierarchical approach to 2-D map warping, able to model both global and local deformations. The algorithm can be stopped when a desired degree of accuracy in the images alignment is obtained. The deformed image is warped and aligned to the target image using a grid where the number of nodes increases in each step of the algorithm. The numerical optimization of the position of the nodes of the grid can be efficiently solved by genetic algorithms, ensuring the achievement of the optimal position of the nodes with a low computational cost with respect to other methods. Here, the optimization of the position of the nodes is carried out by GENOCOP (genetic algorithm for numerical optimization of constrained problems), refined by the following conjugate gradient optimization step. The modeling of the warped space is then achieved by a spline model where some constraints are introduced in the choice of the nodes that are moved. The whole procedure can be intended as an evolutionary method that models the deformation of the gel map at different levels of detail.

6. The Design of Flux-Corrected Transport (FCT) Algorithms for Structured Grids

Zalesak, Steven T.

A given flux-corrected transport (FCT) algorithm consists of three components: (1) a high order algorithm to which it reduces in smooth parts of the flow; (2) a low order algorithm to which it reduces in parts of the flow devoid of smoothness; and (3) a flux limiter which calculates the weights assigned to the high and low order fluxes in various regions of the flow field. One way of optimizing an FCT algorithm is to optimize each of these three components individually. We present some of the ideas that have been developed over the past 30 years toward this end. These include the use of very high order spatial operators in the design of the high order fluxes, non-clipping flux limiters, the appropriate choice of constraint variables in the critical flux-limiting step, and the implementation of a "failsafe" flux-limiting strategy. This chapter confines itself to the design of FCT algorithms for structured grids, using a finite volume formalism, for this is the area with which the present author is most familiar. The reader will find excellent material on the design of FCT algorithms for unstructured grids, using both finite volume and finite element formalisms, in the chapters by Professors Löhner, Baum, Kuzmin, Turek, and Möller in the present volume.

7. Algorithms for the automatic generation of 2-D structured multi-block grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schoenfeld, Thilo; Weinerfelt, Per; Jenssen, Carl B.

1995-01-01

Two different approaches to the fully automatic generation of structured multi-block grids in two dimensions are presented. The work aims to simplify the user interactivity necessary for the definition of a multiple block grid topology. The first approach is based on an advancing front method commonly used for the generation of unstructured grids. The original algorithm has been modified toward the generation of large quadrilateral elements. The second method is based on the divide-and-conquer paradigm with the global domain recursively partitioned into sub-domains. For either method each of the resulting blocks is then meshed using transfinite interpolation and elliptic smoothing. The applicability of these methods to practical problems is demonstrated for typical geometries of fluid dynamics.

8. Performance of an Adaptive Matched Filter Using the Griffiths Algorithm

DTIC Science & Technology

1988-12-01

Simon. Introduction to Adaptive Filters. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1984. 11. Sklar , Bernard . Digital Communications Fundamentals and...York: Harper and Row, 1986. 8. Widrow, Bernard and Samuel D. Stearns. Adaptive Signal Processing. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1985. 9...Fourier Transforms. and Optics. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1978. 15. Widrow, Bernard and others. "The Complex LMS Algorithm," Proceedings of the IEEE

9. Emergent Adaptive Noise Reduction from Communal Cooperation of Sensor Grid

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jones, Kennie H.; Jones, Michael G.; Nark, Douglas M.; Lodding, Kenneth N.

2010-01-01

In the last decade, the realization of small, inexpensive, and powerful devices with sensors, computers, and wireless communication has promised the development of massive sized sensor networks with dense deployments over large areas capable of high fidelity situational assessments. However, most management models have been based on centralized control and research has concentrated on methods for passing data from sensor devices to the central controller. Most implementations have been small but, as it is not scalable, this methodology is insufficient for massive deployments. Here, a specific application of a large sensor network for adaptive noise reduction demonstrates a new paradigm where communities of sensor/computer devices assess local conditions and make local decisions from which emerges a global behaviour. This approach obviates many of the problems of centralized control as it is not prone to single point of failure and is more scalable, efficient, robust, and fault tolerant

10. Introducing Enabling Computational Tools to the Climate Sciences: Multi-Resolution Climate Modeling with Adaptive Cubed-Sphere Grids

SciTech Connect

Jablonowski, Christiane

2015-07-14

The research investigates and advances strategies how to bridge the scale discrepancies between local, regional and global phenomena in climate models without the prohibitive computational costs of global cloud-resolving simulations. In particular, the research explores new frontiers in computational geoscience by introducing high-order Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) techniques into climate research. AMR and statically-adapted variable-resolution approaches represent an emerging trend for atmospheric models and are likely to become the new norm in future-generation weather and climate models. The research advances the understanding of multi-scale interactions in the climate system and showcases a pathway how to model these interactions effectively with advanced computational tools, like the Chombo AMR library developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The research is interdisciplinary and combines applied mathematics, scientific computing and the atmospheric sciences. In this research project, a hierarchy of high-order atmospheric models on cubed-sphere computational grids have been developed that serve as an algorithmic prototype for the finite-volume solution-adaptive Chombo-AMR approach. The foci of the investigations have lied on the characteristics of both static mesh adaptations and dynamically-adaptive grids that can capture flow fields of interest like tropical cyclones. Six research themes have been chosen. These are (1) the introduction of adaptive mesh refinement techniques into the climate sciences, (2) advanced algorithms for nonhydrostatic atmospheric dynamical cores, (3) an assessment of the interplay between resolved-scale dynamical motions and subgrid-scale physical parameterizations, (4) evaluation techniques for atmospheric model hierarchies, (5) the comparison of AMR refinement strategies and (6) tropical cyclone studies with a focus on multi-scale interactions and variable-resolution modeling. The results of this research project

11. Spatially adaptive regularized iterative high-resolution image reconstruction algorithm

Lim, Won Bae; Park, Min K.; Kang, Moon Gi

2000-12-01

High resolution images are often required in applications such as remote sensing, frame freeze in video, military and medical imaging. Digital image sensor arrays, which are used for image acquisition in many imaging systems, are not dense enough to prevent aliasing, so the acquired images will be degraded by aliasing effects. To prevent aliasing without loss of resolution, a dense detector array is required. But it may be very costly or unavailable, thus, many imaging systems are designed to allow some level of aliasing during image acquisition. The purpose of our work is to reconstruct an unaliased high resolution image from the acquired aliased image sequence. In this paper, we propose a spatially adaptive regularized iterative high resolution image reconstruction algorithm for blurred, noisy and down-sampled image sequences. The proposed approach is based on a Constrained Least Squares (CLS) high resolution reconstruction algorithm, with spatially adaptive regularization operators and parameters. These regularization terms are shown to improve the reconstructed image quality by forcing smoothness, while preserving edges in the reconstructed high resolution image. Accurate sub-pixel motion registration is the key of the success of the high resolution image reconstruction algorithm. However, sub-pixel motion registration may have some level of registration error. Therefore, a reconstruction algorithm which is robust against the registration error is required. The registration algorithm uses a gradient based sub-pixel motion estimator which provides shift information for each of the recorded frames. The proposed algorithm is based on a technique of high resolution image reconstruction, and it solves spatially adaptive regularized constrained least square minimization functionals. In this paper, we show that the reconstruction algorithm gives dramatic improvements in the resolution of the reconstructed image and is effective in handling the aliased information. The

12. Adapting Eclat algorithm to parallel environments with Charm++ library

Puścian, Marek; Grabski, Waldemar

2016-09-01

In this paper we describe Eclat algorithm that is adapted to deal with growing data repositories. The presented solution utilizes Master-Slave scheme to distribute data mining tasks among available computation nodes. Several improvements have been proposed and successfully implemented using Charm++ library. This paper introduces optimization techniques to reduce communication cost and synchronization overhead. It also discusses results of the performance of parallel Eclat algorithm against different databases and compares it with parallel Apriori algorithm. The proposed approach has been illustrated with many experiments and measurements performed using multiprocessor and multithreaded computer platform.

13. Advanced model of eddy-current NDE inverse problem with sparse grid algorithm

Zhou, Liming; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Murphy, R. Kim; Bernacchi, William

2017-02-01

In model-based inverse problem, some unknown parameters need to be estimated. These parameters are used not only to characterize the physical properties of cracks, but also to describe the position of the probes (such as lift off and angles) in the calibration. After considering the effect of the position of the probes in the inverse problem, the accuracy of the inverse result will be improved. With increasing the number of the parameters in the inverse problems, the burden of calculations will increase exponentially in the traditional full grid method. The sparse grid algorithm, which was introduced by Sergey A. Smolyak, was used in our work. With this algorithm, we obtain a powerful interpolation method that requires significantly fewer support nodes than conventional interpolation on a full grid. In this work, we combined sparse grid toolbox TASMANIAN, which is produced by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and professional eddy-current NDE software, VIC-3D R◯, to solve a specific inverse problem. An advanced model based on our previous one is used to estimate length and depth of the crack, lift off and two angles of the position of probes. Considering the calibration process, pseudorandom noise is considered in the model and statistical behavior is discussed.

14. Operational adaptability evaluation index system of pumped storage in UHV receiving-end grids

Yuan, Bo; Zong, Jin; Feng, Junshu

2017-01-01

Pumped storage is an effective solution to deal with the emergency reserve shortage, renewable energy accommodating and peak-shaving problems in ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission receiving-end grids. However, governments and public opinion in China tend to evaluate the operational effectiveness of pumped storage using annual utilization hour, which may result in unreasonable and unnecessary dispatch of pumped storage. This paper built an operational adaptability evaluation index system for pumped storage in UHV-receiving end grids from three aspects: security insurance, peak-shaving and renewable energy accommodating, which can provide a comprehensive and objective way to evaluate the operational performance of a pumped storage station.

15. Supercontinuum optimization for dual-soliton based light sources using genetic algorithms in a grid platform.

PubMed

Arteaga-Sierra, F R; Milián, C; Torres-Gómez, I; Torres-Cisneros, M; Moltó, G; Ferrando, A

2014-09-22

We present a numerical strategy to design fiber based dual pulse light sources exhibiting two predefined spectral peaks in the anomalous group velocity dispersion regime. The frequency conversion is based on the soliton fission and soliton self-frequency shift occurring during supercontinuum generation. The optimization process is carried out by a genetic algorithm that provides the optimum input pulse parameters: wavelength, temporal width and peak power. This algorithm is implemented in a Grid platform in order to take advantage of distributed computing. These results are useful for optical coherence tomography applications where bell-shaped pulses located in the second near-infrared window are needed.

Son, Seokho; Sim, Kwang Mong

Since participants in a Cloud may be independent bodies, mechanisms are necessary for resolving different preferences in leasing Cloud services. Whereas there are currently mechanisms that support service-level agreement negotiation, there is little or no negotiation support for concurrent price and timeslot for Cloud service reservations. For the concurrent price and timeslot negotiation, a tradeoff algorithm to generate and evaluate a proposal which consists of price and timeslot proposal is necessary. The contribution of this work is thus to design an adaptive tradeoff algorithm for multi-issue negotiation mechanism. The tradeoff algorithm referred to as "adaptive burst mode" is especially designed to increase negotiation speed and total utility and to reduce computational load by adaptively generating concurrent set of proposals. The empirical results obtained from simulations carried out using a testbed suggest that due to the concurrent price and timeslot negotiation mechanism with adaptive tradeoff algorithm: 1) both agents achieve the best performance in terms of negotiation speed and utility; 2) the number of evaluations of each proposal is comparatively lower than previous scheme (burst-N).

17. Adaptive wavelet transform algorithm for lossy image compression

Pogrebnyak, Oleksiy B.; Ramirez, Pablo M.; Acevedo Mosqueda, Marco Antonio

2004-11-01

A new algorithm of locally adaptive wavelet transform based on the modified lifting scheme is presented. It performs an adaptation of the wavelet high-pass filter at the prediction stage to the local image data activity. The proposed algorithm uses the generalized framework for the lifting scheme that permits to obtain easily different wavelet filter coefficients in the case of the (~N, N) lifting. Changing wavelet filter order and different control parameters, one can obtain the desired filter frequency response. It is proposed to perform the hard switching between different wavelet lifting filter outputs according to the local data activity estimate. The proposed adaptive transform possesses a good energy compaction. The designed algorithm was tested on different images. The obtained simulation results show that the visual and quantitative quality of the restored images is high. The distortions are less in the vicinity of high spatial activity details comparing to the non-adaptive transform, which introduces ringing artifacts. The designed algorithm can be used for lossy image compression and in the noise suppression applications.

18. Adaptation algorithms for 2-D feedforward neural networks.

PubMed

Kaczorek, T

1995-01-01

The generalized weight adaptation algorithms presented by J.G. Kuschewski et al. (1993) and by S.H. Zak and H.J. Sira-Ramirez (1990) are extended for 2-D madaline and 2-D two-layer feedforward neural nets (FNNs).

19. A Procedure for Empirical Initialization of Adaptive Testing Algorithms.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

van der Linden, Wim J.

In constrained adaptive testing, the numbers of constraints needed to control the content of the tests can easily run into the hundreds. Proper initialization of the algorithm becomes a requirement because the presence of large numbers of constraints slows down the convergence of the ability estimator. In this paper, an empirical initialization of…

20. An adaptive grid/Navier-Stokes methodology for the calculation of nozzle afterbody base flows with a supersonic freestream

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Williams, Morgan; Lim, Dennis; Ungewitter, Ronald

1993-01-01

This paper describes an adaptive grid method for base flows in a supersonic freestream. The method is based on the direct finite-difference statement of the equidistribution principle. The weighting factor is a combination of the Mach number, density, and velocity first-derivative gradients in the radial direction. Two key ideas of the method are to smooth the weighting factor by using a type of implicit smoothing and to allow boundary points to move in the grid adaptation process. An AGARD nozzle afterbody base flow configuration is used to demonstrate the performance of the adaptive grid methodology. Computed base pressures are compared to experimental data. The adapted grid solutions offer a dramatic improvement in base pressure prediction compared to solutions computed on a nonadapted grid. A total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Navier-Stokes scheme is used to solve the governing flow equations.

1. The development and application of the self-adaptive grid code, SAGE

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davies, Carol B.

1993-01-01

The multidimensional self-adaptive grid code, SAGE, has proven to be a flexible and useful tool in the solution of complex flow problems. Both 2- and 3-D examples given in this report show the code to be reliable and to substantially improve flowfield solutions. Since the adaptive procedure is a marching scheme the code is extremely fast and uses insignificant CPU time compared to the corresponding flow solver. The SAGE program is also machine and flow solver independent. Significant effort was made to simplify user interaction, though some parameters still need to be chosen with care. It is also difficult to tell when the adaption process has provided its best possible solution. This is particularly true if no experimental data are available or if there is a lack of theoretical understanding of the flow. Another difficulty occurs if local features are important but missing in the original grid; the adaption to this solution will not result in any improvement, and only grid refinement can result in an improved solution. These are complex issues that need to be explored within the context of each specific problem.

2. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

SciTech Connect

Gutowski, William J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

2012-05-08

This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the "physics" of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited. 3a. EULAG Advances EULAG is a non-hydrostatic, parallel computational model for all-scale geophysical flows. EULAG's name derives from its two computational options: EULerian (flux form) or semi-LAGrangian (advective form). The model combines nonoscillatory forward-in-time (NFT) numerical algorithms with a robust elliptic Krylov solver. A signature feature of EULAG is that it is formulated in generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. In particular, this enables grid adaptivity. In total, these features give EULAG novel advantages over many existing dynamical cores. For EULAG itself, numerical advances included refining boundary conditions and filters for optimizing model performance in polar regions. We also added flexibility to the model's underlying formulation, allowing it to work with the pseudo-compressible equation set of Durran in addition to EULAG's standard anelastic formulation. Work in collaboration with others also extended the demonstrated range of

3. An Adaptive Immune Genetic Algorithm for Edge Detection

Li, Ying; Bai, Bendu; Zhang, Yanning

An adaptive immune genetic algorithm (AIGA) based on cost minimization technique method for edge detection is proposed. The proposed AIGA recommends the use of adaptive probabilities of crossover, mutation and immune operation, and a geometric annealing schedule in immune operator to realize the twin goals of maintaining diversity in the population and sustaining the fast convergence rate in solving the complex problems such as edge detection. Furthermore, AIGA can effectively exploit some prior knowledge and information of the local edge structure in the edge image to make vaccines, which results in much better local search ability of AIGA than that of the canonical genetic algorithm. Experimental results on gray-scale images show the proposed algorithm perform well in terms of quality of the final edge image, rate of convergence and robustness to noise.

4. An Adaptive Homomorphic Aperture Photometry Algorithm for Merging Galaxies

Huang, J. C.; Hwang, C. Y.

2017-03-01

We present a novel automatic adaptive aperture photometry algorithm for measuring the total magnitudes of merging galaxies with irregular shapes. First, we use a morphological pattern recognition routine for identifying the shape of an irregular source in a background-subtracted image. Then, we extend the shape of the source by using the Dilation image operation to obtain an aperture that is quasi-homomorphic to the shape of the irregular source. The magnitude measured from the homomorphic aperture would thus have minimal contamination from the nearby background. As a test of our algorithm, we applied our technique to the merging galaxies observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope. Our results suggest that the adaptive homomorphic aperture algorithm can be very useful for investigating extended sources with irregular shapes and sources in crowded regions.

5. Flight data processing with the F-8 adaptive algorithm

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hartmann, G.; Stein, G.; Petersen, K.

1977-01-01

An explicit adaptive control algorithm based on maximum likelihood estimation of parameters has been designed for NASA's DFBW F-8 aircraft. To avoid iterative calculations, the algorithm uses parallel channels of Kalman filters operating at fixed locations in parameter space. This algorithm has been implemented in NASA/DFRC's Remotely Augmented Vehicle (RAV) facility. Real-time sensor outputs (rate gyro, accelerometer and surface position) are telemetered to a ground computer which sends new gain values to an on-board system. Ground test data and flight records were used to establish design values of noise statistics and to verify the ground-based adaptive software. The software and its performance evaluation based on flight data are described

6. A new adaptive GMRES algorithm for achieving high accuracy

SciTech Connect

Sosonkina, M.; Watson, L.T.; Kapania, R.K.; Walker, H.F.

1996-12-31

GMRES(k) is widely used for solving nonsymmetric linear systems. However, it is inadequate either when it converges only for k close to the problem size or when numerical error in the modified Gram-Schmidt process used in the GMRES orthogonalization phase dramatically affects the algorithm performance. An adaptive version of GMRES (k) which tunes the restart value k based on criteria estimating the GMRES convergence rate for the given problem is proposed here. The essence of the adaptive GMRES strategy is to adapt the parameter k to the problem, similar in spirit to how a variable order ODE algorithm tunes the order k. With FORTRAN 90, which provides pointers and dynamic memory management, dealing with the variable storage requirements implied by varying k is not too difficult. The parameter k can be both increased and decreased-an increase-only strategy is described next followed by pseudocode.

7. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Karr, C. L.

1993-01-01

Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

8. Adaptive Process Control with Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Karr, C. L.

1993-01-01

Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision-making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

9. Adaptive optics image restoration algorithm based on wavefront reconstruction and adaptive total variation method

Li, Dongming; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Ting; Liu, Huan; Yang, Jinhua; Chen, Guifen

2016-11-01

To improve the adaptive optics (AO) image's quality, we study the AO image restoration algorithm based on wavefront reconstruction technology and adaptive total variation (TV) method in this paper. Firstly, the wavefront reconstruction using Zernike polynomial is used for initial estimated for the point spread function (PSF). Then, we develop our proposed iterative solutions for AO images restoration, addressing the joint deconvolution issue. The image restoration experiments are performed to verify the image restoration effect of our proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that, compared with the RL-IBD algorithm and Wiener-IBD algorithm, we can see that GMG measures (for real AO image) from our algorithm are increased by 36.92%, and 27.44% respectively, and the computation time are decreased by 7.2%, and 3.4% respectively, and its estimation accuracy is significantly improved.

Leng, Hanbing; Zhou, Zuofeng; Cao, Jianzhong; Yi, Bo; Yan, Aqi; Zhang, Jian

2013-10-01

11. Wing tip vortex calculations with an unstructured adaptive-grid Euler solver

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strawn, Roger C.

1991-01-01

A solution-adaptive grid method has been developed for computing tip-vortex flowfields around rectangular wings. This method uses subdivision in order to locally refine the grid in regions with high vorticity. Two different flow solvers are used. Each solves the three-dimensional Euler equations on unstructured grids. Computed results are compared to experimentally measured surface pressures and vortex velocities on a NACA 0015 rectangular wing. Predicted results for surface pressures and integrated lift agree well with the experimental data. The predicted size of the rotational vortex core is larger than the experimentally-measured value and the peak velocities are less. This discrepancy appears to be caused by deficiencies in the inviscid Euler-equation model. This model cannot capture the complex viscous effects at the tip that determine the detailed structure of the resulting vortex. In spite of this limitation, the present Euler unstructured adaptive-grid method demonstrates the ability to convert vortical flows with low numerical diffusion. Applications for modeling helicopter rotor wake systems are discussed.

12. A novel LTE scheduling algorithm for green technology in smart grid.

PubMed

Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Chayon, Muhammad Hasibur Rashid

2015-01-01

Smart grid (SG) application is being used nowadays to meet the demand of increasing power consumption. SG application is considered as a perfect solution for combining renewable energy resources and electrical grid by means of creating a bidirectional communication channel between the two systems. In this paper, three SG applications applicable to renewable energy system, namely, distribution automation (DA), distributed energy system-storage (DER) and electrical vehicle (EV), are investigated in order to study their suitability in Long Term Evolution (LTE) network. To compensate the weakness in the existing scheduling algorithms, a novel bandwidth estimation and allocation technique and a new scheduling algorithm are proposed. The technique allocates available network resources based on application's priority, whereas the algorithm makes scheduling decision based on dynamic weighting factors of multi-criteria to satisfy the demands (delay, past average throughput and instantaneous transmission rate) of quality of service. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism achieves higher throughput, lower delay and lower packet loss rate for DA and DER as well as provide a degree of service for EV. In terms of fairness, the proposed algorithm shows 3%, 7 % and 9% better performance compared to exponential rule (EXP-Rule), modified-largest weighted delay first (M-LWDF) and exponential/PF (EXP/PF), respectively.

13. A Novel LTE Scheduling Algorithm for Green Technology in Smart Grid

PubMed Central

Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin; Chayon, Muhammad Hasibur Rashid

2015-01-01

Smart grid (SG) application is being used nowadays to meet the demand of increasing power consumption. SG application is considered as a perfect solution for combining renewable energy resources and electrical grid by means of creating a bidirectional communication channel between the two systems. In this paper, three SG applications applicable to renewable energy system, namely, distribution automation (DA), distributed energy system-storage (DER) and electrical vehicle (EV), are investigated in order to study their suitability in Long Term Evolution (LTE) network. To compensate the weakness in the existing scheduling algorithms, a novel bandwidth estimation and allocation technique and a new scheduling algorithm are proposed. The technique allocates available network resources based on application’s priority, whereas the algorithm makes scheduling decision based on dynamic weighting factors of multi-criteria to satisfy the demands (delay, past average throughput and instantaneous transmission rate) of quality of service. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed mechanism achieves higher throughput, lower delay and lower packet loss rate for DA and DER as well as provide a degree of service for EV. In terms of fairness, the proposed algorithm shows 3%, 7 % and 9% better performance compared to exponential rule (EXP-Rule), modified-largest weighted delay first (M-LWDF) and exponential/PF (EXP/PF), respectively. PMID:25830703

14. Adaptive Flocking of Robot Swarms: Algorithms and Properties

Lee, Geunho; Chong, Nak Young

This paper presents a distributed approach for adaptive flocking of swarms of mobile robots that enables to navigate autonomously in complex environments populated with obstacles. Based on the observation of the swimming behavior of a school of fish, we propose an integrated algorithm that allows a swarm of robots to navigate in a coordinated manner, split into multiple swarms, or merge with other swarms according to the environment conditions. We prove the convergence of the proposed algorithm using Lyapunov stability theory. We also verify the effectiveness of the algorithm through extensive simulations, where a swarm of robots repeats the process of splitting and merging while passing around multiple stationary and moving obstacles. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is scalable, and robust to variations in the sensing capability of individual robots.

15. An Adaptive Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Improved Groundwater Remediation Design

Espinoza, F. P.; Minsker, B. S.; Goldberg, D. E.

2001-12-01

Identifying optimal designs for a groundwater remediation system is computationally intensive, especially for complex, nonlinear problems such as enhanced in situ bioremediation technology. To improve performance, we apply a hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), which is a two-step solution method: a genetic algorithm (GA) for global search using the entire population and then a local search (LS) to improve search speed for only a few individuals in the population. We implement two types of HGAs: a non-adaptive HGA (NAHGA), whose operations are invariant throughout the run, and a self-adaptive HGA (SAHGA), whose operations adapt to the performance of the algorithm. The best settings of the two HGAs for optimal performance are then investigated for a groundwater remediation problem. The settings include the frequency of LS with respect to the normal GA evaluation, probability of individual selection for LS, evolution criterion for LS (Lamarckian or Baldwinian), and number of local search iterations. A comparison of the algorithms' performance under different settings will be presented.

16. An adaptive multimeme algorithm for designing HIV multidrug therapies.

PubMed

Neri, Ferrante; Toivanen, Jari; Cascella, Giuseppe Leonardo; Ong, Yew-Soon

2007-01-01

This paper proposes a period representation for modeling the multidrug HIV therapies and an Adaptive Multimeme Algorithm (AMmA) for designing the optimal therapy. The period representation offers benefits in terms of flexibility and reduction in dimensionality compared to the binary representation. The AMmA is a memetic algorithm which employs a list of three local searchers adaptively activated by an evolutionary framework. These local searchers, having different features according to the exploration logic and the pivot rule, have the role of exploring the decision space from different and complementary perspectives and, thus, assisting the standard evolutionary operators in the optimization process. Furthermore, the AMmA makes use of an adaptation which dynamically sets the algorithmic parameters in order to prevent stagnation and premature convergence. The numerical results demonstrate that the application of the proposed algorithm leads to very efficient medication schedules which quickly stimulate a strong immune response to HIV. The earlier termination of the medication schedule leads to lesser unpleasant side effects for the patient due to strong antiretroviral therapy. A numerical comparison shows that the AMmA is more efficient than three popular metaheuristics. Finally, a statistical test based on the calculation of the tolerance interval confirms the superiority of the AMmA compared to the other methods for the problem under study.

17. A brief comparison between grid based real space algorithms andspectrum algorithms for electronic structure calculations

SciTech Connect

Wang, Lin-Wang

2006-12-01

Quantum mechanical ab initio calculation constitutes the biggest portion of the computer time in material science and chemical science simulations. As a computer center like NERSC, to better serve these communities, it will be very useful to have a prediction for the future trends of ab initio calculations in these areas. Such prediction can help us to decide what future computer architecture can be most useful for these communities, and what should be emphasized on in future supercomputer procurement. As the size of the computer and the size of the simulated physical systems increase, there is a renewed interest in using the real space grid method in electronic structure calculations. This is fueled by two factors. First, it is generally assumed that the real space grid method is more suitable for parallel computation for its limited communication requirement, compared with spectrum method where a global FFT is required. Second, as the size N of the calculated system increases together with the computer power, O(N) scaling approaches become more favorable than the traditional direct O(N{sup 3}) scaling methods. These O(N) methods are usually based on localized orbital in real space, which can be described more naturally by the real space basis. In this report, the author compares the real space methods versus the traditional plane wave (PW) spectrum methods, for their technical pros and cons, and the possible of future trends. For the real space method, the author focuses on the regular grid finite different (FD) method and the finite element (FE) method. These are the methods used mostly in material science simulation. As for chemical science, the predominant methods are still Gaussian basis method, and sometime the atomic orbital basis method. These two basis sets are localized in real space, and there is no indication that their roles in quantum chemical simulation will change anytime soon. The author focuses on the density functional theory (DFT), which is the

18. Estimating meme fitness in adaptive memetic algorithms for combinatorial problems.

PubMed

Smith, J E

2012-01-01

Among the most promising and active research areas in heuristic optimisation is the field of adaptive memetic algorithms (AMAs). These gain much of their reported robustness by adapting the probability with which each of a set of local improvement operators is applied, according to an estimate of their current value to the search process. This paper addresses the issue of how the current value should be estimated. Assuming the estimate occurs over several applications of a meme, we consider whether the extreme or mean improvements should be used, and whether this aggregation should be global, or local to some part of the solution space. To investigate these issues, we use the well-established COMA framework that coevolves the specification of a population of memes (representing different local search algorithms) alongside a population of candidate solutions to the problem at hand. Two very different memetic algorithms are considered: the first using adaptive operator pursuit to adjust the probabilities of applying a fixed set of memes, and a second which applies genetic operators to dynamically adapt and create memes and their functional definitions. For the latter, especially on combinatorial problems, credit assignment mechanisms based on historical records, or on notions of landscape locality, will have limited application, and it is necessary to estimate the value of a meme via some form of sampling. The results on a set of binary encoded combinatorial problems show that both methods are very effective, and that for some problems it is necessary to use thousands of variables in order to tease apart the differences between different reward schemes. However, for both memetic algorithms, a significant pattern emerges that reward based on mean improvement is better than that based on extreme improvement. This contradicts recent findings from adapting the parameters of operators involved in global evolutionary search. The results also show that local reward schemes

19. Radiation transport calculations on unstructured grids using a spatially decomposed and threaded algorithm

SciTech Connect

Nemanic, M K; Nowak, P

1999-04-12

We consider the solution of time-dependent, energy-dependent, discrete ordinates, and nonlinear radiative transfer problems on three-dimensional unstructured spatial grids. We discuss the solution of this class of transport problems, using the code TETON, on large distributed-memory multinode computers having multiple processors per ''node'' (e.g. the IBM-SP). We discuss the use of both spatial decomposition using message passing between ''nodes'' and a threading algorithm in angle on each ''node''. We present timing studies to show how this algorithm scales to hundreds and thousands of processors. We also present an energy group ''batching'' algorithm that greatly enhances cache performance. Our conclusion, after considering cache performance, storage limitations and dependencies inherent in the physics, is that a model that uses a combination of message-passing and threading is superior to one that uses message-passing alone. We present numerical evidence to support our conclusion.

20. Double-layer evolutionary algorithm for distributed optimization of particle detection on the Grid

2013-08-01

Reconstruction of particle tracks from information collected by position-sensitive detectors is an important procedure in HEP experiments. It is usually controlled by a set of numerical parameters which have to be manually optimized. This paper proposes an automatic approach to this task by utilizing evolutionary algorithm (EA) operating on both real-valued and binary representations. Because of computational complexity of the task a special distributed architecture of the algorithm is proposed, designed to be run in grid environment. It is two-level hierarchical hybrid utilizing asynchronous master-slave EA on the level of clusters and island model EA on the level of the grid. The technical aspects of usage of production grid infrastructure are covered, including communication protocols on both levels. The paper deals also with the problem of heterogeneity of the resources, presenting efficiency tests on a benchmark function. These tests confirm that even relatively small islands (clusters) can be beneficial to the optimization process when connected to the larger ones. Finally a real-life usage example is presented, which is an optimization of track reconstruction in Large Angle Spectrometer of NA-58 COMPASS experiment held at CERN, using a sample of Monte Carlo simulated data. The overall reconstruction efficiency gain, achieved by the proposed method, is more than 4%, compared to the manually optimized parameters.

1. Efficient implementation of the adaptive scale pixel decomposition algorithm

Zhang, L.; Bhatnagar, S.; Rau, U.; Zhang, M.

2016-08-01

Context. Most popular algorithms in use to remove the effects of a telescope's point spread function (PSF) in radio astronomy are variants of the CLEAN algorithm. Most of these algorithms model the sky brightness using the delta-function basis, which results in undesired artefacts when used to image extended emission. The adaptive scale pixel decomposition (Asp-Clean) algorithm models the sky brightness on a scale-sensitive basis and thus gives a significantly better imaging performance when imaging fields that contain both resolved and unresolved emission. Aims: However, the runtime cost of Asp-Clean is higher than that of scale-insensitive algorithms. In this paper, we identify the most expensive step in the original Asp-Clean algorithm and present an efficient implementation of it, which significantly reduces the computational cost while keeping the imaging performance comparable to the original algorithm. The PSF sidelobe levels of modern wide-band telescopes are significantly reduced, allowing us to make approximations to reduce the computational cost, which in turn allows for the deconvolution of larger images on reasonable timescales. Methods: As in the original algorithm, scales in the image are estimated through function fitting. Here we introduce an analytical method to model extended emission, and a modified method for estimating the initial values used for the fitting procedure, which ultimately leads to a lower computational cost. Results: The new implementation was tested with simulated EVLA data and the imaging performance compared well with the original Asp-Clean algorithm. Tests show that the current algorithm can recover features at different scales with lower computational cost.

2. PHURBAS: AN ADAPTIVE, LAGRANGIAN, MESHLESS, MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS CODE. I. ALGORITHM

SciTech Connect

Maron, Jason L.; McNally, Colin P.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark E-mail: cmcnally@amnh.org

2012-05-01

We present an algorithm for simulating the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics and other systems of differential equations on an unstructured set of points represented by sample particles. Local, third-order, least-squares, polynomial interpolations (Moving Least Squares interpolations) are calculated from the field values of neighboring particles to obtain field values and spatial derivatives at the particle position. Field values and particle positions are advanced in time with a second-order predictor-corrector scheme. The particles move with the fluid, so the time step is not limited by the Eulerian Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition. Full spatial adaptivity is implemented to ensure the particles fill the computational volume, which gives the algorithm substantial flexibility and power. A target resolution is specified for each point in space, with particles being added and deleted as needed to meet this target. Particle addition and deletion is based on a local void and clump detection algorithm. Dynamic artificial viscosity fields provide stability to the integration. The resulting algorithm provides a robust solution for modeling flows that require Lagrangian or adaptive discretizations to resolve. This paper derives and documents the Phurbas algorithm as implemented in Phurbas version 1.1. A following paper presents the implementation and test problem results.

3. Landsat ecosystem disturbance adaptive processing system (LEDAPS) algorithm description

USGS Publications Warehouse

Schmidt, Gail; Jenkerson, Calli; Masek, Jeffrey; Vermote, Eric; Gao, Feng

2013-01-01

The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) software was originally developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration–Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland to produce top-of-atmosphere reflectance from LandsatThematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Level 1 digital numbers and to apply atmospheric corrections to generate a surface-reflectance product.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the LEDAPS algorithm for producing the Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record.This report discusses the LEDAPS algorithm, which was implemented by the USGS.

4. A Novel Adaptive Frequency Estimation Algorithm Based on Interpolation FFT and Improved Adaptive Notch Filter

Shen, Ting-ao; Li, Hua-nan; Zhang, Qi-xin; Li, Ming

2017-02-01

The convergence rate and the continuous tracking precision are two main problems of the existing adaptive notch filter (ANF) for frequency tracking. To solve the problems, the frequency is detected by interpolation FFT at first, which aims to overcome the convergence rate of the ANF. Then, referring to the idea of negative feedback, an evaluation factor is designed to monitor the ANF parameters and realize continuously high frequency tracking accuracy. According to the principle, a novel adaptive frequency estimation algorithm based on interpolation FFT and improved ANF is put forward. Its basic idea, specific measures and implementation steps are described in detail. The proposed algorithm obtains a fast estimation of the signal frequency, higher accuracy and better universality qualities. Simulation results verified the superiority and validity of the proposed algorithm when compared with original algorithms.

5. Time-domain analysis of planar microstrip devices using a generalized Yee-algorithm based on unstructured grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gedney, Stephen D.; Lansing, Faiza

1993-01-01

The generalized Yee-algorithm is presented for the temporal full-wave analysis of planar microstrip devices. This algorithm has the significant advantage over the traditional Yee-algorithm in that it is based on unstructured and irregular grids. The robustness of the generalized Yee-algorithm is that structures that contain curved conductors or complex three-dimensional geometries can be more accurately, and much more conveniently modeled using standard automatic grid generation techniques. This generalized Yee-algorithm is based on the the time-marching solution of the discrete form of Maxwell's equations in their integral form. To this end, the electric and magnetic fields are discretized over a dual, irregular, and unstructured grid. The primary grid is assumed to be composed of general fitted polyhedra distributed throughout the volume. The secondary grid (or dual grid) is built up of the closed polyhedra whose edges connect the centroid's of adjacent primary cells, penetrating shared faces. Faraday's law and Ampere's law are used to update the fields normal to the primary and secondary grid faces, respectively. Subsequently, a correction scheme is introduced to project the normal fields onto the grid edges. It is shown that this scheme is stable, maintains second-order accuracy, and preserves the divergenceless nature of the flux densities. Finally, for computational efficiency the algorithm is structured as a series of sparse matrix-vector multiplications. Based on this scheme, the generalized Yee-algorithm has been implemented on vector and parallel high performance computers in a highly efficient manner.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1980-01-01

Multilevel self-adaptive Newton-Raphson type strategies are developed to improve the solution efficiency of nonlinear finite element simulations of statically loaded structures. The overall strategy involves three basic levels. The first level involves preliminary solution tunneling via primative operators. Secondly, the solution is constantly monitored via quality/convergence/nonlinearity tests. Lastly, the third level involves self-adaptive algorithmic update procedures aimed at improving the convergence characteristics of the Newton-Raphson strategy. Numerical experiments are included to illustrate the results of the procedure.

7. Analysis of the Multi Strategy Goal Programming for Micro-Grid Based on Dynamic ant Genetic Algorithm

Qiu, J. P.; Niu, D. X.

Micro-grid is one of the key technologies of the future energy supplies. Take economic planning. reliability, and environmental protection of micro grid as a basis for the analysis of multi-strategy objective programming problems for micro grid which contains wind power, solar power, and battery and micro gas turbine. Establish the mathematical model of each power generation characteristics and energy dissipation. and change micro grid planning multi-objective function under different operating strategies to a single objective model based on AHP method. Example analysis shows that in combination with dynamic ant mixed genetic algorithm can get the optimal power output of this model.

8. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Transient Performance Augmentation of Grid Connected Distributed Generation

Chatterjee, A.; Ghoshal, S. P.; Mukherjee, V.

In this paper, a conventional thermal power system equipped with automatic voltage regulator, IEEE type dual input power system stabilizer (PSS) PSS3B and integral controlled automatic generation control loop is considered. A distributed generation (DG) system consisting of aqua electrolyzer, photovoltaic cells, diesel engine generator, and some other energy storage devices like flywheel energy storage system and battery energy storage system is modeled. This hybrid distributed system is connected to the grid. While integrating this DG with the onventional thermal power system, improved transient performance is noticed. Further improvement in the transient performance of this grid connected DG is observed with the usage of superconducting magnetic energy storage device. The different tunable parameters of the proposed hybrid power system model are optimized by artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. The optimal solutions offered by the ABC algorithm are compared with those offered by genetic algorithm (GA). It is also revealed that the optimizing performance of the ABC is better than the GA for this specific application.

9. Optimal decentralized charging control algorithm for electrified vehicles connected to smart grid

Ahn, Changsun; Li, Chiao-Ting; Peng, Huei

Electrified vehicles (EV) and renewable power sources are two important technologies for sustainable ground transportation. If left unmitigated, the additional electric load could over-burden the electric grid. Meanwhile, a challenge for integrating renewable power sources into the grid lies in the fact their intermittency requires more regulation services which makes them expensive to deploy. Fortunately, EVs are controllable loads and the charging process can be interrupted. This flexibility makes it possible to manipulate EV charging to reduce the additional electric load and accommodate the intermittency of renewable power sources. To illustrate this potential, a two-level optimal charging algorithm is designed, which achieves both load shifting and frequency regulation. Load shifting can be realized through coordination of power generation and vehicle charging while reducing power generation cost and carbon dioxide emissions. To ensure practicality, a decentralized charging algorithm for load shifting is formulated by emulating the charging pattern identified through linear programming optimization solutions. The frequency regulation is also designed based on frequency droop that can be implemented in a decentralized way. The two control objectives can be integrated because they are functionally separated by time scale. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed decentralized algorithm.

SciTech Connect

Xiu, Dongbin

2016-06-21

The focus of the project is the development of mathematical methods and high-performance com- putational tools for stochastic simulations, with a particular emphasis on computations on extreme scales. The core of the project revolves around the design of highly e cient and scalable numer- ical algorithms that can adaptively and accurately, in high dimensional spaces, resolve stochastic problems with limited smoothness, even containing discontinuities.

11. Adaptive primal-dual genetic algorithms in dynamic environments.

PubMed

Wang, Hongfeng; Yang, Shengxiang; Ip, W H; Wang, Dingwei

2009-12-01

Recently, there has been an increasing interest in applying genetic algorithms (GAs) in dynamic environments. Inspired by the complementary and dominance mechanisms in nature, a primal-dual GA (PDGA) has been proposed for dynamic optimization problems (DOPs). In this paper, an important operator in PDGA, i.e., the primal-dual mapping (PDM) scheme, is further investigated to improve the robustness and adaptability of PDGA in dynamic environments. In the improved scheme, two different probability-based PDM operators, where the mapping probability of each allele in the chromosome string is calculated through the statistical information of the distribution of alleles in the corresponding gene locus over the population, are effectively combined according to an adaptive Lamarckian learning mechanism. In addition, an adaptive dominant replacement scheme, which can probabilistically accept inferior chromosomes, is also introduced into the proposed algorithm to enhance the diversity level of the population. Experimental results on a series of dynamic problems generated from several stationary benchmark problems show that the proposed algorithm is a good optimizer for DOPs.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Park, Michael A.

2002-01-01

Engineering computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and design applications focus on output functions (e.g., lift, drag). Errors in these output functions are generally unknown and conservatively accurate solutions may be computed. Computable error estimates can offer the possibility to minimize computational work for a prescribed error tolerance. Such an estimate can be computed by solving the flow equations and the linear adjoint problem for the functional of interest. The computational mesh can be modified to minimize the uncertainty of a computed error estimate. This robust mesh-adaptation procedure automatically terminates when the simulation is within a user specified error tolerance. This procedure for estimating and adapting to error in a functional is demonstrated for three-dimensional Euler problems. An adaptive mesh procedure that links to a Computer Aided Design (CAD) surface representation is demonstrated for wing, wing-body, and extruded high lift airfoil configurations. The error estimation and adaptation procedure yielded corrected functions that are as accurate as functions calculated on uniformly refined grids with ten times as many grid points.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Das, Sajal K.; Biswas, Rupak; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

14. An adaptive gyroscope-based algorithm for temporal gait analysis.

PubMed

Greene, Barry R; McGrath, Denise; O'Neill, Ross; O'Donovan, Karol J; Burns, Adrian; Caulfield, Brian

2010-12-01

Body-worn kinematic sensors have been widely proposed as the optimal solution for portable, low cost, ambulatory monitoring of gait. This study aims to evaluate an adaptive gyroscope-based algorithm for automated temporal gait analysis using body-worn wireless gyroscopes. Gyroscope data from nine healthy adult subjects performing four walks at four different speeds were then compared against data acquired simultaneously using two force plates and an optical motion capture system. Data from a poliomyelitis patient, exhibiting pathological gait walking with and without the aid of a crutch, were also compared to the force plate. Results show that the mean true error between the adaptive gyroscope algorithm and force plate was -4.5 ± 14.4 ms and 43.4 ± 6.0 ms for IC and TC points, respectively, in healthy subjects. Similarly, the mean true error when data from the polio patient were compared against the force plate was -75.61 ± 27.53 ms and 99.20 ± 46.00 ms for IC and TC points, respectively. A comparison of the present algorithm against temporal gait parameters derived from an optical motion analysis system showed good agreement for nine healthy subjects at four speeds. These results show that the algorithm reported here could constitute the basis of a robust, portable, low-cost system for ambulatory monitoring of gait.

15. Adaptive Firefly Algorithm: Parameter Analysis and its Application

PubMed Central

Shen, Hong-Bin

2014-01-01

As a nature-inspired search algorithm, firefly algorithm (FA) has several control parameters, which may have great effects on its performance. In this study, we investigate the parameter selection and adaptation strategies in a modified firefly algorithmadaptive firefly algorithm (AdaFa). There are three strategies in AdaFa including (1) a distance-based light absorption coefficient; (2) a gray coefficient enhancing fireflies to share difference information from attractive ones efficiently; and (3) five different dynamic strategies for the randomization parameter. Promising selections of parameters in the strategies are analyzed to guarantee the efficient performance of AdaFa. AdaFa is validated over widely used benchmark functions, and the numerical experiments and statistical tests yield useful conclusions on the strategies and the parameter selections affecting the performance of AdaFa. When applied to the real-world problem — protein tertiary structure prediction, the results demonstrated improved variants can rebuild the tertiary structure with the average root mean square deviation less than 0.4Å and 1.5Å from the native constrains with noise free and 10% Gaussian white noise. PMID:25397812

16. Adaptive firefly algorithm: parameter analysis and its application.

PubMed

Cheung, Ngaam J; Ding, Xue-Ming; Shen, Hong-Bin

2014-01-01

As a nature-inspired search algorithm, firefly algorithm (FA) has several control parameters, which may have great effects on its performance. In this study, we investigate the parameter selection and adaptation strategies in a modified firefly algorithm - adaptive firefly algorithm (AdaFa). There are three strategies in AdaFa including (1) a distance-based light absorption coefficient; (2) a gray coefficient enhancing fireflies to share difference information from attractive ones efficiently; and (3) five different dynamic strategies for the randomization parameter. Promising selections of parameters in the strategies are analyzed to guarantee the efficient performance of AdaFa. AdaFa is validated over widely used benchmark functions, and the numerical experiments and statistical tests yield useful conclusions on the strategies and the parameter selections affecting the performance of AdaFa. When applied to the real-world problem - protein tertiary structure prediction, the results demonstrated improved variants can rebuild the tertiary structure with the average root mean square deviation less than 0.4Å and 1.5Å from the native constrains with noise free and 10% Gaussian white noise.

17. A MPPT Algorithm Based PV System Connected to Single Phase Voltage Controlled Grid

Sreekanth, G.; Narender Reddy, N.; Durga Prasad, A.; Nagendrababu, V.

2012-10-01

Future ancillary services provided by photovoltaic (PV) systems could facilitate their penetration in power systems. In addition, low-power PV systems can be designed to improve the power quality. This paper presents a single-phase PV systemthat provides grid voltage support and compensation of harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling thanks to a repetitive controller. The power provided by the PV panels is controlled by a Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm based on the incremental conductance method specifically modified to control the phase of the PV inverter voltage. Simulation and experimental results validate the presented solution.

18. Generalized pattern search algorithms with adaptive precision function evaluations

SciTech Connect

Polak, Elijah; Wetter, Michael

2003-05-14

In the literature on generalized pattern search algorithms, convergence to a stationary point of a once continuously differentiable cost function is established under the assumption that the cost function can be evaluated exactly. However, there is a large class of engineering problems where the numerical evaluation of the cost function involves the solution of systems of differential algebraic equations. Since the termination criteria of the numerical solvers often depend on the design parameters, computer code for solving these systems usually defines a numerical approximation to the cost function that is discontinuous with respect to the design parameters. Standard generalized pattern search algorithms have been applied heuristically to such problems, but no convergence properties have been stated. In this paper we extend a class of generalized pattern search algorithms to a form that uses adaptive precision approximations to the cost function. These numerical approximations need not define a continuous function. Our algorithms can be used for solving linearly constrained problems with cost functions that are at least locally Lipschitz continuous. Assuming that the cost function is smooth, we prove that our algorithms converge to a stationary point. Under the weaker assumption that the cost function is only locally Lipschitz continuous, we show that our algorithms converge to points at which the Clarke generalized directional derivatives are nonnegative in predefined directions. An important feature of our adaptive precision scheme is the use of coarse approximations in the early iterations, with the approximation precision controlled by a test. Such an approach leads to substantial time savings in minimizing computationally expensive functions.

19. Adaptive Mesh Refinement Algorithms for Parallel Unstructured Finite Element Codes

SciTech Connect

Parsons, I D; Solberg, J M

2006-02-03

This project produced algorithms for and software implementations of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) methods for solving practical solid and thermal mechanics problems on multiprocessor parallel computers using unstructured finite element meshes. The overall goal is to provide computational solutions that are accurate to some prescribed tolerance, and adaptivity is the correct path toward this goal. These new tools will enable analysts to conduct more reliable simulations at reduced cost, both in terms of analyst and computer time. Previous academic research in the field of adaptive mesh refinement has produced a voluminous literature focused on error estimators and demonstration problems; relatively little progress has been made on producing efficient implementations suitable for large-scale problem solving on state-of-the-art computer systems. Research issues that were considered include: effective error estimators for nonlinear structural mechanics; local meshing at irregular geometric boundaries; and constructing efficient software for parallel computing environments.

20. A Hyperspherical Adaptive Sparse-Grid Method for High-Dimensional Discontinuity Detection

DOE PAGES

Zhang, Guannan; Webster, Clayton G.; Gunzburger, Max D.; ...

2015-06-24

This study proposes and analyzes a hyperspherical adaptive hierarchical sparse-grid method for detecting jump discontinuities of functions in high-dimensional spaces. The method is motivated by the theoretical and computational inefficiencies of well-known adaptive sparse-grid methods for discontinuity detection. Our novel approach constructs a function representation of the discontinuity hypersurface of an N-dimensional discontinuous quantity of interest, by virtue of a hyperspherical transformation. Then, a sparse-grid approximation of the transformed function is built in the hyperspherical coordinate system, whose value at each point is estimated by solving a one-dimensional discontinuity detection problem. Due to the smoothness of the hypersurface, the newmore » technique can identify jump discontinuities with significantly reduced computational cost, compared to existing methods. In addition, hierarchical acceleration techniques are also incorporated to further reduce the overall complexity. Rigorous complexity analyses of the new method are provided as are several numerical examples that illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.« less

1. A hyper-spherical adaptive sparse-grid method for high-dimensional discontinuity detection

SciTech Connect

Zhang, Guannan; Webster, Clayton G; Gunzburger, Max D; Burkardt, John V

2014-03-01

This work proposes and analyzes a hyper-spherical adaptive hi- erarchical sparse-grid method for detecting jump discontinuities of functions in high-dimensional spaces is proposed. The method is motivated by the the- oretical and computational inefficiencies of well-known adaptive sparse-grid methods for discontinuity detection. Our novel approach constructs a func- tion representation of the discontinuity hyper-surface of an N-dimensional dis- continuous quantity of interest, by virtue of a hyper-spherical transformation. Then, a sparse-grid approximation of the transformed function is built in the hyper-spherical coordinate system, whose value at each point is estimated by solving a one-dimensional discontinuity detection problem. Due to the smooth- ness of the hyper-surface, the new technique can identify jump discontinuities with significantly reduced computational cost, compared to existing methods. Moreover, hierarchical acceleration techniques are also incorporated to further reduce the overall complexity. Rigorous error estimates and complexity anal- yses of the new method are provided as are several numerical examples that illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

2. G/SPLINES: A hybrid of Friedman's Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) algorithm with Holland's genetic algorithm

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rogers, David

1991-01-01

G/SPLINES are a hybrid of Friedman's Multivariable Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) algorithm with Holland's Genetic Algorithm. In this hybrid, the incremental search is replaced by a genetic search. The G/SPLINE algorithm exhibits performance comparable to that of the MARS algorithm, requires fewer least squares computations, and allows significantly larger problems to be considered.

3. A robust multi-grid pressure-based algorithm for multi-fluid flow at all speeds

Darwish, M.; Moukalled, F.; Sekar, B.

2003-04-01

This paper reports on the implementation and testing, within a full non-linear multi-grid environment, of a new pressure-based algorithm for the prediction of multi-fluid flow at all speeds. The algorithm is part of the mass conservation-based algorithms (MCBA) group in which the pressure correction equation is derived from overall mass conservation. The performance of the new method is assessed by solving a series of two-dimensional two-fluid flow test problems varying from turbulent low Mach number to supersonic flows, and from very low to high fluid density ratios. Solutions are generated for several grid sizes using the single grid (SG), the prolongation grid (PG), and the full non-linear multi-grid (FMG) methods. The main outcomes of this study are: (i) a clear demonstration of the ability of the FMG method to tackle the added non-linearity of multi-fluid flows, which is manifested through the performance jump observed when using the non-linear multi-grid approach as compared to the SG and PG methods; (ii) the extension of the FMG method to predict turbulent multi-fluid flows at all speeds. The convergence history plots and CPU-times presented indicate that the FMG method is far more efficient than the PG method and accelerates the convergence rate over the SG method, for the problems solved and the grids used, by a factor reaching a value as high as 15.

4. An adaptive sparse-grid high-order stochastic collocation method for Bayesian inference in groundwater reactive transport modeling

SciTech Connect

Zhang, Guannan; Webster, Clayton G; Gunzburger, Max D

2012-09-01

Although Bayesian analysis has become vital to the quantification of prediction uncertainty in groundwater modeling, its application has been hindered due to the computational cost associated with numerous model executions needed for exploring the posterior probability density function (PPDF) of model parameters. This is particularly the case when the PPDF is estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. In this study, we develop a new approach that improves computational efficiency of Bayesian inference by constructing a surrogate system based on an adaptive sparse-grid high-order stochastic collocation (aSG-hSC) method. Unlike previous works using first-order hierarchical basis, we utilize a compactly supported higher-order hierar- chical basis to construct the surrogate system, resulting in a significant reduction in the number of computational simulations required. In addition, we use hierarchical surplus as an error indi- cator to determine adaptive sparse grids. This allows local refinement in the uncertain domain and/or anisotropic detection with respect to the random model parameters, which further improves computational efficiency. Finally, we incorporate a global optimization technique and propose an iterative algorithm for building the surrogate system for the PPDF with multiple significant modes. Once the surrogate system is determined, the PPDF can be evaluated by sampling the surrogate system directly with very little computational cost. The developed method is evaluated first using a simple analytical density function with multiple modes and then using two synthetic groundwater reactive transport models. The groundwater models represent different levels of complexity; the first example involves coupled linear reactions and the second example simulates nonlinear ura- nium surface complexation. The results show that the aSG-hSC is an effective and efficient tool for Bayesian inference in groundwater modeling in comparison with conventional

5. Adaptive Hierarchical Voltage Control of a DFIG-Based Wind Power Plant for a Grid Fault

SciTech Connect

Kim, Jinho; Muljadi, Eduard; Park, Jung-Wook; Kang, Yong Cheol

2016-11-01

This paper proposes an adaptive hierarchical voltage control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind power plant (WPP) that can secure more reserve of reactive power (Q) in the WPP against a grid fault. To achieve this, each DFIG controller employs an adaptive reactive power to voltage (Q-V) characteristic. The proposed adaptive Q-V characteristic is temporally modified depending on the available Q capability of a DFIG; it is dependent on the distance from a DFIG to the point of common coupling (PCC). The proposed characteristic secures more Q reserve in the WPP than the fixed one. Furthermore, it allows DFIGs to promptly inject up to the Q limit, thereby improving the PCC voltage support. To avert an overvoltage after the fault clearance, washout filters are implemented in the WPP and DFIG controllers; they can prevent a surplus Q injection after the fault clearance by eliminating the accumulated values in the proportional-integral controllers of both controllers during the fault. Test results demonstrate that the scheme can improve the voltage support capability during the fault and suppress transient overvoltage after the fault clearance under scenarios of various system and fault conditions; therefore, it helps ensure grid resilience by supporting the voltage stability.

6. Analysis of adaptive algorithms for an integrated communication network

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reed, Daniel A.; Barr, Matthew; Chong-Kwon, Kim

1985-01-01

Techniques were examined that trade communication bandwidth for decreased transmission delays. When the network is lightly used, these schemes attempt to use additional network resources to decrease communication delays. As the network utilization rises, the schemes degrade gracefully, still providing service but with minimal use of the network. Because the schemes use a combination of circuit and packet switching, they should respond to variations in the types and amounts of network traffic. Also, a combination of circuit and packet switching to support the widely varying traffic demands imposed on an integrated network was investigated. The packet switched component is best suited to bursty traffic where some delays in delivery are acceptable. The circuit switched component is reserved for traffic that must meet real time constraints. Selected packet routing algorithms that might be used in an integrated network were simulated. An integrated traffic places widely varying workload demands on a network. Adaptive algorithms were identified, ones that respond to both the transient and evolutionary changes that arise in integrated networks. A new algorithm was developed, hybrid weighted routing, that adapts to workload changes.

7. Adaptive finite-volume WENO schemes on dynamically redistributed grids for compressible Euler equations

Pathak, Harshavardhana S.; Shukla, Ratnesh K.

2016-08-01

A high-order adaptive finite-volume method is presented for simulating inviscid compressible flows on time-dependent redistributed grids. The method achieves dynamic adaptation through a combination of time-dependent mesh node clustering in regions characterized by strong solution gradients and an optimal selection of the order of accuracy and the associated reconstruction stencil in a conservative finite-volume framework. This combined approach maximizes spatial resolution in discontinuous regions that require low-order approximations for oscillation-free shock capturing. Over smooth regions, high-order discretization through finite-volume WENO schemes minimizes numerical dissipation and provides excellent resolution of intricate flow features. The method including the moving mesh equations and the compressible flow solver is formulated entirely on a transformed time-independent computational domain discretized using a simple uniform Cartesian mesh. Approximations for the metric terms that enforce discrete geometric conservation law while preserving the fourth-order accuracy of the two-point Gaussian quadrature rule are developed. Spurious Cartesian grid induced shock instabilities such as carbuncles that feature in a local one-dimensional contact capturing treatment along the cell face normals are effectively eliminated through upwind flux calculation using a rotated Hartex-Lax-van Leer contact resolving (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver for the Euler equations in generalized coordinates. Numerical experiments with the fifth and ninth-order WENO reconstructions at the two-point Gaussian quadrature nodes, over a range of challenging test cases, indicate that the redistributed mesh effectively adapts to the dynamic flow gradients thereby improving the solution accuracy substantially even when the initial starting mesh is non-adaptive. The high adaptivity combined with the fifth and especially the ninth-order WENO reconstruction allows remarkably sharp capture of

8. Time-dependent grid adaptation for meshes of triangles and tetrahedra

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rausch, Russ D.

1993-01-01

This paper presents in viewgraph form a method of optimizing grid generation for unsteady CFD flow calculations that distributes the numerical error evenly throughout the mesh. Adaptive meshing is used to locally enrich in regions of relatively large errors and to locally coarsen in regions of relatively small errors. The enrichment/coarsening procedures are robust for isotropic cells; however, enrichment of high aspect ratio cells may fail near boundary surfaces with relatively large curvature. The enrichment indicator worked well for the cases shown, but in general requires user supervision for a more efficient solution.

9. Evaluating two sparse grid surrogates and two adaptation criteria for groundwater Bayesian uncertainty quantification

Zeng, Xiankui; Ye, Ming; Burkardt, John; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

2016-04-01

10. Sparsity-Cognizant Algorithms with Applications to Communications, Signal Processing, and the Smart Grid

Zhu, Hao

Sparsity plays an instrumental role in a plethora of scientific fields, including statistical inference for variable selection, parsimonious signal representations, and solving under-determined systems of linear equations - what has led to the ground-breaking result of compressive sampling (CS). This Thesis leverages exciting ideas of sparse signal reconstruction to develop sparsity-cognizant algorithms, and analyze their performance. The vision is to devise tools exploiting the 'right' form of sparsity for the 'right' application domain of multiuser communication systems, array signal processing systems, and the emerging challenges in the smart power grid. Two important power system monitoring tasks are addressed first by capitalizing on the hidden sparsity. To robustify power system state estimation, a sparse outlier model is leveraged to capture the possible corruption in every datum, while the problem nonconvexity due to nonlinear measurements is handled using the semidefinite relaxation technique. Different from existing iterative methods, the proposed algorithm approximates well the global optimum regardless of the initialization. In addition, for enhanced situational awareness, a novel sparse overcomplete representation is introduced to capture (possibly multiple) line outages, and develop real-time algorithms for solving the combinatorially complex identification problem. The proposed algorithms exhibit near-optimal performance while incurring only linear complexity in the number of lines, which makes it possible to quickly bring contingencies to attention. This Thesis also accounts for two basic issues in CS, namely fully-perturbed models and the finite alphabet property. The sparse total least-squares (S-TLS) approach is proposed to furnish CS algorithms for fully-perturbed linear models, leading to statistically optimal and computationally efficient solvers. The S-TLS framework is well motivated for grid-based sensing applications and exhibits higher

11. Adaptation of a Fast Optimal Interpolation Algorithm to the Mapping of Oceangraphic Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Menemenlis, Dimitris; Fieguth, Paul; Wunsch, Carl; Willsky, Alan

1997-01-01

A fast, recently developed, multiscale optimal interpolation algorithm has been adapted to the mapping of hydrographic and other oceanographic data. This algorithm produces solution and error estimates which are consistent with those obtained from exact least squares methods, but at a small fraction of the computational cost. Problems whose solution would be completely impractical using exact least squares, that is, problems with tens or hundreds of thousands of measurements and estimation grid points, can easily be solved on a small workstation using the multiscale algorithm. In contrast to methods previously proposed for solving large least squares problems, our approach provides estimation error statistics while permitting long-range correlations, using all measurements, and permitting arbitrary measurement locations. The multiscale algorithm itself, published elsewhere, is not the focus of this paper. However, the algorithm requires statistical models having a very particular multiscale structure; it is the development of a class of multiscale statistical models, appropriate for oceanographic mapping problems, with which we concern ourselves in this paper. The approach is illustrated by mapping temperature in the northeastern Pacific. The number of hydrographic stations is kept deliberately small to show that multiscale and exact least squares results are comparable. A portion of the data were not used in the analysis; these data serve to test the multiscale estimates. A major advantage of the present approach is the ability to repeat the estimation procedure a large number of times for sensitivity studies, parameter estimation, and model testing. We have made available by anonymous Ftp a set of MATLAB-callable routines which implement the multiscale algorithm and the statistical models developed in this paper.

12. Statistical behaviour of adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms in simple models

Rolland, Joran; Simonnet, Eric

2015-02-01

Adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms have been introduced rather recently for estimating tail distributions in a fast and efficient way. In particular, they can be used for computing the so-called reactive trajectories corresponding to direct transitions from one metastable state to another. The algorithm is based on successive selection-mutation steps performed on the system in a controlled way. It has two intrinsic parameters, the number of particles/trajectories and the reaction coordinate used for discriminating good or bad trajectories. We investigate first the convergence in law of the algorithm as a function of the timestep for several simple stochastic models. Second, we consider the average duration of reactive trajectories for which no theoretical predictions exist. The most important aspect of this work concerns some systems with two degrees of freedom. They are studied in detail as a function of the reaction coordinate in the asymptotic regime where the number of trajectories goes to infinity. We show that during phase transitions, the statistics of the algorithm deviate significatively from known theoretical results when using non-optimal reaction coordinates. In this case, the variance of the algorithm is peaking at the transition and the convergence of the algorithm can be much slower than the usual expected central limit behaviour. The duration of trajectories is affected as well. Moreover, reactive trajectories do not correspond to the most probable ones. Such behaviour disappears when using the optimal reaction coordinate called committor as predicted by the theory. We finally investigate a three-state Markov chain which reproduces this phenomenon and show logarithmic convergence of the trajectory durations.

13. Statistical behaviour of adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms in simple models

SciTech Connect

Rolland, Joran Simonnet, Eric

2015-02-15

Adaptive multilevel splitting algorithms have been introduced rather recently for estimating tail distributions in a fast and efficient way. In particular, they can be used for computing the so-called reactive trajectories corresponding to direct transitions from one metastable state to another. The algorithm is based on successive selection–mutation steps performed on the system in a controlled way. It has two intrinsic parameters, the number of particles/trajectories and the reaction coordinate used for discriminating good or bad trajectories. We investigate first the convergence in law of the algorithm as a function of the timestep for several simple stochastic models. Second, we consider the average duration of reactive trajectories for which no theoretical predictions exist. The most important aspect of this work concerns some systems with two degrees of freedom. They are studied in detail as a function of the reaction coordinate in the asymptotic regime where the number of trajectories goes to infinity. We show that during phase transitions, the statistics of the algorithm deviate significatively from known theoretical results when using non-optimal reaction coordinates. In this case, the variance of the algorithm is peaking at the transition and the convergence of the algorithm can be much slower than the usual expected central limit behaviour. The duration of trajectories is affected as well. Moreover, reactive trajectories do not correspond to the most probable ones. Such behaviour disappears when using the optimal reaction coordinate called committor as predicted by the theory. We finally investigate a three-state Markov chain which reproduces this phenomenon and show logarithmic convergence of the trajectory durations.

PubMed

Maestre-Deusto, F Javier; Scavello, Giovanni; Pizarro, Joaquín; Galindo, Pedro L

2011-08-01

In this paper we suggest an algorithm based on the Discrete Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (DART) which is capable of computing high quality reconstructions from substantially fewer projections than required for conventional continuous tomography. Adaptive DART (ADART) goes a step further than DART on the reduction of the number of unknowns of the associated linear system achieving a significant reduction in the pixel error rate of reconstructed objects. The proposed methodology automatically adapts the border definition criterion at each iteration, resulting in a reduction of the number of pixels belonging to the border, and consequently of the number of unknowns in the general algebraic reconstruction linear system to be solved, being this reduction specially important at the final stage of the iterative process. Experimental results show that reconstruction errors are considerably reduced using ADART when compared to original DART, both in clean and noisy environments.

15. An adaptive penalty method for DIRECT algorithm in engineering optimization

Vilaça, Rita; Rocha, Ana Maria A. C.

2012-09-01

The most common approach for solving constrained optimization problems is based on penalty functions, where the constrained problem is transformed into a sequence of unconstrained problem by penalizing the objective function when constraints are violated. In this paper, we analyze the implementation of an adaptive penalty method, within the DIRECT algorithm, in which the constraints that are more difficult to be satisfied will have relatively higher penalty values. In order to assess the applicability and performance of the proposed method, some benchmark problems from engineering design optimization are considered.

16. Fair Energy Scheduling for Vehicle-to-Grid Networks Using Adaptive Dynamic Programming.

PubMed

Xie, Shengli; Zhong, Weifeng; Xie, Kan; Yu, Rong; Zhang, Yan

2016-08-01

Research on the smart grid is being given enormous supports worldwide due to its great significance in solving environmental and energy crises. Electric vehicles (EVs), which are powered by clean energy, are adopted increasingly year by year. It is predictable that the huge charge load caused by high EV penetration will have a considerable impact on the reliability of the smart grid. Therefore, fair energy scheduling for EV charge and discharge is proposed in this paper. By using the vehicle-to-grid technology, the scheduler controls the electricity loads of EVs considering fairness in the residential distribution network. We propose contribution-based fairness, in which EVs with high contributions have high priorities to obtain charge energy. The contribution value is defined by both the charge/discharge energy and the timing of the action. EVs can achieve higher contribution values when discharging during the load peak hours. However, charging during this time will decrease the contribution values seriously. We formulate the fair energy scheduling problem as an infinite-horizon Markov decision process. The methodology of adaptive dynamic programming is employed to maximize the long-term fairness by processing online network training. The numerical results illustrate that the proposed EV energy scheduling is able to mitigate and flatten the peak load in the distribution network. Furthermore, contribution-based fairness achieves a fast recovery of EV batteries that have deeply discharged and guarantee fairness in the full charge time of all EVs.

17. Adaptive testing for psychological assessment: how many items are enough to run an adaptive testing algorithm?

PubMed

Wagner-Menghin, Michaela M; Masters, Geoff N

2013-01-01

Although the principles of adaptive testing were established in the psychometric literature many years ago (e.g., Weiss, 1977), and practice of adaptive testing is established in educational assessment, it not yet widespread in psychological assessment. One obstacle to adaptive psychological testing is a lack of clarity about the necessary number of items to run an adaptive algorithm. The study explores the relationship between item bank size, test length and measurement precision. Simulated adaptive test runs (allowing a maximum of 30 items per person) out of an item bank with 10 items per ability level (covering .5 logits, 150 items total) yield a standard error of measurement (SEM) of .47 (.39) after an average of 20 (29) items for 85-93% (64-82%) of the simulated rectangular sample. Expanding the bank to 20 items per level (300 items total) did not improve the algorithm's performance significantly. With a small item bank (5 items per ability level, 75 items total) it is possible to reach the same SEM as with a conventional test, but with fewer items or a better SEM with the same number of items.

18. Implementations of the optimal multigrid algorithm for the cell-centered finite difference on equilateral triangular grids

SciTech Connect

Ewing, R.E.; Saevareid, O.; Shen, J.

1994-12-31

A multigrid algorithm for the cell-centered finite difference on equilateral triangular grids for solving second-order elliptic problems is proposed. This finite difference is a four-point star stencil in a two-dimensional domain and a five-point star stencil in a three dimensional domain. According to the authors analysis, the advantages of this finite difference are that it is an O(h{sup 2})-order accurate numerical scheme for both the solution and derivatives on equilateral triangular grids, the structure of the scheme is perhaps the simplest, and its corresponding multigrid algorithm is easily constructed with an optimal convergence rate. They are interested in relaxation of the equilateral triangular grid condition to certain general triangular grids and the application of this multigrid algorithm as a numerically reasonable preconditioner for the lowest-order Raviart-Thomas mixed triangular finite element method. Numerical test results are presented to demonstrate their analytical results and to investigate the applications of this multigrid algorithm on general triangular grids.

19. a Hadoop-Based Algorithm of Generating dem Grid from Point Cloud Data

Jian, X.; Xiao, X.; Chengfang, H.; Zhizhong, Z.; Zhaohui, W.; Dengzhong, Z.

2015-04-01

Airborne LiDAR technology has proven to be the most powerful tools to obtain high-density, high-accuracy and significantly detailed surface information of terrain and surface objects within a short time, and from which the Digital Elevation Model of high quality can be extracted. Point cloud data generated from the pre-processed data should be classified by segmentation algorithms, so as to differ the terrain points from disorganized points, then followed by a procedure of interpolating the selected points to turn points into DEM data. The whole procedure takes a long time and huge computing resource due to high-density, that is concentrated on by a number of researches. Hadoop is a distributed system infrastructure developed by the Apache Foundation, which contains a highly fault-tolerant distributed file system (HDFS) with high transmission rate and a parallel programming model (Map/Reduce). Such a framework is appropriate for DEM generation algorithms to improve efficiency. Point cloud data of Dongting Lake acquired by Riegl LMS-Q680i laser scanner was utilized as the original data to generate DEM by a Hadoop-based algorithms implemented in Linux, then followed by another traditional procedure programmed by C++ as the comparative experiment. Then the algorithm's efficiency, coding complexity, and performance-cost ratio were discussed for the comparison. The results demonstrate that the algorithm's speed depends on size of point set and density of DEM grid, and the non-Hadoop implementation can achieve a high performance when memory is big enough, but the multiple Hadoop implementation can achieve a higher performance-cost ratio, while point set is of vast quantities on the other hand.

20. Parallel grid library with adaptive mesh refinement for development of highly scalable simulations

Honkonen, I.; von Alfthan, S.; Sandroos, A.; Janhunen, P.; Palmroth, M.

2012-04-01

As the single CPU core performance is saturating while the number of cores in the fastest supercomputers increases exponentially, the parallel performance of simulations on distributed memory machines is crucial. At the same time, utilizing efficiently the large number of available cores presents a challenge, especially in simulations with run-time adaptive mesh refinement. We have developed a generic grid library (dccrg) aimed at finite volume simulations that is easy to use and scales well up to tens of thousands of cores. The grid has several attractive features: It 1) allows an arbitrary C++ class or structure to be used as cell data; 2) provides a simple interface for adaptive mesh refinement during a simulation; 3) encapsulates the details of MPI communication when updating the data of neighboring cells between processes; and 4) provides a simple interface to run-time load balancing, e.g. domain decomposition, through the Zoltan library. Dccrg is freely available for anyone to use, study and modify under the GNU Lesser General Public License v3. We will present the implementation of dccrg, simple and advanced usage examples and scalability results on various supercomputers and problems.

1. A User's Guide to AMR1D: An Instructional Adaptive Mesh Refinement Code for Unstructured Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

deFainchtein, Rosalinda

1996-01-01

This report documents the code AMR1D, which is currently posted on the World Wide Web (http://sdcd.gsfc.nasa.gov/ESS/exchange/contrib/de-fainchtein/adaptive _mesh_refinement.html). AMR1D is a one-dimensional finite element fluid-dynamics solver, capable of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). It was written as an instructional tool for AMR on unstructured mesh codes. It is meant to illustrate the minimum requirements for AMR on more than one dimension. For that purpose, it uses the same type of data structure that would be necessary on a two-dimensional AMR code (loosely following the algorithm described by Lohner).

2. Path Planning Algorithms for the Adaptive Sensor Fleet

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stoneking, Eric; Hosler, Jeff

2005-01-01

The Adaptive Sensor Fleet (ASF) is a general purpose fleet management and planning system being developed by NASA in coordination with NOAA. The current mission of ASF is to provide the capability for autonomous cooperative survey and sampling of dynamic oceanographic phenomena such as current systems and algae blooms. Each ASF vessel is a software model that represents a real world platform that carries a variety of sensors. The OASIS platform will provide the first physical vessel, outfitted with the systems and payloads necessary to execute the oceanographic observations described in this paper. The ASF architecture is being designed for extensibility to accommodate heterogenous fleet elements, and is not limited to using the OASIS platform to acquire data. This paper describes the path planning algorithms developed for the acquisition phase of a typical ASF task. Given a polygonal target region to be surveyed, the region is subdivided according to the number of vessels in the fleet. The subdivision algorithm seeks a solution in which all subregions have equal area and minimum mean radius. Once the subregions are defined, a dynamic programming method is used to find a minimum-time path for each vessel from its initial position to its assigned region. This path plan includes the effects of water currents as well as avoidance of known obstacles. A fleet-level planning algorithm then shuffles the individual vessel assignments to find the overall solution which puts all vessels in their assigned regions in the minimum time. This shuffle algorithm may be described as a process of elimination on the sorted list of permutations of a cost matrix. All these path planning algorithms are facilitated by discretizing the region of interest onto a hexagonal tiling.

3. Genetic algorithms for optimal reactive power compensation planning on the national grid system

Pilgrim, J. D.

This work investigates the use of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) for optimal Reactive power Compensation Planning (RCP) of practical power systems. In particular, RCP of the transmission system of England and Wales as owned and operated by National Grid is considered. The GA is used to simultaneously solve both the siting problem---optimisation of the installation of new devices---and the operational problem---optimisation of preventive transformer taps and the controller characteristics of dynamic compensation devices. A computer package called Genetic Compensation Placement (GCP) has been developed which uses an Integer coded GA (IGA) to solve the RCP problem. The RCP problem is implemented as a multi-objective optimisation: in the interests of security, the number of system and operational constraint violations and the deviation of the busbar voltages from the ideal are all minimised for the base (intact) case and the contingent cases. In the interests of cost reduction, the reactive power cost is minimised for the base case. The reactive power cost encompasses the costs incurred from the installation of reactive power sources and the utilisation of new and existing dynamic reactive power compensation devices. GCP is compared to SCORPION (a planning program currently being used by National Grid) which uses a combination of linear programming and heuristic back-tracking. Results are presented for a practical test system developed with the cooperation of National Grid, and it is found that GCP produces solutions that are cheaper than solutions found by SCORPION and perform extremely well: an improvement in voltage profiles, a decrease in complex power mismatches, and a reduction in MVolt Amps-reactive (VAr) utilisation were observed.

4. Accuracy of an unstructured-grid upwind-Euler algorithm for the ONERA M6 wing

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Batina, John T.

1991-01-01

Improved algorithms for the solution of the three-dimensional, time-dependent Euler equations are presented for aerodynamic analysis involving unstructured dynamic meshes. The improvements have been developed recently to the spatial and temporal discretizations used by unstructured-grid flow solvers. The spatial discretization involves a flux-split approach that is naturally dissipative and captures shock waves sharply with at most one grid point within the shock structure. The temporal discretization involves either an explicit time-integration scheme using a multistage Runge-Kutta procedure or an implicit time-integration scheme using a Gauss-Seidel relaxation procedure, which is computationally efficient for either steady or unsteady flow problems. With the implicit Gauss-Seidel procedure, very large time steps may be used for rapid convergence to steady state, and the step size for unsteady cases may be selected for temporal accuracy rather than for numerical stability. Steady flow results are presented for both the NACA 0012 airfoil and the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales M6 wing to demonstrate applications of the new Euler solvers. The paper presents a description of the Euler solvers along with results and comparisons that assess the capability.

5. Fast algorithms for visualizing fluid motion in steady flow on unstructured grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ueng, S. K.; Sikorski, K.; Ma, Kwan-Liu

1995-01-01

The plotting of streamlines is an effective way of visualizing fluid motion in steady flows. Additional information about the flowfield, such as local rotation and expansion, can be shown by drawing in the form of a ribbon or tube. In this paper, we present efficient algorithms for the construction of streamlines, streamribbons and streamtubes on unstructured grids. A specialized version of the Runge-Kutta method has been developed to speed up the integration of particle paths. We have also derived closed-form solutions for calculating angular rotation rate and radius to construct streamribbons and streamtubes, respectively. According to our analysis and test results, these formulations are two to four times better in performance than previous numerical methods. As a large number of traces are calculated, the improved performance could be significant.

6. A Competency-Based Guided-Learning Algorithm Applied on Adaptively Guiding E-Learning

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hsu, Wei-Chih; Li, Cheng-Hsiu

2015-01-01

This paper presents a new algorithm called competency-based guided-learning algorithm (CBGLA), which can be applied on adaptively guiding e-learning. Computational process analysis and mathematical derivation of competency-based learning (CBL) were used to develop the CBGLA. The proposed algorithm could generate an effective adaptively guiding…

7. Generation of unstructured grids and Euler solutions for complex geometries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loehner, Rainald; Parikh, Paresh; Salas, Manuel D.

1989-01-01

Algorithms are described for the generation and adaptation of unstructured grids in two and three dimensions, as well as Euler solvers for unstructured grids. The main purpose is to demonstrate how unstructured grids may be employed advantageously for the economic simulation of both geometrically as well as physically complex flow fields.

8. A Freestream-Preserving High-Order Finite-Volume Method for Mapped Grids with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement

SciTech Connect

Guzik, S; McCorquodale, P; Colella, P

2011-12-16

A fourth-order accurate finite-volume method is presented for solving time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on mapped grids that are adaptively refined in space and time. Novel considerations for formulating the semi-discrete system of equations in computational space combined with detailed mechanisms for accommodating the adapting grids ensure that conservation is maintained and that the divergence of a constant vector field is always zero (freestream-preservation property). Advancement in time is achieved with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method.

9. Optimizations of the energy grid search algorithm in continuous-energy Monte Carlo particle transport codes

Walsh, Jonathan A.; Romano, Paul K.; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord S.

2015-11-01

In this work we propose, implement, and test various optimizations of the typical energy grid-cross section pair lookup algorithm in Monte Carlo particle transport codes. The key feature common to all of the optimizations is a reduction in the length of the vector of energies that must be searched when locating the index of a particle's current energy. Other factors held constant, a reduction in energy vector length yields a reduction in CPU time. The computational methods we present here are physics-informed. That is, they are designed to utilize the physical information embedded in a simulation in order to reduce the length of the vector to be searched. More specifically, the optimizations take advantage of information about scattering kinematics, neutron cross section structure and data representation, and also the expected characteristics of a system's spatial flux distribution and energy spectrum. The methods that we present are implemented in the OpenMC Monte Carlo neutron transport code as part of this work. The gains in computational efficiency, as measured by overall code speedup, associated with each of the optimizations are demonstrated in both serial and multithreaded simulations of realistic systems. Depending on the system, simulation parameters, and optimization method employed, overall code speedup factors of 1.2-1.5, relative to the typical single-nuclide binary search algorithm, are routinely observed.

10. An improved bi-level algorithm for partitioning dynamic grid hierarchies.

SciTech Connect

Deiterding, Ralf (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA); Johansson, Henrik (Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden); Steensland, Johan; Ray, Jaideep

2006-05-01

Structured adaptive mesh refinement methods are being widely used for computer simulations of various physical phenomena. Parallel implementations potentially offer realistic simulations of complex three-dimensional applications. But achieving good scalability for large-scale applications is non-trivial. Performance is limited by the partitioner's ability to efficiently use the underlying parallel computer's resources. Designed on sound SAMR principles, Nature+Fable is a hybrid, dedicated SAMR partitioning tool that brings together the advantages of both domain-based and patch-based techniques while avoiding their drawbacks. But the original bi-level partitioning approach in Nature+Fable is insufficient as it for realistic applications regards frequently occurring bi-levels as ''impossible'' and fails. This document describes an improved bi-level partitioning algorithm that successfully copes with all possible bi-levels. The improved algorithm uses the original approach side-by-side with a new, complementing approach. By using a new, customized classification method, the improved algorithm switches automatically between the two approaches. This document describes the algorithms, discusses implementation issues, and presents experimental results. The improved version of Nature+Fable was found to be able to handle realistic applications and also to generate less imbalances, similar box count, but more communication as compared to the native, domain-based partitioner in the SAMR framework AMROC.

11. Adaptively wavelet-based image denoising algorithm with edge preserving

Tan, Yihua; Tian, Jinwen; Liu, Jian

2006-02-01

A new wavelet-based image denoising algorithm, which exploits the edge information hidden in the corrupted image, is presented. Firstly, a canny-like edge detector identifies the edges in each subband. Secondly, multiplying the wavelet coefficients in neighboring scales is implemented to suppress the noise while magnifying the edge information, and the result is utilized to exclude the fake edges. The isolated edge pixel is also identified as noise. Unlike the thresholding method, after that we use local window filter in the wavelet domain to remove noise in which the variance estimation is elaborated to utilize the edge information. This method is adaptive to local image details, and can achieve better performance than the methods of state of the art.

12. Two general methods for population pharmacokinetic modeling: non-parametric adaptive grid and non-parametric Bayesian.

PubMed

Tatarinova, Tatiana; Neely, Michael; Bartroff, Jay; van Guilder, Michael; Yamada, Walter; Bayard, David; Jelliffe, Roger; Leary, Robert; Chubatiuk, Alyona; Schumitzky, Alan

2013-04-01

Population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling methods can be statistically classified as either parametric or nonparametric (NP). Each classification can be divided into maximum likelihood (ML) or Bayesian (B) approaches. In this paper we discuss the nonparametric case using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. We present two nonparametric methods for estimating the unknown joint population distribution of model parameter values in a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) dataset. The first method is the NP Adaptive Grid (NPAG). The second is the NP Bayesian (NPB) algorithm with a stick-breaking process to construct a Dirichlet prior. Our objective is to compare the performance of these two methods using a simulated PK/PD dataset. Our results showed excellent performance of NPAG and NPB in a realistically simulated PK study. This simulation allowed us to have benchmarks in the form of the true population parameters to compare with the estimates produced by the two methods, while incorporating challenges like unbalanced sample times and sample numbers as well as the ability to include the covariate of patient weight. We conclude that both NPML and NPB can be used in realistic PK/PD population analysis problems. The advantages of one versus the other are discussed in the paper. NPAG and NPB are implemented in R and freely available for download within the Pmetrics package from www.lapk.org.

13. Two general methods for population pharmacokinetic modeling: non-parametric adaptive grid and non-parametric Bayesian

PubMed Central

Neely, Michael; Bartroff, Jay; van Guilder, Michael; Yamada, Walter; Bayard, David; Jelliffe, Roger; Leary, Robert; Chubatiuk, Alyona; Schumitzky, Alan

2013-01-01

Population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling methods can be statistically classified as either parametric or nonparametric (NP). Each classification can be divided into maximum likelihood (ML) or Bayesian (B) approazches. In this paper we discuss the nonparametric case using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. We present two nonparametric methods for estimating the unknown joint population distribution of model parameter values in a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) dataset. The first method is the NP Adaptive Grid (NPAG). The second is the NP Bayesian (NPB) algorithm with a stick-breaking process to construct a Dirichlet prior. Our objective is to compare the performance of these two methods using a simulated PK/PD dataset. Our results showed excellent performance of NPAG and NPB in a realistically simulated PK study. This simulation allowed us to have benchmarks in the form of the true population parameters to compare with the estimates produced by the two methods, while incorporating challenges like unbalanced sample times and sample numbers as well as the ability to include the covariate of patient weight. We conclude that both NPML and NPB can be used in realistic PK/PD population analysis problems. The advantages of one versus the other are discussed in the paper. NPAG and NPB are implemented in R and freely available for download within the Pmetrics package from www.lapk.org. PMID:23404393

Luo, Xisheng; Wang, Luying; Ran, Wei; Qin, Fenghua

2016-10-01

A GPU accelerated inviscid flow solver is developed on an unstructured quadrilateral grid in the present work. For the first time, the cell-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is fully implemented on GPU for the unstructured quadrilateral grid, which greatly reduces the frequency of data exchange between GPU and CPU. Specifically, the AMR is processed with atomic operations to parallelize list operations, and null memory recycling is realized to improve the efficiency of memory utilization. It is found that results obtained by GPUs agree very well with the exact or experimental results in literature. An acceleration ratio of 4 is obtained between the parallel code running on the old GPU GT9800 and the serial code running on E3-1230 V2. With the optimization of configuring a larger L1 cache and adopting Shared Memory based atomic operations on the newer GPU C2050, an acceleration ratio of 20 is achieved. The parallelized cell-based AMR processes have achieved 2x speedup on GT9800 and 18x on Tesla C2050, which demonstrates that parallel running of the cell-based AMR method on GPU is feasible and efficient. Our results also indicate that the new development of GPU architecture benefits the fluid dynamics computing significantly.

15. A New Adaptive H-Infinity Filtering Algorithm for the GPS/INS Integrated Navigation.

PubMed

Jiang, Chen; Zhang, Shu-Bi; Zhang, Qiu-Zhao

2016-12-19

The Kalman filter is an optimal estimator with numerous applications in technology, especially in systems with Gaussian distributed noise. Moreover, the adaptive Kalman filtering algorithms, based on the Kalman filter, can control the influence of dynamic model errors. In contrast to the adaptive Kalman filtering algorithms, the H-infinity filter is able to address the interference of the stochastic model by minimization of the worst-case estimation error. In this paper, a novel adaptive H-infinity filtering algorithm, which integrates the adaptive Kalman filter and the H-infinity filter in order to perform a comprehensive filtering algorithm, is presented. In the proposed algorithm, a robust estimation method is employed to control the influence of outliers. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, experiments with real data of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated navigation, were conducted. The experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm has multiple advantages compared to the other filtering algorithms.

16. Adaptive-Grid Methods for Phase Field Models of Microstructure Development

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Provatas, Nikolas; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Dantzig, Jonathan A.

1999-01-01

In this work the authors show how the phase field model can be solved in a computationally efficient manner that opens a new large-scale simulational window on solidification physics. Our method uses a finite element, adaptive-grid formulation, and exploits the fact that the phase and temperature fields vary significantly only near the interface. We illustrate how our method allows efficient simulation of phase-field models in very large systems, and verify the predictions of solvability theory at intermediate undercooling. We then present new results at low undercoolings that suggest that solvability theory may not give the correct tip speed in that regime. We model solidification using the phase-field model used by Karma and Rappel.

17. Preliminary Benchmarking of Plinian Eruption Simulations Using an Adaptive Grid Eulerian Technique

Peterson, A. H.; Ogden, D. E.; Wohletz, K. H.; Gisler, G.; Glatzmaier, G. A.

2005-12-01

The SAGE (SAIC Adaptive Grid Eulerian) code is an Eulerian hydrodynamics numerical technique employing adaptive mesh refinement at each cycle for every cell in 1-, 2-, and 3-D grids. It is primarily designed to solve high deformation flow of multiple materials and thus provides important capabilities for simulating volcanic eruption phenomena. Its multimaterial equation of state libraries includes a comprehensive coverage of water from solid ice through two-phase liquid and vapor to supercritical states approaching the Hugoniot, and extremely important aspect for simulating volcanic gases in general. In development are strength and failure rules that model non-Newtonian fluid/solid deformation. Because of the low effective sound speeds of eruptive mixtures, the facts that SAGE uses a piecewise, linear, multi-material, Gudonov numerical method to resolve shocks with second-order precision and exactly conserves mass, momentum, and energy, are a highly desirable attributes. Although this code has been previously used to simulate a volcanic eruption (i.e., eruption through a crater lake at Ruapehu volcano by Morrissey and Gisler), we are embarking in an effort to benchmark the code with CFDLib, a well-validated arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Through this effort we expect to better understand the strengths and weaknesses, the limitations, and provide direction for important enhancement of SAGE, and potentially provide the volcanological community with a powerful alternative to numerical codes currently available. At this point in our benchmarking, we demonstrate some results for fluid convection within a chamber and fluid jetting through a conduit.

18. An adaptive /N-body algorithm of optimal order

Pruett, C. David; Rudmin, Joseph W.; Lacy, Justin M.

2003-05-01

Picard iteration is normally considered a theoretical tool whose primary utility is to establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions to first-order systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). However, in 1996, Parker and Sochacki [Neural, Parallel, Sci. Comput. 4 (1996)] published a practical numerical method for a certain class of ODEs, based upon modified Picard iteration, that generates the Maclaurin series of the solution to arbitrarily high order. The applicable class of ODEs consists of first-order, autonomous systems whose right-hand side functions (generators) are projectively polynomial; that is, they can be written as polynomials in the unknowns. The class is wider than might be expected. The method is ideally suited to the classical N-body problem, which is projectively polynomial. Here, we recast the N-body problem in polynomial form and develop a Picard-based algorithm for its solution. The algorithm is highly accurate, parameter-free, and simultaneously adaptive in time and order. Test cases for both benign and chaotic N-body systems reveal that optimal order is dynamic. That is, in addition to dependency upon N and the desired accuracy, optimal order depends upon the configuration of the bodies at any instant.

19. Design of infrasound-detection system via adaptive LMSTDE algorithm

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Khalaf, C. S.; Stoughton, J. W.

1984-01-01

A proposed solution to an aviation safety problem is based on passive detection of turbulent weather phenomena through their infrasonic emission. This thesis describes a system design that is adequate for detection and bearing evaluation of infrasounds. An array of four sensors, with the appropriate hardware, is used for the detection part. Bearing evaluation is based on estimates of time delays between sensor outputs. The generalized cross correlation (GCC), as the conventional time-delay estimation (TDE) method, is first reviewed. An adaptive TDE approach, using the least mean square (LMS) algorithm, is then discussed. A comparison between the two techniques is made and the advantages of the adaptive approach are listed. The behavior of the GCC, as a Roth processor, is examined for the anticipated signals. It is shown that the Roth processor has the desired effect of sharpening the peak of the correlation function. It is also shown that the LMSTDE technique is an equivalent implementation of the Roth processor in the time domain. A LMSTDE lead-lag model, with a variable stability coefficient and a convergence criterion, is designed.

20. The Adaptive Analysis of Visual Cognition using Genetic Algorithms

PubMed Central

2014-01-01

Two experiments used a novel, open-ended, and adaptive test procedure to examine visual cognition in animals. Using a genetic algorithm, a pigeon was tested repeatedly from a variety of different initial conditions for its solution to an intermediate brightness search task. On each trial, the animal had to accurately locate and peck a target element of intermediate brightness from among a variable number of surrounding darker and lighter distractor elements. Displays were generated from six parametric variables, or genes (distractor number, element size, shape, spacing, target brightness, distractor brightness). Display composition changed over time, or evolved, as a function of the bird’s differential accuracy within the population of values for each gene. Testing three randomized initial conditions and one set of controlled initial conditions, element size and number of distractors were identified as the most important factors controlling search accuracy, with distractor brightness, element shape, and spacing making secondary contributions. The resulting changes in this multidimensional stimulus space suggested the existence of a set of conditions that the bird repeatedly converged upon regardless of initial conditions. This psychological “attractor” represents the cumulative action of the cognitive operations used by the pigeon in solving and performing this search task. The results are discussed regarding their implications for visual cognition in pigeons and the usefulness of adaptive, subject-driven experimentation for investigating human and animal cognition more generally. PMID:24000905

1. Moving Overlapping Grids with Adaptive Mesh Refinement for High-Speed Reactive and Non-reactive Flow

SciTech Connect

Henshaw, W D; Schwendeman, D W

2005-08-30

We consider the solution of the reactive and non-reactive Euler equations on two-dimensional domains that evolve in time. The domains are discretized using moving overlapping grids. In a typical grid construction, boundary-fitted grids are used to represent moving boundaries, and these grids overlap with stationary background Cartesian grids. Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to resolve fine-scale features in the flow such as shocks and detonations. Refinement grids are added to base-level grids according to an estimate of the error, and these refinement grids move with their corresponding base-level grids. The numerical approximation of the governing equations takes place in the parameter space of each component grid which is defined by a mapping from (fixed) parameter space to (moving) physical space. The mapped equations are solved numerically using a second-order extension of Godunov's method. The stiff source term in the reactive case is handled using a Runge-Kutta error-control scheme. We consider cases when the boundaries move according to a prescribed function of time and when the boundaries of embedded bodies move according to the surface stress exerted by the fluid. In the latter case, the Newton-Euler equations describe the motion of the center of mass of the each body and the rotation about it, and these equations are integrated numerically using a second-order predictor-corrector scheme. Numerical boundary conditions at slip walls are described, and numerical results are presented for both reactive and non-reactive flows in order to demonstrate the use and accuracy of the numerical approach.

2. QoS Differential Scheduling in Cognitive-Radio-Based Smart Grid Networks: An Adaptive Dynamic Programming Approach.

PubMed

Yu, Rong; Zhong, Weifeng; Xie, Shengli; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun

2016-02-01

As the next-generation power grid, smart grid will be integrated with a variety of novel communication technologies to support the explosive data traffic and the diverse requirements of quality of service (QoS). Cognitive radio (CR), which has the favorable ability to improve the spectrum utilization, provides an efficient and reliable solution for smart grid communications networks. In this paper, we study the QoS differential scheduling problem in the CR-based smart grid communications networks. The scheduler is responsible for managing the spectrum resources and arranging the data transmissions of smart grid users (SGUs). To guarantee the differential QoS, the SGUs are assigned to have different priorities according to their roles and their current situations in the smart grid. Based on the QoS-aware priority policy, the scheduler adjusts the channels allocation to minimize the transmission delay of SGUs. The entire transmission scheduling problem is formulated as a semi-Markov decision process and solved by the methodology of adaptive dynamic programming. A heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) architecture is established for the scheduling problem. By the online network training, the HDP can learn from the activities of primary users and SGUs, and adjust the scheduling decision to achieve the purpose of transmission delay minimization. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed priority policy ensures the low transmission delay of high priority SGUs. In addition, the emergency data transmission delay is also reduced to a significantly low level, guaranteeing the differential QoS in smart grid.

3. A two-stage adaptive stochastic collocation method on nested sparse grids for multiphase flow in randomly heterogeneous porous media

Liao, Qinzhuo; Zhang, Dongxiao; Tchelepi, Hamdi

2017-02-01

A new computational method is proposed for efficient uncertainty quantification of multiphase flow in porous media with stochastic permeability. For pressure estimation, it combines the dimension-adaptive stochastic collocation method on Smolyak sparse grids and the Kronrod-Patterson-Hermite nested quadrature formulas. For saturation estimation, an additional stage is developed, in which the pressure and velocity samples are first generated by the sparse grid interpolation and then substituted into the transport equation to solve for the saturation samples, to address the low regularity problem of the saturation. Numerical examples are presented for multiphase flow with stochastic permeability fields to demonstrate accuracy and efficiency of the proposed two-stage adaptive stochastic collocation method on nested sparse grids.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gombosi, Tamas I.; Powell, Kenneth G.; De Zeeuw, Darren L.

1994-01-01

The first results of an axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the interaction of an expanding cometary atmosphere with the solar wind are presented. The model assumes that far upstream the plasma flow lines are parallel to the magnetic field vector. The effects of mass loading and ion-neutral friction are taken into account by the governing equations, whcih are solved on an adaptively refined unstructured grid using a Monotone Upstream Centered Schemes for Conservative Laws (MUSCL)-type numerical technique. The combination of the adaptive refinement with the MUSCL-scheme allows the entire cometary atmosphere to be modeled, while still resolving both the shock and the near nucleus of the comet. The main findingsare the following: (1) A shock is formed approximately = 0.45 Mkm upstream of the comet (its location is controlled by the sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers of the ambient solar wind flow and by the cometary mass addition rate). (2) A contact surface is formed approximately = 5,600 km upstream of the nucleus separating an outward expanding cometary ionosphere from the nearly stagnating solar wind flow. The location of the contact surface is controlled by the upstream flow conditions, the mass loading rate and the ion-neutral drag. The contact surface is also the boundary of the diamagnetic cavity. (3) A closed inner shock terminates the supersonic expansion of the cometary ionosphere. This inner shock is closer to the nucleus on dayside than on the nightside.

5. Grid generation on surfaces in 3 dimensions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Eiseman, Peter R.

1986-01-01

The development of a surface grid generation algorithm was initiated. The basic adaptive movement technique of mean-value-relaxation was extended from the viewpoint of a single coordinate grid over a surface described by a single scalar function to that of a surface more generally defined by vector functions and covered by a collection of smoothly connected grids. Within the multiconnected assemblage, the application of control was examined in several instances.

6. Evaluating Knowledge Structure-Based Adaptive Testing Algorithms and System Development

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wu, Huey-Min; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Yang, Jinn-Min

2012-01-01

In recent years, many computerized test systems have been developed for diagnosing students' learning profiles. Nevertheless, it remains a challenging issue to find an adaptive testing algorithm to both shorten testing time and precisely diagnose the knowledge status of students. In order to find a suitable algorithm, four adaptive testing…

7. Generating Composite Overlapping Grids on CAD Geometries

SciTech Connect

Henshaw, W.D.

2002-02-07

We describe some algorithms and tools that have been developed to generate composite overlapping grids on geometries that have been defined with computer aided design (CAD) programs. This process consists of five main steps. Starting from a description of the surfaces defining the computational domain we (1) correct errors in the CAD representation, (2) determine topology of the patched-surface, (3) build a global triangulation of the surface, (4) construct structured surface and volume grids using hyperbolic grid generation, and (5) generate the overlapping grid by determining the holes and the interpolation points. The overlapping grid generator which is used for the final step also supports the rapid generation of grids for block-structured adaptive mesh refinement and for moving grids. These algorithms have been implemented as part of the Overture object-oriented framework.

8. Adaptive reference update (ARU) algorithm. A stochastic search algorithm for efficient optimization of multi-drug cocktails

PubMed Central

2012-01-01

Background Multi-target therapeutics has been shown to be effective for treating complex diseases, and currently, it is a common practice to combine multiple drugs to treat such diseases to optimize the therapeutic outcomes. However, considering the huge number of possible ways to mix multiple drugs at different concentrations, it is practically difficult to identify the optimal drug combination through exhaustive testing. Results In this paper, we propose a novel stochastic search algorithm, called the adaptive reference update (ARU) algorithm, that can provide an efficient and systematic way for optimizing multi-drug cocktails. The ARU algorithm iteratively updates the drug combination to improve its response, where the update is made by comparing the response of the current combination with that of a reference combination, based on which the beneficial update direction is predicted. The reference combination is continuously updated based on the drug response values observed in the past, thereby adapting to the underlying drug response function. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we evaluated its performance based on various multi-dimensional drug functions and compared it with existing algorithms. Conclusions Simulation results show that the ARU algorithm significantly outperforms existing stochastic search algorithms, including the Gur Game algorithm. In fact, the ARU algorithm can more effectively identify potent drug combinations and it typically spends fewer iterations for finding effective combinations. Furthermore, the ARU algorithm is robust to random fluctuations and noise in the measured drug response, which makes the algorithm well-suited for practical drug optimization applications. PMID:23134742

9. Adaptive Generation of Multimaterial Grids from imaging data for Biomedical Lagrangian Fluid-Structure Simulations

SciTech Connect

Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Dyedov, Volodymyr; del Pin, Facundo; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.; Einstein, Daniel R.

2010-04-01

Spatial discretization of complex imaging-derived fluid-solid geometries, such as the cardiac environment, is a critical but often overlooked challenge in biomechanical computations. This is particularly true in problems with Lagrangian interfaces, where, the fluid and solid phases must match geometrically. For simplicity and better accuracy, it is also highly desirable for the two phases to share the same surface mesh at the interface between them. We outline a method for solving this problem, and illustrate the approach with a 3D fluid-solid mesh of the mouse heart. An MRI perfusion-fixed dataset of a mouse heart with 50μm isotropic resolution was semi-automatically segmented using a customized multimaterial connected-threshold approach that divided the volume into non-overlapping regions of blood, tissue and background. Subsequently, a multimaterial marching cubes algorithm was applied to the segmented data to produce two detailed, compatible isosurfaces, one for blood and one for tissue. Both isosurfaces were simultaneously smoothed with a multimaterial smoothing algorithm that exactly conserves the volume for each phase. Using these two isosurfaces, we developed and applied novel automated meshing algorithms to generate anisotropic hybrid meshes on arbitrary biological geometries with the number of layers and the desired element anisotropy for each phase as the only input parameters. Since our meshes adapt to the local feature sizes and include boundary layer prisms, they are more efficient and accurate than non-adaptive, isotropic meshes, and the fluid-structure interaction computations will tend to have relative error equilibrated over the whole mesh.

10. Multi-element array signal reconstruction with adaptive least-squares algorithms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kumar, R.

1992-01-01

Two versions of the adaptive least-squares algorithm are presented for combining signals from multiple feeds placed in the focal plane of a mechanical antenna whose reflector surface is distorted due to various deformations. Coherent signal combining techniques based on the adaptive least-squares algorithm are examined for nearly optimally and adaptively combining the outputs of the feeds. The performance of the two versions is evaluated by simulations. It is demonstrated for the example considered that both of the adaptive least-squares algorithms are capable of offsetting most of the loss in the antenna gain incurred due to reflector surface deformations.

11. Sparse diffraction imaging method using an adaptive reweighting homotopy algorithm

Yu, Caixia; Zhao, Jingtao; Wang, Yanfei; Qiu, Zhen

2017-02-01

Seismic diffractions carry valuable information from subsurface small-scale geologic discontinuities, such as faults, cavities and other features associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, seismic imaging methods mainly use reflection theory for constructing imaging models, which means a smooth constraint on imaging conditions. In fact, diffractors occupy a small account of distributions in an imaging model and possess discontinuous characteristics. In mathematics, this kind of phenomena can be described by the sparse optimization theory. Therefore, we propose a diffraction imaging method based on a sparsity-constraint model for studying diffractors. A reweighted L 2-norm and L 1-norm minimization model is investigated, where the L 2 term requests a least-square error between modeled diffractions and observed diffractions and the L 1 term imposes sparsity on the solution. In order to efficiently solve this model, we use an adaptive reweighting homotopy algorithm that updates the solutions by tracking a path along inexpensive homotopy steps. Numerical examples and field data application demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method and show its significance for detecting small-scale discontinuities in a seismic section. The proposed method has an advantage in improving the focusing ability of diffractions and reducing the migration artifacts.

12. Exact charge-conserving scatter-gather algorithm for particle-in-cell simulations on unstructured grids: A geometric perspective

Moon, Haksu; Teixeira, Fernando L.; Omelchenko, Yuri A.

2015-09-01

We describe a charge-conserving scatter-gather algorithm for particle-in-cell simulations on unstructured grids. Charge conservation is obtained from first principles, i.e., without the need for any post-processing or correction steps. This algorithm recovers, at a fundamental level, the scatter-gather algorithms presented recently by Campos-Pinto et al. (2014) (to first-order) and by Squire et al. (2012), but it is derived here in a streamlined fashion from a geometric viewpoint. Some ingredients reflecting this viewpoint are (1) the use of (discrete) differential forms of various degrees to represent fields, currents, and charged particles and provide localization rules for the degrees of freedom thereof on the various grid elements (nodes, edges, facets), (2) use of Whitney forms as basic interpolants from discrete differential forms to continuum space, and (3) use of a Galerkin formula for the discrete Hodge star operators (i.e., "mass matrices" incorporating the metric datum of the grid) applicable to generally irregular, unstructured grids. The expressions obtained for the scatter charges and scatter currents are very concise and do not involve numerical quadrature rules. Appropriate fractional areas within each grid element are identified that represent scatter charges and scatter currents within the element, and a simple geometric representation for the (exact) charge conservation mechanism is obtained by such identification. The field update is based on the coupled first-order Maxwell's curl equations to avoid spurious modes with secular growth (otherwise present in formulations that discretize the second-order wave equation). Examples are provided to verify preservation of discrete Gauss' law for all times.

13. Parameter estimation for chaotic systems using a hybrid adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm.

PubMed

Sheng, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Shudao; Zhou, Bihua

2014-03-01

This paper introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to deal with the weaknesses of the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, the proposed adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm is presented, which incorporates the adaptive parameters adjusting operation and the simulated annealing operation in the cuckoo search algorithm. Normally, the parameters of the cuckoo search algorithm are kept constant that may result in decreasing the efficiency of the algorithm. For the purpose of balancing and enhancing the accuracy and convergence rate of the cuckoo search algorithm, the adaptive operation is presented to tune the parameters properly. Besides, the local search capability of cuckoo search algorithm is relatively weak that may decrease the quality of optimization. So the simulated annealing operation is merged into the cuckoo search algorithm to enhance the local search ability and improve the accuracy and reliability of the results. The functionality of the proposed hybrid algorithm is investigated through the Lorenz chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the method can estimate parameters efficiently and accurately in the noiseless and noise condition. Finally, the results are compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed algorithm.

14. Parameter estimation for chaotic systems using a hybrid adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm

Sheng, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Shudao; Zhou, Bihua

2014-03-01

This paper introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to deal with the weaknesses of the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, the proposed adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm is presented, which incorporates the adaptive parameters adjusting operation and the simulated annealing operation in the cuckoo search algorithm. Normally, the parameters of the cuckoo search algorithm are kept constant that may result in decreasing the efficiency of the algorithm. For the purpose of balancing and enhancing the accuracy and convergence rate of the cuckoo search algorithm, the adaptive operation is presented to tune the parameters properly. Besides, the local search capability of cuckoo search algorithm is relatively weak that may decrease the quality of optimization. So the simulated annealing operation is merged into the cuckoo search algorithm to enhance the local search ability and improve the accuracy and reliability of the results. The functionality of the proposed hybrid algorithm is investigated through the Lorenz chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the method can estimate parameters efficiently and accurately in the noiseless and noise condition. Finally, the results are compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed algorithm.

15. Parameter estimation for chaotic systems using a hybrid adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm

SciTech Connect

Sheng, Zheng; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Bihua; Zhou, Shudao

2014-03-15

This paper introduces a novel hybrid optimization algorithm to establish the parameters of chaotic systems. In order to deal with the weaknesses of the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, the proposed adaptive cuckoo search with simulated annealing algorithm is presented, which incorporates the adaptive parameters adjusting operation and the simulated annealing operation in the cuckoo search algorithm. Normally, the parameters of the cuckoo search algorithm are kept constant that may result in decreasing the efficiency of the algorithm. For the purpose of balancing and enhancing the accuracy and convergence rate of the cuckoo search algorithm, the adaptive operation is presented to tune the parameters properly. Besides, the local search capability of cuckoo search algorithm is relatively weak that may decrease the quality of optimization. So the simulated annealing operation is merged into the cuckoo search algorithm to enhance the local search ability and improve the accuracy and reliability of the results. The functionality of the proposed hybrid algorithm is investigated through the Lorenz chaotic system under the noiseless and noise condition, respectively. The numerical results demonstrate that the method can estimate parameters efficiently and accurately in the noiseless and noise condition. Finally, the results are compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of the proposed algorithm.

16. Scheduling and routing algorithm for aggregating large data files from distributed databases to super-computers on lambda grid

Sun, Shen; Guo, Wei; Sun, Weiqiang; Jin, Yaohui; Hu, Weisheng

2008-11-01

These days while the traditional Internet cannot meet the requirement of data-intensive communications in large scale escience grid applications, Optical network which is also referred to as Lambda Grid provide a simple means of achieving guaranteed high bandwidth, guaranteed latency and deterministic connection. Lots of e-science applications like e-VLBI and GTL require aggregating several hundred GB data files from distributed databases to super-computers frequently at real time. Thus minimizing the aggregation time can improve the overall system performance. We consider the problem of aggregating large data files from distributed databases to distributed computational resources on lambda grid. We modify the model of Time-Path Scheduling Problem (TPSP) which has been proposed and propose a new N-destination TPSP (NDTPSP) model. We present the proof of NDTPSP's NP-completeness. We also propose a list scheduling algorithm and a modified list scheduling algorithm for our problem. The performance of different algorithms will be compared and analyzed by simulations.

17. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: II. Solutions and applications

DOE PAGES

Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

2014-10-01

In a companion manuscript, we developed a novel optimization method for placement, sizing, and operation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide Series Compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (~ 2700 nodes and ~ 3300 lines). The results on the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions including non-locality and sparsity. The Polishmore » grid is used as a demonstration of the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverages sequential linearization of power flow constraints and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, the algorithm is able to solve an instance of Polish grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (a) uniform load growth, (b) multiple overloaded configurations, and (c) sequential generator retirements.« less

18. Efficient Algorithm for Locating and Sizing Series Compensation Devices in Large Transmission Grids: Solutions and Applications (PART II)

SciTech Connect

Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott N.; Chertkov, Michael

2014-01-14

In a companion manuscript, we developed a novel optimization method for placement, sizing, and operation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide Series Compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (~2700 nodes and ~3300 lines). The results on the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions including non-locality and sparsity. The Polish grid is used as a demonstration of the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverages sequential linearization of power flow constraints and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, the algorithm is able to solve an instance of Polish grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (a) uniform load growth, (b) multiple overloaded configurations, and (c) sequential generator retirements

19. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: II. Solutions and applications

SciTech Connect

Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

2014-10-01

In a companion manuscript, we developed a novel optimization method for placement, sizing, and operation of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices to relieve transmission network congestion. Specifically, we addressed FACTS that provide Series Compensation (SC) via modification of line inductance. In this manuscript, this heuristic algorithm and its solutions are explored on a number of test cases: a 30-bus test network and a realistically-sized model of the Polish grid (~ 2700 nodes and ~ 3300 lines). The results on the 30-bus network are used to study the general properties of the solutions including non-locality and sparsity. The Polish grid is used as a demonstration of the computational efficiency of the heuristics that leverages sequential linearization of power flow constraints and cutting plane methods that take advantage of the sparse nature of the SC placement solutions. Using these approaches, the algorithm is able to solve an instance of Polish grid in tens of seconds. We explore the utility of the algorithm by analyzing transmission networks congested by (a) uniform load growth, (b) multiple overloaded configurations, and (c) sequential generator retirements.

20. A general hybrid radiation transport scheme for star formation simulations on an adaptive grid

SciTech Connect

Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Kuiper, Rolf; Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars

2014-12-10

1. A General Hybrid Radiation Transport Scheme for Star Formation Simulations on an Adaptive Grid

Klassen, Mikhail; Kuiper, Rolf; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars

2014-12-01

2. Estimation of Model's Marginal likelihood Using Adaptive Sparse Grid Surrogates in Bayesian Model Averaging

Zeng, X.

2015-12-01

A large number of model executions are required to obtain alternative conceptual models' predictions and their posterior probabilities in Bayesian model averaging (BMA). The posterior model probability is estimated through models' marginal likelihood and prior probability. The heavy computation burden hinders the implementation of BMA prediction, especially for the elaborated marginal likelihood estimator. For overcoming the computation burden of BMA, an adaptive sparse grid (SG) stochastic collocation method is used to build surrogates for alternative conceptual models through the numerical experiment of a synthetical groundwater model. BMA predictions depend on model posterior weights (or marginal likelihoods), and this study also evaluated four marginal likelihood estimators, including arithmetic mean estimator (AME), harmonic mean estimator (HME), stabilized harmonic mean estimator (SHME), and thermodynamic integration estimator (TIE). The results demonstrate that TIE is accurate in estimating conceptual models' marginal likelihoods. The BMA-TIE has better predictive performance than other BMA predictions. TIE has high stability for estimating conceptual model's marginal likelihood. The repeated estimated conceptual model's marginal likelihoods by TIE have significant less variability than that estimated by other estimators. In addition, the SG surrogates are efficient to facilitate BMA predictions, especially for BMA-TIE. The number of model executions needed for building surrogates is 4.13%, 6.89%, 3.44%, and 0.43% of the required model executions of BMA-AME, BMA-HME, BMA-SHME, and BMA-TIE, respectively.

3. Features of CPB: a Poisson-Boltzmann solver that uses an adaptive Cartesian grid.

PubMed

Fenley, Marcia O; Harris, Robert C; Mackoy, Travis; Boschitsch, Alexander H

2015-02-05

The capabilities of an adaptive Cartesian grid (ACG)-based Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) solver (CPB) are demonstrated. CPB solves various PB equations with an ACG, built from a hierarchical octree decomposition of the computational domain. This procedure decreases the number of points required, thereby reducing computational demands. Inside the molecule, CPB solves for the reaction-field component (ϕrf ) of the electrostatic potential (ϕ), eliminating the charge-induced singularities in ϕ. CPB can also use a least-squares reconstruction method to improve estimates of ϕ at the molecular surface. All surfaces, which include solvent excluded, Gaussians, and others, are created analytically, eliminating errors associated with triangulated surfaces. These features allow CPB to produce detailed surface maps of ϕ and compute polar solvation and binding free energies for large biomolecular assemblies, such as ribosomes and viruses, with reduced computational demands compared to other Poisson-Boltzmann equation solvers. The reader is referred to http://www.continuum-dynamics.com/solution-mm.html for how to obtain the CPB software.

4. FIERCE: FInding volcanic ERuptive CEnters by a grid-searching algorithm in R

Carniel, Roberto; Guzmán, Silvina; Neri, Marco

2017-02-01

Most eruptions are fed by dikes whose spatial distribution can provide important insights into the positions of possible old eruptive centers that are no longer clearly identifiable in the field. Locating these centers can in turn have further applications, e.g., in hazard assessment. We propose a purely geometrical algorithm—implemented as an R open-source script—named FIERCE (FInding volcanic ERuptive CEnters) based on the number of intersections of dikes identified within a grid of rectangular cells overlain onto a given search region. The algorithm recognizes radial distributions, tangential distributions, or combinations of both. We applied FIERCE to both well-known and less-studied volcanic edifices, in different tectonic settings and having different evolution histories, ages, and compositions. At Summer Coon volcano, FIERCE demonstrated that a radial dike distribution clearly indicates the position of the central vent. On Etna, it confirmed the position of the most important ancient eruptive centers and allowed us to study effects of the structural alignments and topography. On Stromboli, FIERCE not only enabled confirmation of some published locations of older vents but also identified possible vent areas not previously suggested. It also highlighted the influence of the regional structural trend and the collapse scars. FIERCE demonstrated that the dikes at the Somma-Vesuvius were emplaced before formation of Mt. Somma's caldera and indicated a plausible location for the old volcanic crater of Mt. Somma which is compatible with previous studies. At the Vicuña Pampa Volcanic Complex, FIERCE highlights the position of two different vents of a highly degraded volcano.

5. Optimization of Spherical Roller Bearing Design Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and Grid Search Method

Tiwari, Rajiv; Waghole, Vikas

2015-07-01

Bearing standards impose restrictions on the internal geometry of spherical roller bearings. Geometrical and strength constraints conditions have been formulated for the optimization of bearing design. The long fatigue life is one of the most important criteria in the optimum design of bearing. The life is directly proportional to the dynamic capacity; hence, the objective function has been chosen as the maximization of dynamic capacity. The effect of speed and static loads acting on the bearing are also taken into account. Design variables for the bearing include five geometrical parameters: the roller diameter, the roller length, the bearing pitch diameter, the number of rollers, and the contact angle. There are a few design constraint parameters which are also included in the optimization, the bounds of which are obtained by initial runs of the optimization. The optimization program is made to run for different values of these design constraint parameters and a range of the parameters is obtained for which the objective function has a higher value. The artificial bee colony algorithm (ABCA) has been used to solve the constrained optimized problem and the optimum design is compared with the one obtained from the grid search method (GSM), both operating independently. Both the ABCA and the GSM have been finally combined together to reach the global optimum point. A constraint violation study has also been carried out to give priority to the constraint having greater possibility of violations. Optimized bearing designs show a better performance parameter with those specified in bearing catalogs. The sensitivity analysis of bearing parameters has also been carried out to see the effect of manufacturing tolerance on the objective function.

6. Training Recurrent Neural Networks With the Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm for Optimal Control of a Grid-Connected Converter.

PubMed

Fu, Xingang; Li, Shuhui; Fairbank, Michael; Wunsch, Donald C; Alonso, Eduardo

2015-09-01

This paper investigates how to train a recurrent neural network (RNN) using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm as well as how to implement optimal control of a grid-connected converter (GCC) using an RNN. To successfully and efficiently train an RNN using the LM algorithm, a new forward accumulation through time (FATT) algorithm is proposed to calculate the Jacobian matrix required by the LM algorithm. This paper explores how to incorporate FATT into the LM algorithm. The results show that the combination of the LM and FATT algorithms trains RNNs better than the conventional backpropagation through time algorithm. This paper presents an analytical study on the optimal control of GCCs, including theoretically ideal optimal and suboptimal controllers. To overcome the inapplicability of the optimal GCC controller under practical conditions, a new RNN controller with an improved input structure is proposed to approximate the ideal optimal controller. The performance of an ideal optimal controller and a well-trained RNN controller was compared in close to real-life power converter switching environments, demonstrating that the proposed RNN controller can achieve close to ideal optimal control performance even under low sampling rate conditions. The excellent performance of the proposed RNN controller under challenging and distorted system conditions further indicates the feasibility of using an RNN to approximate optimal control in practical applications.

7. Grid generation and adaptation for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method. [for complex flows past wedges and cones

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Olynick, David P.; Hassan, H. A.; Moss, James N.

1988-01-01

A grid generation and adaptation procedure based on the method of transfinite interpolation is incorporated into the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method of Bird. In addition, time is advanced based on a local criterion. The resulting procedure is used to calculate steady flows past wedges and cones. Five chemical species are considered. In general, the modifications result in a reduced computational effort. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that the simulation method is time step dependent if requirements on cell sizes are not met.

8. Adaptive Estimation and Parameter Identification Using Multiple Model Estimation Algorithm

DTIC Science & Technology

1976-06-23

Point Continuous Linear Smoothing ," Proc. Joint Automatic Control Conf., June 1967, pp. 249-257. [26] J. S. Meditch , "On Optimal Linear Smoothing ...Theory," Infor- mation and Control, 10, 598-615 (1967). [27] J. S. Meditch , "A Successive Approximation Procedure for Nonlinear Data Smoothing ," Proc...algorithm Kalman filter algorithms multiple model smoothing algorithm 70. ABSTRACT (Coensnia• en rever.e side if eceossuy Adidonilty by block nu.wbe

9. MAGNETIC GRID

DOEpatents

Post, R.F.

1960-08-01

An electronic grid is designed employing magnetic forces for controlling the passage of charged particles. The grid is particularly applicable to use in gas-filled tubes such as ignitrons. thyratrons, etc., since the magnetic grid action is impartial to the polarity of the charged particles and, accordingly. the sheath effects encountered with electrostatic grids are not present. The grid comprises a conductor having sections spaced apart and extending in substantially opposite directions in the same plane, the ends of the conductor being adapted for connection to a current source.

10. Running GCM physics and dynamics on different grids: Algorithm and tests

Molod, A.

2006-12-01

The major drawback in the use of sigma coordinates in atmospheric GCMs, namely the error in the pressure gradient term near sloping terrain, leaves the use of eta coordinates an important alternative. A central disadvantage of an eta coordinate, the inability to retain fine resolution in the vertical as the surface rises above sea level, is addressed here. An `alternate grid' technique is presented which allows the tendencies of state variables due to the physical parameterizations to be computed on a vertical grid (the `physics grid') which retains fine resolution near the surface, while the remaining terms in the equations of motion are computed using an eta coordinate (the `dynamics grid') with coarser vertical resolution. As a simple test of the technique a set of perpetual equinox experiments using a simplified lower boundary condition with no land and no topography were performed. The results show that for both low and high resolution alternate grid experiments, much of the benefit of increased vertical resolution for the near surface meridional wind (and mass streamfield) can be realized by enhancing the vertical resolution of the `physics grid' in the manner described here. In addition, approximately half of the increase in zonal jet strength seen with increased vertical resolution can be realized using the `alternate grid' technique. A pair of full GCM experiments with realistic lower boundary conditions and topography were also performed. It is concluded that the use of the `alternate grid' approach offers a promising way forward to alleviate a central problem associated with the use of the eta coordinate in atmospheric GCMs.

11. An adaptive discretization of compressible flow using a multitude of moving Cartesian grids

Qiu, Linhai; Lu, Wenlong; Fedkiw, Ronald

2016-01-01

We present a novel method for simulating compressible flow on a multitude of Cartesian grids that can rotate and translate. Following previous work, we split the time integration into an explicit step for advection followed by an implicit solve for the pressure. A second order accurate flux based scheme is devised to handle advection on each moving Cartesian grid using an effective characteristic velocity that accounts for the grid motion. In order to avoid the stringent time step restriction imposed by very fine grids, we propose strategies that allow for a fluid velocity CFL number larger than 1. The stringent time step restriction related to the sound speed is alleviated by formulating an implicit linear system in order to find a pressure consistent with the equation of state. This implicit linear system crosses overlapping Cartesian grid boundaries by utilizing local Voronoi meshes to connect the various degrees of freedom obtaining a symmetric positive-definite system. Since a straightforward application of this technique contains an inherent central differencing which can result in spurious oscillations, we introduce a new high order diffusion term similar in spirit to ENO-LLF but solved for implicitly in order to avoid any associated time step restrictions. The method is conservative on each grid, as well as globally conservative on the background grid that contains all other grids. Moreover, a conservative interpolation operator is devised for conservatively remapping values in order to keep them consistent across different overlapping grids. Additionally, the method is extended to handle two-way solid fluid coupling in a monolithic fashion including cases (in the appendix) where solids in close proximity do not properly allow for grid based degrees of freedom in between them.

12. Experiences with an adaptive mesh refinement algorithm in numerical relativity.

Choptuik, M. W.

An implementation of the Berger/Oliger mesh refinement algorithm for a model problem in numerical relativity is described. The principles of operation of the method are reviewed and its use in conjunction with leap-frog schemes is considered. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated with results from a study of the Einstein/massless scalar field equations in spherical symmetry.

13. A novel algorithm for real-time adaptive signal detection and identification

SciTech Connect

Sleefe, G.E.; Ladd, M.D.; Gallegos, D.E.; Sicking, C.W.; Erteza, I.A.

1998-04-01

This paper describes a novel digital signal processing algorithm for adaptively detecting and identifying signals buried in noise. The algorithm continually computes and updates the long-term statistics and spectral characteristics of the background noise. Using this noise model, a set of adaptive thresholds and matched digital filters are implemented to enhance and detect signals that are buried in the noise. The algorithm furthermore automatically suppresses coherent noise sources and adapts to time-varying signal conditions. Signal detection is performed in both the time-domain and the frequency-domain, thereby permitting the detection of both broad-band transients and narrow-band signals. The detection algorithm also provides for the computation of important signal features such as amplitude, timing, and phase information. Signal identification is achieved through a combination of frequency-domain template matching and spectral peak picking. The algorithm described herein is well suited for real-time implementation on digital signal processing hardware. This paper presents the theory of the adaptive algorithm, provides an algorithmic block diagram, and demonstrate its implementation and performance with real-world data. The computational efficiency of the algorithm is demonstrated through benchmarks on specific DSP hardware. The applications for this algorithm, which range from vibration analysis to real-time image processing, are also discussed.

14. Binocular self-calibration performed via adaptive genetic algorithm based on laser line imaging

Apolinar Muñoz Rodríguez, J.; Mejía Alanís, Francisco Carlos

2016-07-01

An accurate technique to perform binocular self-calibration by means of an adaptive genetic algorithm based on a laser line is presented. In this calibration, the genetic algorithm computes the vision parameters through simulated binary crossover (SBX). To carry it out, the genetic algorithm constructs an objective function from the binocular geometry of the laser line projection. Then, the SBX minimizes the objective function via chromosomes recombination. In this algorithm, the adaptive procedure determines the search space via line position to obtain the minimum convergence. Thus, the chromosomes of vision parameters provide the minimization. The approach of the proposed adaptive genetic algorithm is to calibrate and recalibrate the binocular setup without references and physical measurements. This procedure leads to improve the traditional genetic algorithms, which calibrate the vision parameters by means of references and an unknown search space. It is because the proposed adaptive algorithm avoids errors produced by the missing of references. Additionally, the three-dimensional vision is carried out based on the laser line position and vision parameters. The contribution of the proposed algorithm is corroborated by an evaluation of accuracy of binocular calibration, which is performed via traditional genetic algorithms.

15. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling of particle uptake by an occupational air sampler using manually-scaled and adaptive grids.

PubMed

Landázuri, Andrea C; Sáez, A Eduardo; Anthony, T Renée

2016-05-01

This work presents fluid flow and particle trajectory simulation studies to determine the aspiration efficiency of a horizontally oriented occupational air sampler using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Grid adaption and manual scaling of the grids were applied to two sampler prototypes based on a 37-mm cassette. The standard k-ε model was used to simulate the turbulent air flow and a second order streamline-upwind discretization scheme was used to stabilize convective terms of the Navier-Stokes equations. Successively scaled grids for each configuration were created manually and by means of grid adaption using the velocity gradient in the main flow direction. Solutions were verified to assess iterative convergence, grid independence and monotonic convergence. Particle aspiration efficiencies determined for both prototype samplers were undistinguishable, indicating that the porous filter does not play a noticeable role in particle aspiration. Results conclude that grid adaption is a powerful tool that allows to refine specific regions that require lots of detail and therefore better resolve flow detail. It was verified that adaptive grids provided a higher number of locations with monotonic convergence than the manual grids and required the least computational effort.

16. Grid generation strategies for turbomachinery configurations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lee, K. D.; Henderson, T. L.

1991-01-01

Turbomachinery flow fields involve unique grid generation issues due to their geometrical and physical characteristics. Several strategic approaches are discussed to generate quality grids. The grid quality is further enhanced through blending and adapting. Grid blending smooths the grids locally through averaging and diffusion operators. Grid adaptation redistributes the grid points based on a grid quality assessment. These methods are demonstrated with several examples.

17. Parallel unstructured grid generation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loehner, Rainald; Camberos, Jose; Merriam, Marshal

1991-01-01

A parallel unstructured grid generation algorithm is presented and implemented on the Hypercube. Different processor hierarchies are discussed, and the appropraite hierarchies for mesh generation and mesh smoothing are selected. A domain-splitting algorithm for unstructured grids which tries to minimize the surface-to-volume ratio of each subdomain is described. This splitting algorithm is employed both for grid generation and grid smoothing. Results obtained on the Hypercube demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithms developed.

18. Design and analysis of closed-loop decoder adaptation algorithms for brain-machine interfaces.

PubMed

Dangi, Siddharth; Orsborn, Amy L; Moorman, Helene G; Carmena, Jose M

2013-07-01

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel J.; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

In a distributed computing environment, it is important to ensure that the processor workloads are adequately balanced, Among numerous load-balancing algorithms, a unique approach due to Das and Prasad defines a symmetric broadcast network (SBN) that provides a robust communication pattern among the processors in a topology-independent manner. In this paper, we propose and analyze three efficient SBN-based dynamic load-balancing algorithms, and implement them on an SGI Origin2000. A thorough experimental study with Poisson distributed synthetic loads demonstrates that our algorithms are effective in balancing system load. By optimizing completion time and idle time, the proposed algorithms are shown to compare favorably with several existing approaches.

20. Comparison of several stochastic parallel optimization algorithms for adaptive optics system without a wavefront sensor

Yang, Huizhen; Li, Xinyang

2011-04-01

Optimizing the system performance metric directly is an important method for correcting wavefront aberrations in an adaptive optics (AO) system where wavefront sensing methods are unavailable or ineffective. An appropriate "Deformable Mirror" control algorithm is the key to successful wavefront correction. Based on several stochastic parallel optimization control algorithms, an adaptive optics system with a 61-element Deformable Mirror (DM) is simulated. Genetic Algorithm (GA), Stochastic Parallel Gradient Descent (SPGD), Simulated Annealing (SA) and Algorithm Of Pattern Extraction (Alopex) are compared in convergence speed and correction capability. The results show that all these algorithms have the ability to correct for atmospheric turbulence. Compared with least squares fitting, they almost obtain the best correction achievable for the 61-element DM. SA is the fastest and GA is the slowest in these algorithms. The number of perturbation by GA is almost 20 times larger than that of SA, 15 times larger than SPGD and 9 times larger than Alopex.

1. A Hybrid Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Event-Driven Wireless Sensor Networks

PubMed Central

Figueiredo, Carlos M. S.; Nakamura, Eduardo F.; Loureiro, Antonio A. F.

2009-01-01

Routing is a basic function in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). For these networks, routing algorithms depend on the characteristics of the applications and, consequently, there is no self-contained algorithm suitable for every case. In some scenarios, the network behavior (traffic load) may vary a lot, such as an event-driven application, favoring different algorithms at different instants. This work presents a hybrid and adaptive algorithm for routing in WSNs, called Multi-MAF, that adapts its behavior autonomously in response to the variation of network conditions. In particular, the proposed algorithm applies both reactive and proactive strategies for routing infrastructure creation, and uses an event-detection estimation model to change between the strategies and save energy. To show the advantages of the proposed approach, it is evaluated through simulations. Comparisons with independent reactive and proactive algorithms show improvements on energy consumption. PMID:22423207

2. Inversion for Refractivity Parameters Using a Dynamic Adaptive Cuckoo Search with Crossover Operator Algorithm.

PubMed

Zhang, Zhihua; Sheng, Zheng; Shi, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqiang

2016-01-01

Using the RFC technique to estimate refractivity parameters is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper, an improved cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. To enhance the performance of the CS algorithm, a parameter dynamic adaptive operation and crossover operation were integrated into the standard CS (DACS-CO). Rechenberg's 1/5 criteria combined with learning factor were used to control the parameter dynamic adaptive adjusting process. The crossover operation of genetic algorithm was utilized to guarantee the population diversity. The new hybrid algorithm has better local search ability and contributes to superior performance. To verify the ability of the DACS-CO algorithm to estimate atmospheric refractivity parameters, the simulation data and real radar clutter data are both implemented. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the DACS-CO algorithm can provide an effective method for near-real-time estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter.

3. Inversion for Refractivity Parameters Using a Dynamic Adaptive Cuckoo Search with Crossover Operator Algorithm

PubMed Central

Zhang, Zhihua; Sheng, Zheng; Shi, Hanqing; Fan, Zhiqiang

2016-01-01

Using the RFC technique to estimate refractivity parameters is a complex nonlinear optimization problem. In this paper, an improved cuckoo search (CS) algorithm is proposed to deal with this problem. To enhance the performance of the CS algorithm, a parameter dynamic adaptive operation and crossover operation were integrated into the standard CS (DACS-CO). Rechenberg's 1/5 criteria combined with learning factor were used to control the parameter dynamic adaptive adjusting process. The crossover operation of genetic algorithm was utilized to guarantee the population diversity. The new hybrid algorithm has better local search ability and contributes to superior performance. To verify the ability of the DACS-CO algorithm to estimate atmospheric refractivity parameters, the simulation data and real radar clutter data are both implemented. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the DACS-CO algorithm can provide an effective method for near-real-time estimation of the atmospheric refractivity profile from radar clutter. PMID:27212938

4. Efficient Algorithm for Optimizing Adaptive Quantum Metrology Processes

Hentschel, Alexander; Sanders, Barry C.

2011-12-01

Quantum-enhanced metrology infers an unknown quantity with accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL). Feedback-based metrological techniques are promising for beating the SQL but devising the feedback procedures is difficult and inefficient. Here we introduce an efficient self-learning swarm-intelligence algorithm for devising feedback-based quantum metrological procedures. Our algorithm can be trained with simulated or real-world trials and accommodates experimental imperfections, losses, and decoherence.

5. A New Adaptive H-Infinity Filtering Algorithm for the GPS/INS Integrated Navigation

PubMed Central

Jiang, Chen; Zhang, Shu-Bi; Zhang, Qiu-Zhao

2016-01-01

The Kalman filter is an optimal estimator with numerous applications in technology, especially in systems with Gaussian distributed noise. Moreover, the adaptive Kalman filtering algorithms, based on the Kalman filter, can control the influence of dynamic model errors. In contrast to the adaptive Kalman filtering algorithms, the H-infinity filter is able to address the interference of the stochastic model by minimization of the worst-case estimation error. In this paper, a novel adaptive H-infinity filtering algorithm, which integrates the adaptive Kalman filter and the H-infinity filter in order to perform a comprehensive filtering algorithm, is presented. In the proposed algorithm, a robust estimation method is employed to control the influence of outliers. In order to verify the proposed algorithm, experiments with real data of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) integrated navigation, were conducted. The experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm has multiple advantages compared to the other filtering algorithms. PMID:27999361

6. 3-D grid refinement using the University of Michigan adaptive mesh library for a pure advective test

Oehmke, R.; Vandenberg, D.; Andronova, N.; Penner, J.; Stout, Q.; Zubov, V.; Jablonowski, C.

2008-05-01

The numerical representation of the partial differential equations (PDE) for high resolution atmospheric dynamical and physical features requires division of the atmospheric volume into a set of 3D grids, each of which has a not quite rectangular form. Each location on the grid contains multiple data that together represent the state of Earth's atmosphere. For successful numerical integration of the PDEs the size of each grid box is used to define the Courant-Friedrichs-Levi criterion in setting the time step. 3D adaptive representations of a sphere are needed to represent the evolution of clouds. In this paper we present the University of Michigan adaptive mesh library - a library that supports the production of parallel codes with use of adaptation on a sphere. The library manages the block-structured data layout, handles ghost cell updates among neighboring blocks and splits blocks as refinements occur. The library has several modules that provide a layer of abstraction for adaptive refinement: blocks, which contain individual cells of user data; shells — the global geometry for the problem, including a sphere, reduced sphere, and now a 3D sphere; a load balancer for placement of blocks onto processors; and a communication support layer which encapsulates all data movement. Users provide data manipulation functions for performing interpolation of user data when refining blocks. We rigorously test the library using refinement of the modeled vertical transport of a tracer with prescribed atmospheric sources and sinks. It is both a 2 and a 3D test, and bridges the performance of the model's dynamics and physics needed for inclusion of cloud formation.

7. Adaptive Filtering in the Wavelet Transform Domain via Genetic Algorithms

DTIC Science & Technology

2004-08-06

identification. Figure 1 shows a very basic example of this type of system . x(n) Figure 1. Basic system identification using adaptive filters block diagram...block diagram of adaptive wavelet filtering system . The main objective of the system shown in Figure 2 is to minimize the error signal, e(k), which is...in Table 1. Daub4 wavelets use filter banks (Vaidyanathan 1992) containing exactly four elements. 5 Figure 4. Time-Domain Representation of

8. An Adaptive Data Collection Algorithm Based on a Bayesian Compressed Sensing Framework

PubMed Central

Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Mengmeng; Cui, Jian

2014-01-01

For Wireless Sensor Networks, energy efficiency is always a key consideration in system design. Compressed sensing is a new theory which has promising prospects in WSNs. However, how to construct a sparse projection matrix is a problem. In this paper, based on a Bayesian compressed sensing framework, a new adaptive algorithm which can integrate routing and data collection is proposed. By introducing new target node selection metrics, embedding the routing structure and maximizing the differential entropy for each collection round, an adaptive projection vector is constructed. Simulations show that compared to reference algorithms, the proposed algorithm can decrease computation complexity and improve energy efficiency. PMID:24818659

9. Prediction and Control of Network Cascade: Example of Power Grid or Networking Adaptability from WMD Disruption and Cascading Failures

SciTech Connect

Chertkov, Michael

2012-07-24

The goal of the DTRA project is to develop a mathematical framework that will provide the fundamental understanding of network survivability, algorithms for detecting/inferring pre-cursors of abnormal network behaviors, and methods for network adaptability and self-healing from cascading failures.

10. Dynamic response of shock waves in transonic diffuser and supersonic inlet - An analysis with the Navier-Stokes equations and adaptive grid

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liu, N.-S.; Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.

1984-01-01

An existing method which solves the multi-dimensional ensemble-averaged compressible time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with mixing length turbulence model and shock capturing technique has been extended to include the shock-tracking adaptive grid systems. The numerical scheme for solving the governing equations is based on a linearized block implicit approach. The effects of grid-motion and grid-distribution on the calculated flow solutions have been studied in relative detail and this is carried out in the context of physically steady, shocked flows computed with non-stationary grids. Subsequently, the unsteady dynamics of the flows occurring in a supercritically operated transonic diffuser and a mixed compression supersonic inlet have been investigated with the adaptive grid systems by solving the Navier-Stokes equations.

11. The Multi Level Multi Domain (MLMD) method: a semi-implicit adaptive algorithm for Particle In Cell plasma simulations

Innocenti, Maria Elena; Beck, Arnaud; Markidis, Stefano; Lapenta, Giovanni

2013-10-01

Particle in Cell (PIC) simulations of plasmas are not bound anymore by the stability constraints of explicit algorithms. Semi implicit and fully implicit methods allow to use larger grid spacings and time steps. Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) techniques permit to locally change the simulation resolution. The code proposed in Innocenti et al., 2013 and Beck et al., 2013 is however the first to combine the advantages of both. The use of the Implicit Moment Method allows to taylor the resolution used in each level to the physical scales of interest and to use high Refinement Factors (RF) between the levels. The Multi Level Multi Domain (MLMD) structure, where all levels are simulated as complete domains, conjugates algorithmic and practical advantages. The different levels evolve according to the local dynamics and achieve optimal level interlocking. Also, the capabilities of the Object Oriented programming model are fully exploited. The MLMD algorithm is demonstrated with magnetic reconnection and collisionless shocks simulations with very high RFs between the levels. Notable computational gains are achieved with respect to simulations performed on the entire domain with the higher resolution. Beck A. et al. (2013). submitted. Innocenti M. E. et al. (2013). JCP, 238(0):115-140.

12. A New Grid based Ionosphere Algorithm for GAGAN using Data Fusion Technique (ISRO GIVE Model-Multi Layer Data Fusion)

Srinivasan, Nirmala; Ganeshan, A. S.; Mishra, Saumyaketu

2012-07-01

A New Grid based Ionosphere Algorithm for GAGAN using Data Fusion Technique (ISRO GIVE Model-Multi Layer Data Fusion) Saumyaketu Mishra, Nirmala S, A S Ganeshan ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore and Timothy Schempp, Gregory Um, Hans Habereder Raytheon Company Development of a region-specific ionosphere model is the key element in providing precision approach services for civil aviation with GAGAN (GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation). GAGAN is an Indian SBAS (Space Based Augmentation System) comprising of three segments; space segment (GEO and GPS), ground segment (15 Indian reference stations (INRES), 2 master control centers and 3 ground uplink stations) and user segment. The GAGAN system is intended to provide air navigation services for APV 1/1.5 precision approach over the Indian land mass and RNP 0.1 navigation service over Indian Flight Information Region (FIR), conforming to the standards of GNSS ICAO-SARPS. Ionosphere being largest source of error is of prime concern for a SBAS. India is a low latitude country, posing challenges for grid based ionosphere algorithm development; large spatial and temporal gradients, Equatorial anomaly, Depletions (bubbles), Scintillations etc. To meet the required GAGAN performance, it is necessary to develop and implement a best suitable ionosphere model, applicable for the Indian region as thin shell models like planar does not meet the requirement. ISRO GIVE Model - Multi Layer Data Fusion (IGM-MLDF) employs an innovative approach for computing the ionosphere corrections and confidences at pre-defined grid points at 350 Km shell height. Ionosphere variations over the Geo-magnetic equatorial regions shows peak electron density shell height variations from 200 km to 500 km, so single thin shell assumption at 350 km is not valid over Indian region. Hence IGM-MLDF employs innovative scheme of modeling at two shell heights. Through empirical analysis the shell heights of 250 km and 450 km are chosen. The ionosphere measurement

PubMed Central

Darzi, Soodabeh; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Tiong, Sieh Kiong; Kibria, Salehin; Singh, Mandeep

2015-01-01

In this paper, stochastic leader gravitational search algorithm (SL-GSA) based on randomized k is proposed. Standard GSA (SGSA) utilizes the best agents without any randomization, thus it is more prone to converge at suboptimal results. Initially, the new approach randomly choses k agents from the set of all agents to improve the global search ability. Gradually, the set of agents is reduced by eliminating the agents with the poorest performances to allow rapid convergence. The performance of the SL-GSA was analyzed for six well-known benchmark functions, and the results are compared with SGSA and some of its variants. Furthermore, the SL-GSA is applied to minimum variance distortionless response (MVDR) beamforming technique to ensure compatibility with real world optimization problems. The proposed algorithm demonstrates superior convergence rate and quality of solution for both real world problems and benchmark functions compared to original algorithm and other recent variants of SGSA. PMID:26552032

14. A MULTIPLE GRID ALGORITHM FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL TRANSIENT OPEN CHANNEL FLOWS. (R825200)

EPA Science Inventory

Numerical modeling of open channel flows with shocks using explicit finite difference schemes is constrained by the choice of time step, which is limited by the CFL stability criteria. To overcome this limitation, in this work we introduce the application of a multiple grid al...

15. Feature Selection for Natural Language Call Routing Based on Self-Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

Koromyslova, A.; Semenkina, M.; Sergienko, R.

2017-02-01

The text classification problem for natural language call routing was considered in the paper. Seven different term weighting methods were applied. As dimensionality reduction methods, the feature selection based on self-adaptive GA is considered. k-NN, linear SVM and ANN were used as classification algorithms. The tasks of the research are the following: perform research of text classification for natural language call routing with different term weighting methods and classification algorithms and investigate the feature selection method based on self-adaptive GA. The numerical results showed that the most effective term weighting is TRR. The most effective classification algorithm is ANN. Feature selection with self-adaptive GA provides improvement of classification effectiveness and significant dimensionality reduction with all term weighting methods and with all classification algorithms.

16. Study on adaptive PID algorithm of hydraulic turbine governing system based on fuzzy neural network

Tang, Liangbao; Bao, Jumin

2006-11-01

The conventional hydraulic turbine governing system can't automatically modulate PID parameters according to the dynamic process of the system, the generator speed is unstable and the mains frequency fluctuation results in. To solve the above problem, the fuzzy neural network (FNN) and the adaptive control are combined to design an adaptive PID algorithm based on the fuzzy neural network which can effectively control the hydraulic turbine governing system. Finally, the improved mathematic model is simulated. The simulation results are compared with the conventional hydraulic turbine's. Thus the validity and superiority of the fuzzy neural network PID algorithm have been proved. The simulation results show that the algorithm not only retains the functions of fuzzy control, but also provides the ability to approach to the non-linear system. Also the dynamic process of the system can be reflected more precisely and the on-line adaptive control is implemented. The algorithm is superior to other methods in response and control effect.

17. An Adaptive Inpainting Algorithm Based on DCT Induced Wavelet Regularization

DTIC Science & Technology

2013-01-01

differentiable and its gradient is Lipschitz continuous. This property is particularly important in developing a fast and efficient numerical algorithm for...with Lipschitz continuous gra- dient L(ψ), i.e., ∥∇ψ(f1) − ∇ψ(f2)∥2 ≤ L(ψ)∥f1 − f2∥2 for every f1, f2 ∈ Rn. The corresponding APG algorithm proposed in...entries are uniformly distributed on the interval [0, 255]; 2) Take u1 = f0 and L = L(ψ) as a Lipschitz constant of ∇ψ; 3) For k = 1, 2, . . ., compute a

18. Establishing a Dynamic Self-Adaptation Learning Algorithm of the BP Neural Network and Its Applications

Li, Xiaofeng; Xiang, Suying; Zhu, Pengfei; Wu, Min

2015-12-01

In order to avoid the inherent deficiencies of the traditional BP neural network, such as slow convergence speed, that easily leading to local minima, poor generalization ability and difficulty in determining the network structure, the dynamic self-adaptive learning algorithm of the BP neural network is put forward to improve the function of the BP neural network. The new algorithm combines the merit of principal component analysis, particle swarm optimization, correlation analysis and self-adaptive model, hence can effectively solve the problems of selecting structural parameters, initial connection weights and thresholds and learning rates of the BP neural network. This new algorithm not only reduces the human intervention, optimizes the topological structures of BP neural networks and improves the network generalization ability, but also accelerates the convergence speed of a network, avoids trapping into local minima, and enhances network adaptation ability and prediction ability. The dynamic self-adaptive learning algorithm of the BP neural network is used to forecast the total retail sale of consumer goods of Sichuan Province, China. Empirical results indicate that the new algorithm is superior to the traditional BP network algorithm in predicting accuracy and time consumption, which shows the feasibility and effectiveness of the new algorithm.

19. A New Ionosphere Tomography Algorithm with Two-Grids Virtual Observations Constraints and 3D Velocity Profile

Kong, Jian; Yao, Yibin; Shum, Che-Kwan

2014-05-01

Due to the sparsity of world's GNSS stations and limitations of projection angles, GNSS-based ionosphere tomography is a typical ill-posed problem. There are two main ways to solve this problem. Firstly the joint inversion method combining multi-source data is one of the effective ways. Secondly using a priori or reference ionosphere models, e.g., IRI or GIM models, as the constraints to improve the state of normal equation is another effective approach. The traditional way for adding constraints with virtual observations can only solve the problem of sparse stations but the virtual observations still lack horizontal grid constraints therefore unable to fundamentally improve the near-singularity characteristic of the normal equation. In this paper, we impose a priori constraints by increasing the virtual observations in n-dimensional space, which can greatly reduce the condition number of the normal equation. Then after the inversion region is gridded, we can form a stable structure among the grids with loose constraints. We then further consider that the ionosphere indeed changes within certain temporal scale, e.g., two hours. In order to establish a more sophisticated and realistic ionosphere model and obtain the real time ionosphere electron density velocity (IEDV) information, we introduce the grid electron density velocity parameters, which can be estimated with electron density parameters simultaneously. The velocity parameters not only can enhance the temporal resolution of the ionosphere model thereby reflecting more elaborate structure (short-term disturbances) under ionosphere disturbances status, but also provide a new way for the real-time detection and prediction of ionosphere 3D changes. We applied the new algorithm to the GNSS data collected in Europe for tomography inversion for ionosphere electron density and velocity at 2-hour resolutions, which are consistent throughout the whole day variation. We then validate the resulting tomography model

20. Time-sequenced adaptive filtering using a modified P-vector algorithm

Williams, Robert L.

1996-10-01

An adaptive algorithm and two stage filter structure were developed for adaptive filtering of certain classes of signals that exhibit cyclostationary characteristics. The new modified P-vector algorithm (mPa) eliminates the need for a separate desired signal which is typically required by conventional adaptive algorithms. It is then implemented in a time-sequenced manner to counteract the nonstationary characteristics typically found in certain radar and bioelectromagnetic signals. Initial algorithm testing is performed on evoked responses generated by the visual cortex of the human brain with the objective, ultimately, to transition the results to radar signals. Each sample of the evoked response is modeled as the sum of three uncorrelated signal components, a time-varying mean (M), a noise component (N), and a random jitter component (Q). A two stage single channel time-sequenced adaptive filter structure was developed which improves convergence characteristics by de coupling the time-varying mean component from the `Q' and noise components in the first stage. The EEG statistics must be known a priori and are adaptively estimated from the pre stimulus data. The performance of the two stage mPa time-sequenced adaptive filter approaches the performance for the ideal case of an adaptive filter having a noiseless desired response.

1. apGA: An adaptive parallel genetic algorithm

SciTech Connect

Liepins, G.E. ); Baluja, S. )

1991-01-01

We develop apGA, a parallel variant of the standard generational GA, that combines aggressive search with perpetual novelty, yet is able to preserve enough genetic structure to optimally solve variably scaled, non-uniform block deceptive and hierarchical deceptive problems. apGA combines elitism, adaptive mutation, adaptive exponential scaling, and temporal memory. We present empirical results for six classes of problems, including the DeJong test suite. Although we have not investigated hybrids, we note that apGA could be incorporated into other recent GA variants such as GENITOR, CHC, and the recombination stage of mGA. 12 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

2. Infrared image gray adaptive adjusting enhancement algorithm based on gray redundancy histogram-dealing technique

Hao, Zi-long; Liu, Yong; Chen, Ruo-wang

2016-11-01

In view of the histogram equalizing algorithm to enhance image in digital image processing, an Infrared Image Gray adaptive adjusting Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gray Redundancy Histogram-dealing Technique is proposed. The algorithm is based on the determination of the entire image gray value, enhanced or lowered the image's overall gray value by increasing appropriate gray points, and then use gray-level redundancy HE method to compress the gray-scale of the image. The algorithm can enhance image detail information. Through MATLAB simulation, this paper compares the algorithm with the histogram equalization method and the algorithm based on gray redundancy histogram-dealing technique , and verifies the effectiveness of the algorithm.

3. A fast partitioning algorithm using adaptive Mahalanobis clustering with application to seismic zoning

Morales-Esteban, Antonio; Martínez-Álvarez, Francisco; Scitovski, Sanja; Scitovski, Rudolf

2014-12-01

In this paper we construct an efficient adaptive Mahalanobis k-means algorithm. In addition, we propose a new efficient algorithm to search for a globally optimal partition obtained by using the adoptive Mahalanobis distance-like function. The algorithm is a generalization of the previously proposed incremental algorithm (Scitovski and Scitovski, 2013). It successively finds optimal partitions with k = 2 , 3 , … clusters. Therefore, it can also be used for the estimation of the most appropriate number of clusters in a partition by using various validity indexes. The algorithm has been applied to the seismic catalogues of Croatia and the Iberian Peninsula. Both regions are characterized by a moderate seismic activity. One of the main advantages of the algorithm is its ability to discover not only circular but also elliptical shapes, whose geometry fits the faults better. Three seismogenic zonings are proposed for Croatia and two for the Iberian Peninsula and adjacent areas, according to the clusters discovered by the algorithm.

4. Application of multi-objective controller to optimal tuning of PID gains for a hydraulic turbine regulating system using adaptive grid particle swam optimization.

PubMed

Chen, Zhihuan; Yuan, Yanbin; Yuan, Xiaohui; Huang, Yuehua; Li, Xianshan; Li, Wenwu

2015-05-01

A hydraulic turbine regulating system (HTRS) is one of the most important components of hydropower plant, which plays a key role in maintaining safety, stability and economical operation of hydro-electrical installations. At present, the conventional PID controller is widely applied in the HTRS system for its practicability and robustness, and the primary problem with respect to this control law is how to optimally tune the parameters, i.e. the determination of PID controller gains for satisfactory performance. In this paper, a kind of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, named adaptive grid particle swarm optimization (AGPSO) is applied to solve the PID gains tuning problem of the HTRS system. This newly AGPSO optimized method, which differs from a traditional one-single objective optimization method, is designed to take care of settling time and overshoot level simultaneously, in which a set of non-inferior alternatives solutions (i.e. Pareto solution) is generated. Furthermore, a fuzzy-based membership value assignment method is employed to choose the best compromise solution from the obtained Pareto set. An illustrative example associated with the best compromise solution for parameter tuning of the nonlinear HTRS system is introduced to verify the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed AGPSO-based optimization approach, as compared with two another prominent multi-objective algorithms, i.e. Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII) and Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm II (SPEAII), for the quality and diversity of obtained Pareto solutions set. Consequently, simulation results show that this AGPSO optimized approach outperforms than compared methods with higher efficiency and better quality no matter whether the HTRS system works under unload or load conditions.

5. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: I. Model implementation

SciTech Connect

Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

2014-10-24

We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed to relieve transmission grid congestion. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to Series Compensation (SC) devices that can be represented by modification of the inductance of transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the l1 norm of the inductance modification subject to the usual line thermal-limit constraints. We develop heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) which are accelerated further using cutting plane methods. The algorithm solves an instance of the MatPower Polish Grid model (3299 lines and 2746 nodes) in 40 seconds per iteration on a standard laptop—a speed up that allows the sizing and placement of a family of SC devices to correct a large set of anticipated congestions. We observe that our algorithm finds feasible solutions that are always sparse, i.e., SC devices are placed on only a few lines. In a companion manuscript, we demonstrate our approach on realistically-sized networks that suffer congestion from a range of causes including generator retirement. In this manuscript, we focus on the development of our approach, investigate its structure on a small test system subject to congestion from uniform load growth, and demonstrate computational efficiency on a realistically-sized network.

6. Efficient Algorithm for Locating and Sizing Series Compensation Devices in Large Transmission Grids: Model Implementation (PART 1)

SciTech Connect

Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott N.; Chertkov, Michael

2014-01-14

We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed to relieve transmission grid congestion. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to Series Compensation (SC) devices that can be represented by modification of the inductance of transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the l1 norm of the inductance modification subject to the usual line thermal-limit constraints. We develop heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) which are accelerated further using cutting plane methods. The algorithm solves an instance of the MatPower Polish Grid model (3299 lines and 2746 nodes) in 40 seconds per iteration on a standard laptop—a speed up that allows the sizing and placement of a family of SC devices to correct a large set of anticipated congestions. We observe that our algorithm finds feasible solutions that are always sparse, i.e., SC devices are placed on only a few lines. In a companion manuscript, we demonstrate our approach on realistically-sized networks that suffer congestion from a range of causes including generator retirement. In this manuscript, we focus on the development of our approach, investigate its structure on a small test system subject to congestion from uniform load growth, and demonstrate computational efficiency on a realistically-sized network.

7. Efficient algorithm for locating and sizing series compensation devices in large power transmission grids: I. Model implementation

DOE PAGES

Frolov, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

2014-10-24

We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed to relieve transmission grid congestion. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to Series Compensation (SC) devices that can be represented by modification of the inductance of transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the l1 norm of the inductance modification subject to the usual line thermal-limit constraints. We develop heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) which are accelerated further using cutting plane methods. The algorithm solves an instance of the MatPower Polishmore » Grid model (3299 lines and 2746 nodes) in 40 seconds per iteration on a standard laptop—a speed up that allows the sizing and placement of a family of SC devices to correct a large set of anticipated congestions. We observe that our algorithm finds feasible solutions that are always sparse, i.e., SC devices are placed on only a few lines. In a companion manuscript, we demonstrate our approach on realistically-sized networks that suffer congestion from a range of causes including generator retirement. In this manuscript, we focus on the development of our approach, investigate its structure on a small test system subject to congestion from uniform load growth, and demonstrate computational efficiency on a realistically-sized network.« less

8. The new image segmentation algorithm using adaptive evolutionary programming and fuzzy c-means clustering

Liu, Fang

2011-06-01

Image segmentation remains one of the major challenges in image analysis and computer vision. Fuzzy clustering, as a soft segmentation method, has been widely studied and successfully applied in mage clustering and segmentation. The fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm is the most popular method used in mage segmentation. However, most clustering algorithms such as the k-means and the FCM clustering algorithms search for the final clusters values based on the predetermined initial centers. The FCM clustering algorithms does not consider the space information of pixels and is sensitive to noise. In the paper, presents a new fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm with adaptive evolutionary programming that provides image clustering. The features of this algorithm are: 1) firstly, it need not predetermined initial centers. Evolutionary programming will help FCM search for better center and escape bad centers at local minima. Secondly, the spatial distance and the Euclidean distance is also considered in the FCM clustering. So this algorithm is more robust to the noises. Thirdly, the adaptive evolutionary programming is proposed. The mutation rule is adaptively changed with learning the useful knowledge in the evolving process. Experiment results shows that the new image segmentation algorithm is effective. It is providing robustness to noisy images.

9. Simple and Effective Algorithms: Computer-Adaptive Testing.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linacre, John Michael

Computer-adaptive testing (CAT) allows improved security, greater scoring accuracy, shorter testing periods, quicker availability of results, and reduced guessing and other undesirable test behavior. Simple approaches can be applied by the classroom teacher, or other content specialist, who possesses simple computer equipment and elementary…

10. Adaptive analog-SSOR iterative method for solving grid equations with nonselfadjoint operators

Alekseenko, Elena; Sukhinov, Alexander; Chistyakov, Alexander; Shishenya, Alexander; Roux, Bernard

2013-04-01

Motion models of wave processes in the coastal zone are highly demanded in the projection and construction of coastal surface structures and breakwaters, and also as a component of other models. The most common of the grid approaches is currently vof-method. A significant drawback of this method is in the necessity to solve the convection equation to find fullness of cells. The numerical solution of this equation leads to a strong grid viscosity and "smearing" of the interface. In this paper, we propose a method, which is based on the idea of using a fill, as in vof method, but its conversion is not required to solve the equation of convection. Thus in this work, a mathematical model for the wave hydrodynamics problem, describing wash ashore and taking into account such physical parameters as turbulent exchange, complexity of domain and coastal line geometry, and bottom friction is developed. For the given mathematical model a discrete model is constructed, taking into account dynamical changing of the calculation domain. Discretization of the model is performed on the structured rectangular grid with a new developed finite-volume technique that takes into account fullness of the grid cells that allows describing geometry more accurate. Proposed technique allows improving the real accuracy of a solution in case of complex domain geometry, by improving approximation of the boundary. A software implementation and numerical experiments of the posed problem of the wave hydrodynamics is performed. The results of numerical experiments show the feasibility of using discrete mathematical models of processes that take into account fullness of grid cells, for the simulation of systems with complex geometry of the border. Numerical experiments show that the use of this technique sufficiently smooth solutions are obtained even on coarse grids.

11. Adaptive quasi-Newton algorithm for source extraction via CCA approach.

PubMed

Zhang, Wei-Tao; Lou, Shun-Tian; Feng, Da-Zheng

2014-04-01

This paper addresses the problem of adaptive source extraction via the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) approach. Based on Liu's analysis of CCA approach, we propose a new criterion for source extraction, which is proved to be equivalent to the CCA criterion. Then, a fast and efficient online algorithm using quasi-Newton iteration is developed. The stability of the algorithm is also analyzed using Lyapunov's method, which shows that the proposed algorithm asymptotically converges to the global minimum of the criterion. Simulation results are presented to prove our theoretical analysis and demonstrate the merits of the proposed algorithm in terms of convergence speed and successful rate for source extraction.

12. Passification based simple adaptive control of quadrotor attitude: Algorithms and testbed results

Tomashevich, Stanislav; Belyavskyi, Andrey; Andrievsky, Boris

2017-01-01

In the paper, the results of the Passification Method with the Implicit Reference Model (IRM) approach are applied for designing the simple adaptive controller for quadrotor attitude. The IRM design technique makes it possible to relax the matching condition, known for habitual MRAC systems, and leads to simple adaptive controllers, ensuring fast tuning the controller gains, high robustness with respect to nonlinearities in the control loop, to the external disturbances and the unmodeled plant dynamics. For experimental evaluation of the adaptive systems performance, the 2DOF laboratory setup has been created. The testbed allows to safely test new control algorithms in the laboratory area with a small space and promptly make changes in cases of failure. The testing results of simple adaptive control of quadrotor attitude are presented, demonstrating efficacy of the applied simple adaptive control method. The experiments demonstrate good performance quality and high adaptation rate of the simple adaptive control system.

13. Implicit/Multigrid Algorithms for Incompressible Turbulent Flows on Unstructured Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anderson, W. Kyle; Rausch, Russ D.; Bonhaus, Daryl L.

1997-01-01

An implicit code for computing inviscid and viscous incompressible flows on unstructured grids is described. The foundation of the code is a backward Euler time discretization for which the linear system is approximately solved at each time step with either a point implicit method or a preconditioned Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) technique. For the GMRES calculations, several techniques are investigated for forming the matrix-vector product. Convergence acceleration is achieved through a multigrid scheme that uses non-nested coarse grids that are generated using a technique described in the present paper. Convergence characteristics are investigated and results are compared with an exact solution for the inviscid flow over a four-element airfoil. Viscous results, which are compared with experimental data, include the turbulent flow over a NACA 4412 airfoil, a three-element airfoil for which Mach number effects are investigated, and three-dimensional flow over a wing with a partial-span flap.

14. Simulated annealing algorithm applied in adaptive near field beam shaping

Yu, Zhan; Ma, Hao-tong; Du, Shao-jun

2010-11-01

Laser beam shaping is required in many applications for improving the efficiency of the laser systems. In this paper, the near field beam shaping based on the combination of simulated annealing algorithm and Zernike polynomials is demonstrated. Considering phase distribution can be represented by the expansion of Zernike polynomials, the problem of searching appropriate phase distribution can be changed into a problem of optimizing a vector made up of Zernike coefficients. The feasibility of this method is validated theoretically by translating the Gaussian beam into square quasi-flattop beam in the near field. Finally, the closed control loop system constituted by phase only liquid crystal spatial light modulator and simulated annealing algorithm is used to prove the validity of the technique. The experiment results show that the system can generate laser beam with desired intensity distributions.

15. PathGrid: The Transfer of Astronomical Image Algorithms to the Analysis of Medical Microscopy Data

Walton, N. A.; Brenton, J. D.; Caldas, C.; Irwin, M. J.; Akram, A.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Lewis, J. R.; MacCullum, P.; Morris, L. J.; Rixon, G. T.

2009-09-01

We describe our pilot `PathGrid' study which applies astronomical image processing and data handling techniques to the challenges involved in analysing Tissue Micro Array (TMA) image data. Image analysis has been applied to the input TMA data using open source solutions developed for an astronomical context. The resulting data products are in turn interfaced to the clinical trials systems in use at the Cambridge Research Institute (Cancer Research-UK).

16. TRIM: A finite-volume MHD algorithm for an unstructured adaptive mesh

SciTech Connect

Schnack, D.D.; Lottati, I.; Mikic, Z.

1995-07-01

The authors describe TRIM, a MHD code which uses finite volume discretization of the MHD equations on an unstructured adaptive grid of triangles in the poloidal plane. They apply it to problems related to modeling tokamak toroidal plasmas. The toroidal direction is treated by a pseudospectral method. Care was taken to center variables appropriately on the mesh and to construct a self adjoint diffusion operator for cell centered variables.

17. An algorithmic approach to adaptive state filtering using recurrent neural networks.

PubMed

Parlos, A G; Menon, S K; Atiya, A

2001-01-01

Practical algorithms are presented for adaptive state filtering in nonlinear dynamic systems when the state equations are unknown. The state equations are constructively approximated using neural networks. The algorithms presented are based on the two-step prediction-update approach of the Kalman filter. The proposed algorithms make minimal assumptions regarding the underlying nonlinear dynamics and their noise statistics. Non-adaptive and adaptive state filtering algorithms are presented with both off-line and online learning stages. The algorithms are implemented using feedforward and recurrent neural network and comparisons are presented. Furthermore, extended Kalman filters (EKFs) are developed and compared to the filter algorithms proposed. For one of the case studies, the EKF converges but results in higher state estimation errors that the equivalent neural filters. For another, more complex case study with unknown system dynamics and noise statistics, the developed EKFs do not converge. The off-line trained neural state filters converge quite rapidly and exhibit acceptable performance. Online training further enhances the estimation accuracy of the developed adaptive filters, effectively decoupling the eventual filter accuracy from the accuracy of the process model.

18. Astronomical image denoising by means of improved adaptive backtracking-based matching pursuit algorithm.

PubMed

Liu, Qianshun; Bai, Jian; Yu, Feihong

2014-11-10

In an effort to improve compressive sensing and spare signal reconstruction by way of the backtracking-based adaptive orthogonal matching pursuit (BAOMP), a new sparse coding algorithm called improved adaptive backtracking-based OMP (ABOMP) is proposed in this study. Many aspects have been improved compared to the original BAOMP method, including replacing the fixed threshold with an adaptive one, adding residual feedback and support set verification, and others. Because of these ameliorations, the proposed algorithm can more precisely choose the atoms. By adding the adaptive step-size mechanism, it requires much less iteration and thus executes more efficiently. Additionally, a simple but effective contrast enhancement method is also adopted to further improve the denoising results and visual effect. By combining the IABOMP algorithm with the state-of-art dictionary learning algorithm K-SVD, the proposed algorithm achieves better denoising effects for astronomical images. Numerous experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs successfully and effectively on Gaussian and Poisson noise removal.

19. Almost Sure Convergence of Adaptive Identification Prediction and Control Algorithms.

DTIC Science & Technology

1981-03-01

achievable with known plant parameters, in the Cesaro sense. An additional regularity assumption on the signal model establishes the result that the...the Cesaro sense. Under an additional regularity assumption, the convergence of these errors and also that of the tracking error for the adaptive con...The 4- convergence in all these references is established in the Cesaro sense. The above schemes of [7-10] leave the question unanswered as to

20. Control Dynamics of Adaptive and Scalable Power and Energy Systems for Military Micro Grids

DTIC Science & Technology

2006-12-01

quality at the levels required for Army installations ( Fairley 2004; Apt et al. 2004; Sheblé 2006; Weaver 2004; EPRI 2003; Silberman 2001; Blum 2004; Behr...Challenges of the 21st Century: 2003 Summary and Synthesis. Report # 1010929. Fairley , P. 2004. The unruly power grid. IEEE Spectrum 41(8): 16-21

1. Simulation of Biochemical Pathway Adaptability Using Evolutionary Algorithms

SciTech Connect

Bosl, W J

2005-01-26

The systems approach to genomics seeks quantitative and predictive descriptions of cells and organisms. However, both the theoretical and experimental methods necessary for such studies still need to be developed. We are far from understanding even the simplest collective behavior of biomolecules, cells or organisms. A key aspect to all biological problems, including environmental microbiology, evolution of infectious diseases, and the adaptation of cancer cells is the evolvability of genomes. This is particularly important for Genomes to Life missions, which tend to focus on the prospect of engineering microorganisms to achieve desired goals in environmental remediation and climate change mitigation, and energy production. All of these will require quantitative tools for understanding the evolvability of organisms. Laboratory biodefense goals will need quantitative tools for predicting complicated host-pathogen interactions and finding counter-measures. In this project, we seek to develop methods to simulate how external and internal signals cause the genetic apparatus to adapt and organize to produce complex biochemical systems to achieve survival. This project is specifically directed toward building a computational methodology for simulating the adaptability of genomes. This project investigated the feasibility of using a novel quantitative approach to studying the adaptability of genomes and biochemical pathways. This effort was intended to be the preliminary part of a larger, long-term effort between key leaders in computational and systems biology at Harvard University and LLNL, with Dr. Bosl as the lead PI. Scientific goals for the long-term project include the development and testing of new hypotheses to explain the observed adaptability of yeast biochemical pathways when the myosin-II gene is deleted and the development of a novel data-driven evolutionary computation as a way to connect exploratory computational simulation with hypothesis

2. Sequential Insertion Heuristic with Adaptive Bee Colony Optimisation Algorithm for Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows.

PubMed

Jawarneh, Sana; Abdullah, Salwani

2015-01-01

This paper presents a bee colony optimisation (BCO) algorithm to tackle the vehicle routing problem with time window (VRPTW). The VRPTW involves recovering an ideal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles serving a defined number of customers. The BCO algorithm is a population-based algorithm that mimics the social communication patterns of honeybees in solving problems. The performance of the BCO algorithm is dependent on its parameters, so the online (self-adaptive) parameter tuning strategy is used to improve its effectiveness and robustness. Compared with the basic BCO, the adaptive BCO performs better. Diversification is crucial to the performance of the population-based algorithm, but the initial population in the BCO algorithm is generated using a greedy heuristic, which has insufficient diversification. Therefore the ways in which the sequential insertion heuristic (SIH) for the initial population drives the population toward improved solutions are examined. Experimental comparisons indicate that the proposed adaptive BCO-SIH algorithm works well across all instances and is able to obtain 11 best results in comparison with the best-known results in the literature when tested on Solomon's 56 VRPTW 100 customer instances. Also, a statistical test shows that there is a significant difference between the results.

3. Sequential Insertion Heuristic with Adaptive Bee Colony Optimisation Algorithm for Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows

PubMed Central

Jawarneh, Sana; Abdullah, Salwani

2015-01-01

This paper presents a bee colony optimisation (BCO) algorithm to tackle the vehicle routing problem with time window (VRPTW). The VRPTW involves recovering an ideal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles serving a defined number of customers. The BCO algorithm is a population-based algorithm that mimics the social communication patterns of honeybees in solving problems. The performance of the BCO algorithm is dependent on its parameters, so the online (self-adaptive) parameter tuning strategy is used to improve its effectiveness and robustness. Compared with the basic BCO, the adaptive BCO performs better. Diversification is crucial to the performance of the population-based algorithm, but the initial population in the BCO algorithm is generated using a greedy heuristic, which has insufficient diversification. Therefore the ways in which the sequential insertion heuristic (SIH) for the initial population drives the population toward improved solutions are examined. Experimental comparisons indicate that the proposed adaptive BCO-SIH algorithm works well across all instances and is able to obtain 11 best results in comparison with the best-known results in the literature when tested on Solomon’s 56 VRPTW 100 customer instances. Also, a statistical test shows that there is a significant difference between the results. PMID:26132158

4. The digital algorithm for fast detecting and identifying the asymmetry of voltages in three-phase electric grids of mechanical engineering facilities

Shonin, O. B.; Kryltcov, S. B.; Novozhilov, N. G.

2017-02-01

The paper considers a new technique for the fast method of extracting symmetrical components of unbalanced voltages caused by the faults in electric grids of mechanical engineering facilities. The proposed approach is based on the iterative algorithm that checks if the set of at least three voltage discrete measurements belongs to a specific ellipse trajectory of the voltage space vector. Using classification of unbalanced faults in the grid and results of decomposing the voltages into symmetrical components, the algorithm is capable to discriminate between one-phase, two-phase and three-phase voltage sags. The paper concludes that results of simulation in Simulink environment have proved the correctness of the proposed algorithm for detecting and identifying the unbalanced voltage sags in the electrical grid under condition that it is free from high order harmonics.

5. Adaptive Waveform Correlation Detectors for Arrays: Algorithms for Autonomous Calibration

DTIC Science & Technology

2007-09-01

correlation coefficient , or some comparable detection statistic, exceeds a given threshold. Since these methods exploit characteristic details of the full waveform, they provide exquisitely sensitive detectors with far lower detection thresholds than typical short-term average/long-term average (STA/LTA) algorithms. The drawback is that the form of the sought-after signal needs to be known quite accurately a priori, which limits such methods to instances of seismicity whereby a very similar signal has already been observed by every station used. Such instances include

6. Adaptive merit function in SPGD algorithm for beam combining

Yang, Guo-qing; Liu, Li-sheng; Jiang, Zhen-hua; Wang, Ting-feng; Guo, Jin

2016-09-01

The beam pointing is the most crucial issue for beam combining to achieve high energy laser output. In order to meet the turbulence situation, a beam pointing method that cooperates with the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm is proposed. The power-in-the-bucket ( PIB) is chosen as the merit function, and its radius changes gradually during the correction process. The linear radius and the exponential radius are simulated. The results show that the exponential radius has great promise for beam pointing.

7. Adaptive Sampling Algorithms for Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Nuclear Simulations

SciTech Connect

Diego Mandelli; Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer

2013-09-01

Nuclear simulations are often computationally expensive, time-consuming, and high-dimensional with respect to the number of input parameters. Thus exploring the space of all possible simulation outcomes is infeasible using finite computing resources. During simulation-based probabilistic risk analysis, it is important to discover the relationship between a potentially large number of input parameters and the output of a simulation using as few simulation trials as possible. This is a typical context for performing adaptive sampling where a few observations are obtained from the simulation, a surrogate model is built to represent the simulation space, and new samples are selected based on the model constructed. The surrogate model is then updated based on the simulation results of the sampled points. In this way, we attempt to gain the most information possible with a small number of carefully selected sampled points, limiting the number of expensive trials needed to understand features of the simulation space. We analyze the specific use case of identifying the limit surface, i.e., the boundaries in the simulation space between system failure and system success. In this study, we explore several techniques for adaptively sampling the parameter space in order to reconstruct the limit surface. We focus on several adaptive sampling schemes. First, we seek to learn a global model of the entire simulation space using prediction models or neighborhood graphs and extract the limit surface as an iso-surface of the global model. Second, we estimate the limit surface by sampling in the neighborhood of the current estimate based on topological segmentations obtained locally. Our techniques draw inspirations from topological structure known as the Morse-Smale complex. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of using a global prediction model versus local topological view of the simulation space, comparing several different strategies for adaptive sampling in both

8. [Curvelet denoising algorithm for medical ultrasound image based on adaptive threshold].

PubMed

Zhuang, Zhemin; Yao, Weike; Yang, Jinyao; Li, FenLan; Yuan, Ye

2014-11-01

The traditional denoising algorithm for ultrasound images would lost a lot of details and weak edge information when suppressing speckle noise. A new denoising algorithm of adaptive threshold based on curvelet transform is proposed in this paper. The algorithm utilizes differences of coefficients' local variance between texture and smooth region in each layer of ultrasound image to define fuzzy regions and membership functions. In the end, using the adaptive threshold that determine by the membership function to denoise the ultrasound image. The experimental text shows that the algorithm can reduce the speckle noise effectively and retain the detail information of original image at the same time, thus it can greatly enhance the performance of B ultrasound instrument.

9. Detection of Human Impacts by an Adaptive Energy-Based Anisotropic Algorithm

PubMed Central

Prado-Velasco, Manuel; Ortiz Marín, Rafael; del Rio Cidoncha, Gloria

2013-01-01

Boosted by health consequences and the cost of falls in the elderly, this work develops and tests a novel algorithm and methodology to detect human impacts that will act as triggers of a two-layer fall monitor. The two main requirements demanded by socio-healthcare providers—unobtrusiveness and reliability—defined the objectives of the research. We have demonstrated that a very agile, adaptive, and energy-based anisotropic algorithm can provide 100% sensitivity and 78% specificity, in the task of detecting impacts under demanding laboratory conditions. The algorithm works together with an unsupervised real-time learning technique that addresses the adaptive capability, and this is also presented. The work demonstrates the robustness and reliability of our new algorithm, which will be the basis of a smart falling monitor. This is shown in this work to underline the relevance of the results. PMID:24157505

10. Performance study of LMS based adaptive algorithms for unknown system identification

2014-07-01

Adaptive filtering techniques have gained much popularity in the modeling of unknown system identification problem. These techniques can be classified as either iterative or direct. Iterative techniques include stochastic descent method and its improved versions in affine space. In this paper we present a comparative study of the least mean square (LMS) algorithm and some improved versions of LMS, more precisely the normalized LMS (NLMS), LMS-Newton, transform domain LMS (TDLMS) and affine projection algorithm (APA). The performance evaluation of these algorithms is carried out using adaptive system identification (ASI) model with random input signals, in which the unknown (measured) signal is assumed to be contaminated by output noise. Simulation results are recorded to compare the performance in terms of convergence speed, robustness, misalignment, and their sensitivity to the spectral properties of input signals. Main objective of this comparative study is to observe the effects of fast convergence rate of improved versions of LMS algorithms on their robustness and misalignment.

11. Performance study of LMS based adaptive algorithms for unknown system identification

SciTech Connect

2014-07-10

Adaptive filtering techniques have gained much popularity in the modeling of unknown system identification problem. These techniques can be classified as either iterative or direct. Iterative techniques include stochastic descent method and its improved versions in affine space. In this paper we present a comparative study of the least mean square (LMS) algorithm and some improved versions of LMS, more precisely the normalized LMS (NLMS), LMS-Newton, transform domain LMS (TDLMS) and affine projection algorithm (APA). The performance evaluation of these algorithms is carried out using adaptive system identification (ASI) model with random input signals, in which the unknown (measured) signal is assumed to be contaminated by output noise. Simulation results are recorded to compare the performance in terms of convergence speed, robustness, misalignment, and their sensitivity to the spectral properties of input signals. Main objective of this comparative study is to observe the effects of fast convergence rate of improved versions of LMS algorithms on their robustness and misalignment.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Merhav, S. J.; Mehta, R. S.

1987-01-01

An adaptive control system based on normalized LMS filters is investigated. The finite impulse response of the nonparametric controller is adaptively estimated using a given reference model. Specifically, the following issues are addressed: The stability of the closed loop system is analyzed and heuristically established. Next, the adaptation process is studied for piecewise constant plant parameters. It is shown that by introducing a variable-gain in the gradient algorithm, a substantial reduction in the LMS adaptation rate can be achieved. Finally, process noise at the plant output generally causes a biased estimate of the controller. By introducing a noise suppression scheme, this bias can be substantially reduced and the response of the adapted system becomes very close to that of the reference model. Extensive computer simulations validate these and demonstrate assertions that the system can rapidly adapt to random jumps in plant parameters.

13. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

SciTech Connect

Prusa, Joseph

2012-05-08

This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the physics of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer- reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

14. Self-adaptive differential evolution algorithm incorporating local search for protein-ligand docking

Chung, Hwan Won; Cho, Seung Joo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Lee, Kyu-Hwan

2013-02-01

Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is powerful in optimization problems over several real parameters. DE depends on strategies to generate new trial solutions and the associated parameter values for searching performance. In self-adaptive DE, the automatic learning about previous evolution was used to determine the best mutation strategy and its parameter settings. By combining the self-adaptive DE and Hooke Jeeves local search, we developed a new docking method named SADock (Strategy Adaptation Dock) with the help of AutoDock4 scoring function. As the accuracy and performance of SADock was evaluated in self-docking using the Astex diverse set, the introduced SADock showed better success ratio (89%) than the success ratio (60%) of the Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA) of AutoDock4. The self-adapting scheme enabled our new docking method to converge fast and to be robust through the various docking problems.

15. A bit-level image encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaotic system and self-adaptive

Teng, Lin; Wang, Xingyuan

2012-09-01

This paper proposes a bit-level image encryption algorithm based on spatiotemporal chaotic system which is self-adaptive. We use a bit-level encryption scheme to reduce the volume of data during encryption and decryption in order to reduce the execution time. We also use the adaptive encryption scheme to make the ciphered image dependent on the plain image to improve performance. Simulation results show that the performance and security of the proposed encryption algorithm can encrypt plaintext effectively and resist various typical attacks.

16. Parallel Unsteady Overset Mesh Methodology for Adaptive and Moving Grids with Multiple Solvers

DTIC Science & Technology

2010-01-01

Runge - Kutta time-stepping framework and is capable of up to fifth-order accurate spatial discretizations. Further, the Cartesian grids in the off-body are...no user intervention or explicit hole-map specification is necessary. The capabilities and performance of the package are presented for several test...connectivity approaches have been investigated in the past by various research groups . The prominent among them are PEGASUS5 [5], OVERFLOW-DCF [6, 7], SUGGAR

DTIC Science & Technology

2008-08-21

a multi-stage Runge - Kutta time-stepping framework and is capable of up to fifth-order accurate spatial discretizations. Further, the Cartesian grids...cutting methodology such that no user inter- vention or explicit hole-map specification is necessary. The capabilities and performance of the package are...application to rotorcraft aerodynamics. Several Domain-Connectivity approaches have been investigated in the past by various research groups . The

18. 3D Composite Grids Using Bezier Curves and Surfaces in Component Adaptive Methods

DTIC Science & Technology

1993-08-01

bounding curves, an algebraic grid generation method, such as transfinite interpolation of these curves, results in a definition of the interior of...dependent variables is assembled and solved iteratively. The interior generated by the transfinite interpolation technique is used as the initial guess...The boundaries of the face are first parameterized in this fashion Transfinite interpolation is then employed first to obtain a parameterization of

19. Maximum-Likelihood Estimation With a Contracting-Grid Search Algorithm

PubMed Central

Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Caucci, Luca; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.

2010-01-01

A fast search algorithm capable of operating in multi-dimensional spaces is introduced. As a sample application, we demonstrate its utility in the 2D and 3D maximum-likelihood position-estimation problem that arises in the processing of PMT signals to derive interaction locations in compact gamma cameras. We demonstrate that the algorithm can be parallelized in pipelines, and thereby efficiently implemented in specialized hardware, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). A 2D implementation of the algorithm is achieved in Cell/BE processors, resulting in processing speeds above one million events per second, which is a 20× increase in speed over a conventional desktop machine. Graphics processing units (GPUs) are used for a 3D application of the algorithm, resulting in processing speeds of nearly 250,000 events per second which is a 250× increase in speed over a conventional desktop machine. These implementations indicate the viability of the algorithm for use in real-time imaging applications. PMID:20824155

20. Adaptive numerical methods for partial differential equations

SciTech Connect

Cololla, P.

1995-07-01

This review describes a structured approach to adaptivity. The Automated Mesh Refinement (ARM) algorithms developed by M Berger are described, touching on hyperbolic and parabolic applications. Adaptivity is achieved by overlaying finer grids only in areas flagged by a generalized error criterion. The author discusses some of the issues involved in abutting disparate-resolution grids, and demonstrates that suitable algorithms exist for dissipative as well as hyperbolic systems.

1. Comparison of adaptive algorithms for the control of tonal disturbances in mechanical systems

Zilletti, M.; Elliott, S. J.; Cheer, J.

2016-09-01

This paper presents a study on the performance of adaptive control algorithms designed to reduce the vibration of mechanical systems excited by a harmonic disturbance. The mechanical system consists of a mass suspended on a spring and a damper. The system is equipped with a force actuator in parallel with the suspension. The control signal driving the actuator is generated by adjusting the amplitude and phase of a sinusoidal reference signal at the same frequency as the excitation. An adaptive feedforward control algorithm is used to adapt the amplitude and phase of the control signal, to minimise the mean square velocity of the mass. Two adaptation strategies are considered in which the control signal is either updated after each period of the oscillation or at every time sample. The first strategy is traditionally used in vibration control in helicopters for example; the second strategy is normally referred to as the filtered-x least mean square algorithm and is often used to control engine noise in cars. The two adaptation strategies are compared through a parametric study, which investigates the influence of the properties of both the mechanical system and the control system on the convergence speed of the two algorithms.

2. Energy Conserving Forms of Discontinuous Galerkin Algorithms, and Sparse Grid Methods

Hakim, Ammar; Hammett, Greg; Shi, Eric

2016-10-01

A hybrid discontinuous/continuous Galerkin scheme for gyrokinetic equations is presented. Discretizing the Poisson bracket form of the equations, along with a careful choice of basis functions allows conserving the total (particle+field) energy exactly, even with upwinding to reduce artificial oscillations. Straightforward use of tensor basis functions can get expensive in higher dimensions and high polynomial order. Savings might be possible by using basis sets that have fewer monomials and combining these with a version of sparse grid quadrature methods. For example, a tensor product of piecewise parabolic basis functions in 5D involves 243 basis functions per cell, but this drops to 21 basis functions if only second order monomials are needed. Enforcing continuity needed for energy conservation in configuration space might reduce the savings, but would still be a gain over Gaussian quadrature. Our version of sparse grid methods could use non-nested quadrature points as well as well as anisotropic basis. Energy conservation with use of reduced basis sets is discussed. Supported by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

3. Reciprocal Grids: A Hierarchical Algorithm for Computing Solution X-ray Scattering Curves from Supramolecular Complexes at High Resolution.

PubMed

Ginsburg, Avi; Ben-Nun, Tal; Asor, Roi; Shemesh, Asaf; Ringel, Israel; Raviv, Uri

2016-08-22

In many biochemical processes large biomolecular assemblies play important roles. X-ray scattering is a label-free bulk method that can probe the structure of large self-assembled complexes in solution. As we demonstrate in this paper, solution X-ray scattering can measure complex supramolecular assemblies at high sensitivity and resolution. At high resolution, however, data analysis of larger complexes is computationally demanding. We present an efficient method to compute the scattering curves from complex structures over a wide range of scattering angles. In our computational method, structures are defined as hierarchical trees in which repeating subunits are docked into their assembly symmetries, describing the manner subunits repeat in the structure (in other words, the locations and orientations of the repeating subunits). The amplitude of the assembly is calculated by computing the amplitudes of the basic subunits on 3D reciprocal-space grids, moving up in the hierarchy, calculating the grids of larger structures, and repeating this process for all the leaves and nodes of the tree. For very large structures, we developed a hybrid method that sums grids of smaller subunits in order to avoid numerical artifacts. We developed protocols for obtaining high-resolution solution X-ray scattering data from taxol-free microtubules at a wide range of scattering angles. We then validated our method by adequately modeling these high-resolution data. The higher speed and accuracy of our method, over existing methods, is demonstrated for smaller structures: short microtubule and tobacco mosaic virus. Our algorithm may be integrated into various structure prediction computational tools, simulations, and theoretical models, and provide means for testing their predicted structural model, by calculating the expected X-ray scattering curve and comparing with experimental data.

4. Research on Novel Algorithms for Smart Grid Reliability Assessment and Economic Dispatch

Luo, Wenjin

In this dissertation, several studies of electric power system reliability and economy assessment methods are presented. To be more precise, several algorithms in evaluating power system reliability and economy are studied. Furthermore, two novel algorithms are applied to this field and their simulation results are compared with conventional results. As the electrical power system develops towards extra high voltage, remote distance, large capacity and regional networking, the application of a number of new technique equipments and the electric market system have be gradually established, and the results caused by power cut has become more and more serious. The electrical power system needs the highest possible reliability due to its complication and security. In this dissertation the Boolean logic Driven Markov Process (BDMP) method is studied and applied to evaluate power system reliability. This approach has several benefits. It allows complex dynamic models to be defined, while maintaining its easy readability as conventional methods. This method has been applied to evaluate IEEE reliability test system. The simulation results obtained are close to IEEE experimental data which means that it could be used for future study of the system reliability. Besides reliability, modern power system is expected to be more economic. This dissertation presents a novel evolutionary algorithm named as quantum evolutionary membrane algorithm (QEPS), which combines the concept and theory of quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm and membrane computation, to solve the economic dispatch problem in renewable power system with on land and offshore wind farms. The case derived from real data is used for simulation tests. Another conventional evolutionary algorithm is also used to solve the same problem for comparison. The experimental results show that the proposed method is quick and accurate to obtain the optimal solution which is the minimum cost for electricity supplied by wind

5. Multiobjective Image Color Quantization Algorithm Based on Self-Adaptive Hybrid Differential Evolution

PubMed Central

Xia, Xuewen

2016-01-01

In recent years, some researchers considered image color quantization as a single-objective problem and applied heuristic algorithms to solve it. This paper establishes a multiobjective image color quantization model with intracluster distance and intercluster separation as its objectives. Inspired by a multipopulation idea, a multiobjective image color quantization algorithm based on self-adaptive hybrid differential evolution (MoDE-CIQ) is then proposed to solve this model. Two numerical experiments on four common test images are conducted to analyze the effectiveness and competitiveness of the multiobjective model and the proposed algorithm. PMID:27738423

6. Low-power metabolic equivalents estimation algorithm using adaptive acceleration sampling.

PubMed

Tsukahara, Mio; Nakanishi, Motofumi; Izumi, Shintaro; Nakai, Yozaburo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Masahiko; Tsukahara, Mio; Nakanishi, Motofumi; Izumi, Shintaro; Nakai, Yozaburo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Masahiko; Izumi, Shintaro; Nakai, Yozaburo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Masahiko; Tsukahara, Mio; Nakanishi, Motofumi

2016-08-01

This paper describes a proposed low-power metabolic equivalent estimation algorithm that can calculate the value of metabolic equivalents (METs) from triaxial acceleration at an adaptively changeable sampling rate. This algorithm uses four rates of 32, 16, 8 and 4 Hz. The mode of switching them is decided from synthetic acceleration. Applying this proposed algorithm to acceleration measured for 1 day, we achieved the low root mean squared error (RMSE) of calculated METs, with current consumption that was 41.5 % of the value at 32 Hz, and 75.4 % of the value at 16 Hz.

7. An adaptive prediction and detection algorithm for multistream syndromic surveillance

PubMed Central

Najmi, Amir-Homayoon; Magruder, Steve F

2005-01-01

Background Surveillance of Over-the-Counter pharmaceutical (OTC) sales as a potential early indicator of developing public health conditions, in particular in cases of interest to biosurvellance, has been suggested in the literature. This paper is a continuation of a previous study in which we formulated the problem of estimating clinical data from OTC sales in terms of optimal LMS linear and Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters. In this paper we extend our results to predict clinical data multiple steps ahead using OTC sales as well as the clinical data itself. Methods The OTC data are grouped into a few categories and we predict the clinical data using a multichannel filter that encompasses all the past OTC categories as well as the past clinical data itself. The prediction is performed using FIR (Finite Impulse Response) filters and the recursive least squares method in order to adapt rapidly to nonstationary behaviour. In addition, we inject simulated events in both clinical and OTC data streams to evaluate the predictions by computing the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves of a threshold detector based on predicted outputs. Results We present all prediction results showing the effectiveness of the combined filtering operation. In addition, we compute and present the performance of a detector using the prediction output. Conclusion Multichannel adaptive FIR least squares filtering provides a viable method of predicting public health conditions, as represented by clinical data, from OTC sales, and/or the clinical data. The potential value to a biosurveillance system cannot, however, be determined without studying this approach in the presence of transient events (nonstationary events of relatively short duration and fast rise times). Our simulated events superimposed on actual OTC and clinical data allow us to provide an upper bound on that potential value under some restricted conditions. Based on our ROC curves we argue that a biosurveillance system can

8. Finite grid instability and spectral fidelity of the electrostatic Particle-In-Cell algorithm

SciTech Connect

Huang, C. -K.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, Y.; Meyers, M. D.; Yi, S.; Albright, B. J.

2016-10-01

The origin of the Finite Grid Instability (FGI) is studied by resolving the dynamics in the 1D electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) model in the spectral domain at the single particle level and at the collective motion level. The spectral fidelity of the PIC model is contrasted with the underlying physical system or the gridless model. The systematic spectral phase and amplitude errors from the charge deposition and field interpolation are quantified for common particle shapes used in the PIC models. Lastly, it is shown through such analysis and in simulations that the lack of spectral fidelity relative to the physical system due to the existence of aliased spatial modes is the major cause of the FGI in the PIC model.

9. Finite grid instability and spectral fidelity of the electrostatic Particle-In-Cell algorithm

Huang, C.-K.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, Y.; Meyers, M. D.; Yi, S.; Albright, B. J.

2016-10-01

The origin of the Finite Grid Instability (FGI) is studied by resolving the dynamics in the 1D electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) model in the spectral domain at the single particle level and at the collective motion level. The spectral fidelity of the PIC model is contrasted with the underlying physical system or the gridless model. The systematic spectral phase and amplitude errors from the charge deposition and field interpolation are quantified for common particle shapes used in the PIC models. It is shown through such analysis and in simulations that the lack of spectral fidelity relative to the physical system due to the existence of aliased spatial modes is the major cause of the FGI in the PIC model.

10. Finite grid instability and spectral fidelity of the electrostatic Particle-In-Cell algorithm

DOE PAGES

Huang, C. -K.; Zeng, Y.; Wang, Y.; ...

2016-10-01

The origin of the Finite Grid Instability (FGI) is studied by resolving the dynamics in the 1D electrostatic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) model in the spectral domain at the single particle level and at the collective motion level. The spectral fidelity of the PIC model is contrasted with the underlying physical system or the gridless model. The systematic spectral phase and amplitude errors from the charge deposition and field interpolation are quantified for common particle shapes used in the PIC models. Lastly, it is shown through such analysis and in simulations that the lack of spectral fidelity relative to the physical systemmore » due to the existence of aliased spatial modes is the major cause of the FGI in the PIC model.« less

11. An Adaptive Weighting Algorithm for Interpolating the Soil Potassium Content

PubMed Central

Liu, Wei; Du, Peijun; Zhao, Zhuowen; Zhang, Lianpeng

2016-01-01

The concept of spatial interpolation is important in the soil sciences. However, the use of a single global interpolation model is often limited by certain conditions (e.g., terrain complexity), which leads to distorted interpolation results. Here we present a method of adaptive weighting combined environmental variables for soil properties interpolation (AW-SP) to improve accuracy. Using various environmental variables, AW-SP was used to interpolate soil potassium content in Qinghai Lake Basin. To evaluate AW-SP performance, we compared it with that of inverse distance weighting (IDW), ordinary kriging, and OK combined with different environmental variables. The experimental results showed that the methods combined with environmental variables did not always improve prediction accuracy even if there was a strong correlation between the soil properties and environmental variables. However, compared with IDW, OK, and OK combined with different environmental variables, AW-SP is more stable and has lower mean absolute and root mean square errors. Furthermore, the AW-SP maps provided improved details of soil potassium content and provided clearer boundaries to its spatial distribution. In conclusion, AW-SP can not only reduce prediction errors, it also accounts for the distribution and contributions of environmental variables, making the spatial interpolation of soil potassium content more reasonable. PMID:27051998

Xue, Rong Kun; He, Wei; Li, Yufeng

2016-10-01

Based on the scene characteristics of frequency distribution in the degraded color images, the MSRCR method and wavelet transform in the paper are introduced respectively to enhance color images and the advantages and disadvantages of them are analyzed combining with the experiment, then the combination of improved MSRCR method and wavelet transform are proposed to enhance color images, it uses wavelet to decompose color images in order to increase the coefficient of low-level details and reduce top-level details to highlight the scene information, meanwhile, the method of improved MSRCR is used to enhance the low-frequency components of degraded images processed by wavelet, then the adaptive equalization is carried on to further enhance images, finally, the enhanced color images are acquired with the reconstruction of all the coefficients brought by the wavelet transform. Through the evaluation of the experimental results and data analysis, it shows that the method proposed in the paper is better than the separate use of wavelet transform and MSRCR method.

13. Adaptive motion artifact reducing algorithm for wrist photoplethysmography application

Zhao, Jingwei; Wang, Guijin; Shi, Chenbo

2016-04-01

Photoplethysmography (PPG) technology is widely used in wearable heart pulse rate monitoring. It might reveal the potential risks of heart condition and cardiopulmonary function by detecting the cardiac rhythms in physical exercise. However the quality of wrist photoelectric signal is very sensitive to motion artifact since the thicker tissues and the fewer amount of capillaries. Therefore, motion artifact is the major factor that impede the heart rate measurement in the high intensity exercising. One accelerometer and three channels of light with different wavelengths are used in this research to analyze the coupled form of motion artifact. A novel approach is proposed to separate the pulse signal from motion artifact by exploiting their mixing ratio in different optical paths. There are four major steps of our method: preprocessing, motion artifact estimation, adaptive filtering and heart rate calculation. Five healthy young men are participated in the experiment. The speeder in the treadmill is configured as 12km/h, and all subjects would run for 3-10 minutes by swinging the arms naturally. The final result is compared with chest strap. The average of mean square error (MSE) is less than 3 beats per minute (BPM/min). Proposed method performed well in intense physical exercise and shows the great robustness to individuals with different running style and posture.

14. An adaptive solution domain algorithm for solving multiphase flow equations

Katyal, A. K.; Parker, J. C.

1992-01-01

An adaptive solution domain (ASD) finite-element model for simulating hydrocarbon spills has been developed that is computationally more efficient than conventional numerical methods. Coupled flow of water and oil with an air phase at constant pressure is considered. In the ASD formulation, the solution domain for water- and oil-flow equations is restricted by eliminating elements from the global matrix assembly which are not experiencing significant changes in fluid saturations or pressures. When any nodes of an element exhibit changes in fluid pressures more than a stipulated tolerance τ, or changes in fluid saturations greater than tolerance τ 2 during the current time step, it is labeled active and included in the computations for the next iteration. This formulation achieves computational efficiency by solving the flow equations for only the part of the domain where changes in fluid pressure or the saturations take place above stipulated tolerances. Examples involving infiltration and redistribution of oil in 1- and 2-D spatial domains are described to illustrate the application of the ASD method and the savings in the processor time achieved by this formulation. Savings in the computational effort up to 84% during infiltration and 63% during redistribution were achieved for the 2-D example problem.

15. Adaptive Transmission Planning: Implementing a New Paradigm for Managing Economic Risks in Grid Expansion

SciTech Connect

Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Xu, Qingyu; Ho, Jonathan; Donohoo, Pearl; Kasina, Saamrat; Ouyang, Jasmine; Park, Sang Woo; Eto, Joseph; Satyal, Vijay

2016-07-01

The problem of whether, where, when, and what types of transmission facilities to build in terms of minimizing costs and maximizing net economic benefits has been a challenge for the power industry from the beginning-ever since Thomas Edison debated whether to create longer dc distribution lines (with their high losses) or build new power stations in expanding his urban markets. Today's planning decisions are far more complex, as grids cover the continent and new transmission, generation, and demand-side technologies emerge.

16. Optimization of heterogeneous Bin packing using adaptive genetic algorithm

Sridhar, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Sriramya, C.; Page, Tom

2017-03-01

This research is concentrates on a very interesting work, the bin packing using hybrid genetic approach. The optimal and feasible packing of goods for transportation and distribution to various locations by satisfying the practical constraints are the key points in this project work. As the number of boxes for packing can not be predicted in advance and the boxes may not be of same category always. It also involves many practical constraints that are why the optimal packing makes much importance to the industries. This work presents a combinational of heuristic Genetic Algorithm (HGA) for solving Three Dimensional (3D) Single container arbitrary sized rectangular prismatic bin packing optimization problem by considering most of the practical constraints facing in logistic industries. This goal was achieved in this research by optimizing the empty volume inside the container using genetic approach. Feasible packing pattern was achieved by satisfying various practical constraints like box orientation, stack priority, container stability, weight constraint, overlapping constraint, shipment placement constraint. 3D bin packing problem consists of ‘n’ number of boxes being to be packed in to a container of standard dimension in such a way to maximize the volume utilization and in-turn profit. Furthermore, Boxes to be packed may be of arbitrary sizes. The user input data are the number of bins, its size, shape, weight, and constraints if any along with standard container dimension. This user input were stored in the database and encoded to string (chromosomes) format which were normally acceptable by GA. GA operators were allowed to act over these encoded strings for finding the best solution.

17. Modified fast frequency acquisition via adaptive least squares algorithm

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kumar, Rajendra (Inventor)

1992-01-01

A method and the associated apparatus for estimating the amplitude, frequency, and phase of a signal of interest are presented. The method comprises the following steps: (1) inputting the signal of interest; (2) generating a reference signal with adjustable amplitude, frequency and phase at an output thereof; (3) mixing the signal of interest with the reference signal and a signal 90 deg out of phase with the reference signal to provide a pair of quadrature sample signals comprising respectively a difference between the signal of interest and the reference signal and a difference between the signal of interest and the signal 90 deg out of phase with the reference signal; (4) using the pair of quadrature sample signals to compute estimates of the amplitude, frequency, and phase of an error signal comprising the difference between the signal of interest and the reference signal employing a least squares estimation; (5) adjusting the amplitude, frequency, and phase of the reference signal from the numerically controlled oscillator in a manner which drives the error signal towards zero; and (6) outputting the estimates of the amplitude, frequency, and phase of the error signal in combination with the reference signal to produce a best estimate of the amplitude, frequency, and phase of the signal of interest. The preferred method includes the step of providing the error signal as a real time confidence measure as to the accuracy of the estimates wherein the closer the error signal is to zero, the higher the probability that the estimates are accurate. A matrix in the estimation algorithm provides an estimate of the variance of the estimation error.

18. EVALUATION OF ALGORITHMS DEVELOPED FOR ADAPTIVE GRID AIR QUALITY MODELING USING SURFACE ELEVATION DATA. (R827028)

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

19. Investigation of Adaptive Robust Kalman Filtering Algorithms for GPS/DR Navigation System Filters

Elzoghby, MOSTAFA; Arif, USMAN; Li, FU; Zhi Yu, XI

2017-03-01

The conventional Kalman filter (KF) algorithm is suitable if the characteristic noise covariance for states as well as measurements is readily known but in most cases these are unknown. Similarly robustness is required instead of smoothing if states are changing abruptly. Such an adaptive as well as robust Kalman filter is vital for many real time applications, like target tracking and navigating aerial vehicles. A number of adaptive as well as robust Kalman filtering methods are available in the literature. In order to investigate the performance of some of these methods, we have selected three different Kalman filters, namely Sage Husa KF, Modified Adaptive Robust KF and Adaptively Robust KF, which are easily simulate able as well as implementable for real time applications. These methods are simulated for land based vehicle and the results are compared with conventional Kalman filter. Results show that the Modified Adaptive Robust KF is best amongst the selected methods and can be used for Navigation applications.

20. Final Technical Report: Sparse Grid Scenario Generation and Interior Algorithms for Stochastic Optimization in a Parallel Computing Environment

SciTech Connect

Mehrotra, Sanjay

2016-09-07

The support from this grant resulted in seven published papers and a technical report. Two papers are published in SIAM J. on Optimization [87, 88]; two papers are published in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems [77, 78]; one paper is published in Smart Grid [79]; one paper is published in Computational Optimization and Applications [44] and one in INFORMS J. on Computing [67]). The works in [44, 67, 87, 88] were funded primarily by this DOE grant. The applied papers in [77, 78, 79] were also supported through a subcontract from the Argonne National Lab. We start by presenting our main research results on the scenario generation problem in Sections 1–2. We present our algorithmic results on interior point methods for convex optimization problems in Section 3. We describe a new ‘central’ cutting surface algorithm developed for solving large scale convex programming problems (as is the case with our proposed research) with semi-infinite number of constraints in Section 4. In Sections 5–6 we present our work on two application problems of interest to DOE.

1. A High Fuel Consumption Efficiency Management Scheme for PHEVs Using an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

PubMed Central

Lee, Wah Ching; Tsang, Kim Fung; Chi, Hao Ran; Hung, Faan Hei; Wu, Chung Kit; Chui, Kwok Tai; Lau, Wing Hong; Leung, Yat Wah

2015-01-01

A high fuel efficiency management scheme for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) has been developed. In order to achieve fuel consumption reduction, an adaptive genetic algorithm scheme has been designed to adaptively manage the energy resource usage. The objective function of the genetic algorithm is implemented by designing a fuzzy logic controller which closely monitors and resembles the driving conditions and environment of PHEVs, thus trading off between petrol versus electricity for optimal driving efficiency. Comparison between calculated results and publicized data shows that the achieved efficiency of the fuzzified genetic algorithm is better by 10% than existing schemes. The developed scheme, if fully adopted, would help reduce over 600 tons of CO2 emissions worldwide every day. PMID:25587974

2. Optimized adaptation algorithm for HEVC/H.265 dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP using variable segment duration

Irondi, Iheanyi; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

2016-04-01

Adaptive video streaming using HTTP has become popular in recent years for commercial video delivery. The recent MPEG-DASH standard allows interoperability and adaptability between servers and clients from different vendors. The delivery of the MPD (Media Presentation Description) files in DASH and the DASH client behaviours are beyond the scope of the DASH standard. However, the different adaptation algorithms employed by the clients do affect the overall performance of the system and users' QoE (Quality of Experience), hence the need for research in this field. Moreover, standard DASH delivery is based on fixed segments of the video. However, there is no standard segment duration for DASH where various fixed segment durations have been employed by different commercial solutions and researchers with their own individual merits. Most recently, the use of variable segment duration in DASH has emerged but only a few preliminary studies without practical implementation exist. In addition, such a technique requires a DASH client to be aware of segment duration variations, and this requirement and the corresponding implications on the DASH system design have not been investigated. This paper proposes a segment-duration-aware bandwidth estimation and next-segment selection adaptation strategy for DASH. Firstly, an MPD file extension scheme to support variable segment duration is proposed and implemented in a realistic hardware testbed. The scheme is tested on a DASH client, and the tests and analysis have led to an insight on the time to download next segment and the buffer behaviour when fetching and switching between segments of different playback durations. Issues like sustained buffering when switching between segments of different durations and slow response to changing network conditions are highlighted and investigated. An enhanced adaptation algorithm is then proposed to accurately estimate the bandwidth and precisely determine the time to download the next

3. Search Control Algorithm Based on Random Step Size Hill-Climbing Method for Adaptive PMD Compensation

Tanizawa, Ken; Hirose, Akira

Adaptive polarization mode dispersion (PMD) compensation is required for the speed-up and advancement of the present optical communications. The combination of a tunable PMD compensator and its adaptive control method achieves adaptive PMD compensation. In this paper, we report an effective search control algorithm for the feedback control of the PMD compensator. The algorithm is based on the hill-climbing method. However, the step size changes randomly to prevent the convergence from being trapped at a local maximum or a flat, unlike the conventional hill-climbing method. The randomness depends on the Gaussian probability density functions. We conducted transmission simulations at 160Gb/s and the results show that the proposed method provides more optimal compensator control than the conventional hill-climbing method.

4. Impact of Load Balancing on Unstructured Adaptive Grid Computations for Distributed-Memory Multiprocessors

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sohn, Andrew; Biswas, Rupak; Simon, Horst D.

1996-01-01

The computational requirements for an adaptive solution of unsteady problems change as the simulation progresses. This causes workload imbalance among processors on a parallel machine which, in turn, requires significant data movement at runtime. We present a new dynamic load-balancing framework, called JOVE, that balances the workload across all processors with a global view. Whenever the computational mesh is adapted, JOVE is activated to eliminate the load imbalance. JOVE has been implemented on an IBM SP2 distributed-memory machine in MPI for portability. Experimental results for two model meshes demonstrate that mesh adaption with load balancing gives more than a sixfold improvement over one without load balancing. We also show that JOVE gives a 24-fold speedup on 64 processors compared to sequential execution.

5. Documentation for subroutine REDUC3, an algorithm for the linear filtering of gridded magnetic data

USGS Publications Warehouse

Blakely, Richard J.

1977-01-01

Subroutine REDUC3 transforms a total field anomaly h1(x,y) , measured on a horizontal and rectangular grid, into a new anomaly h2(x,y). This new anomaly is produced by the same source as h1(x,y) , but (1) is observed at a different elevation, (2) has a source with a different direction of magnetization, and/or (3) has a different direction of residual field. Case 1 is tantamount to upward or downward continuation. Cases 2 and 3 are 'reduction to the pole', if the new inclinations of both the magnetization and regional field are 90 degrees. REDUC3 is a filtering operation applied in the wave-number domain. It first Fourier transforms h1(x,y) , multiplies by the appropriate filter, and inverse Fourier transforms the result to obtain h2(x,y). No assumptions are required about the shape of the source or how the intensity of magnetization varies within it.

6. An improved cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) algorithm considering invalid communication

Wang, Pangwei; Wang, Yunpeng; Yu, Guizhen; Tang, Tieqiao

2014-05-01

For the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) Algorithm, existing research studies mainly focus on how inter-vehicle communication can be used to develop CACC controller, the influence of the communication delays and lags of the actuators to the string stability. However, whether the string stability can be guaranteed when inter-vehicle communication is invalid partially has hardly been considered. This paper presents an improved CACC algorithm based on the sliding mode control theory and analyses the range of CACC controller parameters to maintain string stability. A dynamic model of vehicle spacing deviation in a platoon is then established, and the string stability conditions under improved CACC are analyzed. Unlike the traditional CACC algorithms, the proposed algorithm can ensure the functionality of the CACC system even if inter-vehicle communication is partially invalid. Finally, this paper establishes a platoon of five vehicles to simulate the improved CACC algorithm in MATLAB/Simulink, and the simulation results demonstrate that the improved CACC algorithm can maintain the string stability of a CACC platoon through adjusting the controller parameters and enlarging the spacing to prevent accidents. With guaranteed string stability, the proposed CACC algorithm can prevent oscillation of vehicle spacing and reduce chain collision accidents under real-world circumstances. This research proposes an improved CACC algorithm, which can guarantee the string stability when inter-vehicle communication is invalid.

7. A self adaptive hybrid enhanced artificial bee colony algorithm for continuous optimization problems.

PubMed

Shan, Hai; Yasuda, Toshiyuki; Ohkura, Kazuhiro

2015-06-01

The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm is one of popular swarm intelligence algorithms that inspired by the foraging behavior of honeybee colonies. To improve the convergence ability, search speed of finding the best solution and control the balance between exploration and exploitation using this approach, we propose a self adaptive hybrid enhanced ABC algorithm in this paper. To evaluate the performance of standard ABC, best-so-far ABC (BsfABC), incremental ABC (IABC), and the proposed ABC algorithms, we implemented numerical optimization problems based on the IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC) 2014 test suite. Our experimental results show the comparative performance of standard ABC, BsfABC, IABC, and the proposed ABC algorithms. According to the results, we conclude that the proposed ABC algorithm is competitive to those state-of-the-art modified ABC algorithms such as BsfABC and IABC algorithms based on the benchmark problems defined by CEC 2014 test suite with dimension sizes of 10, 30, and 50, respectively.

8. An arbitrary grid CFD algorithm for configuration aerodynamics analysis. Volume 1: Theory and validations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baker, A. J.; Iannelli, G. S.; Manhardt, Paul D.; Orzechowski, J. A.

1993-01-01

This report documents the user input and output data requirements for the FEMNAS finite element Navier-Stokes code for real-gas simulations of external aerodynamics flowfields. This code was developed for the configuration aerodynamics branch of NASA ARC, under SBIR Phase 2 contract NAS2-124568 by Computational Mechanics Corporation (COMCO). This report is in two volumes. Volume 1 contains the theory for the derived finite element algorithm and describes the test cases used to validate the computer program described in the Volume 2 user guide.

9. Splitting algorithms for the wavelet transform of first-degree splines on nonuniform grids

Shumilov, B. M.

2016-07-01

For the splines of first degree with nonuniform knots, a new type of wavelets with a biased support is proposed. Using splitting with respect to the even and odd knots, a new wavelet decomposition algorithm in the form of the solution of a three-diagonal system of linear algebraic equations with respect to the wavelet coefficients is proposed. The application of the proposed implicit scheme to the point prediction of time series is investigated for the first time. Results of numerical experiments on the prediction accuracy and the compression of spline wavelet decompositions are presented.

10. An arbitrary grid CFD algorithm for configuration aerodynamics analysis. Volume 2: FEMNAS user guide

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manhardt, Paul D.; Orzechowski, J. A.; Baker, A. J.

1992-01-01

This report documents the user input and output data requirements for the FEMNAS finite element Navier-Stokes code for real-gas simulations of external aerodynamics flowfields. This code was developed for the configuration aerodynamics branch of NASA ARC, under SBIR Phase 2 contract NAS2-124568 by Computational Mechanics Corporation (COMCO). This report is in two volumes. Volume 1 contains the theory for the derived finite element algorithm and describes the test cases used to validate the computer program described in the Volume 2 user guide.

11. Transform Domain Robust Variable Step Size Griffiths' Adaptive Algorithm for Noise Cancellation in ECG

Hegde, Veena; Deekshit, Ravishankar; Satyanarayana, P. S.

2011-12-01

The electrocardiogram (ECG) is widely used for diagnosis of heart diseases. Good quality of ECG is utilized by physicians for interpretation and identification of physiological and pathological phenomena. However, in real situations, ECG recordings are often corrupted by artifacts or noise. Noise severely limits the utility of the recorded ECG and thus needs to be removed, for better clinical evaluation. In the present paper a new noise cancellation technique is proposed for removal of random noise like muscle artifact from ECG signal. A transform domain robust variable step size Griffiths' LMS algorithm (TVGLMS) is proposed for noise cancellation. For the TVGLMS, the robust variable step size has been achieved by using the Griffiths' gradient which uses cross-correlation between the desired signal contaminated with observation or random noise and the input. The algorithm is discrete cosine transform (DCT) based and uses symmetric property of the signal to represent the signal in frequency domain with lesser number of frequency coefficients when compared to that of discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The algorithm is implemented for adaptive line enhancer (ALE) filter which extracts the ECG signal in a noisy environment using LMS filter adaptation. The proposed algorithm is found to have better convergence error/misadjustment when compared to that of ordinary transform domain LMS (TLMS) algorithm, both in the presence of white/colored observation noise. The reduction in convergence error achieved by the new algorithm with desired signal decomposition is found to be lower than that obtained without decomposition. The experimental results indicate that the proposed method is better than traditional adaptive filter using LMS algorithm in the aspects of retaining geometrical characteristics of ECG signal.

12. ADAPTIVE-GRID SIMULATION OF GROUNDWATER FLOW IN HETEROGENEOUS AQUIFERS. (R825689C068)

EPA Science Inventory

## Abstract

The prediction of contaminant transport in porous media requires the computation of the flow velocity. This work presents a methodology for high-accuracy computation of flow in a heterogeneous isotropic formation, employing a dual-flow formulation and adaptive...

13. Vertical Scan (V-SCAN) for 3-D Grid Adaptive Mesh Refinement for an atmospheric Model Dynamical Core

Andronova, N. G.; Vandenberg, D.; Oehmke, R.; Stout, Q. F.; Penner, J. E.

2009-12-01

One of the major building blocks of a rigorous representation of cloud evolution in global atmospheric models is a parallel adaptive grid MPI-based communication library (an Adaptive Blocks for Locally Cartesian Topologies library -- ABLCarT), which manages the block-structured data layout, handles ghost cell updates among neighboring blocks and splits a block as refinements occur. The library has several modules that provide a layer of abstraction for adaptive refinement: blocks, which contain individual cells of user data; shells - the global geometry for the problem, including a sphere, reduced sphere, and now a 3D sphere; a load balancer for placement of blocks onto processors; and a communication support layer which encapsulates all data movement. A major performance concern with adaptive mesh refinement is how to represent calculations that have need to be sequenced in a particular order in a direction, such as calculating integrals along a specific path (e.g. atmospheric pressure or geopotential in the vertical dimension). This concern is compounded if the blocks have varying levels of refinement, or are scattered across different processors, as can be the case in parallel computing. In this paper we describe an implementation in ABLCarT of a vertical scan operation, which allows computing along vertical paths in the correct order across blocks transparent to their resolution and processor location. We test this functionality on a 2D and a 3D advection problem, which tests the performance of the model’s dynamics (transport) and physics (sources and sinks) for different model resolutions needed for inclusion of cloud formation.

14. Adaptive search range adjustment and multiframe selection algorithm for motion estimation in H.264/AVC

Liu, Yingzhe; Wang, Jinxiang; Fu, Fangfa

2013-04-01

The H.264/AVC video standard adopts a fixed search range (SR) and fixed reference frame (RF) for motion estimation. These fixed settings result in a heavy computational load in the video encoder. We propose a dynamic SR and multiframe selection algorithm to improve the computational efficiency of motion estimation. By exploiting the relationship between the predicted motion vector and the SR size, we develop an adaptive SR adjustment algorithm. We also design a RF selection scheme based on the correlation between the different block sizes of the macroblock. Experimental results show that our algorithm can significantly reduce the computational complexity of motion estimation compared with the JM15.1 reference software, with a negligible decrease in peak signal-to-noise ratio and a slight increase in bit rate. Our algorithm also outperforms existing methods in terms of its low complexity and high coding quality.

15. Super-resolution reconstruction algorithm based on adaptive convolution kernel size selection

Gao, Hang; Chen, Qian; Sui, Xiubao; Zeng, Junjie; Zhao, Yao

2016-09-01

Restricted by the detector technology and optical diffraction limit, the spatial resolution of infrared imaging system is difficult to achieve significant improvement. Super-Resolution (SR) reconstruction algorithm is an effective way to solve this problem. Among them, the SR algorithm based on multichannel blind deconvolution (MBD) estimates the convolution kernel only by low resolution observation images, according to the appropriate regularization constraints introduced by a priori assumption, to realize the high resolution image restoration. The algorithm has been shown effective when each channel is prime. In this paper, we use the significant edges to estimate the convolution kernel and introduce an adaptive convolution kernel size selection mechanism, according to the uncertainty of the convolution kernel size in MBD processing. To reduce the interference of noise, we amend the convolution kernel in an iterative process, and finally restore a clear image. Experimental results show that the algorithm can meet the convergence requirement of the convolution kernel estimation.

16. Error bounds of adaptive dynamic programming algorithms for solving undiscounted optimal control problems.

PubMed

Liu, Derong; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Ding

2015-06-01

In this paper, we establish error bounds of adaptive dynamic programming algorithms for solving undiscounted infinite-horizon optimal control problems of discrete-time deterministic nonlinear systems. We consider approximation errors in the update equations of both value function and control policy. We utilize a new assumption instead of the contraction assumption in discounted optimal control problems. We establish the error bounds for approximate value iteration based on a new error condition. Furthermore, we also establish the error bounds for approximate policy iteration and approximate optimistic policy iteration algorithms. It is shown that the iterative approximate value function can converge to a finite neighborhood of the optimal value function under some conditions. To implement the developed algorithms, critic and action neural networks are used to approximate the value function and control policy, respectively. Finally, a simulation example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed algorithms.

17. On an adaptive preconditioned Crank-Nicolson MCMC algorithm for infinite dimensional Bayesian inference

Hu, Zixi; Yao, Zhewei; Li, Jinglai

2017-03-01

Many scientific and engineering problems require to perform Bayesian inference for unknowns of infinite dimension. In such problems, many standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms become arbitrary slow under the mesh refinement, which is referred to as being dimension dependent. To this end, a family of dimensional independent MCMC algorithms, known as the preconditioned Crank-Nicolson (pCN) methods, were proposed to sample the infinite dimensional parameters. In this work we develop an adaptive version of the pCN algorithm, where the covariance operator of the proposal distribution is adjusted based on sampling history to improve the simulation efficiency. We show that the proposed algorithm satisfies an important ergodicity condition under some mild assumptions. Finally we provide numerical examples to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

18. A Constrained Genetic Algorithm with Adaptively Defined Fitness Function in MRS Quantification

Papakostas, G. A.; Karras, D. A.; Mertzios, B. G.; Graveron-Demilly, D.; van Ormondt, D.

MRS Signal quantification is a rather involved procedure and has attracted the interest of the medical engineering community, regarding the development of computationally efficient methodologies. Significant contributions based on Computational Intelligence tools, such as Neural Networks (NNs), demonstrated a good performance but not without drawbacks already discussed by the authors. On the other hand preliminary application of Genetic Algorithms (GA) has already been reported in the literature by the authors regarding the peak detection problem encountered in MRS quantification using the Voigt line shape model. This paper investigates a novel constrained genetic algorithm involving a generic and adaptively defined fitness function which extends the simple genetic algorithm methodology in case of noisy signals. The applicability of this new algorithm is scrutinized through experimentation in artificial MRS signals interleaved with noise, regarding its signal fitting capabilities. Although extensive experiments with real world MRS signals are necessary, the herein shown performance illustrates the method's potential to be established as a generic MRS metabolites quantification procedure.

19. Self-adaptive predictor-corrector algorithm for static nonlinear structural analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1981-01-01

A multiphase selfadaptive predictor corrector type algorithm was developed. This algorithm enables the solution of highly nonlinear structural responses including kinematic, kinetic and material effects as well as pro/post buckling behavior. The strategy involves three main phases: (1) the use of a warpable hyperelliptic constraint surface which serves to upperbound dependent iterate excursions during successive incremental Newton Ramphson (INR) type iterations; (20 uses an energy constraint to scale the generation of successive iterates so as to maintain the appropriate form of local convergence behavior; (3) the use of quality of convergence checks which enable various self adaptive modifications of the algorithmic structure when necessary. The restructuring is achieved by tightening various conditioning parameters as well as switch to different algorithmic levels to improve the convergence process. The capabilities of the procedure to handle various types of static nonlinear structural behavior are illustrated.

20. An adaptive metamodel-based global optimization algorithm for black-box type problems

Jie, Haoxiang; Wu, Yizhong; Ding, Jianwan

2015-11-01

In this article, an adaptive metamodel-based global optimization (AMGO) algorithm is presented to solve unconstrained black-box problems. In the AMGO algorithm, a type of hybrid model composed of kriging and augmented radial basis function (RBF) is used as the surrogate model. The weight factors of hybrid model are adaptively selected in the optimization process. To balance the local and global search, a sub-optimization problem is constructed during each iteration to determine the new iterative points. As numerical experiments, six standard two-dimensional test functions are selected to show the distributions of iterative points. The AMGO algorithm is also tested on seven well-known benchmark optimization problems and contrasted with three representative metamodel-based optimization methods: efficient global optimization (EGO), GutmannRBF and hybrid and adaptive metamodel (HAM). The test results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method. The AMGO algorithm is finally applied to the structural design of the import and export chamber of a cycloid gear pump, achieving satisfactory results.

1. Construction of point process adaptive filter algorithms for neural systems using sequential Monte Carlo methods.

PubMed

Ergün, Ayla; Barbieri, Riccardo; Eden, Uri T; Wilson, Matthew A; Brown, Emery N

2007-03-01

The stochastic state point process filter (SSPPF) and steepest descent point process filter (SDPPF) are adaptive filter algorithms for state estimation from point process observations that have been used to track neural receptive field plasticity and to decode the representations of biological signals in ensemble neural spiking activity. The SSPPF and SDPPF are constructed using, respectively, Gaussian and steepest descent approximations to the standard Bayes and Chapman-Kolmogorov (BCK) system of filter equations. To extend these approaches for constructing point process adaptive filters, we develop sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) approximations to the BCK equations in which the SSPPF and SDPPF serve as the proposal densities. We term the two new SMC point process filters SMC-PPFs and SMC-PPFD, respectively. We illustrate the new filter algorithms by decoding the wind stimulus magnitude from simulated neural spiking activity in the cricket cercal system. The SMC-PPFs and SMC-PPFD provide more accurate state estimates at low number of particles than a conventional bootstrap SMC filter algorithm in which the state transition probability density is the proposal density. We also use the SMC-PPFs algorithm to track the temporal evolution of a spatial receptive field of a rat hippocampal neuron recorded while the animal foraged in an open environment. Our results suggest an approach for constructing point process adaptive filters using SMC methods.

2. Computational Aerothermodynamic Simulation Issues on Unstructured Grids

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gnoffo, Peter A.; White, Jeffery A.

2004-01-01

The synthesis of physical models for gas chemistry and turbulence from the structured grid codes LAURA and VULCAN into the unstructured grid code FUN3D is described. A directionally Symmetric, Total Variation Diminishing (STVD) algorithm and an entropy fix (eigenvalue limiter) keyed to local cell Reynolds number are introduced to improve solution quality for hypersonic aeroheating applications. A simple grid-adaptation procedure is incorporated within the flow solver. Simulations of flow over an ellipsoid (perfect gas, inviscid), Shuttle Orbiter (viscous, chemical nonequilibrium) and comparisons to the structured grid solvers LAURA (cylinder, Shuttle Orbiter) and VULCAN (flat plate) are presented to show current capabilities. The quality of heating in 3D stagnation regions is very sensitive to algorithm options in general, high aspect ratio tetrahedral elements complicate the simulation of high Reynolds number, viscous flow as compared to locally structured meshes aligned with the flow.

3. Unstructured grids on SIMD torus machines

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1994-01-01

Unstructured grids lead to unstructured communication on distributed memory parallel computers, a problem that has been considered difficult. Here, we consider adaptive, offline communication routing for a SIMD processor grid. Our approach is empirical. We use large data sets drawn from supercomputing applications instead of an analytic model of communication load. The chief contribution of this paper is an experimental demonstration of the effectiveness of certain routing heuristics. Our routing algorithm is adaptive, nonminimal, and is generally designed to exploit locality. We have a parallel implementation of the router, and we report on its performance.

4. Adaptive Neural Network Algorithm for Power Control in Nuclear Power Plants

Masri Husam Fayiz, Al

2017-01-01

The aim of this paper is to design, test and evaluate a prototype of an adaptive neural network algorithm for the power controlling system of a nuclear power plant. The task of power control in nuclear reactors is one of the fundamental tasks in this field. Therefore, researches are constantly conducted to ameliorate the power reactor control process. Currently, in the Department of Automation in the National Research Nuclear University (NRNU) MEPhI, numerous studies are utilizing various methodologies of artificial intelligence (expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms) to enhance the performance, safety, efficiency and reliability of nuclear power plants. In particular, a study of an adaptive artificial intelligent power regulator in the control systems of nuclear power reactors is being undertaken to enhance performance and to minimize the output error of the Automatic Power Controller (APC) on the grounds of a multifunctional computer analyzer (simulator) of the Water-Water Energetic Reactor known as Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reaktor (VVER) in Russian. In this paper, a block diagram of an adaptive reactor power controller was built on the basis of an intelligent control algorithm. When implementing intelligent neural network principles, it is possible to improve the quality and dynamic of any control system in accordance with the principles of adaptive control. It is common knowledge that an adaptive control system permits adjusting the controller’s parameters according to the transitions in the characteristics of the control object or external disturbances. In this project, it is demonstrated that the propitious options for an automatic power controller in nuclear power plants is a control system constructed on intelligent neural network algorithms.

5. Unsupervised Cryo-EM Data Clustering through Adaptively Constrained K-Means Algorithm

PubMed Central

Xu, Yaofang; Wu, Jiayi; Yin, Chang-Cheng; Mao, Youdong

2016-01-01

In single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), K-means clustering algorithm is widely used in unsupervised 2D classification of projection images of biological macromolecules. 3D ab initio reconstruction requires accurate unsupervised classification in order to separate molecular projections of distinct orientations. Due to background noise in single-particle images and uncertainty of molecular orientations, traditional K-means clustering algorithm may classify images into wrong classes and produce classes with a large variation in membership. Overcoming these limitations requires further development on clustering algorithms for cryo-EM data analysis. We propose a novel unsupervised data clustering method building upon the traditional K-means algorithm. By introducing an adaptive constraint term in the objective function, our algorithm not only avoids a large variation in class sizes but also produces more accurate data clustering. Applications of this approach to both simulated and experimental cryo-EM data demonstrate that our algorithm is a significantly improved alterative to the traditional K-means algorithm in single-particle cryo-EM analysis. PMID:27959895

6. Unsupervised Cryo-EM Data Clustering through Adaptively Constrained K-Means Algorithm.

PubMed

Xu, Yaofang; Wu, Jiayi; Yin, Chang-Cheng; Mao, Youdong

2016-01-01

In single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), K-means clustering algorithm is widely used in unsupervised 2D classification of projection images of biological macromolecules. 3D ab initio reconstruction requires accurate unsupervised classification in order to separate molecular projections of distinct orientations. Due to background noise in single-particle images and uncertainty of molecular orientations, traditional K-means clustering algorithm may classify images into wrong classes and produce classes with a large variation in membership. Overcoming these limitations requires further development on clustering algorithms for cryo-EM data analysis. We propose a novel unsupervised data clustering method building upon the traditional K-means algorithm. By introducing an adaptive constraint term in the objective function, our algorithm not only avoids a large variation in class sizes but also produces more accurate data clustering. Applications of this approach to both simulated and experimental cryo-EM data demonstrate that our algorithm is a significantly improved alterative to the traditional K-means algorithm in single-particle cryo-EM analysis.

7. Dependence of Adaptive Cross-correlation Algorithm Performance on the Extended Scene Image Quality

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sidick, Erkin

2008-01-01

Recently, we reported an adaptive cross-correlation (ACC) algorithm to estimate with high accuracy the shift as large as several pixels between two extended-scene sub-images captured by a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. It determines the positions of all extended-scene image cells relative to a reference cell in the same frame using an FFT-based iterative image-shifting algorithm. It works with both point-source spot images as well as extended scene images. We have demonstrated previously based on some measured images that the ACC algorithm can determine image shifts with as high an accuracy as 0.01 pixel for shifts as large 3 pixels, and yield similar results for both point source spot images and extended scene images. The shift estimate accuracy of the ACC algorithm depends on illumination level, background, and scene content in addition to the amount of the shift between two image cells. In this paper we investigate how the performance of the ACC algorithm depends on the quality and the frequency content of extended scene images captured by a Shack-Hatmann camera. We also compare the performance of the ACC algorithm with those of several other approaches, and introduce a failsafe criterion for the ACC algorithm-based extended scene Shack-Hatmann sensors.

8. Robust Multi-Frame Adaptive Optics Image Restoration Algorithm Using Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Poisson Statistics.

PubMed

Li, Dongming; Sun, Changming; Yang, Jinhua; Liu, Huan; Peng, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lijuan

2017-04-06

An adaptive optics (AO) system provides real-time compensation for atmospheric turbulence. However, an AO image is usually of poor contrast because of the nature of the imaging process, meaning that the image contains information coming from both out-of-focus and in-focus planes of the object, which also brings about a loss in quality. In this paper, we present a robust multi-frame adaptive optics image restoration algorithm via maximum likelihood estimation. Our proposed algorithm uses a maximum likelihood method with image regularization as the basic principle, and constructs the joint log likelihood function for multi-frame AO images based on a Poisson distribution model. To begin with, a frame selection method based on image variance is applied to the observed multi-frame AO images to select images with better quality to improve the convergence of a blind deconvolution algorithm. Then, by combining the imaging conditions and the AO system properties, a point spread function estimation model is built. Finally, we develop our iterative solutions for AO image restoration addressing the joint deconvolution issue. We conduct a number of experiments to evaluate the performances of our proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that our algorithm produces accurate AO image restoration results and outperforms the current state-of-the-art blind deconvolution methods.

9. A novel adaptive multi-focus image fusion algorithm based on PCNN and sharpness

Miao, Qiguang; Wang, Baoshu

2005-05-01

A novel adaptive multi-focus image fusion algorithm is given in this paper, which is based on the improved pulse coupled neural network(PCNN) model, the fundamental characteristics of the multi-focus image and the properties of visual imaging. Compared with the traditional algorithm where the linking strength, βij, of each neuron in the PCNN model is the same and its value is chosen through experimentation, this algorithm uses the clarity of each pixel of the image as its value, so that the linking strength of each pixel can be chosen adaptively. A fused image is produced by processing through the compare-select operator the objects of each firing mapping image taking part in image fusion, deciding in which image the clear parts is and choosing the clear parts in the image fusion process. By this algorithm, other parameters, for example, Δ, the threshold adjusting constant, only have a slight effect on the new fused image. It therefore overcomes the difficulty in adjusting parameters in the PCNN. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm works better in preserving the edge and texture information than the wavelet transform method and the Laplacian pyramid method do in multi-focus image fusion.

10. Algorithm for localized adaptive diffuse optical tomography and its application in bioluminescence tomography

Naser, Mohamed A.; Patterson, Michael S.; Wong, John W.

2014-04-01

A reconstruction algorithm for diffuse optical tomography based on diffusion theory and finite element method is described. The algorithm reconstructs the optical properties in a permissible domain or region-of-interest to reduce the number of unknowns. The algorithm can be used to reconstruct optical properties for a segmented object (where a CT-scan or MRI is available) or a non-segmented object. For the latter, an adaptive segmentation algorithm merges contiguous regions with similar optical properties thereby reducing the number of unknowns. In calculating the Jacobian matrix the algorithm uses an efficient direct method so the required time is comparable to that needed for a single forward calculation. The reconstructed optical properties using segmented, non-segmented, and adaptively segmented 3D mouse anatomy (MOBY) are used to perform bioluminescence tomography (BLT) for two simulated internal sources. The BLT results suggest that the accuracy of reconstruction of total source power obtained without the segmentation provided by an auxiliary imaging method such as x-ray CT is comparable to that obtained when using perfect segmentation.

11. Parallel paving: An algorithm for generating distributed, adaptive, all-quadrilateral meshes on parallel computers

SciTech Connect

Lober, R.R.; Tautges, T.J.; Vaughan, C.T.

1997-03-01

Paving is an automated mesh generation algorithm which produces all-quadrilateral elements. It can additionally generate these elements in varying sizes such that the resulting mesh adapts to a function distribution, such as an error function. While powerful, conventional paving is a very serial algorithm in its operation. Parallel paving is the extension of serial paving into parallel environments to perform the same meshing functions as conventional paving only on distributed, discretized models. This extension allows large, adaptive, parallel finite element simulations to take advantage of paving`s meshing capabilities for h-remap remeshing. A significantly modified version of the CUBIT mesh generation code has been developed to host the parallel paving algorithm and demonstrate its capabilities on both two dimensional and three dimensional surface geometries and compare the resulting parallel produced meshes to conventionally paved meshes for mesh quality and algorithm performance. Sandia`s {open_quotes}tiling{close_quotes} dynamic load balancing code has also been extended to work with the paving algorithm to retain parallel efficiency as subdomains undergo iterative mesh refinement.

12. The fluid dynamic approach to equidistribution methods for grid generation and adaptation

SciTech Connect

Delzanno, Gian Luca; Finn, John M

2009-01-01

The equidistribution methods based on L{sub p} Monge-Kantorovich optimization [Finn and Delzanno, submitted to SISC, 2009] and on the deformation [Moser, 1965; Dacorogna and Moser, 1990, Liao and Anderson, 1992] method are analyzed primarily in the context of grid generation. It is shown that the first class of methods can be obtained from a fluid dynamic formulation based on time-dependent equations for the mass density and the momentum density, arising from a variational principle. In this context, deformation methods arise from a fluid formulation by making a specific assumption on the time evolution of the density (but with some degree of freedom for the momentum density). In general, deformation methods do not arise from a variational principle. However, it is possible to prescribe an optimal deformation method, related to L{sub 1} Monge-Kantorovich optimization, by making a further assumption on the momentum density. Some applications of the L{sub p} fluid dynamic formulation to imaging are also explored.

13. Adaptive-mesh-based algorithm for fluorescence molecular tomography using an analytical solution

Wang, Daifa; Song, Xiaolei; Bai, Jing

2007-07-01

Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) has become an important method for in-vivo imaging of small animals. It has been widely used for tumor genesis, cancer detection, metastasis, drug discovery, and gene therapy. In this study, an algorithm for FMT is proposed to obtain accurate and fast reconstruction by combining an adaptive mesh refinement technique and an analytical solution of diffusion equation. Numerical studies have been performed on a parallel plate FMT system with matching fluid. The reconstructions obtained show that the algorithm is efficient in computation time, and they also maintain image quality.

14. Genetic algorithm based adaptive neural network ensemble and its application in predicting carbon flux

USGS Publications Warehouse

Xue, Y.; Liu, S.; Hu, Y.; Yang, J.; Chen, Q.

2007-01-01

To improve the accuracy in prediction, Genetic Algorithm based Adaptive Neural Network Ensemble (GA-ANNE) is presented. Intersections are allowed between different training sets based on the fuzzy clustering analysis, which ensures the diversity as well as the accuracy of individual Neural Networks (NNs). Moreover, to improve the accuracy of the adaptive weights of individual NNs, GA is used to optimize the cluster centers. Empirical results in predicting carbon flux of Duke Forest reveal that GA-ANNE can predict the carbon flux more accurately than Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN), Bagging NN ensemble, and ANNE. ?? 2007 IEEE.

15. Algorithme d'adaptation du filtre de Kalman aux variations soudaines de bruit

Canciu, Vintila

16. A DVH-guided IMRT optimization algorithm for automatic treatment planning and adaptive radiotherapy replanning

SciTech Connect

Zarepisheh, Masoud; Li, Nan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B.

2014-06-15

Purpose: To develop a novel algorithm that incorporates prior treatment knowledge into intensity modulated radiation therapy optimization to facilitate automatic treatment planning and adaptive radiotherapy (ART) replanning. Methods: The algorithm automatically creates a treatment plan guided by the DVH curves of a reference plan that contains information on the clinician-approved dose-volume trade-offs among different targets/organs and among different portions of a DVH curve for an organ. In ART, the reference plan is the initial plan for the same patient, while for automatic treatment planning the reference plan is selected from a library of clinically approved and delivered plans of previously treated patients with similar medical conditions and geometry. The proposed algorithm employs a voxel-based optimization model and navigates the large voxel-based Pareto surface. The voxel weights are iteratively adjusted to approach a plan that is similar to the reference plan in terms of the DVHs. If the reference plan is feasible but not Pareto optimal, the algorithm generates a Pareto optimal plan with the DVHs better than the reference ones. If the reference plan is too restricting for the new geometry, the algorithm generates a Pareto plan with DVHs close to the reference ones. In both cases, the new plans have similar DVH trade-offs as the reference plans. Results: The algorithm was tested using three patient cases and found to be able to automatically adjust the voxel-weighting factors in order to generate a Pareto plan with similar DVH trade-offs as the reference plan. The algorithm has also been implemented on a GPU for high efficiency. Conclusions: A novel prior-knowledge-based optimization algorithm has been developed that automatically adjust the voxel weights and generate a clinical optimal plan at high efficiency. It is found that the new algorithm can significantly improve the plan quality and planning efficiency in ART replanning and automatic treatment

17. A robust face recognition algorithm under varying illumination using adaptive retina modeling

Cheong, Yuen Kiat; Yap, Vooi Voon; Nisar, Humaira

2013-10-01

Variation in illumination has a drastic effect on the appearance of a face image. This may hinder the automatic face recognition process. This paper presents a novel approach for face recognition under varying lighting conditions. The proposed algorithm uses adaptive retina modeling based illumination normalization. In the proposed approach, retina modeling is employed along with histogram remapping following normal distribution. Retina modeling is an approach that combines two adaptive nonlinear equations and a difference of Gaussians filter. Two databases: extended Yale B database and CMU PIE database are used to verify the proposed algorithm. For face recognition Gabor Kernel Fisher Analysis method is used. Experimental results show that the recognition rate for the face images with different illumination conditions has improved by the proposed approach. Average recognition rate for Extended Yale B database is 99.16%. Whereas, the recognition rate for CMU-PIE database is 99.64%.

18. A Study on Adapting the Zoom FFT Algorithm to Automotive Millimetre Wave Radar

Kuroda, Hiroshi; Takano, Kazuaki

The millimetre wave radar has been developed for automotive application such as ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) and CWS (Collision Warning System). The radar uses MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits) devices for transmitting and receiving 76 GHz millimetre wave signals. The radar is FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) monopulse type. The radar transmits 2 frequencies in time-duplex manner, and measures distance and relative speed of targets. The monopulse feature detects the azimuth angle of targets without a scanning mechanism. The Zoom FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) algorithm, which analyses frequency domain precisely, has adapted to the radar for discriminating multiple stationary targets. The Zoom FFT algorithm is evaluated in test truck. The evaluation results show good performance on discriminating two stationary vehicles in host lane and adjacent lane.

19. Grid-based algorithm to search critical points, in the electron density, accelerated by graphics processing units.

PubMed

Hernández-Esparza, Raymundo; Mejía-Chica, Sol-Milena; Zapata-Escobar, Andy D; Guevara-García, Alfredo; Martínez-Melchor, Apolinar; Hernández-Pérez, Julio-M; Vargas, Rubicelia; Garza, Jorge

2014-12-05

Using a grid-based method to search the critical points in electron density, we show how to accelerate such a method with graphics processing units (GPUs). When the GPU implementation is contrasted with that used on central processing units (CPUs), we found a large difference between the time elapsed by both implementations: the smallest time is observed when GPUs are used. We tested two GPUs, one related with video games and other used for high-performance computing (HPC). By the side of the CPUs, two processors were tested, one used in common personal computers and other used for HPC, both of last generation. Although our parallel algorithm scales quite well on CPUs, the same implementation on GPUs runs around 10× faster than 16 CPUs, with any of the tested GPUs and CPUs. We have found what one GPU dedicated for video games can be used without any problem for our application, delivering a remarkable performance, in fact; this GPU competes against one HPC GPU, in particular when single-precision is used.

20. Incrementing data quality of multi-frequency echograms using the Adaptive Wiener Filter (AWF) denoising algorithm

Peña, M.

2016-10-01

Achieving acceptable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be difficult when working in sparsely populated waters and/or when species have low scattering such as fluid filled animals. The increasing use of higher frequencies and the study of deeper depths in fisheries acoustics, as well as the use of commercial vessels, is raising the need to employ good denoising algorithms. The use of a lower Sv threshold to remove noise or unwanted targets is not suitable in many cases and increases the relative background noise component in the echogram, demanding more effectiveness from denoising algorithms. The Adaptive Wiener Filter (AWF) denoising algorithm is presented in this study. The technique is based on the AWF commonly used in digital photography and video enhancement. The algorithm firstly increments the quality of the data with a variance-dependent smoothing, before estimating the noise level as the envelope of the Sv minima. The AWF denoising algorithm outperforms existing algorithms in the presence of gaussian, speckle and salt & pepper noise, although impulse noise needs to be previously removed. Cleaned echograms present homogenous echotraces with outlined edges.

1. Adaptive local backlight dimming algorithm based on local histogram and image characteristics

2013-02-01

Liquid Crystal Display (LCDs) with Light Emitting Diode (LED) backlight is a very popular display technology, used for instance in television sets, monitors and mobile phones. This paper presents a new backlight dimming algorithm that exploits the characteristics of the target image, such as the local histograms and the average pixel intensity of each backlight segment, to reduce the power consumption of the backlight and enhance image quality. The local histogram of the pixels within each backlight segment is calculated and, based on this average, an adaptive quantile value is extracted. A classification into three classes based on the average luminance value is performed and, depending on the image luminance class, the extracted information on the local histogram determines the corresponding backlight value. The proposed method has been applied on two modeled screens: one with a high resolution direct-lit backlight, and the other screen with 16 edge-lit backlight segments placed in two columns and eight rows. We have compared the proposed algorithm against several known backlight dimming algorithms by simulations; and the results show that the proposed algorithm provides better trade-off between power consumption and image quality preservation than the other algorithms representing the state of the art among feature based backlight algorithms.

2. An adaptive scale factor based MPPT algorithm for changing solar irradiation levels in outer space

Kwan, Trevor Hocksun; Wu, Xiaofeng

2017-03-01

Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are popularly used for maximizing the output of solar panels by continuously tracking the maximum power point (MPP) of their P-V curves, which depend both on the panel temperature and the input insolation. Various MPPT algorithms have been studied in literature, including perturb and observe (P&O), hill climbing, incremental conductance, fuzzy logic control and neural networks. This paper presents an algorithm which improves the MPP tracking performance by adaptively scaling the DC-DC converter duty cycle. The principle of the proposed algorithm is to detect the oscillation by checking the sign (ie. direction) of the duty cycle perturbation between the current and previous time steps. If there is a difference in the signs then it is clear an oscillation is present and the DC-DC converter duty cycle perturbation is subsequently scaled down by a constant factor. By repeating this process, the steady state oscillations become negligibly small which subsequently allows for a smooth steady state MPP response. To verify the proposed MPPT algorithm, a simulation involving irradiances levels that are typically encountered in outer space is conducted. Simulation and experimental results prove that the proposed algorithm is fast and stable in comparison to not only the conventional fixed step counterparts, but also to previous variable step size algorithms.

3. An adaptive importance sampling algorithm for Bayesian inversion with multimodal distributions

SciTech Connect

Li, Weixuan; Lin, Guang

2015-08-01

Parametric uncertainties are encountered in the simulations of many physical systems, and may be reduced by an inverse modeling procedure that calibrates the simulation results to observations on the real system being simulated. Following Bayes' rule, a general approach for inverse modeling problems is to sample from the posterior distribution of the uncertain model parameters given the observations. However, the large number of repetitive forward simulations required in the sampling process could pose a prohibitive computational burden. This difficulty is particularly challenging when the posterior is multimodal. We present in this paper an adaptive importance sampling algorithm to tackle these challenges. Two essential ingredients of the algorithm are: 1) a Gaussian mixture (GM) model adaptively constructed as the proposal distribution to approximate the possibly multimodal target posterior, and 2) a mixture of polynomial chaos (PC) expansions, built according to the GM proposal, as a surrogate model to alleviate the computational burden caused by computational-demanding forward model evaluations. In three illustrative examples, the proposed adaptive importance sampling algorithm demonstrates its capabilities of automatically finding a GM proposal with an appropriate number of modes for the specific problem under study, and obtaining a sample accurately and efficiently representing the posterior with limited number of forward simulations.

4. An adaptive image enhancement technique by combining cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization algorithm.

PubMed

Ye, Zhiwei; Wang, Mingwei; Hu, Zhengbing; Liu, Wei

2015-01-01

Image enhancement is an important procedure of image processing and analysis. This paper presents a new technique using a modified measure and blending of cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization (CS-PSO) for low contrast images to enhance image adaptively. In this way, contrast enhancement is obtained by global transformation of the input intensities; it employs incomplete Beta function as the transformation function and a novel criterion for measuring image quality considering three factors which are threshold, entropy value, and gray-level probability density of the image. The enhancement process is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. CS-PSO is utilized to maximize the objective fitness criterion in order to enhance the contrast and detail in an image by adapting the parameters of a novel extension to a local enhancement technique. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with other existing techniques such as linear contrast stretching, histogram equalization, and evolutionary computing based image enhancement methods like backtracking search algorithm, differential search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization in terms of processing time and image quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and adaptive and exhibits the better performance than other methods involved in the paper.

5. An adaptive importance sampling algorithm for Bayesian inversion with multimodal distributions

SciTech Connect

Li, Weixuan; Lin, Guang

2015-03-21

Parametric uncertainties are encountered in the simulations of many physical systems, and may be reduced by an inverse modeling procedure that calibrates the simulation results to observations on the real system being simulated. Following Bayes’ rule, a general approach for inverse modeling problems is to sample from the posterior distribution of the uncertain model parameters given the observations. However, the large number of repetitive forward simulations required in the sampling process could pose a prohibitive computational burden. This difficulty is particularly challenging when the posterior is multimodal. We present in this paper an adaptive importance sampling algorithm to tackle these challenges. Two essential ingredients of the algorithm are: 1) a Gaussian mixture (GM) model adaptively constructed as the proposal distribution to approximate the possibly multimodal target posterior, and 2) a mixture of polynomial chaos (PC) expansions, built according to the GM proposal, as a surrogate model to alleviate the computational burden caused by computational-demanding forward model evaluations. In three illustrative examples, the proposed adaptive importance sampling algorithm demonstrates its capabilities of automatically finding a GM proposal with an appropriate number of modes for the specific problem under study, and obtaining a sample accurately and efficiently representing the posterior with limited number of forward simulations.

6. An adaptive importance sampling algorithm for Bayesian inversion with multimodal distributions

DOE PAGES

Li, Weixuan; Lin, Guang

2015-03-21

Parametric uncertainties are encountered in the simulations of many physical systems, and may be reduced by an inverse modeling procedure that calibrates the simulation results to observations on the real system being simulated. Following Bayes’ rule, a general approach for inverse modeling problems is to sample from the posterior distribution of the uncertain model parameters given the observations. However, the large number of repetitive forward simulations required in the sampling process could pose a prohibitive computational burden. This difficulty is particularly challenging when the posterior is multimodal. We present in this paper an adaptive importance sampling algorithm to tackle thesemore » challenges. Two essential ingredients of the algorithm are: 1) a Gaussian mixture (GM) model adaptively constructed as the proposal distribution to approximate the possibly multimodal target posterior, and 2) a mixture of polynomial chaos (PC) expansions, built according to the GM proposal, as a surrogate model to alleviate the computational burden caused by computational-demanding forward model evaluations. In three illustrative examples, the proposed adaptive importance sampling algorithm demonstrates its capabilities of automatically finding a GM proposal with an appropriate number of modes for the specific problem under study, and obtaining a sample accurately and efficiently representing the posterior with limited number of forward simulations.« less

7. A family of variable step-size affine projection adaptive filter algorithms using statistics of channel impulse response

2011-12-01

This paper extends the recently introduced variable step-size (VSS) approach to the family of adaptive filter algorithms. This method uses prior knowledge of the channel impulse response statistic. Accordingly, optimal step-size vector is obtained by minimizing the mean-square deviation (MSD). The presented algorithms are the VSS affine projection algorithm (VSS-APA), the VSS selective partial update NLMS (VSS-SPU-NLMS), the VSS-SPU-APA, and the VSS selective regressor APA (VSS-SR-APA). In VSS-SPU adaptive algorithms the filter coefficients are partially updated which reduce the computational complexity. In VSS-SR-APA, the optimal selection of input regressors is performed during the adaptation. The presented algorithms have good convergence speed, low steady state mean square error (MSE), and low computational complexity features. We demonstrate the good performance of the proposed algorithms through several simulations in system identification scenario.

8. A biomimetic adaptive algorithm and low-power architecture for implantable neural decoders.

PubMed

Rapoport, Benjamin I; Wattanapanitch, Woradorn; Penagos, Hector L; Musallam, Sam; Andersen, Richard A; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

2009-01-01

Algorithmically and energetically efficient computational architectures that operate in real time are essential for clinically useful neural prosthetic devices. Such devices decode raw neural data to obtain direct control signals for external devices. They can also perform data compression and vastly reduce the bandwidth and consequently power expended in wireless transmission of raw data from implantable brain-machine interfaces. We describe a biomimetic algorithm and micropower analog circuit architecture for decoding neural cell ensemble signals. The decoding algorithm implements a continuous-time artificial neural network, using a bank of adaptive linear filters with kernels that emulate synaptic dynamics. The filters transform neural signal inputs into control-parameter outputs, and can be tuned automatically in an on-line learning process. We provide experimental validation of our system using neural data from thalamic head-direction cells in an awake behaving rat.

9. Binary 3D image interpolation algorithm based global information and adaptive curves fitting

Zhang, Tian-yi; Zhang, Jin-hao; Guan, Xiang-chen; Li, Qiu-ping; He, Meng

2013-08-01

Interpolation is a necessary processing step in 3-D reconstruction because of the non-uniform resolution. Conventional interpolation methods simply use two slices to obtain the missing slices between the two slices .when the key slice is missing, those methods may fail to recover it only employing the local information .And the surface of 3D object especially for the medical tissues may be highly complicated, so a single interpolation can hardly get high-quality 3D image. We propose a novel binary 3D image interpolation algorithm. The proposed algorithm takes advantages of the global information. It chooses the best curve adaptively from lots of curves based on the complexity of the surface of 3D object. The results of this algorithm are compared with other interpolation methods on artificial objects and real breast cancer tumor to demonstrate the excellent performance.

10. An adaptive support driven reweighted L1-regularization algorithm for fluorescence molecular tomography

PubMed Central

Shi, Junwei; Liu, Fei; Pu, Huangsheng; Zuo, Simin; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing

2014-01-01

Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is a promising in vivo functional imaging modality in preclinical study. When solving the ill-posed FMT inverse problem, L1 regularization can preserve the details and reduce the noise in the reconstruction results effectively. Moreover, compared with the regular L1 regularization, reweighted L1 regularization is recently reported to improve the performance. In order to realize the reweighted L1 regularization for FMT, an adaptive support driven reweighted L1-regularization (ASDR-L1) algorithm is proposed in this work. This algorithm has two integral parts: an adaptive support estimate and the iteratively updated weights. In the iteratively reweighted L1-minimization sub-problem, different weights are equivalent to different regularization parameters at different locations. Thus, ASDR-L1 can be considered as a kind of spatially variant regularization methods for FMT. Physical phantom and in vivo mouse experiments were performed to validate the proposed algorithm. The results demonstrate that the proposed reweighted L1-reguarization algorithm can significantly improve the performance in terms of relative quantitation and spatial resolution. PMID:25426329

11. A Self-Adaptive Fuzzy c-Means Algorithm for Determining the Optimal Number of Clusters

PubMed Central

Wang, Zhihao; Yi, Jing

2016-01-01

For the shortcoming of fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM) needing to know the number of clusters in advance, this paper proposed a new self-adaptive method to determine the optimal number of clusters. Firstly, a density-based algorithm was put forward. The algorithm, according to the characteristics of the dataset, automatically determined the possible maximum number of clusters instead of using the empirical rule n and obtained the optimal initial cluster centroids, improving the limitation of FCM that randomly selected cluster centroids lead the convergence result to the local minimum. Secondly, this paper, by introducing a penalty function, proposed a new fuzzy clustering validity index based on fuzzy compactness and separation, which ensured that when the number of clusters verged on that of objects in the dataset, the value of clustering validity index did not monotonically decrease and was close to zero, so that the optimal number of clusters lost robustness and decision function. Then, based on these studies, a self-adaptive FCM algorithm was put forward to estimate the optimal number of clusters by the iterative trial-and-error process. At last, experiments were done on the UCI, KDD Cup 1999, and synthetic datasets, which showed that the method not only effectively determined the optimal number of clusters, but also reduced the iteration of FCM with the stable clustering result. PMID:28042291

12. A Self-Adaptive Fuzzy c-Means Algorithm for Determining the Optimal Number of Clusters.

PubMed

Ren, Min; Liu, Peiyu; Wang, Zhihao; Yi, Jing

2016-01-01

For the shortcoming of fuzzy c-means algorithm (FCM) needing to know the number of clusters in advance, this paper proposed a new self-adaptive method to determine the optimal number of clusters. Firstly, a density-based algorithm was put forward. The algorithm, according to the characteristics of the dataset, automatically determined the possible maximum number of clusters instead of using the empirical rule [Formula: see text] and obtained the optimal initial cluster centroids, improving the limitation of FCM that randomly selected cluster centroids lead the convergence result to the local minimum. Secondly, this paper, by introducing a penalty function, proposed a new fuzzy clustering validity index based on fuzzy compactness and separation, which ensured that when the number of clusters verged on that of objects in the dataset, the value of clustering validity index did not monotonically decrease and was close to zero, so that the optimal number of clusters lost robustness and decision function. Then, based on these studies, a self-adaptive FCM algorithm was put forward to estimate the optimal number of clusters by the iterative trial-and-error process. At last, experiments were done on the UCI, KDD Cup 1999, and synthetic datasets, which showed that the method not only effectively determined the optimal number of clusters, but also reduced the iteration of FCM with the stable clustering result.

13. An adaptive left-right eigenvector evolution algorithm for vibration isolation control

Wu, T. Y.

2009-11-01

The purpose of this research is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing an adaptive left and right eigenvector evolution (ALREE) algorithm for active vibration isolation. As depicted in the previous paper presented by Wu and Wang (2008 Smart Mater. Struct. 17 015048), the structural vibration behavior depends on both the disturbance rejection capability and mode shape distributions, which correspond to the left and right eigenvector distributions of the system, respectively. In this paper, a novel adaptive evolution algorithm is developed for finding the optimal combination of left-right eigenvectors of the vibration isolator, which is an improvement over the simultaneous left-right eigenvector assignment (SLREA) method proposed by Wu and Wang (2008 Smart Mater. Struct. 17 015048). The isolation performance index used in the proposed algorithm is defined by combining the orthogonality index of left eigenvectors and the modal energy ratio index of right eigenvectors. Through the proposed ALREE algorithm, both the left and right eigenvectors evolve such that the isolation performance index decreases, and therefore one can find the optimal combination of left-right eigenvectors of the closed-loop system for vibration isolation purposes. The optimal combination of left-right eigenvectors is then synthesized to determine the feedback gain matrix of the closed-loop system. The result of the active isolation control shows that the proposed method can be utilized to improve the vibration isolation performance compared with the previous approaches.

14. A optimized context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding algorithm in progressive H.264 encoder

Xiao, Guang; Shi, Xu-li; An, Ping; Zhang, Zhao-yang; Gao, Ge; Teng, Guo-wei

2006-05-01

Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a new entropy coding method presented in H.264/AVC that is highly efficient in video coding. In the method, the probability of current symbol is estimated by using the wisely designed context model, which is adaptive and can approach to the statistic characteristic. Then an arithmetic coding mechanism largely reduces the redundancy in inter-symbol. Compared with UVLC method in the prior standard, CABAC is complicated but efficiently reduce the bit rate. Based on thorough analysis of coding and decoding methods of CABAC, This paper proposed two methods, sub-table method and stream-reuse methods, to improve the encoding efficiency implemented in H.264 JM code. In JM, the CABAC function produces bits one by one of every syntactic element. Multiplication operating times after times in the CABAC function lead to it inefficient.The proposed algorithm creates tables beforehand and then produce every bits of syntactic element. In JM, intra-prediction and inter-prediction mode selection algorithm with different criterion is based on RDO(rate distortion optimization) model. One of the parameter of the RDO model is bit rate that is produced by CABAC operator. After intra-prediction or inter-prediction mode selection, the CABAC stream is discard and is recalculated to output stream. The proposed Stream-reuse algorithm puts the stream in memory that is created in mode selection algorithm and reuses it in encoding function. Experiment results show that our proposed algorithm can averagely speed up 17 to 78 MSEL higher speed for QCIF and CIF sequences individually compared with the original algorithm of JM at the cost of only a little memory space. The CABAC was realized in our progressive h.264 encoder.

15. Flutter signal extracting technique based on FOG and self-adaptive sparse representation algorithm

Lei, Jian; Meng, Xiangtao; Xiang, Zheng

2016-10-01

Due to various moving parts inside, when a spacecraft runs in orbits, its structure could get a minor angular vibration, which results in vague image formation of space camera. Thus, image compensation technique is required to eliminate or alleviate the effect of movement on image formation and it is necessary to realize precise measuring of flutter angle. Due to the advantages such as high sensitivity, broad bandwidth, simple structure and no inner mechanical moving parts, FOG (fiber optical gyro) is adopted in this study to measure minor angular vibration. Then, movement leading to image degeneration is achieved by calculation. The idea of the movement information extracting algorithm based on self-adaptive sparse representation is to use arctangent function approximating L0 norm to construct unconstrained noisy-signal-aimed sparse reconstruction model and then solve the model by a method based on steepest descent algorithm and BFGS algorithm to estimate sparse signal. Then taking the advantage of the principle of random noises not able to be represented by linear combination of elements, useful signal and random noised are separated effectively. Because the main interference of minor angular vibration to image formation of space camera is random noises, sparse representation algorithm could extract useful information to a large extent and acts as a fitting pre-process method of image restoration. The self-adaptive sparse representation algorithm presented in this paper is used to process the measured minor-angle-vibration signal of FOG used by some certain spacecraft. By component analysis of the processing results, we can find out that the algorithm could extract micro angular vibration signal of FOG precisely and effectively, and can achieve the precision degree of 0.1".

16. Robustness of continuous-time adaptive control algorithms in the presence of unmodeled dynamics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rohrs, C. E.; Valavani, L.; Athans, M.; Stein, G.

1985-01-01

This paper examines the robustness properties of existing adaptive control algorithms to unmodeled plant high-frequency dynamics and unmeasurable output disturbances. It is demonstrated that there exist two infinite-gain operators in the nonlinear dynamic system which determines the time-evolution of output and parameter errors. The pragmatic implications of the existence of such infinite-gain operators is that: (1) sinusoidal reference inputs at specific frequencies and/or (2) sinusoidal output disturbances at any frequency (including dc), can cause the loop gain to increase without bound, thereby exciting the unmodeled high-frequency dynamics, and yielding an unstable control system. Hence, it is concluded that existing adaptive control algorithms as they are presented in the literature referenced in this paper, cannot be used with confidence in practical designs where the plant contains unmodeled dynamics because instability is likely to result. Further understanding is required to ascertain how the currently implemented adaptive systems differ from the theoretical systems studied here and how further theoretical development can improve the robustness of adaptive controllers.

17. Development of an Atmospheric Climate Model with Self-Adapting Grid and Physics

SciTech Connect

Penner, Joyce E.

2013-08-10

This project was targeting the development of a computational approach that would allow resolving cloud processes on small-scales within the framework of the most recent version of the NASA/NCAR Finite-Volume Community Atmospheric Model (FVCAM). The FVCAM is based on the multidimensional Flux-Form Semi-Lagrangian (FFSL) dynamical core and uses a ?vertically Lagrangian? finite-volume (FV) representation of the model equations with a mass-conserving re-mapping algorithm. The Lagrangian coordinate requires a remapping of the Lagrangian volume back to Eulerian coordinates to restore the original resolution and keep the mesh from developing distortions such as layers with overlapping interfaces. The main objectives of the project were, first, to develop the 3D library which allows refinement and coarsening of the model domain in spherical coordinates, and second, to develop a non-hydrostatic code for calculation of the model variables within the refined areas that could be seamlessly incorporated with the hydrostatic finite volume dynamical core when higher resolution is wanted. We also updated the aerosol simulation model in CAM in order to ready the model for the treatment of aerosol/cloud interactions.

18. A New Modified Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Exponential Function Adaptive Steps.

PubMed

Mao, Wei; Lan, Heng-You; Li, Hao-Ru

2016-01-01

As one of the most recent popular swarm intelligence techniques, artificial bee colony algorithm is poor at exploitation and has some defects such as slow search speed, poor population diversity, the stagnation in the working process, and being trapped into the local optimal solution. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new modified artificial bee colony algorithm in view of the initial population structure, subpopulation groups, step updating, and population elimination. Further, depending on opposition-based learning theory and the new modified algorithms, an improved S-type grouping method is proposed and the original way of roulette wheel selection is substituted through sensitivity-pheromone way. Then, an adaptive step with exponential functions is designed for replacing the original random step. Finally, based on the new test function versions CEC13, six benchmark functions with the dimensions D = 20 and D = 40 are chosen and applied in the experiments for analyzing and comparing the iteration speed and accuracy of the new modified algorithms. The experimental results show that the new modified algorithm has faster and more stable searching and can quickly increase poor population diversity and bring out the global optimal solutions.

19. A surrogate-primary replacement algorithm for response-adaptive randomization in stroke clinical trials.

PubMed

Nowacki, Amy S; Zhao, Wenle; Palesch, Yuko Y

2015-01-12

Response-adaptive randomization (RAR) offers clinical investigators benefit by modifying the treatment allocation probabilities to optimize the ethical, operational, or statistical performance of the trial. Delayed primary outcomes and their effect on RAR have been studied in the literature; however, the incorporation of surrogate outcomes has not been fully addressed. We explore the benefits and limitations of surrogate outcome utilization in RAR in the context of acute stroke clinical trials. We propose a novel surrogate-primary (S-P) replacement algorithm where a patient's surrogate outcome is used in the RAR algorithm only until their primary outcome becomes available to replace it. Computer simulations investigate the effect of both the delay in obtaining the primary outcome and the underlying surrogate and primary outcome distributional discrepancies on complete randomization, standard RAR and the S-P replacement algorithm methods. Results show that when the primary outcome is delayed, the S-P replacement algorithm reduces the variability of the treatment allocation probabilities and achieves stabilization sooner. Additionally, the S-P replacement algorithm benefit proved to be robust in that it preserved power and reduced the expected number of failures across a variety of scenarios.

20. A New Modified Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm with Exponential Function Adaptive Steps

PubMed Central

Mao, Wei; Li, Hao-ru

2016-01-01

As one of the most recent popular swarm intelligence techniques, artificial bee colony algorithm is poor at exploitation and has some defects such as slow search speed, poor population diversity, the stagnation in the working process, and being trapped into the local optimal solution. The purpose of this paper is to develop a new modified artificial bee colony algorithm in view of the initial population structure, subpopulation groups, step updating, and population elimination. Further, depending on opposition-based learning theory and the new modified algorithms, an improved S-type grouping method is proposed and the original way of roulette wheel selection is substituted through sensitivity-pheromone way. Then, an adaptive step with exponential functions is designed for replacing the original random step. Finally, based on the new test function versions CEC13, six benchmark functions with the dimensions D = 20 and D = 40 are chosen and applied in the experiments for analyzing and comparing the iteration speed and accuracy of the new modified algorithms. The experimental results show that the new modified algorithm has faster and more stable searching and can quickly increase poor population diversity and bring out the global optimal solutions. PMID:27293426