Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive grieving styles

  1. Investigating adaptive grieving styles: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Elizabeth A

    2009-05-01

    There has been an evolution in the understanding of the nature of grief since S. Freud's initial work, Mourning and Melancholia (1917/1953). Mental health practitioners and researchers have established new models to aid in the conceptualization and treatment of grief issues. The purpose of this study was to examine the opinions of experts in the field of grief regarding elements of a new model of adult bereavement, Martin and Doka's (2000) adaptive grieving styles, using the Delphi Method to identify points of consensus. A survey of 20 experts in the field of thanatology reached consensus on 21 items in which the panelists addressed the uniqueness of the griever, recognized there are multiple factors that influence the grieving process (i.e., culture, personality, and gender), that most bereaved individuals use both cognitive and affective strategies in adapting to bereavement, and that bereaved individuals experience both internal and external pressures to grieve in particular ways.

  2. Investigating Adaptive Grieving Styles: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    There has been an evolution in the understanding of the nature of grief since S. Freud's initial work, Mourning and Melancholia (1917/1953). Mental health practitioners and researchers have established new models to aid in the conceptualization and treatment of grief issues. The purpose of this study was to examine the opinions of experts in the…

  3. When a Student Grieves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spruce, Marcella

    1991-01-01

    Teachers can help children cope with the loss of a parent or friend in two ways. Discussion about death can be integrated into the curriculum on an ongoing basis. Teachers can help students with the tasks of mourning: understanding, grieving, commemorating, and going on with life. (IAH)

  4. Adapting Online Education to Different Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Diana J.

    The purpose of this research project was to determine if online learning could be adapted to individual learning styles and if this made a difference in the standardized testing scores of Internet students. An overview is provided of current learning theories, including the four stages of learning (exposure, guided learning, independent, mastery)…

  5. AH-Questionnaire: An Adaptive Hierarchical Questionnaire for Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortigosa, Alvaro; Paredes, Pedro; Rodriguez, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    One of the main concerns when providing learning style adaptation in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems is the number of questions the students have to answer. Most of the times, adaptive material available will discriminate among a few categories for each learning style dimension. Consequently, it is only needed to take into account the…

  6. Adaptable, Personalised E-Learning Incorporating Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Sophie E.; Bacon, Elizabeth; Dastbaz, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how learning styles and theories are currently used within personalised adaptable e-learning adaptive systems. This paper then aims to describe the e-learning platform iLearn and how this platform is designed to incorporate learning styles as part of the personalisation offered by the system.…

  7. Integrating Learning Styles into Adaptive E-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truong, Huong May

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and update on my PhD research project which focuses on integrating learning styles into adaptive e-learning system. The project, firstly, aims to develop a system to classify students' learning styles through their online learning behaviour. This will be followed by a study on the complex relationship between…

  8. Profiling Students' Adaptation Styles in Web-based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Myung-Geun

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of Web-based instruction (WBI) focuses on a study of Korean universities that analyzed learners' adaptation styles and characteristics by retrospectively assessing the perceptions of various aspects of WBI. Considers computer literacy, interaction with instructor and students, difficulty of contents, and learners' perception of academic…

  9. Acute Anabolic Response and Muscular Adaptation After Hypertrophy-Style and Strength-Style Resistance Exercise.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M

    2016-10-01

    Gonzalez, AM. Acute anabolic response and muscular adaptation after hypertrophy-style and strength-style resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2959-2964, 2016-Resistance training paradigms are often divided into protocols designed to promote an increase in either hypertrophy or strength. Hypertrophy-style protocols (HYPs) typically involve greater volume (3-6 sets; 8-12 repetitions), moderate intensities (<85% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), and short rest intervals (30-90 seconds), whereas strength-style protocols (STRs) typically involve higher intensities (≥85% 1RM), low volumes (2-6 sets; ≤6 repetitions), and longer rest intervals (3-5 minutes). However, the literature supporting such classifications is surprisingly sparse in trained individuals, and the distinct classifications of such protocols may be an oversimplification. Thus, the purpose of this review was to examine the acute anabolic responses and training-induced muscular adaptations after HYP and STR styles of resistance exercise in trained individuals. Despite the classification of training paradigms, HYP and STR resistance training routines appear to elicit similar magnitudes of muscle growth, although STR routines appear to be more conducive to increasing strength in resistance-trained individuals. Current evidence suggests that the classification of HYP and STR is an oversimplification, and practitioners are advised to look beyond the classification of resistance exercise protocols when aiming to elicit specific physiological responses.

  10. Development of an Adaptive Learning System with Multiple Perspectives based on Students' Learning Styles and Cognitive Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tzu-Chi; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Stephen Jen-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an adaptive learning system is developed by taking multiple dimensions of personalized features into account. A personalized presentation module is proposed for developing adaptive learning systems based on the field dependent/independent cognitive style model and the eight dimensions of Felder-Silverman's learning style. An…

  11. Yet Another Adaptive Learning Management System Based on Felder and Silverman's Learning Styles and Mashup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi-Hsing; Chen, Yen-Yi; Chen, Nian-Shing; Lu, You-Te; Fang, Rong-Jyue

    2016-01-01

    This study designs and implements an adaptive learning management system based on Felder and Silverman's Learning Style Model and the Mashup technology. In this system, Felder and Silverman's Learning Style model is used to assess students' learning styles, in order to provide adaptive learning to leverage learners' learning preferences.…

  12. The Design and the Formative Evaluation of an Adaptive Educational System Based on Cognitive Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triantafillou, Evangelos; Pomportsis, Andreas; Demetriadis, Stavros

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHS) can be developed to accommodate a variety of individual differences, including learning style and cognitive style. The current research is an attempt to examine some of the critical variables, which may be important in the design of an Adaptive Educational System (AES) based on student's cognitive style. Moreover,…

  13. School Social Work with Grieving Children in the Twin Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn-Lee, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals few articles that deal with social work with grieving children in the public school setting. The purpose of this research is to describe and analyze the services that school social workers provide to grieving children. Grieving children are defined as those who have experienced loss through death of someone…

  14. A Learning Style Perspective to Investigate the Necessity of Developing Adaptive Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Sung, Han-Yu; Hung, Chun-Ming; Huang, Iwen

    2013-01-01

    Learning styles are considered to be one of the factors that need to be taken into account in developing adaptive learning systems. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate if students have the ability to choose the best-fit e-learning systems or content presentation styles for themselves in terms of learning style perspective. In…

  15. Creative Counseling Interventions for Grieving Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slyter, Marty

    2012-01-01

    This article provides information on adolescent developmental issues and developmentally appropriate interventions that can help mental health practitioners work with adolescents grieving a death loss. Specific areas that are initially covered include core adolescent developmental issues that must be understood, including adolescent developmental…

  16. Help Grieving Students Return to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Explores ways in which Catholic school teachers can help children who've lost family members readjust to school while navigating the grief process. Discusses communication with parents and students, religious issues, what to say to a grieving child, and danger signs to watch for, such as a student's tendency toward isolation and frequent absences.…

  17. Designing an Adaptive Web-Based Learning System Based on Students' Cognitive Styles Identified Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Jia-Jiunn; Chan, Ya-Chen; Yeh, Shiou-Wen

    2012-01-01

    This study developed an adaptive web-based learning system focusing on students' cognitive styles. The system is composed of a student model and an adaptation model. It collected students' browsing behaviors to update the student model for unobtrusively identifying student cognitive styles through a multi-layer feed-forward neural network (MLFF).…

  18. The relationship between mother’s parenting style and social adaptability of adolescent girls in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Solokian, Soheila; Ashouri, Elaheh; Marofi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Social adaptability is an important requirement of the social life of adolescents, which can be affected by their mother’s parenting style (PS). The purpose of this study is to compare the social adaptability in four parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglectful) through which mothers interact with their adolescent girls. Materials and Methods: This survey is a cross-sectional and analytical study on 737 adolescents that study in the all girls junior high schools in Isfahan. Data collection was done with a questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed by the adolescents. After data collection, the parenting styles were determined and the social adaptability of the four groups was compared. Findings: The mean social adaptability in adolescents who their mothers have the authoritative parenting style was 49.6 ± 6.1, in the permissive parenting style 50.1 ± 5.8, the authoritarian parenting style 44.2 ± 6.5 and in the neglectful parenting style was 42.2 ± 7.5. The social adaptability of the four groups was significantly different (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study shows that the permissive parenting style and after that authoritative parenting style were followed by higher social adaptability in adolescent girls. PMID:23833590

  19. Supporting the Grieving Child and Family.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, David J; Demaria, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The death of someone close to a child often has a profound and lifelong effect on the child and results in a range of both short- and long-term reactions. Pediatricians, within a patient-centered medical home, are in an excellent position to provide anticipatory guidance to caregivers and to offer assistance and support to children and families who are grieving. This clinical report offers practical suggestions on how to talk with grieving children to help them better understand what has happened and its implications and to address any misinformation, misinterpretations, or misconceptions. An understanding of guilt, shame, and other common reactions, as well an appreciation of the role of secondary losses and the unique challenges facing children in communities characterized by chronic trauma and cumulative loss, will help the pediatrician to address factors that may impair grieving and children's adjustment and to identify complicated mourning and situations when professional counseling is indicated. Advice on how to support children's participation in funerals and other memorial services and to anticipate and address grief triggers and anniversary reactions is provided so that pediatricians are in a better position to advise caregivers and to offer consultation to schools, early education and child care facilities, and other child congregate care sites. Pediatricians often enter their profession out of a profound desire to minimize the suffering of children and may find it personally challenging when they find themselves in situations in which they are asked to bear witness to the distress of children who are acutely grieving. The importance of professional preparation and self-care is therefore emphasized, and resources are recommended. PMID:27573086

  20. Contributions to Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems via On-Line Learning Style Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botsios, Sotiris; Georgiou, Demetrius; Safouris, Nikolaos

    2008-01-01

    In order to establish an online diagnostic system for Learning Style Estimation that contributes to the adaptation of learning objects, we propose an easily applicable expert system founded on Bayesian Networks. The proposed system makes use of Learning Style theories and associated diagnostic techniques, simultaneously avoiding certain error…

  1. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  2. An Adaptive E-Learning System Based on Students' Learning Styles: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drissi, Samia; Amirat, Abdelkrim

    2016-01-01

    Personalized e-learning implementation is recognized as one of the most interesting research areas in the distance web-based education. Since the learning style of each learner is different one must fit e-learning with the different needs of learners. This paper presents an approach to integrate learning styles into adaptive e-learning hypermedia.…

  3. Mothers' and Fathers' Parenting Styles and Associations with Toddlers' Externalizing, Internalizing, and Adaptive Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinaldi, Christina M.; Howe, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The two primary objectives of the present study were to (a) investigate mothers' and fathers' reports of their own as well as their partner's parenting styles, and (b) assess how mothers' and fathers' parenting styles uniquely and jointly predicted toddlers' externalizing, internalizing, and adaptive behaviors. Fifty-nine mothers and fathers…

  4. Adaptive intertemporal preferences in foraging-style environments.

    PubMed

    Bixter, Michael T; Luhmann, Christian C

    2013-01-01

    Decision makers often face choices between smaller more immediate rewards and larger more delayed rewards. For example, when foraging for food, animals must choose between actions that have varying costs (e.g., effort, duration, energy expenditure) and varying benefits (e.g., amount of food intake). The combination of these costs and benefits determine what optimal behavior is. In the present study, we employ a foraging-style task to study how humans make reward-based choices in response to the real-time constraints of a dynamic environment. On each trial participants were presented with two rewards that differed in magnitude and in the delay until their receipt. Because the experiment was of a fixed duration, maximizing earnings required decision makers to determine how to trade off the magnitude and the delay associated with the two rewards on each trial. To evaluate the extent to which participants could adapt to the decision environment, specific task characteristics were manipulated, including reward magnitudes (Experiment 1) and the delay between trials (Experiment 2). Each of these manipulations was designed to alter the pattern of choices made by an optimal decision maker. Several findings are of note. First, different choice strategies were observed with the manipulated environmental constraints. Second, despite contextually-appropriate shifts in behavior between conditions in each experiment, choice patterns deviated from theoretical optimality. In particular, the delays associated with the rewards did not exert a consistent influence on choices as required by exponential discounting. Third, decision makers nevertheless performed surprisingly well in all task environments with any deviations from strict optimality not having particularly deleterious effects on earnings. Taken together, these results suggest that human decision makers are capable of exhibiting intertemporal preferences that reflect a variety of environmental constraints.

  5. Life style and biochemical adaptation in Antarctic fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Prisco, Guido

    2000-12-01

    Respiration and metabolism are under investigation in Antarctic fish, in an effort to understand the interplay between ecology and biochemical and physiological processes. Fish of the dominant suborder Notothenioidei are red-blooded, except Channichthyidae (the most phyletically derived family), whose genomes retain transcriptionally inactive DNA sequences closely related to the α-globin gene of red-blooded notothenioids and have lost the β-globin locus. Our structure/function studies on 38 of the 80 red-blooded species are aimed at correlating sequence, multiplicity and oxygen binding with ecological constraints and at obtaining phylogenetic information on evolution. For comparative purposes, this work has been extended to non-Antarctic notothenioids. All sluggish bottom dwellers have a single major hemoglobin (Hb) and often a minor, functionally similar one. Three species of the family Nototheniidae have different life styles. They have uniquely specialised oxygen-transport systems, adjusted to the mode of life of each species. Artedidraconidae have a single Hb, lacking oxygen-binding cooperativity, similar to the ancestral hemoproteins of primitive organisms. The amino acid sequences are currently used in the molecular modelling approach. The study of several enzymes with key roles in metabolism (e.g. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, L-glutamate dehydrogenase, phosphorylase b, carbonic anhydrase) indicate that some aspects of the molecular structure (e.g. molecular mass, number of subunits, amino acid sequence, temperature of irreversible heat inactivation) have been conserved during development of cold adaptation. However, high catalytic efficiency, possibly due to subtle molecular changes, is observed at low temperature.

  6. College Students' Beliefs about Supporting a Grieving Peer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedrick Parikh, Sara J.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used I. Ajzen's (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior (TBP) to explore college students' beliefs about listening supportively to a grieving friend. Responses to open-ended questions suggested that students ("N" = 23) perceived both benefits and risks, connected with listening supportively, for the grieving friend…

  7. Communicating Social Support to Grieving Clients: The Veterinarians' View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilgram, Mary D.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study examines veterinarians' perceptions of how they offer social support to grieving clients. Because many clients cannot find the social support they would like from other sources when grieving the death of a pet, the role of the vet in offering support becomes increasingly important. The results indicate that vets perceive…

  8. USING AN ADAPTER TO PERFORM THE CHALFANT-STYLE CONTAINMENT VESSEL PERIODIC MAINTENANCE LEAK RATE TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Trapp, D.

    2011-06-03

    Recently the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems (PT&PS) organization at the Savannah River National Laboratory was asked to develop an adapter for performing the leak-rate test of a Chalfant-style containment vessel. The PT&PS organization collaborated with designers at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant to develop the adapter currently in use for performing the leak-rate testing on the containment vessels. This paper will give the history of leak-rate testing of the Chalfant-style containment vessels, discuss the design concept for the adapter, give an overview of the design, and will present results of the testing done using the adapter.

  9. The Impact of Different Parenting Styles on First-Year College Students' Adaptation to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory J.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the impact of different parenting styles on college students' adaptation to college. During the second week of college, 80 first-year students from two-parent families completed the Tests of Reactions and Adaptations to College, English version and the Parental Authority Questionnaire. Authoritative…

  10. Avoidant Attachment Style Indicates Job Adaptation of People with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokotani, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not the avoidant attachment style indicates job adaptation of people with High Functional Autistic Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). HFASD are groups of developmental disorders characterized by impairment of social interaction and normal level of intelligence. Twenty-two people with HFASD…

  11. Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism as Mediators of Adult Attachment Styles and Depression, Hopelessness, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Noble, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism, anxious and avoidant adult attachment styles, depression, hopelessness, and life satisfaction among a sample of 180 undergraduate students. Maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationship between both forms of adult attachment and depression, hopelessness,…

  12. Repressive Adaptive Style and Self-Reported Psychological Functioning in Adolescent Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Gerstle, Melissa; Montague, Erica Q.

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and psychosocial distress have been reported in pediatric cancer survivors. One explanation is the relatively high prevalence of the repressive adaptive style (low distress, high restraint) in this population. We investigated the relationship between this…

  13. Cyclical Grieving: Reocurring Emotions Experienced by Parents Who Have Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaska, Joan K.

    This paper discusses cyclical grieving, which is described as an intermittent reoccurrence of one or more emotions that are part of the grieving process experienced by parents who have children with disabilities. A study to support the concept of cyclical grieving used a naturalistic approach with face-to-face interviews to explore ten parents'…

  14. Adaptation Provisioning with Respect to Learning Styles in a Web-Based Educational System: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popescu, E.

    2010-01-01

    Personalized instruction is seen as a desideratum of today's e-learning systems. The focus of this paper is on those platforms that use learning styles as personalization criterion called learning style-based adaptive educational systems. The paper presents an innovative approach based on an integrative set of learning preferences that alleviates…

  15. Faculty's Empathy and Academic Support for Grieving Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedman, Amy S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed a voluntary sample (n = 123) of college faculty's attitudes toward grieving students and likelihood to provide referrals and course accommodations. Empathy levels of faculty were also measured. Although 91% of faculty indicated that at least 1 student had reported a death, only 36% had referred a student to counseling services.…

  16. From 9/11 to Katrina: Helping Students Grieve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Many kids in school will come face-to-face with the death of a close relative or friend. As such, schools need to reach out to grieving students. While it is certainly true that schools cannot compensate for children's severe losses, and it is also true that teachers and counselors cannot assuage children's grief alone, it is also the case that…

  17. Grieving: 22 to 30 Percent of All College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balk, David E.

    2008-01-01

    At any given time, 22 to 30 percent of college undergraduates are in the first twelve months of grieving the death of a family member or friend. This conclusion, startling to some but accepted by others, comes from a variety of sources at academic sites in the United States and Europe. Information about the prevalence rate resulted from clinical…

  18. Meanings of Death Seen through the Lens of Grieving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attig, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Through the lens of grief we can discern many meanings of death, human existence, suffering, the life of the deceased, the life of the mourner, and love. This essay summarizes what the author, in part inspired by Herman Feifel, has learned about such meanings in nearly three decades of thinking, teaching, and writing about grieving as an active…

  19. Adaptive style and physiological reactivity during a laboratory stress paradigm in children with cancer and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Williams, Natalie A; Allen, Michael T; Phipps, Sean

    2011-10-01

    Repressive adaptation has been conceptualized as one pathway to psychological resilience in children with cancer, but the physiological costs of maintaining a repressive adaptive style are currently unknown. The goal of this study was to examine physiological functioning as a function of adaptive style in children with cancer (N = 120) and healthy controls (N = 120). Children completed self-report measures of state anxiety and defensiveness prior to participating in three verbal stress tasks while monitoring blood pressure, electrocardiogram, and electrodermal response, and rated their anxiety following each task. Findings indicated no consistent differences in baseline indices and physiological reactivity as a function of adaptive style or health status (cancer vs. control). In addition, children identified as having a repressive adaptive style did not exhibit greater verbal-autonomic discrepancy than low-anxious children. In contrast to findings with adults, children with a repressive adaptive style do not appear to experience adverse effects of this coping style in terms of physiological reactivity.

  20. Styles of Adaptation: The Impact of Frequency and Valence of Adaptation on Preventing Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, William B.; Pankratz, Melinda M.; Dusenbury, Linda; Giles, Steven M.; Bishop, Dana C.; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren P.; Strack, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To be effective, evidence-based programs should be delivered as prescribed. This suggests that adaptations that deviate from intervention goals may limit a program's effectiveness. This study aims to examine the impact that number and quality of adaptations have on substance use outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: The authors…

  1. Bringing hope and healing to grieving patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Wess, Millicent

    2007-12-01

    Cancer is one of the most feared diseases in the world. The fear of this disease contributes to the grief experienced after the diagnosis. The patient, family members, caregivers, and physicians experience this grief, which has many dimensions and can be extremely complicated. Grief is expressed differently by different cultures, and faith can help in dealing with grief, but no one can escape the emotional, psychological, and spiritual pain associated with the grief individuals feel when they suffer a loss. For this reason, it is best to have a holistic approach when caring for those who are grieving to more effectively meet their needs and to bring hope and healing into a very painful experience. Two case presentations illustrate the application of the hospice approach to grieving patients and the complexity of their grief. PMID:18165378

  2. Problems with Current Models of Grieving and Consequences for Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horacek, Bruce J.

    Classical models of the grieving process include Freud's concept of withdrawal of ties to the love object called decathexis, and Lindemann's emancipation from the bondage to the deceased involving adjusting to the loss in one's environment and the ability to form new relationships. Most of the models and explanations of the grieving process over…

  3. Improving the Short-Term Affect of Grieving Children through Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kaylin E.; Lineweaver, Tara T.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated changes in positive and negative affect of grieving children in response to art making compared to another noncreative, non-expressive, but engaging visuospatial task and assessed whether art making was equally or differentially effective in individual versus collaborative settings. We randomly assigned grieving children to one of…

  4. On the Use of Adaptive Instructional Images Based on the Sequential-Global Dimension of the Felder-Silverman Learning Style Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filippidis, Stavros K.; Tsoukalas, Ioannis A.

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive educational system that uses adaptive presentation is presented. In this system fragments of different images present the same content and the system can choose the one most relevant to the user based on the sequential-global dimension of Felder-Silverman's learning style theory. In order to retrieve the learning style of each student…

  5. Efficient Authoring of SCORM Courseware Adapted to User Learning Style: The Case of ProPer SAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazanidis, Ioannis; Satratzemi, Maya

    Online courses are the most popular way to deliver knowledge for distance learning. New researches attempt to personalize the educational process with the use of the Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems. Moreover, due to the significant amount of time, money and effort devoted to creating online courses, developers strive to incorporate standards, such as SCORM, for the reusability, interoperability and durability of the educational content. However, it is a difficult task for teachers without programming knowledge to design and author adaptive courses. This work presents ProPer SAT, an authoring tool implemented for quick and easy SCORM courseware construction which can also be adapted to specific user learning styles.

  6. The Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma, Part I: Survivors' posttrauma adaptational styles in their children's eyes.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Yael; Norris, Fran H; Lindert, Jutta; Paisner, Vera; Engdahl, Brian; Richter, Julia

    2015-09-01

    A comprehensive valid behavioral measure for assessing multidimensional multigenerational impacts of massive trauma has been missing thus far. We describe the development of the Posttrauma Adaptational Styles questionnaire (Part I of the three-part Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma), a self-report questionnaire of Holocaust survivors' children's perceptions of each parent and their own upbringing (60 items per parent). The items were based on literature and cognitive interviewing of 18 survivors' offspring. A web-based convenience sample survey was designed in English and Hebrew and completed by 482 adult children (M age = 59; 67% women) of Holocaust survivors. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted by using maximum likelihood extraction with Geomin rotation to examine the factor structure of the original 70 items for each parent. Conducted hierarchically, the analysis yielded three higher-order factors reflecting intensities of victim, numb, and fighter styles. The 30-item Victim Style Scale (α = .92-.93) and 18-item Numb Style Scale (α = .89) had excellent internal consistency; the consistency of the 12-item Fighter Style Scale (α = .69-.70) was more modest. English-Hebrew analyses suggested good-to-excellent congruence in factor structure (φ = .87-.99). Further research is needed to evaluate the validity of the measure in other samples and populations. PMID:26228416

  7. The Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma, Part I: Survivors' posttrauma adaptational styles in their children's eyes.

    PubMed

    Danieli, Yael; Norris, Fran H; Lindert, Jutta; Paisner, Vera; Engdahl, Brian; Richter, Julia

    2015-09-01

    A comprehensive valid behavioral measure for assessing multidimensional multigenerational impacts of massive trauma has been missing thus far. We describe the development of the Posttrauma Adaptational Styles questionnaire (Part I of the three-part Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma), a self-report questionnaire of Holocaust survivors' children's perceptions of each parent and their own upbringing (60 items per parent). The items were based on literature and cognitive interviewing of 18 survivors' offspring. A web-based convenience sample survey was designed in English and Hebrew and completed by 482 adult children (M age = 59; 67% women) of Holocaust survivors. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted by using maximum likelihood extraction with Geomin rotation to examine the factor structure of the original 70 items for each parent. Conducted hierarchically, the analysis yielded three higher-order factors reflecting intensities of victim, numb, and fighter styles. The 30-item Victim Style Scale (α = .92-.93) and 18-item Numb Style Scale (α = .89) had excellent internal consistency; the consistency of the 12-item Fighter Style Scale (α = .69-.70) was more modest. English-Hebrew analyses suggested good-to-excellent congruence in factor structure (φ = .87-.99). Further research is needed to evaluate the validity of the measure in other samples and populations.

  8. A dutch adaptation of the child-rearing styles inventory and a validation of krohne's two-process model.

    PubMed

    Depreeuw, E; Lens, W; Horebeek, W

    1995-01-01

    Abstract A Questionnaire for the Parent-Child Interaction (VOKI) has been developed by adapting Krohne's German ESI for the Flemish high school population. The psychometric characteristics of the adaptation are satisfying. The ESI factor structure has been replicated and the VOKI scales are perfectly comparable to the original German scales. Further research on the VOKI and two questionnaires assessing achievement related concepts such as test anxiety, procrastination and achievement motivation yielded correlational patterns partly predicted from Krohne's Two-Process Model. The relations between parental child-rearing styles and competence and consequence expectancies are in line with this model, whereas test anxiety and procrastination seem more complexly determined. PMID:21892846

  9. A dutch adaptation of the child-rearing styles inventory and a validation of krohne's two-process model.

    PubMed

    Depreeuw, E; Lens, W; Horebeek, W

    1995-01-01

    Abstract A Questionnaire for the Parent-Child Interaction (VOKI) has been developed by adapting Krohne's German ESI for the Flemish high school population. The psychometric characteristics of the adaptation are satisfying. The ESI factor structure has been replicated and the VOKI scales are perfectly comparable to the original German scales. Further research on the VOKI and two questionnaires assessing achievement related concepts such as test anxiety, procrastination and achievement motivation yielded correlational patterns partly predicted from Krohne's Two-Process Model. The relations between parental child-rearing styles and competence and consequence expectancies are in line with this model, whereas test anxiety and procrastination seem more complexly determined.

  10. A Preliminary Investigation into the Adaptive Learning Styles of Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    An exploration of the preferred learning styles for over 1,100 business students has yielded an intriguing result. While many previous studies have examined the learning styles in different majors at different universities, these studies have been focused on describing the typical student for that major. This study demonstrates that the preferred…

  11. Student Learning Styles Adaptation Method Based on Teaching Strategies and Electronic Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzoni, Ana Lidia; Assar, Said

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on the learning process has shown that students tend to learn in different ways and that they prefer to use different teaching resources as well. Many researchers agree on the fact that learning materials shouldn't just reflect of the teacher's style, but should be designed for all kinds of students and all kind of learning styles.…

  12. The lived experience of grieving for persons living with HIV who have used injection drugs.

    PubMed

    Cody, W K

    2000-01-01

    Parse's research method was used to investigate the lived experience of grieving for 10 persons self-identified as HIV-positive injection drug users. These individuals compose an understudied and poorly understood population, and their grief experiences have rarely been documented. The losses grieved by persons living with HIV infection include the loss of life, friends, family members, employment, energy, and sex. The lived experience of grieving was found to be "overwhelming anguish that shapes hopes and intentions as a wretched aloneness is punctuated with cherished uplifting engagements, while gratitude inspires courage in the midst of ambiguity." This new conceptualization of the grieving process is discussed in light of Parse's human becoming theory of nursing. PMID:10826306

  13. Health care personnel's experiences of a bereavement follow-up intervention for grieving parents.

    PubMed

    Liisa, Aho Anna; Marja-Terttu, Tarkka; Päivi, Åstedt-Kurki; Marja, Kaunonen

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the experiences of health care personnel of a bereavement follow-up intervention for grieving parents and of the ways to develop it. The intervention included three components: a support package for grieving parents, peer supporters' and health care personnel's contact with parents. The sample included 29 health professionals. Data were collected via open-format questionnaires and telephone interviews from health care personnel. Content analysis was used as a means of data analysis. The support package for grieving parents was considered important and versatile. Health care personnel perceived the intervention and its viability as mostly good. Parents' willingness to receive support, health care personnel's good resources and organizational preconditions were important for the follow-up contact. The intervention clarified the policy related to supporting grieving parents. It was enabled by a good attitude, shift arrangements and co-worker support. However, the implementation was considered difficult because of scarce resources. Parental support engendered negative feelings in health care personnel and they desired systematic supervision to deal with these. Follow-up care of grieving parents is a demanding task. Continuous education about bereavement follow-up care and systematic supervision to health care personnel is needed. Family-focused care in supporting grieving families after leaving from hospital should be increased. Inter-organizational cooperation in supporting parents is important and feasible. PMID:21039718

  14. MATERNAL GRIEVING AND THE PERCEPTION OF AND ATTACHMENT TO CHILDREN BORN SUBSEQUENT TO A PERINATAL LOSS.

    PubMed

    Al-Maharma, Dua' Yousef; Abujaradeh, Hiba; Mahmoud, Khadejah Fahmi; Jarrad, Reem Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal grieving for perinatal loss (PL) and the perception of and attachment to children born subsequent to a recent PL among mothers in Jordan. A cross-sectional, descriptive correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 190 mothers of full-term, healthy newborns born subsequent to a recent PL was recruited from seven Maternal and Child Health Care Centers in Jordan. These mothers were assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale (L.J. Toedter, J.N. Lasker, & J.M. Alhadeff), 1988, the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (J.T. Condon & C.J. Corkindale, 1998), and the Neonatal Perception Inventory II (E. Broussard, 1979). Results showed a significant negative relationship between grief intensity and the attachment level, r = -.37, p = .000, and a significant positive relationship between the attachment level and neonatal perception, r = .28, p = .000. Mothers' grief intensity was significantly affected by their demographic characteristics; however, there was no significant relationship between grief intensity and neonatal perception, r = .23, p = .23. Perinatal grief was negatively related to maternal attachment to the subsequent child. Nurses should address bereaved mothers and their children who might be at risk for developing attachment disturbances to facilitate positive adaptation to the subsequent pregnancy and parenthood.

  15. MATERNAL GRIEVING AND THE PERCEPTION OF AND ATTACHMENT TO CHILDREN BORN SUBSEQUENT TO A PERINATAL LOSS.

    PubMed

    Al-Maharma, Dua' Yousef; Abujaradeh, Hiba; Mahmoud, Khadejah Fahmi; Jarrad, Reem Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal grieving for perinatal loss (PL) and the perception of and attachment to children born subsequent to a recent PL among mothers in Jordan. A cross-sectional, descriptive correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 190 mothers of full-term, healthy newborns born subsequent to a recent PL was recruited from seven Maternal and Child Health Care Centers in Jordan. These mothers were assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale (L.J. Toedter, J.N. Lasker, & J.M. Alhadeff), 1988, the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (J.T. Condon & C.J. Corkindale, 1998), and the Neonatal Perception Inventory II (E. Broussard, 1979). Results showed a significant negative relationship between grief intensity and the attachment level, r = -.37, p = .000, and a significant positive relationship between the attachment level and neonatal perception, r = .28, p = .000. Mothers' grief intensity was significantly affected by their demographic characteristics; however, there was no significant relationship between grief intensity and neonatal perception, r = .23, p = .23. Perinatal grief was negatively related to maternal attachment to the subsequent child. Nurses should address bereaved mothers and their children who might be at risk for developing attachment disturbances to facilitate positive adaptation to the subsequent pregnancy and parenthood. PMID:27333264

  16. Patterns in Authoring of Adaptive Educational Hypermedia: A Taxonomy of Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elizabeth; Cristea, Alexandra; Stewart, Craig; Brailsford, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the use of adaptation patterns in the task of formulating standards for adaptive educational hypermedia (AEH) systems that is currently under investigation by the EU ADAPT project. Within this project, design dimensions for high granularity patterns have been established. In this paper we focus on detailing lower granularity…

  17. Left and Left Out: Teaching Children to Grieve through a Rehabilitation Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Francine R.; Leyden, Harriet D.

    1998-01-01

    Children do not often develop the skills and resources with which to grieve because they are routinely left out of the process. This article describes an ethnographic evaluation of an educational grief program based on mental health rehabilitation theory. The process includes a focus on improving competencies and behaviors. (EMK)

  18. Supporting the Grieving Adolescent: An Interview with a 21st Century Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    Author Carol Thomas was formerly a school counselor and is now a therapist in private practice specializing in work with adolescents. She says she has always been interested in learning how to best provide support to grieving teens. In this article, Dr. Thomas interviews Ms. Wendy Littner Thomson, the Bereavement Coordinator and Counselor at St.…

  19. Adaptation and Validation of the Inventory of Learning Styles for Quality Assurance in a Hong Kong Post-Secondary Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Dennis C. S.; Meyer, Jan H. F.

    2010-01-01

    A Chinese translation of the Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS), a quantitative instrument employed mainly in Western higher education contexts for collecting students' feedback on their learning patterns (in the form of students' processing strategies, regulation strategies, learning orientations and conceptions of learning), was adapted and…

  20. AdaptiviTree: adaptive tree visualization for tournament-style brackets.

    PubMed

    Tan, Desney; Smith, Greg; Lee, Bongshin; Robertson, George

    2007-01-01

    Online pick'em games, such as the recent NCAA college basketball March Madness tournament, form a large and rapidly growing industry. In these games, players make predictions on a tournament bracket that defines which competitors play each other and how they proceed toward a single champion. Throughout the course of the tournament, players monitor the brackets to track progress and to compare predictions made by multiple players. This is often a complex sensemaking task. The classic bracket visualization was designed for use on paper and utilizes an incrementally additive system in which the winner of each match-up is rewritten in the next round as the tournament progresses. Unfortunately, this representation requires a significant amount of space and makes it relatively difficult to get a quick overview of the tournament state since competitors take arbitrary paths through the static bracket. In this paper, we present AdaptiviTree, a novel visualization that adaptively deforms the representation of the tree and uses its shape to convey outcome information. AdaptiviTree not only provides a more compact and understandable representation, but also allows overlays that display predictions as well as other statistics. We describe results from a lab study we conducted to explore the efficacy of AdaptiviTree, as well as from a deployment of the system in a recent real-world sports tournament.

  1. [The grieving process. Education for health, life and death].

    PubMed

    Carlos Mingote, José; Casanueva Mateos, Lidia; Denia Ruiz, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    Mourning, a universal human experience is the intentional adaptive process following a significant loss (and sometimes above) that aims to develop such a loss, learn from the experience and accept the loss of the unique aspects that have also lost with that person irreplaceable. The aim of this study is to help health professionals to better understand this complex problem and its implications for both clinical practice and in their own health and the functioning of the healthcare team. PMID:22558716

  2. [The grieving process. Education for health, life and death].

    PubMed

    Carlos Mingote, José; Casanueva Mateos, Lidia; Denia Ruiz, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    Mourning, a universal human experience is the intentional adaptive process following a significant loss (and sometimes above) that aims to develop such a loss, learn from the experience and accept the loss of the unique aspects that have also lost with that person irreplaceable. The aim of this study is to help health professionals to better understand this complex problem and its implications for both clinical practice and in their own health and the functioning of the healthcare team.

  3. Learning To Grieve...An Element of Adult Education that Enjoys Little Social Recognition, and Learning in Which Most Engage Non-Voluntarily.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaney, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    Grieving, a learning experience in response to loss, may involve either (1) learning to grieve, an individualized process leading to resolution or (2) complicated mourning, a defensive response that avoids pain. Learning tasks include acceptance, acknowledgment of emotions, adjustment to change, and reestablishment. Sites for this learning include…

  4. Adapting Queneau's "Exercices de style" to Classroom Use: An Experiment in Creative Writing at the Undergraduate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Gerald

    1985-01-01

    Describes the way one teacher used Raymond Queneau's "Exercices de style" in a college-level French composition course. The students prepared 15 to 20 assignments, which focused on grammar and syntax, logical development of ideas, changes in perspective, shifts in mood or tonality, and experiments with different literary genres. (SED)

  5. Leadership Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…

  6. Grieving Teen

    MedlinePlus

    ... and talk to? Teens often trust only their peers, believing that no one else can understand how ... thoughts of how to ease their pain. Does peer counseling work? Because teens are most open to ...

  7. Performance & Emotion--A Study on Adaptive E-Learning Based on Visual/Verbal Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Jennifer; Bertel, Sven; Zander, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive e-Learning systems are able to adjust to a user's learning needs, usually by user modeling or tracking progress. Such learner-adaptive behavior has rapidly become a hot topic for e-Learning, furthered in part by the recent rapid increase in the use of MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). A lack of general, individual, and situational data…

  8. An Investigation into the Factors Influencing Extreme-Response Style: Improving Meaning of Translated and Culturally Adapted Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce-Ferrer, Alvaro J.

    2006-01-01

    Translation and cultural adaptation of rating scales are two critical components in testing culturally and/or linguistically heterogeneous populations. Despite the proper use of these scales, challenges typically arise from respondents' language, culture, ratiocination, and characteristics of measurement processes. This study investigated factors…

  9. Francis Bacon and the Technology of Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Examines Francis Bacon's intentionally devised style for scientific writings and the theoretical basis of that style. Discusses his emphasis on a truly objective point of view, and his use of aphorisms to adapt to his audience. (HTH)

  10. Hindlimb musculature of the largest living rodent Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Caviomorpha): Adaptations to semiaquatic and terrestrial styles of life.

    PubMed

    García-Esponda, César M; Candela, Adriana M

    2016-03-01

    The caviomorph species Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Cavioidea), or capybara, is the largest living rodent. This species is widely distributed, from northern South America to Uruguay and eastern Argentina, inhabiting in a wide variety of densely vegetated lowlands habitats in the proximity of water. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris not only runs with agility, like other members of the Cavioidea, but it can also swim and dive easily. For these reasons, it has been classified as a cursorial as well as semiaquatic species. However, comprehensive anatomical descriptions of the osteology and myology of the capybara are not available in the literature and analyses on its swimming abilities are still required. We hypothesize that some of the characters of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris could reveal a unique morphological arrangement associated with swimming abilities. In this study, an anatomical description of the hindlimb musculature of H. hydrochaeris, and a discussion of the possible functional significance of the main muscles is provided. In addition, we explore the evolution of some myological and osteological characters of the capybara in the context of the cavioids. We concluded that most of the muscular and osteological features of the hindlimb of H. hydrochaeris are neither adaptations to a specialized cursoriality, nor major modifications for an aquatic mode of life. Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris share several features with other cavioids, being a generalized cursorial species in the context of this clade. However, it shows some adaptations of the hindlimb for enhancing propulsion through water, of which the most notable seems to be the shortening of the leg, short tendons of most muscles of the leg, and a well-developed soleus muscle. These adaptations to a semiaquatic mode of life could have been acquired during the most recent evolutionary history of the hydrochoerids.

  11. Narratives of grieving African-Americans about racism in the lives of deceased family members.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Paul C; Wallace, Beverly R

    2005-04-01

    As part of a comprehensive interview study on African-American grief, the authors explored how racism is incorporated into narratives about a deceased family member. To the extent that experiences of racism are pervasive in African-American life and to the extent that narratives about a person who has died generally account for the life experiences, achievements, character, and challenges faced by the deceased, the authors expected narratives about a deceased African-American to deal with the person's encounters with racism. In fact, most of the 26 African-Americans who were interviewed spoke about racism in the life of the deceased. Many talked about racism blocking the deceased from getting ahead occupationally and in other ways and about how the deceased resisted or stood up to racism. Some people spoke about the ways the deceased taught them to deal with racism. The narratives that indicated that the deceased had rarely or ever talked about racism still made clear that the deceased lived in a racist world but chose not to bring racism into family conversation. The findings suggest that a view of African-American grieving that is insensitive to racism in African-American experience may lead to unhelpful grief support or counseling.

  12. Children of the condemned: grieving the loss of a father to death row.

    PubMed

    Beck, Elizabeth; Jones, Sandra J

    This article explores the effects of a death sentence and execution on the children of the accused. Insight into the unique bereavement of this population is provided, while contributing to the literature on death and dying. The experience of losing a father to death row and eventual execution is compared to the wider population of children with incarcerated parents and it is determined that children of death row inmates contend with a much more complicated grief process, one that has gone largely unstudied. This article contains a brief discussion of disenfranchised grief and nonfinite loss, two theories that, we argue, shape the children's grief process. The results section of the article uses qualitative data gathered from 19 children to explore the role that nonfinite loss and disenfranchised grief share in the nature of their bereavement. Our discussion focuses on the impact of stigma and violence on the grieving process. Following a discussion of the unique challenges confronting the children of death row inmates is a discussion of the implications that their experience has for practice.

  13. When the spirit leaves: Childhood death, grieving, and bereavement in Islam.

    PubMed

    Hedayat, Kamyar

    2006-12-01

    The death of a child has a profound and often long-lasting impact on families. The parent's relationship and their ability to bond with and take care of surviving children may be affected. It is important for healthcare workers to understand the dynamics associated with bereavement, especially when the family comes from a non-Western culture. Islam is one of the three most populous religions along with Christianity and Hinduism and the fastest growing religion in the United States but remains largely misunderstood. This paper seeks to explain what Islam is, who is a Muslim, where they live, and what they believe and practice. It also explains how Islamic beliefs contextualize the meaning of life and death for Muslims and how they are exhorted to grieve upon a child's death. Reading this paper will enable those who care for Muslim families to better attend to the social and emotional needs of Muslim parents and siblings after such a tragic event. PMID:17187536

  14. [The anticipated grieving before the awareness of finitude: life and the fear of "not being able to cope," "giving too much trouble" and dying].

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Karla Cristina; dos Santos, Wagner Jorge; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo

    2013-09-01

    In their praxis, health professionals must deal with the grieving of patient, family and staff, but for the elderly anticipated grieving due to disease and the awareness of finitude can be as disturbing as the actual death of someone. This paper seeks to understand anticipated grieving in the interaction between old age and health-disease and disability processes from the viewpoint of the elderly in the community faced with their own finitude. This observational ethnographic study was conducted with 57 elderly people assisted by the Family Health Strategy. The collection and analysis of data in semi-structured interviews was based on the model of signs, meanings and actions. The final categories that were revealed were: experiences of death while alive; experiences of the elderly in health care; awareness of finitude and anticipated grieving that negate the meaning of life. In local culture aging is a disease, disability is "being unable to cope" with everyday activities, and "giving too much trouble" to others is worse than dying. The older they are, the greater the anticipated and real grieving and loss and awareness of finitude, which have been neglected in health care. Understanding this question is crucial for comprehensive and humane care of the elderly and their families.

  15. Adapting industry-style business model to academia in a system of Performance-based Incentive Compensation.

    PubMed

    Reece, E Albert; Nugent, Olan; Wheeler, Richard P; Smith, Charles W; Hough, Aubrey J; Winter, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Performance-Based Incentive Compensation (PBIC) plans currently prevail throughout industry and have repeatedly demonstrated effectiveness as powerful motivational tools for attracting and retaining top talent, enhancing key indicators, increasing employee productivity, and, ultimately, enhancing mission-based parameters. The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) College of Medicine introduced its PBIC plan to further the transition of the college to a high-performing academic and clinical enterprise. A forward-thinking compensation plan was progressively implemented during a three-year period. After the introduction of an aggressive five-year vision plan in 2002, the college introduced a PBIC plan designed to ensure the retention and recruitment of high-quality faculty through the use of uncapped salaries that reflect each faculty member's clinical, research, and education duties. The PBIC plan was introduced with broad, schoolwide principles adaptable to each department and purposely flexible to allow for tailor-made algorithms to fit the specific approaches required by individual departments. As of July 2006, the college had begun to reap a variety of short-term benefits from Phase I of its PBIC program, including increases in revenue and faculty salaries, and increased faculty morale and satisfaction.Successful implementation of a PBIC plan depends on a host of factors, including the development of a process for evaluating performance that is considered fair and reliable to the entire faculty. The college has become more efficient and effective by adopting such a program, which has helped it to increase overall productivity. The PBIC program continues to challenge our faculty members to attain their highest potential while rewarding them accordingly. PMID:18162757

  16. Leadership Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following research…

  17. Promoting meaning-making to help our patients grieve: an exemplar for genetic counselors and other health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Heather A

    2014-10-01

    Genetic counselors and other health professionals frequently meet with patients who are grieving a loss. It is thus helpful for medical professionals to be familiar with approaches to bereavement counseling. Grief theory has evolved over the last few decades, from primarily stage theories of grief such as Kübler-Ross's "five stages of grief" to frameworks that promote more complex and long-term ways to cope with a loss. Herein I present one recent grief theory - meaning-making - and describe how it can be applied to help parents of children with disabilities grieve the loss of the child that they expected. In particular, I describe a scenario that many genetic counselors face - meeting with the parents of a child with Down syndrome. I outline the research done on the reactions, grief and coping experienced by parents in this circumstance, and I present suggestions for encouraging healthy coping and adjustment for parents, based on the meaning-making perspective. The meaning-making theory can also be applied to many of the other losses faced by genetic counseling patients.

  18. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  19. The Profiling System/Using Psychological Type and Learning Style To Provide Adaptations for Teaching Methodology in the Regular and Special Education Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Gisele A.; Lasage, Ed.

    The purpose of the Profiling System is to provide diagnostic and instructional resources to regular and special education teachers. The Profiling System is based on research and literature in psychological type and learning style. It combines the literature in these areas with academic and perceptual assessment instruments to screen for learning…

  20. Using the Expedition Leader Style Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Maurice L.; Phipps, Cynthia A.

    The Expedition Leader Style Analysis (ELSA) is an inventory designed to measure leadership style adaptability and effectiveness in terms of the situational leadership model. Situational leadership arose from the Experiential Leadership Education model, which is used in business and management, by replacing management jargon and phrases with…

  1. Teaching Styles of the Fresh and Inventive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilderback, Terry L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Three teachers share techniques for adapting to learning styles: "The Personal Touch Eases Anxiety of Adult Students" (Bilderback); "Learning to Cooperate: Recipe for Success" (Lindsay); and "Thoughtful Questions Lead Students to Answers" (Crowley). (SK)

  2. Teaching to Different Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Julia E.

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates how to support and incorporate different student learning styles into teaching. Presents example materials pertaining to laboratory diagnosis of liver disease in a veterinary medical curriculum and demonstrates how a body of material can be adapted to multiple presentation formats. (EV)

  3. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders.

  4. Are Identity Styles Important for Psychological Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vleioras, G.; Bosma, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    A successful identity formation is related to being psychologically well (Erikson, 1963). This link seems to be lost in the identity style literature that focuses either on the maturity of the identity styles, or on adaptive and maladaptive behaviour correlates of identity styles. In this study, we address this lost link. We administered the…

  5. Evolutionary morphology of the rattlesnake style

    PubMed Central

    Meik, Jesse M; Pires-daSilva, André

    2009-01-01

    Background The rattlesnake rattling system is an evolutionary novelty that includes anatomical, behavioral, and physiological modifications of the generalized pitviper tail. One such modification, the formation of a bony clublike style at the terminal region of the caudal vertebrae, has not previously been examined in a phylogenetic context. Here we used skeletal material, cleared and stained preparations, and radiographs of whole preserved specimens to examine interspecific variation in style morphology among 34 rattlesnake species. Results Evolutionary Principal Components Analysis revealed an inverse relationship between caudal segmental counts and style size, supporting the hypothesis that bone from caudal vertebral elements was reallocated to style formation during the evolution of this structure. Most of the basal rattlesnake species have small styles consisting of few compacted vertebral elements; however, early in the rattlesnake radiation there appears to have been two independent transitions to relatively large, pronged styles consisting of multiple coalesced vertebrae (once in Sistrurus catenatus, and once in Crotalus following the divergence of the Mexican long-tailed rattlesnakes). In terms of style shape, the two most divergent species, C. catalinensis and C. ericsmithi, provide insight into the possible relationship between style and rattle matrix morphology and lineage-specific evolutionary strategies for retaining rattle segments. Conclusion The considerable interspecific variation in rattle morphology appears to correspond to variation in the bony style. We hypothesize that style morphology evolves indirectly as an integrated module responding to adaptive evolution on matrix morphology. PMID:19208237

  6. Style Differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covault, Craig

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station Expedition 11 crew, set for liftoff Apr. 15 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, is to perform two extravehicular activities-one in Russian and the other in U.S. spacesuits, a unique combination that points up different national space-operating styles. The outgoing Expedition 10 commander, astronaut Leroy Chiao, addressed the differences in an e-mail exchange from the ISS. Chiao is well qualified to discuss these topics, having logged four shuttle-based EVAs in the American suit and two in the Russian Orlan, the most recent one Mar. 28. Chiao and Expedition 10 cosmonaut Salizhan Sharipov are to return to Earth in their own Soyuz Apr. 25.

  7. NASA Johnson Style (Gangnam Style Parody)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Johnson Style is a volunteer outreach video project created by the students of NASA's Johnson Space Center. It was created as an educational parody of Psy's Gangnam Style. The lyrics and scene...

  8. Learning Style, Culture and Delivery Mode in Online Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speece, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to customer needs is a key component of competitiveness in any service industry. In online HE (higher education), which is increasingly worldwide, this adaptation must include consideration of learning styles. Most research shows that learning style has little impact on learning outcomes in online education. Nevertheless, students with…

  9. Investigating Relationships within the Index of Learning Styles: A Data Driven Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viola, Silvia Rita; Graf, Sabine; Kinshuk; Leo, Tommaso

    2007-01-01

    Learning styles are incorporated more and more in e-education, mostly in order to provide adaptivity with respect to the learning styles of students. For identifying learning styles, at the present time questionnaires are widely used. While such questionnaires exist for most learning style models, their validity and reliability is an important…

  10. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    PubMed

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  11. Styling Evolution for Tight-Fitting Garments.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Tsz-Ho; Zhang, Yan-Qiu; Wang, Charlie C L; Liu, Yong-Jin; Tang, Kai

    2016-05-01

    We present an evolution method for designing the styling curves of garments. The procedure of evolution is driven by aesthetics-inspired scores to evaluate the quality of styling designs, where the aesthetic considerations are represented in the form of streamlines on human bodies. A dual representation is introduced in our platform to process the styling curves of designs, based on which robust methods for realizing the operations of evolution are developed. Starting from a given set of styling designs on human bodies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of set evolution inspired by aesthetic factors. The evolution is adaptive to the change of aesthetic inspirations. By this adaptation, our platform can automatically generate new designs fulfilling the demands of variations in different human bodies and poses.

  12. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  13. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies. PMID:25153846

  14. Two-dimensional proteome reference map of Prototheca zopfii revealed reduced metabolism and enhanced signal transduction as adaptation to an infectious life style.

    PubMed

    Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Weise, Christoph; von Bergen, Martin; Roesler, Uwe

    2013-09-01

    Biochemical, serological, and genetic analyses have identified two genotypes of Prototheca zopfii, a unicellular microalga belonging to the family Chlorellaceae. The P. zopfii genotype 1, abundantly present in cow barns and environment, remains nonpathogenic, while P. zopfii genotype 2 has been isolated from cows with bovine mastitis. The present study was carried out to identify the protein expression level difference between the pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of P. zopfii. A total of 782 protein spots were observed on the 2D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) gels among which 63 and 44 proteins were identified to be overexpressed in genotypes 1 and 2, respectively. The limited number of protein entries specific for Prototheca in public repositories resulted mainly in the identification of proteins described in other algae, microorganisms, or plants. Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated reduced carbohydrate metabolism in genotype 1, while genotype 2 displayed enhanced DNA binding, kinase activity, and signal transduction. These effects point to metabolic and signaling adaptations in the pathogenic strain and provide insights into the evolution of otherwise highly similar strains. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000126. PMID:23852777

  15. Genome Features of the Endophytic Actinobacterium Micromonospora lupini Strain Lupac 08: On the Process of Adaptation to an Endophytic Life Style?

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Martha E.; Bacigalupe, Rodrigo; Pujic, Petar; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Benito, Patricia; Riesco, Raúl; Médigue, Claudine; Normand, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms live inside plants for at least part of their life cycle. According to their life strategies, bacterial endophytes can be classified as “obligate” or “facultative”. Reports that members of the genus Micromonospora, Gram-positive Actinobacteria, are normal occupants of nitrogen-fixing nodules has opened up a question as to what is the ecological role of these bacteria in interactions with nitrogen-fixing plants and whether it is in a process of adaptation from a terrestrial to a facultative endophytic life. The aim of this work was to analyse the genome sequence of Micromonospora lupini Lupac 08 isolated from a nitrogen fixing nodule of the legume Lupinus angustifolius and to identify genomic traits that provide information on this new plant-microbe interaction. The genome of M. lupini contains a diverse array of genes that may help its survival in soil or in plant tissues, while the high number of putative plant degrading enzyme genes identified is quite surprising since this bacterium is not considered a plant-pathogen. Functionality of several of these genes was demonstrated in vitro, showing that Lupac 08 degraded carboxymethylcellulose, starch and xylan. In addition, the production of chitinases detected in vitro, indicates that strain Lupac 08 may also confer protection to the plant. Micromonospora species appears as new candidates in plant-microbe interactions with an important potential in agriculture and biotechnology. The current data strongly suggests that a beneficial effect is produced on the host-plant. PMID:25268993

  16. Helping a Grieving Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... concentrate. During the early stages of bereavement, the mind wanders. Your newly widowed father may find it impossible to stay focused. It may be difficult for him to read a book or even to stick with a TV show. Reading a newspaper may take longer than before, and ...

  17. Style in Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  18. Attachment style and adjustment to divorce.

    PubMed

    Yárnoz-Yaben, Sagrario

    2010-05-01

    Divorce is becoming increasingly widespread in Europe. In this study, I present an analysis of the role played by attachment style (secure, dismissing, preoccupied and fearful, plus the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance) in the adaptation to divorce. Participants comprised divorced parents (N = 40) from a medium-sized city in the Basque Country. The results reveal a lower proportion of people with secure attachment in the sample group of divorcees. Attachment style and dependence (emotional and instrumental) are closely related. I have also found associations between measures that showed a poor adjustment to divorce and the preoccupied and fearful attachment styles. Adjustment is related to a dismissing attachment style and to the avoidance dimension. Multiple regression analysis confirmed that secure attachment and the avoidance dimension predict adjustment to divorce and positive affectivity while preoccupied attachment and the anxiety dimension predicted negative affectivity. Implications for research and interventions with divorcees are discussed.

  19. Learning Styles: The Multimedia of the Mind. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Pamela

    Research shows that student motivation and performance improves when instruction is adapted to student learning preferences and styles. Educators have a responsibility to understand the diversity of their students and to present information in a variety of ways in order to accommodate all learners' preferences. Several learning styles theories…

  20. A Genetic Algorithm Approach to Recognise Students' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yannibelli, Virginia; Godoy, Daniela; Amandi, Analia

    2006-01-01

    Learning styles encapsulate the preferences of the students, regarding how they learn. By including information about the student learning style, computer-based educational systems are able to adapt a course according to the individual characteristics of the students. In accomplishing this goal, educational systems have been mostly based on the…

  1. A Conversational Intelligent Tutoring System to Automatically Predict Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Annabel; Crockett, Keeley; McLean, David; Edmonds, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a generic methodology and architecture for developing a novel conversational intelligent tutoring system (CITS) called Oscar that leads a tutoring conversation and dynamically predicts and adapts to a student's learning style. Oscar aims to mimic a human tutor by implicitly modelling the learning style during tutoring, and…

  2. Leadership styles and theories.

    PubMed

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice. PMID:23905259

  3. Leadership styles and theories.

    PubMed

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  4. Perspectives on learning styles in motor and sport skills.

    PubMed

    Fuelscher, Ian Tobias; Ball, Kevin; Macmahon, Clare

    2012-01-01

    We present the perspective that while coaches and instructors commonly adapt learning styles to maximize training outcomes, there has been little to no empirical support for the efficacy of this practice. Learning styles is a learner's preferred mode (e.g., visual, verbal) of taking in and processing new information. Although it is a relevant topic for the learning of motor and sport skills, few studies have used an appropriate methodology to test the effectiveness of learning style-based instruction. We highlight the need for a learning style assessment tool specific to motor skills and call for a test of the learning style hypothesis, the claim that learners will benefit from instruction that is tailored to their individual learning style. To this end, we suggest methodological guidelines.

  5. Perspectives on Learning Styles in Motor and Sport Skills

    PubMed Central

    Fuelscher, Ian Tobias; Ball, Kevin; MacMahon, Clare

    2011-01-01

    We present the perspective that while coaches and instructors commonly adapt learning styles to maximize training outcomes, there has been little to no empirical support for the efficacy of this practice. Learning styles is a learner’s preferred mode (e.g., visual, verbal) of taking in and processing new information. Although it is a relevant topic for the learning of motor and sport skills, few studies have used an appropriate methodology to test the effectiveness of learning style-based instruction. We highlight the need for a learning style assessment tool specific to motor skills and call for a test of the learning style hypothesis, the claim that learners will benefit from instruction that is tailored to their individual learning style. To this end, we suggest methodological guidelines. PMID:22416240

  6. Style and Sociolinguistic Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Penelope, Ed.; Rickford, John R., Ed.

    This collection of papers by leading experts from a range of disciplines is divided into four sections. Section 1, "Anthropological Approaches," includes: (1) "'Style' as Distinctiveness: The Culture and Ideology of Linguistic Differentiation" (Judith T. Irvine); (2) "Variety, Style-Shifting, and Ideology" (Susan Ervin-Tripp); (3) "The Ethnography…

  7. Carbo Reading Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of the Carbo Reading Styles Program (RSP), a comprehensive reading program that applies learning styles concepts to reading. The program uses themes, activities, and literature to help improve student performance across all subject areas. Main components of RSP include: a variety of instructional strategies to…

  8. Library Automation Style Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  9. Relationships between Students' Engagement and the Dissimilar Cognitive Styles of Their Undergraduate Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedel, Curtis R.; Rudd, Rick D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine if the dissimilarity of cognitive style between the instructor and the student was related to student engagement in nine undergraduate classes. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was used to measure cognitive style as a preference to a method of solving problems: either more adaptively or more…

  10. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  11. Thinking Styles: Teaching and Learning Styles in Graduate Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…

  12. Parenting styles and adolescents' achievement strategies.

    PubMed

    Aunola, K; Stattin, H; Nurmi, J E

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the extent to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Three hundred and fifty-four 14-year-old adolescents completed a Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire and a family parenting style inventory. Analogous questionnaires were also completed by the adolescents' parents. Based on adolescents' report of the parenting styles, four types of families were identified: those with Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive, and Neglectful parenting styles. The results further showed that adolescents from authoritative families applied most adaptive achievement strategies characterized by low levels of failure expectations, task-irrelevant behaviour and passivity, and the use of self-enhancing attributions. Adolescents from neglectful families, in turn, applied maladaptive strategies characterized by high levels of task-irrelevant behaviour, passivity and a lack of self-enhancing attributions. The results provide a basis for understanding some of the processes by which parenting styles may influence adolescents' academic achievement and performance.

  13. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor.

    PubMed

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-08-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16-24, 25-35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80-.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66-.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5-35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0-15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus-despite similar labels-these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles.

  14. The German Version of the Humor Styles Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and Overlap With Other Styles of Humor

    PubMed Central

    Ruch, Willibald; Heintz, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    The Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ; Martin et al., 2003) is one of the most frequently used questionnaires in humor research and has been adapted to several languages. The HSQ measures four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating), which should be adaptive or potentially maladaptive to psychosocial well-being. The present study analyzes the internal consistency, factorial validity, and factorial invariance of the HSQ on the basis of several German-speaking samples combined (total N = 1,101). Separate analyses were conducted for gender (male/female), age groups (16–24, 25–35, >36 years old), and countries (Germany/Switzerland). Internal consistencies were good for the overall sample and the demographic subgroups (.80–.89), with lower values obtained for the aggressive scale (.66–.73). Principal components and confirmatory factor analyses mostly supported the four-factor structure of the HSQ. Weak factorial invariance was found across gender and age groups, while strong factorial invariance was supported across countries. Two subsamples also provided self-ratings on ten styles of humorous conduct (n = 344) and of eight comic styles (n = 285). The four HSQ scales showed small to large correlations to the styles of humorous conduct (-.54 to .65) and small to medium correlations to the comic styles (-.27 to .42). The HSQ shared on average 27.5–35.0% of the variance with the styles of humorous conduct and 13.0–15.0% of the variance with the comic styles. Thus–despite similar labels–these styles of humorous conduct and comic styles differed from the HSQ humor styles. PMID:27547259

  15. Programming with Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, James

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the elements of programming style, considering capitalization, variables, constants, format, GOTO statements, user friendliness, and clarity. Although Pascal is used as the example, the information provided is applicable to any programming language. (JN)

  16. Supervision: Substance and Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  17. Attitudes, Administrative Styles, and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, J. Stanley

    1984-01-01

    The literature on administrative style is reviewed. Attention is directed to four basic concepts of administrative style: (1) the structured, classical, traditional model; (2) the participatory or employee-involved operation; (3) a more behavioral scientific style; and (4) the situational or environmental style. These ideas are more fully…

  18. Children's Responses to Literary Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Mary Vance

    This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…

  19. Learning Styles and Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Dauna B.

    This paper summarizes research on learning styles, then examines the cognitive style of Native American primary school students. Five theories of cognitive style (Dunn and Dunn, Gregorc, Kagan, Witkin, and Cohen) are examined along with the test instruments these theories have fostered. A sixth concept of cognitive style, brain hemispheric…

  20. Learning Styles: Humpty Dumpty Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivie, Stan D.

    2009-01-01

    What is a learning style? No one seems to know for sure. The language used by learning style theorists is filled with ambiguities. Price (2004) maintains that "learning style is often used as a metaphor for considering the range of individual differences in learning" (p. 681). Is learning style merely a fanciful metaphor or is it the wave of the…

  1. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  2. Management styles and motivation.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers. PMID:23130386

  3. Management styles and motivation.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  4. Demystifying APA style.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Claudia M

    2002-01-01

    Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices.

  5. Demystifying APA style.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Claudia M

    2002-01-01

    Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices. PMID:12432698

  6. Match the Style of Instruction to the Style of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Many reading problems are caused by using the wrong teaching methods. This article advocates using a reading style inventory and matching the teaching method to the student's reading style. The author holds copyright to this article. (Contains 3 figures.)

  7. Oral Style and Written Style: An Examination of Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einhorn, Lois

    1978-01-01

    Tests seven stylistic features of formal, persuasive public speeches and published writings of major figures from the last fifty years in an effort to determine if oral language style differs significantly from written language style. (MH)

  8. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  9. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  10. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J. A.; Martin, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual’s ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria. PMID:27547253

  11. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Rnic, Katerina; Dozois, David J A; Martin, Rod A

    2016-08-01

    Cognitive distortions are negative biases in thinking that are theorized to represent vulnerability factors for depression and dysphoria. Despite the emphasis placed on cognitive distortions in the context of cognitive behavioural theory and practice, a paucity of research has examined the mechanisms through which they impact depressive symptomatology. Both adaptive and maladaptive styles of humor represent coping strategies that may mediate the relation between cognitive distortions and depressive symptoms. The current study examined the correlations between the frequency and impact of cognitive distortions across both social and achievement-related contexts and types of humor. Cognitive distortions were associated with reduced use of adaptive Affiliative and Self-Enhancing humor styles and increased use of maladaptive Aggressive and Self-Defeating humor. Reduced use of Self-Enhancing humor mediated the relationship between most types of cognitive distortions and depressed mood, indicating that distorted negative thinking may interfere with an individual's ability to adopt a humorous and cheerful outlook on life (i.e., use Self-Enhancing humor) as a way of regulating emotions and coping with stress, thereby resulting in elevated depressive symptoms. Similarly, Self-Defeating humor mediated the association of the social impact of cognitive distortions with depression, such that this humor style may be used as a coping strategy for dealing with distorted thinking that ultimately backfires and results in increased dysphoria.

  12. Teaching Styles and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Daniel; And Others

    Using 24 college and university teachers, this study investigated the effect of teaching styles on adult student learning and analyzed the results of a factor breakdown, interactions between teacher behavior and class and student characteristics, and profiles of teacher effectiveness. Gains in factual information were positively related to teacher…

  13. Literary Genres and Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajay, Helen

    The purpose of this paper is to describe some general relationships between the concepts of literary genre and writing style. The discussion concentrates on the following topics: (1) possible classification schemes for genres, including stylistic aspects associated with each scheme; (2) concepts from literary criticsm that are related to both…

  14. Teaching Descriptive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brashers, H. C.

    1968-01-01

    As the inexperienced writer becomes aware of the issues involved in the composition of effective descriptive prose, he also develops a consistent control over his materials. The persona he chooses, if coherently thought out, can function as an index of many choices, helping him to manipulate the tone, intent, and mood of this style; to regulate…

  15. Tigers with Artistic Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students in which they painted their school mascot (a tiger) in the style of a famous artist. Explains that students selected an artist, such as Andrew Wyeth or Edvard Munch. Describes how the students created their tigers. (CMK)

  16. Creating a Leadership Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnici, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Many articles about school improvement talk about data-driven instruction and statistics. In the barrage of evaluative numbers, school leaders can forget that teaching and leading are arts, not sciences. Positive outcomes depend on the ambience of the school, which is a direct result of the leadership style of its principal and assistant…

  17. Audience, Style and Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimm, David; Sinclair, Nathalie

    2009-01-01

    The primary focus for this article involves aspects of professional mathematical writing and examines the possibility of a form of literary criticism in relation to it. By means of examples from contemporary style guides for academic articles in mathematics (AMS, MAA), as well as the writing of mathematicians (Hamilton, Dedekind) from earlier…

  18. Style Shift in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qinai, Jamal

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of style shift in translated texts is ascribed mainly to textual incompatibility in terms of rhetorical asymmetry and divergence at the formality level. Mandatory shifts result from a systematic dissimilarity between the source language and the target language in terms of the underlying system of syntax, semantics and rhetorical…

  19. Inuit-Style Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Rayma

    1999-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students create Inuit-style animals. Discusses the Inuit (Eskimo) artform in which the compositions utilize patterning and textures, such as small lines signifying fur. Explains that this project is well suited to a study of animals or to integrate with a social studies unit about Canada. (CMK)

  20. Perspective: Louisville Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…

  1. Style over Substance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Scoring SAT-style exam essays, John S. O'Connor is struck by the disconnection between the subject matter and students' personal lives. Further, O'Connor notes that such tests draw an alarming distinction between writing and "content"--as if the two are unrelated. O'Connor calls for a broader understanding of literacy, and he warns of dire…

  2. A Signature Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiles, Robin V.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses Dr. Amalia Amaki and her approach to art as her signature style by turning everyday items into fine art. Amaki is an assistant professor of art, art history, and Black American studies at the University of Delaware. She loves taking unexpected an object and redefining it in the context of art--like a button, a fan, a faded…

  3. Forgiveness and Defense Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz

    2004-01-01

    Within the literature on the psychology of forgiveness, researchers have hypothesized that the 1st stage in the process of being able to forgive is the role of psychological defense. To examine such a hypothesis, the authors explored the relationship between forgiveness and defense style. The 304 respondents (151 men, 153 women) completed measures…

  4. C style guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doland, Jerry; Valett, Jon

    1994-01-01

    This document discusses recommended practices and style for programmers using the C language in the Flight Dynamics Division environment. Guidelines are based on generally recommended software engineering techniques, industry resources, and local convention. The Guide offers preferred solutions to common C programming issues and illustrates through examples of C Code.

  5. Dominant Leadership Style in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajbhandari, Mani Man Singh

    2006-01-01

    The dominant leadership style is defined by the situation and the kind of organizational environment and climate. This, however, does not sufficiently define the leadership qualities in school organizations. There are other factors which also determine the dominant leadership style, which are the traits and style, teachers commitments, pass out…

  6. Strategies for Bridging Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birchman, J. A.; Sadowski, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the instrument used to determine learning styles, it is commonly accepted that people learn in different ways. As Professors, we tend to teach in a style that matches the way we ourselves learn. Tis may or may not match the learning styles of the students in our classroom. As Graphics educators, we cannot meet every student's…

  7. The Myth of Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riener, Cedar; Willingham, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    There is no credible evidence that learning styles exist. In this article, the authors begin by defining "learning styles"; then they address the claims made by those who believe that they exist, in the process acknowledging what the authors consider the valid claims of learning-styles theorists. But in separating the wheat from the…

  8. Leadership Styles and Their Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrick, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses leadership style theories and offers an integration of the theories by describing typical characteristics, skills, philosophies, and consequences associated with each major style. An experiential exercise is described which portrays the major styles and the productivity and satisfaction each is likely to produce. Nine figures accompany…

  9. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  10. Learning Styles: Impact on Knowledge and Confidence in Nursing Students in Simulation and Classroom.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Jane D; White, Anne; Long, Janice

    2016-08-24

    Nurse Educators must develop nursing curriculum with engaging learning strategies that promote the knowledge and confidence needed for safe, effective nursing practice. Faculty should explore new methods of teaching that consider how students learn. Studies have shown mixed results regarding student learning styles, academic achievement, and development of confidence in nursing practice. An experimental study using Felder and Soloman's (2004). Index of learning styles instrument was conducted to examine nursing student learning styles and their impact on confidence and knowledge in traditional and high fidelity simulation settings. Findings revealed students were more likely to have active, visual, sensing, and sequential learning styles. Student confidence or knowledge did not significantly differ among the learning styles in either simulation or traditional classroom methods. Awareness of learning styles may aid faculty in adapting engaging teaching strategies. Further research is needed with larger samples to identify best approaches to enhance student learning within the context of learning styles.

  11. Learning Styles: Impact on Knowledge and Confidence in Nursing Students in Simulation and Classroom.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Jane D; White, Anne; Long, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Nurse Educators must develop nursing curriculum with engaging learning strategies that promote the knowledge and confidence needed for safe, effective nursing practice. Faculty should explore new methods of teaching that consider how students learn. Studies have shown mixed results regarding student learning styles, academic achievement, and development of confidence in nursing practice. An experimental study using Felder and Soloman's (2004). Index of learning styles instrument was conducted to examine nursing student learning styles and their impact on confidence and knowledge in traditional and high fidelity simulation settings. Findings revealed students were more likely to have active, visual, sensing, and sequential learning styles. Student confidence or knowledge did not significantly differ among the learning styles in either simulation or traditional classroom methods. Awareness of learning styles may aid faculty in adapting engaging teaching strategies. Further research is needed with larger samples to identify best approaches to enhance student learning within the context of learning styles. PMID:27564700

  12. Practiced musical style shapes auditory skills.

    PubMed

    Vuust, Peter; Brattico, Elvira; Seppänen, Miia; Näätänen, Risto; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2012-04-01

    Musicians' processing of sounds depends highly on instrument, performance practice, and level of expertise. Here, we measured the mismatch negativity (MMN), a preattentive brain response, to six types of musical feature change in musicians playing three distinct styles of music (classical, jazz, and rock/pop) and in nonmusicians using a novel, fast, and musical sounding multifeature MMN paradigm. We found MMN to all six deviants, showing that MMN paradigms can be adapted to resemble a musical context. Furthermore, we found that jazz musicians had larger MMN amplitude than all other experimental groups across all sound features, indicating greater overall sensitivity to auditory outliers. Furthermore, we observed a tendency toward shorter latency of the MMN to all feature changes in jazz musicians compared to band musicians. These findings indicate that the characteristics of the style of music played by musicians influence their perceptual skills and the brain processing of sound features embedded in music.

  13. Neural correlates of cognitive style and flexible cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Shin, Gyeonghee; Kim, Chobok

    2015-06-01

    Human abilities of flexible cognitive control are associated with appropriately regulating the amount of cognitive control required in response to contextual demands. In the context of conflicting situations, for instance, the amount of cognitive control increases according to the level of previously experienced conflict, resulting in optimized performance. We explored whether the amount of cognitive control in conflict resolution was related to individual differences in cognitive style that were determined with the Object-Spatial-Verbal cognitive style questionnaire. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a version of the color-word Stroop task, which evokes conflict between color and verbal components, was employed to explore whether individual preferences for distracting information were related to the increases in neural conflict adaptation in cognitive control network regions. The behavioral data revealed that the more the verbal style was preferred, the greater the conflict adaptation effect was observed, especially when the current trial type was congruent. Consistent with the behavioral data, the imaging results demonstrated increased neural conflict adaptation effects in task-relevant network regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left fusiform gyrus, and left precuneus, as the preference for verbal style increased. These results provide new evidence that flexible cognitive control is closely associated with individuals' preference of cognitive style.

  14. Neural correlates of cognitive style and flexible cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Shin, Gyeonghee; Kim, Chobok

    2015-06-01

    Human abilities of flexible cognitive control are associated with appropriately regulating the amount of cognitive control required in response to contextual demands. In the context of conflicting situations, for instance, the amount of cognitive control increases according to the level of previously experienced conflict, resulting in optimized performance. We explored whether the amount of cognitive control in conflict resolution was related to individual differences in cognitive style that were determined with the Object-Spatial-Verbal cognitive style questionnaire. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, a version of the color-word Stroop task, which evokes conflict between color and verbal components, was employed to explore whether individual preferences for distracting information were related to the increases in neural conflict adaptation in cognitive control network regions. The behavioral data revealed that the more the verbal style was preferred, the greater the conflict adaptation effect was observed, especially when the current trial type was congruent. Consistent with the behavioral data, the imaging results demonstrated increased neural conflict adaptation effects in task-relevant network regions, including the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left fusiform gyrus, and left precuneus, as the preference for verbal style increased. These results provide new evidence that flexible cognitive control is closely associated with individuals' preference of cognitive style. PMID:25812714

  15. Modeling Leadership Styles in Human-Robot Team Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Gerardo E.

    2005-01-01

    The recent proliferation of robotic systems in our society has placed questions regarding interaction between humans and intelligent machines at the forefront of robotics research. In response, our research attempts to understand the context in which particular types of interaction optimize efficiency in tasks undertaken by human-robot teams. It is our conjecture that applying previous research results regarding leadership paradigms in human organizations will lead us to a greater understanding of the human-robot interaction space. In doing so, we adapt four leadership styles prevalent in human organizations to human-robot teams. By noting which leadership style is more appropriately suited to what situation, as given by previous research, a mapping is created between the adapted leadership styles and human-robot interaction scenarios-a mapping which will presumably maximize efficiency in task completion for a human-robot team. In this research we test this mapping with two adapted leadership styles: directive and transactional. For testing, we have taken a virtual 3D interface and integrated it with a genetic algorithm for use in &le-operation of a physical robot. By developing team efficiency metrics, we can determine whether this mapping indeed prescribes interaction styles that will maximize efficiency in the teleoperation of a robot.

  16. Revisiting the Concept of "Style Match"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang; Sternberg, Robert J.; Fan, Jieqiong

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intellectual style, an encompassing term for such constructs as learning style, teaching style, teaching approach, and thinking style, refers to one's preferred way of processing information. For the past several decades, whether or not there is a need for a match between teachers' teaching styles and students' learning styles has been…

  17. Age and Gender Differences in Coping Style across Various Problems: Omani Adolescents' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…

  18. Web-Based Learning Programs: Use by Learners with Various Cognitive Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ling-Hsiu

    2010-01-01

    To consider how Web-based learning program is utilized by learners with different cognitive styles, this study presents a Web-based learning system (WBLS) and analyzes learners' browsing data recorded in the log file to identify how learners' cognitive styles and learning behavior are related. In order to develop an adapted WBLS, this study also…

  19. The Effects of Multimedia and Learning Style on Student Achievement in Online Electronics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surjono, Herman Dwi

    2015-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the effects of multimedia preferences and learning styles on undergraduate student achievement in an adaptive e-learning system for electronics course at the Yogyakarta State University Indonesia. The findings showed that students in which their multimedia preferences and learning style matched with the way the…

  20. The Relevance of Learning Styles for International Pedagogy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Mina

    2011-01-01

    As the number of international students and transnational education agreements continue to rise at an unprecedented rate in many countries, an area of research that continues to lag behind is how far students' learning styles can adapt to different educational contexts. Learning styles research has recently developed from simplistic yet popular…

  1. Use of Computer Technology for English Language Learning: Do Learning Styles, Gender, and Age Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Cynthia; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Ip, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Computer technology provides spaces and locales for language learning. However, learning style preference and demographic variables may affect the effectiveness of technology use for a desired goal. Adapting Reid's pioneering Perceptual Learning Style Preference Questionnaire (PLSPQ), this study investigated the relations of university students'…

  2. Teacher stress and cognitive style.

    PubMed

    Borg, M G; Riding, R J

    1993-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the teacher's cognitive style and occupational stress. A sample of 212 teachers in Maltese secondary schools completed a questionnaire surveying both the level of overall stress and the severity of four major areas of job stress. They were also given the Cognitive Styles Analysis which assesses two fundamental dimensions of cognitive style, wholist-analytic and verbal-imagery. For the top and bottom 25 per cent of the sample with extreme style characteristics, self-reported teacher stress was not related to style in a simple manner. However, style interacted significantly with teacher age. With regard to the four major areas of occupational stress, significant variations in the levels of stress were observed with style: whereas Analytics reported greater stress than Wholists for 'pupil misbehaviour' and 'poor working conditions', the converse was true for 'poor staff relations' and 'time pressures'.

  3. Style in medical journals.

    PubMed Central

    Adams Smith, D E

    1983-01-01

    A study of medical journals from 1962 showed a constant preoccupation with style. Editors and contributors on both sides of the Atlantic revile unnecessary obscurity and complexity and the use of jargon, barbarisms, vogue words, and weak impersonal constructions. They bewail the pompous use of verbiage and the "medspeak" typified by acronyms and neologisms created by affixation. Suggestions for possible causes of poor medical style range from editorial demands for compression and a general ignorance of the principles of good writing to faulty logic and the subordination of communication to status seeking. The consequences of bad writing may include the fragmentation of knowledge, an increase in the importance of abstracting services, a trend towards free glossy medical newspapers, and, as remedial measures, workshops and courses in medical writing. Some implications for English language teachers working with foreign medical graduates and preclinical students are discussed. PMID:6414596

  4. Hair Styling Appliances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Key tool of Redken Laboratories new line of hair styling appliances is an instrument called a thermograph, a heat sensing device originally developed by Hughes Aircraft Co. under U.S. Army and NASA funding. Redken Laboratories bought one of the early models of the Hughes Probeye Thermal Video System or TVS which detects the various degrees of heat emitted by an object and displays the results in color on a TV monitor with colors representing different temperatures detected.

  5. Style comparisons in calligraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiafen; Nagy, George

    2012-01-01

    Calligraphic style is considered, for this research, visual attributes of images of calligraphic characters sampled randomly from a "work" created by a single artist. It is independent of page layout or textual content. An experimental design is developed to investigate to what extent the source of a single, or of a few pairs, of character images can be assigned to the either same work or to two different works. The experiments are conducted on the 13,571 segmented and labeled 600-dpi character images of the CADAL database. The classifier is not trained on the works tested, only on other works. Even when only a few samples of same-class pairs are available, the difference-vector of a few simple features extracted from each image of a pair yields over 80% classification accuracy for a same-work vs. different-work dichotomy. When many pairs of different classes are available for each pair, the accuracy, using the same features, is almost the same. These style-verification experiments are part of our larger goal of style identification and forgery detection.

  6. Attachment Styles as a Predictor of Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamarta, Erdal; Deniz, M. Engin; Saltali, Neslihan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine if attachment styles predict emotional intelligence (intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood). Participants of the study consisted of 463 (272 females, 191 males) undergraduate students selected randomly from different faculties of Selcuk University. Regression and…

  7. [Grieving among relatives and caregivers].

    PubMed

    Pascual, Angel María; Santamaría, Juan Luis

    2009-11-01

    This article provides a definition and description of grief, its characteristics, and the current explanatory models of this phenomenon (the stage model, task model, constructivist model and dual process model). The authors argue that a state of mourning in advance is produced in the process of dementia as a result of significant relational loss before death and describe the risk factors for complicated grief in caregivers: overload, lack of personal and material resources, delegation of care, and complex feelings such as guilt. The need for healthcare organizations to provide professional caregivers with the appropriate means to help with grief and to develop their own measures to prevent burnout is stressed. These measures could include protocols that provide bereavement intervention with the family, the primary caregiver, other patients and/or residents and the professional caregiving team. Finally, losses in persons with dementia must be taken into consideration, avoiding phenomena such as silencing and overprotection and encouraging acceptance and emotional support of their pain so that organic and emotional complications do not occur.

  8. Helping Grieving Children and Teenagers

    MedlinePlus

    ... react to loss through behaviors such as irritability, aggression, physical symptoms, difficulty sleeping, or regression (such as ... such as school avoidance, poor performance in school, aggression, physical symptoms, withdrawal from friends, and regression Still ...

  9. Adaptive Cognitive-Based Selection of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karampiperis, Pythagoras; Lin, Taiyu; Sampson, Demetrios G.; Kinshuk

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive cognitive-based selection is recognized as among the most significant open issues in adaptive web-based learning systems. In order to adaptively select learning resources, the definition of adaptation rules according to the cognitive style or learning preferences of the learners is required. Although some efforts have been reported in…

  10. Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence.

    PubMed

    Pashler, Harold; McDaniel, Mark; Rohrer, Doug; Bjork, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The term "learning styles" refers to the concept that individuals differ in regard to what mode of instruction or study is most effective for them. Proponents of learning-style assessment contend that optimal instruction requires diagnosing individuals' learning style and tailoring instruction accordingly. Assessments of learning style typically ask people to evaluate what sort of information presentation they prefer (e.g., words versus pictures versus speech) and/or what kind of mental activity they find most engaging or congenial (e.g., analysis versus listening), although assessment instruments are extremely diverse. The most common-but not the only-hypothesis about the instructional relevance of learning styles is the meshing hypothesis, according to which instruction is best provided in a format that matches the preferences of the learner (e.g., for a "visual learner," emphasizing visual presentation of information). The learning-styles view has acquired great influence within the education field, and is frequently encountered at levels ranging from kindergarten to graduate school. There is a thriving industry devoted to publishing learning-styles tests and guidebooks for teachers, and many organizations offer professional development workshops for teachers and educators built around the concept of learning styles. The authors of the present review were charged with determining whether these practices are supported by scientific evidence. We concluded that any credible validation of learning-styles-based instruction requires robust documentation of a very particular type of experimental finding with several necessary criteria. First, students must be divided into groups on the basis of their learning styles, and then students from each group must be randomly assigned to receive one of multiple instructional methods. Next, students must then sit for a final test that is the same for all students. Finally, in order to demonstrate that optimal learning requires

  11. Teaching Style vs. Learning Style. Myths and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    Teaching styles reflect the beliefs and values that teachers hold about the learners' role in learning; learning styles provide insight into the ways learners perceive, interact with and respond to the environment in which learning occurs. Many teachers teach in the way they were taught which usually can be characterized as field independent…

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Cognitive Style and Teaching Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Carol

    2004-01-01

    To a great extent the nature of the relationship between the cognitive style of a student teacher and their predominant teaching style in the classroom has been ignored by educational research. This study used an opportunist sample of 84 trainee teachers studying for one year full time for a Post Graduate Certificate in Education, in a range of…

  13. Traduction automatique et style (Machine Translation and Style).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loffler-Laurian, Anne-Marie

    1985-01-01

    Machine translation has been criticized for its inability to provide language style, but for specialized or technical texts, of which there are increasing numbers, machine translation with its obligatory post-editing may be effective, and the "style" of these translations may be a reflection of the error patterns caught in post-editing. (MSE)

  14. Learning styles of medical students at Taibah University: Trends and implications

    PubMed Central

    Guraya, Shaista Salman; Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Habib, Fawzia A.; Khoshhal, Khalid I.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Understanding the learning styles of medical students can drive the institutions to adapt instructional materials to enhance students’ learning of knowledge and skills. This study explored the learning styles of undergraduate medical students, comparing gender variations in terms of their significant preferences. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 2012-2013, incorporating 1st-5th year undergraduate medical students of Taibah University. The instrument used was a Learning Style Questionnaire, with four learning styles (activist, reflector, theorist and pragmatist) and 40 items. Results: Of 450 students, 384 responded (response rate; 85%). No single learning style predominated; 96 (25%) reflectors, 78 (20%) theorists, 68 (17%) pragmatists, and 37 (9%) activists. Combined reflector and theorist was the predominant dual learning style in 27 (7%) students. Among genders, theorist style had a significant result (P = 0.071) indicating that theorists varied among genders due to their different opinions. Learning style preferences of theorists and pragmatists also showed a significant result (P = 0.000 each), depicting that both genders had unique preferences. Males had fewer variations of preferences, when compared with females who showed a significant difference of opinions (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The students in the study preferred diverse learning styles, which were unevenly distributed, reflectors being the most common and activists as the least common. The results reflect the need to promote self-directed learning and modifications of instructional strategies, with expectant tilt in the students’ learning styles towards activists and pragmatists. PMID:25709657

  15. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  16. Learning Style Profile: Examiner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, James W.; Monk, John S.

    This examiner's manual accompanies the Learning Style Profile (LSP), which measures cognitive skills as well as affective and environmental preferences. Charles Letteri's General Operations Model was accepted as the prototype for relating learning styles to cognitive information processing. The LSP was developed from 1983 to 1986; several versions…

  17. Reconsidering the Teaching of Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    About 10 years ago, Robert J. Connors's article "The Erasure of the Sentence" questioned the disappearance of writing style and examined the validity of some of the reasons given for its disappearance. Since that 2000 article, the study of style has undergone a kind of renaissance, with numerous books and articles on its uses in composition theory…

  18. How to Use Advisory Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margerison, Charles

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses the two basic advisory styles: (1) pumping advice in and (2) drawing information out that helps individuals solve their own problems. He demonstrates the major differences between these styles and indicates the conditions under which each is appropriate. (CH)

  19. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  20. Planning for Neomillennial Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Rapid advances in information technology are reshaping the learning styles of many students in higher education. Many faculty will find such a shift in instruction difficult, but through professional development they can accommodate neomillennial learning styles to continue teaching effectively as the nature of students evolves. Beyond this…

  1. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  2. Humor and creative life styles.

    PubMed

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  3. Evaluating the prevention through alternative learning styles program.

    PubMed

    Huber, Mary J; Workman, Judson; Ford, Jo Ann; Moore, Dennis; Mayer, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the evaluation of a two-year alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) intervention, the Prevention through Alternative Learning Styles (PALS) program, targeting both teachers and middle-school students. Teachers are taught to recognize students' unique learning styles in the context of the ATOD curriculum and adapt the ATOD messages to these learning styles. The student curriculum consists of 5 topic areas with two lessons per topic area. Student goals include enhancing students' knowledge of the effects of ATOD, promoting students' use of refusal skills and decreasing students' intentions to use ATOD. The program was implemented in school dis-tricts in the greater Dayton Ohio area. Support was found for the intervention's overall effectiveness in both years, with statistically significant improvements demonstrated by the students who participated in the PALS program. Students had an increase in their knowledge of ATOD topic areas and a decrease in their intentions to use ATOD.

  4. Shakespeare: Kabuki-Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turse, Paul Leonard, Jr.

    This study examines the theatrical and thematic aspects of Kabuki and provides recommendations for using these aspects in the production of plays by Shakespeare. Sequences from "Hamlet,""Macbeth," and "Julius Caesar" were chosen because they are adaptable to Kabuki design. In order to help a director view these plays in terms of Kabuki, an…

  5. Adaptation to College for Students with and without Disabilities: Group Differences and Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Katharine S.; Proctor, Briley E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated differences between attributional style and student adaptation to college for students with and without disabilities. In terms of attributional style, the students with disabilities demonstrated a more internal, stable, and global attributional style for both positive events and negative events. In terms of student…

  6. Evaluating your personal management style.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D H

    1982-01-01

    Every medical group manager develops his own managerial leadership style. This style is based on personal background and education, an individual conception of what management and leadership are, and analysis and application of management theory. The author identifies many responsibilities that an administrator must assume to effectively manage--responsibilities which are closely tied to employee motivation. Motivational theories are discussed, as well as the application of techniques based on principles. The author has also distilled what he considers to be the essential qualities of a successful management style.

  7. Evaluating your personal management style.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D H

    1982-01-01

    Every medical group manager develops his own managerial leadership style. This style is based on personal background and education, an individual conception of what management and leadership are, and analysis and application of management theory. The author identifies many responsibilities that an administrator must assume to effectively manage--responsibilities which are closely tied to employee motivation. Motivational theories are discussed, as well as the application of techniques based on principles. The author has also distilled what he considers to be the essential qualities of a successful management style. PMID:10261817

  8. An Experimental Comparison of the Flexibility in the Use of Thinking Styles in Traditional and Hypermedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weiqiao

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the instructional experiment was to examine if the use of thinking styles is flexible in traditional and hypermedia learning environments, and if a hypermedia learning environment possesses obvious advantages than a traditional environment in adapting to students with different thinking styles. The participant university students…

  9. Personal Change and Intervention Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  10. Reading Style: Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prescription.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbo, Marie L.

    1980-01-01

    Designed for the evaluation of the reading ability of handicapped students, the reading style checklist (RSC) is presented along with lists of abilities a student would need in order to learn to read using different reading methods. (PHR)

  11. Brain Hemispheres and Thinking Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Esther Cappon

    1980-01-01

    The author reviews some research, particularly that of Roger Sperry, substantiating the existence of different thinking styles in the two brain hemispheres and the development of this differentiation in infancy and childhood. She draws some implications for elementary teaching. (SJL)

  12. Assessing and Validating a Learning Styles Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCapua, Andrea; Wintergerst, Ann C.

    2005-01-01

    How can learning styles best be measured? Reid's (1984) Perceptual Learning Styles Preference Questionnaire has been widely used in ESL/EFL research to investigate learning styles. Previous research revealed concerns with the reliability and validity of the PLSPQ, leading the researchers to devise a new Learning Styles Indicator (LSI), based on…

  13. Fostering Successful Intellectual Styles for Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual styles refer to people's preferred ways of processing information and dealing with tasks. Individuals who have a propensity for using a wide range of styles--always including creativity-generating styles--are said to possess successful intellectual styles. The author argues that teachers should and can encourage creativity among…

  14. Exploring child-feeding style in childcare settings: how might nursery practitioners affect child eating style and weight?

    PubMed

    Elford, L; Brown, A

    2014-04-01

    Although considerable research has explored the role of parents in affecting child eating habits and weight, there has been little consideration of the impact of other key care providers in the early years. A controlling maternal child-feeding style (e.g. use of pressure to eat or restricting certain foods) has been associated with over consumption, fussy eating and weight issue. Conversely, responsive child-feeding styles whereby children are allowed to regulate their own intake but encouraged to eat a range of foods and try new tastes are associated with healthier eating styles and weight. Increasing numbers of preschool children now spend time in day care settings, many for up to fifty hours a week but interactions with caregivers during mealtimes remain unexplored. The aim of the current study was to begin to explore child-feeding styles of nursery practitioners working with children aged 0-5 years. Sixty three nursery practitioners completed an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire to examine their interactions with children during mealtimes. Themes included pressure to eat, encouragement to eat and use of reward. Typically practitioners reported responsive child-feeding styles with low levels of pressure to eat but high levels of encouragement to try new foods. Use of reward to eat certain foods or as a bribe to modify behaviour was however more common. The findings have important implications for understanding the role of childcare providers in affecting child eating habits and weight.

  15. Exploring child-feeding style in childcare settings: how might nursery practitioners affect child eating style and weight?

    PubMed

    Elford, L; Brown, A

    2014-04-01

    Although considerable research has explored the role of parents in affecting child eating habits and weight, there has been little consideration of the impact of other key care providers in the early years. A controlling maternal child-feeding style (e.g. use of pressure to eat or restricting certain foods) has been associated with over consumption, fussy eating and weight issue. Conversely, responsive child-feeding styles whereby children are allowed to regulate their own intake but encouraged to eat a range of foods and try new tastes are associated with healthier eating styles and weight. Increasing numbers of preschool children now spend time in day care settings, many for up to fifty hours a week but interactions with caregivers during mealtimes remain unexplored. The aim of the current study was to begin to explore child-feeding styles of nursery practitioners working with children aged 0-5 years. Sixty three nursery practitioners completed an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire to examine their interactions with children during mealtimes. Themes included pressure to eat, encouragement to eat and use of reward. Typically practitioners reported responsive child-feeding styles with low levels of pressure to eat but high levels of encouragement to try new foods. Use of reward to eat certain foods or as a bribe to modify behaviour was however more common. The findings have important implications for understanding the role of childcare providers in affecting child eating habits and weight. PMID:24854825

  16. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. PMID:21896116

  17. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection.

  18. Objective styles in northern field science.

    PubMed

    Kochan, Jeff

    2015-08-01

    Social studies of science have often treated natural field sites as extensions of the laboratory. But this overlooks the unique specificities of field sites. While lab sites are usually private spaces with carefully controlled borders, field sites are more typically public spaces with fluid boundaries and diverse inhabitants. Field scientists must therefore often adapt their work to the demands and interests of local agents. I propose to address the difference between lab and field in sociological terms, as a difference in style. A field style treats epistemic alterity as a resource rather than an obstacle for objective knowledge production. A sociological stylistics of the field should thus explain how objective science can co-exist with radical conceptual difference. I discuss examples from the Canadian North, focussing on collaborations between state wildlife biologists and managers, on the one hand, and local Aboriginal Elders and hunters, on the other. I argue that a sociological stylistics of the field can help us to better understand how radically diverse agents may collaborate across cultures in the successful production of reliable natural knowledge. PMID:26193783

  19. Hypnotizability as a Function of Repression, Adaptive Regression, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Maurice Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Forty male undergraduates were assessed in a personality assessment session and a hypnosis session. The personality traits studied were repressive style and adaptive regression, while the transitory variable was mood prior to hypnosis. Hypnotizability was a significant interactive function of repressive style and mood, but not of adaptive…

  20. Let's Look at Style: Visual and Spatial Representation and Reasoning in Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupp, Julie; Gero, John

    This chapter explores the perception and modeling of style in design relating to visuo-spatial representation and reasoning. We approach this subject via cognitive and contextual considerations significant to the role of style during designing. A designer's ability to represent and reason about design artifacts visually and spatially allows meaningful "chunks" of design information to be utilized relative to the designer's task and context. Central to cognitive and contextual notions of style are two issues, namely the level of semantic interpretation, and the comparative method's degree of contextual sensitivity. This compound problem requires some explicit and cognitively plausible ordering principle and adaptive measure capable of allowing for dependencies in reasoning about similarities. This chapter first investigates the perception of style in relation to these modeling requirements before demonstrating and testing their implementation. We then discuss style in relation to design tasks and how they can be supported via the classification and retrieval of designs from large databases of visuo-spatial information.

  1. Predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Czepula, Alexandra I.; Bottacin, Wallace E.; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R.; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J.

    2015-01-01

    statistically significant difference between genders with regard to learning styles. Conclusion: The pragmatist style is the prevailing style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná. Although students may have a learning preference that preference is not the only manner in which students can learn, neither their preference is the only manner in which students can be taught. Awareness of students’ learning styles can be used to adapt the methodology used by teachers to render the teaching-learning process effective and long lasting. The content taught to students should be presented in different manners because varying teaching methods can develop learning skills in students. PMID:27011774

  2. Cognitive Style as Environmentally Sensitive Individual Differences in Cognition: A Modern Synthesis and Applications in Education, Business, and Management.

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Evans, Carol; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2014-05-01

    The key aims of this article are to relate the construct of cognitive style to current theories in cognitive psychology and neuroscience and to outline a framework that integrates the findings on individual differences in cognition across different disciplines. First, we characterize cognitive style as patterns of adaptation to the external world that develop on the basis of innate predispositions, the interactions among which are shaped by changing environmental demands. Second, we show that research on cognitive style in psychology and cross-cultural neuroscience, on learning styles in education, and on decision-making styles in business and management all address the same phenomena. Third, we review cognitive-psychology and neuroscience research that supports the validity of the concept of cognitive style. Fourth, we show that various styles from disparate disciplines can be organized into a single taxonomy. This taxonomy allows us to integrate all the well-documented cognitive, learning, and decision-making styles; all of these style types correspond to adaptive systems that draw on different levels of information processing. Finally, we discuss how the proposed approach might promote greater coherence in research and application in education, in business and management, and in other disciplines.

  3. Cognitive Style as Environmentally Sensitive Individual Differences in Cognition: A Modern Synthesis and Applications in Education, Business, and Management.

    PubMed

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Evans, Carol; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2014-05-01

    The key aims of this article are to relate the construct of cognitive style to current theories in cognitive psychology and neuroscience and to outline a framework that integrates the findings on individual differences in cognition across different disciplines. First, we characterize cognitive style as patterns of adaptation to the external world that develop on the basis of innate predispositions, the interactions among which are shaped by changing environmental demands. Second, we show that research on cognitive style in psychology and cross-cultural neuroscience, on learning styles in education, and on decision-making styles in business and management all address the same phenomena. Third, we review cognitive-psychology and neuroscience research that supports the validity of the concept of cognitive style. Fourth, we show that various styles from disparate disciplines can be organized into a single taxonomy. This taxonomy allows us to integrate all the well-documented cognitive, learning, and decision-making styles; all of these style types correspond to adaptive systems that draw on different levels of information processing. Finally, we discuss how the proposed approach might promote greater coherence in research and application in education, in business and management, and in other disciplines. PMID:26171827

  4. The chemists' style of thinking.

    PubMed

    Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette

    2009-12-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of the notion of "styles of scientific thinking" introduced by Alistair Crombie and revisited by Ian Hacking, for understanding how chemistry shaped its identity. Although neither Crombie nor Hacking applied this notion to individual disciplines, it seems appropriate to use it in the case of chemistry because it helps to address a puzzling issue: how did chemists manage to shape an identity of their own, despite shifting territories and theoretical transformations? Following a presentation of the notion of style, I will argue that the stable identity of chemistry is rooted in laboratory practices, which determined the specific questions that chemists put to nature as well as the answers to their questions. The "chemical style of thinking" is characterized by (i) a specific way of knowing through making, (ii) the concern with individual materials rather than matter in general and (iii) a specific commitment to nature. PMID:20481060

  5. Getting your research published: adapting the thesis style.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S H

    1992-01-01

    Writing a research report is similar to the research experience; both are processes with many distinct steps. Break your research project into parts and write about key accomplishments as you complete each milestone in the project.

  6. Adapting a thesis to publication style: meeting editors' expectations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S H

    1996-01-01

    Every year hundreds of thesis reports are completed by graduate students. Many of these end up on nursing journal editors' desks, only to be rejected. What characteristics of a thesis lead to rejection? How can authors develop quality research manuscripts? How can faculty teach graduate students the difference between a thesis and manuscript. This article answers these questions by providing advice from 15 critical care and research journal editors.

  7. Styles in Intimate Relationships: The A-R-C Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    L'Abate, Luciano

    1983-01-01

    Links internal personality differentiation to external patterns of interpersonal style. Suggests three basic styles in intimate relationships: apathy, reactivity, and conductivity. Discusses each style in detail. (RC)

  8. Learning Styles and Teaching Styles in College English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Mai

    2011-01-01

    Students preferentially take in and process information in different ways: by seeing and hearing, reflecting and acting, reasoning logically and intuitively, analyzing and visualizing. Teaching methods also should vary accordingly. How much a student can learn is also determined by the compatibility of the student's learning styles and the…

  9. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity.

  10. Defining skilled nursing facility residents' dining style preferences.

    PubMed

    Adams, Katy; Anderson, Janet B; Archuleta, Martha; Smith Kudin, Janette

    2013-01-01

    The desire of skilled nursing facilities to increase quality of service to meet changes in residents' expectations, improve marketability, and adhere to regulations warrant a new look at culture change and homelike dining as defined by residents in skilled nursing facilities (SNF). The objectives of this study were to determine residents' home dining practices, to define residents' desired dining style practices in the SNF, and to determine the relationship between home dining practices and dining preferences in SNF. One hundred and four residents in three SNF in the central Texas area who met the cognition criteria and consumed facility-provided food were engaged in a standardized interview using the Resident Dining Style Preferences Survey. Data were analyzed to determine the degree to which home practices determine SNF dining preferences. Our findings showed that the majority of the participants want hot, home cooked meals served in the dining room. They want to be seated at the table with friends and neighbors and served on every day plates in a quiet atmosphere, with food served restaurant or table service style. Length of stay and generational group were not significant predictors of dining style preferences. Study limitations included small sample size and lack of ethnic diversity. Our study results show that removing dining time restrictions may be the most valuable adaptation for a SNF looking to initiate culture change. PMID:23924255

  11. Improving Technical Instruction Using Personality Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomal, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Incorporating personality styles into technical instruction can enhance student learning. Four personality styles based on Jung--intuitor, feeler, thinker, and doer--have implications for individualizing technical instruction. (JOW)

  12. Save Money with a Corporate Style Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Paul R.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that corporate style guides create consistency in documents, promote a professional image, train new employees, and define document generation. Describes how to develop a corporate style guide. (SR)

  13. Managment Styles to Avoid: Some Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttschalk, George E.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes management styles of numerous leaders who failed. Presents these categories of styles not associated with success: dictator, blocker, withholder, brownnoser, butcher, non-delegator, worrier, troublemaker, malcontent, weakling, jealous executive, and no-conscience administrator. (Author/ABL)

  14. Cognitive styles and visual quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Strohmeier, Dominik

    2013-03-01

    Assessors are the main measurement instruments in subjective quality evaluation studies. Although the perceptual abilities and constrains are influenced by multiple demographic and psychographic factors, they are typically disregarded as a part of quality assessment. Cognitive styles refer to individual's consistent approaches to organize and represent information. Goal of this study is to explore the impact of cognitive styles on visual quality requirements. The data collection is conducted using the Style of Processing (SOP) questionnaire in three video quality experiments with a total of 72 participants. All participants were categorized into four groups according to sensorial preferences in information processing (visual, verbal, bimodal - high processing, and bimodal - low processing). The experiments were conducted in controlled circumstances when varying depth in video quality with several content types on the mobile device. The results show variation in quality requirements between these groups. Finally, these results also indicate that sensorial processing styles are essential to explore for sample characterization in quality evaluation experiments and for exploring more user-aware quality adjustments in future services and products.

  15. Cognitive Performance and Cognitive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…

  16. Style and Variables in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shopen, Timothy, Ed.; Williams, Joseph M., Ed.

    A collection of articles on the kinds of variation in English that one finds within the language of one group or one person includes: "The English Language as Rule-Governed Behavior" (Timothy Shopen); "The English Language as Use-Governed Behavior" (Joseph M. Williams); "Styles" (Ann D. Zwicky); "The Organization of Discourse" (Charlotte Linde);…

  17. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  18. Cognitive Styles and Virtual Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Nigel

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of navigation through virtual information environments focuses on the need for robust user models that take into account individual differences. Considers Pask's information processing styles and strategies; deep (transformational) and surface (reproductive) learning; field dependence/independence; divergent/convergent thinking;…

  19. Student-Negotiated Lesson Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of action research conducted in an EFL university context, in which data was collected about students' past English learning experiences and hopes for college speaking classes. This data was then used to guide the lesson style for the semester. The study used three cycles of action research over one 15-week…

  20. Individual Learning Styles and Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitar, Aleša Saša; Cerne, Matej; Aleksic, Darija; Mihelic, Katarina Katja

    2016-01-01

    Business schools are in need of developing creative graduates. This article explores how creativity among business students can be stimulated. Because a considerable amount of knowledge is required for creative ideas to emerge, the learning process has a significant impact on creativity. This, in turn, indicates that learning style is important…

  1. Epistemic Constraint and Teaching Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiamzade, Alain; Mugny, Gabriel; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study investigated the influence of informational dependence on information appropriation as a function of epistemic authority's styles. In a 2x2 design, university students were informed that acknowledging epistemic dependence was related either to academic success or to academic failure, and were exposed to controversial…

  2. Leadership Styles of School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Bonnie; Ruhl-Smith, Connie

    1996-01-01

    Examined leadership styles of principals and assistant principals employed in the Texas Panhandle area, focusing on administrator differences based on school level, position held, and gender. Employed four leadership domains (functional, interpersonal, contextual, and programmatic) as a basis for the survey instrument. Principals at all levels are…

  3. Metrication, American Style. Fastback 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izzi, John

    The purpose of this pamphlet is to provide a starting point of information on the metric system for any concerned or interested reader. The material is organized into five brief chapters: Man and Measurement; Learning the Metric System; Progress Report: Education; Recommended Sources; and Metrication, American Style. Appendixes include an…

  4. Drinking Styles of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellott, Ramona N.; Swartz, Jody L.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to determine whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) on college campuses have a more problematic style of drinking compared with non-ACOAs. Results indicate ACOAs endorse more problematic drinking patterns. Discusses implications for counselors who undertake prevention and intervention for ACOA student population. (Author/JDM)

  5. Style and non-style in anatomical illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Style is a familiar category for the analysis of art. It is less so in the history of anatomical illustration. The great Renaissance and Baroque picture books of anatomy illustrated with stylish woodcuts and engravings, such as those by Charles Estienne, Andreas Vesalius and Govard Bidloo, showed figures in dramatic action in keeping with philosophical and theological ideas about human nature. Parallels can be found in paintings of the period, such as those by Titian, Michelangelo and Hans Baldung Grien. The anatomists also claimed to portray the body in an objective manner, and showed themselves as heroes of the discovery of human knowledge. Rembrandt's painting of Dr Nicholas Tulp is the best-known image of the anatomist as hero. The British empirical tradition in the 18th century saw William Cheselden and William Hunter working with techniques of representation that were intended to guarantee detailed realism. The ambition to portray forms life-size led to massive volumes, such as those by Antonio Mascagni. John Bell, the Scottish anatomist, criticized the size and pretensions of the earlier books and argued for a plain style adapted to the needs of teaching and surgery. Henry Gray's famous Anatomy of 1858, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, aspired to a simple descriptive mode of functional representation that avoided stylishness, resulting in a style of its own. Successive editions of Gray progressively saw the replacement of Gray's method and of all his illustrations. The 150th anniversary edition, edited by Susan Standring, radically re-thinks the role of Gray's book within the teaching of medicine. PMID:20447244

  6. Style and non-style in anatomical illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Style is a familiar category for the analysis of art. It is less so in the history of anatomical illustration. The great Renaissance and Baroque picture books of anatomy illustrated with stylish woodcuts and engravings, such as those by Charles Estienne, Andreas Vesalius and Govard Bidloo, showed figures in dramatic action in keeping with philosophical and theological ideas about human nature. Parallels can be found in paintings of the period, such as those by Titian, Michelangelo and Hans Baldung Grien. The anatomists also claimed to portray the body in an objective manner, and showed themselves as heroes of the discovery of human knowledge. Rembrandt’s painting of Dr Nicholas Tulp is the best-known image of the anatomist as hero. The British empirical tradition in the 18th century saw William Cheselden and William Hunter working with techniques of representation that were intended to guarantee detailed realism. The ambition to portray forms life-size led to massive volumes, such as those by Antonio Mascagni. John Bell, the Scottish anatomist, criticized the size and pretensions of the earlier books and argued for a plain style adapted to the needs of teaching and surgery. Henry Gray’s famous Anatomy of 1858, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, aspired to a simple descriptive mode of functional representation that avoided stylishness, resulting in a style of its own. Successive editions of Gray progressively saw the replacement of Gray’s method and of all his illustrations. The 150th anniversary edition, edited by Susan Standring, radically re-thinks the role of Gray’s book within the teaching of medicine. PMID:20447244

  7. The Relationship between Decision Making Styles and Leadership Styles among Public Schools Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…

  8. Assessing Experiential Learning Styles: A Methodological Reconstruction and Validation of the Kolb Learning Style Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manolis, Chris; Burns, David J.; Assudani, Rashmi; Chinta, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    To understand experiential learning, many have reiterated the need to be able to identify students' learning styles. Kolb's Learning Style Model is the most widely accepted learning style model and has received a substantial amount of empirical support. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), although one of the most widely utilized instruments to…

  9. Device Independent Layout and Style Editing Using Multi-Level Style Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dees, Walter

    This paper describes a layout and styling framework that is based on the multi-level style sheets approach. It shows some of the techniques that can be used to add layout and style information to a UI in a device-independent manner, and how to reuse the layout and style information to create user interfaces for different devices

  10. The Match and Mismatch of Teachers and Students' Cognitive Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews literature on student-environment interactions in classroom settings, with particular reference to cognitive styles. Discusses identical matching style of teachers and students, performance matching style, and field dependent or field independent cognitive styles of teachers and students. (NH)

  11. Are Students' Learning Styles Discipline Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Cheryl; Reichard, Carla; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which community college students' learning style preferences vary as a function of discipline. Reports significant differences in students' learning style preferences across disciplines, but not by gender. Adds that student learning style preferences varied by academic performance as measured by gender. Discusses…

  12. Sex and Career Decision-Making Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneborg, Patricia W.

    1978-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis of greater reliance on the intuitive style by females and on the planning style by males in making career decisions. There were no sex differences in these high school and college samples for stage or style of decision making, vocational self-concept crystallization, or self-rated vocational decisiveness. (Author/BEF)

  13. Relationships between Learning Styles and Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines research on learning styles as related to online learning for adult learners. There is much disagreement regarding the definition of learning style. This paper defines it as an individual's preferred way of learning. The focus is on the extent to which learning styles are able to predict student success (e.g., grades,…

  14. Learning Style Theory and Computer Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Hilary; Moore, David; Sharpe, Simon; Hobbs, Dave

    This paper looks at the low participation rates in computer mediated conferences (CMC) and argues that one of the causes of this may be an incompatibility between students' learning styles and the style adopted by CMC. Curry's Onion Model provides a well-established framework within which to view the main learning style theories (Riding and…

  15. Attributional Style and the Freshman Writer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas K.; Mercier, Judith D.

    Martin Seligman's psychology research on depression, published in 7 books and hundreds of articles, shows a correlation between attributional style and depression. "Explanatory style" is another term nearly synonymous with attributional style, a habitual way to explain, positively or negatively, external events. A "learned" optimist himself,…

  16. Problems and Inconsistencies with Kolb's Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Iain

    2000-01-01

    Argues that there are substantial problems with the theoretical foundations of David Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI). Notes anomalies with the relationship between Carl Jung's style and Kolb's use of possibility processing. Argues that these anomalies make it impossible for defining firm conclusions about the nature of Kolb's learning style.…

  17. Thinking Styles of Teachers, Principals, and Inspectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Özlem Yesim Özbek; Çelik, Bünyamin

    2014-01-01

    Much of current studies focus on the investigation of the thinking styles of students and teachers. However, exploring school administrators' and inpectors' thinking styles is also critical for increasing students' achievement at school. For that purpose, this study was performed to determine the thinking styles of teachers,…

  18. Celebrating Students' Diversity through Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgersom-Volk, Karin

    1987-01-01

    While teachers are becoming increasingly aware of different learning styles, they have generally rejected the practical use of learning styles in the classroom. This bulletin summarizes theories and findings on learning styles, demonstrates their use in exceptional and regular classrooms, and offers recommendations for those who want to use the…

  19. Motivation to Learn Science and Cognitive Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeyer, Albert

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between cognitive style and motivation to learn science. The concept of cognitive style proposes the interplay of two core psychological dimensions, empathizing and systemizing. The cognitive style is defined as the interplay between the two abilities. We used the so-called EQ score (empathy quotient) and the…

  20. Learning Styles: Do They Differ by Discipline?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Kara; Bates, Derald; Manikowske, Linda; Amundsen, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory describes how learners see and interpret information. Past studies have analyzed learning styles of certain professions and majors. This study evaluated whether student learning styles differ by major. The Marshall and Merritt Learning Style Inventory was completed by 531 students. Differences were found in…

  1. Temperament Styles of Greek and US Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Hatzichristou, Chryse

    2010-01-01

    Age, gender and cross-national differences of children ages 8 through 16 in Greece (n = 400) and the United States (n = 5,400) are examined on four temperament styles: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling and organized-flexible styles. In general, Greek children prefer extroverted to introverted styles and organized…

  2. Parent Predictors of Adolescents' Explanatory Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested the prospective relations (6-month lag) between three aspects of the parent-child relationship at Time 1 (T1) and adolescents' explanatory styles at Time 2 (T2): caregiving behaviors, parents' explanatory style for their own negative events, and parents' explanatory style for their children's negative events. The sample…

  3. Cognitive Learning Styles of EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srichanyachon, Napaporn

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to study cognitive learning styles of EFL students, compare language learning styles among students categorized by their background, and investigate the relationship between English background knowledge and language learning styles. The samples were 210 undergraduate students enrolled in Fundamental English course at Bangkok…

  4. Matching Teachers' and Students' Cognitive Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how the field dependence independence dimension of cognitive style affects teachers' instructional behaviors and students' learning behaviors, and how interaction of teachers' and students' cognitive styles creates different learning environments. Discusses matching alternatives, focusing on identical cognitive style matching and…

  5. Thinking Styles in Implicit and Explicit Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qiuzhi; Gao, Xiangping; King, Ronnel B.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether individual differences in thinking styles influence explicit and implicit learning. Eighty-seven university students in China participated in this study. Results indicated that performance in the explicit learning condition was positively associated with Type I thinking styles (i.e. legislative and liberal styles)…

  6. Improving Style in Students' Written Compositions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Elaine Danielson

    This paper is concerned with expression in composition. Expression includes the unity, coherence, and emphasis/purpose of a paper, and its style and/or tone. The paper first gives four alternative definitions of style and offers some specific components of style, such as word choices, sentence structures, and imagery. It then presents and…

  7. Conceptualizing On-the-Job Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berings, Marjolein G. M. C.; Poell, Rob F.; Simons, P. Robert-Jan

    2005-01-01

    The broad aims of this study are to gain insight into employees' on-the-job learning activities to help them improve their on-the-job learning. The authors define on-the-job learning styles and operationalize the concept to include both mental and overt learning styles and both interpersonal and intrapersonal learning styles. Organizations and…

  8. Adapted PBL Practical Exercises: Benefits for Apprentices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monks, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Use was made of adapted problem-based learning (PBL) practical exercises to address the disengagement of apprentices with the existing assembly-style electronic laboratory programme. Apprentices perceived the traditional routines as having little real-world relevance. This detracted from the value and benefit to them of the practical component of…

  9. Health: The Science of Human Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Charles R.; And Others

    This book examines human health behavior as a lifetime process of adaptation and response to internally and externally demanding environments. Beginning with conception, this book follows the family life cycle from "seed to sod" and beyond. From considerations of conception it moves to birth, growth and development, disease, life style,…

  10. Adapting Content Subject Tasks for Bilingual Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbach, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Teaching content through a foreign language presents students with the double challenge of having to understand new concepts and of doing so through a foreign language. To be successful in meeting this challenge teachers have to adapt their teaching style and the tasks they work on with their students. Often, however, they do not know how to do…

  11. Lack of Interaction between Sensing-Intuitive Learning Styles and Problem-First versus Information-First Instruction: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Thompson, Warren G.; Thomas, Kris G.; Thomas, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Adaptation to learning styles has been proposed to enhance learning. Objective: We hypothesized that learners with sensing learning style would perform better using a problem-first instructional method while intuitive learners would do better using an information-first method. Design: Randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Setting:…

  12. Identifying structural styles in Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, W.P.; Van Nieuwenhuise, R.E.; Steuer, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    Much of our understanding of the Earth is from the study of surface geology and seismic, but many surface structures are responses to deformation which occurred below sedimentary layers. The practice within the petroleum industry is to use top-down processes of analyzing the surface to understand the subsurface, and observed surface structural styles tend to influence seismic interpretations. Yet many conditions which influenced the structural styles seen at the surface are different at depth. Since seismic is a time representation of the Earth, many interpretation pitfalls may exist within areas of complex geology. Also, its reliability decreases with depth and with increasing geologic complexity. Forward modeling and pre-stack depth migration technologies are used to provide true depth images of the seismic data. Even with these advances in seismic imaging technology, the interpreter needs to incorporate additional data into the interpretation. Accurate structural identification requires the interpreter to integrate seismic with surface geology, remote sensing, gravity, magnetic data, geochemistry, fault-plane solutions from earthquakes, and regional tectonic studies. Incorporating these types of data into the interpretation will help us learn how basement is involved in the deformation of overlying sediments. A study of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia shows the deformation to be dominantly transpressional in style. Euler deconvolution of the areomagnetic data shows a highly fractured basement, steep fault lineaments, en echelon structures, and complex fault patterns, all of which would be typical of wrench-type deformation. Available surface geology, regional studies, earthquake data, and forward modeling support this interpretation.

  13. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  14. The Relationship of Future Agricultural Extension Educators' Cognitive Styles and Change Strategies for Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Robert; Irani, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The study expands reported here Extension education's knowledge regarding characteristics of potential change agents. Graduate students learning to become agricultural Extension educators were studied to determine their definition of a change agent. Participants' cognitive styles were assessed using Kirton's Adaptation-Innovation Inventory to…

  15. Relationships between Humor Styles and Family Functioning in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Alicja; McGrail, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The humor styles and family functioning of parents of children with disabilities are understudied subjects. This study seeks to shed quantitative light on these areas. Seventy-two parents of children with disabilities completed the "Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales" (FACES IV) and the "Humor Styles…

  16. How Online Learners Perceive Preparedness and Learning after Discovering Personal Learning-Style-Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyles, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Many students withdraw from online learning because of their low levels of satisfaction and preparedness, and students are often unprepared to adapt their learning habits to meet the demands of online learning. However, the way in which students incorporate knowledge about their own learning styles into their self-concept as learners and their…

  17. Investigating Teachers' Organizational Socialization Levels and Perceptions about Leadership Styles of Their Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadi, Aysegül

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' organizational socialization levels and perceptions about leadership styles of their principals. Research was conducted with 361 teachers. Research design is determined as survey and correlational. Multi-Factor Leadership Scale originally was developed by Bass (1999) and adapted to Turkish…

  18. Emergent Readers' Social Interaction Styles and Their Comprehension Processes during Buddy Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christ, Tanya; Wang, X. Christine; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relations between emergent readers' social interaction styles and their comprehension processes, we adapted sociocultural and transactional views of learning and reading, and conducted statistical discourse analysis of 1,359 conversation turns transcribed from 14 preschoolers' 40 buddy reading events. Results show that…

  19. Analysis of Learners' Navigational Behaviour and Their Learning Styles in an Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, S.; Liu, T.-C.; Kinshuk,

    2010-01-01

    Providing adaptive features and personalized support by considering students' learning styles in computer-assisted learning systems has high potential in making learning easier for students in terms of reducing their efforts or increasing their performance. In this study, the navigational behaviour of students in an online course within a learning…

  20. Stress Constellations and Coping Styles of Older Adults with Age-Related Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyoung Othelia; Brennan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Narrative data from two earlier studies of adaptation to age-related visual impairment were examined for constellations of stressors and coping styles. In the course of previous qualitative analyses, the researchers identified stress and coping codes according to behavioral, psychological, and social domains using a grounded theory approach. In…

  1. Prioritizing Improvements in Internet Instruction Based on Learning Styles and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speth, Carol A.; Lee, Donald J.; Hain, Patricia M.

    2006-01-01

    How can various features of internet-based instruction be adapted to help students with different learning styles to grasp important science concepts? Are there ways of defining and measuring these differences that instructors without much background in educational psychology might find easier to apply than some of the better-known examples? How…

  2. Behavioral Implications of Adaption-Innovation: I. Managerial Effectiveness as a Function of Sex Differences in Adaption-Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Nicholas F.

    1989-01-01

    Three studies investigated relationship between effective management and position of male and female managers on Kirton's cognitive style dimension of adaption (doing things better) vs. innovation (doing things differently). Both sexes equated innovation with effective male management and adaption with effective female management. (Author/NB)

  3. [Adaptive strategies and adaptation after participation in a education program after a first coronary event].

    PubMed

    Henrichon, Carole; Robichaud-Ekstrand, Sylvie

    2002-09-01

    This descriptive correlational study compares adaptive strategies and adaptation according to participation to an outpatient education program "A vous de jouer". Participants more frequently use seeking social support strategies, and eating less fat, participating in physical activity, managing stress behaviors and returning to work. Distancing/escape avoidance strategies are negatively correlated with healthy life style habits, whereas positive reappraisal/problem solving, and seeking social support strategies are positively associated. Positive reappraisal/problem solving, program participation, and the non-use of distancing/escape avoidance strategies, predict adaptation. The use of these adaptive strategies and behaviors is therefore advantageous to coronary patients.

  4. Fireplace adapters

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, R.L.

    1983-12-27

    An adapter is disclosed for use with a fireplace. The stove pipe of a stove standing in a room to be heated may be connected to the flue of the chimney so that products of combustion from the stove may be safely exhausted through the flue and outwardly of the chimney. The adapter may be easily installed within the fireplace by removing the damper plate and fitting the adapter to the damper frame. Each of a pair of bolts has a portion which hooks over a portion of the damper frame and a threaded end depending from the hook portion and extending through a hole in the adapter. Nuts are threaded on the bolts and are adapted to force the adapter into a tight fit with the adapter frame.

  5. Children’s Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258

  6. Children's Understanding of Self-Focused Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    James, Lucy Amelia; Fox, Claire Louise

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that four main styles of humor exist, two which are thought to be adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two which are thought to be maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Whilst the existence of these four humor styles has been supported in older children, it is suggested that for younger children, self-enhancing and self-defeating humor may develop at a later point. To investigate this further, the current research involved five semi-structured paired interviews with children aged eight to eleven years to explore the use and understanding of self-enhancing and self-defeating humor in this age group. Findings indicated that use of both self-enhancing and self-defeating humor were apparent in some children, but not all. It therefore seems appropriate that attempts to investigate humor in this age group should aim to include all four styles of humor. The current research also demonstrated the value of paired interviews when carrying out this sort of research with children. PMID:27547258

  7. Nurse managers' leadership styles in Finland.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common. PMID:23008767

  8. Nurse Managers' Leadership Styles in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common. PMID:23008767

  9. Nurse managers' leadership styles in Finland.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Soili; Suhonen, Marjo; Isola, Arja; Paasivaara, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Nurse managers who can observe their own behaviour and its effects on employees can adjust to a better leadership style. The intention of this study was to explore nurses' and supervisors' perceptions of nurse managers' leadership styles. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 11 nurses and 10 superiors. The data were analysed by content analysis. In the study, six leadership styles were identified: visionary, coaching, affiliate, democratic, commanding, and isolating. Job satisfaction and commitment as well as operation and development work, cooperation, and organizational climate in the work unit were the factors, affected by leadership styles. The nurse managers should consider their leadership style from the point of view of employees, situation factors, and goals of the organization. Leadership styles where employees are seen in a participatory role have become more common.

  10. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  11. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  12. Does student learning style affect performance on different formats of biomechanics examinations?

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chengtu; Mache, Melissa; Knudson, Duane

    2012-03-01

    Students' learning style preferences have been widely adapted into teaching and learning environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported and assessed learning style preferences (visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic: VARK) on performance in different types of multiple-choice examinations (T1: text only format and T2: visual format) given in an introductory biomechanics class. Students who enrolled in three biomechanics classes at a state university were recruited to participate in the study. Ninety students (47 males and 43 females) completed a learning style survey and two types of examinations. Results showed that approximately half of the students were assessed and self-reported as kinesthetic for their preferred learning style. There was no significant difference in test performance between students who preferred visual and reading/writing learning styles (self-reported and assessed). These students demonstrated similar learning and comprehension of biomechanical concepts regardless of whether the test material was presented in their preferred sensory mode or not. Interestingly, female students' perceptions of their learning style preference may have a positive effect on the test results when the test is presented in their preferred format.

  13. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People

    PubMed Central

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID

  14. Adaptive Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on various adaptive technology resources available to people with disabilities. (Contains 19 references, an annotated list of 129 websites, and 12 additional print resources.) (JOW)

  15. Contour adaptation.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    It is known that adaptation to a disk that flickers between black and white at 3-8 Hz on a gray surround renders invisible a congruent gray test disk viewed afterwards. This is contrast adaptation. We now report that adapting simply to the flickering circular outline of the disk can have the same effect. We call this "contour adaptation." This adaptation does not transfer interocularly, and apparently applies only to luminance, not color. One can adapt selectively to only some of the contours in a display, making only these contours temporarily invisible. For instance, a plaid comprises a vertical grating superimposed on a horizontal grating. If one first adapts to appropriate flickering vertical lines, the vertical components of the plaid disappears and it looks like a horizontal grating. Also, we simulated a Cornsweet (1970) edge, and we selectively adapted out the subjective and objective contours of a Kanisza (1976) subjective square. By temporarily removing edges, contour adaptation offers a new technique to study the role of visual edges, and it demonstrates how brightness information is concentrated in edges and propagates from them as it fills in surfaces.

  16. The Perfect Learner: An Expert Debate on Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delahoussaye, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Presents a discussion of learning styles by Lynn Curry, Rick Daly, Ashley Fields, Peter Honey, David Kolb, Patrick O'Brien and Gary Salton. Addresses learning style theories, style predictability, whether to teach exclusively to one style, and ways to make use of learning styles in corporate settings. (Author/JOW)

  17. Tilting at Windmills: Comparing the Learning Style Inventory and the Learning Style Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Marc B.; Bokoros, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    It is argued that the axes of the Learning Style Inventory and Learning Style Questionnaire are not conceptually aligned. More accurate comparison involves the degree of similar classification of learning styles, as illustrated in the modest but similar degree of classification for 44 graduate and undergraduate students. (SLD)

  18. Development of an Instrument to Measure Teaching Style in Japan: The Teaching Style Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Fumiko; Conti, Gary J.; Yamauchi, Toyoaki; Iwasaki, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    Teaching style has been a popular concept for many years. Teaching style refers to the distinct qualities displayed by a teacher that are persistent from situation to situation regardless of the content. The Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS) has been used extensively in the West for measuring teaching style in relationship to the adult…

  19. Toward a New Understanding of Epistemological Style: A Preliminary Factor Analysis of Epistemological Style Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, William K.; Migotsky, Christopher P.

    Empirical findings related to the development of a new measure of epistemological style are reported. After a review of available epistemological style inventories and individual item qualities, 93 items reflecting 7 epistemological styles were selected. The scale was administered to 222 college undergraduates and graduate students (102 males and…

  20. Using the Identity Processing Style Q-Sort to Examine Identity Styles of Turkish Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryigit, Suna; Kerpelman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on two studies with Turkish young adults that used the Turkish version of the Identity Processing Style Q-Sort (IPSQ). The IPSQ is based on Berzonsky's informational, normative, and diffused identity styles. Participants sort descriptors of the styles into columns ranging from most to least like them. Patterns in Turkish young…

  1. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  2. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  3. Parenting Styles and Adolescents' Achievement Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aunola, Kaisa; Stattin, Hakan; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the extents to which adolescents' achievement strategies are associated with the parenting styles they experience in their families. Respondents (N=354) identified four types of families: those with Authoritative; Authoritarian; Permissive; and Neglectful parenting styles. Results further reveal that adolescents from authoritative…

  4. Perceived Parenting Styles on College Students' Optimism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Debora R.; McIntyre, Anne; Hardaway, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived parenting styles and levels of optimism in undergraduate college students. Sixty-three participants were administered surveys measuring dispositional optimism and perceived parental Authoritative and Authoritarian styles. Multiple regression analysis revealed that both…

  5. Can We Choose a Management Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Thomas O.

    1985-01-01

    Options in management style from corporate administration literature available to educational institutions include the choices of Theory X vs. Theory Y, the managerial vs. academic grid, management by objectives, autocratic vs. bureaucratic vs. participative vs. free-rein leadership styles, situational leadership, presidential role, leadership…

  6. Integration of Leadership Styles of School Director

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlovic, Nebojsa; Oljaca, Milka; Kostovic, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Management style can be defined as a special behavior of directors in the work process that affects the performance in an organization, in this case-school. Management style has two related meanings: first is behavior of directors to employees, second is directors' approach in school regarding management, participation of employees in decision…

  7. The Thinking Styles of Human Resource Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Paul; Zhang, Li-fang

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Drawing upon Sternberg's theory of mental self-government, this paper aims to investigate the thinking styles and workplace experiences of 152 human resource (HR) practitioners pursuing Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) membership. It seeks to explore whether their thinking styles complemented their jobs and consider…

  8. A Review of Laboratory Instruction Styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domin, Daniel S.

    1999-04-01

    Constructivism views learning as a process in which the individual actively constructs new knowledge structures through interactions with the environment. Altering the learning environment may result in changes in learning outcomes. The style of instruction imposed upon the learner is just one type of external influence within the learning environment; different styles of instruction, therefore, may lead to different learning outcomes. Through a review of the literature, this paper asserts that four distinct styles of laboratory instruction have been utilized throughout the history of chemistry education: expository (traditional), inquiry, discovery, and problem-based. Although these instructional styles share many commonalities and oftentimes their labels are used interchangeably, each style is unique and can be distinguished from the others by a set of three descriptors: outcome, approach, and procedure. This taxonomy of laboratory instruction styles, in which the distinguishing features of each style are highlighted, is presented along with current research findings, to establish a research agenda that measures the effectiveness of each style of instruction against the desired learning outcomes.

  9. Identity Style, Parental Authority, and Identity Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berzonsky, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    The role that parental authority patterns and social-cognitive identity styles may play in establishing identity commitments was investigated. The results indicated that family authority and identity style variables combined accounted for 50% of the variation in strength of identity commitment. As hypothesized, the relationship between parental…

  10. The Benefits of Family-Style Meals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Ros, Denise; Duff, R. Eleanor

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of having family-style meals in early childhood programs. Notes how such meals allow young children to develop self-help and communication skills and allow teachers to assess many aspects of children's development. Reviews the implementation of a family-style meal program at the University of South Carolina's Children's…

  11. Learning Styles Technology and Supporting Overseas Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Mina

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present details of a study investigating learning styles differences of Thai students in England compared to local students in England and Thailand. It also discusses key issues in using learning styles in multicultural and international education, given their wide availability online.…

  12. Generalized IRT Models for Extreme Response Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Kuan-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Extreme response style (ERS) is a systematic tendency for a person to endorse extreme options (e.g., strongly disagree, strongly agree) on Likert-type or rating-scale items. In this study, we develop a new class of item response theory (IRT) models to account for ERS so that the target latent trait is free from the response style and the tendency…

  13. A Critical Evaluation of Cognitive Style Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Ricka

    This document reviews theories of cognitive style and methods of cognitive style assessment as they relate to the context of South Africa, where sociopolitical changes call for reassessment of theoretical assumptions in education and training. The report consists of six chapters. After a brief introductory chapter, the second chapter gives an…

  14. On Style and Other Unremarkable Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the dialectical nature of Mikhail Bakhtin's developmental understanding of language learning. In particular, the author discusses the pedagogically illuminating relationship between literary style and everyday style, especially as the latter emerges from and returns to lived life. Drawing parallels with other related…

  15. Adam Smith and the Rhetoric of Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    Historians of rhetoric have generally accepted the view that Adam Smith rejected the principles of classical rhetoric. However, while there can be no doubt that Smith greatly truncated the five classical arts of rhetoric (invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery) by reducing his concerns largely to style and arrangement, he did not…

  16. Joseph Priestley and the Psychology of Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael G.

    Joseph Priestley, in his "A Course of Lectures on Oratory and Criticism," developed a psychological theory of style. The "Course" covers three main topics: traditional rhetorical arts of invention, arrangement, and style. Borrowing from the ideas of David Hartley, the association psychologist; Joseph Addison, the aesthetician; and Adam Smith, the…

  17. Students' Preferred Learning Styles in Graphic Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify changes in dominant preferred learning styles of students based on instructional presentation of course content. This study evaluates dominant preferred learning styles of two groups of university students. The first group of students was enrolled in a course that introduces graphical representation in…

  18. Style and Usage Software: Mentor, not Judge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smye, Randy

    Computer software style and usage checkers can encourage students' recursive revision strategies. For example, HOMER is based on the revision pedagogy presented in Richard Lanham's "Revising Prose," while Grammatik II focuses on readability, passive voice, and possibly misused words or phrases. Writer's Workbench "Style" (a UNIX program) provides…

  19. Using Learning Styles Theory in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagiltay, Nergiz Ercil

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that, while learning different concepts, people sometimes take different approaches (learning styles). Accordingly, their performance reflected differently in their academic studies. With the effect of globalisation to the educational environments, the influence of individual learning styles on educational performance is getting…

  20. Cognitive Style Mapping: A Prescription for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boozer, Bernard; Anderson, Audrey

    In order to assist the accountability demands of current educational policy, this report recommends the employment of a cognitive style mapping inventory to determine what each individual may achieve in learning skills. It is indicated that when students were permitted to study in ways compatible with their recognized cognitive styles, achievement…

  1. Parenting Style and Its Correlates. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Nancy

    One of the most robust approaches to researching parents' influence on children's social competence is the study of what has been called "parenting style." Parenting style captures two important elements of parenting: parental responsiveness and parental demandingness. Categorizing parents according to whether they are high or low on parental…

  2. Caregivers feeding styles questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting l...

  3. The Scientific Status of Learning Styles Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Daniel T.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Dobolyi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of learning styles suggest that individuals think and learn best in different ways. These are not differences of ability but rather preferences for processing certain types of information or for processing information in certain types of way. If accurate, learning styles theories could have important implications for instruction because…

  4. Temperament Styles of Indian and USA Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Singh, Kuldeep; Callueng, Camelo; Puri, Gurmit Singh; Goen, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    Age, gender, and cross-national differences of children ages 8- through 16-years-old in India (n = 400) and the United States of America (n = 3,200) are examined on four bipolar temperament styles: extroversion-introversion, practical-imaginative, thinking-feeling, and organized-flexible styles. In general, Indian children prefer extroverted to…

  5. Conflict Management Styles of Turkish Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkalp, Enver; Sungur, Zerrin; Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine Turkish managers conflict styles in different sectors, namely durable consumer goods, aviation, automotive and banking. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 130 managers conflict management styles were assessed by applying the Rahim's 1983 Organizational Conflict Inventory-II. Findings: First,…

  6. Styles, Strategies & Tasks: Are They Related?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnrod, Urarat; Darasawang, Pornapit; Singhasiri, Wareesiri

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aims at investigating the relationship among cognitive styles, learning strategies and task. In order to determine the dominant cognitive styles of the subjects, questionnaires designed by Kolb (2005) were distributed to 778 engineering students. From the data analysis, it was found that two cognitive…

  7. Learning Styles and Satisfaction in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Darren C.

    2014-01-01

    Although complex, controversial, and contradicting, learning styles is highly influential. Distance education (DE) has experienced tremendous growth in the last few decades. The popularity of learning styles and DE necessitates research. This correlational research study was conducted to determine if there is any evidence to incorporate learning…

  8. Preceptor Leadership Style and the Nursing Practicum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy

    2003-01-01

    Preceptors' leadership characteristics influence nursing students' clinical experience. Preceptors' leadership styles can be assessed with the Myers Briggs Type Indicator or Hersey and Blanchard's Leader Behavior Analysis II instrument, which identifies four styles based on situational leadership. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

  9. Improving Teamwork through Awareness of Conversational Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehling, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Conversational styles can sometimes cause conflicts on problem-solving writing teams. In self-defense, students often resort to blaming and shaming around conversational styles, which can just worsen unproductive group behaviors, limiting idea exchanges and deflecting attention from substantive issues and onto what is often labeled "personality…

  10. Students Preference on Perceptual Learning Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obralic, Nudžejma; Akbarov, Azamat

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores a spectrum of problems and challenges students face while learning second language. Many educators and researchers have claimed that learning styles are insignificant component in the learning process. However, the study points out the significance of learning the students' learning style preference. The purpose of the study is…

  11. Iranian Validation of the Identity Style Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Shokri, Omid

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Iranian version of the Identity Style Inventory (ISI). Participants were 376 (42% males) university students. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a clear three-factor structure of identity style and a mono-factor structure of commitment in the overall sample as well as in gender subgroups. Convergent…

  12. Musical Style Discrimination in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Nigel A.; Hargreaves, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that by the age of six, children display high levels of competence in identifying and reliably distinguishing between different musical styles. Until now, it has been difficult to investigate musical style sensitivity in the early years because the test procedures have relied heavily on the use of language,…

  13. In the Style of Jackson Pollock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egenes, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by "Discovering Great Artists: Hands-On Art for Children in the Styles of the Great Masters," for 3- and 4-year-old preschoolers. The author's goal in creating this project which uses Jackson Pollock's style of painting was three-fold: (1) for the children to become acquainted with…

  14. Student Participation Styles in Adventure Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zmudy, Mark H.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; Steffen, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Sport pedagogy researchers have contributed much to the literature on physical education teaching by describing the participation styles of children, youth and young adults in various settings. The purpose of this study was to describe the participation styles of children enrolled in two consecutive week-long summer adventure camps. Primary…

  15. The stability of individual response styles.

    PubMed

    Weijters, Bert; Geuens, Maggie; Schillewaert, Niels

    2010-03-01

    Modeling capabilities for longitudinal data have progressed considerably, but questions remain on the extent to which method bias may negatively affect the validity of longitudinal survey data. The current study addresses the stability of individual response styles. We set up a longitudinal data collection in which the same respondents filled out 2 online questionnaires with nonoverlapping sets of heterogeneous items. Between data collections, there was a 1-year time gap. We simultaneously modeled 4 response styles that capture the major directional biases in questionnaire responses: acquiescence, disacquiescence, midpoint, and extreme response style. Drawing from latent state-trait theory, we specified a 2nd-order factor model with time-invariant and time-specific response style factors and a specifically designed covariance structure for the residual terms. The results indicate that response styles have an important stable component, a small part of which can be explained by demographics. The meaning and implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Life-style intervention: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Jordan-Marsh, M; Gilbert, J; Ford, J D; Kleeman, C

    1984-01-01

    Improving one's life-style may improve one's health. However, there is a lack of consensus on how to promote compliance with newly adopted health habits. This paper presents a conceptual framework that individuals can learn to assess their life-styles and plan for health-behavior changes. It can also be used by professionals from different disciplines who are developing programs to teach healthy life-style choices. The framework is organized into three ideas: (1) Health status to a large extent reflects the individual's styles of living (a composite of beliefs, emotions, and action patterns). (2) These styles can be encouraged or sabotaged by the individual's support structures (relationships, environments, and equipment). (3) The change process can be seen as a series of steps that cycle through phases of readiness appraisal, decision making, experimentation, and reevaluation. clinical examples and documentation from relevant theory and research illustrate and substantiate the framework.

  17. C++ Coding Standards and Style Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven; Jun, Linda; Shoan, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    This document is based on the "C Style Guide" (SEL-94-003). It contains recommendations for C++ implementations that build on, or in some cases replace, the style described in the C style guide. Style guidelines on any topics that are not covered in this document can be found in the "C Style Guide." An attempt has been made to indicate when these recommendations are just guidelines or suggestions versus when they are more strongly encouraged. Using coding standards makes code easier to read and maintain. General principles that maximize the readability and maintainability of C++ are: (1) Organize classes using encapsulation and information hiding techniques. (2) Enhance readability through the use of indentation and blank lines. (3) Add comments to header files to help users of classes. (4) Add comments to implementation files to help maintainers of classes. (5) Create names that are meaningful and readable.

  18. Parenting styles, feeding styles, and their influence on child obesogenic behaviors and body weight. A review.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-12-01

    With recommendations to include parents as targets for childhood obesity interventions, there is a need to review the relationship of general parenting influences on childhood obesity. Therefore, the aim of this review is to examine the existing literature regarding the influence of parenting style and/or feeding styles on childhood obesogenic behaviors and body weight. Research articles related to parenting style (n=40) and parental feeding style (n=11) were identified and reviewed. An authoritative style appears to be the most protective parenting and feeding style while the indulgent feeding style is consistently associated with negative health outcomes. Overall, results for parenting style studies are inconsistent due to differences in conceptualization and measurement, while the results for feeding styles are much more cohesive. The literature is lacking in the ability to describe the interplay between parenting and feeding styles and child obesity risk. Recommendations for future research and interventions are discussed in regards to feeding style and influences on childhood obesity. PMID:24001395

  19. Strategic Style in Pared-Down Poker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Kevin

    This chapter deals with the manner of making diagnoses and decisions, called strategic style, in a gambling game called Pared-down Poker. The approach treats style as a mental mode in which choices are constrained by expected utilities. The focus is on two classes of utility, i.e., money and effort, and how cognitive styles compare to normative strategies in optimizing these utilities. The insights are applied to real-world concerns like managing the war against terror networks and assessing the risks of system failures. After "Introducing the Interactions" involved in playing poker, the contents are arranged in four sections, as follows. "Underpinnings of Utility" outlines four classes of utility and highlights the differences between them: economic utility (money), ergonomic utility (effort), informatic utility (knowledge), and aesthetic utility (pleasure). "Inference and Investment" dissects the cognitive challenges of playing poker and relates them to real-world situations of business and war, where the key tasks are inference (of cards in poker, or strength in war) and investment (of chips in poker, or force in war) to maximize expected utility. "Strategies and Styles" presents normative (optimal) approaches to inference and investment, and compares them to cognitive heuristics by which people play poker--focusing on Bayesian methods and how they differ from human styles. The normative strategy is then pitted against cognitive styles in head-to-head tournaments, and tournaments are also held between different styles. The results show that style is ergonomically efficient and economically effective, i.e., style is smart. "Applying the Analysis" explores how style spaces, of the sort used to model individual behavior in Pared-down Poker, might also be applied to real-world problems where organizations evolve in terror networks and accidents arise from system failures.

  20. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a cross-sectional study. Results We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) ‘preference for positive reinterpretation and growth’ coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) ‘preference for mental disengagement’ coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) ‘social support-seeking’ coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of ‘denial’ as a coping style and insight or distress. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others. PMID:17561377

  1. Style over substance: What can parenting styles tell us about ownership styles and obesity in companion animals?

    PubMed

    German, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major medical concern in human subjects, and most concerning is the rapid recent increase in childhood obesity. Children are more likely to be obese if their parents are obese, an effect that is mediated both by genetics and environment, most notably parental influence. Four major parenting styles have been recognised: authoritative; authoritarian; indulgent; uninvolved. Too much parental control, as with the authoritarian style, is associated with a higher weight status in children. Conversely, indulgent feeding styles can also have negative consequences and, where control is too lax, a poor relationship with food develops, which may also lead to weight gain. Obesity is also a growing concern in companion animals, and it has parallels with obesity in children. For instance, overweight people are more likely to own overweight dogs. Furthermore, the care that people provide for their pets mirrors that which parents provide for children, and pets are commonly viewed as child substitutes. These similarities raise obvious questions about whether different styles of pet ownership exist, and what part they may play in attitudes to feeding as well as predisposition to obesity in pets. Future work could focus on determining to what extent styles of pet ownership mirror parenting styles, whether there are links to obesity in dogs and cats. Knowledge regarding the owner-pet bond might provide comparative insights into the links between parenting styles and childhood obesity. PMID:25415870

  2. Style over substance: What can parenting styles tell us about ownership styles and obesity in companion animals?

    PubMed

    German, Alexander J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major medical concern in human subjects, and most concerning is the rapid recent increase in childhood obesity. Children are more likely to be obese if their parents are obese, an effect that is mediated both by genetics and environment, most notably parental influence. Four major parenting styles have been recognised: authoritative; authoritarian; indulgent; uninvolved. Too much parental control, as with the authoritarian style, is associated with a higher weight status in children. Conversely, indulgent feeding styles can also have negative consequences and, where control is too lax, a poor relationship with food develops, which may also lead to weight gain. Obesity is also a growing concern in companion animals, and it has parallels with obesity in children. For instance, overweight people are more likely to own overweight dogs. Furthermore, the care that people provide for their pets mirrors that which parents provide for children, and pets are commonly viewed as child substitutes. These similarities raise obvious questions about whether different styles of pet ownership exist, and what part they may play in attitudes to feeding as well as predisposition to obesity in pets. Future work could focus on determining to what extent styles of pet ownership mirror parenting styles, whether there are links to obesity in dogs and cats. Knowledge regarding the owner-pet bond might provide comparative insights into the links between parenting styles and childhood obesity.

  3. Adapting your teaching to accommodate the net generation of learners.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Diane J; Barton, Amy J

    2006-05-01

    Educators are faced with the challenge of adapting their teaching styles to accommodate a new generation of learners. The Net Generation or Millennials, who are now entering colleges and universities, have learning expectations, styles, and needs different from past students. This article assists educators in teaching the Net Generation by highlighting the characteristics of the Net Generation and providing examples of how to adapt teaching strategies to accommodate the Net Generation, in light of their preferences for digital literacy, experiential learning, interactivity, and immediacy. PMID:17201579

  4. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  5. Grieving the Loss of a Sibling

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Coping With Uncertainty Managing Stress Coping with Anger Anxiety Depression Fear of Treatment-Related Side Effects ... over time, and feelings of hopelessness, anxiety , or anger can begin to affect your daily life. If ...

  6. Grieving the Loss of a Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Coping With Uncertainty Managing Stress Coping with Anger Anxiety Depression Fear of Treatment-Related Side Effects ... protector and could have done something differently Intense anger and feelings of bitterness and unfairness at a ...

  7. Physics Learning Styles in Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Rebecca; Ward, James

    2012-03-01

    Students in Physics learn in a variety ways depending on backgrounds and interests. This study proposes to evaluate how students in Physics learn using Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Physics utilizes numbers, conceptualization of models, observations and visualization skills, and the ability to understand and reflect on specific information. The main objective is to evaluate how Physics students learn specifically using spatial, visual and sequential approaches. This will be assessed by conducting a learning style survey provided by North Carolina State University (NCSU). The survey is completed online by the student after which the results are sent to NCSU. Students will print out the completed survey analysis for further evaluation. The NCSU results categorize students within five of ten learning styles. After the evaluation of Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences and the NCSU definitions of the ten learning styles, the NCSU sensing and visual learning styles will be defined as the Gardener's spatial, visual learning styles. NCSU's sequential learning style will be looked at separately. With the survey results, it can be determined if Physics students fall within the hypothesized learning styles.

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Relationships between Family Functioning and Parenting Styles: The Perceptions of Mothers of Young Grade School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mupinga, Emily Evellyne; Garrison, M. E. Betsy; Pierce, Sarah H.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 151 mothers of elementary students identified relationships between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive) and family functioning (adaptability, cohesion). Families with balanced and moderately balanced levels of adaptability and cohesion had higher levels of authoritative parenting. Midrange balance was associated…

  9. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported.

  10. Parent characteristics linked with daughters' attachment styles.

    PubMed

    Kilmann, Peter R; Vendemia, Jennifer M C; Parnell, Michele M; Urbaniak, Geoffrey C

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated links between parent characteristics and daughters' attachment styles for 90 female undergraduates and their married biological parents. Parents with a secure attachment pattern were rated as more accepting, less controlling, more competent, and more consistent in showing love and affection to their daughter in contrast to parents with an insecure attachment pattern. Significant positive associations were found between mothers' fearful attachment scores and the fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive attachment scores of daughters. Daughters of matched secure parents were more likely to report a secure attachment style, while daughters of matched insecure parents were more likely to report an insecure attachment style.

  11. Coping styles of Chicago adults: description.

    PubMed

    Ilfeld, F W

    1980-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 2,299 Chicago adults the author empirically describes the coping styles used to combat stressors in the social roles of marriage, parenting, finances, and job. Factor analyses of coping responses uncovered three major patterns: taking direct action, rationalization avoidance of the stressor, and acceptance of the stressful situation without attempting alteration. Respondents did not consistently utilize one coping style across all role areas, but rather employed a repertoire of responses. Demographic characteristics were found to explain only a small amount of variation in the coping styles.

  12. Ada style guide (version 1.1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidewitz, Edwin V.; Agresti, William; Ferry, Daniel; Lavallee, David; Maresca, Paul; Nelson, Robert; Quimby, Kelvin; Rosenberg, Jacob; Roy, Daniel; Shell, Allyn

    1987-01-01

    Ada is a programming language of considerable expressive power. The Ada Language Reference Manual provides a thorough definition of the language. However, it does not offer sufficient guidance on the appropriate use of Ada's powerful features. For this reason, the Goddard Space Flight Center Ada User's Group has produced this style guide which addresses such program style issues. The guide covers three areas of Ada program style: the structural decomposition of a program; the coding and the use of specific Ada features; and the textural formatting of a program.

  13. Situational leadership style as a predictor of success and productivity among Taiwanese business organizations.

    PubMed

    Silverthorne, C; Wang, T H

    2001-07-01

    The present study was an evaluation of the impact of Taiwanese leadership styles on the productivity of Taiwanese business organizations. Specifically, it looked at the impact that both adaptive and nonadaptive leaders have on 6 measures of productivity: absenteeism, turnover rate, quality of work, reject rates, profitability, and units produced. The results indicated that the greater the level of adaptability, the more productive the organization is likely to be. Although not all of the computed correlations were statistically significant, they were all in the predicted directions. In particular, the findings for units produced and reject rates were consistently statistically significant. The study was also an examination of the usefulness of the Leadership Effectiveness and Adaptability Description (LEAD) questionnaire (P. Hersey & K. Blanchard, 1988), which appeared to be an accurate predictor of adaptability and valid for use in Taiwan. The final part of this study was an investigation of whether successful companies were more likely to have a greater percentage of adaptive leaders than unsuccessful companies. The data supported this expectation, although it is suggested that caution be used in the interpretation of this particular finding because it could have several different explanations. Overall, the evidence supported the value of adaptive leadership styles in high-technology industries in Taiwan.

  14. Presence versus absence of CYP734A50 underlies the style-length dimorphism in primroses

    PubMed Central

    Huu, Cuong Nguyen; Kappel, Christian; Keller, Barbara; Sicard, Adrien; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Breuninger, Holger; Nowak, Michael D; Bäurle, Isabel; Himmelbach, Axel; Burkart, Michael; Ebbing-Lohaus, Thomas; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Altschmied, Lothar; Conti, Elena; Lenhard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Heterostyly is a wide-spread floral adaptation to promote outbreeding, yet its genetic basis and evolutionary origin remain poorly understood. In Primula (primroses), heterostyly is controlled by the S-locus supergene that determines the reciprocal arrangement of reproductive organs and incompatibility between the two morphs. However, the identities of the component genes remain unknown. Here, we identify the Primula CYP734A50 gene, encoding a putative brassinosteroid-degrading enzyme, as the G locus that determines the style-length dimorphism. CYP734A50 is only present on the short-styled S-morph haplotype, it is specifically expressed in S-morph styles, and its loss or inactivation leads to long styles. The gene arose by a duplication specific to the Primulaceae lineage and shows an accelerated rate of molecular evolution. Thus, our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the Primula style-length dimorphism and begin to shed light on the evolution of the S-locus as a prime model for a complex plant supergene. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17956.001 PMID:27596932

  15. Presence versus absence of CYP734A50 underlies the style-length dimorphism in primroses.

    PubMed

    Huu, Cuong Nguyen; Kappel, Christian; Keller, Barbara; Sicard, Adrien; Takebayashi, Yumiko; Breuninger, Holger; Nowak, Michael D; Bäurle, Isabel; Himmelbach, Axel; Burkart, Michael; Ebbing-Lohaus, Thomas; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Altschmied, Lothar; Conti, Elena; Lenhard, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Heterostyly is a wide-spread floral adaptation to promote outbreeding, yet its genetic basis and evolutionary origin remain poorly understood. In Primula (primroses), heterostyly is controlled by the S-locus supergene that determines the reciprocal arrangement of reproductive organs and incompatibility between the two morphs. However, the identities of the component genes remain unknown. Here, we identify the Primula CYP734A50 gene, encoding a putative brassinosteroid-degrading enzyme, as the G locus that determines the style-length dimorphism. CYP734A50 is only present on the short-styled S-morph haplotype, it is specifically expressed in S-morph styles, and its loss or inactivation leads to long styles. The gene arose by a duplication specific to the Primulaceae lineage and shows an accelerated rate of molecular evolution. Thus, our results provide a mechanistic explanation for the Primula style-length dimorphism and begin to shed light on the evolution of the S-locus as a prime model for a complex plant supergene. PMID:27596932

  16. Styles and Style-Stretching: How are They Related to Successful Learning?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Carol; İnceçay, Görsev

    2016-06-01

    Although the learning style construct has aroused much interest over the years, questions remain regarding basic issues such as definition, the validity and/or reliability of various measurement instruments, and the relationship between learning style and successful learning. Furthermore, although maintaining stylistic flexibility is recommended by many authors, few studies have attempted to relate the style-stretching concept to successful learning. This study therefore attempted to address these questions. According to results, conducted among 106 Turkish university students, using an original instrument constructed using elements from established questionnaires, a small group of styles was significantly correlated with exam results, accounting for about a quarter of the variance (considered a large effect size in social science). In addition, higher-scoring students reported a more eclectic range of styles, suggesting more willingness to style-stretch, while lower-scoring students reported a more limited range. Pedagogical implications as well as areas for ongoing research are suggested.

  17. Styles and Style-Stretching: How are They Related to Successful Learning?

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Carol; İnceçay, Görsev

    2016-06-01

    Although the learning style construct has aroused much interest over the years, questions remain regarding basic issues such as definition, the validity and/or reliability of various measurement instruments, and the relationship between learning style and successful learning. Furthermore, although maintaining stylistic flexibility is recommended by many authors, few studies have attempted to relate the style-stretching concept to successful learning. This study therefore attempted to address these questions. According to results, conducted among 106 Turkish university students, using an original instrument constructed using elements from established questionnaires, a small group of styles was significantly correlated with exam results, accounting for about a quarter of the variance (considered a large effect size in social science). In addition, higher-scoring students reported a more eclectic range of styles, suggesting more willingness to style-stretch, while lower-scoring students reported a more limited range. Pedagogical implications as well as areas for ongoing research are suggested. PMID:25893275

  18. Learning styles of orthodontic residents.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Janeen M; Fallis, Drew W; Peel, Jennifer L; Murchison, David F

    2009-03-01

    Significant challenges face many orthodontic residency programs, particularly a shortage of full-time experienced faculty members. Due to this shortage, it is critical that program directors design comprehensive curricula that incorporate the most effective and efficient teaching methods. It is theorized that teaching effectiveness and efficiency are optimized when the course design and content closely match students' learning preferences. This survey study was designed to distinguish the learning preferences of orthodontic residents utilizing Felder and Soloman's Index of Learning Styles, which assesses student learning preferences in four dimensions using dichotomous scales, thereby providing insight into how teaching strategies can best be structured. As a secondary focus, additional questions on the survey were asked to gain information about residents' access to the Internet and comfort level with online learning so as to address acceptance of web-based courses in response to the shortage of full-time faculty members. Orthodontic residents, contacted via email, were requested to complete an online survey; 261 responses were collected. The results indicate that orthodontic residents are highly visual learners and show a preference for sensing and sequential learning strategies. In terms of information technology, the residents are comfortable with and have adequate access to current technological assets; therefore, they may be well suited for inclusion of computer-based teaching modules and other multimedia devices in their residency curriculum.

  19. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  20. Coping styles of Chicago adults: effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Ilfeld, F W

    1980-11-01

    With a sample of 2,299 Chicago adults, a quantitive exploration is made of the effectiveness of different coping styles in dealing with stressor situations and feelings of distress associated with marriage, parenting, finances, and job; psychiatric symptomatology; and feelings of low self-efficacy. The specific measure of effectiveness is the extent to which one or more coping styles predicts a given dependent variable in a multiple regression analysis. As a group. coping strategies are more predictive of the stressor situation and feelings of personal distress than of psychiatric symptomatology or feelings of low self-efficacy. Also, coping styles relate differentially among the four life areas; they are more predictive of levels of stressors in marriage and parenting than in finances or job. Some coping styles are strongly predictive of low amounts of stressors; this is particularly true of the use of strategies that invoke direct action.

  1. Elements of Style in Technical Writing Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostian, Frieda F.

    1983-01-01

    Explores the use of Strunk and White's "Elements of Style" as a tool for teaching editing skills to technical writing students. Discusses a procedure for and likely results of using this work in the classroom. (HTH)

  2. [Styles of programming 1952-1972].

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, Adrienne

    2008-01-01

    In the field of history of computing, the construction of the early computers has received much scholarly attention. However, these machines have not only been important because of their logical design and their engineering, but also because of the programming practices that emerged around these first machines. This article compares two styles of programming that developed around Dutch 'first computers'. The first style is represented by Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (1930-2002), who would receive the Turing Award for his work in 1972. Dijkstra developed a mathematical style of programming--a program was something you should be able to design mathematically and prove it logically. The second style is represented by Willem Louis van der Poel (born 1926). For him, programming is 'trickology'. A program is primarily a technical artefact that should work: a program is something you play with, comparable to the way one solves a puzzle.

  3. Stereotype threat and female communication styles.

    PubMed

    von Hippel, Courtney; Wiryakusuma, Cindy; Bowden, Jessica; Shochet, Megan

    2011-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the performance-debilitating effects of stereotype threat for individuals, but there is a paucity of research exploring interpersonal consequences of stereotype threat. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat would change the style in which women communicate. Results indicate that women who experience stereotype threat regarding leadership abilities react against the stereotype by adopting a more masculine communication style. Study 2 provides evidence that self-affirmation eliminates this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication styles. A third study demonstrates an ironic consequence of this effect of stereotype threat on women's communication--when women under stereotype threat adopt a more masculine communication style, they are rated as less warm and likeable, and evaluators indicate less willingness to comply with their requests. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Attributional style and life-events.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, N; Williams, J M

    1983-06-01

    The study addressed the question of the significance of intervening life-events in linking attributional style and depression. Twenty male subjects who had experienced an uncontrollable event, job redundancy, were compared with 20 controls on measures of attributional style, depression and self-esteem. The reformulated helplessness hypothesis implies that attribution and depression should be correlated only after the uncontrollable event. This was found to be the case for internal--external dimension, providing tentative support for the reformulated helplessness model.

  5. Assessing learning styles of Saudi dental students using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory.

    PubMed

    ALQahtani, Dalal A; Al-Gahtani, Sara M

    2014-06-01

    Experiential learning theory (ELT), a theory developed by David Kolb that considers experience to be very important for learning, classifies learners into four categories: Divergers, Assimilators, Convergers, and Accommodators. Kolb used his Learning Style Inventory (LSI) to validate ELT. Knowing the learning styles of students facilitates their understanding of themselves and thereby increases teaching efficiency. Few studies have been conducted that investigate learning preferences of students in the field of dentistry. This study was designed to distinguish learning styles among Saudi dental students and interns utilizing Kolb's LSI. The survey had a response rate of 62 percent (424 of 685 dental students), but surveys with incomplete answers or errors were excluded, resulting in 291 usable surveys (42 percent of the student population). The independent variables of this study were gender, clinical experience level, academic achievement as measured by grade point average (GPA), and specialty interest. The Diverging learning style was the dominant style among those in the sample. While the students preferred the Assimilating style during their early preclinical years, they preferred the Diverging style during their later clinical years. No associations were found between students' learning style and their gender, GPA, or specialty interest. Further research is needed to support these findings and demonstrate the impact of learning styles on dental students' learning.

  6. Does Styles Research Have Useful Implications for Educational Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews eight articles on the implications of styles research contained in this special issue of "Learning and Individual Differences". Three of the papers present original research on topics such as the nature of visualizer cognitive style and intuitive cognitive style. Five of the papers offer reviews or analyses of styles research,…

  7. Validity of the Strong Interest Inventory: Gender and Personal Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindley, Lori D.; Borgen, Fred H.

    The gender validity of the Strong Interest Inventory's Personal Style Scales (Work Style, Learning Environment, Leadership Style, and Risk Taking/Adventure) was examined through a study of 458 female and 282 male college students at Iowa State University. The students completed the Personal Style Scales and the Adjective Check List (ACL), which is…

  8. Technical Data for Five Learning Style Instruments with Instructional Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemire, David

    This manual presents five learning styles instruments and presents data related to validity and reliability and descriptive statistics. The manual also discusses the implications for learning presented by each of these learning models. For purposes of this discussion, "learning style,""cognitive style," and "personal style" are used synonymously.…

  9. Some Explorations of the Synoptic and Dynamic Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Kopple, William J.

    M. A. K. Halliday's continuum of linguistic styles or modes of representing experience employs two classifications of writing styles: (1) synoptic, and (2) dynamic. The synoptic style represents the world as a world of things, of products, of structures. This style is usually associated with carefully planned, formal writing. The chief…

  10. Learning Styles and Student Performance in Introductory Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Data from nine introductory microeconomics classes was used to test the effect of student learning style on academic performance. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was used to assess individual student learning styles. The results indicate that student learning style has no significant effect on performance, undermining the claims of those who…

  11. Adaptive Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop and demonstrate innovative adaptive seal technologies that can lead to dramatic improvements in engine performance, life, range, and emissions, and enhance operability for next generation gas turbine engines. This work is concentrated on the development of self-adaptive clearance control systems for gas turbine engines. Researchers have targeted the high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip seal location for following reasons: Current active clearance control (ACC) systems (e.g., thermal case-cooling schemes) cannot respond to blade tip clearance changes due to mechanical, thermal, and aerodynamic loads. As such they are prone to wear due to the required tight running clearances during operation. Blade tip seal wear (increased clearances) reduces engine efficiency, performance, and service life. Adaptive sealing technology research has inherent impact on all envisioned 21st century propulsion systems (e.g. distributed vectored, hybrid and electric drive propulsion concepts).

  12. Coping styles and personality: a biometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kerry L; Thordarson, Dana S; Stein, Murray B; Cohan, Sharon L; Taylor, Steven

    2007-03-01

    Previous research suggests that coping styles are modestly heritable and that this genetic influence is shared in large part with genetic influences on personality. To test this hypothesis, we estimated the heritable basis of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations in a sample of 91 monozygotic and 80 dizygotic twin pairs. Task-oriented, emotion-oriented, and social diversion coping styles were modestly heritable (h(2)=.17 to .20), whereas the use of distraction appeared to be influenced solely by environmental factors. Multivariate analyses showed that genetic contributions to coping styles were, at best, only modestly related to genetic contributions to personality (r=-.03 to .35). Environmental contributions to personality were unrelated to environmental factors in coping style. These results suggest that coping style is not merely a manifestation of basic personality traits but does support the possibility that the genetic factors in personality influences have a modest influence on an individual's preferred coping style or strength (e.g., rigidity vs flexibility).

  13. Predictors of attributional style change in children.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Brandon E; Alloy, Lauren B; Walshaw, Patricia D; Comer, Jonathan S; Shen, Gail H C; Villari, Annette G

    2006-06-01

    A number of studies have supported the hypothesis that negative attributional styles may confer vulnerability to the development of depression. The goal of this study was to explore factors that may contribute to the development of negative attributional styles in children. As hypothesized, elevated levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness at the initial assessment predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the 6-month follow-up period. In addition, elevated levels of verbal victimization occurring between the 2 assessments, as well as that occurring in the 6 months preceding the initial assessment, prospectively predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the follow-up. Further, initial depressive symptoms and verbal victimization during the follow-up continued to significantly predict attributional style change even when the overlap among the predictors was statistically controlled. Contrary to the hypotheses, however, neither parent-reported levels of overall negative life events nor parents' attributions for their children's events predicted changes in children's attributional styles.

  14. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups. PMID:27086223

  15. Predictors of attributional style change in children.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Brandon E; Alloy, Lauren B; Walshaw, Patricia D; Comer, Jonathan S; Shen, Gail H C; Villari, Annette G

    2006-06-01

    A number of studies have supported the hypothesis that negative attributional styles may confer vulnerability to the development of depression. The goal of this study was to explore factors that may contribute to the development of negative attributional styles in children. As hypothesized, elevated levels of depressive symptoms and hopelessness at the initial assessment predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the 6-month follow-up period. In addition, elevated levels of verbal victimization occurring between the 2 assessments, as well as that occurring in the 6 months preceding the initial assessment, prospectively predicted negative changes in children's attributional styles over the follow-up. Further, initial depressive symptoms and verbal victimization during the follow-up continued to significantly predict attributional style change even when the overlap among the predictors was statistically controlled. Contrary to the hypotheses, however, neither parent-reported levels of overall negative life events nor parents' attributions for their children's events predicted changes in children's attributional styles. PMID:16619141

  16. Defense styles in Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Puhalla, Alexander A; McCloskey, Michael S; Brickman, Lauren J; Fauber, Robert; Coccaro, Emil F

    2016-04-30

    The overreliance on immature and/or neurotic defense mechanisms, as opposed to more mature defensive functioning has been linked to several psychiatric disorders. However, to date, the role of defense styles among individuals with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) has not been examined. Given that individuals with IED display difficulties controlling their anger and aggression, one might expect these individuals to exhibit more immature and less mature defense styles. The current study compared participants with IED to a personality disorder (PD) comparison group, as well as to healthy volunteers (HV) on the Defense Style Questionnaire, a self-report measure that assesses the extent to which individuals endorse using mature, immature, and neurotic defense styles. Subjects with IED had significantly higher scores than both comparison groups on immature defense styles and exhibited lower scores on mature defense mechanisms. Hierarchical regression of significant defense style subscales showed that higher levels of acting out and lower levels of sublimation uniquely discriminated participants with IED from the PD and HV comparison groups.

  17. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  18. The Influence of Self-Concept, Parenting Style and Individualism-Collectivism on Career Maturity in Australia and Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between career maturity and self-concept, parenting style and individualism-collectivism across Australian and Thai cultural contexts were investigated. Berry's ("1969") etic-emic model for adapting instruments for cross-cultural research was applied. "Derived etic" status was achieved for the career planning scale, five self-concept…

  19. A Review about Parenting Style and Parenting Practices and Their Consequences in Disabled and Non Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raya, Antonio Félix; Ruiz-Olivares, Rosario; Pino, María José; Herruzo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    In order to explain the worst levels of adaptation showed by children with disabilities in relation to non disabled children, this paper aims to carry out a review of the most important advances achieved in recent decades in the study of parenting styles and parenting practices in relation to academic competence and behavior problems of children…

  20. Pregnant Teens vs. Teen Mothers: Impact of Self-Image, Style of Coping, and Family Environment on Caretaking Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Marilyn; Alvarez, Aracelly

    The purpose of this ongoing study is to assess the impact of style of coping, self-image, family environment, and perceptions of parenting skills on the adaptation of adolescents to the stressors of parenthood. A total of 27 adolescent mothers and their infants, and a cohort of 16 pregnant teens, have thus far participated in the study. Each of…

  1. Effects of Matching Teaching Strategy to Thinking Style on Learner's Quality of Reflection in an Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk; Wei, Chun-Wang; Liu, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Reflection plays an important role in improving learning performance. This study, therefore, attempted to explore whether learners' reflection levels can be improved if teaching strategies are adapted to fit with learners' thinking styles in an online learning environment. Three teaching strategies, namely constructive, guiding, and inductive,…

  2. Comfortable and leisurely: Old women on style and dress.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This article uses wardrobe interviews with women in the ages of 62-94 to explore transitions and continuities during the life course. During interviews the women have defined their style preferences. One categorization favored by several of them was comfortable. Different meanings were attached to this concept. Practical and convenient outfits were described as increasingly important when aging. Garments that did not expose the body-and its changes with aging-were preferred. The informants talked about the importance of feeling at ease, appropriately dressed for the occasion and situation. They were concerned with feeling nice in their outfits but also stressed becoming more laid-back and prioritizing convenience in their later years. All of these examples had to do with comfort and being comfortable. Uncomfortable clothes were too tight, deemed wrong for the occasion, and unwanted sources of self-consciousness and visibility. Transitions in their style of dress had been gradual, slowly adapting to changes in everyday life as well as in their bodies. PMID:26713964

  3. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Tyczkowski, Brenda; Vandenhouten, Christine; Reilly, Janet; Bansal, Gaurav; Kubsch, Sylvia M; Jakkola, Raelynn

    2015-01-01

    Less than 12.5% of nurses aspire to leadership roles, noting lack of support and stress as major factors in their decision not to pursue this area of practice. Psychological resiliency, described as the ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity, is key to successful nurse managers. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a related concept to resiliency and is another noteworthy predictor of leadership and management success. This study was undertaken to determine the level of and relationship between EI and leadership style of nurse managers employed in Wisconsin and Illinois facilities. A descriptive, exploratory study design was utilized, with a convenience sample of nurse managers working in 6 large Midwestern health systems. Nurse managers were invited to participate in the study by their employer, completing the online consent form and the demographic, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0) surveys. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted between EI and transformational leadership and the outcomes of leadership (extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction). No statistically significant relationships were noted between EI and transactional or laissez-faire leadership styles.

  4. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  5. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence. PMID:27547255

  6. Emotional intelligence (EI) and nursing leadership styles among nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Tyczkowski, Brenda; Vandenhouten, Christine; Reilly, Janet; Bansal, Gaurav; Kubsch, Sylvia M; Jakkola, Raelynn

    2015-01-01

    Less than 12.5% of nurses aspire to leadership roles, noting lack of support and stress as major factors in their decision not to pursue this area of practice. Psychological resiliency, described as the ability to properly adapt to stress and adversity, is key to successful nurse managers. Emotional intelligence (EI) is a related concept to resiliency and is another noteworthy predictor of leadership and management success. This study was undertaken to determine the level of and relationship between EI and leadership style of nurse managers employed in Wisconsin and Illinois facilities. A descriptive, exploratory study design was utilized, with a convenience sample of nurse managers working in 6 large Midwestern health systems. Nurse managers were invited to participate in the study by their employer, completing the online consent form and the demographic, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) Form 5X and the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i 2.0) surveys. Statistically significant positive relationships were noted between EI and transformational leadership and the outcomes of leadership (extra effort, effectiveness, and satisfaction). No statistically significant relationships were noted between EI and transactional or laissez-faire leadership styles. PMID:25714956

  7. Authoritative parenting style and adolescent smoking and drinking.

    PubMed

    Piko, Bettina F; Balázs, Máté Á

    2012-03-01

    While peer influences have often found to be a risk factor in terms of adolescent substance use, parental variables may continue to serve as an adaptive and protective function, although the role of parents is more latent and controversial. Therefore, the main goal of this paper was to investigate the role of authoritative parenting style and other family variables in adolescents' smoking and drinking. Using a sample of Hungarian youth (N=2072; age range between 12 and 22; Mean=15.4 years, S.D.=1.8 years; 49,2% males) logistic regression analyses confirmed that authoritative parenting style (particularly responsiveness) and positive identification with parents may serve as a protection, whereas negative family interactions may act as a risk factor. These relationships are particularly decisive in case of monthly prevalence of drinking and both lifetime and current prevalence of smoking. Gender differences are slight (namely, parental control for boys, whereas responsiveness for girls seem to be more relevant), however, the role of certain parental variables may change with age. Although parental control tends to decrease among high school students, it even serves as a greater protection for those whose parents continue providing parental monitoring.

  8. Development and Validation of a Q-Sort Measure of Identity Processing Style: The Identity Processing Style Q-Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Joe F.; Kerpelman, Jennifer L.; Lamke, Leanne K.; Sollie, Donna L.

    2009-01-01

    Identity styles represent strategies individuals use to explore identity-related issues. Berzonsky (Berzonsky, M. D. (1992). Identity style and coping strategies. "Journal of Personality, 60", 771-788) identified three styles: informational, normative, and diffuse. In three studies, this paper presents (a) the identity processing style Q-sort…

  9. Matching of Learning Styles and Teaching Styles: Advantage and Disadvantage on Ninth-Grade Students' Academic Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damrongpanit, Suntonrapot; Reungtragul, Auyporn

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify learning styles of ninth-grade students, to identify teaching styles of four subject teachers, and to compare four academic achievements between different matching conditions of students' learning styles and teachers' teaching styles. The research participants comprised of 3,382 ninth-grade…

  10. TA Beliefs in a SCALE-UP Style Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeBeck, George; Settelmeyer, Sam; Li, Sissi; Demaree, Dedra

    2010-10-01

    In Spring 2010, the Oregon State University physics department instituted a SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Active Learning Environment for Undergraduate Programs) style studio classroom in the introductory, calculus-based physics series. In our initial implementation, comprised of two hours lecture, two hours of studio, and two hours lab work, the studio session was lead by a faculty member and either 2 GTAs or 1 GTA and 1 LA. We plan to move to a model where senior GTAs can lead studio sections after co-teaching with the faculty member. It is critical that we know how to prepare and support the instructional team in facilitating student learning in this setting. We examine GTA and LA pedagogical beliefs through reflective journaling, interviews, and personal experience of the authors. In particular, we examine how these beliefs changed over their first quarter of instruction, as well as the resources used to adapt to the new classroom environment.

  11. Physician leadership styles and effectiveness: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Samuels, Michael E; Stoskopf, Carleen H

    2005-12-01

    The authors study the association between physician leadership styles and leadership effectiveness. Executive directors of community health centers were surveyed (269 respondents; response rate = 40.9 percent) for their perceptions of the medical director's leadership behaviors and effectiveness, using an adapted Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (43 items on a 0-4 point Likert-type scale), with additional questions on demographics and the center's clinical goals and achievements. The authors hypothesize that transformational leadership would be more positively associated with executive directors' ratings of effectiveness, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate extra effort, as well as the center's clinical goal achievement, than transactional or laissez-faire leadership. Separate ordinary least squares regressions were used to model each of the effectiveness measures, and general linear model regression was used to model clinical goal achievement. Results support the hypothesis and suggest that physician leadership development using the transformational leadership model may result in improved health care quality and cost control. PMID:16330822

  12. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  13. Recasting Hope: a process of adaptation following fetal anomaly diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Joan; Begley, Cecily M; Galavan, Eoin

    2009-02-01

    Recent decades have seen ultrasound revolutionise the management of pregnancy and its possible complications. However, somewhat less consideration has been given to the psychosocial consequences of mass screening resulting in fetal anomaly detection in low-risk populations, particularly in contexts where termination of pregnancy services are not readily accessible. A grounded theory study was conducted exploring forty-one women's experiences of ultrasound diagnosis of fetal abnormality up to and beyond the birth in the Republic of Ireland. Thirty-one women chose to continue the pregnancy and ten women accessed termination of pregnancy services outside the state. Data were collected using repeated in-depth individual interviews pre- and post-birth and analysed using the constant comparative method. Recasting Hope, the process of adaptation following diagnosis is represented temporally as four phases: 'Assume Normal', 'Shock', 'Gaining Meaning' and 'Rebuilding'. Some mothers expressed a sense of incredulity when informed of the anomaly and the 'Assume Normal' phase provides an improved understanding as to why women remain unprepared for an adverse diagnosis. Transition to phase 2, 'Shock,' is characterised by receiving the diagnosis and makes explicit women's initial reactions. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, a process of 'Gaining Meaning' commences, whereby an attempt to make sense of this ostensibly negative event begins. 'Rebuilding', the final stage in the process, is concerned with the extent to which women recover from the loss and resolve the inconsistency between their experience and their previous expectations of pregnancy in particular and beliefs in the world in general. This theory contributes to the theoretical field of thanatology as applied to the process of grieving associated with the loss of an ideal child. The framework of Recasting Hope is intended for use as a tool to assist health professionals through offering simple yet effective

  14. Influence of Transformational Leadership Style on Decision-Making Style and Technology Readiness: A Correlation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Crystal A.

    2009-01-01

    The research addressed the problem of technology initiatives failing to meet organizational objectives. The purpose of the quantitative correlation study was to determine the relationship between transformational leadership styles, decision-making styles, and technology readiness. The findings of the study answered research questions in three…

  15. The impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes toward parenting styles

    PubMed Central

    Zandiyeh, Zahra; Zare, Elaheh; Hedayati, Batool

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parenting style is one of the most important and effective factors in training and growth of children and adolescents and the method that parents communicate with their children is an effective factor on family contact models. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of group training about parenting styles on maternal attitudes that were admitted to Isfahan Imam Ali (AS) health care center in 2013. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental study, which was conducted on a random sample of 25 mothers referred to this health care center. They were divided into two groups (experimental and control). The experimental group received five sessions of group training, and the control group received a booklet about parenting styles. The used tool in this study was the Bamerind Parenting Style Questionnaire that was completed by the mothers before and after the intervention and finally, their obtained scores were compared with each other. Results: The results of the present study showed that the mean score of attitude toward easy-going style in test group was less than the control group after intervention (P = 0.045). The mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was less than control group after intervention (P = 0.037) and the mean score of attitude toward authoritative style in the experimental group was more than the control group after intervention (P = 0.011). Conclusions: Group training can be an appropriate method in changing maternal attitudes toward parenting styles. PMID:27462627

  16. Students' Learning Style Preferences and Teachers' Instructional Strategies: Correlations between Matched Styles and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify the extent to which learning styles influence the educational process as well as the outcome of elementary-age students in terms of academic achievement. This study examined potential relationships between the degree of match (as determined by comparing learning style preferences of students with…

  17. Gender Differences in Learning Styles: Nurturing a Gender and Style Sensitive Computer Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Wilfred Wing Fat; Yuen, Allan Hoi Kau

    2010-01-01

    The gender digital divide has been widely discussed and researched over the years. Previous studies have focused on a number of factors such as computer attitude, computer anxiety, computer self-efficacy, and computer experience. This study empirically tested the sensitivity of a learning style instrument, the "Gregorc Style Delineator" (GSD), to…

  18. Social Styles of Students and Professors: Do Students' Social Styles Influence Their Preferences for Professors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Regina P.

    2005-01-01

    This article uses Merrill and Reid's classification of social styles as drivers, analyticals, expressives, and amiables to examine differences between the personalities of different business majors and student choices of favorite professors. Significant differences were found in the social styles of different business majors. Furthermore, one's…

  19. Identity Styles and Conflict Resolution Styles: Associations in Mother-Adolescent Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Branje, Susan; Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent identity and parent-adolescent conflict have each attracted considerable research interest. However, few studies have examined the important link between the two constructs. The present study examined the associations between adolescent identity processing styles and adolescent conflict resolution styles in the mother-adolescent dyad.…

  20. Achievement Motivation of Primary Mathematics Education Teacher Candidates According to Their Cognitive Styles and Motivation Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Hakan; Dündar, Sefa; Ayvaz, Ülkü

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal whether there is relation between achievement motivations of teacher candidates according to their cognitive styles and motivation styles or not. This study was designed as a quantitative study due to collecting quantitative data and running statistical analyses. Both comparative and correlational survey methods…

  1. Is Learning Styles-Based Instruction Effective? A Comprehensive Analysis of Recent Research on Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    In an influential publication in 2009, a group of cognitive psychologists revealed that there was a lack of empirical evidence supporting the concept of learning styles-based instruction and provided guidelines for the type of research design necessary to verify the learning styles hypothesis. This article examined the literature since 2009 to…

  2. Discrepancy Between Native English Speaker Teachers' Teaching Styles and Chinese English Learners' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Li; Fan, Zhi-zhong

    2007-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed a growing number of native English speakers teaching English in Chinese classroom. However, their teaching does not gain expected ends. Extensive studies have found that the mismatch between learning styles and teaching styles is a possible reason for this phenomenon. This paper aims to investigate whether the…

  3. Problem-Solving Style, Teaching Style, and Teaching Practices among In-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandelbaum, Matthew Gary

    2013-01-01

    While educational psychologists have found evidence for effective teaching behaviors that lead to academic achievement, pedagogy still lacks prescriptive accuracy for all students at all times. Teaching style and problem-solving style may be underlying mechanisms behind teaching behaviors. The present study looked at these three…

  4. The Role of Parenting Styles and Teacher Interactional Styles in Children's Reading and Spelling Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers ("N" = 123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in…

  5. Styles and Style-Stretching: How Are They Related to Successful Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Carol; Inceçay, Görsev

    2016-01-01

    Although the learning style construct has aroused much interest over the years, questions remain regarding basic issues such as definition, the validity and/or reliability of various measurement instruments, and the relationship between learning style and successful learning. Furthermore, although maintaining stylistic flexibility is recommended…

  6. Application of Adaptive Counseling and Therapy to Career Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Mary Z.; Tracey, Terence J.

    1995-01-01

    Adaptive Counseling and Therapy theory predicts that counseling efficacy depends on a match between counselor style and client readiness. Data from 137 females and 54 males showed a negative relationship between client readiness and preference for directive counseling and a curvilinear (inverted U) relationship between readiness and preference for…

  7. Adaptive Insecure Attachment and Resource Control Strategies during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Bin-Bin; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    By integrating the life history theory of attachment with resource control theory, the current study examines the hypothesis that insecure attachment styles reorganized in middle childhood are alternative adaptive strategies used to prepare for upcoming competition with the peer group. A sample of 654 children in the second through seventh grades…

  8. Connector adapter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Scott C. (Inventor); Dean, Richard J. (Inventor); Burge, Scott W. (Inventor); Dartez, Toby W. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An adapter for installing a connector to a terminal post, wherein the connector is attached to a cable, is presented. In an embodiment, the adapter is comprised of an elongated collet member having a longitudinal axis comprised of a first collet member end, a second collet member end, an outer collet member surface, and an inner collet member surface. The inner collet member surface at the first collet member end is used to engage the connector. The outer collet member surface at the first collet member end is tapered for a predetermined first length at a predetermined taper angle. The collet includes a longitudinal slot that extends along the longitudinal axis initiating at the first collet member end for a predetermined second length. The first collet member end is formed of a predetermined number of sections segregated by a predetermined number of channels and the longitudinal slot.

  9. Adaptive VFH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odriozola, Iñigo; Lazkano, Elena; Sierra, Basi

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates the improvement of the Vector Field Histogram (VFH) local planning algorithm for mobile robot systems. The Adaptive Vector Field Histogram (AVFH) algorithm has been developed to improve the effectiveness of the traditional VFH path planning algorithm overcoming the side effects of using static parameters. This new algorithm permits the adaptation of planning parameters for the different type of areas in an environment. Genetic Algorithms are used to fit the best VFH parameters to each type of sector and, afterwards, every section in the map is labelled with the sector-type which best represents it. The Player/Stage simulation platform has been chosen for making all sort of tests and to prove the new algorithm's adequateness. Even though there is still much work to be carried out, the developed algorithm showed good navigation properties and turned out to be softer and more effective than the traditional VFH algorithm.

  10. [Kolb's learning styles in medical students].

    PubMed

    Borracci, Raúl A; Arribalzaga, Eduardo B

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the relationship of Kolb's learning styles in academic success or failure in medical students. A prospective cohort study in 116 medical students of a private Argentine university was performed between March 2005 and March 2011. The follow-up included two cut-offs; during 2005-2006 the students' learning styles were determined and five years later, when individuals had to end their career, they were grouped into graduated, delayed or dropped status. At the end of the period, 50% of the students ended successfully, 24.1% abandoned and 25.9% was delayed. Learning styles were assimilator in 60.3% of cases, divergent in 14.7%, accommodator in 6.9%, convergent in 6.0% and undefined in 12.1%. In conclusion, the follow-up during the career demonstrated that convergent or undefined styles had a tendency to abandon the career, while delayed students had a more theoretical and reflexive style than successful individuals. The results observed in convergent students differed from other reports. This difference would be explained by a particular characteristic of the sample or by the teaching and evaluation profile of the university.

  11. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, B.L.; Aeby, I.

    1980-08-26

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data is described. The device has a frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  12. Adaptive sampler

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Bobby L.; Aeby, Ian

    1982-01-01

    An adaptive data compression device for compressing data having variable frequency content, including a plurality of digital filters for analyzing the content of the data over a plurality of frequency regions, a memory, and a control logic circuit for generating a variable rate memory clock corresponding to the analyzed frequency content of the data in the frequency region and for clocking the data into the memory in response to the variable rate memory clock.

  13. Adaptive antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, P.

    1987-04-01

    The basic principles of adaptive antennas are outlined in terms of the Wiener-Hopf expression for maximizing signal to noise ratio in an arbitrary noise environment; the analogy with generalized matched filter theory provides a useful aid to understanding. For many applications, there is insufficient information to achieve the above solution and thus non-optimum constrained null steering algorithms are also described, together with a summary of methods for preventing wanted signals being nulled by the adaptive system. The three generic approaches to adaptive weight control are discussed; correlation steepest descent, weight perturbation and direct solutions based on sample matrix conversion. The tradeoffs between hardware complexity and performance in terms of null depth and convergence rate are outlined. The sidelobe cancellor technique is described. Performance variation with jammer power and angular distribution is summarized and the key performance limitations identified. The configuration and performance characteristics of both multiple beam and phase scan array antennas are covered, with a brief discussion of performance factors.

  14. Linking teaching approaches and learning styles: how can it help students?

    PubMed

    Janing, J

    2001-09-01

    Although limited, one study revealed that the preferred learning style for paramedic students is that of assimilator. Assimilators prefer a more passive/reflective role in the learning situation and tend to favor lectures with an emphasis on concepts, assigned readings, exams and assigned tasks. By increasing complexity and requiring more self-directed activities in your teaching approach, you are encouraging students (particularly the assimilators) to move from a role of dependence on you for facts and direction to a role in which they begin to 1) seek some knowledge on their own; 2) assume responsibility for analyzing potential solutions to problems; and 3) justify decisions. You should be able to document their progress toward independence through clinical and field evaluations by preceptors. Students should reach the point of competently assuming control of patient care for the majority of patients they encounter by the end of their field internship. Instructors should keep in mind that there is currently no consensus on a definition of learning styles, and different indicators identify different factors. Learning style inventory results, regardless of the instrument used, should not be a primary factor in decisions to alter curriculum approaches. However, although there is inconsistency in the data on its reliability and validity, and Kolb's LSI measures only certain factors, the results that are available seem significant enough to at least consider learning styles as one resource for adapting and sequencing our teaching methodologies. A learning-styles inventory administered to students at the beginning of a training program would provide faculty with the knowledge of the preferred learning style of that class. This knowledge could prove extremely helpful, not only in planning classroom activities, but also in developing approaches for remediating students experiencing difficulty in mastering the curriculum content. The more knowledge we have about our

  15. Style Guide: An Interdisciplinary Communication Tool to Support the Process of Generating Tailored Infographics From Electronic Health Data Using EnTICE3

    PubMed Central

    Arcia, Adriana; Velez, Mark; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this case study we describe key features of the structured communication tool—a style guide—used to support interdisciplinary collaboration, and we propose the use of such a tool for research teams engaged in similar projects. We employ tailored infographics to present patient reported outcome data from a community health survey back, in a comprehensible and actionable manner, to the individuals who provided it. The style guide was developed to bridge the semantic gap between the domain and programming experts engaged in this effort. Innovation: The style guide supports the communication of complex design specifications in a highly structured format that is nevertheless flexible enough to accommodate project growth. Unlike the typical corporate style guide that has a more narrative format, our style guide is innovative in its use of consistent fields across multiple, standalone entries. Credibility: The process of populating the style guide prompted the designer toward greater design efficiency and led to consistent and specific instructions that met the framework architect’s stated information needs. Discussion and Conclusion: The guiding values in the creation of the style guide were consistency, clarity, and flexibility. It serves as a durable reference to the desired look and functionality of the final infographic product without dictating an implementation strategy. The style guide format can be adapted to meet the communication needs of other interdisciplinary teams facing a semantic gap. PMID:25848634

  16. Contractor-style tunnel cost estimating

    SciTech Connect

    Scapuzzi, D. )

    1990-06-01

    Keeping pace with recent advances in construction technology is a challenge for the cost estimating engineer. Using an estimating style that simulates the actual construction process and is similar in style to the contractor's estimate will give a realistic view of underground construction costs. For a contractor-style estimate, a mining method is chosen; labor crews, plant and equipment are selected, and advance rates are calculated for the various phases of work which are used to determine the length of time necessary to complete each phase of work. The durations are multiplied by the cost or labor and equipment per unit of time and, along with the costs for materials and supplies, combine to complete the estimate. Variations in advance rates, ground support, labor crew size, or other areas are more easily analyzed for their overall effect on the cost and schedule of a project. 14 figs.

  17. Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R M; van der Laan, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10-19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persisting, and serious desisting trajectory. More serious delinquents tended to more frequently engage in delinquency, and to report a higher proportion of theft. Proportionally, serious persistent delinquents were the most violent of all trajectory groups. Using cluster analysis we identified three parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian (moderately supportive), and neglectful (punishing). Controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood delinquency, neglectful parenting was more frequent in moderate desisters, serious persisters, and serious desisters, suggesting that parenting styles differentiate non- or minor delinquents from more serious delinquents.

  18. Experiential learning and changing leadership style.

    PubMed

    Zanecchia, M D

    1985-11-01

    One of the many problems facing the nursing profession today is the lack of preparedness of its leaders. Nursing educators, collaborating with nursing service, can teach baccalaureate students leadership skills and to develop leadership styles. Experiential real-world management tasks selected by faculty and head nurses can serve as learning opportunities. Students can learn leadership ability and change style. Utilizing t-test, the before and after course mean scores on the standardized Leadership Ability Evaluation instrument were statistically analyzed. Significant differences and style changes were identified. Students in the total class became more effective leaders as did the students in both the traditional and experiential groups. Traditional students (lecture only) became less autocratic-submissive and more democratic. The experiential group significantly became less autocratic-aggressive, less laissez-faire and more democratic.

  19. Thinking Style Diversity and Collaborative Design Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volpentesta, Antonio P.; Ammirato, Salvatore; Sofo, Francesco

    The paper explores the impact of structured learning experiences that were designed to challenge students’ ways of thinking and promote creativity. The aim was to develop the ability of students, coming from different engineering disciplines and characterized by particular thinking style profiles, to collaboratively work on a project-based learning experience in an educational environment. Three project-based learning experiences were structured using critical thinking methods to stimulate creativity. Pre and post-survey data using a specially modified thinking style inventory for 202 design students indicated a thinking style profile of preferences with a focus on exploring and questioning. Statistically significant results showed students successfully developed empathy and openness to multiple perspectives.

  20. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    PubMed Central

    Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10–19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persisting, and serious desisting trajectory. More serious delinquents tended to more frequently engage in delinquency, and to report a higher proportion of theft. Proportionally, serious persistent delinquents were the most violent of all trajectory groups. Using cluster analysis we identified three parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian (moderately supportive), and neglectful (punishing). Controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood delinquency, neglectful parenting was more frequent in moderate desisters, serious persisters, and serious desisters, suggesting that parenting styles differentiate non- or minor delinquents from more serious delinquents. PMID:17786548

  1. Do emergency medicine residents and faculty have similar learning styles when assessed with the Kolb learning style assessment tool?

    PubMed

    Fredette, Jenna; O'Brien, Corinne; Poole, Christy; Nomura, Jason

    2015-04-01

    Experiential learning theory and the Kolb Learning Style Inventory (Kolb LSI) have influenced educators worldwide for decades. Knowledge of learning styles can create efficient learning environments, increase information retention, and improve learner satisfaction. Learning styles have been examined in medicine previously, but not specifically with Emergency Medicine (EM) residents and attendings. Using the Kolb LSI, the learning styles of Emergency Medicine residents and attendings were assessed. The findings showed that the majority of EM residents and attendings shared the accommodating learning style. This result was different than prior studies that found the majority of medical professionals had a converging learning style and other studies that found attendings often have different learning styles than residents. The issue of learning styles among emergency medical residents and attendings is important because learning style knowledge may have an impact on how a residency program structures curriculum and how EM residents are successfully, efficiently, and creatively educated.

  2. Relationship of personal authoritarianism with parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Laura

    2006-02-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the personality construct of right-wing authoritarianism and Baumrind's 1971 proposed parenting styles of authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting. 68 youth ages 12-18 along with one of their parents participated. The children rated both parents on Buri's 1991 Parental Authority Questionnaire. One of the parents responded to Altemeyer's Right-Wing Authoritarian Scale. People with higher scores on Altemeyer's scale were more likely to prefer the authoritarian parenting style as their offspring reported (r = .33). Permissive parenting correlated negatively with the measure of authoritarianism as a personality variable (r = -.56).

  3. Effect of prolonged deprivation on attributional style.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Nathawat, S S

    1989-08-01

    The effects of prolonged deprivation and outcome on attributional style were examined in a 2 x 2 factorial design with two levels of deprivation (high and low) and two levels of outcome (good and bad). Indian subjects (N = 80) were selected on the basis of extreme scores on a prolonged deprivation scale; they provided an attributional style scale of good and bad outcome situations. High-deprived subjects attributed bad outcomes to more internal, stable, and global causes compared with low-deprived subjects. In addition, high-deprived subjects showed internal attributions of a stable and global type for both bad and good outcomes.

  4. Leadership Styles of Oxford House Officers

    PubMed Central

    Komer, Anne C; Jason, Leonard A; Harvey, Ronald; Olson, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Oxford House recovery homes are unusual compared to most recovery homes in that they function entirely without the use of staff; instead members are elected to officer positions. The aim of this study was to perform preliminary analysis of the types of leadership styles utilized by members of oxford house. Twentynine house residents of five Oxford Houses were asked to rate their own leadership styles using the leader behavior description questionnaire and the multifactor leader questionnaire. Results showed that participants were more likely to use person-oriented behaviors above task-oriented actions. Transformational leadership was associated with higher outcomes than Transactional leadership. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:26380329

  5. Thermal styling: efficacy, convenience, damage tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Harper, Don; Qi, Jia Catherine; Kaplan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a simple method to explore the efficacy of thermal styling, By using a temperature gradient curling iron we rapidly explore a range of thermal treatment conditions. The thermodynamic literature on the glass transition in keratin fibers explains the surprisingly limited role of elevated temperature in improvements in the efficacy of holding the styled curvature of the fibers. The onset of damage, however, is strongly temperature dependent. This combination of measurements of damage and efficacy shows the range of conditions over which thermal protection products must be functional.

  6. Comparative genomics of Pneumocystis carinii with other protists: implications for life style.

    PubMed

    Cushion, Melanie T

    2004-01-01

    Three protistan genomes were analyzed for differential genetic traits that may be associated with biological adaptations to their unique life styles. The microsporidian, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, an obligate intracellular parasite; the ascomycetes, Pneumocystis carinii, considered an opportunistic pathogen; and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a model organism exhibiting a free-living life style, were used in comparisons of genomic architecture, reproductive strategies, and metabolic capacity predicted by the presence of signature genes. Genome size, gene number, and metabolic function decreased as the organisms became more dependent on their hosts. In contrast, gene density and the percentage of genes dedicated to cell growth and division were substantially increased in the genome of E. cuniculi. The obligate life style was associated with reductions in gene number, genome size, and reduced metabolic capacity while the free-living life style was coincident with gene duplications and duplication of large portions of the genome. The genomic characteristics and metabolic capacity of P. carinii were usually intermediate between those of the other two protistan genomes, but unique characteristics such as the presence of a single rDNA locus may indicate that these organisms could be in the process of becoming more host dependent.

  7. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  8. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles.

    PubMed

    Ford, Thomas E; Lappi, Shaun K; Holden, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life.

  9. Personality, Humor Styles and Happiness: Happy People Have Positive Humor Styles

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Thomas E.; Lappi, Shaun K.; Holden, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between four personality traits, humor styles, and happiness. Replicating previous research, happiness was positively correlated with four personality traits: extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism. Further, happiness positively related to self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles; it related negatively to self-defeating and aggressive humor styles. Thus, happy people habitually engage in positive uses of humor and avoid engaging in negative uses of humor in daily life. We also found support for our hypothesis. People high in extraversion, locus of control, self-esteem, and optimism are happier because they engage in positive humor in daily life. PMID:27547251

  10. Transforming AdaPT to Ada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsack, Stephen J.; Holzbach-Valero, A. A.; Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes how the main features of the proposed Ada language extensions intended to support distribution, and offered as possible solutions for Ada9X can be implemented by transformation into standard Ada83. We start by summarizing the features proposed in a paper (Gargaro et al, 1990) which constitutes the definition of the extensions. For convenience we have called the language in its modified form AdaPT which might be interpreted as Ada with partitions. These features were carefully chosen to provide support for the construction of executable modules for execution in nodes of a network of loosely coupled computers, but flexibly configurable for different network architectures and for recovery following failure, or adapting to mode changes. The intention in their design was to provide extensions which would not impact adversely on the normal use of Ada, and would fit well in style and feel with the existing standard. We begin by summarizing the features introduced in AdaPT.

  11. Cognitive Styles: Implications for the Preparation of Early Childhood Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes research on the field dependence-independence (FDI) dimension of cognitive styles of teachers. Argues for the integration of FDI knowledge into teacher preparation programs and more attention to teachers' and students' cognitve styles. (DE)

  12. Personality Styles of First-Year Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erskine, Charlene G.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The prevalence of 4 of 16 personality styles found in two dental school first-year classes is compared with personality styles found among practicing dentists, and the implications for dental program organization and curriculum are discussed. (MSE)

  13. Learning environment, learning styles and conceptual understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Lourdes M.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there have been many studies on learners developing conceptions of natural phenomena. However, so far there have been few attempts to investigate how the characteristics of the learners and their environment influence such conceptions. This study began with an attempt to use an instrument developed by McCarthy (1981) to describe learners in Malaysian primary schools. This proved inappropriate as Asian primary classrooms do not provide the same kind of environment as US classrooms. It was decided to develop a learning style checklist to suit the local context and which could be used to describe differences between learners which teachers could appreciate and use. The checklist included four dimensions — perceptual, process, self-confidence and motivation. The validated instrument was used to determine the learning style preferences of primary four pupils in Penang, Malaysia. Later, an analysis was made regarding the influence of learning environment and learning styles on conceptual understanding in the topics of food, respiration and excretion. This study was replicated in the Philippines with the purpose of investigating the relationship between learning styles and achievement in science, where the topics of food, respiration and excretion have been taken up. A number of significant relationships were observed in these two studies.

  14. Children's Thinking Styles, Play, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Robyn M.; Liden, Sharon; Shin, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of seventy-four middle school children of mostly Filipino and part Hawaiian heritages, this article explores the relationships of children's thinking styles, play preferences, and school performance. Using the Group Embedded Figures Test, the Articulation of the Body Scale, and written responses to three questions, the authors…

  15. Differentiation through Learning Styles and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprenger, Marilee

    This book reviews how the brain processes, stores, and retains information and how teachers can guide students in accessing this information by utilizing their individual learning styles and strengths. It offers practical strategies and applications for accessing these sensory pathways, connecting learned content to the real world. Seven chapters…

  16. Effects of Leadership Style on Team Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucic, Tania; Robinson, Linda; Ramburuth, Prem

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the effect of leadership style of a team leader on team-member learning in organizations, to conceptually extend an initial model of leadership and to empirically examine the new model of ambidextrous leadership in a team context. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative research utilizing the case study method…

  17. The Learning Style Characteristics of Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Rita S.; Price, Gary E.

    1980-01-01

    It was found, among other things, that six of the 24 variables on the Learning Style Inventory significantly discriminated between gifted and normal elementary age Ss, and that gifted Ss also tended to be highly individualistic in their preferences for sound, silence, interaction, temperature variations, intake, mobility, and time. (DLS)

  18. Multiscale Measurement of Extreme Response Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel M.; Newton, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    This article extends a methodological approach considered by Bolt and Johnson for the measurement and control of extreme response style (ERS) to the analysis of rating data from multiple scales. Specifically, it is shown how the simultaneous analysis of item responses across scales allows for more accurate identification of ERS, and more effective…

  19. Trajectories of Delinquency and Parenting Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeve, Machteld; Blokland, Arjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Loeber, Rolf; Gerris, Jan R. M.; van der Laan, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10-19, we identified five distinct…

  20. English Academic Style Manuals: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of English Academic Style Manuals conducted between 2004 and 2007, designed to establish whether English Academic Discourse is sufficiently well-defined as a concept to be useful for translation research. Although, with the current emphasis on genre and disciplinary differences, it is fashionable today…

  1. Improving Counselor Effectiveness: Consulting with Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelsma, Dennis M.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the personal styles model of Moore and Richter, which attempts to identify an individual's particular pattern and response in an educational environment. Suggests ways the model can help counselors to encourage teacher effectiveness and improve their overall effectiveness in consultation with teachers and parents. (Author/ABB)

  2. Learning Styles and the Community Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kussrow, Paul G.; Dunn, Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    Learning style research can be incorporated into community education practice by (1) matching learning time preferences to academic schedules; (2) recognizing that many adult students are global, not analytic, learners and tactual/kinesthetic rather than auditory; and (3) accommodating physical needs in classroom seating, lighting, etc. (SK)

  3. Parenting style and adolescent fruit consumption.

    PubMed

    Kremers, Stef P J; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2003-08-01

    The importance of the social environment for dietary behaviour has been highlighted in the past decade. A type of environmental influence that has received increasing research attention in recent years is the influence that parents can have on their children's dietary behaviour through food-related parenting practices. Much of the work done so far, however, has reported inconsistent findings and poorly understood mechanisms of influence. The present study aimed to explore the possible environmental influence of general parenting style on adolescent food choice patterns. Data were collected at schools (N=643; mean age 16.5 years), using self-administered questionnaires on parenting style, fruit intake behaviour and fruit-specific cognitions. Consistent and theoretically predictable differences were found between adolescents who described their parents as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent or neglectful. Fruit consumption and fruit-specific cognitions were most favourable among adolescents who were being raised with an authoritative parenting style. Children of parents with indulgent parenting styles consumed more fruit than adolescents from authoritarian or neglectful homes. Consequences of these results for the interpretation of earlier studies on the influence of parenting practices are discussed, and a research model is proposed for future studies of parental influences on adolescent dietary behaviours. PMID:12880620

  4. Using Learning Styles to Personalize Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajac, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research aimed at collecting the data necessary for preparing personalised content of e-learning courses. Its aim is to show how the information describing individual learning styles can be linked to the rules of creating tailored online courses. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  5. The Style and Structure of "Minnesang"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlin, Adam

    2012-01-01

    "The Style and Structure of 'Minnesang'" approaches a broad corpus of the medieval German love lyric from the perspective of historical phraseology and formulaicity. Overturning previous concerns of prosodic restriction in verse and the misapplication of contemporary notions of fixity, the dissertation provides an overview of…

  6. Leadership Styles of Community College Academic Deans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sypawka, William; Mallett, William; McFadden, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The future of the community college system will depend on sound leadership, and its success will rely on how well academic deans effectively direct their units. The study investigated the dean's leadership styles using Bolman and Deal's Leadership Orientation Instrument to discover their primary leadership frame with a focus on how data may be…

  7. Fine-Tuning Your Ensemble's Jazz Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Antonio J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposes instructional strategies for directors of jazz groups, including guidelines for developing of skills necessary for good performance. Includes effective methods for positive changes in ensemble style. Addresses jazz group problems such as beat, tempo, staying in tune, wind power, and solo/ensemble lines. Discusses percussionists, bassists,…

  8. Validity Study of the Thinking Styles Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Anne C.; McCoach, D. Betsy

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the psychometric properties of the 104-item Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI; Sternberg & Wagner, 1992) using responses from 789 students from 4 high schools in Connecticut. Twelve of the 13 subscales identified in mental self-government (MSG) theory (Sternberg, 1988, 1997) were included in all analyses. Both subscale- and…

  9. Leadership Styles of a Multigenerational Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Raymond John, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this concurrent, nested, mixed-methods case study was to trace the evolution of the multigenerational success of the winningest college football coach of all time, John Gagliardi, to identify potential leadership styles, characteristics, and coaching effectiveness methods that others in a multigenerational leadership role may use.…

  10. Thinking Style, Browsing Primes and Hypermedia Navigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorina, Lorenzo; Antonietti, Alessandro; Colombo, Barbara; Bartolomeo, Annella

    2007-01-01

    There is a common assumption that hypermedia navigation is influenced by a learner's style of thinking, so people who are inclined to apply sequential and analytical strategies (left-thinkers) are thought to browse hypermedia in a linear way, whereas those who prefer holistic and intuitive strategies (right-thinkers) tend towards non-linear paths.…

  11. Spectrum of Teaching Styles Retrospective 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Michael; Ashworth, Sara; Byra, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Spectrum of Teaching Styles was introduced by Dr. Muska Mosston in his 1966 book "Teaching Physical Education." In this essay the development of the Spectrum is briefly recounted and five refinements made since 1966 are reviewed. In closing, the authors reflect on the influence of critiques from scholars in the field on the development of the…

  12. Changing Attitudes to Work and Life Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosow, Jerome M.

    The following statements summarize the author's analysis of changing attitudes to work and life styles in Western society: (1) a permissive society has fostered a change in authority roles; (2) general mistrust toward big busines is no longer limited to the public at large; (3) employees, supervisors, and managers all dislike and fear change; (4)…

  13. The Administrative Grid: A Leader Style Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Donald G.; Heun, Richard E.

    The Administrative Grid was developed to aid in rapid interpretation of orthogonal data on management style. The grid is a simple device for illustrating Z-score values from any instrument with orthogonality determined and scores normalized. The two dimensions, "people" and "task,"are divided into standard deviations and, by plotting perpendicular…

  14. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  15. Curriculum Theory and Practice: What's Your Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Donna L.

    2011-01-01

    Four common schools of thought in the curriculum arena are the linear, holistic, laissez faire, and critical theorist approaches. When teachers identify which approach they are most apt to use, they can consciously incorporate other styles into their practice. The author holds copyright to this article. Distributed by Phi Delta Kappa with…

  16. Circadian Typology and Style of Thinking Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabbri, Marco; Antonietti, Alessandro; Giorgetti, Marisa; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Natale, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study aims to investigate the relationship between circadian typology and learning-thinking styles conceptualised as a preference toward information processing typical of the right vs. the left cerebral hemisphere. A sample of 1254 undergraduates (380 boys and 874 girls; mean age=21.86+/-2.37,) was administered the…

  17. Learning Styles in the Art Room

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbach, Marla

    2011-01-01

    Art students have different learning styles. Some are visual learners who need to see the information. Some are auditory learners who need to hear the information. Others are tactile/kinesthetic learners who need to move, do, or touch in order to learn. Looking over her curriculum and lesson plans, the author realized almost every art lesson…

  18. Parenting Styles and Beliefs about Parental Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smetana, Judith G.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that models of parenting style, such as Baumrind's popular model, are insensitive to variations in parenting resulting from characteristics of the different situations in which the parenting is expressed. Argues that considering parenting in context adds greater specificity to the model and enhances the potential for predicting child…

  19. Perceptions of Leadership Styles of Department Chairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsett, Glee

    2007-01-01

    Much has been written about leadership in business management, but very little research has been done on leadership in academic departments. Department chairs have the authority to make most departmental decisions, but rarely does formal training exist for this position. Therefore, there is a need to study how the leadership styles among…

  20. Liberating Parody: Strategies for Teaching Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahlan, Anne Ricketson

    Imitation of organizational and sentence patterns is an ancient technique for teaching rhetoric, but to be effective, imitation must be informed, deliberate, and creative. Students must first learn to recognize the characteristics of a given style and then to appreciate the connection between specific stylistic qualities and their cumulative…

  1. The Looming Maladaptive Style in Social Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael A.; Stopa, Luisa

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationship between the looming maladaptive style (i.e., an enduring and traitlike cognitive pattern to appraise threat as rapidly rising in risk, progressively worsening, or actively speeding up and accelerating) and three different aspects of trait social anxiety (i.e., fear of negative evaluation, social…

  2. Cultural Variations in Learning and Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omidvar, Pegah; Tan, Bee Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The need for cross-cultural understanding of the relationship between culture and learning style is becoming increasingly important because of the changing cultural mix of classrooms and society at large. The research done regarding the two variables is mostly quantitative. This review summarizes results of the existing research on cultural…

  3. Superintendent Leadership Style: A Gendered Discourse Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallin, Dawn C.; Crippen, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Using a blend of social constructionism, critical feminism, and dialogue theory, the discourse of nine Manitoba superintendents is examined to determine if it illustrates particular gendered assumptions regarding superintendents' leadership style. Qualitative inquiry and analysis methods were utilized to identify emerging themes, or topics of…

  4. The Socialization of Young Children's Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Joan; Peyton, Ellice

    This report explores the possibility of constructing a conceptual framework to account for variations in learning styles observed among preschool disadvantaged children. It begins with a review of the literature on preschool intervention programs relating to ways disadvantaged children approach new experiences; gather, organize, and process…

  5. Determining Learning Styles of the Professional Mountaineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore learning styles of the professional mountaineers. The research was carried out according to the survey model. The research group composed of 61 professional mountaineers (n[subscript (men)] = 45, n[subscript (women)] = 16) who attended Advanced Snow Ice Education Camp in Rize on September 1-7, 2012, the last camp of…

  6. An Examination of Kolb's Learning Style Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooden, Doreen J.; Preziosi, Robert C.; Barnes, F. Barry

    2009-01-01

    As educators our primary focus is that of ensuring that students experience positive learning outcomes. Research, however, has shown that there are differences in students' learning styles and that these differences will impact on the overall learning process. One way of ensuring that these positive outcomes are achieved is by identifying the…

  7. Gorgias' Rhetoric: Epistemology, Doxa, and Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Gregory T.

    Gorgias' rhetoric can be explained in three parts: his sensory-based but non-empirical epistemology; his definitions of language as inherently deceptive and of "doxa" as the only "knowledge" communicable; and his antithetical style, which reproduces the necessary negotiation of understanding in the world. Gorgias' epistemology posits a disjunction…

  8. Fit Control Systems to Your Managerial Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cammann, Cortlandt; Nadler, David A.

    1976-01-01

    Technologically sound administrative control systems may have undesirable results if they are not properly utilized. Before adopting a control system, a manager should consider how well it fits his managerial style, the organizational climate of the organization, the personality of his subordinates, and the goals of the organization. (JG)

  9. A COMPUTER ANALYSIS OF FICTIONAL PROSE STYLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KROEBER, KARL

    FUNDAMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FICTIONAL PROSE STYLE WERE STUDIED THROUGH SYSTEMATIC AND OBJECTIVE ANALYSES OF NOVELISTIC SYNTAX AND VOCABULARY. SAMPLE PASSAGES FROM THE MAJOR NOVELS OF JANE AUSTEN, THE BRONTE SISTERS, AND GEORGE ELIOT AS WELL AS NOVELS BY 13 OTHER AUTHORS WERE ANALYZED. INFORMATION ON PASSAGE SENTENCES, CLAUSES, AND WORDS WAS…

  10. Lecturing Style Teaching and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Klaveren, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Teachers in the Netherlands tend to spend less time in front of the class, and often adopt a more personal approach. This allows them to better adjust their lecturing style to the needs of the individual student with the aim of increasing student performance. However, a more personal approach is also more time consuming and potentially reduces the…

  11. Thinking Styles: Maximizing Online Supported Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Carolyn; Foster, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Internet supported teacher education programs at the university are increasing, as is the need for qualified teachers in rural areas and inner cities. This study focused on the thinking styles of online learners in a post baccalaureate teacher education program. In order to more effectively meet students individual learning needs, 184 students…

  12. Relationship between Test Anxiety and Parenting Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thergaonkar, Neerja R.; Wadkar, A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between test anxiety and parenting style. Method: Democratic attitude of parents, acceptance of parents by the child, parental attitude regarding academics, parental expectations and gender stereotyped perceptions of parents regarding academics were evaluated in the domain…

  13. Learning Styles across Cultures: Suggestions for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Zarina M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present research findings on the relationship between culture and learning styles, as defined by Honey and Mumford in a Higher Education setting. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted with first semester students studying in an International Institute of Higher Education. A questionnaire administered…

  14. Interpersonal Teaching Style and Student Impression Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldren, Jeffrey; Hively, Jodi

    2009-01-01

    Assuming that learning is an inherently social process, this research explores interpersonal variables that affect teaching. Specifically, does the interpersonal teaching style affect student impressions of the instructor? Eighty-five undergraduates viewed one of three ten-minute videos that portrayed either an authoritarian, authoritative, or…

  15. Attachment Styles, Abuse Experiences and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunduz, Bulent; Capri, Burhan; Akbay, Sinem Evin; Tunc, Aygul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between abuse experiences, depression and attachment styles. The data for this study was collected from 251 students (123 females and 128 males) who attend Mersin University. As a part of the data collection, students completed the Experiences in Affiliation Inventory, Childhood Trauma Scale and Brief…

  16. Attitudes, Learning Styles and the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Fay

    2000-01-01

    Learning style and attitude measures were completed by 211 students, 45 lecturers, and 46 employers in psychology, pharmacy, and business. Most preferred group projects over lectures. Lecturers were abstract learners, employers active learners, and students less abstract and less active. (SK)

  17. Cognitive Styles: Sex and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dionne J.

    This paper reviews the hallmark studies of field dependence-independence and considers the evidence for sex and ethnic differences in cognitive style. Research has traditionally linked females' early verbal superiority with field dependence and males' superior visuospatial skills with field independence. Studies challenging this picture cite…

  18. Conversational Style in Language Proficiency Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Compares conversational styles of intermediate and advanced learners of English as a Second Language in language proficiency interviews. The article describes differences in amount of talk and rate of speaking, extent of context dependence and ability to construct and sustain narratives, but not in frequency of initiation of new topics nor…

  19. Personality structure and social style in macaques.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark James; Majolo, Bonaventura; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver; De Marco, Arianna; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje; Widdig, Anja; Gerald, Melissa S; Weiss, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Why regularities in personality can be described with particular dimensions is a basic question in differential psychology. Nonhuman primates can also be characterized in terms of personality structure. Comparative approaches can help reveal phylogenetic constraints and social and ecological patterns associated with the presence or absence of specific personality dimensions. We sought to determine how different personality structures are related to interspecific variation in social style. Specifically, we examined this question in 6 different species of macaques, because macaque social style is well characterized and can be categorized on a spectrum of despotic (Grade 1) versus tolerant (Grade 4) social styles. We derived personality structures from adjectival ratings of Japanese (Macaca fuscata; Grade 1), Assamese (M. assamensis; Grade 2), Barbary (M. sylvanus; Grade 3), Tonkean (M. tonkeana; Grade 4), and crested (M. nigra; Grade 4) macaques and compared these species with rhesus macaques (M. mulatta; Grade 1) whose personality was previously characterized. Using a nonparametric method, fuzzy set analysis, to identify commonalities in personality dimensions across species, we found that all but 1 species exhibited consistently defined Friendliness and Openness dimensions, but that similarities in personality dimensions capturing aggression and social competence reflect similarities in social styles. These findings suggest that social and phylogenetic relationships contribute to the origin, maintenance, and diversification of personality.

  20. Teaching Styles of Community College Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Karinda R.; Bower, Beverly L.; Donovan, Nancy C.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the teaching styles of online instructors at Florida's 28 community colleges in an effort to determine if the instructors had adopted the learner-centered model touted in the literature. The Principles of Adult Learning Scale was the primary instrument used to collect data from 292 online instructors. The study revealed that…

  1. Correlates of Individual Learning Styles. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, James V.

    The purpose of this study is to determine categories of learning styles based on research on the chemical and physiological correlates of learning, as well as the development of simple measures that would allow an investigator to place a subject within one or more of these categories. The data from eight experiments with rats suggests that there…

  2. Coping styles of older adults with ostomies.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Sheila Normand; Meeker, Bonnie Juve'

    2002-05-01

    Various clinical studies throughout the years have shown that individuals with ostomies are a unique group facing adjustment demands. One of the most important challenges for an individual with an ostomy is coping with the physiological and psychological changes. The purpose of this study was to describe coping styles of older adults after undergoing ostomy surgery and to explore its helpfulness in dealing with the stressors related to having an ostomy. Lazarus and Folkman's theory on stress and coping was used as the framework to guide this study. A sample of 27 participants ranging from age 50 to 84 years was obtained from an ostomy association in southeastern Louisiana. Participants were asked to complete a demographic data form and the Revised Jalowiec Coping Scale. This revised scale measured eight coping styles related to Use and Effectiveness. Findings revealed significant differences existed among the means of the eight measures for both Use and Effectiveness at p < .01. Results demonstrated that the optimistic and self-reliant styles of coping were the most frequently used as effective styles for coping with an ostomy. This indicated a positive outlook and dependence on oneself rather than dependence on others when coping with the stressors of having an ostomy. There were no statistically significant differences related to gender or ostomy type. Also, aging did not appear to be a factor when considering coping styles of older adults with ostomies. The nursing role should include assessment of the individual preoperatively to identify fears, concerns, and stressors related to having an ostomy. Also, nurses can provide education on disease management, assist with identification of ineffective coping mechanisms, and promote effective coping skills and stress management techniques.

  3. Leader Style and Anxiety Level: Their Relation to Autonomic Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seemann, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Studied effects of leader style and a group of people classified as either high-anxious or low-anxious. Measured participants' (N=71) responses to the leader styles using Galvanic Skin Response. Results indicated similar responses of participants to both autocratic and democratic leadership styles. (RC)

  4. Student Learning Styles in Advanced Instrumental Music Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhukov, Katie

    2007-01-01

    Despite a large body of research into learning styles from cognitive, personality and activity perspectives, the definition of learning style is still unclear. The assessment instruments commonly in use have methodological problems. The learning styles of conservatorium instrumentalists are scarcely known and are best studied using an…

  5. Cognitive Style Predictors of Affect Change in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive styles are the lenses through which individuals habitually process information from their environment. In this study, we evaluated whether different cognitive style individual difference variables, such as explanatory style and dispositional optimism, could predict changes in affective state over time in community-dwelling older adults.…

  6. Attributional Style and Self-Efficacy in Singaporean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Kayce

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between adolescent students' attributional style and their perceived academic self-efficacy using the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) (Seligman et al., 1984) and Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Attributional style, defined as the way in which…

  7. Teachers' and Students' Cognitive Styles in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia Natividad

    Cognitive style identifies the ways individuals react to different situations. Cognitive styles include stable attitudes, preferences, or habitual strategies that distinguish the individual styles of perceiving, remembering, thinking, and solving problems. Intended for researchers, psychologists, child development specialists, and early childhood…

  8. Students' Participation Styles in Two University Weight Training Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gregg

    2000-01-01

    Described the participation styles of college students enrolled in two basic weight training classes. Participation styles fell onto a continuum between slackin' and sweatin'. Observation and interview data indicated that there were four participation styles in the slackin' category and two in the sweatin' category. The transtheoretical model for…

  9. Learning Styles and the High School: Pipe Dream or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allred, Susan G.; Holliday, Terry K.

    1995-01-01

    A South Carolina high school received a three-year, $90,000 state grant to study a brain-based approach to helping students reach their full potential. Examination of faculty teaching styles and student learning styles revealed that only high achievers' learning styles matched their teachers' fact-based approaches. New programs and technologies…

  10. Learning Style: A Point of View for Valuing Young Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Languis, Marlin

    Basic questions about the concept of learning style are addressed in this paper along with several ideas about the learning process. Additionally, a psychophysiological developmental experience model of learning and learning style is presented. Included in the discussion is a comprehensive definition of learning style that encompasses elements of…

  11. Accounting for Tibetan University Students' and Teachers' Intellectual Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang; Fu, Hong; Jiao, Ben

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to further understand Tibetan university students' learning styles through investigating Tibetan university teachers' teaching styles and their preferred student learning styles. This objective was achieved by analysing the interview data from a group of Tibetan university teachers and the comparative survey…

  12. Temperament Styles of Zimbabwe and U.S. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Mpofu, Elias; Sulkowski, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Temperament styles of 600 Zimbabwe children are described and compared to those of 3,200 U.S. children. Gender and age differences are described for children in Zimbabwe and compared to U.S. children. Results indicate that Zimbabwe children generally prefer extroverted to introverted styles, practical to imaginative styles, feeling to thinking…

  13. The Developing Field of Intellectual Styles: Four Recent Endeavours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2011-01-01

    The field of intellectual styles is one that has been constantly searching for its identity within the larger context of literatures such as education, psychology, and business and the levels of interest in the notion of styles have waxed and waned in the past seven decades. There has been, however, a steady growth in the amount of styles research…

  14. The Role of Learning Environments in Thinking Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jieqiong; Zhang, Li-fang

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the association between students' perceived general learning environment and their thinking styles (a specific term for "intellectual styles"). Seven hundred and fifty-two undergraduates in Shanghai responded to the Thinking Style Inventory-Revised II and the Inventory of Students' Perceived Learning…

  15. Reconstructive Recall of Linguistic Style. Technical Report No. 286.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, William F.; Hay, Anne E.

    A study investigated reconstructive recall for linguistic style. It was hypothesized that (1) features of linguistic style would be more difficult to recall than underlying content, (2) reconstructive errors would include stylistic forms recalled as standard forms when subjects lacked productive control of a particular feature of a style, and (3)…

  16. What Can We Learn from Our Learners' Learning Styles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bokyung; Kim, Haedong

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Korean university-level EFL learners' learning style preferences. The characteristics of their learning style preferences and implications for effective English learning were examined through the quantitative analysis of 496 subjects' responses to a learning style survey and their English achievement and term-end…

  17. Cognitive Styles in Admission Procedures for Assessing Candidates of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casakin, Hernan; Gigi, Ariela

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive style has a strong predictive power in academic and professional success. This study investigated the cognitive profile of candidates studying architecture. Specifically, it explored the relation between visual and verbal cognitive styles, and the performance of candidates in admission procedures. The cognitive styles of candidates who…

  18. Learning Styles in the Age of Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, Timothy J.; McDuffie, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of learning styles has tremendous logical and intuitive appeal, and educators' desire to focus on learning styles is understandable. Recently, a growing emphasis on differentiated instruction may have further increased teachers' tendency to look at learning styles as an instructionally relevant variable when individualizing instruction…

  19. Learning Styles and the Online Classroom: Implications for Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastanski, Michael; Slick, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of student learning styles within a Distance Learning (DL) classroom. The study examines the learning style preferences of online business students as measured by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory and determines if a significant difference in course grades and course completion rates exist between students when…

  20. Personalizing Foreign Language Instruction: Learning Styles and Teaching Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Renate A., Ed.

    This volume consists of the following papers selected from those presented at the 1977 Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages: (1) "Educational Cognitive Style: A Basis for Personalizing Foreign Language Instruction," by Derek N. Nunney; (2) "Discovering Student Learning Styles through Cognitive Style Mapping," by Helen S.…

  1. Academic Performance in Introductory Accounting: Do Learning Styles Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Lin Mei; Laswad, Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of learning styles on academic performance using major assessment methods (examinations and assignments including multiple-choice and constructed response questions (CRQs)) in an introductory accounting course. Students' learning styles were assessed using Kolb's Learning Style Inventory Version 3.1. The results…

  2. Critical Review on Affect of Personality on Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…

  3. The Managerial Decision Styles of Academic Library Directors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, Terrence F.

    1993-01-01

    The decision styles of 370 academic library directors were studied using the Decision Style Inventory. Results indicated that most directors have an idea rather than an action orientation and that most are left-brain dominant. Preferred decision styles among directors at doctoral, comprehensive, baccalaureate, and two-year institutions differed…

  4. Creating the Conditions for Educational Change: Learning Styles and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles, Rosa Maria Hervas; Moreno, Angela Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies the learning styles of 1,289 secondary school students and indicates gender differences. Two conclusions were forthcoming: 1) the similar student distribution in each of the learning style typologies; 2) the significant differences that exist between the different styles of male and female secondary school students. Female…

  5. Learning Style Dimensions and Professional Characteristics of Academic Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinehart, Amanda; Sharkey, Jennifer; Kahl, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Do librarians with different characteristics, such as type of work responsibilities or age, have different learning styles? The authors analyzed results from over 1,500 responses to a version of the Index of Learning Styles (ILS) questionnaire based on the Felder-Silverman Learning Styles model. This model consists of eight dimensions paired on…

  6. Using Learning Styles in Information Literacy: Critical Considerations for Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Librarians are using learning styles as a tool to engage students and enhance their teaching. However, a review of the literature reveals that learning styles theory is complex and problematic. It is important to base our practice on sound pedagogy. This critical examination of learning styles explores the issues surrounding them and what they can…

  7. Learning Styles: A Review of Validity and Usefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yulong; Medwell, Jane; Wray, David; Wang, Lixun; Liu, Xiaojing

    2016-01-01

    The debate about learning styles has been on going for nearly half a century, many researchers have categorised them into style families. For some reasons, VAK is the most often heard, however, it is only one of the many categories. Current study gives a synthetic introduction of the existing strands of learning style categorizations, and…

  8. Parenting Styles and Youth Well-Being across Immigrant Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Anne K.; Russell, Stephen T.; Crockett, Lisa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines generational patterns of parenting styles, the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent well-being among youth of Mexican origin, and the role of generational parenting style patterns in explaining generational patterns in youth behavior (delinquency and alcohol problems) and psychological well-being (depression…

  9. Relationship of Teachers' Cognitive Styles to Pupils' Academic Achievement Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Dayton, C. Mitchell

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of teachers' cognitive styles and their pupils' achievement was examined for second and fifth graders. Results indicated significant effects due to teachers' cognitive styles, but there was no significant outcome (main or interaction effect) associated with the matching of teachers' and pupils' cognitive styles, or with grade…

  10. Using Learning Style Instruments to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, Thomas F.; Shah, Amit J.

    2007-01-01

    The emergence of numerous learning style models over the past 25 years has brought increasing attention to the idea that students learn in diverse ways and that one approach to teaching does not work for every student or even most students. We have reviewed five learning style instruments (the Kolb Learning Style Indicator, the Gregorc Style…

  11. Learning Styles of ESL Students in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Felicia; Rademacher, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the learning styles of adult English as a second language (ESL) students in Northwest Arkansas. Learning style differences by age, gender, and country of origin were explored. A total of 69 northwest Arkansas adult ESL students attending 7 adult-education centers were administered the VARK Learning Styles Questionnaire.…

  12. Parenting Style as a Moderator for Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet Fin; Lau, Poh Li

    2012-01-01

    Parenting styles have always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a person's development. The purpose of this study is to test the structural equation model of academic achievement among the students using parenting styles as a moderator. The sample comprised 493 students from eight schools. Parenting styles are determined using the…

  13. Removal of Toxic English Teaching & Learning Styles in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jian-xiang, Geng

    2007-01-01

    There are a few unique English teaching and learning styles among some Chinese teachers and learners, which affect their work efficiency or are toxic to their work and study. Some suggestions on getting rid of toxic teaching and learning styles are necessary to the improvement of teaching and learning efficiency. Cultivating healthy styles for…

  14. Linguistics and Style. Language and Language Learning [Series], Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, John, Ed.

    Two monographs are included in this volume--Enkvist's "On Defining Style, an Essay in Applied Linguistics," and Spencer and Gregory's "An Approach to the Study of Style." The first monograph discusses the history of stylistics (linguistic and literary), different approaches to the problem of definition of style theory, and offers some remarks on…

  15. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  16. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  17. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are those which have not been pitted. (b) Pitted. “Pitted” olives are those...

  18. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are those which have not been pitted. (b) Pitted. “Pitted” olives are those...

  19. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  20. Parenting Style, Individuation, and Mental Health of Egyptian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E.

    2006-01-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female…