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Sample records for adaptive immune receptors

  1. Adaptive immunity to fungi.

    PubMed

    Verma, Akash; Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George; Klein, Bruce

    2014-11-06

    Life-threatening fungal infections have risen sharply in recent years, owing to the advances and intensity of medical care that may blunt immunity in patients. This emerging crisis has created the growing need to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi with the ultimate goal of therapeutic intervention. We describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses that are deployed against pathogenic fungi. We focus on adaptive immunity to the major medically important fungi and emphasize three elements that coordinate the response: (1) dendritic cells and subsets that are mobilized against fungi in various anatomical compartments; (2) fungal molecular patterns and their corresponding receptors that signal responses and shape the differentiation of T-cell subsets and B cells; and, ultimately (3) the effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these invaders while constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. These insights create a foundation for the development of new, immune-based strategies for prevention or enhanced clearance of systemic fungal diseases.

  2. TIM-4, a Receptor for Phosphatidylserine, Controls Adaptive Immunity by Regulating the Removal of Antigen-Specific T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Albacker, Lee A.; Karisola, Piia; Chang, Ya-Jen; Umetsu, Sarah E.; Zhou, Meixia; Akbari, Omid; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Baumgarth, Nicole; Freeman, Gordon J.; Umetsu, Dale T.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive immunity is characterized by the expansion of an Ag-specific T cell population following Ag exposure. The precise mechanisms, however, that control the expansion and subsequent contraction in the number of Ag-specific T cells are not fully understood. We show that T cell/transmembrane, Ig, and mucin (TIM)-4, a receptor for phosphatidylserine, a marker of apoptotic cells, regulates adaptive immunity in part by mediating the removal of Ag-specific T cells during the contraction phase of the response. During Ag immunization or during infection with influenza A virus, blockade of TIM-4 on APCs increased the expansion of Ag-specific T cells, resulting in an increase in secondary immune responses. Conversely, overexpression of TIM-4 on APCs in transgenic mice reduced the number of Ag-specific T cells that remained after immunization, resulting in reduced secondary T cell responses. There was no change in the total number of cell divisions that T cells completed, no change in the per cell proliferative capacity of the remaining Ag-specific T cells, and no increase in the development of Ag-specific regulatory T cells in TIM-4 transgenic mice. Thus, TIM-4–expressing cells regulate adaptive immunity by mediating the removal of phosphatidylserine-expressing apoptotic, Ag-specific T cells, thereby controlling the number of Ag-specific T cells that remain after the clearance of Ag or infection. PMID:21037090

  3. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  4. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity. PMID:21395512

  5. Evolutionary responses of innate Immunity to adaptive immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innate immunity is present in all metazoans, whereas the evolutionarily more novel adaptive immunity is limited to jawed fishes and their descendants (gnathostomes). We observe that the organisms that possess adaptive immunity lack diversity in their innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), rais...

  6. The soluble pattern recognition receptor PTX3 links humoral innate and adaptive immune responses by helping marginal zone B cells.

    PubMed

    Chorny, Alejo; Casas-Recasens, Sandra; Sintes, Jordi; Shan, Meimei; Polentarutti, Nadia; García-Escudero, Ramón; Walland, A Cooper; Yeiser, John R; Cassis, Linda; Carrillo, Jorge; Puga, Irene; Cunha, Cristina; Bastos, Hélder; Rodrigues, Fernando; Lacerda, João F; Morais, António; Dieguez-Gonzalez, Rebeca; Heeger, Peter S; Salvatori, Giovanni; Carvalho, Agostinho; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Blander, J Magarian; Mantovani, Alberto; Garlanda, Cecilia; Cerutti, Andrea

    2016-09-19

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a fluid-phase pattern recognition receptor of the humoral innate immune system with ancestral antibody-like properties but unknown antibody-inducing function. In this study, we found binding of PTX3 to splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells, an innate-like subset of antibody-producing lymphocytes strategically positioned at the interface between the circulation and the adaptive immune system. PTX3 was released by a subset of neutrophils that surrounded the splenic MZ and expressed an immune activation-related gene signature distinct from that of circulating neutrophils. Binding of PTX3 promoted homeostatic production of IgM and class-switched IgG antibodies to microbial capsular polysaccharides, which decreased in PTX3-deficient mice and humans. In addition, PTX3 increased IgM and IgG production after infection with blood-borne encapsulated bacteria or immunization with bacterial carbohydrates. This immunogenic effect stemmed from the activation of MZ B cells through a neutrophil-regulated pathway that elicited class switching and plasmablast expansion via a combination of T cell-independent and T cell-dependent signals. Thus, PTX3 may bridge the humoral arms of the innate and adaptive immune systems by serving as an endogenous adjuvant for MZ B cells. This property could be harnessed to develop more effective vaccines against encapsulated pathogens. PMID:27621420

  7. Lack of acetylcholine nicotine alpha 7 receptor suppresses development of collagen-induced arthritis and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Westman, M; Saha, S; Morshed, M; Lampa, J

    2010-10-01

    Activation of the alpha7 receptor (α7nAChR) has been shown to be important in inflammation and immune regulation, and is also essential in the neural cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of α7nAChR in the development of experimental arthritis and immune activation. Mice lacking the α7nAChR were immunized with collagen II and the development of arthritis was assessed. Another group of α7nAChR-deficient mice was immunized with ovalbumin, spleen and lymph node cells were isolated and the proliferative responses to restimulation with ovalbumin or concanavalin A were investigated. We could demonstrate significantly milder arthritis and less cartilage destruction, together with a decrease of T cell content in lymph nodes in mice lacking the α7nAChR compared to wild-type controls. In addition, mice lacking the α7nAChR had a deficient proliferative response to concanavalin A, whereas antigen presentation-dependent proliferation was not affected. These results indicate important roles for α7nAChR in arthritis development as well as in regulation of T cell-dependent immunological mechanisms. In addition, the data implicate α7nAChR as a therapeutic target for modulation of adaptive immune responses.

  8. Berberine is a dopamine D1- and D2-like receptor antagonist and ameliorates experimentally induced colitis by suppressing innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Masaaki; Takagi, Rie; Kaneko, Atsushi; Matsushita, Sho

    2015-12-15

    Berberine is an herbal alkaloid with various biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects. Here, we examined the effects of berberine on dopamine receptors and the ensuing anti-inflammatory responses. Berberine was found to be an antagonist at both dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors and ameliorates the development of experimentally induced colitis in mice. In lipopolysaccharide-stimulated immune cells, berberine treatment modified cytokine levels, consistent with the effects of the dopamine receptor specific antagonists SCH23390 and L750667. Our findings indicate that dopamine receptor antagonists suppress innate and adaptive immune responses, providing a foundation for their use in combatting inflammatory diseases.

  9. Highly Dynamic Exon Shuffling in Candidate Pathogen Receptors … What if Brown Algae Were Capable of Adaptive Immunity?

    PubMed Central

    Zambounis, Antonios; Elias, Marek; Sterck, Lieven; Maumus, Florian; Gachon, Claire M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogen recognition is the first step of immune reactions. In animals and plants, direct or indirect pathogen recognition is often mediated by a wealth of fast-evolving receptors, many of which contain ligand-binding and signal transduction domains, such as leucine-rich or tetratricopeptide repeat (LRR/TPR) and NB-ARC domains, respectively. In order to identify candidates potentially involved in algal defense, we mined the genome of the brown alga Ectocarpus siliculosus for homologues of these genes and assessed the evolutionary pressures acting upon them. We thus annotated all Ectocarpus LRR-containing genes, in particular an original group of LRR-containing GTPases of the ROCO family, and 24 NB-ARC–TPR proteins. They exhibit high birth and death rates, while a diversifying selection is acting on their LRR (respectively TPR) domain, probably affecting the ligand-binding specificities. Remarkably, each repeat is encoded by an exon, and the intense exon shuffling underpins the variability of LRR and TPR domains. We conclude that the Ectocarpus ROCO and NB-ARC–TPR families are excellent candidates for being involved in recognition/transduction events linked to immunity. We further hypothesize that brown algae may generate their immune repertoire via controlled somatic recombination, so far only known from the vertebrate adaptive immune systems. PMID:22144640

  10. Adaptive immunity to fungi.

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George S; Klein, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Only a handful of the more than 100,000 fungal species on our planet cause disease in humans, yet the number of life-threatening fungal infections in patients has recently skyrocketed as a result of advances in medical care that often suppress immunity intensely. This emerging crisis has created pressing needs to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi, with the ultimate goal of therapeutic applications. Herein, we describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses deployed against pathogenic fungi. The review focuses on adaptive immune responses to the major medically important fungi and emphasizes how dendritic cells and subsets in various anatomic compartments respond to fungi, recognize their molecular patterns, and signal responses that nurture and shape the differentiation of T cell subsets and B cells. Also emphasized is how the latter deploy effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these nasty invaders while also constraining collateral damage to vital tissue.

  11. TIM genes: a family of cell surface phosphatidylserine receptors that regulate innate and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Gordon J.; Casasnovas, Jose M.; Umetsu, Dale T.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The TIM (T cell/transmembrane, immunoglobulin, and mucin) gene family plays a critical role in regulating immune responses, including allergy, asthma, transplant tolerance, autoimmunity, and the response to viral infections. The unique structure of TIM immunoglobulin variable region domains allows highly specific recognition of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells. TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4 all recognize PtdSer but differ in expression, suggesting that they have distinct functions in regulating immune responses. TIM-1, an important susceptibility gene for asthma and allergy, is preferentially expressed on T-helper 2 (Th2) cells and functions as a potent costimulatory molecule for T-cell activation. TIM-3 is preferentially expressed on Th1 and Tc1 cells, and generates an inhibitory signal resulting in apoptosis of Th1 and Tc1 cells. TIM-3 is also expressed on some dendritic cells and can mediate phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and cross-presentation of antigen. In contrast, TIM-4 is exclusively expressed on antigen-presenting cells, where it mediates phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and plays an important role in maintaining tolerance. TIM molecules thus provide a functional repertoire for recognition of apoptotic cells, which determines whether apoptotic cell recognition leads to immune activation or tolerance, depending on the TIM molecule engaged and the cell type on which it is expressed. PMID:20536563

  12. Adaptation in the innate immune system and heterologous innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stefan F

    2014-11-01

    The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.

  13. Expression of the SLAM family of receptors adapter EAT-2 as a novel strategy for enhancing beneficial immune responses to vaccine antigens.

    PubMed

    Aldhamen, Yasser A; Appledorn, Daniel M; Seregin, Sergey S; Liu, Chyong-jy J; Schuldt, Nathaniel J; Godbehere, Sarah; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2011-01-15

    Recent studies have shown that activation of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family of receptors plays an important role in several aspects of immune regulation. However, translation of this knowledge into a useful clinical application has not been undertaken. One important area where SLAM-mediated immune regulation may have keen importance is in the field of vaccinology. Because SLAM signaling plays such a critical role in the innate and adaptive immunity, we endeavored to develop a strategy to improve the efficacy of vaccines by incorporation of proteins known to be important in SLAM-mediated signaling. In this study, we hypothesized that coexpression of the SLAM adapter EWS-FLI1-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2) along with a pathogen-derived Ag would facilitate induction of beneficial innate immune responses, resulting in improved induction of Ag-specific adaptive immune responses. To test this hypothesis, we used rAd5 vector-based vaccines expressing murine EAT-2, or the HIV-1-derived Ag Gag. Compared with appropriate controls, rAd5 vectors expressing EAT-2 facilitated bystander activation of NK, NKT, B, and T cells early after their administration into animals. EAT-2 overexpression also augments the expression of APC (macrophages and dendritic cells) surface markers. Indeed, this multitiered activation of the innate immune system by vaccine-mediated EAT-2 expression enhanced the induction of Ag-specific cellular immune responses. Because both mice and humans express highly conserved EAT-2 adapters, our results suggest that human vaccination strategies that specifically facilitate SLAM signaling may improve vaccine potency when targeting HIV Ags specifically, as well as numerous other vaccine targets in general.

  14. Endocannabinoid signalling in innate and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chiurchiù, Valerio; Battistini, Luca; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The immune system can be modulated and regulated not only by foreign antigens but also by other humoral factors and metabolic products, which are able to affect several quantitative and qualitative aspects of immunity. Among these, endocannabinoids are a group of bioactive lipids that might serve as secondary modulators, which when mobilized coincident with or shortly after first-line immune modulators, increase or decrease many immune functions. Most immune cells express these bioactive lipids, together with their set of receptors and of enzymes regulating their synthesis and degradation. In this review, a synopsis of the manifold immunomodulatory effects of endocannabinoids and their signalling in the different cell populations of innate and adaptive immunity is appointed, with a particular distinction between mice and human immune system compartments. PMID:25585882

  15. Taste Receptors in Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors were first identified on the tongue, where they initiate a signaling pathway that communicates information to the brain about the nutrient content or potential toxicity of ingested foods. However, recent research has shown that taste receptors are also expressed in a myriad of other tissues, from the airway and gastrointestinal epithelia to the pancreas and brain. The functions of many of these extraoral taste receptors remain unknown, but emerging evidence suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are important sentinels of innate immunity. This review discusses taste receptor signaling, focusing on the G-protein coupled–receptors that detect bitter, sweet, and savory tastes, followed by an overview of extraoral taste receptors and in-depth discussion of studies demonstrating the roles of taste receptors in airway innate immunity. Future research on extraoral taste receptors has significant potential for identification of novel immune mechanisms and insights into host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25323130

  16. Cytokine and cytokine receptor genes of the adaptive immune response are differentially associated with breast cancer risk in American women of African and European ancestry.

    PubMed

    Quan, Lei; Gong, Zhihong; Yao, Song; Bandera, Elisa V; Zirpoli, Gary; Hwang, Helena; Roberts, Michelle; Ciupak, Gregory; Davis, Warren; Sucheston, Lara; Pawlish, Karen; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Jandorf, Lina; Cabasag, Citadel; Coignet, Jean-Gabriel; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2014-03-15

    Disparities in breast cancer biology are evident between American women of African ancestry (AA) and European ancestry (EA) and may be due, in part, to differences in immune function. To assess the potential role of constitutional host immunity on breast carcinogenesis, we tested associations between breast cancer risk and 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 cytokine-related genes of the adaptive immune system using 650 EA (n = 335 cases) and 864 AA (n = 458 cases) women from the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS). With additional participant accrual to the WCHS, promising SNPs from the initial analysis were evaluated in a larger sample size (1,307 EAs and 1,365 AAs). Multivariate logistic regression found SNPs in genes important for T helper type 1 (Th1) immunity (IFNGR2 rs1059293, IL15RA rs2296135, LTA rs1041981), Th2 immunity (IL4R rs1801275), and T regulatory cell-mediated immunosuppression (TGFB1 rs1800469) associated with breast cancer risk, mainly among AAs. The combined effect of these five SNPs was highly significant among AAs (P-trend = 0.0005). When stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status, LTA rs1041981 was associated with ER-positive breast cancers among EAs and marginally among AAs. Only among AA women, IL15 rs10833 and IL15RA rs2296135 were associated with ER-positive tumors, and IL12RB1 rs375947, IL15 rs10833 and TGFB1 rs1800469 were associated with ER-negative tumors. Our study systematically identified genetic variants in the adaptive immune response pathway associated with breast cancer risk, which appears to differ by ancestry groups, menopausal status and ER status.

  17. Antigen Receptor-Intrinsic Non-Self: The Key to Understanding Regulatory Lymphocyte-Mediated Idiotypic Control of Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    The clone-specific or idiotypic characters of B as well as T cell antigen receptors (BCRs/TCRs) are associated with (1) the third-complementarity-determining regions (CDR3s) that are created during V(D)J recombination (they scarcely occur in antibody light chains) and (2) BCR idiotopes created by somatic hypermutations (SHMs) during immune responses. Therefore, BCR/TCR idiotypic sites are antigen receptor-intrinsic Non-Self (AgR-iNS) portions that fulfill two tasks: serving as a crucial component of the epitope-binding paratope and serving as target sites for anti-idiotypic BCR/TCR paratopes of other anti-Non-Self clones that are contained in both normal repertoires. The antigen-induced immune response is thus directed not only toward the environmental stimulus but also against the AgR-iNS portions of the directly and further activated clones that form a subsiding idiotypic cascade. These idiotypic chain reactions form a completely integrated idiotypic control circuit among B and T cells which contains all regulatory T and B cells. However, this circuit cannot be viewed as a network of fixed interacting nodes but rather uses the genetic Self as reference. Hence, AgR-iNS offers a mechanistic understanding of regulatory lymphocyte-mediated idiotypic control of adaptive immune responses and reconciles clonal selection and idiotypic network theories hitherto believed to be incompatible. PMID:27480901

  18. Antigen Receptor-Intrinsic Non-Self: The Key to Understanding Regulatory Lymphocyte-Mediated Idiotypic Control of Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    The clone-specific or idiotypic characters of B as well as T cell antigen receptors (BCRs/TCRs) are associated with (1) the third-complementarity-determining regions (CDR3s) that are created during V(D)J recombination (they scarcely occur in antibody light chains) and (2) BCR idiotopes created by somatic hypermutations (SHMs) during immune responses. Therefore, BCR/TCR idiotypic sites are antigen receptor-intrinsic Non-Self (AgR-iNS) portions that fulfill two tasks: serving as a crucial component of the epitope-binding paratope and serving as target sites for anti-idiotypic BCR/TCR paratopes of other anti-Non-Self clones that are contained in both normal repertoires. The antigen-induced immune response is thus directed not only toward the environmental stimulus but also against the AgR-iNS portions of the directly and further activated clones that form a subsiding idiotypic cascade. These idiotypic chain reactions form a completely integrated idiotypic control circuit among B and T cells which contains all regulatory T and B cells. However, this circuit cannot be viewed as a network of fixed interacting nodes but rather uses the genetic Self as reference. Hence, AgR-iNS offers a mechanistic understanding of regulatory lymphocyte-mediated idiotypic control of adaptive immune responses and reconciles clonal selection and idiotypic network theories hitherto believed to be incompatible.

  19. Alternative adaptive immunity strategies: coelacanth, cod and shark immunity.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Francesco; Gerdol, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The advent of high throughput sequencing has permitted to investigate the genome and the transcriptome of novel non-model species with unprecedented depth. This technological advance provided a better understanding of the evolution of adaptive immune genes in gnathostomes, revealing several unexpected features in different fish species which are of particular interest. In the present paper, we review the current understanding of the adaptive immune system of the coelacanth, the elephant shark and the Atlantic cod. The study of coelacanth, the only living extant of the long thought to be extinct Sarcopterygian lineage, is fundamental to bring new insights on the evolution of the immune system in higher vertebrates. Surprisingly, coelacanths are the only known jawed vertebrates to lack IgM, whereas two IgD/W loci are present. Cartilaginous fish are of great interest due to their basal position in the vertebrate tree of life; the genome of the elephant shark revealed the lack of several important immune genes related to T cell functions, which suggest the existence of a primordial set of TH1-like cells. Finally, the Atlantic cod lacks a functional major histocompatibility II complex, but balances this evolutionary loss with the expansion of specific gene families, including MHC I, Toll-like receptors and antimicrobial peptides. Overall, these data point out that several fish species present an unconventional adaptive immune system, but the loss of important immune genes is balanced by adaptive evolutionary strategies which still guarantee the establishment of an efficient immune response against the pathogens they have to fight during their life.

  20. Pattern recognition receptors in innate immunity, host defense, and immunopathology.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Rahul; Mosser, David M

    2013-12-01

    Infection by pathogenic microbes initiates a set of complex interactions between the pathogen and the host mediated by pattern recognition receptors. Innate immune responses play direct roles in host defense during the early stages of infection, and they also exert a profound influence on the generation of the adaptive immune responses that ensue. An improved understanding of the pattern recognition receptors that mediate innate responses and their downstream effects after receptor ligation has the potential to lead to new ways to improve vaccines and prevent autoimmunity. This review focuses on the control of innate immune activation and the role that innate immune receptors play in helping to maintain tissue homeostasis.

  1. Engaging adaptive immunity with biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Solano, Carolina; Collier, Joel H.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive immune responses, characterized by T cells and B cells engaging and responding to specific antigens, can be raised by biomaterials containing proteins, peptides, and other biomolecules. How does one avoid, control, or exploit such responses? This review will discuss major properties and processes that influence biomaterials-directed adaptive immunity, including the physical dimensions of a material, its epitope content, and its multivalency. Selected strategies involving novel biomaterials designs will be discussed to illustrate these points of control. Specific immunological processes that biomaterials are being developed to direct will be highlighted, including minimally inflammatory scaffolds for tissue repair and immunotherapies eliciting desired B cell (antibody) responses, T cell responses, or tolerance. The continuing development of a knowledge base for specifying the strength and phenotype of biomaterials-mediated adaptive immune responses is important, not only for the engineering of better vaccines and immunotherapies, but also for managing immune responses against newer generations of increasingly biological and biomolecular materials in contexts such as tissue repair, tissue engineering, or cell delivery. PMID:24729870

  2. HDL in innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Catapano, Alberico Luigi; Pirillo, Angela; Bonacina, Fabrizia; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo

    2014-08-01

    During infections or acute conditions high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL-C) levels decrease very rapidly and HDL particles undergo profound changes in their composition and function. These changes are associated with poor prognosis following endotoxemia or sepsis and data from genetically modified animal models support a protective role for HDL. The same is true for some parasitic infections, where the key player appears to be a specific and minor component of HDL, namely apoL-1. The ability of HDL to influence cholesterol availability in lipid rafts in immune cells results in the modulation of toll-like receptors, MHC-II complex, as well as B- and T-cell receptors, while specific molecules shuttled by HDL such as sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) contribute to immune cells trafficking. Animal models with defects associated with HDL metabolism and/or influencing cell cholesterol efflux present features related to immune disorders. All these functions point to HDL as a platform integrating innate and adaptive immunity. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the connection between HDL and immunity in atherosclerosis and beyond. PMID:24935428

  3. Antibody Fc: Linking Adaptive and Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Antibody Fc: Linking Adaptive and Innate Immunity, edited by Margaret E. Ackerman and Falk Nimmerjahn and published by Academic Press, provides a highly detailed examination of the involvement of the antibody Fc in mechanisms critical to both innate and adaptive immune responses. Despite a recent increase in format diversity, most marketed antibodies are full-length IgG molecules and the majority of the commercial clinical pipeline of antibody therapeutics is composed of Fc-containing IgG molecules, which underscores the importance of understanding how the Fc domain affects biological responses. The book is divided into six sections that include a total of 20 chapters. In order of their appearance, the sections provide extensive coverage of effector mechanisms, effector cells, Fc receptors, variability of the Fc domain, genetic associations, and evolving areas.

  4. Recognition of Legionella pneumophila nucleic acids by innate immune receptors.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Larissa D; Zamboni, Dario S

    2014-12-01

    Innate immune receptors evolved to sense conserved molecules that are present in microbes or are released during non-physiological conditions. Activation of these receptors is essential for early restriction of microbial infections and generation of adaptive immunity. Among the conserved molecules sensed by innate immune receptors are the nucleic acids, which are abundantly contained in all infectious organisms including virus, bacteria, fungi and parasites. In this review we focus in the innate immune proteins that function to sense nucleic acids from the intracellular bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila and the importance of these processes to the outcome of the infection.

  5. Pattern recognition receptors in antifungal immunity.

    PubMed

    Plato, Anthony; Hardison, Sarah E; Brown, Gordon D

    2015-03-01

    Receptors of the innate immune system are the first line of defence against infection, being able to recognise and initiate an inflammatory response to invading microorganisms. The Toll-like (TLR), NOD-like (NLR), RIG-I-like (RLR) and C-type lectin-like receptors (CLR) are four receptor families that contribute to the recognition of a vast range of species, including fungi. Many of these pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are able to initiate innate immunity and polarise adaptive responses upon the recognition of fungal cell wall components and other conserved molecular patterns, including fungal nucleic acids. These receptors induce effective mechanisms of fungal clearance in normal hosts, but medical interventions, immunosuppression or genetic predisposition can lead to susceptibility to fungal infections. In this review, we highlight the importance of PRRs in fungal infection, specifically CLRs, which are the major PRR involved. We will describe specific PRRs in detail, the importance of receptor collaboration in fungal recognition and clearance, and describe how genetic aberrations in PRRs can contribute to disease pathology.

  6. Toll-Like Receptor 2-Mediated Innate Immune Responses against Junín Virus in Mice Lead to Antiviral Adaptive Immune Responses during Systemic Infection and Do Not Affect Viral Replication in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Successful adaptive immunity to virus infection often depends on the initial innate response. Previously, we demonstrated that Junín virus, the etiological agent responsible for Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), activates an early innate immune response via an interaction between the viral glycoprotein and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Here we show that TLR2/6 but not TLR1/2 heterodimers sense Junín virus glycoprotein and induce a cytokine response, which in turn upregulates the expression of the RNA helicases RIG-I and MDA5. NF-κB and Erk1/2 were important in the cytokine response, since both proteins were phosphorylated as a result of the interaction of virus with TLR2, and treatment with an Erk1/2-specific inhibitor blocked cytokine production. We show that the Junín virus glycoprotein activates cytokine production in a human macrophage cell line as well. Moreover, we show that TLR2-mediated immune response plays a role in viral clearance because wild-type mice cleared Candid 1 (JUNV C1), the vaccine strain of Junín virus, more rapidly than did TLR2 knockout mice. This clearance correlated with the generation of Junín virus-specific CD8+ T cells. However, infected wild-type and TLR2 knockout mice developed TLR2-independent blocking antibody responses with similar kinetics. We also show that microglia and astrocytes but not neurons are susceptible to infection with JUNV C1. Although JUNV C1 infection of the brain also triggered a TLR2-dependent cytokine response, virus levels were equivalent in wild-type and TLR2 knockout mice. IMPORTANCE Junín virus is transmitted by rodents native to Argentina and is associated with both systemic disease and, in some patients, neurological symptoms. Humans become infected when they inhale aerosolized Junín virus. AHF has a 15 to 30% mortality rate, and patients who clear the infection develop a strong antibody response to Junín virus. Here we investigated what factors determine the immune response to Jun

  7. Pattern Recognition Receptors in Innate Immunity, Host Defense, and Immunopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suresh, Rahul; Mosser, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Infection by pathogenic microbes initiates a set of complex interactions between the pathogen and the host mediated by pattern recognition receptors. Innate immune responses play direct roles in host defense during the early stages of infection, and they also exert a profound influence on the generation of the adaptive immune responses that ensue.…

  8. Inflammatory bowel disease related innate immunity and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuan; Chen, Zhonge

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease, including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Its pathogenesis remains not yet clear. Current researchers believe that after environmental factors act on individuals with genetic susceptibility, an abnormal intestinal immune response is launched under stimulation of intestinal flora. However, previous studies only focused on adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of IBD. Currently, roles of innate immune response in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation have also drawn much attention. In this study, IBD related innate immunity and adaptive immunity were explained, especially the immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:27398134

  9. Development of a novel universal immune receptor for antigen targeting

    PubMed Central

    Urbanska, Katarzyna; Powell, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) possess fixed specificity for a single antigen and require empirical testing in T cells. To address this, we have developed a novel, adaptable immune receptor strategy that allows for the rapid generation and testing of T cells of nearly infinite antigen specificity. PMID:22934280

  10. PPARγ Agonists in Adaptive Immunity: What Do Immune Disorders and Their Models Have to Tell Us?

    PubMed

    da Rocha Junior, Laurindo Ferreira; Dantas, Andréa Tavares; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; de Melo Rego, Moacyr Jesus Barreto; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive immunity has evolved as a very powerful and highly specialized tool of host defense. Its classical protagonists are lymphocytes of the T- and B-cell lineage. Cytokines and chemokines play a key role as effector mechanisms of the adaptive immunity. Some autoimmune and inflammatory diseases are caused by disturbance of the adaptive immune system. Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases have led to research on new molecular and therapeutic targets. PPAR γ are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and are transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism as well as innate and adaptive immunity. PPAR γ is activated by synthetic and endogenous ligands. Previous studies have shown that PPAR agonists regulate T-cell survival, activation and T helper cell differentiation into effector subsets: Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tregs. PPAR γ has also been associated with B cells. The present review addresses these issues by placing PPAR γ agonists in the context of adaptive immune responses and the relation of the activation of these receptors with the expression of cytokines involved in adaptive immunity. PMID:23983678

  11. Microbial manipulation of receptor crosstalk in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hajishengallis, George; Lambris, John D.

    2011-01-01

    In the arms race of host–microbe coevolution, successful microbial pathogens have evolved ingenious ways in which to evade host immunity. In this Review, we focus on ‘crosstalk manipulation’ — the microbial strategies that instigate, subvert or disrupt the molecular signalling crosstalk between receptors of innate immunity. This proactive interference undermines host defences and contributes to microbial adaptive fitness and persistent infections. Understanding how pathogens exploit host receptor crosstalk mechanisms and infiltrate the host signalling network is essential for developing interventions to redirect the host response to protective immunity. PMID:21350579

  12. Receptor signaling in immune cell development and function

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jinwook; Gorentla, Balachandra K.; O’Brien, Tommy; Srivatsan, Sruti; Xu, Li; Chen, Yong; Xie, Danli; Pan, Hongjie

    2011-01-01

    Immune cell development and function must be tightly regulated through cell surface receptors to ensure proper responses to pathogen and tolerance to self. In T cells, the signal from the T-cell receptor is essential for T-cell maturation, homeostasis, and activation. In mast cells, the high-affinity receptor for IgE transduces signal that promotes mast cell survival and induces mast cell activation. In dendritic cells and macrophages, the toll-like receptors recognize microbial pathogens and play critical roles for both innate and adaptive immunity against pathogens. Our research explores how signaling from these receptors is transduced and regulated to better understand these immune cells. Our recent studies have revealed diacylglycerol kinases and TSC1/2-mTOR as critical signaling molecules/regulators in T cells, mast cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. PMID:21128010

  13. Immune adjuvants in early life: targeting the innate immune system to overcome impaired adaptive response.

    PubMed

    de Brito, Cyro Alves; Goldoni, Adriana Letícia; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2009-09-01

    The neonatal phase is a transitory period characterized by an absence of memory cells, favoring a slow adaptive response prone to tolerance effects and the development of Th2-type responses. However, when appropriately stimulated, neonates may achieve an immune response comparable with adult counterparts. One strategy to stimulate the immunological response of neonates or children in early infancy has been to explore natural or synthetic ligands of cell receptors to stimulate innate immunity. The use of adjuvants for activating different cell receptors may be the key to enhancing neonatal adaptive immunity. This review highlights recent advances in the emerging field of molecular adjuvants of innate immune response and their implications for the development of immunotherapies, with particular focus on the neonatal period.

  14. Ubiquitination of plant immune receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinggeng; He, Ping; Shan, Libo

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitin is a highly conserved regulatory protein consisting of 76 amino acids and ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells. The reversible ubiquitin conjugation to a wide variety of target proteins, a process known as ubiquitination or ubiquitylation, serves as one of the most important and prevalent posttranslational modifications to regulate the myriad actions of protein cellular functions, including protein degradation, vesicle trafficking, and subcellular localization. Protein ubiquitination is an ATP-dependent stepwise covalent attachment of one or more ubiquitin molecules to target proteins mediated by a hierarchical enzymatic cascade consisting of an E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase. The plant plasma membrane resident receptor-like kinase Flagellin Sensing 2 (FLS2) recognizes bacterial flagellin and initiates innate immune signaling to defend against pathogen attacks. We have recently shown that two plant U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases PUB12 and PUB13 directly ubiquitinate FLS2 and promote flagellin-induced FLS2 degradation, which in turn attenuates FLS2 signaling to prevent excessive or prolonged activation of immune responses. Here, we use FLS2 as an example to describe a protocol for detection of protein ubiquitination in plant cells in vivo and in test tubes in vitro. In addition, we elaborate the approach to identify different types of ubiquitin linkages by using various lysine mutants of ubiquitin. The various in vivo and in vitro ubiquitination assays will provide researchers with the tools to address how ubiquitination regulates diverse cellular functions of target proteins. PMID:25117287

  15. Ion Channels in Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Feske, Stefan; Wulff, Heike; Skolnik, Edward Y.

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels and transporters mediate the transport of charged ions across hydrophobic lipid membranes. In immune cells, divalent cations such as calcium, magnesium, and zinc have important roles as second messengers to regulate intracellular signaling pathways. By contrast, monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium mainly regulate the membrane potential, which indirectly controls the influx of calcium and immune cell signaling. Studies investigating human patients with mutations in ion channels and transporters, analysis of gene-targeted mice, or pharmacological experiments with ion channel inhibitors have revealed important roles of ionic signals in lymphocyte development and in innate and adaptive immune responses. We here review the mechanisms underlying the function of ion channels and transporters in lymphocytes and innate immune cells and discuss their roles in lymphocyte development, adaptive and innate immune responses, and autoimmunity, as well as recent efforts to develop pharmacological inhibitors of ion channels for immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25861976

  16. Tumors STING adaptive antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Bronte, Vincenzo

    2014-11-20

    Immunotherapy is revolutionizing the treatment of cancer patients, but the molecular basis for tumor immunogenicity is unclear. In this issue of Immunity, Deng et al. (2014) and Woo et al. (2014) provide evidence suggesting that dendritic cells detect DNA from tumor cells via the STING-mediated, cytosolic DNA sensing pathway.

  17. How a well-adapted immune system is organized

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Andreas; Balasubramanian, Vijay; Mora, Thierry; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2015-01-01

    The repertoire of lymphocyte receptors in the adaptive immune system protects organisms from diverse pathogens. A well-adapted repertoire should be tuned to the pathogenic environment to reduce the cost of infections. We develop a general framework for predicting the optimal repertoire that minimizes the cost of infections contracted from a given distribution of pathogens. The theory predicts that the immune system will have more receptors for rare antigens than expected from the frequency of encounters; individuals exposed to the same infections will have sparse repertoires that are largely different, but nevertheless exploit cross-reactivity to provide the same coverage of antigens; and the optimal repertoires can be reached via the dynamics of competitive binding of antigens by receptors and selective amplification of stimulated receptors. Our results follow from a tension between the statistics of pathogen detection, which favor a broader receptor distribution, and the effects of cross-reactivity, which tend to concentrate the optimal repertoire onto a few highly abundant clones. Our predictions can be tested in high-throughput surveys of receptor and pathogen diversity. PMID:25918407

  18. Adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans infection.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jonathan P; Moyes, David L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are becoming increasingly prevalent in the human population and contribute to morbidity and mortality in healthy and immunocompromised individuals respectively. Candida albicans is the most commonly encountered fungal pathogen of humans, and is frequently found on the mucosal surfaces of the body. Host defense against C. albicans is dependent upon a finely tuned implementation of innate and adaptive immune responses, enabling the host to neutralise the invading fungus. Central to this protection are the adaptive Th1 and Th17 cellular responses, which are considered paramount to successful immune defense against C. albicans infections, and enable tissue homeostasis to be maintained in the presence of colonising fungi. This review will highlight the recent advances in our understanding of adaptive immunity to Candida albicans infections.

  19. Taste Receptors in Upper Airway Immunity.

    PubMed

    Carey, Ryan M; Lee, Robert J; Cohen, Noam A

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors are well known for their role in communicating information from the tongue to the brain about nutritional value or potential toxicity of ingested substances. More recently, it has been shown that taste receptors are expressed in other locations throughout the body, including the airway, gastrointestinal tract, brain and pancreas. The roles of some 'extraoral' taste receptors are largely unknown, but emerging research suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are capable of sensing bacteria and modulating innate immunity. This chapter focuses on the role of bitter and sweet taste receptors in human airway innate immunity and their clinical relevance to rhinosinusitis. The bitter taste receptor T2R38 expressed in sinonasal cilia detects bitter bacterial quorum-sensing molecules and activates a nitric oxide-dependent innate immune response; moreover, there are polymorphisms in T2R38 that underlie susceptibility to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Bitter and sweet receptors in sinonasal solitary chemosensory cells control secretion of antimicrobial peptides in the upper airway and may have a profound impact on airway infections in patients with CRS and diabetes. Future research on taste receptors in the airway has enormous potential to expand our understanding of host-pathogen immune interactions and provide novel therapeutic targets. PMID:27466851

  20. [CRISPR adaptive immunity systems of procaryotes].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) is a newly identified prokaryotic immunity system against foreign genetic elements. In contrast to other cellular defense mechanisms (e.g. restriction-modification) CRISPR-mediated immunity is adaptive and can be programmed to protect cells against a particular bacteriophage or conjugative plasmid. In this review we describe general principles of CRISPR systems action and summarize known details of CRISPR systems from different microorganisms.

  1. Advances in research of fish immune-relevant genes: a comparative overview of innate and adaptive immunity in teleosts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lv-yun; Nie, Li; Zhu, Guan; Xiang, Li-xin; Shao, Jian-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Fish is considered to be an important model in comparative immunology studies because it is a representative population of lower vertebrates serving as an essential link to early vertebrate evolution. Fish immune-relevant genes have received considerable attention due to its role in improving understanding of both fish immunology and the evolution of immune systems. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of teleost immune-relevant genes for both innate and adaptive immunity, including pattern recognition receptors, antimicrobial peptides, complement molecules, lectins, interferons and signaling factors, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adaptive immunity relevant cytokines and negative regulators, major histocompatibility complexes, immunoglobulins, and costimulatory molecules. The implications of these factors on the evolutionary history of immune systems were discussed and a perspective outline of innate and adaptive immunity of teleost fish was described. This review may provide clues on the evolution of the essential defense system in vertebrates.

  2. Systems integration of innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Zak, Daniel E; Aderem, Alan

    2015-09-29

    The pathogens causing AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis have proven too complex to be overcome by classical approaches to vaccination. The complexities of human immunology and pathogen-induced modulation of the immune system mandate new approaches to vaccine discovery and design. A new field, systems vaccinology, weds holistic analysis of innate and adaptive immunity within a quantitative framework to enable rational design of new vaccines that elicit tailored protective immune responses. A key step in the approach is to discover relationships between the earliest innate inflammatory responses to vaccination and the subsequent vaccine-induced adaptive immune responses and efficacy. Analysis of these responses in clinical studies is complicated by the inaccessibility of relevant tissue compartments (such as the lymph node), necessitating reliance upon peripheral blood responses as surrogates. Blood transcriptomes, although indirect to vaccine mechanisms, have proven very informative in systems vaccinology studies. The approach is most powerful when innate and adaptive immune responses are integrated with vaccine efficacy, which is possible for malaria with the advent of a robust human challenge model. This is more difficult for AIDS and tuberculosis, given that human challenge models are lacking and efficacy observed in clinical trials has been low or highly variable. This challenge can be met by appropriate clinical trial design for partially efficacious vaccines and by analysis of natural infection cohorts. Ultimately, systems vaccinology is an iterative approach in which mechanistic hypotheses-derived from analysis of clinical studies-are evaluated in model systems, and then used to guide the development of new vaccine strategies. In this review, we will illustrate the above facets of the systems vaccinology approach with case studies.

  3. Mast cells as effector cells of innate immunity and regulators of adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Cardamone, Chiara; Parente, Roberta; Feo, Giulia De; Triggiani, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    Mast cells are widely distributed in human organs and tissues and they are particularly abundant at major body interfaces with the external environment such as the skin, the lung and the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, mast cells are located around blood vessels and are highly represented within central and peripheral lymphoid organs. The strategic distribution of mast cells closely reflects the primary role of these cells in providing first-line defense against environmental dangers, in regulating local and systemic inflammatory reactions and in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. Human mast cells have pleiotropic and multivalent functions that make them highly versatile cells able to rapidly adapt responses to microenvironmental changes. They express a wide variety of surface receptors including immunoglobulin receptors, pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptors and danger signal receptors. The abundance of these receptors makes mast cells unique and effective surveillance cells able to detect promptly aggression by viral, bacterial and parasitic agents. In addition, mast cells express multiple receptors for cytokines and chemokines that confer them the capacity of being recruited and activated at sites of inflammation. Once activated by immunological or nonimmunological stimuli mast cells secrete a wide spectrum of preformed (early) and de novo synthesized (late) mediators. Preformed mediators are stored within granules and are rapidly released in the extracellular environment to provide a fast vascular response that promotes inflammation and local recruitment of other innate immunity cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and monocyte/macrophages. Later on, delayed release of multiple cytokines and chemokines from mast cells further induce modulation of cells of adaptive immunity and regulates tissue injury and, eventually, resolution of inflammation. Finally, mast cells express several costimulatory and inhibitory surface molecules

  4. Targeting C-Type Lectin Receptors for Cancer Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huimin; Kamiya, Tomomori; Suabjakyong, Papawee; Tsuji, Noriko M.

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are a large family of soluble and trans-membrane pattern recognition receptors that are widely and primarily expressed on myeloid cells. CLRs are important for cell–cell communication and host defense against pathogens through the recognition of specific carbohydrate structures. Similar to a family of Toll-like receptors, CLRs signaling are involved in the various steps for initiation of innate immune responses and promote secretion of soluble factors such as cytokines and interferons. Moreover, CLRs contribute to endocytosis and antigen presentation, thereby fine-tune adaptive immune responses. In addition, there may also be a direct activation of acquired immunity. On the other hand, glycans, such as mannose structures, Lewis-type antigens, or GalNAc are components of tumor antigens and ligate CLRs, leading to immunoregulation. Therefore, agonists or antagonists of CLRs signaling are potential therapeutic reagents for cancer immunotherapy. We aim to overview the current knowledge of CLRs signaling and the application of their ligands on tumor-associating immune response. PMID:26379663

  5. Adaptive immune regulation in autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, Concetta; La Cava, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. The pathogenesis of T1D is complex and multifactorial and involves a genetic susceptibility that predisposes to abnormal immune responses in the presence of ill-defined environmental insults to the pancreatic islets. This review discusses how adaptive immunoregulatory T cells contribute to the modulation of the development and evolution of T1D, together with potential approaches that target these cells for new therapies in the disease. PMID:26631820

  6. Regulation of plant immune receptors by ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Giulia; Klinkenberg, Jörn; Trujillo, Marco

    2012-01-01

    From pathogen perception and the activation of signal transduction cascades to the deployment of defense responses, protein ubiquitination plays a key role in the modulation of plant immunity. Ubiquitination is mediated by three enzymes, of which the E3 ubiquitin ligases, the substrate determinants, have been the major focus of attention. Accumulating evidence suggests that ubiquitination modulates signaling mediated by pattern recognition receptors and is important for the accumulation of nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat type intracellular immune sensors. Recent studies also indicate that ubiquitination directs vesicle trafficking, a function that has been clearly established for immune signaling in animals. In this mini review, we discuss these and other recent advances and highlight important open questions. PMID:23109936

  7. TAM Receptor Signaling in Immune Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Rothlin, Carla V.; Carrera-Silva, Eugenio A.; Bosurgi, Lidia; Ghosh, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The TAM receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs)—TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK—together with their cognate agonists GAS6 and PROS1 play an essential role in the resolution of inflammation. Deficiencies in TAM signaling have been associated with chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Three processes regulated by TAM signaling may contribute, either independently or collectively, to immune homeostasis: the negative regulation of the innate immune response, the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, and the restoration of vascular integrity. Recent studies have also revealed the function of TAMs in infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we review the important milestones in the discovery of these RTKs and their ligands and the studies that underscore the functional importance of this signaling pathway in physiological immune settings and disease. PMID:25594431

  8. Interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in the development of non infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Willermain, François; Rosenbaum, James T; Bodaghi, Bahram; Rosenzweig, Holly L; Childers, Sarah; Behrend, Travis; Wildner, Gerhild; Dick, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, the innate and adaptive immune systems have evolved seamlessly to protect the host by rapidly responding to danger signals, eliminating pathogens and creating immunological memory as well as immunological tolerance to self. The innate immune system harnesses receptors that recognize conserved pathogen patterns and alongside the more specific recognition systems and memory of adaptive immunity, their interplay is evidenced by respective roles during generation and regulation of immune responses. The hallmark of adaptive immunity which requires engagement of innate immunity is an ability to discriminate between self and non-self (and eventually between pathogen and symbiont) as well as peripheral control mechanisms maintaining immunological health and appropriate responses. Loss of control mechanisms and/or regulation of either the adaptive or the innate immune system lead to autoimmunity and autoinflammation respectively. Although autoimmune pathways have been largely studied to date in the context of development of non-infectious intraocular inflammation, the recruitment and activation of innate immunity is required for full expression of the varied phenotypes of non-infectious uveitis. Since autoimmunity and autoinflammation implicate different molecular pathways, even though some convergence occurs, increasing our understanding of their respective roles in the development of uveitis will highlight treatment targets and influence our understanding of immune mechanisms operative in other retinal diseases. Herein, we extrapolate from the basic mechanisms of activation and control of innate and adaptive immunity to how autoinflammatory and autoimmune pathways contribute to disease development in non-infectious uveitis patients. PMID:22120610

  9. Intercellular Communication in the Adaptive Immune System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Arup

    2004-03-01

    Higher organisms, like humans, have an adaptive immune system that can respond to pathogens that have not been encountered before. T lymphocytes (T cells) are the orchestrators of the adaptive immune response. They interact with cells, called antigen presenting cells (APC), that display molecular signatures of pathogens. Recently, video microscopy experiments have revealed that when T cells detect antigen on APC surfaces, a spatially patterned supramolecular assembly of different types of molecules forms in the junction between cell membranes. This recognition motif is implicated in information transfer between APC and T cells, and so, is labeled the immunological synapse. The observation of synapse formation sparked two broad questions: How does the synapse form? Why does the synapse form? I will describe progress made in answering these fundamental questions in biology by synergistic use of statistical mechanical theory/computation, chemical engineering principles, and genetic and biochemical experiments. The talk will also touch upon mechanisms that may underlie the extreme sensitivity with which T cells discriminate between self and non-self.

  10. Antigen translocation machineries in adaptive immunity and viral immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Peter U; Tampé, Robert

    2015-03-13

    Protein homeostasis results in a steady supply of peptides, which are further degraded to fuel protein synthesis or metabolic needs of the cell. In higher vertebrates, a small fraction of the resulting peptidome, however, is translocated into the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). Antigenic peptides are guided to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules and are finally displayed on the cell surface, where they mount an adaptive immune response against viral infected or malignantly transformed cells. Here, we review the structural organization and the molecular mechanism of this specialized antigen translocon. We discuss how the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter TAP communicates and cooperates within the multi-component peptide loading machinery, mediating the proper assembly and editing of kinetically stable peptide/MHC I complexes. In light of its important role within the MHC I antigen processing pathway, TAP is a prime target for viral immune evasion strategies, and we summarize how this antigen translocation machinery is sabotaged by viral factors. Finally, we compare TAP with other ABC systems that facilitate peptide translocation.

  11. How Neutrophils Shape Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Leliefeld, Pieter H. C.; Koenderman, Leo; Pillay, Janesh

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils are classically considered as cells pivotal for the first line of defense against invading pathogens. In recent years, evidence has accumulated that they are also important in the orchestration of adaptive immunity. Neutrophils rapidly migrate in high numbers to sites of inflammation (e.g., infection, tissue damage, and cancer) and are subsequently able to migrate to draining lymph nodes (LNs). Both at the site of inflammation as well as in the LNs, neutrophils can engage with lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. This crosstalk occurs either directly via cell–cell contact or via mediators, such as proteases, cytokines, and radical oxygen species. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge regarding locations and mechanisms of interaction between neutrophils and lymphocytes in the context of homeostasis and various pathological conditions. In addition, we will highlight the complexity of the microenvironment that is involved in the generation of suppressive or stimulatory neutrophil phenotypes. PMID:26441976

  12. How Neutrophils Shape Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Leliefeld, Pieter H C; Koenderman, Leo; Pillay, Janesh

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils are classically considered as cells pivotal for the first line of defense against invading pathogens. In recent years, evidence has accumulated that they are also important in the orchestration of adaptive immunity. Neutrophils rapidly migrate in high numbers to sites of inflammation (e.g., infection, tissue damage, and cancer) and are subsequently able to migrate to draining lymph nodes (LNs). Both at the site of inflammation as well as in the LNs, neutrophils can engage with lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells. This crosstalk occurs either directly via cell-cell contact or via mediators, such as proteases, cytokines, and radical oxygen species. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge regarding locations and mechanisms of interaction between neutrophils and lymphocytes in the context of homeostasis and various pathological conditions. In addition, we will highlight the complexity of the microenvironment that is involved in the generation of suppressive or stimulatory neutrophil phenotypes. PMID:26441976

  13. PD-1 as an Immune Modulatory Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Sheng; Chen, Lieping

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is an inducible immune modulatory receptor. Upon interaction with its ligands B7 homolog 1 (PD-L1) and B7-DC (PD-L2), PD-1 plays important roles in negative regulation of T cell responses to antigen stimulation and maintaining peripheral tolerance. In addition to the inducible expression pattern on conventional T cells, PD-1 is also found on regulatory T cells, follicular T and B cells, and antigen-presenting cells including activated dendritic cells and monocytes. Therefore, PD-1 may have a much broader functionality than expected in negative regulation of multiple arms of immune responses. In addition to cancer therapy, the manipulation of PD-1 and its ligands may hold great promise for therapeutic applications also in autoimmune and infectious diseases. PMID:25098286

  14. Nod-Like Receptors: Cytosolic Watchdogs for Immunity against Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sirard, Jean-Claude; Vignal, Cécile; Dessein, Rodrigue; Chamaillard, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    In mammals, tissue-specific sets of pattern-recognition molecules, including Nod-like receptors (NLR), enable concomitant and sequential detection of microbial-associated molecular patterns from both the extracellular and intracellular microenvironment. Repressing and de-repressing the cytosolic surveillance machinery contributes to vital immune homeostasis and protective responses within specific tissues. Conversely, defective biology of NLR drives the development of recurrent infectious, autoimmune and/or inflammatory diseases by failing to mount barrier functions against pathogens, to tolerate commensals, and/or to instruct the adaptive immune response against microbes. Better decoding microbial strategies that are evolved to circumvent NLR sensing will provide clues for the development of rational therapies aimed at curing and/or preventing common and emerging immunopathologies. PMID:18166077

  15. Nuclear hormone receptors put immunity on sterols

    PubMed Central

    Santori, Fabio R.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) are transcription factors regulated by small molecules. The functions of NHRs range from development of primary and secondary lymphoid organs, to regulation of differentiation and function of DCs, macrophages and T cells. The human genome has 48 classic (hormone and vitamin receptors) and non-classic (all others) NHRs; 17 non-classic receptors are orphans, meaning that the endogenous ligand is unknown. Understanding the function of orphan NHRs requires the identification of their natural ligands. The mevalonate pathway, including its sterol and non-sterol intermediates and derivatives, is a source of ligands for many classic and non-classic NHRs. For example, cholesterol biosynthetic intermediates (CBIs) are natural ligands for RORγ/γt. CBIs are universal endogenous metabolites in mammalian cells, and to study NHRs that bind CBIs requires ligand-free reporters system in sterol auxotroph cells. Furthermore, RORγ/γt shows broad specificity to sterol lipids, suggesting that RORγ/γt is either a general sterol sensor or specificity is defined by an abundant endogenous ligand. Unlike other NHRs, which regulate specific metabolic pathways, there is no connection between the genetic programs induced by RORγ/γt and ligand biosynthesis. In this review we summarize the roles of non-classic NHRs and their potential ligands in the immune system. PMID:26222181

  16. Nuclear hormone receptors put immunity on sterols.

    PubMed

    Santori, Fabio R

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs) are transcription factors regulated by small molecules. The functions of NHRs range from development of primary and secondary lymphoid organs, to regulation of differentiation and function of DCs, macrophages and T cells. The human genome has 48 classic (hormone and vitamin receptors) and nonclassic (all others) NHRs; 17 nonclassic receptors are orphans, meaning that the endogenous ligand is unknown. Understanding the function of orphan NHRs requires the identification of their natural ligands. The mevalonate pathway, including its sterol and nonsterol intermediates and derivatives, is a source of ligands for many classic and nonclassic NHRs. For example, cholesterol biosynthetic intermediates (CBIs) are natural ligands for RORγ/γt. CBIs are universal endogenous metabolites in mammalian cells, and to study NHRs that bind CBIs requires ligand-free reporters system in sterol auxotroph cells. Furthermore, RORγ/γt shows broad specificity to sterol lipids, suggesting that RORγ/γt is either a general sterol sensor or specificity is defined by an abundant endogenous ligand. Unlike other NHRs, which regulate specific metabolic pathways, there is no connection between the genetic programs induced by RORγ/γt and ligand biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the roles of nonclassic NHRs and their potential ligands in the immune system.

  17. Linear ubiquitination signals in adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Fumiyo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ubiquitin can form eight different linkage types of chains using the intrinsic Met 1 residue or one of the seven intrinsic Lys residues. Each linkage-type of ubiquitin chain has a distinct three-dimensional topology, functioning as a tag to attract specific signaling molecules, which are so-called ubiquitin readers, and regulates various biological functions. Ubiquitin chains linked via Met 1 in a head-to-tail manner are called linear ubiquitin chains. Linear ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of cellular signaling, including the best-characterized Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) -induced canonical nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Linear ubiquitin chains are specifically generated by an E3 ligase complex called the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and hydrolyzed by a deubiquitinase (DUB) called ovarian tumor (OTU) DUB with linear linkage specificity (OTULIN). LUBAC linearly ubiquitinates critical molecules in the TNF pathway, such as NEMO and RIPK1. The linear ubiquitin chains are then recognized by the ubiquitin readers, including NEMO, which control the TNF pathway. Accumulating evidence indicates an importance of the LUBAC complex in the regulation of apoptosis, development, and inflammation in mice. In this article, I focus on the role of linear ubiquitin chains in adaptive immune responses with an emphasis on the TNF-induced signaling pathways. PMID:26085218

  18. Adaptive Immunity in Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Mosley, R Lee

    2015-12-01

    Neurodegenerative and neuropsychological disorders are becoming a greater proportion of the global disease burden; however the pathogenic mechanisms by which these disorders originate and contribute to disease progression are not well-described. Increasing evidence supports neuroinflammation as a common underlying component associated with the neuropathological processes that effect disease progression. This collection of articles explores the role of adaptive immunity in autoimmunity, neurodegeneration, neurotrauma, and psychological disorders. The section emphasizes the interactions of T cells with innate cellular responses within the CNS and the effects on neurological functions. One recurrent theme is that modified and aggregated self-proteins upregulate innate-mediated inflammation and provide a permissive environment for polarization of T cells to proinflammatory effector cells. Moreover, infiltration and reactivation of those T effector cells exacerbate neuroinflammation and oxidative stress to greater neurotoxic levels. Another recurrent theme in these disorders promotes diminished regulatory functions that reduce control over activated T effector cells and microglia, and ultimately augment proinflammatory conditions. Augmentation of regulatory control is discussed as therapeutic strategies to attenuate neuroinflammation, mitigate neurodegeneration or neuronal dysfunction, and lessen disease progression.

  19. [Lymphocyte receptors that regulate the immune-response--the key to the management of antitumor immunity].

    PubMed

    Kadagidze, Z G; Slavina, E G; Chertkova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Tumor uses various mechanisms to "escape" from immune surveillance including the important role of dysregulation of interaction of signals from corresponding co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory receptors (so-called "control points immunity"-- immune "checkpoints") modulating T-cell activation process. A creation of targeted drugs impacting on immune "checkpoints" is a new promising trend in modern oncoimmunology. This review is devoted to a brief characterization of some receptors of immune competent cells (such as activation and inhibitor), which play a crucial role in the interaction of the immune system and tumors as well as targeted drugs acting on them for therapeutic purpose. PMID:26571819

  20. [Adaptive immune response of people living near chemically hazardous object].

    PubMed

    Petlenko, S V; Ivanov, M B; Goverdovskiĭ, Iu B; Bogdanova, E G; Golubkov, A V

    2011-10-01

    The article presents data dynamics of adaptive immune responses of people for a long time living in adverse environmental conditions caused by pollution of the environment by industrial toxic waste. It is shown that in the process of adaptation to adverse environmental factors, changes in the immune system are in the phase fluctuations of immunological parameters that are accompanied by changes in the structure of immunodependent pathology. Most sensitive to prolonged exposure to toxic compounds are the cellular mechanisms of immune protection. Violations of the structural and quantitative and functional parameters of the link of the immune system are leading to the formation of immunopathological processes.

  1. Stimulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity by Using Filamentous Bacteriophage fd Targeted to DEC-205

    PubMed Central

    D'Apice, Luciana; Costa, Valerio; Sartorius, Rossella; Trovato, Maria; Aprile, Marianna; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous bacteriophage fd, codisplaying antigenic determinants and a single chain antibody fragment directed against the dendritic cell receptor DEC-205, is a promising vaccine candidate for its safety and its ability to elicit innate and adaptive immune response in absence of adjuvants. By using a system vaccinology approach based on RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis, we describe a relevant gene modulation in dendritic cells pulsed with anti-DEC-205 bacteriophages fd. RNA-Seq data analysis indicates that the bacteriophage fd virions are sensed as a pathogen by dendritic cells; they activate the danger receptors that trigger an innate immune response and thus confer a strong adjuvanticity that is needed to obtain a long-lasting adaptive immune response. PMID:26380324

  2. Stimulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity by Using Filamentous Bacteriophage fd Targeted to DEC-205.

    PubMed

    D'Apice, Luciana; Costa, Valerio; Sartorius, Rossella; Trovato, Maria; Aprile, Marianna; De Berardinis, Piergiuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The filamentous bacteriophage fd, codisplaying antigenic determinants and a single chain antibody fragment directed against the dendritic cell receptor DEC-205, is a promising vaccine candidate for its safety and its ability to elicit innate and adaptive immune response in absence of adjuvants. By using a system vaccinology approach based on RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis, we describe a relevant gene modulation in dendritic cells pulsed with anti-DEC-205 bacteriophages fd. RNA-Seq data analysis indicates that the bacteriophage fd virions are sensed as a pathogen by dendritic cells; they activate the danger receptors that trigger an innate immune response and thus confer a strong adjuvanticity that is needed to obtain a long-lasting adaptive immune response.

  3. Evolutionary insights into the origin of innate and adaptive immune systems: different shades of grey.

    PubMed

    Sirisinha, Stitaya

    2014-03-01

    To struggle for survival, all living organisms, from protists to humans, must defend themselves from attack by predators. From the time when life began around 3,500 million years ago, all living cells have evolved mechanisms and strategies to optimally defend themselves, while the invaders also need to survive by evading these immune defenses. The end results would be healthy co-evolution of both parties. Classically, immune host defense is divided into two main categories, namely, innate and adaptive systems. It is well documented that while vertebrates possess both systems, invertebrates and prokaryotes like bacteria and archaea depend almost exclusively on the innate immune functions. Although the adaptive immune system like antibodies and cellular immunity or their equivalents are believed to have evolved at the time when the vertebrates first appeared about 550 million years ago, more recent information from molecular and genomic studies suggest that different forms of adaptive immune system may also be present in the invertebrates as well. These forms of "adaptive" immune system exhibit, for instance, limited degrees of memory, diversity and similarities of their immune receptors with the immunoglobulin domains of the conventional adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Organized lymphoid tissues have been identified in all vertebrates. Very recent molecular and genetic data further suggest that a special type of adaptive system functioning like RNAi of vertebrates is also present in the very ancient form of life like the bacteria and archaea. In this review, I provide some insights, based on recent information gathering from evolutionary data of innate and adaptive immune receptors of invertebrate and vertebrate animals that should convince the readers that our current view on the innate and adaptive immunity may need to be modified. The distinction between the two systems should not be thought of in terms of a "black and white" phenomenon anymore, as recent

  4. Prophylactic and Therapeutic Modulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity Against Mucosal Infection of Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Uyangaa, Erdenebileg; Patil, Ajit Mahadev

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are the most common cause of genital ulceration in humans worldwide. Typically, HSV-1 and 2 infections via mucosal route result in a lifelong latent infection after peripheral replication in mucosal tissues, thereby providing potential transmission to neighbor hosts in response to reactivation. To break the transmission cycle, immunoprophylactics and therapeutic strategies must be focused on prevention of infection or reduction of infectivity at mucosal sites. Currently, our understanding of the immune responses against mucosal infection of HSV remains intricate and involves a balance between innate signaling pathways and the adaptive immune responses. Numerous studies have demonstrated that HSV mucosal infection induces type I interferons (IFN) via recognition of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and activates multiple immune cell populations, including NK cells, conventional dendritic cells (DCs), and plasmacytoid DCs. This innate immune response is required not only for the early control of viral replication at mucosal sites, but also for establishing adaptive immune responses against HSV antigens. Although the contribution of humoral immune response is controversial, CD4+ Th1 T cells producing IFN-γ are believed to play an important role in eradicating virus from the hosts. In addition, the recent experimental successes of immunoprophylactic and therapeutic compounds that enhance resistance and/or reduce viral burden at mucosal sites have accumulated. This review focuses on attempts to modulate innate and adaptive immunity against HSV mucosal infection for the development of prophylactic and therapeutic strategies. Notably, cells involved in innate immune regulations appear to shape adaptive immune responses. Thus, we summarized the current evidence of various immune mediators in response to mucosal HSV infection, focusing on the importance of innate immune responses. PMID:25177251

  5. Recognition of Extracellular Bacteria by NLRs and Its Role in the Development of Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ferrand, Jonathan; Ferrero, Richard Louis

    2013-01-01

    Innate immune recognition of bacteria is the first requirement for mounting an effective immune response able to control infection. Over the previous decade, the general paradigm was that extracellular bacteria were only sensed by cell surface-expressed Toll-like receptors (TLRs), whereas cytoplasmic sensors, including members of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family, were specific to pathogens capable of breaching the host cell membrane. It has become apparent, however, that intracellular innate immune molecules, such as the NLRs, play key roles in the sensing of not only intracellular, but also extracellular bacterial pathogens or their components. In this review, we will discuss the various mechanisms used by bacteria to activate NLR signaling in host cells. These mechanisms include bacterial secretion systems, pore-forming toxins, and outer membrane vesicles. We will then focus on the influence of NLR activation on the development of adaptive immune responses in different cell types. PMID:24155747

  6. T Cell Adaptive Immunity Proceeds through Environment-Induced Adaptation from the Exposure of Cryptic Genetic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Whitacre, James M.; Lin, Joseph; Harding, Angus

    2011-01-01

    Evolution is often characterized as a process involving incremental genetic changes that are slowly discovered and fixed in a population through genetic drift and selection. However, a growing body of evidence is finding that changes in the environment frequently induce adaptations that are much too rapid to occur by an incremental genetic search process. Rapid evolution is hypothesized to be facilitated by mutations present within the population that are silent or “cryptic” within the first environment but are co-opted or “exapted” to the new environment, providing a selective advantage once revealed. Although cryptic mutations have recently been shown to facilitate evolution in RNA enzymes, their role in the evolution of complex phenotypes has not been proven. In support of this wider role, this paper describes an unambiguous relationship between cryptic genetic variation and complex phenotypic responses within the immune system. By reviewing the biology of the adaptive immune system through the lens of evolution, we show that T cell adaptive immunity constitutes an exemplary model system where cryptic alleles drive rapid adaptation of complex traits. In naive T cells, normally cryptic differences in T cell receptor reveal diversity in activation responses when the cellular population is presented with a novel environment during infection. We summarize how the adaptive immune response presents a well studied and appropriate experimental system that can be used to confirm and expand upon theoretical evolutionary models describing how seemingly small and innocuous mutations can drive rapid cellular evolution. PMID:22363338

  7. Diversity of immune strategies explained by adaptation to pathogen statistics

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Andreas; Mora, Thierry; Rivoire, Olivier; Walczak, Aleksandra M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological organisms have evolved a wide range of immune mechanisms to defend themselves against pathogens. Beyond molecular details, these mechanisms differ in how protection is acquired, processed, and passed on to subsequent generations—differences that may be essential to long-term survival. Here, we introduce a mathematical framework to compare the long-term adaptation of populations as a function of the pathogen dynamics that they experience and of the immune strategy that they adopt. We find that the two key determinants of an optimal immune strategy are the frequency and the characteristic timescale of the pathogens. Depending on these two parameters, our framework identifies distinct modes of immunity, including adaptive, innate, bet-hedging, and CRISPR-like immunities, which recapitulate the diversity of natural immune systems. PMID:27432970

  8. The immune system, adaptation, and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, J. Doyne; Packard, Norman H.; Perelson, Alan S.

    1986-10-01

    The immune system is capable of learning, memory, and pattern recognition. By employing genetic operators on a time scale fast enough to observe experimentally, the immune system is able to recognize novel shapes without preprogramming. Here we describe a dynamical model for the immune system that is based on the network hypothesis of Jerne, and is simple enough to simulate on a computer. This model has a strong similarity to an approach to learning and artificial intelligence introduced by Holland, called the classifier system. We demonstrate that simple versions of the classifier system can be cast as a nonlinear dynamical system, and explore the analogy between the immune and classifier systems in detail. Through this comparison we hope to gain insight into the way they perform specific tasks, and to suggest new approaches that might be of value in learning systems.

  9. H. pylori exploits and manipulates innate and adaptive immune cell signaling pathways to establish persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Persistent infection with the gastric bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori causes gastritis and predisposes carriers to a high gastric cancer risk, but has also been linked to protection from allergic, chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In the course of tens of thousands of years of co-existence with its human host, H. pylori has evolved elaborate adaptations that allow it to persist in the hostile environment of the stomach in the face of a vigorous innate and adaptive immune response. For this review, we have identified several key immune cell types and signaling pathways that appear to be preferentially targeted by the bacteria to establish and maintain persistent infection. We explore the mechanisms that allow the bacteria to avoid detection by innate immune cells via their pattern recognition receptors, to escape T-cell mediated adaptive immunity, and to reprogram the immune system towards tolerance rather than immunity. The implications of the immunomodulatory properties of the bacteria for the prevention of allergic and auto-immune diseases in chronically infected individuals are also discussed. PMID:22044597

  10. Origins and evolutionary relationships between the innate and adaptive arms of immune systems.

    PubMed

    Bayne, Christopher J

    2003-04-01

    Long before vertebrates first appeared, protists, plants and animals had evolved diverse, effective systems of innate immunity. Ancestors of the vertebrates utilized components of the complement system, protease-inhibitors, metal-binding proteins, carbohydrate-binding proteins and other plasma-born molecules as humoral agents of defense. In these same animals, immunocytes endowed with a repertoire of defensive behaviors expressed Toll-like receptors. They made NADPH oxidase, superoxide dismutase and other respiratory burst enzymes to produce toxic oxygen radicals, and nitric oxide synthase to produce nitric oxide. Antimicrobial peptides and lytic enzymes were in their armory. Immune responses were orchestrated by cytokines. Furthermore, genes within the immunoglobulin superfamily were expressed to meet a variety of needs possibly including defense. However, recombination activating genes played no role. With the acquisition of one or more transposases and the resulting capacity to generate diverse receptors from immunoglobulin gene fragments, the adaptive (lymphoid) arm of the immune system was born. This may have coincided with the elaboration of the neural crest. Naturally, the role of the adaptive arm was initially subservient to the defensive functions of the pre-existing innate arm. The strong selective advantages that stemmed from having "sharp-shooters" (cells making antigen-specific receptors) on the defense team ensured their retention. Refined through evolution, adaptive immunity, even in mammals, remains dependent upon cells of the innate series (e.g., dendritic cells) for signals driving their functional maturation. This paper calls for some fresh thinking leading to a clearer vision of the origins and co-evolution of the two arms of modern immune systems, and suggests a possible neural origin for the adaptive immune system.

  11. CD98 at the crossroads of adaptive immunity and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Joseph M.; Ginsberg, Mark H.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, a vertebrate specialization, adds memory and exquisite specificity to the basic innate immune responses present in invertebrates while conserving metabolic resources. In adaptive immunity, antigenic challenge requires extremely rapid proliferation of rare antigen-specific lymphocytes to produce large, clonally expanded effector populations that neutralize pathogens. Rapid proliferation and resulting clonal expansion are dependent on CD98, a protein whose well-conserved orthologs appear restricted to vertebrates. Thus, CD98 supports lymphocyte clonal expansion to enable protective adaptive immunity, an advantage that could account for the presence of CD98 in vertebrates. CD98 supports lymphocyte clonal expansion by amplifying integrin signals that enable proliferation and prevent apoptosis. These integrin-dependent signals can also provoke cancer development and invasion, anchorage-independence and the rapid proliferation of tumor cells. CD98 is highly expressed in many cancers and contributes to formation of tumors in experimental models. Strikingly, vertebrates, which possess highly conserved CD98 proteins, CD98-binding integrins and adaptive immunity, also display propensity towards invasive and metastatic tumors. In this Commentary, we review the roles of CD98 in lymphocyte biology and cancer. We suggest that the CD98 amplification of integrin signaling in adaptive immunity provides survival benefits to vertebrates, which, in turn, bear the price of increased susceptibility to cancer. PMID:22499670

  12. Evolution of adaptive immunity from transposable elements combined with innate immune systems.

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V; Krupovic, Mart

    2015-03-01

    Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes and animals give rise to long-term memory through modification of specific genomic loci, such as by insertion of foreign (viral or plasmid) DNA fragments into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci in prokaryotes and by V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin genes in vertebrates. Strikingly, recombinases derived from unrelated mobile genetic elements have essential roles in both prokaryotic and vertebrate adaptive immune systems. Mobile elements, which are ubiquitous in cellular life forms, provide the only known, naturally evolved tools for genome engineering that are successfully adopted by both innate immune systems and genome-editing technologies. In this Opinion article, we present a general scenario for the origin of adaptive immunity from mobile elements and innate immune systems.

  13. Innate and adaptive immune responses in neurodegeneration and repair.

    PubMed

    Amor, Sandra; Woodroofe, M Nicola

    2014-03-01

    Emerging evidence suggests important roles of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the central nervous system (CNS) in neurodegenerative diseases. In this special review issue, five leading researchers discuss the evidence for the beneficial as well as the detrimental impact of the immune system in the CNS in disorders including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis and CNS injury. Several common pathological mechanisms emerge indicating that these pathways could provide important targets for manipulating the immune reposes in neurodegenerative disorders. The articles highlight the role of the traditional resident immune cell of the CNS - the microglia - as well as the role of other glia astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in immune responses and their interplay with other immune cells including, mast cells, T cells and B cells. Future research should lead to new discoveries which highlight targets for therapeutic interventions which may be applicable to a range of neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. Molecular Recognition of Paired Receptors in the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Kuroki, Kimiko; Furukawa, Atsushi; Maenaka, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    Cell surface receptors are responsible for regulating cellular function on the front line, the cell membrane. Interestingly, accumulating evidence clearly reveals that the members of cell surface receptor families have very similar extracellular ligand-binding regions but opposite signaling systems, either inhibitory or stimulatory. These receptors are designated as paired receptors. Paired receptors often recognize not only physiological ligands but also non-self ligands, such as viral and bacterial products, to fight infections. In this review, we introduce several representative examples of paired receptors, focusing on two major structural superfamilies, the immunoglobulin-like and the C-type lectin-like receptors, and explain how these receptors distinguish self and non-self ligands to maintain homeostasis in the immune system. We further discuss the evolutionary aspects of these receptors as well as the potential drug targets for regulating diseases. PMID:23293633

  15. Immunoglobulin Transporting Receptors Are Potential Targets for the Immunity Enhancement and Generation of Mammary Gland Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xuemei; Hu, Jianjun; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    The functions of immunoglobulin transporting receptors (Ig transporting receptors) in immune system encompass from passive immunity to adaptive immunity by transporting immunoglobulins (Igs) and prolonging their half-life as well as enhancing immunosurveillance. Prior to the weaning, Ig transportations from mother to offspring confer the immediate passive immunity for neonates. After the weaning, FcRn and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor on infant intestinal epithelial cells retrieve Ig in intestinal lamina propria into the gut lumen for preventing pathogen invasion. This is not only improving the pathological consequences of infection but also helping the neonates for developing their own immune response; besides it would be the guidance for designing novel vaccines. Moreover, the investigations on Ig transporting receptors over-expressed transgenic animals have been carried out to improve Ig concentrations in serum and milk; thus, it would be a sustainable method to produce antibody-enriched milk-derived colostrum replacer for neonates. In order to generate mammary gland bioreactor, a series of methods have been developed for enhanced regulation of Ig transporting receptors expression and Ig transportation. PMID:27375616

  16. Immunoglobulin Transporting Receptors Are Potential Targets for the Immunity Enhancement and Generation of Mammary Gland Bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuemei; Hu, Jianjun; Thirumalai, Diraviyam; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    The functions of immunoglobulin transporting receptors (Ig transporting receptors) in immune system encompass from passive immunity to adaptive immunity by transporting immunoglobulins (Igs) and prolonging their half-life as well as enhancing immunosurveillance. Prior to the weaning, Ig transportations from mother to offspring confer the immediate passive immunity for neonates. After the weaning, FcRn and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor on infant intestinal epithelial cells retrieve Ig in intestinal lamina propria into the gut lumen for preventing pathogen invasion. This is not only improving the pathological consequences of infection but also helping the neonates for developing their own immune response; besides it would be the guidance for designing novel vaccines. Moreover, the investigations on Ig transporting receptors over-expressed transgenic animals have been carried out to improve Ig concentrations in serum and milk; thus, it would be a sustainable method to produce antibody-enriched milk-derived colostrum replacer for neonates. In order to generate mammary gland bioreactor, a series of methods have been developed for enhanced regulation of Ig transporting receptors expression and Ig transportation. PMID:27375616

  17. Toll-like receptors: the swiss army knife of immunity and vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Jennifer K; Mansell, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Innate immune cells have a critical role in defense against infection and disease. Central to this is the broad specificity with which they can detect pathogen-associated patterns and danger-associated patterns via the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) they express. Several families of PRRs have been identified including: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), C-type lectin-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptors. TLRs are one of the most largely studied families of PRRs. The binding of ligands to TLRs on antigen presenting cells (APCs), mainly dendritic cells, leads to APC maturation, induction of inflammatory cytokines and the priming of naive T cells to drive acquired immunity. Therefore, activation of TLRs promotes both innate inflammatory responses and the induction of adaptive immunity. Consequently, in the last two decades mounting evidence has inextricably linked TLR activation with the pathogenesis of immune diseases and cancer. It has become advantageous to harness these aspects of TLR signaling therapeutically to accelerate and enhance the induction of vaccine-specific responses and also target TLRs with the use of biologics and small molecule inhibitors for the treatment of disease. In these respects, TLRs may be considered a ‘Swiss Army' knife of the immune system, ready to respond in a multitude of infectious and disease states. Here we describe the latest advances in TLR-targeted therapeutics and the use of TLR ligands as vaccine adjuvants. PMID:27350884

  18. CRISPR-Based Adaptive Immune Systems

    PubMed Central

    Terns, Michael P.; Terns, Rebecca M.

    2011-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas systems are recently discovered, RNA-based immune systems that control invasions of viruses and plasmids in archaea and bacteria. Prokaryotes with CRISPR-Cas immune systems capture short invader sequences within the CRISPR loci in their genomes, and small RNAs produced from the CRISPR loci (CRISPR (cr)RNAs) guide Cas proteins to recognize and degrade (or otherwise silence) the invading nucleic acids. There are multiple variations of the pathway found among prokaryotes, each mediated by largely distinct components and mechanisms that we are only beginning to delineate. Here we will review our current understanding of the remarkable CRISPR-Cas pathways with particular attention to studies relevant to systems found in the archaea. PMID:21531607

  19. A tetrapod-like repertoire of innate immune receptors and effectors for coelacanths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boudinot, Pierre; Zou, Jun; Ota, Tatsuya; Buonocore, Francesco; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Canapa, Adriana; Cannon, John; Litman, Gary; Hansen, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The recent availability of both robust transcriptome and genome resources for coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) has led to unique discoveries for coelacanth immunity such as the lack of IgM, a central component of adaptive immunity. This study was designed to more precisely address the origins and evolution of gene families involved in the initial recognition and response to microbial pathogens, which effect innate immunity. Several multigene families involved in innate immunity are addressed, including: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG1)-like receptors (RLRs), the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing proteins (NLRs), diverse immunoglobulin domain-containing proteins (DICP) and modular domain immune-type receptors (MDIRs). Our analyses also include the tripartite motif-containing proteins (TRIM), which are involved in pathogen recognition as well as the positive regulation of antiviral immunity. Finally, this study addressed some of the downstream effectors of the antimicrobial response including IL-1 family members, type I and II interferons (IFN) and IFN-stimulated effectors (ISGs). Collectively, the genes and gene families in coelacanth that effect innate immune functions share characteristics both in content, structure and arrangement with those found in tetrapods but not in teleosts. The findings support the sister group relationship of coelacanth fish with tetrapods.

  20. A tetrapod-like repertoire of innate immune receptors and effectors for coelacanths.

    PubMed

    Boudinot, Pierre; Zou, Jun; Ota, Tatsuya; Buonocore, Francesco; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Canapa, Adriana; Cannon, John; Litman, Gary; Hansen, John D

    2014-09-01

    The recent availability of both robust transcriptome and genome resources for coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) has led to unique discoveries for coelacanth immunity such as the lack of IgM, a central component of adaptive immunity. This study was designed to more precisely address the origins and evolution of gene families involved in the initial recognition and response to microbial pathogens, which effect innate immunity. Several multigene families involved in innate immunity are addressed, including: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG1)-like receptors (RLRs), the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing proteins (NLRs), diverse immunoglobulin domain-containing proteins (DICP) and modular domain immune-type receptors (MDIRs). Our analyses also include the tripartite motif-containing proteins (TRIM), which are involved in pathogen recognition as well as the positive regulation of antiviral immunity. Finally, this study addressed some of the downstream effectors of the antimicrobial response including IL-1 family members, type I and II interferons (IFN) and IFN-stimulated effectors (ISGs). Collectively, the genes and gene families in coelacanth that effect innate immune functions share characteristics both in content, structure and arrangement with those found in tetrapods but not in teleosts. The findings support the sister group relationship of coelacanth fish with tetrapods.

  1. Innate immunosenescence: effect of aging on cells and receptors of the innate immune system in humans.

    PubMed

    Solana, Rafael; Tarazona, Raquel; Gayoso, Inmaculada; Lesur, Olivier; Dupuis, Gilles; Fulop, Tamas

    2012-10-01

    Components of the innate immune response, including neutrophils and macrophages, are the first line of defense against infections. Their role is to initiate an inflammatory response, phagocyte and kill pathogens, recruit natural killer cells (NK), and facilitate the maturation and migration of dendritic cells that will initiate the adaptive immune response. Extraordinary advances have been made in the last decade on the knowledge of the receptors and mechanisms used by cells of the innate immunity not only to sense and eliminate the pathogen but also to communicate each other and collaborate with cells of adaptive immunity to mount an effective immune response. The analysis of innate immunity in elderly humans has evidenced that aging has a profound impact on the phenotype and functions of these cells. Thus altered expression and/or function of innate immunity receptors and signal transduction leading to defective activation and decreased chemotaxis, phagocytosis and intracellular killing of pathogens have been described. The phenotype and function of NK cells from elderly individuals show significant changes that are compatible with remodeling of the different NK subsets, with a decrease in the CD56bright subpopulation and accumulation of the CD56dim cells, in particular those differentiated NK cells that co-express CD57, as well as a decreased expression of activating natural cytotoxicity receptors. These alterations can be responsible of the decreased production of cytokines and the lower per-cell cytotoxicity observed in the elderly. Considering the relevance of these cells in the initiation of the immune response, the possibility to reactivate the function of innate immune cells should be considered in order to improve the response to pathogens and to vaccination in the elderly.

  2. Crystallization and Structure Determination of Superantigens and Immune Receptor Complexes.

    PubMed

    Rödström, Karin E J; Lindkvist-Petersson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Structure determination of superantigens and the complexes they form with immune receptors have over the years provided insight in their modes of action. This technique requires growing large and highly ordered crystals of the superantigen or receptor-superantigen complex, followed by exposure to X-ray radiation and data collection. Here, we describe methods for crystallizing superantigens and superantigen-receptor complexes using the vapor diffusion technique, how the crystals may be optimized, and lastly data collection and structure determination.

  3. Standard of hygiene and immune adaptation in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Kallionpää, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Öling, Viveka; Härkönen, Taina; Tillmann, Vallo; Dorshakova, Natalya V; Ilonen, Jorma; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Knip, Mikael; Lahesmaa, Riitta

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of immune-mediated diseases, such as allergies and type 1 diabetes, is on the rise in the developed world. In order to explore differences in the gene expression patterns induced in utero in infants born in contrasting standards of living and hygiene, we collected umbilical cord blood RNA samples from infants born in Finland (modern society), Estonia (rapidly developing society) and the Republic of Karelia, Russia (poor economic conditions). The whole blood transcriptome of Finnish and Estonian neonates differed from their Karelian counterparts, suggesting exposure to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and a more matured immune response in infants born in Karelia. These results further support the concept of a conspicuous plasticity in the developing immune system: the environmental factors that play a role in the susceptibility/protection towards immune-mediated diseases begin to shape the neonatal immunity already in utero and direct the maturation in accordance with the surrounding microbial milieu. PMID:25245264

  4. CRISPR-Cas systems: Prokaryotes upgrade to adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2014-04-24

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), and associated proteins (Cas) comprise the CRISPR-Cas system, which confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. CRISPR-mediated immunization occurs through the uptake of DNA from invasive genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses, followed by its integration into CRISPR loci. These loci are subsequently transcribed and processed into small interfering RNAs that guide nucleases for specific cleavage of complementary sequences. Conceptually, CRISPR-Cas shares functional features with the mammalian adaptive immune system, while also exhibiting characteristics of Lamarckian evolution. Because immune markers spliced from exogenous agents are integrated iteratively in CRISPR loci, they constitute a genetic record of vaccination events and reflect environmental conditions and changes over time. Cas endonucleases, which can be reprogrammed by small guide RNAs have shown unprecedented potential and flexibility for genome editing and can be repurposed for numerous DNA targeting applications including transcriptional control.

  5. CRISPR-Cas systems: prokaryotes upgrade to adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Barrangou, Rodolphe; Marraffini, Luciano A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR), and associated proteins (Cas) comprise the CRISPR-Cas system, which confers adaptive immunity against exogenic elements in many bacteria and most archaea. CRISPR-mediated immunization occurs through the uptake of DNA from invasive genetic elements such as plasmids and viruses, followed by its integration into CRISPR loci. These loci are subsequently transcribed and processed into small interfering RNAs that guide nucleases for specific cleavage of complementary sequences. Conceptually, CRISPR-Cas shares functional features with the mammalian adaptive immune system, while also exhibiting characteristics of Lamarckian evolution. Because immune markers spliced from exogenous agents are integrated iteratively in CRISPR loci, they constitute a genetic record of vaccination events and reflect environmental conditions and changes over time. Cas endonucleases, which can be reprogrammed by small guide RNAs have shown unprecedented potential and flexibility for genome editing, and can be repurposed for numerous DNA targeting applications including transcriptional control. PMID:24766887

  6. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pamela Y; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S; Herbert, De'Broski R; Craft, Joseph E; Flavell, Richard A; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G; Torgerson, Dara G; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V

    2016-04-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded byTyro3in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell-specificPros1knockouts phenocopied the loss ofTyro3 Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses.

  7. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pamela Y.; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A.; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D.; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S.; Herbert, De’Broski R.; Craft, Joseph E.; Flavell, Richard A.; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G.; Torgerson, Dara G.; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V.

    2016-01-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by Tyro3 in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell–specific Pros1 knockouts phenocopied the loss of Tyro3. Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses. PMID:27034374

  8. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pamela Y; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S; Herbert, De'Broski R; Craft, Joseph E; Flavell, Richard A; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G; Torgerson, Dara G; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V

    2016-04-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded byTyro3in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell-specificPros1knockouts phenocopied the loss ofTyro3 Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses. PMID:27034374

  9. An Overview of Pathogen Recognition Receptors for Innate Immunity in Dental Pulp

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Hee Woong; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Sang Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) are a class of germ line-encoded receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The activation of PRRs is crucial for the initiation of innate immunity, which plays a key role in first-line defense until more specific adaptive immunity is developed. PRRs differ in the signaling cascades and host responses activated by their engagement and in their tissue distribution. Currently identified PRR families are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs), and the AIM2-like receptor (ALR). The environment of the dental pulp is substantially different from that of other tissues of the body. Dental pulp resides in a low compliance root canal system that limits the expansion of pulpal tissues during inflammatory processes. An understanding of the PRRs in dental pulp is important for immunomodulation and hence for developing therapeutic targets in the field of endodontics. Here we comprehensively review recent finding on the PRRs and the mechanisms by which innate immunity is activated. We focus on the PRRs expressed on dental pulp and periapical tissues and their role in dental pulp inflammation. PMID:26576076

  10. An Overview of Pathogen Recognition Receptors for Innate Immunity in Dental Pulp.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Hee Woong; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Park, Sang Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) are a class of germ line-encoded receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The activation of PRRs is crucial for the initiation of innate immunity, which plays a key role in first-line defense until more specific adaptive immunity is developed. PRRs differ in the signaling cascades and host responses activated by their engagement and in their tissue distribution. Currently identified PRR families are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs), and the AIM2-like receptor (ALR). The environment of the dental pulp is substantially different from that of other tissues of the body. Dental pulp resides in a low compliance root canal system that limits the expansion of pulpal tissues during inflammatory processes. An understanding of the PRRs in dental pulp is important for immunomodulation and hence for developing therapeutic targets in the field of endodontics. Here we comprehensively review recent finding on the PRRs and the mechanisms by which innate immunity is activated. We focus on the PRRs expressed on dental pulp and periapical tissues and their role in dental pulp inflammation.

  11. Semaphorins and their receptors in immune cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Kumanogoh, Atsushi; Kikutani, Hitoshi

    2008-01-01

    Semaphorins are newcomers to the growing panoply of immunoregulatory proteins. Members of this family were originally identified as proteins that provide axonal guidance cues during neuronal development. However, accumulating evidence indicates that several semaphorins, called 'immune semaphorins', are crucial to various phases of the immune response, from initiation to terminal inflammatory processes. Extensive studies of immune semaphorins have shown not only differences but also parallels in semaphorin functions among physiologically distinct systems, providing unexpected but meaningful insights into the biological activities of this protein family. Here we review the present knowledge of the function of semaphorins and their receptors in the immune system, including the most recent advances in this field.

  12. Proteasome function shapes innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kammerl, Ilona E; Meiners, Silke

    2016-08-01

    The proteasome system degrades more than 80% of intracellular proteins into small peptides. Accordingly, the proteasome is involved in many essential cellular functions, such as protein quality control, transcription, immune responses, cell signaling, and apoptosis. Moreover, degradation products are loaded onto major histocompatibility class I molecules to communicate the intracellular protein composition to the immune system. The standard 20S proteasome core complex contains three distinct catalytic active sites that are exchanged upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines to form the so-called immunoproteasome. Immunoproteasomes are constitutively expressed in immune cells and have different proteolytic activities compared with standard proteasomes. They are rapidly induced in parenchymal cells upon intracellular pathogen infection and are crucial for priming effective CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immune responses against infected cells. Beyond shaping these adaptive immune reactions, immunoproteasomes also regulate the function of immune cells by degradation of inflammatory and immune mediators. Accordingly, they emerge as novel regulators of innate immune responses. The recently unraveled impairment of immunoproteasome function by environmental challenges and by genetic variations of immunoproteasome genes might represent a currently underestimated risk factor for the development and progression of lung diseases. In particular, immunoproteasome dysfunction will dampen resolution of infections, thereby promoting exacerbations, may foster autoimmunity in chronic lung diseases, and possibly contributes to immune evasion of tumor cells. Novel pharmacological tools, such as site-specific inhibitors of the immunoproteasome, as well as activity-based probes, however, hold promises as innovative therapeutic drugs for respiratory diseases and biomarker profiling, respectively. PMID:27343191

  13. Proteasome function shapes innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kammerl, Ilona E; Meiners, Silke

    2016-08-01

    The proteasome system degrades more than 80% of intracellular proteins into small peptides. Accordingly, the proteasome is involved in many essential cellular functions, such as protein quality control, transcription, immune responses, cell signaling, and apoptosis. Moreover, degradation products are loaded onto major histocompatibility class I molecules to communicate the intracellular protein composition to the immune system. The standard 20S proteasome core complex contains three distinct catalytic active sites that are exchanged upon stimulation with inflammatory cytokines to form the so-called immunoproteasome. Immunoproteasomes are constitutively expressed in immune cells and have different proteolytic activities compared with standard proteasomes. They are rapidly induced in parenchymal cells upon intracellular pathogen infection and are crucial for priming effective CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immune responses against infected cells. Beyond shaping these adaptive immune reactions, immunoproteasomes also regulate the function of immune cells by degradation of inflammatory and immune mediators. Accordingly, they emerge as novel regulators of innate immune responses. The recently unraveled impairment of immunoproteasome function by environmental challenges and by genetic variations of immunoproteasome genes might represent a currently underestimated risk factor for the development and progression of lung diseases. In particular, immunoproteasome dysfunction will dampen resolution of infections, thereby promoting exacerbations, may foster autoimmunity in chronic lung diseases, and possibly contributes to immune evasion of tumor cells. Novel pharmacological tools, such as site-specific inhibitors of the immunoproteasome, as well as activity-based probes, however, hold promises as innovative therapeutic drugs for respiratory diseases and biomarker profiling, respectively.

  14. Mitochondria in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Samuel E; Sena, Laura A; Chandel, Navdeep S

    2015-03-17

    Mitochondria are well appreciated for their role as biosynthetic and bioenergetic organelles. In the past two decades, mitochondria have emerged as signaling organelles that contribute critical decisions about cell proliferation, death, and differentiation. Mitochondria not only sustain immune cell phenotypes but also are necessary for establishing immune cell phenotype and their function. Mitochondria can rapidly switch from primarily being catabolic organelles generating ATP to anabolic organelles that generate both ATP and building blocks for macromolecule synthesis. This enables them to fulfill appropriate metabolic demands of different immune cells. Mitochondria have multiple mechanisms that allow them to activate signaling pathways in the cytosol including altering in AMP/ATP ratio, the release of ROS and TCA cycle metabolites, as well as the localization of immune regulatory proteins on the outer mitochondrial membrane. In this Review, we discuss the evidence and mechanisms that mitochondrial dependent signaling controls innate and adaptive immune responses.

  15. Glassy Dynamics in the Adaptive Immune Response Prevents Autoimmune Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Earl, David J.; Deem, Michael W.

    2005-09-01

    The immune system normally protects the human host against death by infection. However, when an immune response is mistakenly directed at self-antigens, autoimmune disease can occur. We describe a model of protein evolution to simulate the dynamics of the adaptive immune response to antigens. Computer simulations of the dynamics of antibody evolution show that different evolutionary mechanisms, namely, gene segment swapping and point mutation, lead to different evolved antibody binding affinities. Although a combination of gene segment swapping and point mutation can yield a greater affinity to a specific antigen than point mutation alone, the antibodies so evolved are highly cross reactive and would cause autoimmune disease, and this is not the chosen dynamics of the immune system. We suggest that in the immune system’s search for antibodies, a balance has evolved between binding affinity and specificity.

  16. Metainflammation in Diabetic Coronary Artery Disease: Emerging Role of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Madhumitha, Haridoss

    2016-01-01

    Globally, noncommunicable chronic diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) are posing a major threat to the world. T2DM is known to potentiate CAD which had led to the coining of a new clinical entity named diabetic CAD (DM-CAD), leading to excessive morbidity and mortality. The synergistic interaction between these two comorbidities is through sterile inflammation which is now being addressed as metabolic inflammation or metainflammation, which plays a pivotal role during both early and late stages of T2DM and also serves as a link between T2DM and CAD. This review summarises the current concepts on the role played by both innate and adaptive immune responses in setting up metainflammation in DM-CAD. More specifically, the role played by innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD1-like receptors (NLRs), Rig-1-like receptors (RLRs), and C-type lectin like receptors (CLRs) and metabolic endotoxemia in fuelling metainflammation in DM-CAD would be discussed. Further, the role played by adaptive immune cells (Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th9 cells) in fuelling metainflammation in DM-CAD will also be discussed.

  17. Metainflammation in Diabetic Coronary Artery Disease: Emerging Role of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Madhumitha, Haridoss

    2016-01-01

    Globally, noncommunicable chronic diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) are posing a major threat to the world. T2DM is known to potentiate CAD which had led to the coining of a new clinical entity named diabetic CAD (DM-CAD), leading to excessive morbidity and mortality. The synergistic interaction between these two comorbidities is through sterile inflammation which is now being addressed as metabolic inflammation or metainflammation, which plays a pivotal role during both early and late stages of T2DM and also serves as a link between T2DM and CAD. This review summarises the current concepts on the role played by both innate and adaptive immune responses in setting up metainflammation in DM-CAD. More specifically, the role played by innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD1-like receptors (NLRs), Rig-1-like receptors (RLRs), and C-type lectin like receptors (CLRs) and metabolic endotoxemia in fuelling metainflammation in DM-CAD would be discussed. Further, the role played by adaptive immune cells (Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th9 cells) in fuelling metainflammation in DM-CAD will also be discussed. PMID:27610390

  18. Metainflammation in Diabetic Coronary Artery Disease: Emerging Role of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Aravindhan, Vivekanandhan; Madhumitha, Haridoss

    2016-01-01

    Globally, noncommunicable chronic diseases such as Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) are posing a major threat to the world. T2DM is known to potentiate CAD which had led to the coining of a new clinical entity named diabetic CAD (DM-CAD), leading to excessive morbidity and mortality. The synergistic interaction between these two comorbidities is through sterile inflammation which is now being addressed as metabolic inflammation or metainflammation, which plays a pivotal role during both early and late stages of T2DM and also serves as a link between T2DM and CAD. This review summarises the current concepts on the role played by both innate and adaptive immune responses in setting up metainflammation in DM-CAD. More specifically, the role played by innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD1-like receptors (NLRs), Rig-1-like receptors (RLRs), and C-type lectin like receptors (CLRs) and metabolic endotoxemia in fuelling metainflammation in DM-CAD would be discussed. Further, the role played by adaptive immune cells (Th1, Th2, Th17, and Th9 cells) in fuelling metainflammation in DM-CAD will also be discussed. PMID:27610390

  19. Long-term in vitro and in vivo effects of γ-irradiated BCG on innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Arts, Rob J W; Blok, Bastiaan A; Aaby, Peter; Joosten, Leo A B; de Jong, Dirk; van der Meer, Jos W M; Benn, Christine Stabell; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G

    2015-12-01

    BCG vaccination is associated with a reduced mortality from nonmycobacterial infections. This is likely to be mediated by a combination of innate-immune memory ("trained immunity") and heterologous effects on adaptive immunity. As such, BCG could be used to boost host immunity but not in immunocompromised hosts, as it is a live, attenuated vaccine. Therefore, we assessed whether killed γBCG has similar potentiating effects. In an in vitro model of trained immunity, human monocytes were incubated with γBCG for 24 h and restimulated after 6 d. Cytokine production and the role of pattern recognition receptors and histone methylation markers were assessed. The in vivo effects of γBCG vaccination were studied in a proof-of-principle trial in 15 healthy volunteers. γBCG induced trained immunity in vitro via the NOD2 receptor pathway and up-regulation of H3K4me3 histone methylation. However, these effects were less strong than those induced by live BCG. γBCG vaccination in volunteers had only minimal effects on innate immunity, whereas a significant increase in heterologous Th1/Th17 immunity was observed. Our results indicate that γBCG induces long-term training of innate immunity in vitro. In vivo, γBCG induces mainly heterologous effects on the adaptive-immune system, whereas effects on innate cytokine production are limited.

  20. Roles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Respiratory Mycoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Cartner, Samuel C.; Lindsey, J. Russell; Gibbs-Erwin, Julie; Cassell, Gail H.; Simecka, Jerry W.

    1998-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that host defense in respiratory mycoplasmosis is dependent on both innate and humoral immunity. To further delineate the roles of innate and adaptive immunity in antimycoplasmal defenses, we intranasally infected C3H/HeSnJ-scid/scid (C3H-SCID), C3H/HeSnJ (C3H), C57BL/6J-scid/scid (C57-SCID), and C57BL/6N (C57BL) mice with Mycoplasma pulmonis and at 14 and 21 days postinfection performed quantitative cultures of lungs and spleens, quantification of lung lesions, and histopathologic assessments of all other major organs. We found that numbers of mycoplasmas in lungs were associated with genetic background (C3H susceptible, C57BL resistant) rather than functional state of adaptive immunity, indicating that innate immunity is the main contributor to antimycoplasmal defense of the lungs. Extrapulmonary dissemination of mycoplasmas with colonization of spleens and histologic lesions in multiple organs was a common occurrence in all mice. The absence of adaptive immune responses in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice resulted in increased mycoplasmal colonization of spleens and lesions in extrapulmonary sites, particularly spleens, hearts, and joints, and also reduced lung lesion severity. The transfer of anti-M. pulmonis serum to infected C3H-SCID mice prevented extrapulmonary infection and disease, while the severity of lung lesions was restored by transfer of naive spleen cells to infected C3H-SCID mice. Collectively, our results strongly support the conclusions that innate immunity provides antimycoplasmal defense of the lungs and humoral immunity has the major role in defense against systemic dissemination of mycoplasmal infection, but cellular immune responses may be important in exacerbation of mycoplasmal lung disease. PMID:9673224

  1. Thrombopoietin receptor agonists: a new immune modulatory strategy in immune thrombocytopenia?

    PubMed

    Schifferli, Alexandra; Kühne, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In 2008, new drugs that mimic the effects of thrombopoietin became available for the treatment of primary immune thrombocytopenia, eg, romiplostim and eltrombopag. These drugs activate the thrombopoietin receptor, stimulate the production of megakaryocytes, and increase the production of platelets. Important clinical observation has been gained, such as unexpected long-term remission after stopping thrombopoietin receptor agonists. The pathophysiology of this unforeseen cure is currently the subject of discussion and is investigated in clinical trials and laboratory research projects. Here we evaluate the different hypotheses on how thrombopoietin receptor agonists can affect the immune system, particularly the induction of tolerance, and by which mechanisms this may be achieved. PMID:27312161

  2. An Adaptive Immune Genetic Algorithm for Edge Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Bai, Bendu; Zhang, Yanning

    An adaptive immune genetic algorithm (AIGA) based on cost minimization technique method for edge detection is proposed. The proposed AIGA recommends the use of adaptive probabilities of crossover, mutation and immune operation, and a geometric annealing schedule in immune operator to realize the twin goals of maintaining diversity in the population and sustaining the fast convergence rate in solving the complex problems such as edge detection. Furthermore, AIGA can effectively exploit some prior knowledge and information of the local edge structure in the edge image to make vaccines, which results in much better local search ability of AIGA than that of the canonical genetic algorithm. Experimental results on gray-scale images show the proposed algorithm perform well in terms of quality of the final edge image, rate of convergence and robustness to noise.

  3. Contrasting evolutionary patterns in Drosophila immune receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiggins, Francis M; Kim, Kang-Wook

    2006-12-01

    Vertebrate immune system molecules that bind directly to parasites are commonly subject to strong directional natural selection, probably because they are engaged in an evolutionary arms race with parasites. We have investigated whether similar patterns of evolution are seen in components of the Drosophila immune system that bind parasite-derived molecules. In insects, TEPs (thioester-containing proteins) function as opsonins, binding to parasites and promoting their phagocytosis or encapsulation. The Drosophila melanogaster genome encodes four TEPs, three of which are upregulated after an immune challenge. We report that two of these three Drosophila genes evolve rapidly under positive selection and that, in both TepI and TepII, the "bait-like region" (also known as the variable region) shows the strongest signature of positive selection. This region may be the site of proteolytic cleavage that leads to the activation of the molecule. It is possible that the proteolytic activation of TEPs is a target of host-parasite coevolution, with parasites evolving to prevent proteolysis, which in turn favors mutations in the bait-like region that restore the response. We also sequenced three gram-negative binding proteins (GNBPs) and two immune-induced peptides with strong homology to the GNBPs. In contrast to the Tep genes, the GNBP genes are highly conserved. We discuss the reasons why different components of the immune system have such different patterns of evolution.

  4. Multifaceted interactions between adaptive immunity and the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-08-19

    Neuroimmunologists seek to understand the interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system, both under homeostatic conditions and in diseases. Unanswered questions include those relating to the diversity and specificity of the meningeal T cell repertoire; the routes taken by immune cells that patrol the meninges under healthy conditions and invade the parenchyma during pathology; the opposing effects (beneficial or detrimental) of these cells on CNS function; the role of immune cells after CNS injury; and the evolutionary link between the two systems, resulting in their tight interaction and interdependence. This Review summarizes the current standing of and challenging questions related to interactions between adaptive immunity and the CNS and considers the possible directions in which these aspects of neuroimmunology will be heading over the next decade. PMID:27540163

  5. Generation of Individual Diversity: A Too Neglected Fundamental Property of Adaptive Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Muraille, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The fitness gains resulting from development of the adaptive immune system (AIS) during evolution are still the subject of hot debate. A large random repertoire of antigenic receptors is costly to develop and could be the source of autoimmune reactions. And yet, despite their drawbacks, AIS-like systems seem to have been independently acquired in several phyla of metazoans with very different anatomies, longevities, and lifestyles. This article is a speculative attempt to explore the selective pressures, which favored this striking convergent evolution. It is well known that the AIS enables an organism to produce a specific immune response against all natural or artificial antigenic structures. However, it is frequently neglected that this response is highly variable among individuals. In practice, each individual possesses a “private” adaptive immune repertoire. This individualization of immune defenses implies that invasion and escape immune mechanisms developed by pathogens will certainly not always be successful as the specific targets and organization of the immune response are somewhat unpredictable. In a population, where individuals display heterogeneous immune responses to infection, the probability that a pathogen is able to infect all individuals could be reduced compared to a homogeneous population. This suggests that the individual diversity of the immune repertoire is not a by-product of the AIS but of its fundamental properties and could be in part responsible for repeated selection and conservation of the AIS during metazoan evolution. The capacity of the AIS to improve the management of cooperative or parasitic symbiotic relationships at the individual level could be a secondary development due to its progressive integration into the innate immune system. This hypothesis constitutes a new scenario for AIS emergence and explains the selection of MHC restriction and MHC diversification. PMID:24860570

  6. Complement receptor immunoglobulin: a control point in infection and immunity, inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Small, Annabelle Grace; Al-Baghdadi, Marwah; Quach, Alex; Hii, Charles; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The B7 family-related protein, V-set and Ig domain (VSIG4) / Z39Ig / complement receptor immunoglobulin (CRIg), is a new player in the regulation of immunity to infection and inflammation. The unique features of this receptor as compared with classical complement receptors, CR3 and CR4, have heralded the emergence of new concepts in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. Its selective expression in tissue macrophages and dendritic cells has been considered of importance in host defence and in maintaining tolerance against self-antigens. Although a major receptor for phagocytosis of complement opsonised bacteria, its array of emerging functions which incorporates the immune suppressive and anti-inflammatory action of the receptor have now been realised. Accumulating evidence from mouse experimental models indicates a potential role for CRIg in protection against bacterial infection and inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus, and also in promotion of tumour growth. CRIg expression can be considered as a control point in these diseases, through which inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, act. The ability of CRIg to suppress cytotoxic T cell proliferation and function may underlie its promotion of cancer growth. Thus, the unique properties of this receptor open up new avenues for understanding of the pathways that regulate inflammation during infection, autoimmunity and cancer with the potential for new drug targets to be identified. While some complement receptors may be differently expressed in mice and humans, as well as displaying different properties, mouse CRIg has a structure and function similar to the human receptor, suggesting that extrapolation to human diseases is appropriate. Furthermore, there is emerging evidence in human conditions that CRIg may be a valuable biomarker in infection and immunity, inflammatory conditions and cancer prognosis. PMID:27045607

  7. The 3 major types of innate and adaptive cell-mediated effector immunity.

    PubMed

    Annunziato, Francesco; Romagnani, Chiara; Romagnani, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has tailored its effector functions to optimally respond to distinct species of microbes. Based on emerging knowledge on the different effector T-cell and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) lineages, it is clear that the innate and adaptive immune systems converge into 3 major kinds of cell-mediated effector immunity, which we propose to categorize as type 1, type 2, and type 3. Type 1 immunity consists of T-bet(+) IFN-γ-producing group 1 ILCs (ILC1 and natural killer cells), CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (TC1), and CD4(+) TH1 cells, which protect against intracellular microbes through activation of mononuclear phagocytes. Type 2 immunity consists of GATA-3(+) ILC2s, TC2 cells, and TH2 cells producing IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which induce mast cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation, as well as IgE antibody production, thus protecting against helminthes and venoms. Type 3 immunity is mediated by retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt(+) ILC3s, TC17 cells, and TH17 cells producing IL-17, IL-22, or both, which activate mononuclear phagocytes but also recruit neutrophils and induce epithelial antimicrobial responses, thus protecting against extracellular bacteria and fungi. On the other hand, type 1 and 3 immunity mediate autoimmune diseases, whereas type 2 responses can cause allergic diseases.

  8. Subversion of innate and adaptive immune activation induced by structurally modified lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Shibayama, Christian I; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Cervantes-Barragán, Luisa; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cunningham, Adam F; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A; Becker, Ingeborg; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Bonifaz, Laura; Gunn, John S; Isibasi, Armando; López-Macías, Constantino

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella are successful pathogens that infect millions of people every year. During infection, Salmonella typhimurium changes the structure of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in response to the host environment, rendering bacteria resistant to cationic peptide lysis in vitro. However, the role of these structural changes in LPS as in vivo virulence factors and their effects on immune responses and the generation of immunity are largely unknown. We report that modified LPS are less efficient than wild-type LPS at inducing pro-inflammatory responses. The impact of this LPS-mediated subversion of innate immune responses was demonstrated by increased mortality in mice infected with a non-lethal dose of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain mixed with the modified LPS moieties. Up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells and CD4(+) T-cell activation were affected by these modified LPS. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing specific antibody responses. Immunization with modified LPS moiety preparations combined with experimental antigens, induced an impaired Toll-like receptor 4-mediated adjuvant effect. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing immunity against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium. Hence, changes in S. typhimurium LPS structure impact not only on innate immune responses but also on both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses.

  9. Subversion of innate and adaptive immune activation induced by structurally modified lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Shibayama, Christian I; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Cervantes-Barragán, Luisa; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cunningham, Adam F; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A; Becker, Ingeborg; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Bonifaz, Laura; Gunn, John S; Isibasi, Armando; López-Macías, Constantino

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella are successful pathogens that infect millions of people every year. During infection, Salmonella typhimurium changes the structure of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in response to the host environment, rendering bacteria resistant to cationic peptide lysis in vitro. However, the role of these structural changes in LPS as in vivo virulence factors and their effects on immune responses and the generation of immunity are largely unknown. We report that modified LPS are less efficient than wild-type LPS at inducing pro-inflammatory responses. The impact of this LPS-mediated subversion of innate immune responses was demonstrated by increased mortality in mice infected with a non-lethal dose of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain mixed with the modified LPS moieties. Up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells and CD4+ T-cell activation were affected by these modified LPS. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing specific antibody responses. Immunization with modified LPS moiety preparations combined with experimental antigens, induced an impaired Toll-like receptor 4-mediated adjuvant effect. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing immunity against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium. Hence, changes in S. typhimurium LPS structure impact not only on innate immune responses but also on both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. PMID:21631497

  10. The potential for Toll-like receptors to collaborate with other innate immune receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhankar; Herre, Jurgen; Brown, Gordon D; Gordon, Siamon

    2004-01-01

    Cells of the innate immune system express a large repertoire of germ-line encoded cell-surface glycoprotein receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs recognize conserved motifs on microbes and induce inflammatory signals. Evidence suggests that individual members of the TLR family or other non-TLR surface antigens either physically or functionally interact with each other and cumulative effects of these interactions instruct the nature and outcome of the immune response to a particular pathogen. PMID:15270722

  11. Immunity comes first: the effect of parasite genotypes on adaptive immunity and immunization in three-spined sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Haase, David; Rieger, Jennifer K; Witten, Anika; Stoll, Monika; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kalbe, Martin; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive immunity in vertebrates can confer increased resistance against invading pathogens upon re-infection. But how specific parasite genotypes affect the temporal transition from innate to adaptive immunity under continual exposure to parasites is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of homologous and heterologous exposures of genetically distinct parasite lineages of the eye fluke Diplostomum pseudospathaceum on gene expression patterns of adaptive immunity in sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Observable differences in gene expression were largely attributable to final exposures while there was no transcription pattern characteristic for a general response to repeated infections with D. pseudospathaceum. None of the final exposure treatments was able to erase the distinct expression patterns resulting from a heterologous pre-exposed fish. Interestingly, heterologous final exposures showed similarities between different treatment groups subjected to homologous pre-exposure. The observed pattern was supported by parasite infection rates and suggests that host immunization was optimized towards an adaptive immune response that favored effectiveness against parasite diversity over specificity.

  12. Genome complexity in the coelacanth is reflected in its adaptive immune system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saha, Nil Ratan; Ota, Tatsuya; Litman, Gary W.; Hansen, John; Parra, Zuly; Hsu, Ellen; Buonocore, Francesco; Canapa, Adriana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed the available genome and transcriptome resources from the coelacanth in order to characterize genes involved in adaptive immunity. Two highly distinctive IgW-encoding loci have been identified that exhibit a unique genomic organization, including a multiplicity of tandemly repeated constant region exons. The overall organization of the IgW loci precludes typical heavy chain class switching. A locus encoding IgM could not be identified either computationally or by using several different experimental strategies. Four distinct sets of genes encoding Ig light chains were identified. This includes a variant sigma-type Ig light chain previously identified only in cartilaginous fishes and which is now provisionally denoted sigma-2. Genes encoding α/β and γ/δ T-cell receptors, and CD3, CD4, and CD8 co-receptors also were characterized. Ig heavy chain variable region genes and TCR components are interspersed within the TCR α/δ locus; this organization previously was reported only in tetrapods and raises questions regarding evolution and functional cooption of genes encoding variable regions. The composition, organization and syntenic conservation of the major histocompatibility complex locus have been characterized. We also identified large numbers of genes encoding cytokines and their receptors, and other genes associated with adaptive immunity. In terms of sequence identity and organization, the adaptive immune genes of the coelacanth more closely resemble orthologous genes in tetrapods than those in teleost fishes, consistent with current phylogenomic interpretations. Overall, the work reported described herein highlights the complexity inherent in the coelacanth genome and provides a rich catalog of immune genes for future investigations.

  13. Genome complexity in the coelacanth is reflected in its adaptive immune system.

    PubMed

    Saha, Nil Ratan; Ota, Tatsuya; Litman, Gary W; Hansen, John; Parra, Zuly; Hsu, Ellen; Buonocore, Francesco; Canapa, Adriana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Amemiya, Chris T

    2014-09-01

    We have analyzed the available genome and transcriptome resources from the coelacanth in order to characterize genes involved in adaptive immunity. Two highly distinctive IgW-encoding loci have been identified that exhibit a unique genomic organization, including a multiplicity of tandemly repeated constant region exons. The overall organization of the IgW loci precludes typical heavy chain class switching. A locus encoding IgM could not be identified either computationally or by using several different experimental strategies. Four distinct sets of genes encoding Ig light chains were identified. This includes a variant sigma-type Ig light chain previously identified only in cartilaginous fishes and which is now provisionally denoted sigma-2. Genes encoding α/β and γ/δ T-cell receptors, and CD3, CD4, and CD8 co-receptors also were characterized. Ig heavy chain variable region genes and TCR components are interspersed within the TCR α/δ locus; this organization previously was reported only in tetrapods and raises questions regarding evolution and functional cooption of genes encoding variable regions. The composition, organization and syntenic conservation of the major histocompatibility complex locus have been characterized. We also identified large numbers of genes encoding cytokines and their receptors, and other genes associated with adaptive immunity. In terms of sequence identity and organization, the adaptive immune genes of the coelacanth more closely resemble orthologous genes in tetrapods than those in teleost fishes, consistent with current phylogenomic interpretations. Overall, the work reported described herein highlights the complexity inherent in the coelacanth genome and provides a rich catalog of immune genes for future investigations.

  14. Genome complexity in the coelacanth is reflected in its adaptive immune system

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Tatsuya; Litman, Gary W.; Hansen, John; Parra, Zuly; Hsu, Ellen; Buonocore, Francesco; Canapa, Adriana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Amemiya, Chris T.

    2014-01-01

    We have analyzed the available genome and transcriptome resources from the coelacanth in order to characterize genes involved in adaptive immunity. Two highly distinctive IgW-encoding loci have been identified that exhibit a unique genomic organization, including a multiplicity of tandemly repeated constant region exons. The overall organization of the IgW loci precludes typical heavy chain class switching. A locus encoding IgM could not be identified either computationally or by using several different experimental strategies. Four distinct sets of genes encoding Ig light chains were identified. This includes a variant sigma-type Ig light chain previously identified only in cartilaginous fishes and which is now provisionally denoted sigma-2. Genes encoding α/β and γ/δ T-cell receptors, and CD3, CD4 and CD8 co-receptors also were characterized. Ig heavy chain variable region genes and TCR components are interspersed within the TCR α/δ locus; this organization previously was reported only in tetrapods and raises questions regarding evolution and functional cooption of genes encoding variable regions. The composition, organization and syntenic conservation of the major histocompatibility complex locus have been characterized. We also identified large numbers of genes encoding cytokines and their receptors, and other genes associated with adaptive immunity. In terms of sequence identity and organization, the adaptive immune genes of the coelacanth more closely resemble orthologous genes in tetrapods than those in teleost fishes, consistent with current phylogenomic interpretations. Overall, the work reported described herein highlights the complexity inherent in the coelacanth genome and provides a rich catalog of immune genes for future investigations. PMID:24464682

  15. Epithelium: At the interface of innate and adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Schleimer, Robert P.; Kato, Atsushi; Kern, Robert; Kuperman, Douglas; Avila, Pedro C.

    2009-01-01

    Several diseases of the airways have a strong component of allergic inflammation in their cause, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, polypoid chronic rhinosinusitis, eosinophilic bronchitis, and others. Although the roles played by antigens and pathogens vary, these diseases have in common a pathology that includes marked activation of epithelial cells in the upper airways, the lower airways, or both. Substantial new evidence indicates an important role of epithelial cells as both mediators and regulators of innate immune responses and adaptive immune responses, as well as the transition from innate immunity to adaptive immunity. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies that bear on the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which epithelial cells help to shape the responses of dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells and inflammatory cell recruitment in the context of human disease. Evidence will be discussed that suggests that secreted products of epithelial cells and molecules expressed on their cell surfaces can profoundly influence both immunity and inflammation in the airways. PMID:17949801

  16. Adaptive resistance: A tumor strategy to evade immune attack

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Sheng; Chen, Lieping

    2014-01-01

    A dilemma in cancer immunology is that, although patients often develop active anti-tumor immune responses, the tumor still outgrows. It has become clear that under the pressure of the host’s immune system, cancer cells have adapted elaborate tactics to reduce their immunogenicity (also known as immunoselection) and/or to actively suppress immune cells and promote immune tolerance (also known as immunosubversion). In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Dolen and Esendagli [Eur. J. Immunol. 2013. 43: 747–757] show that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells develop an adaptive immune phenotype switching mechanism: In response to attack by activated T cells, the leukemia cells quickly downregulate the T-cell costimulatory ligand B7-H2 and reciprocally upregulate the coinhibitory ligands B7-H1 and B7-DC in order to shut down T-cell activation via the PD-1 pathway. These novel findings and their relevance for cancer immunotherapy, especially potential applications in PD-1 check-point blockade therapy are discussed in this Commentary. PMID:23381914

  17. Control of commensal microbiota by the adaptive immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Husen; Luo, Xin M

    2015-01-01

    The symbiotic relationship between the mammalian host and gut microbes has fascinated many researchers in recent years. Use of germ-free animals has contributed to our understanding of how commensal microbes affect the host. Immunodeficiency animals lacking specific components of the mammalian immune system, on the other hand, enable studying of the reciprocal function-how the host controls which microbes to allow for symbiosis. Here we review the recent advances and discuss our perspectives of how to better understand the latter, with an emphasis on the effects of adaptive immunity on the composition and diversity of gut commensal bacteria. PMID:25901893

  18. Links between innate and adaptive immunity via type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Le Bon, Agnes; Tough, David F

    2002-08-01

    Type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) is expressed rapidly following exposure to a wide variety of infectious agents and plays a key role in innate control of virus replication. Recent studies have demonstrated that dendritic cells both produce IFN-alpha/beta and undergo maturation in response to IFN-alpha/beta. Moreover, IFN-alpha/beta has been shown to potently enhance immune responses in vivo through the stimulation of dendritic cells. These findings indicate that IFN-alpha/beta serves as a signal linking innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:12088676

  19. Toll-like Receptor 3, RIG-I-like Receptors and the NLRP3 Inflammasome: Key Modulators of Innate Immune Responses to Double-stranded RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Man; Levine, Stewart J.

    2011-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), the genetic material for many RNA viruses, induces robust host immune responses via pattern recognition receptors, which include Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs) and the multi-protein NLRP3 inflammasome complex. The engagement of dsRNA receptors or inflammasome activation by viral dsRNA initiates complex intracellular signaling cascades that play essential roles in inflammation and innate immune responses, as well as the resultant development of adaptive immunity. This review focuses on signaling pathways mediated by TLR3, RLRs and the NLRP3 inflammasome, as well as the potential use of agonists and antagonists that target these pathways to treat disease. PMID:21466970

  20. Control of the Adaptive Immune Response by Tumor Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Mauge, Laetitia; Terme, Magali; Tartour, Eric; Helley, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The endothelium is nowadays described as an entire organ that regulates various processes: vascular tone, coagulation, inflammation, and immune cell trafficking, depending on the vascular site and its specific microenvironment as well as on endothelial cell-intrinsic mechanisms like epigenetic changes. In this review, we will focus on the control of the adaptive immune response by the tumor vasculature. In physiological conditions, the endothelium acts as a barrier regulating cell trafficking by specific expression of adhesion molecules enabling adhesion of immune cells on the vessel, and subsequent extravasation. This process is also dependent on chemokine and integrin expression, and on the type of junctions defining the permeability of the endothelium. Endothelial cells can also regulate immune cell activation. In fact, the endothelial layer can constitute immunological synapses due to its close interactions with immune cells, and the delivery of co-stimulatory or co-inhibitory signals. In tumor conditions, the vasculature is characterized by an abnormal vessel structure and permeability, and by a specific phenotype of endothelial cells. All these abnormalities lead to a modulation of intra-tumoral immune responses and contribute to the development of intra-tumoral immunosuppression, which is a major mechanism for promoting the development, progression, and treatment resistance of tumors. The in-depth analysis of these various abnormalities will help defining novel targets for the development of anti-tumoral treatments. Furthermore, eventual changes of the endothelial cell phenotype identified by plasma biomarkers could secondarily be selected to monitor treatment efficacy. PMID:24734218

  1. Constraint and Adaptation in newt Toll-Like Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Babik, Wiesław; Dudek, Katarzyna; Fijarczyk, Anna; Pabijan, Maciej; Stuglik, Michał; Szkotak, Rafał; Zieliński, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Acute die-offs of amphibian populations worldwide have been linked to the emergence of viral and fungal diseases. Inter and intraspecific immunogenetic differences may influence the outcome of infection. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an essential component of innate immunity and also prime acquired defenses. We report the first comprehensive assessment of TLR gene variation for urodele amphibians. The Lissotriton newt TLR repertoire includes representatives of 13 families and is compositionally most similar to that of the anuran Xenopus. Both ancient and recent gene duplications have occurred in urodeles, bringing the total number of TLR genes to at least 21. Purifying selection has predominated the evolution of newt TLRs in both long (∼70 Ma) and medium (∼18 Ma) timescales. However, we find evidence for both purifying and positive selection acting on TLRs in two recently diverged (2–5 Ma) allopatric evolutionary lineages (Lissotriton montandoni and L. vulgaris graecus). Overall, both forms of selection have been stronger in L. v. graecus, while constraint on most TLR genes in L. montandoni appears relaxed. The differences in selection regimes are unlikely to be biased by demographic effects because these were controlled by means of a historical demographic model derived from an independent data set of 62 loci. We infer that TLR genes undergo distinct trajectories of adaptive evolution in closely related amphibian lineages, highlight the potential of TLRs to capture the signatures of different assemblages of pathogenic microorganisms, and suggest differences between lineages in the relative roles of innate and acquired immunity. PMID:25480684

  2. NOD-Like Receptors in Infection, Immunity, and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Keun; Shin, Jeon-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors similar to toll-like receptors (TLRs). While TLRs are transmembrane receptors, NLRs are cytoplasmic receptors that play a crucial role in the innate immune response by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Based on their N-terminal domain, NLRs are divided into four subfamilies: NLRA, NLRB, NLRC, and NLRP. NLRs can also be divided into four broad functional categories: inflammasome assembly, signaling transduction, transcription activation, and autophagy. In addition to recognizing PAMPs and DAMPs, NLRs act as a key regulator of apoptosis and early development. Therefore, there are significant associations between NLRs and various diseases related to infection and immunity. NLR studies have recently begun to unveil the roles of NLRs in diseases such as gout, cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes, and Crohn's disease. As these new associations between NRLs and diseases may improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis and lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of such diseases, NLRs are becoming increasingly relevant to clinicians. In this review, we provide a concise overview of NLRs and their role in infection, immunity, and disease, particularly from clinical perspectives. PMID:26632377

  3. Immune Adjuvant Effect of Molecularly-defined Toll-Like Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Toussi, Deana N.; Massari, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine efficacy is optimized by addition of immune adjuvants. However, although adjuvants have been used for over a century, to date, only few adjuvants are approved for human use, mostly aimed at improving vaccine efficacy and antigen-specific protective antibody production. The mechanism of action of immune adjuvants is diverse, depending on their chemical and molecular nature, ranging from non-specific effects (i.e., antigen depot at the immunization site) to specific activation of immune cells leading to improved host innate and adaptive responses. Although the detailed molecular mechanism of action of many adjuvants is still elusive, the discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) has provided new critical information on immunostimulatory effect of numerous bacterial components that engage TLRs. These ligands have been shown to improve both the quality and the quantity of host adaptive immune responses when used in vaccine formulations targeted to infectious diseases and cancer that require both humoral and cell-mediated immunity. The potential of such TLR adjuvants in improving the design and the outcomes of several vaccines is continuously evolving, as new agonists are discovered and tested in experimental and clinical models of vaccination. In this review, a summary of the recent progress in development of TLR adjuvants is presented. PMID:26344622

  4. Maternal adaptive immunity influences the intestinal microflora of suckling mice.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Rosa L; Hoang, Lisa; Wang, Jiafang; Vela, Jose L; Jenkins, Shannon; Aranda, Richard; Martín, Martín G

    2004-09-01

    The microflorae in the intestine of breast-fed infants are distinct from those that typically populate the intestine of formula-fed infants. Although the acquisition of passive immunity through breast-feeding may play a critical role in influencing the pattern of bacterial colonization of the gut, the precise mechanisms underlying the differences in the commensal microflorae of breast and formula-fed children have not been established. We hypothesized that the assemblage of commensal microflorae in suckling and weaned mice may be influenced by the maternal adaptive immune system. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the intestinal microflorae of mice reared in the presence (wild-type) or absence of an intact maternal immune system (T- and B-cell deficient). Several types of bacteria (Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Clostridium perfringens, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides) were isolated and enumerated from both the small and large intestine of 10-, 18-, 25- and 40- to 60-d old mice using selective media. The densities of bacteria were significantly lower in the small intestine of weaned mice that were reared by wild-type (WT) compared with immunodeficient (ID) dams. However, the microflorae were generally more abundant in the large intestine of suckling pups reared by WT compared with ID dams. Our results indicate that intestinal microflorae change throughout the suckling phase of development and that the maternal adaptive immune system influences the pattern and abundance of bacteria within the gut in an age- and site-specific manner.

  5. Evaluation of the Adaptive Immune Response to Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    PubMed

    Knudson, Cory J; Weiss, Kayla A; Stoley, Megan E; Varga, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the adaptive immune response is critical to the advancement of our basic knowledge and understanding of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The cellular composition in the lung following RSV infection is often evaluated using flow cytometry. However, a limitation of this approach has been the inability to readily distinguish cells that are within the lung parenchyma from cells that remain in the pulmonary blood vessels. Herein, we detail a procedure to evaluate the adaptive immune response via flow cytometric analysis that incorporates an in vivo intravascular staining technique. This technique allows for discrimination of immune cells in the lung tissue from cells that remain in the pulmonary vasculature following perfusion. Therefore at any given time point following an RSV infection, the leukocytic populations in the lung parenchyma can be quantified and phenotypically assessed with high resolution. While we focus on the T lymphocyte response in the lung, this technique can be readily adapted to examine various leukocytic cell types in the lung following RSV infection. PMID:27464699

  6. Chemotherapy-induced antitumor immunity requires formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Ma, Yuting; Baracco, Elisa E; Sistigu, Antonella; Enot, David P; Pietrocola, Federico; Yang, Heng; Adjemian, Sandy; Chaba, Kariman; Semeraro, Michaela; Signore, Michele; De Ninno, Adele; Lucarini, Valeria; Peschiaroli, Francesca; Businaro, Luca; Gerardino, Annamaria; Manic, Gwenola; Ulas, Thomas; Günther, Patrick; Schultze, Joachim L; Kepp, Oliver; Stoll, Gautier; Lefebvre, Céline; Mulot, Claire; Castoldi, Francesca; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Ladoire, Sylvain; Apetoh, Lionel; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Lucattelli, Monica; Delarasse, Cécile; Boige, Valérie; Ducreux, Michel; Delaloge, Suzette; Borg, Christophe; André, Fabrice; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Vitale, Ilio; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-11-20

    Antitumor immunity driven by intratumoral dendritic cells contributes to the efficacy of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in cancer. We identified a loss-of-function allele of the gene coding for formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) that was associated with poor metastasis-free and overall survival in breast and colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The therapeutic effects of anthracyclines were abrogated in tumor-bearing Fpr1(-/-) mice due to impaired antitumor immunity. Fpr1-deficient dendritic cells failed to approach dying cancer cells and, as a result, could not elicit antitumor T cell immunity. Experiments performed in a microfluidic device confirmed that FPR1 and its ligand, annexin-1, promoted stable interactions between dying cancer cells and human or murine leukocytes. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of FPR1 in chemotherapy-induced anticancer immune responses. PMID:26516201

  7. Glassy Dynamics in the Adaptive Immune Response Prevents Autoimmune Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun; Deem, Michael

    2006-03-01

    The immune system normally protects the human host against death by infection. However, when an immune response is mistakenly directed at self antigens, autoimmune disease can occur. We describe a model of protein evolution to simulate the dynamics of the adaptive immune response to antigens. Computer simulations of the dynamics of antibody evolution show that different evolutionary mechanisms, namely gene segment swapping and point mutation, lead to different evolved antibody binding affinities. Although a combination of gene segment swapping and point mutation can yield a greater affinity to a specific antigen than point mutation alone, the antibodies so evolved are highly cross-reactive and would cause autoimmune disease, and this is not the chosen dynamics of the immune system. We suggest that in the immune system a balance has evolved between binding affinity and specificity in the mechanism for searching the amino acid sequence space of antibodies. Our model predicts that chronic infection may lead to autoimmune disease as well due to cross-reactivity and suggests a broad distribution for the time of onset of autoimmune disease due to chronic exposure. The slow search of antibody sequence space by point mutation leads to the broad of distribution times.

  8. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor: Linking environment to immunity.

    PubMed

    Cella, Marina; Colonna, Marco

    2015-09-01

    Mucosal and barrier tissues are unique in that they mediate crosstalk between the host and the surrounding environment, which contains many potentially harmful factors. Therefore, it is critical that cell types present at barrier and mucosal surfaces are equipped with mechanisms to sense changes in the environment and to calibrate their responses accordingly. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) is a ligand dependent transcription factor well known to generate biological responses to environmental pollutants, such as benzo{a}pyrene and halogenated dioxins. Surprisingly, in the last few years a large body of evidence has shown that AHR is also involved in maintaining homeostasis or in triggering pathology by modulating the biological responses of critical cell types at the barrier and mucosal interfaces. Here, we will review progresses in this field and discuss how targeting AHR activation may impact disease.

  9. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor: linking environment to immunity

    PubMed Central

    Cella, Marina; Colonna, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal and barrier tissues are unique in that they mediate crosstalk between the host and the surrounding environment, which contains many potentially harmful factors. Therefore, it is critical that cell types present at barrier and mucosal surfaces are equipped with mechanisms to sense changes in the environment and to calibrate their responses accordingly. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) is a ligand dependent transcription factor well known to generate biological responses to environmental pollutants, such as benzo{a}pyrene and halogenated dioxins. Surprisingly, in the last few years a large body of evidence has shown that AHR is also involved in maintaining homeostasis or in triggering pathology by modulating the biological responses of critical cell types at the barrier and mucosal interfaces. Here, we will review progresses in this field and discuss how targeting AHR activation may impact disease. PMID:26561251

  10. Quantitative proteomics and terminomics to elucidate the role of ubiquitination and proteolysis in adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Theo; Viner, Rosa I.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive immunity is the specialized defence mechanism in vertebrates that evolved to eliminate pathogens. Specialized lymphocytes recognize specific protein epitopes through antigen receptors to mount potent immune responses, many of which are initiated by nuclear factor-kappa B activation and gene transcription. Most, if not all, pathways in adaptive immunity are further regulated by post-translational modification (PTM) of signalling proteins, e.g. phosphorylation, citrullination, ubiquitination and proteolytic processing. The importance of PTMs is reflected by genetic or acquired defects in these pathways that lead to a dysfunctional immune response. Here we discuss the state of the art in targeted proteomics and systems biology approaches to dissect the PTM landscape specifically regarding ubiquitination and proteolysis in B- and T-cell activation. Recent advances have occurred in methods for specific enrichment and targeted quantitation. Together with improved instrument sensitivity, these advances enable the accurate analysis of often rare PTM events that are opaque to conventional proteomics approaches, now rendering in-depth analysis and pathway dissection possible. We discuss published approaches, including as a case study the profiling of the N-terminome of lymphocytes of a rare patient with a genetic defect in the paracaspase protease MALT1, a key regulator protease in antigen-driven signalling, which was manifested by elevated linear ubiquitination. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644975

  11. Quantitative proteomics and terminomics to elucidate the role of ubiquitination and proteolysis in adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Klein, Theo; Viner, Rosa I; Overall, Christopher M

    2016-10-28

    Adaptive immunity is the specialized defence mechanism in vertebrates that evolved to eliminate pathogens. Specialized lymphocytes recognize specific protein epitopes through antigen receptors to mount potent immune responses, many of which are initiated by nuclear factor-kappa B activation and gene transcription. Most, if not all, pathways in adaptive immunity are further regulated by post-translational modification (PTM) of signalling proteins, e.g. phosphorylation, citrullination, ubiquitination and proteolytic processing. The importance of PTMs is reflected by genetic or acquired defects in these pathways that lead to a dysfunctional immune response. Here we discuss the state of the art in targeted proteomics and systems biology approaches to dissect the PTM landscape specifically regarding ubiquitination and proteolysis in B- and T-cell activation. Recent advances have occurred in methods for specific enrichment and targeted quantitation. Together with improved instrument sensitivity, these advances enable the accurate analysis of often rare PTM events that are opaque to conventional proteomics approaches, now rendering in-depth analysis and pathway dissection possible. We discuss published approaches, including as a case study the profiling of the N-terminome of lymphocytes of a rare patient with a genetic defect in the paracaspase protease MALT1, a key regulator protease in antigen-driven signalling, which was manifested by elevated linear ubiquitination.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. PMID:27644975

  12. Chemokine Receptor Expression on Normal Blood CD56+ NK-Cells Elucidates Cell Partners That Comigrate during the Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses and Identifies a Transitional NK-Cell Population

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Margarida; Leander, Magdalena; Santos, Marlene; Santos, Ana Helena; Lau, Catarina; Queirós, Maria Luís; Gonçalves, Marta; Fonseca, Sónia; Moura, João; Teixeira, Maria dos Anjos; Orfao, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Studies of chemokine receptors (CKR) in natural killer- (NK-) cells have already been published, but only a few gave detailed information on its differential expression on blood NK-cell subsets. We report on the expression of the inflammatory and homeostatic CKR on normal blood CD56+low CD16+ and CD56+high  CD16−/+low NK-cells. Conventional CD56+low and CD56+high NK-cells present in the normal PB do express CKR for inflammatory cytokines, although with different patterns CD56+low NK-cells are mainly CXCR1/CXCR2+ and CXCR3/CCR5−/+, whereas mostly CD56+high NK-cells are CXCR1/CXCR2− and CXCR3/CCR5+. Both NK-cell subsets have variable CXCR4 expression and are CCR4− and CCR6−. The CKR repertoire of the CD56+low NK-cells approaches to that of neutrophils, whereas the CKR repertoire of the CD56+high NK-cells mimics that of Th1+ T cells, suggesting that these cells are prepared to migrate into inflamed tissues at different phases of the immune response. In addition, we describe a subpopulation of NK-cells with intermediate levels of CD56 expression, which we named CD56+int NK-cells. These NK-cells are CXCR3/CCR5+, they have intermediate levels of expression of CD16, CD62L, CD94, and CD122, and they are CD57− and CD158a−. In view of their phenotypic features, we hypothesize that they correspond to a transitional stage, between the well-known CD56+high and CD56+low NK-cells populations. PMID:26543875

  13. Role of Adaptive Immunity in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Albano, Emanuele

    2012-01-01

    Stimulation of innate immunity is increasingly recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), while the contribution of adaptive immunity has received less attention. Clinical and experimental data show the involvement of Th-1 and Th-17 T-lymphocytes in alcoholic hepatitis. Nonetheless, the mechanisms by which alcohol triggers adaptive immunity are still incompletely characterized. Patients with advanced ALD have circulating IgG and T-lymphocytes recognizing epitopes derived from protein modification by hydroxyethyl free radicals and end products of lipid-peroxidation. High titers of IgG against lipid peroxidation-derived antigens are associated with an increased hepatic production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Moreover, the same antigens favor the breaking of self-tolerance towards liver constituents. In particular, autoantibodies against cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) are evident in a subset of ALD patients. Altogether these results suggest that allo- and autoimmune reactions triggered by oxidative stress might contribute to hepatic inflammation during the progression of ALD. PMID:22229098

  14. Polyreactive antibodies in adaptive immune responses to viruses.

    PubMed

    Mouquet, Hugo; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2012-05-01

    B cells express immunoglobulins on their surface where they serve as antigen receptors. When secreted as antibodies, the same molecules are key elements of the humoral immune response against pathogens such as viruses. Although most antibodies are restricted to binding a specific antigen, some are polyreactive and have the ability to bind to several different ligands, usually with low affinity. Highly polyreactive antibodies are removed from the repertoire during B-cell development by physiologic tolerance mechanisms including deletion and receptor editing. However, a low level of antibody polyreactivity is tolerated and can confer additional binding properties to pathogen-specific antibodies. For example, high-affinity human antibodies to HIV are frequently polyreactive. Here we review the evidence suggesting that in the case of some pathogens like HIV, polyreactivity may confer a selective advantage to pathogen-specific antibodies.

  15. Ly49 receptors: evolution, genetic diversity, and impact on immunity.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Mir Munir A; Makrigiannis, Andrew P

    2015-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells express cell surface receptors that recognize class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) molecules to distinguish between healthy and unhealthy cells. The multigenic and polymorphic nature of the MHC-I genes has influenced the convergent evolution of similarly polymorphic and diversified NK cell receptor families: the C-type lectin-like Ly49 receptors in mice, and the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) in humans. Although structurally distinct, both receptor families have similar functions in terms of MHC-I recognition and downstream signal transduction, and they regulate multiple aspects of NK cell biology during development and after maturation as fully differentiated and functionally competent cells. The Ly49 gene locus has undergone rapid, lineage-specific expansions and contractions resulting in multiple distinct haplotypes of variable gene number, allelic diversity, and MHC-I ligand specificity. This in turn has influenced the type and degree of Ly49 receptor expression on NK cells, and their contribution to immunity in different mouse strains. In this review, we have attempted to describe the evolutionary processes that have shaped strain-specific Ly49 receptor repertoires, and their impact on NK cell functions during health and disease.

  16. NOD-like receptor cooperativity in effector-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Griebel, Thomas; Maekawa, Takaki; Parker, Jane E

    2014-11-01

    Intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are basic elements of innate immunity in plants and animals. Whereas animal NLRs react to conserved microbe- or damage-associated molecular patterns, plant NLRs intercept the actions of diverse pathogen virulence factors (effectors). In this review, we discuss recent genetic and molecular evidence for functional NLR pairs, and discuss the significance of NLR self-association and heteromeric NLR assemblies in the triggering of downstream signaling pathways. We highlight the versatility and impact of cooperating NLR pairs that combine pathogen sensing with the initiation of defense signaling in both plant and animal immunity. We propose that different NLR receptor molecular configurations provide opportunities for fine-tuning resistance pathways and enhancing the host's pathogen recognition spectrum to keep pace with rapidly evolving microbial populations.

  17. Apical Organelle Secretion by Toxoplasma Controls Innate and Adaptive Immunity and Mediates Long-Term Protection.

    PubMed

    Sloves, Pierre-Julien; Mouveaux, Thomas; Ait-Yahia, Saliha; Vorng, Han; Everaere, Laetitia; Sangare, Lamba Omar; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Tomavo, Stanislas

    2015-11-01

    Apicomplexan parasites have unique apical rhoptry and microneme secretory organelles that are crucial for host infection, although their role in protection against Toxoplasma gondii infection is not thoroughly understood. Here, we report a novel function of the endolysosomal T. gondii sortilin-like receptor (TgSORTLR), which mediates trafficking to functional apical organelles and their subsequent secretion of virulence factors that are critical to the induction of sterile immunity against parasite reinfection. We further demonstrate that the T. gondii armadillo repeats-only protein (TgARO) mutant, which is deficient only in apical secretion of rhoptries, is also critical in mounting protective immunity. The lack of TgSORTLR and TgARO proteins completely inhibited T-helper 1-dependent adaptive immunity and compromised the function of natural killer T-cell-mediated innate immunity. Our findings reveal an essential role for apical secretion in promoting sterile protection against T. gondii and provide strong evidence for rhoptry-regulated discharge of antigens as a key effector for inducing protective immunity.

  18. Adiponectin Receptor Signaling on Dendritic Cells Blunts Antitumor Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Peng H.; Tyrrell, Helen E.J.; Gao, Liquan; Xu, Danmei; Quan, Jianchao; Gill, Dipender; Rai, Lena; Ding, Yunchuan; Plant, Gareth; Chen, Yuan; Xue, John Z.; Handa, Ashok I.; Greenall, Michael J.; Walsh, Kenneth; Xue, Shao-An

    2015-01-01

    Immune escape is a fundamental trait of cancer. Dendritic cells (DC) that interact with T cells represent a crucial site for the development of tolerance to tumor antigens, but there remains incomplete knowledge about how DC-tolerizing signals evolve during tumorigenesis. In this study, we show that DCs isolated from patients with metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer express high levels of the adiponectin receptors AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which are sufficient to blunt antitumor immunity. Mechanistic investigations of ligand–receptor interactions on DCs revealed novel signaling pathways for each receptor. AdipoR1 stimulated IL10 production by activating the AMPK and MAPKp38 pathways, whereas AdipoR2 modified inflammatory processes by activating the COX-2 and PPARγ pathways. Stimulation of these pathways was sufficient to block activation of NF-κB in DC, thereby attenuating their ability to stimulate antigen-specific T-cell responses. Together, our findings reveal novel insights into how DC-tolerizing signals evolve in cancer to promote immune escape. Furthermore, by defining a critical role for adiponectin signaling in this process, our work suggests new and broadly applicable strategies for immunometabolic therapy in patients with cancer. PMID:25261236

  19. Hepatitis C virus evasion of adaptive immune responses: a model for viral persistence.

    PubMed

    Burke, Kelly P; Cox, Andrea L

    2010-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects over 170 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Approximately 20% [corrected] of those acutely infected clear the infection, whereas the remaining 80% [corrected] progress to chronic infection. Hepatitis C thus provides a model in which successful and unsuccessful responses can be compared to better understand the human response to viral infection. Our laboratory studies the strategies by which HCV evades the adaptive immune response. This review describes the impact of viral mutation on T cell recognition, the role of cell surface inhibitory receptors in recognition of HCV, and the development of antibodies that neutralize HCV infection. Understanding what constitutes an effective immune response in the control of HCV may enable the development of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for HCV and other chronic viral infections.

  20. Editing at the crossroad of innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Turelli, Priscilla; Trono, Didier

    2005-02-18

    Genetic information can be altered through the enzymatic modification of nucleotide sequences. This process, known as editing, was originally identified in the mitochondrial RNA of trypanosomes and later found to condition events as diverse as neurotransmission and lipid metabolism in mammals. Recent evidence reveals that editing enzymes may fulfill one of their most essential roles in the defense against infectious agents: first, as the mediators of antibody diversification, a step crucial for building adaptive immunity, and second, as potent intracellular poisons for the replication of viruses. Exciting questions are raised, which take us to the depth of the intimate relations between vertebrates and the microbial underworld.

  1. Gene Expression Control by Glucocorticoid Receptors during Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Andre Machado; Anunciato, Aparecida Kataryna Olimpio; Rosenstock, Tatiana Rosado; Glezer, Isaias

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory compounds that have been extensively used in clinical practice for several decades. GC’s effects on inflammation are generally mediated through GC receptors (GRs). Signal transduction through these nuclear receptors leads to dramatic changes in gene expression programs in different cell types, typically due to GR binding to DNA or to transcription modulators. During the last decade, the view of GCs as exclusive anti-inflammatory molecules has been challenged. GR negative interference in pro-inflammatory gene expression was a landmark in terms of molecular mechanisms that suppress immune activity. In fact, GR can induce varied inhibitory molecules, including a negative regulator of Toll-like receptors pathway, or subject key transcription factors, such as NF-κB and AP-1, to a repressor mechanism. In contrast, the expression of some acute-phase proteins and other players of innate immunity generally requires GR signaling. Consequently, GRs must operate context-dependent inhibitory, permissive, or stimulatory effects on host defense signaling triggered by pathogens or tissue damage. This review aims to disclose how contradictory or comparable effects on inflammatory gene expression can depend on pharmacological approach (including selective GC receptor modulators; SEGRMs), cell culture, animal treatment, or transgenic strategies used as models. Although the current view of GR-signaling integrated many advances in the field, some answers to important questions remain elusive. PMID:27148162

  2. Selective estrogen receptor modulators differentially alter the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles.

    PubMed

    Rodenas, M C; Cabas, I; García-Alcázar, A; Meseguer, J; Mulero, V; García-Ayala, A

    2016-05-01

    17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen (Tmx), a selective estrogen-receptor modulator used in hormone replacement therapy, and G1, a G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) selective agonist, differentially increased the hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) gene expression and altered the immune response in adult gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) males. However, no information exists on the effects of these compounds on the immune response of juveniles. This study aims, for the first time, to investigate the effects of the dietary intake of EE2, Tmx or G1 on the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles and the capacity of the immune system of the specimens to recover its functionality after ceasing exposures (recovery period). The specimens were immunized with hemocyanin in the presence of aluminium adjuvant 1 (group A) or 120 (group B) days after the treatments ceased (dpt). The results indicate that EE2 and Tmx, but not G1, differentially promoted a transient alteration in hepatic vtg gene expression. Although all three compounds did not affect the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, they inhibited the induction of interleukin-1β (il1b) gene expression after priming. Interestingly, although Tmx increased the percentage of IgM-positive cells in both head kidney and spleen during the recovery period, the antibody response of vaccinated fish varied depending on the compound used and when the immunization was administered. Taken together, our results suggest that these compounds differentially alter the capacity of fish to respond to infection during ontogeny and, more interestingly, that the adaptive immune response remained altered to an extent that depends on the compound. PMID:27012396

  3. Selective estrogen receptor modulators differentially alter the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles.

    PubMed

    Rodenas, M C; Cabas, I; García-Alcázar, A; Meseguer, J; Mulero, V; García-Ayala, A

    2016-05-01

    17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic estrogen used in oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen (Tmx), a selective estrogen-receptor modulator used in hormone replacement therapy, and G1, a G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) selective agonist, differentially increased the hepatic vitellogenin (vtg) gene expression and altered the immune response in adult gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) males. However, no information exists on the effects of these compounds on the immune response of juveniles. This study aims, for the first time, to investigate the effects of the dietary intake of EE2, Tmx or G1 on the immune response of gilthead seabream juveniles and the capacity of the immune system of the specimens to recover its functionality after ceasing exposures (recovery period). The specimens were immunized with hemocyanin in the presence of aluminium adjuvant 1 (group A) or 120 (group B) days after the treatments ceased (dpt). The results indicate that EE2 and Tmx, but not G1, differentially promoted a transient alteration in hepatic vtg gene expression. Although all three compounds did not affect the production of reactive oxygen intermediates, they inhibited the induction of interleukin-1β (il1b) gene expression after priming. Interestingly, although Tmx increased the percentage of IgM-positive cells in both head kidney and spleen during the recovery period, the antibody response of vaccinated fish varied depending on the compound used and when the immunization was administered. Taken together, our results suggest that these compounds differentially alter the capacity of fish to respond to infection during ontogeny and, more interestingly, that the adaptive immune response remained altered to an extent that depends on the compound.

  4. Innate Immunity Holding the Flanks until Reinforced by Adaptive Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nargis; Vidyarthi, Aurobind; Javed, Shifa; Agrewala, Javed N.

    2016-01-01

    T cells play a cardinal role in imparting protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, ample time is required before T-cells are able to evoke efficient effector responses in the lung, where the mycobacterium inflicts disease. This delay in T cells priming, which is termed as lag phase, provides sufficient time for Mtb to replicate and establish itself within the host. In contrast, innate immunity efficiently curb the growth of Mtb during initial phase of infection through several mechanisms. Pathogen recognition by innate cells rapidly triggers a cascade of events, such as apoptosis, autophagy, inflammasome formation and nitric oxide production to kill intracellular pathogens. Furthermore, bactericidal mechanisms such as autophagy and apoptosis, augment the antigen processing and presentation, thereby contributing substantially to the induction of adaptive immunity. This manuscript highlights the role of innate immune mechanisms in restricting the survival of Mtb during lag phase. Finally, this article provides new insight for designing immuno-therapies by targeting innate immune mechanisms to achieve optimum immune response to cure TB. PMID:27014247

  5. Ancient Evolutionary Origin of Diversified Variable Regions Demonstrated by Crystal Structures of an Immune-Type Receptor in Amphioxus

    SciTech Connect

    Prada,J.; Haire, R.; Allaire, M.; Jakoncic, J.; Stojanoff, V.; Cannon, J.; Litman, G.; Ostrov, D.

    2006-01-01

    Although the origins of genes encoding the rearranging binding receptors remain obscure, it is predicted that their ancestral forms were nonrearranging immunoglobulin-type domains. Variable region-containing chitin-binding proteins (VCBPs) are diversified immune-type molecules found in amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae), an invertebrate that diverged early in deuterostome phylogeny. To study the potential evolutionary relationships between VCBPs and vertebrate adaptive immune receptors, we solved the structures of both a single V-type domain (to 1.15 Angstroms) and a pair of V-type domains (to 1.85 Angstroms) from VCBP3. The deduced structures show integral features of the ancestral variable-region fold as well as unique features of variable-region pairing in molecules that may reflect characteristics of ancestral forms of diversified immune receptors found in modern-day vertebrates.

  6. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in aquatic animals: signaling pathways, expressions and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Rauta, Pradipta R; Samanta, Mrinal; Dash, Hirak R; Nayak, Bismita; Das, Surajit

    2014-01-01

    The innate system's recognition of non-self and danger signals is mediated by a limited number of germ-line encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are single, non-catalytic, membrane-spanning PRRs present in invertebrates and vertebrates. They act by specifically recognizing PAMPs of a variety of microbes and activate signaling cascades to induce innate immunity. A large number of TLRs have been identified in various aquatic animals of phyla Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Chordata. TLRs of aquatic and warm-blooded higher animals exhibit some distinctive features due to their diverse evolutionary lineages. However, majority of them share conserve signaling pathways in pathogen recognition and innate immunity. Functional analysis of novel TLRs in aquatic animals is very important in understanding the comparative immunology between warm-blooded and aquatic animals. In additions to innate immunity, recent reports have highlighted the additional roles of TLRs in adaptive immunity. Therefore, vaccines against many critical diseases of aquatic animals may be made more effective by supplementing TLR activators which will stimulate dendritic cells. This article describes updated information of TLRs in aquatic animals and their structural and functional relationship with warm-blooded animals.

  7. Role of Toll-like receptors in Helicobacter pylori infection and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sinéad M

    2014-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects the stomachs of approximately half of the world’s population. Although infection induces an immune response that contributes to chronic gastric inflammation, the response is not sufficient to eliminate the bacterium. H. pylori infection causes peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is linked to the severity of the host inflammatory response. Gastric epithelial cells represent the first line of innate immune defence against H. pylori, and respond to infection by initiating numerous cell signalling cascades, resulting in cytokine induction and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells to the gastric mucosa. Pathogen recognition receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family mediate many of these cell signalling events. This review discusses recent findings on the role of various TLRs in the recognition of H. pylori in distinct cell types, describes the TLRs responsible for the recognition of individual H. pylori components and outlines the influence of innate immune activation on the subsequent development of the adaptive immune response. The mechanistic identification of host mediators of H. pylori-induced pathogenesis has the potential to reveal drug targets and opportunities for therapeutic intervention or prevention of H. pylori-associated disease by means of vaccines or immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25133016

  8. [Receptor adaptation of muscle spindles treated in different ways].

    PubMed

    Zalkind, V I; Rokotova, N A

    1978-11-01

    Comparison of the grades of 60 sensitive muscle spindle terminals on two actions: gradual stretch of the muscle and short intensive tetanization of the muscle nerve, showed that, irrespective of the mode of action, the character of adaptation remains the smae in majority of units. The speed of receptors adaptation depends not on the specific of testing precedures, but, apparently, on the means of connection of the sensitive terminals with different types of intrafusal muscle fibers with different elasticviscous properties. The possible reason for speedy adaptation of muscle receptors of elementary dynamic type, is discussed.

  9. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Fungal Products and Allergens.

    PubMed

    Williams, P Brock; Barnes, Charles S; Portnoy, Jay M

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fungi and their products is practically ubiquitous, yet most of this is of little consequence to most healthy individuals. This is because there are a number of elaborate mechanisms to deal with these exposures. Most of these mechanisms are designed to recognize and neutralize such exposures. However, in understanding these mechanisms it has become clear that many of them overlap with our ability to respond to disruptions in tissue function caused by trauma or deterioration. These responses involve the innate and adaptive immune systems usually through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B and the production of cytokines that are considered inflammatory accompanied by other factors that can moderate these reactivities. Depending on different genetic backgrounds and the extent of activation of these mechanisms, various pathologies with resulting symptoms can ensue. Complicating this is the fact that these mechanisms can bias toward type 2 innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, to understand what we refer to as allergens from fungal sources, we must first understand how they influence these innate mechanisms. In doing so it has become clear that many of the proteins that are described as fungal allergens are essentially homologues of our own proteins that signal or cause tissue disruptions.

  10. Autophagy suppresses host adaptive immune responses toward Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Buffen, Kathrin; Oosting, Marije; Li, Yang; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Netea, Mihai G; Joosten, Leo A B

    2016-09-01

    We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of autophagy increased the Borrelia burgdorferi induced innate cytokine production in vitro, but little is known regarding the effect of autophagy on in vivo models of Borrelia infection. Here, we showed that ATG7-deficient mice that were intra-articular injected with Borrelia spirochetes displayed increased joint swelling, cell influx, and enhanced interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 production by inflamed synovial tissue. Because both interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 are linked to the development of adaptive immune responses, we examine the function of autophagy on Borrelia induced adaptive immunity. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells treated with autophagy inhibitors showed an increase in interleukin-17, interleukin-22, and interferon-γ production in response to exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi. Increased IL-17 production was dependent on IL-1β release but, interestingly, not on interleukin-23 production. In addition, cytokine quantitative trait loci in ATG9B modulate the Borrelia induced interleukin-17 production. Because high levels of IL-17 have been found in patients with confirmed, severe, chronic borreliosis, we propose that the modulation of autophagy may be a potential target for anti-inflammatory therapy in patients with persistent Lyme disease. PMID:27101991

  11. [Adaptive immune response and associated trigger factors in atopic dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Heratizadeh, A; Werfel, T; Rösner, L M

    2015-02-01

    Due to a broad variety of extrinsic trigger factors, patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) are characterized by complex response mechanisms of the adaptive immune system. Notably, skin colonization with Staphylococcus aureus seems to be of particular interest since not only exotoxins, but also other proteins of S. aureus can induce specific humoral and cellular immune responses which partially also correlate with the severity of AD. In a subgroup of AD patients Malassezia species induce specific IgE- and T cell-responses which has been demonstrated by atopy patch tests. Moreover, Mala s 13 is characterized by high cross-reactivity to the human corresponding protein (thioredoxin). Induction of a potential autoallergy due to molecular mimicry seems therefore to be relevant for Malassezia-sensitized AD patients. In addition, sensitization mechanisms to autoallergens aside from cross-reactivity are under current investigation. Regarding inhalant allergens, research projects are in progress with the aim to elucidate allergen-specific immune response mechanisms in more depth. For grass-pollen allergens a flare-up of AD following controlled exposure has been observed while for house dust mite-allergens a polarization towards Th2 and Th2/Th17 T cell phenotypes can be observed. These and further findings might finally contribute to the development of specific and effective treatments for aeroallergen-sensitized AD patients. PMID:25532900

  12. Retinoic Acid-Related Orphan Receptors (RORs): Regulatory Functions in Immunity, Development, Circadian Rhythm, and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Donald N.; Kang, Hong Soon; Jetten, Anton M.

    2015-01-01

    In this overview, we provide an update on recent progress made in understanding the mechanisms of action, physiological functions, and roles in disease of retinoic acid related orphan receptors (RORs). We are particularly focusing on their roles in the regulation of adaptive and innate immunity, brain function, retinal development, cancer, glucose and lipid metabolism, circadian rhythm, metabolic and inflammatory diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. We also summarize the current status of ROR agonists and inverse agonists, including their regulation of ROR activity and their therapeutic potential for management of various diseases in which RORs have been implicated. PMID:26878025

  13. The innate and adaptive immune response to avian influenza virus infections and vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protective immunity against viruses is mediated by the early innate immune responses and later on by the adaptive immune responses. The early innate immunity is designed to contain and limit virus replication in the host, primarily through cytokine and interferon production. Most all cells are cap...

  14. Structural basis for ligand and innate immunity factor uptake by the trypanosome haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor.

    PubMed

    Lane-Serff, Harriet; MacGregor, Paula; Lowe, Edward D; Carrington, Mark; Higgins, Matthew K

    2014-12-12

    The haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor (HpHbR) of African trypanosomes allows acquisition of haem and provides an uptake route for trypanolytic factor-1, a mediator of innate immunity against trypanosome infection. In this study, we report the structure of Trypanosoma brucei HpHbR in complex with human haptoglobin-haemoglobin (HpHb), revealing an elongated ligand-binding site that extends along its membrane distal half. This contacts haptoglobin and the β-subunit of haemoglobin, showing how the receptor selectively binds HpHb over individual components. Lateral mobility of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HpHbR, and a ∼50° kink in the receptor, allows two receptors to simultaneously bind one HpHb dimer. Indeed, trypanosomes take up dimeric HpHb at significantly lower concentrations than monomeric HpHb, due to increased ligand avidity that comes from bivalent binding. The structure therefore reveals the molecular basis for ligand and innate immunity factor uptake by trypanosomes and identifies adaptations that allow efficient ligand uptake in the context of the complex trypanosome cell surface.

  15. Structural basis for ligand and innate immunity factor uptake by the trypanosome haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lane-Serff, Harriet; MacGregor, Paula; Lowe, Edward D; Carrington, Mark; Higgins, Matthew K

    2014-01-01

    The haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor (HpHbR) of African trypanosomes allows acquisition of haem and provides an uptake route for trypanolytic factor-1, a mediator of innate immunity against trypanosome infection. In this study, we report the structure of Trypanosoma brucei HpHbR in complex with human haptoglobin-haemoglobin (HpHb), revealing an elongated ligand-binding site that extends along its membrane distal half. This contacts haptoglobin and the β-subunit of haemoglobin, showing how the receptor selectively binds HpHb over individual components. Lateral mobility of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored HpHbR, and a ∼50o kink in the receptor, allows two receptors to simultaneously bind one HpHb dimer. Indeed, trypanosomes take up dimeric HpHb at significantly lower concentrations than monomeric HpHb, due to increased ligand avidity that comes from bivalent binding. The structure therefore reveals the molecular basis for ligand and innate immunity factor uptake by trypanosomes and identifies adaptations that allow efficient ligand uptake in the context of the complex trypanosome cell surface. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05553.001 PMID:25497229

  16. Autophagy and Pattern Recognition Receptors in Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Monica; Singh, Sudha; De Haro, Sergio; Master, Sharon; Ponpuak, Marisa; Dinkins, Christina; Ornatowski, Wojchiech; Vergne, Isabelle; Deretic, Vojo

    2009-01-01

    Summary Autophagy is a physiologically and immunologically controlled intracellular homeostatic pathway that sequesters and degrades cytoplasmic targets including macromolecular aggregates, cellular organelles such as mitochondria, and whole microbes or their products. Recent advances show that autophagy plays a role in innate immunity in several ways: (i) direct elimination of intracellular microbes by digestion in autolysosomes, (ii) delivery of cytosolic microbial products to pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in a process referred to as topological inversion, and (iii) as an antimicrobial effector of Toll-like receptors and other PRR signaling. Autophagy eliminates pathogens in vitro and in vivo but, when aberrant due to mutations, contributes to human inflammatory disorders such as Crohn's disease. In this review, we examine these relationships and propose that autophagy is one of the most ancient innate immune defenses that has possibly evolved at the time of α-protobacteria-pre-eukaryote relationships, leading up to modern eukaryotic cell-mitochondrial symbiosis, and that during the metazoan evolution, additional layers of immunological regulation have been superimposed and integrated with this primordial innate immunity mechanism. PMID:19120485

  17. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Promotes RORγt+ ILCs and Controls Intestinal Immunity and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ju; Zhou, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Unlike adaptive immune cells that require antigen recognition and functional maturation during infection, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) usually respond to pathogens promptly and serve as the first line of defense in infectious diseases. RAR-related orphan receptors (RORγt)+ ILCs are one of the innate cell populations that have recently been intensively studied. During the fetal stage of development, RORγt+ ILCs (e.g., lymphoid tissue inducer-LTi cells) are required for lymphoid organogenesis. In adult mice, RORγt+ ILCs are abundantly present in the gut to exert immune defensive functions. Under certain circumstances, however, RORγt+ ILCs can be pathogenic and contribute to intestinal inflammation. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), a ligand-dependent transcriptional factor, is widely expressed by various immune and non-immune cells. In the gut, the ligand for Ahr can be derived/generated from diet, microflora, and/or host cells. Ahr has been shown to regulate different cell populations in the immune system including RORγt+ ILCs, T helper (Th)17/22 cells, γδT cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs), Tr1 cells, and antigen presenting cells (APCs). In this review, we will focus on the development and function of RORγt+ ILCs, and discuss the role of Ahr in intestinal immunity and inflammation in mice and in humans. Better understanding the function of Ahr in the gut is important for developing new therapeutic means to target Ahr in future treatment of infectious and autoimmune diseases. PMID:23975386

  18. The role of the adaptive immune system in regulation of gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Kato, Lucia M; Kawamoto, Shimpei; Maruya, Mikako; Fagarasan, Sidonia

    2014-07-01

    The gut nourishes rich bacterial communities that affect profoundly the functions of the immune system. The relationship between gut microbiota and the immune system is one of reciprocity. The microbiota contributes to nutrient processing and the development, maturation, and function of the immune system. Conversely, the immune system, particularly the adaptive immune system, plays a key role in shaping the repertoire of gut microbiota. The fitness of host immune system is reflected in the gut microbiota, and deficiencies in either innate or adaptive immunity impact on diversity and structures of bacterial communities in the gut. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that underlie this reciprocity and emphasize how the adaptive immune system via immunoglobulins (i.e. IgA) contributes to diversification and balance of gut microbiota required for immune homeostasis.

  19. How complex are intracellular immune receptor signaling complexes?

    PubMed

    Bonardi, Vera; Dangl, Jeffery L

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are the major class of intracellular immune receptors in plants. NLRs typically function to specifically recognize pathogen effectors and to initiate and control defense responses that severely limit pathogen growth in plants (termed effector-triggered immunity, or ETI). Despite numerous reports supporting a central role in innate immunity, the molecular mechanisms driving NLR activation and downstream signaling remain largely elusive. Recent reports shed light on the pre- and post-activation dynamics of a few NLR-containing protein complexes. Recent technological advances in the use of proteomics may enable high-resolution definition of immune protein complexes and possible activation-relevant post-translational modifications of the components in these complexes. In this review, we focus on research aimed at characterizing pre- and post-activation NLR protein complexes and the molecular events that follow activation. We discuss the use of new or improved technologies as tools to unveil the molecular mechanisms that define NLR-mediated pathogen recognition.

  20. Role of passive and adaptive immunity in influencing enterocyte-specific gene expression.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Shannon L; Wang, Jiafang; Vazir, Mukta; Vela, Jose; Sahagun, Omar; Gabbay, Peter; Hoang, Lisa; Diaz, Rosa L; Aranda, Richard; Martín, Martín G

    2003-10-01

    Numerous genes expressed by intestinal epithelial cells are developmentally regulated, and the influence that adaptive (AI) and passive (PI) immunity have in controlling their expression has not been evaluated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that both PI and AI influenced enterocyte gene expression by developing a breeding scheme that used T and B cell-deficient recombination-activating gene (RAG) mice. RNA was isolated from the liver and proximal/distal small intestine at various ages, and the steady-state levels of six different transcripts were evaluated by RNase protection assay. In wild-type (WT) pups, all transcripts [Fc receptor of the neonate (FcRn), polymeric IgA receptor (pIgR), GLUT5, lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (lactase), apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), and Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1)] studied were developmentally regulated at the time of weaning, and all transcripts except ASBT had the highest levels of expression in the proximal small intestine. In WT suckling pups reared in the absence of PI, pIgR mRNA levels were increased 100% during the early phase of development. In mice lacking AI, the expression of pIgR and lactase were significantly attenuated, whereas FcRn and GLUT5 levels were higher compared with WT mice. Finally, in the absence of both passive and active immunity, expression levels of pIgR and lactase were significantly lower than similarly aged WT mice. In summary, we report that the adaptive and passive immune status of mice influences steady-state mRNA levels of several important, developmentally regulated enterocyte genes during the suckling and weaning periods of life.

  1. The pharmacokinetics of Toll-like receptor agonists and the impact on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Engel, Abbi L; Holt, Gregory E; Lu, Hailing

    2011-03-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation activates both the innate and adaptive immune systems, and plays an important role in antiviral and anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, a significant amount of effort has been devoted to exploit the therapeutic potential of TLR agonists. Depending on the therapeutic purpose, either as adjuvants to vaccine, chemotherapy or standalone therapy, TLR agonists have been administered via different routes. Both preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that the route of administration has significant effects on pharmacokinetics, and that understanding these effects is critical to the success of TLR agonist drug development. This article will summarize the pharmacokinetics of TLR agonists with different administration routes, with an emphasis on clinical studies of TLR ligands in oncologic applications. PMID:21643519

  2. The pharmacokinetics of Toll-like receptor agonists and the impact on the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Abbi L; Holt, Gregory E; Lu, Hailing

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation activates both the innate and adaptive immune systems, and plays an important role in antiviral and anti-tumor immunity. Therefore, a significant amount of effort has been devoted to exploit the therapeutic potential of TLR agonists. Depending on the therapeutic purpose, either as adjuvants to vaccine, chemotherapy or standalone therapy, TLR agonists have been administered via different routes. Both preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that the route of administration has significant effects on pharmacokinetics, and that understanding these effects is critical to the success of TLR agonist drug development. This article will summarize the pharmacokinetics of TLR agonists with different administration routes, with an emphasis on clinical studies of TLR ligands in oncologic applications. PMID:21643519

  3. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Ryohei; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2011-12-15

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 10}) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 2.5}) and ultrafine particles (0.1 {mu}m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-{kappa}B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

  4. Mast cells in allergy and autoimmunity: implications for adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Gregory D; Brown, Melissa A

    2006-01-01

    As in the fashion industry, trends in a particular area of scientific investigation often are fleeting but then return with renewed and enthusiastic interest. Studies of mast cell biology are good examples of this. Although dogma once relegated mast cells almost exclusively to roles in pathological inflammation associated with allergic disease, these cells are emerging as important players in a number of other physiological processes. Consequently, they are quickly becoming the newest "trendy" cell, both within and outside the field of immunology. As sources of a large array of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, mast cells also express cell surface molecules with defined functions in lymphocyte activation and trafficking. Here, we provide an overview of the traditional and newly appreciated contributions of mast cells to both innate and adaptive immune responses.

  5. Structural basis for collagen recognition by the immune receptor OSCAR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Long; Hinerman, Jennifer M; Blaszczyk, Michal; Miller, Jeanette L C; Conrady, Deborah G; Barrow, Alexander D; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Bihan, Dominique; Farndale, Richard W; Herr, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    The osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is a collagen-binding immune receptor with important roles in dendritic cell maturation and activation of inflammatory monocytes as well as in osteoclastogenesis. The crystal structure of the OSCAR ectodomain is presented, both free and in complex with a consensus triple-helical peptide (THP). The structures revealed a collagen-binding site in each immunoglobulin-like domain (D1 and D2). The THP binds near a predicted collagen-binding groove in D1, but a more extensive interaction with D2 is facilitated by the unusually wide D1-D2 interdomain angle in OSCAR. Direct binding assays, combined with site-directed mutagenesis, confirm that the primary collagen-binding site in OSCAR resides in D2, in marked contrast to the related collagen receptors, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1). Monomeric OSCAR D1D2 binds to the consensus THP with a KD of 28 µM measured in solution, but shows a higher affinity (KD 1.5 μM) when binding to a solid-phase THP, most likely due to an avidity effect. These data suggest a 2-stage model for the interaction of OSCAR with a collagen fibril, with transient, low-affinity interactions initiated by the membrane-distal D1, followed by firm adhesion to the primary binding site in D2. PMID:26552697

  6. Structural basis for collagen recognition by the immune receptor OSCAR.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Long; Hinerman, Jennifer M; Blaszczyk, Michal; Miller, Jeanette L C; Conrady, Deborah G; Barrow, Alexander D; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y; Bihan, Dominique; Farndale, Richard W; Herr, Andrew B

    2016-02-01

    The osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is a collagen-binding immune receptor with important roles in dendritic cell maturation and activation of inflammatory monocytes as well as in osteoclastogenesis. The crystal structure of the OSCAR ectodomain is presented, both free and in complex with a consensus triple-helical peptide (THP). The structures revealed a collagen-binding site in each immunoglobulin-like domain (D1 and D2). The THP binds near a predicted collagen-binding groove in D1, but a more extensive interaction with D2 is facilitated by the unusually wide D1-D2 interdomain angle in OSCAR. Direct binding assays, combined with site-directed mutagenesis, confirm that the primary collagen-binding site in OSCAR resides in D2, in marked contrast to the related collagen receptors, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1). Monomeric OSCAR D1D2 binds to the consensus THP with a KD of 28 µM measured in solution, but shows a higher affinity (KD 1.5 μM) when binding to a solid-phase THP, most likely due to an avidity effect. These data suggest a 2-stage model for the interaction of OSCAR with a collagen fibril, with transient, low-affinity interactions initiated by the membrane-distal D1, followed by firm adhesion to the primary binding site in D2.

  7. Differential Expression of Functional Fc-Receptors and Additional Immune Complex Receptors on Mouse Kidney Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suwanichkul, Adisak; Wenderfer, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    The precise mechanisms by which circulating immune complexes accumulate in the kidney to form deposits in glomerulonephritis are not well understood. In particular, the role of resident cells within glomeruli of the kidney has been widely debated. Immune complexes have been shown to bind one glomerular cell type (mesangial cells) leading to functional responses such as pro-inflammatory cytokine production. To further assess the presence of functional immunoreceptors on resident glomerular cells, cultured mouse renal epithelial, endothelial, and mesangial cells were treated with heat-aggregated mouse IgG or preformed murine immune complexes. Mesangial and renal endothelial cells were found to bind IgG complexes, whereas glomerular epithelial cell binding was minimal. A blocking antibody for Fc-gamma receptors reduced binding to mesangial cells but not renal endothelial cells, suggesting differential immunoreceptor utilization. RT-PCR and immunostaining based screening of cultured renal endothelial cells showed limited low-level expression of known Fc-receptors and Igbinding proteins. The interaction between mesangial cells and renal endothelial cells and immune complexes resulted in distinct, cell-specific patterns of chemokine and cytokine production. This novel pathway involving renal endothelial cells likely contributes to the predilection of circulating immune complex accumulation within the kidney and to the inflammatory responses that drive kidney injury. PMID:23911392

  8. GATA-3 function in innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Tindemans, Irma; Serafini, Nicolas; Di Santo, James P; Hendriks, Rudi W

    2014-08-21

    The zinc-finger transcription factor GATA-3 has received much attention as a master regulator of T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, during which it controls interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, and IL-13 expression. More recently, GATA-3 was shown to contribute to type 2 immunity through regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2) development and function. Furthermore, during thymopoiesis, GATA-3 represses B cell potential in early T cell precursors, activates TCR signaling in pre-T cells, and promotes the CD4(+) T cell lineage after positive selection. GATA-3 also functions outside the thymus in hematopoietic stem cells, regulatory T cells, CD8(+) T cells, thymic natural killer cells, and ILC precursors. Here we discuss the varied functions of GATA-3 in innate and adaptive immune cells, with emphasis on its activity in T cells and ILCs, and examine the mechanistic basis for the dose-dependent, developmental-stage- and cell-lineage-specific activity of this transcription factor.

  9. Dynamics of adaptive immunity against phage in bacterial populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradde, Serena; Vucelja, Marija; Tesileanu, Tiberiu; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) mechanism allows bacteria to adaptively defend against phages by acquiring short genomic sequences (spacers) that target specific sequences in the viral genome. We propose a population dynamical model where immunity can be both acquired and lost. The model predicts regimes where bacterial and phage populations can co-exist, others where the populations oscillate, and still others where one population is driven to extinction. Our model considers two key parameters: (1) ease of acquisition and (2) spacer effectiveness in conferring immunity. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations show that if spacers differ mainly in ease of acquisition, or if the probability of acquiring them is sufficiently high, bacteria develop a diverse population of spacers. On the other hand, if spacers differ mainly in their effectiveness, their final distribution will be highly peaked, akin to a ``winner-take-all'' scenario, leading to a specialized spacer distribution. Bacteria can interpolate between these limiting behaviors by actively tuning their overall acquisition rate.

  10. Adaptive Immunity Restricts Replication of Novel Murine Astroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Christine C.; Loh, Joy; Zhao, Guoyan; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Wang, David; Huang, Henry V.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of astrovirus pathogenesis are largely unknown, in part due to a lack of a small-animal model of disease. Using shotgun sequencing and a custom analysis pipeline, we identified two novel astroviruses capable of infecting research mice, murine astrovirus (MuAstV) STL1 and STL2. Subsequent analysis revealed the presence of at least two additional viruses (MuAstV STL3 and STL4), suggestive of a diverse population of murine astroviruses in research mice. Complete genomic characterization and subsequent phylogenetic analysis showed that MuAstV STL1 to STL4 are members of the mamastrovirus genus and are likely members of a new mamastrovirus genogroup. Using Rag1−/− mice deficient in B and T cells, we demonstrate that adaptive immunity is required to control MuAstV infection. Furthermore, using Stat1−/− mice deficient in innate signaling, we demonstrate a role for the innate immune response in the control of MuAstV replication. Our results demonstrate that MuAstV STL permits the study of the mechanisms of astrovirus infection and host-pathogen interactions in a genetically manipulable small-animal model. Finally, we detected MuAstV in commercially available mice, suggesting that these viruses may be present in academic and commercial research mouse facilities, with possible implications for interpretation of data generated in current mouse models of disease. PMID:22951832

  11. Adaptive immunity and histopathology in frog virus 3-infected Xenopus

    SciTech Connect

    Robert, Jacques . E-mail: robert@mail.rochester.edu; Morales, Heidi; Buck, Wayne; Cohen, Nicholas; Marr, Shauna; Gantress, Jennifer

    2005-02-20

    Xenopus has been used as an experimental model to evaluate the contribution of adaptive cellular immunity in amphibian host susceptibility to the emerging ranavirus FV3. Conventional histology and immunohistochemistry reveal that FV3 has a strong tropism for the proximal tubular epithelium of the kidney and is rarely disseminated elsewhere in Xenopus hosts unless their immune defenses are impaired or developmentally immature as in larvae. In such cases, virus is found widespread in most tissues. Adults, immunocompromised by depletion of CD8{sup +} T cells or by sub-lethal {gamma}-irradiation, show increased susceptibility to FV3 infection. Larvae and irradiated (but not normal) adults can be cross-infected through water by infected adult conspecifics (irradiated or not). The natural MHC class I deficiency and the absence of effect of anti-CD8 treatment on both larval CD8{sup +} T cells and larval susceptibility to FV3 are consistent with an inefficient CD8{sup +} T cell effector function during this developmental period.

  12. Signaling by myeloid C-type lectin receptors in immunity and homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, David; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid cells are key drivers of physiological responses to pathogen invasion or tissue damage. Members of the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) family stand out among the specialized receptors utilized by myeloid cells to orchestrate these responses. CLR ligands include carbohydrate, protein and lipid components of both pathogens and self, which variably trigger endocytic, phagocytic, pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory reactions. These varied outcomes rely on a versatile system for CLR signaling that includes tyrosine based motifs that recruit kinases, phosphatases or endocytic adaptors, as well as non-tyrosine based signals that modulate the activation of other pathways or couple to the uptake machinery. Here, we review the signaling properties of myeloid CLRs and how they impact the role of myeloid cells in innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:22224766

  13. Immune-Modulation by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: Implication on Anti-Tumor Immunity in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Amanda C.; Bernatchez, Chantale; Haymaker, Cara; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Hong, Waun Ki; Perez-Soler, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common toxicity caused by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, and has been associated with clinical efficacy. As EGFR inhibitors enhance the expression of antigen presenting molecules in affected skin keratinocytes, they may concurrently facilitate neo-antigen presentation in lung cancer tumor cells contributing to anti-tumor immunity. Here, we investigated the modulatory effect of the EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib on antigen presenting molecules and PD-L1, prominent immune checkpoint protein, of skin keratinocytes and lung cancer cell lines to delineate the link between EGFR signaling pathway inhibition and potential anti-tumor immunity. Erlotinib up-regulated MHC-I and MHC-II proteins on IFNγ treated keratinocytes but abrogated IFNγ-induced expression of PD-L1, suggesting the potential role of infiltrating autoreactive T cells in the damage of keratinocytes in affected skin. Interestingly, the surface expression of MHC-I, MHC-II, and PD-L1 was up-regulated in response to IFNγ more often in lung cancer cell lines sensitive to erlotinib, but only expression of PD-L1 was inhibited by erlotinib. Further, erlotinib significantly increased T cell mediated cytotoxicity on lung cancer cells. Lastly, the analysis of gene expression dataset of 186 lung cancer cell lines from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia demonstrated that overexpression of PD-L1 was associated with sensitivity to erlotinib and higher expression of genes related to antigen presenting pathways and IFNγ signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that the EGFR inhibitors can facilitate anti-tumor adaptive immune responses by breaking tolerance especially in EGFR driven lung cancer that are associated with overexpression of PD-L1 and genes related to antigen presentation and inflammation. PMID:27467256

  14. Immune-Modulation by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: Implication on Anti-Tumor Immunity in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Im, Jin S; Herrmann, Amanda C; Bernatchez, Chantale; Haymaker, Cara; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Hong, Waun Ki; Perez-Soler, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common toxicity caused by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, and has been associated with clinical efficacy. As EGFR inhibitors enhance the expression of antigen presenting molecules in affected skin keratinocytes, they may concurrently facilitate neo-antigen presentation in lung cancer tumor cells contributing to anti-tumor immunity. Here, we investigated the modulatory effect of the EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib on antigen presenting molecules and PD-L1, prominent immune checkpoint protein, of skin keratinocytes and lung cancer cell lines to delineate the link between EGFR signaling pathway inhibition and potential anti-tumor immunity. Erlotinib up-regulated MHC-I and MHC-II proteins on IFNγ treated keratinocytes but abrogated IFNγ-induced expression of PD-L1, suggesting the potential role of infiltrating autoreactive T cells in the damage of keratinocytes in affected skin. Interestingly, the surface expression of MHC-I, MHC-II, and PD-L1 was up-regulated in response to IFNγ more often in lung cancer cell lines sensitive to erlotinib, but only expression of PD-L1 was inhibited by erlotinib. Further, erlotinib significantly increased T cell mediated cytotoxicity on lung cancer cells. Lastly, the analysis of gene expression dataset of 186 lung cancer cell lines from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia demonstrated that overexpression of PD-L1 was associated with sensitivity to erlotinib and higher expression of genes related to antigen presenting pathways and IFNγ signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that the EGFR inhibitors can facilitate anti-tumor adaptive immune responses by breaking tolerance especially in EGFR driven lung cancer that are associated with overexpression of PD-L1 and genes related to antigen presentation and inflammation. PMID:27467256

  15. AXL receptor tyrosine kinase is required for T cell priming and antiviral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Edward T; Pang, Iris K; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A; Bosurgi, Lidia; Miner, Jonathan J; Diamond, Michael S; Iwasaki, Akiko; Rothlin, Carla V

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) AXL is induced in response to type I interferons (IFNs) and limits their production through a negative feedback loop. Enhanced production of type I IFNs in Axl-/-dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro have led to speculation that inhibition of AXL would promote antiviral responses. Notwithstanding, type I IFNs also exert potent immunosuppressive functions. Here we demonstrate that ablation of AXL enhances the susceptibility to infection by influenza A virus and West Nile virus. The increased type I IFN response in Axl-/- mice was associated with diminished DC maturation, reduced production of IL-1β, and defective antiviral T cell immunity. Blockade of type I IFN receptor or administration of IL-1β to Axl-/- mice restored the antiviral adaptive response and control of infection. Our results demonstrate that AXL is essential for limiting the immunosuppressive effects of type I IFNs and enabling the induction of protective antiviral adaptive immunity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12414.001 PMID:27350258

  16. Immune complex receptors on cell surfaces. II. Cytochemical evaluation of their abundance on different immune cells: distribution, uptake, and regeneration.

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, P. E.; Garvin, A. J.; Hardin, D. H.; Spicer, S. S.

    1976-01-01

    A recently developed method for ultrastructural demonstration of cell surface receptors for immune complexes is applied to evaluation of these receptors on various cell types. The method entailing incubation with a complex of horesradish peroxidase (HRP) and antibody to HRP (anti-HRP) disclosed dense foci indicative of immune complex receptors distributed at 30- to 120-mmu intervals over macrophage surfaces. Invaginations, loop-like evaginations, and pinocytotic vasicles stained prominently. The number of stained immune complex receptors averaged 200,000 per oil-induced macrophage and 120,000 per noninduced macrophage, as determined from counts of focal deposits in electron micrographs. Receptor periodicity on giant cells present in oil-induced exudates resembled that on macrophages, but the larger giant cells contained an estimated 1.5 million sites. Although receptor periodicity on eosinophils and neutrophils equaled that on macrophages, the staining was lighter and was interrupted by intervals of unstained membrane. Neutrophils averaged 28,000 and eosinophils 35,000 receptors per cell, whereas those lymphocytes with receptors averaged 3,500 per cell. Viable cells incubated with anti-HRP sequentially exhibited about half as many reactive sites as did cells incubated with immune complex. When warmed to 37 C, viable macrophages and eosinophils pinocytosed soluble immune complexes almost completely within 30 minutes and phagocytosed insoluble complexes more slowly. The endocytosed soluble immune complexes were sequestered within tubulovesicular structures in addition to the expected phagocytic vacuoles. Receptors appeared fully active on macrophages that were restained with soluble, cold immune complex after they had endocytosed immune complex in the course of a 30-minute warming interval. Images Figure 16 Figures 2 and 3 Figures 4-6 Figure 7 Figures 8-11 Figure 1 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figures 14 and 15 PMID:60883

  17. Unusual association of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and myasthenia gravis: A dysregulation of the adaptive immune system?

    PubMed

    Del Mar Amador, Maria; Vandenberghe, Nadia; Berhoune, Nawel; Camdessanché, Jean-Philippe; Gronier, Sophie; Delmont, Emilien; Desnuelle, Claude; Cintas, Pascal; Pittion, Sophie; Louis, Sarah; Demeret, Sophie; Lenglet, Timothée; Meininger, Vincent; Salachas, François; Pradat, Pierre-François; Bruneteau, Gaëlle

    2016-06-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular junctions that has been associated with a small increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we describe a retrospective series of seven cases with a concomitant diagnosis of ALS and myasthenia gravis, collected among the 18 French reference centers for ALS in a twelve year period. After careful review, only six patients strictly met the diagnostic criteria for both ALS and myasthenia gravis. In these patients, limb onset of ALS was reported in five (83%) cases. Localization of myasthenia gravis initial symptoms was ocular in three (50%) cases, generalized in two (33%) and bulbar in one (17%). Median delay between onset of the two conditions was 19 months (6-319 months). Anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies testing was positive in all cases. All patients were treated with riluzole and one had an associated immune-mediated disease. In the one last ALS case, the final diagnosis was false-positivity for anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies. The co-occurrence of ALS and myasthenia gravis is rare and requires strict diagnostic criteria. Its demonstration needs thoughtful interpretation of electrophysiological results and exclusion of false positivity for myasthenia gravis antibody testing in some ALS cases. This association may be triggered by a dysfunction of adaptive immunity.

  18. Neuronal adaptations, neuroendocrine and immune correlates of heroin self-administration.

    PubMed

    Weber, R J; Gomez-Flores, R; Smith, J E; Martin, T J

    2009-10-01

    Opioid receptor-mediated action in the central nervous system (CNS) has been consistently shown to trigger changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and suppress a variety of parameters of immune function in investigator-delivered paradigms. Overwhelming evidence supports the concept that the CNS undergoes numerous and complex neuronal adaptive changes in addicts, and in animal models of heroin addiction as a result of the training of drug stimuli to serve as reinforcers, altering the function of individual neurons and the larger neural circuits within which the neurons operate. Taken together, these advances suggest that since plastic neuronal changes occur in drug addiction and related animal model paradigms, profiles of neuroendocrine and immune function would differ in a rat model of heroin self-administration compared to passive infusion of drug. Self-administration of heroin induces neuronal circuitry adaptations in specific brain regions that may be related to alterations in neuroendocrine and T lymphocyte function also observed. Animals self-administering (SA) heroin exhibit increased mu-opioid receptor agonist ([D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO))-stimulated guanosine-5'-O-(gamma-thio)-triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPgammaS) binding in the anterior hypothalamus (50% and 33%) and rostral medial thalamus (33% and 36%) compared with control animals receiving identical non-contingent injections of yoked-heroin (YH) or yoked-saline (YS), respectively. No changes in agonist-stimulated G-protein sensitization were observed in 14 other brain regions studied. No changes in mu-opioid receptor density, ((3)H-DAMGO binding) were seen in all brain regions examined. The neuronal changes in SA animals were correlated with elevated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) (64% and 104%) and glucocorticoid production (198% and 79%) compared with YH and YS groups, respectively. Neuroendocrine adaptive changes in SA

  19. Adaptive peripheral immune response increases proliferation of neural precursor cells in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Susanne A; Steiner, Barbara; Wengner, Antje; Lipp, Martin; Kammertoens, Thomas; Kempermann, Gerd

    2009-09-01

    To understand the link between peripheral immune activation and neuronal precursor biology, we investigated the effect of T-cell activation on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in female C57Bl/6 mice. A peripheral adaptive immune response triggered by adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis (2 microg/microl methylated BSA) or staphylococcus enterotoxin B (EC(50) of 0.25 microg/ml per 20 g body weight) was associated with a transient increase in hippocampal precursor cell proliferation and neurogenesis as assessed by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Both treatments were paralleled by an increase in corticosterone levels in the hippocampus 1- to 2-fold over the physiological amount measured by quantitative radioimmunoassay. In contrast, intraperitoneal administration of the innate immune response activator lipopolysaccaride (EC(50) of 0.5 microg/ml per 20 g body weight) led to a chronic 5-fold increase of hippocampal glucocorticoid levels and a decrease of adult neurogenesis. In vitro exposure of murine neuronal progenitor cells to corticosterone triggered either cell death at high (1.5 nM) or proliferation at low (0.25 nM) concentrations. This effect could be blocked using a viral vector system expressing a transdomain of the glucocorticoid receptor. We suggest an evolutionary relevant communication route for the brain to respond to environmental stressors like inflammation mediated by glucocorticoid levels in the hippocampus.

  20. Hormonal Contraception and HIV-1 Infection: Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Suppresses Innate and Adaptive Immune Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Huijbregts, Richard P. H.; Helton, E. Scott; Michel, Katherine G.; Sabbaj, Steffanie; Richter, Holly E.; Goepfert, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent observational studies indicate an association between the use of hormonal contraceptives and acquisition and transmission of HIV-1. The biological and immunological mechanisms underlying the observed association are unknown. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a progestin-only injectable contraceptive that is commonly used in regions with high HIV-1 prevalence. Here we show that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) suppresses the production of key regulators of cellular and humoral immunity involved in orchestrating the immune response to invading pathogens. MPA inhibited the production of interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), and other cytokines and chemokines by peripheral blood cells and activated T cells and reduced the production of IFNα and TNFα by plasmacytoid dendritic cells in response to Toll-like receptor-7, -8, and -9 ligands. Women using DMPA displayed lower levels of IFNα in plasma and genital secretions compared with controls with no hormonal contraception. In addition, MPA prevented the down-regulation of HIV-1 coreceptors CXCR4 and CCR5 on the surface of T cells after activation and increased HIV-1 replication in activated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. The presented results suggest that MPA suppresses both innate and adaptive arms of the immune system resulting in a reduction of host resistance to invading pathogens. PMID:23354099

  1. Innate immunity receptor CD36 promotes cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Laibaik; Zhou, Joan; Zhou, Ping; Pistick, Rose; El Jamal, Sleiman; Younkin, Linda; Pierce, Joseph; Arreguin, Andrea; Anrather, Josef; Younkin, Steven G.; Carlson, George A.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Iadecola, Costantino

    2013-01-01

    Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) in cerebral arteries, known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), occurs both in the setting of Alzheimer’s disease and independent of it, and can cause cerebrovascular insufficiency and cognitive deficits. The mechanisms leading to CAA have not been established, and no therapeutic targets have been identified. We investigated the role of CD36, an innate immunity receptor involved in Aβ trafficking, in the neurovascular dysfunction, cognitive deficits, and amyloid accumulation that occurs in mice expressing the Swedish mutation of the amyloid precursor protein (Tg2576). We found that Tg2576 mice lacking CD36 have a selective reduction in Aβ1-40 and CAA. This reduced vascular amyloid deposition was associated with preservation of the Aβ vascular clearance receptor LRP-1, and protection from the deleterious effects of Aβ on cerebral arterioles. These beneficial vascular effects were reflected by marked improvements in neurovascular regulation and cognitive performance. Our data suggest that CD36 promotes vascular amyloid deposition and the resulting cerebrovascular damage, leading to neurovascular dysfunction and cognitive deficits. These findings identify a previously unrecognized role of CD36 in the mechanisms of vascular amyloid deposition, and suggest that this scavenger receptor is a putative therapeutic target for CAA and related conditions. PMID:23382216

  2. Obtaining anti-type 1 melatonin receptor antibodies by immunization with melatonin receptor-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Nelia; Wijkhuisen, Anne; Savatier, Alexandra; Moulharat, Natacha; Ferry, Gilles; Léonetti, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies (Abs) specific to cell-surface receptors are attractive tools for studying the physiological role of such receptors or for controlling their activity. We sought to obtain such antibodies against the type 1 receptor for melatonin (MT1). For this, we injected mice with CHO cells transfected with a plasmid encoding human MT1 (CHO-MT1-h), in the presence or absence of an adjuvant mixture containing Alum and CpG1018. As we previously observed that the immune response to a protein antigen is increased when it is coupled to a fusion protein, called ZZTat101, we also investigated if the association of ZZTat101 with CHO-MT1-h cells provides an immunogenic advantage. We measured similar levels of anti-CHO and anti-MT1-h Ab responses in animals injected with either CHO-MT1-h cells or ZZTat101/CHO-MT1-h cells, with or without adjuvant, indicating that neither the adjuvant mixture nor ZZTat101 increased the anti-cell immune response. Then, we investigated whether the antisera also recognized murine MT1 (MT1-m). Using cloned CHO cells transfected with a plasmid encoding MT1-m, we found that antisera raised against CHO-MT1-h cells also bound the mouse receptor. Altogether our studies indicate that immunizing approaches based on MT1-h-expressing CHO cells allow the production of polyclonal antibodies against MT1 receptors of different origins. This paves the way to preparation of MT1-specific monoclonal antibodies.

  3. Adaptive immunity increases the pace and predictability of evolutionary change in commensal gut bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Barroso-Batista, João; Demengeot, Jocelyne; Gordo, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Co-evolution between the mammalian immune system and the gut microbiota is believed to have shaped the microbiota's astonishing diversity. Here we test the corollary hypothesis that the adaptive immune system, directly or indirectly, influences the evolution of commensal species. We compare the evolution of Escherichia coli upon colonization of the gut of wild-type and Rag2−/− mice, which lack lymphocytes. We show that bacterial adaptation is slower in immune-compromised animals, a phenomenon explained by differences in the action of natural selection within each host. Emerging mutations exhibit strong beneficial effects in healthy hosts but substantial antagonistic pleiotropy in immune-deficient mice. This feature is due to changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, which differs according to the immune status of the host. Our results indicate that the adaptive immune system influences the tempo and predictability of E. coli adaptation to the mouse gut. PMID:26615893

  4. New concepts in immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae: innate responses and suppression of adaptive immunity favor the pathogen, not the host.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingru; Feinen, Brandon; Russell, Michael W

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that gonorrhea can be acquired repeatedly with no apparent development of protective immunity arising from previous episodes of infection. Symptomatic infection is characterized by a purulent exudate, but the host response mechanisms are poorly understood. While the remarkable antigenic variability displayed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its capacity to inhibit complement activation allow it to evade destruction by the host's immune defenses, we propose that it also has the capacity to avoid inducing specific immune responses. In a mouse model of vaginal gonococcal infection, N. gonorrhoeae elicits Th17-driven inflammatory-immune responses, which recruit innate defense mechanisms including an influx of neutrophils. Concomitantly, N. gonorrhoeae suppresses Th1- and Th2-dependent adaptive immunity, including specific antibody responses, through a mechanism involving TGF-β and regulatory T cells. Blockade of TGF-β alleviates the suppression of specific anti-gonococcal responses and allows Th1 and Th2 responses to emerge with the generation of immune memory and protective immunity. Genital tract tissues are naturally rich in TGF-β, which fosters an immunosuppressive environment that is important in reproduction. In exploiting this niche, N. gonorrhoeae exemplifies a well-adapted pathogen that proactively elicits from its host innate responses that it can survive and concomitantly suppresses adaptive immunity. Comprehension of these mechanisms of gonococcal pathogenesis should allow the development of novel approaches to therapy and facilitate the development of an effective vaccine. PMID:21833308

  5. An Act of Balance Between Adaptive and Maladaptive Immunity in Depression: a Role for T Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Toben, Catherine; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-12-01

    Historically the monoaminergic neurotransmitter system, in particular the serotonergic system, was seen as being responsible for the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). With the advent of psychoneuroimmunology an important role of the immune system in the interface between the central nervous systems (CNS) and peripheral organ systems has emerged. In addition to the well-characterised neurobiological activities of cytokines, T cell function in the context of depression has been neglected so far. In this review we will investigate the biological roles of T cells in depression. Originally it was thought that the adaptive immune arm including T lymphocytes was excluded from the CNS. It is now clear that peripheral naïve T cells not only carry out continuous surveillance within the brain but also maintain neural plasticity. Furthermore animal studies demonstrate that regulatory T lymphocytes can provide protection against maladaptive behavioural responses associated with depression. Psychogenic stress as a major inducer of depression can lead to transient trafficking of T lymphocytes into the brain stimulating the secretion of certain neurotrophic factors and cytokines. The separate and combined mechanism of CD4 and CD8 T cell activation is likely to determine the response pattern of CNS specific neurokines and neurotrophins. Under chronic stress-induced neuroinflammatory conditions associated with depression, T cell responses may become maladaptive and can be involved in neurodegeneration. Additionally, intracellular adhesion and MHC molecule expression as well as glucocorticoid receptor expression within the brain may play a role in determining T lymphocyte functionality in depression. Taken together, T lymphocyte mechanisms, which confer susceptibility or resilience to MDD, are not yet fully understood. Further insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms which balance the adaptive and maladaptive roles of T lymphocytes may provide a better

  6. Foreign DNA capture during CRISPR–Cas adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Nuñez, James K.; Harrington, Lucas B.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Engelman, Alan N.; Doudna, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea generate adaptive immunity against phages and plasmids by integrating foreign DNA of specific 30–40 base pair (bp) lengths into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci as spacer segments1–6. The universally conserved Cas1–Cas2 integrase complex catalyzes spacer acquisition using a direct nucleophilic integration mechanism similar to retroviral integrases and transposases7–13. How the Cas1–Cas2 complex selects foreign DNA substrates for integration remains unknown. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of the Escherichia coli Cas1–Cas2 complex bound to cognate 33 nucleotide (nt) protospacer DNA substrates. The protein complex creates a curved binding surface spanning the length of the DNA and splays the ends of the protospacer to allow each terminal nucleophilic 3′–OH to enter a channel leading into the Cas1 active sites. Phosphodiester backbone interactions between the protospacer and the proteins explain the sequence-nonspecific substrate selection observed in vivo2–4. Our results uncover the structural basis for foreign DNA capture and the mechanism by which Cas1–Cas2 functions as a molecular ruler to dictate the sequence architecture of CRISPR loci. PMID:26503043

  7. Foreign DNA capture during CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Nuñez, James K; Harrington, Lucas B; Kranzusch, Philip J; Engelman, Alan N; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2015-11-26

    Bacteria and archaea generate adaptive immunity against phages and plasmids by integrating foreign DNA of specific 30-40-base-pair lengths into clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci as spacer segments. The universally conserved Cas1-Cas2 integrase complex catalyses spacer acquisition using a direct nucleophilic integration mechanism similar to retroviral integrases and transposases. How the Cas1-Cas2 complex selects foreign DNA substrates for integration remains unknown. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of the Escherichia coli Cas1-Cas2 complex bound to cognate 33-nucleotide protospacer DNA substrates. The protein complex creates a curved binding surface spanning the length of the DNA and splays the ends of the protospacer to allow each terminal nucleophilic 3'-OH to enter a channel leading into the Cas1 active sites. Phosphodiester backbone interactions between the protospacer and the proteins explain the sequence-nonspecific substrate selection observed in vivo. Our results uncover the structural basis for foreign DNA capture and the mechanism by which Cas1-Cas2 functions as a molecular ruler to dictate the sequence architecture of CRISPR loci.

  8. Selection for increased mass-independent maximal metabolic rate suppresses innate but not adaptive immune function

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Cynthia J.; Brown, Jessi L.; Wone, Bernard; Donovan, Edward R.; Hunter, Kenneth; Hayes, Jack P.

    2013-01-01

    Both appropriate metabolic rates and sufficient immune function are essential for survival. Consequently, eco-immunologists have hypothesized that animals may experience trade-offs between metabolic rates and immune function. Previous work has focused on how basal metabolic rate (BMR) may trade-off with immune function, but maximal metabolic rate (MMR), the upper limit to aerobic activity, might also trade-off with immune function. We used mice artificially selected for high mass-independent MMR to test for trade-offs with immune function. We assessed (i) innate immune function by quantifying cytokine production in response to injection with lipopolysaccharide and (ii) adaptive immune function by measuring antibody production in response to injection with keyhole limpet haemocyanin. Selection for high mass-independent MMR suppressed innate immune function, but not adaptive immune function. However, analyses at the individual level also indicate a negative correlation between MMR and adaptive immune function. By contrast BMR did not affect immune function. Evolutionarily, natural selection may favour increasing MMR to enhance aerobic performance and endurance, but the benefits of high MMR may be offset by impaired immune function. This result could be important in understanding the selective factors acting on the evolution of metabolic rates. PMID:23303541

  9. Cutaneous innate immune sensing of Toll-like receptor 2-6 ligands suppresses T cell immunity by inducing myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    PubMed

    Skabytska, Yuliya; Wölbing, Florian; Günther, Claudia; Köberle, Martin; Kaesler, Susanne; Chen, Ko-Ming; Guenova, Emmanuella; Demircioglu, Doruk; Kempf, Wolfgang E; Volz, Thomas; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Schaller, Martin; Röcken, Martin; Götz, Friedrich; Biedermann, Tilo

    2014-11-20

    Skin is constantly exposed to bacteria and antigens, and cutaneous innate immune sensing orchestrates adaptive immune responses. In its absence, skin pathogens can expand, entering deeper tissues and leading to life-threatening infectious diseases. To characterize skin-driven immunity better, we applied living bacteria, defined lipopeptides, and antigens cutaneously. We found suppression of immune responses due to cutaneous infection with Gram-positive S. aureus, which was based on bacterial lipopeptides. Skin exposure to Toll-like receptor (TLR)2-6-binding lipopeptides, but not TLR2-1-binding lipopeptides, potently suppressed immune responses through induction of Gr1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Investigating human atopic dermatitis, in which Gram-positive bacteria accumulate, we detected high MDSC amounts in blood and skin. TLR2 activation in skin resident cells triggered interleukin-6 (IL-6), which induced suppressive MDSCs, which are then recruited to the skin suppressing T cell-mediated recall responses such as dermatitis. Thus, cutaneous bacteria can negatively regulate skin-driven immune responses by inducing MDSCs via TLR2-6 activation.

  10. The Innate Immune Receptor PGRP-LC Controls Presynaptic Homeostatic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Harris, Nathan; Braiser, Daniel J; Dickman, Dion K; Fetter, Richard D; Tong, Amy; Davis, Graeme W

    2015-12-16

    It is now appreciated that the brain is immunologically active. Highly conserved innate immune signaling responds to pathogen invasion and injury and promotes structural refinement of neural circuitry. However, it remains generally unknown whether innate immune signaling has a function during the day-to-day regulation of neural function in the absence of pathogens and irrespective of cellular damage or developmental change. Here we show that an innate immune receptor, a member of the peptidoglycan pattern recognition receptor family (PGRP-LC), is required for the induction and sustained expression of homeostatic synaptic plasticity. This receptor functions presynaptically, controlling the homeostatic modulation of the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles following inhibition of postsynaptic glutamate receptor function. Thus, PGRP-LC is a candidate receptor for retrograde, trans-synaptic signaling, a novel activity for innate immune signaling and the first known function of a PGRP-type receptor in the nervous system of any organism. PMID:26687223

  11. Perception of pathogenic or beneficial bacteria and their evasion of host immunity: pattern recognition receptors in the frontline

    PubMed Central

    Trdá, Lucie; Boutrot, Freddy; Claverie, Justine; Brulé, Daphnée; Dorey, Stephan; Poinssot, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Plants are continuously monitoring the presence of microorganisms to establish an adapted response. Plants commonly use pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to perceive microbe- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs/PAMPs) which are microorganism molecular signatures. Located at the plant plasma membrane, the PRRs are generally receptor-like kinases (RLKs) or receptor-like proteins (RLPs). MAMP detection will lead to the establishment of a plant defense program called MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI). In this review, we overview the RLKs and RLPs that assure early recognition and control of pathogenic or beneficial bacteria. We also highlight the crucial function of PRRs during plant-microbe interactions, with a special emphasis on the receptors of the bacterial flagellin and peptidoglycan. In addition, we discuss the multiple strategies used by bacteria to evade PRR-mediated recognition. PMID:25904927

  12. Toll-Like Receptor-4 Dependent Small Intestinal Immune Responses Following Murine Arcobacter Butzleri Infection

    PubMed Central

    Heimesaat, Markus M.; Karadas, Gül; Fischer, André; Göbel, Ulf B.; Alter, Thomas; Bereswill, Stefan; Gölz, Greta

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic cases of gastroenteritis have been attributed to Arcobacter butzleri infection, but information about the underlying immunopathological mechanisms is scarce. We have recently shown that experimental A. butzleri infection induces intestinal, extraintestinal and systemic immune responses in gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the immunopathological role of Toll-like Receptor-4, the receptor for lipopolysaccharide and lipooligosaccharide of Gram-negative bacteria, during murine A. butzleri infection. To address this, gnotobiotic IL-10–/– mice lacking TLR-4 were generated by broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment and perorally infected with two different A. butzleri strains isolated from a patient (CCUG 30485) or fresh chicken meat (C1), respectively. Bacteria of either strain stably colonized the ilea of mice irrespective of their genotype at days 6 and 16 postinfection. As compared to IL-10–/– control animals, TLR-4–/– IL-10–/– mice were protected from A. butzleri-induced ileal apoptosis, from ileal influx of adaptive immune cells including T lymphocytes, regulatory T-cells and B lymphocytes, and from increased ileal IFN-γ secretion. Given that TLR-4-signaling is essential for A. butzleri-induced intestinal inflammation, we conclude that bacterial lipooligosaccharide or lipopolysaccharide compounds aggravate intestinal inflammation and may thus represent major virulence factors of Arcobacter. Future studies need to further unravel the molecular mechanisms of TLR-4-mediated A. butzleri-host interactions. PMID:26716022

  13. Interactions of innate and adaptive immunity in brain development and function

    PubMed Central

    Filiano, Anthony J.; Gadani, Sachin P.; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for decades that the immune system has a tremendous impact on behavior. Most work has described the negative role of immune cells on the central nervous system. However, we and others have demonstrated over the last decade that a well-regulated immune system is needed for proper brain function. Here we discuss several neuro-immune interactions, using examples from brain homeostasis and disease states. We will highlight our understanding of the consequences of malfunctioning immunity on neurodevelopment and will discuss the roles of the innate and adaptive immune system in neurodevelopment and how T cells maintain a proper innate immune balance in the brain surroundings and within its parenchyma. Also, we describe how immune imbalance impairs higher order brain functioning, possibly leading to behavioral and cognitive impairment. Lastly, we propose our hypothesis that some behavioral deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders, such as in autism spectrum disorder, are the consequence of malfunctioning immunity. PMID:25110235

  14. The cell surface receptor Slamf6 modulates innate immune responses during Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    van Driel, Boaz; Wang, Guoxing; Liao, Gongxian; Halibozek, Peter J; Keszei, Marton; O'Keeffe, Michael S; Bhan, Atul K; Wang, Ninghai; Terhorst, Cox

    2015-09-01

    The homophilic cell surface receptors CD150 (Slamf1) and CD352 (Slamf6) are known to modulate adaptive immune responses. Although the Th17 response was enhanced in Slamf6(-/-) C57BL/6 mice upon oral infection with Citrobacter rodentium, the pathologic consequences are indistinguishable from an infection of wild-type C57BL/6 mice. Using a reporter-based binding assay, we show that Slamf6 can engage structures on the outer cell membrane of several Gram(-) bacteria. Therefore, we examined whether Slamf6, like Slamf1, is also involved in innate responses to bacteria and regulates peripheral inflammation by assessing the outcome of C. rodentium infections in Rag(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, the pathology and immune responses in the lamina propria of C. rodentium-infected Slamf6(-/-) Rag(-/-) mice were markedly reduced as compared with those of Rag(-/-) mice. Infiltration of inflammatory phagocytes into the lamina propria was consistently lower in Slamf6(-/-) Rag(-/-) mice than in Rag(-/-) animals. Concomitant with the reduced systemic translocation of the bacteria was an enhanced production of IL-22, suggesting that Slamf6 suppresses a mucosal protective program. Furthermore, administering a mAb (330) that inhibits bacterial interactions with Slamf6 to Rag(-/-) mice ameliorated the infection compared with a control antibody. We conclude that Slamf6-mediated interactions of colonic innate immune cells with specific Gram(-) bacteria reduce mucosal protection and enhance inflammation, contributing to lethal colitis that is caused by C. rodentium infections in Rag(-/-) mice.

  15. Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zu, Yun-Xiao; Zhou, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation based on the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm is proposed, and a fitness function is provided. Simulations are conducted using the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm, the simulated annealing algorithm, the quantum genetic algorithm and the simple genetic algorithm, respectively. The results show that the adaptive niche immune genetic algorithm performs better than the other three algorithms in terms of the multi-user cognitive radio network resource allocation, and has quick convergence speed and strong global searching capability, which effectively reduces the system power consumption and bit error rate.

  16. Adaptive immune response of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells: a new paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zheng W.; Letvin, Norman L.

    2010-01-01

    The role of γδ T cells in adaptive immunity remains uncertain. Recent studies have demonstrated that a unique subset of γδ T cells in primates can mount adaptive immune responses during mycobacterial infections. This Review discusses notable similarities and differences in adaptive immune responses between non-peptide-specific γδ T cells and peptide-specific αβ T cells, and discusses both the molecular basis for γδ T-cell responses and potential functions of these enigmatic cells. PMID:12697454

  17. Response of pulmonary rapidly adapting receptors during lung inflation.

    PubMed

    Pack, A I; DeLaney, R G

    1983-09-01

    Studies were conducted to establish the factors that determine the response of canine pulmonary rapidly adapting receptors (RAR) during lung inflation. Inflations of the lung were performed at several constant rates during which the activity of individual RAR was counted. At each rate of inflation tested multiple identical tests were performed. The volume of each test inflation was controlled. Data obtained in all tests at each flow rate were averaged to give the mean response of the receptor at that rate of inflation. These studies indicate the major response characteristics of RAR during lung inflation in conditions of relatively constant lung mechanics. First, at a constant rate of inflation, the activity of RAR augments increasingly as the lung is expanded. Second, their activity is influenced markedly by the rate of inflation. However, this sensitivity is nonlinear. Specifically, at low rates of inflation increases in flow rate produce more marked augmentation of RAR firing than do identical increases in flow at higher rates of inflation. The major difference between receptors is in their threshold; however, this too is a function of flow rate. With increasing flow rate the threshold, whether measured as the inflation volume or transpulmonary pressure at which receptors begin to fire, declines. The response of receptors, however, with thresholds over the entire range show the major features discussed above. The present results provide quantitative information which are necessary to begin to eludicate the transduction properties of this receptor type.

  18. Coordinate actions of innate immune responses oppose those of the adaptive immune system during Salmonella infection of mice.

    PubMed

    Hotson, Andrew N; Gopinath, Smita; Nicolau, Monica; Khasanova, Anna; Finck, Rachel; Monack, Denise; Nolan, Garry P

    2016-01-12

    The immune system enacts a coordinated response when faced with complex environmental and pathogenic perturbations. We used the heterogeneous responses of mice to persistent Salmonella infection to model system-wide coordination of the immune response to bacterial burden. We hypothesized that the variability in outcomes of bacterial growth and immune response across genetically identical mice could be used to identify immune elements that serve as integrators enabling co-regulation and interconnectedness of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Correlation analysis of immune response variation to Salmonella infection linked bacterial load with at least four discrete, interacting functional immune response "cassettes." One of these, the innate cassette, in the chronically infected mice included features of the innate immune system, systemic neutrophilia, and high serum concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. Compared with mice with a moderate bacterial load, mice with the highest bacterial burden exhibited high activity of this innate cassette, which was associated with a dampened activity of the adaptive T cell cassette-with fewer plasma cells and CD4(+) T helper 1 cells and increased numbers of regulatory T cells-and with a dampened activity of the cytokine signaling cassette. System-wide manipulation of neutrophil numbers revealed that neutrophils regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling in B cells during infection. Thus, a network-level approach demonstrated unappreciated interconnections that balanced innate and adaptive immune responses during the dynamic course of disease and identified signals associated with pathogen transmission status, as well as a regulatory role for neutrophils in cytokine signaling.

  19. Evolutionary implication of B-1 lineage cells from innate to adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lv-yun; Shao, Tong; Nie, Li; Zhu, Ling-yun; Xiang, Li-xin; Shao, Jian-zhong

    2016-01-01

    The paradigm that B cells mainly play a central role in adaptive immunity may have to be reevaluated because B-1 lineage cells have been found to exhibit innate-like functions, such as phagocytic and bactericidal activities. Therefore, the evolutionary connection of B-1 lineage cells between innate and adaptive immunities have received much attention. In this review, we summarized various innate-like characteristics of B-1 lineage cells, such as natural antibody production, antigen-presenting function in primary adaptive immunity, and T cell-independent immune responses. These characteristics seem highly conserved between fish B cells and mammalian B-1 cells during vertebrate evolution. We proposed an evolutionary outline of B cells by comparing biological features, including morphology, phenotype, ontogeny, and functional activity between B-1 lineage cells and macrophages or B-2 cells. The B-1 lineage may be a transitional cell type between phagocytic cells (e.g., macrophages) and B-2 cells that functionally connects innate and adaptive immunities. Our discussion would contribute to the understanding on the origination of B cells specialized in adaptive immunity from innate immunity. The results might provide further insight into the evolution of the immune system as a whole.

  20. Chemical Tools To Monitor and Manipulate Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Doran, Todd M; Sarkar, Mohosin; Kodadek, Thomas

    2016-05-18

    Methods to monitor and manipulate the immune system are of enormous clinical interest. For example, the development of vaccines represents one of the earliest and greatest accomplishments of the biomedical research enterprise. More recently, drugs capable of "reawakening" the immune system to cancer have generated enormous excitement. But, much remains to be done. All drugs available today that manipulate the immune system cannot distinguish between "good" and "bad" immune responses and thus drive general and systemic immune suppression or activation. Indeed, with the notable exception of vaccines, our ability to monitor and manipulate antigen-specific immune responses is in its infancy. Achieving this finer level of control would be highly desirable. For example, it might allow the pharmacological editing of pathogenic immune responses without restricting the ability of the immune system to defend against infection. On the diagnostic side, a method to comprehensively monitor the circulating, antigen-specific antibody population could provide a treasure trove of clinically useful biomarkers, since many diseases expose the immune system to characteristic molecules that are deemed foreign and elicit the production of antibodies against them. This Perspective will discuss the state-of-the-art of this area with a focus on what we consider seminal opportunities for the chemistry community to contribute to this important field.

  1. Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Immune Cells; Emerging Role in Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bene, Nicholas C.; Alcaide, Pilar; Wortis, Henry H.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2014-01-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) contribute to the pathophysiology of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in humans. As such, MR antagonists improve cardiovascular outcomes but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The actions of the MR in the kidney to increase blood pressure are well known, but the recent identification of MRs in immune cells has led to novel discoveries in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease that are reviewed here. MR regulates macrophage activation to the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype and this process contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular fibrosis in response to hypertension and to outcomes in mouse models of stroke. T lymphocytes have recently been implicated in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular fibrosis in mouse models. MR activation in vivo promotes T lymphocyte differentiation to the pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 subsets while decreasing the number of anti-inflammatory T regulatory lymphocytes. The mechanism likely involves activation of MR in antigen presenting dendritic cells that subsequently regulate Th1/Th17 polarization by production of cytokines. Alteration of the balance between T helper and T regulatory lymphocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and atherosclerosis and the associated complications. B lymphocytes also express the MR and specific B lymphocyte-derived antibodies modulate the progression of atherosclerosis. However, the role of MR in B lymphocyte function remains to be explored. Overall, recent studies of MR in immune cells have identified new mechanisms by which MR activation may contribute to the pathogenesis of organ damage in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Conversely, inhibition of leukocyte MR may contribute to the protective effects of MR antagonist drugs in cardiovascular patients. Further understanding of the role of MR in leukocyte function could yield novel drug targets for cardiovascular disease. PMID:24769248

  2. The T cell antigen receptor: the Swiss army knife of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Attaf, M; Legut, M; Cole, D K; Sewell, A K

    2015-07-01

    The mammalian T cell receptor (TCR) orchestrates immunity by responding to many billions of different ligands that it has never encountered before and cannot adapt to at the protein sequence level. This remarkable receptor exists in two main heterodimeric isoforms: αβ TCR and γδ TCR. The αβ TCR is expressed on the majority of peripheral T cells. Most αβ T cells recognize peptides, derived from degraded proteins, presented at the cell surface in molecular cradles called major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Recent reports have described other αβ T cell subsets. These 'unconventional' T cells bear TCRs that are capable of recognizing lipid ligands presented in the context of the MHC-like CD1 protein family or bacterial metabolites bound to the MHC-related protein 1 (MR1). γδ T cells constitute a minority of the T cell pool in human blood, but can represent up to half of total T cells in tissues such as the gut and skin. The identity of the preferred ligands for γδ T cells remains obscure, but it is now known that this receptor can also functionally engage CD1-lipid, or immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily proteins called butyrophilins in the presence of pyrophosphate intermediates of bacterial lipid biosynthesis. Interactions between TCRs and these ligands allow the host to discriminate between self and non-self and co-ordinate an attack on the latter. Here, we describe how cells of the T lymphocyte lineage and their antigen receptors are generated and discuss the various modes of antigen recognition by these extraordinarily versatile receptors.

  3. Lipoxin A₄ modulates adaptive immunity by decreasing memory B-cell responses via an ALX/FPR2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Sesquile; Bancos, Simona; Serhan, Charles N; Phipps, Richard P

    2014-02-01

    Specialized proresolving mediators are endogenous bioactive lipid molecules that play a fundamental role in the regulation of inflammation and its resolution. Lipoxins and other specialized proresolving mediators have been identified in important immunological tissues including bone marrow, spleen, and blood. Lipoxins regulate functions of the innate immune system including the promotion of monocyte recruitment and increase macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. A major knowledge gap is whether lipoxins influence adaptive immune cells. Here, we analyzed the actions of lipoxin A₄ (LXA₄) and its receptor ALX/FPR2 on human and mouse B cells. LXA₄ decreased IgM and IgG production on activated human B cells through ALX/FPR2-dependent signaling, which downregulated NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. LXA₄ also inhibited human memory B-cell antibody production and proliferation, but not naïve B-cell function. Lastly, LXA₄ decreased antigen-specific antibody production in an OVA immunization mouse model. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the actions of lipoxins on human B cells, demonstrating a link between resolution signals and adaptive immunity. Regulating antibody production is crucial to prevent unwanted inflammation. Harnessing the ability of lipoxins to decrease memory B-cell antibody production can be beneficial to threat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.

  4. The Role of Bitter and Sweet Taste Receptors in Upper Airway Immunity.

    PubMed

    Workman, Alan D; Palmer, James N; Adappa, Nithin D; Cohen, Noam A

    2015-12-01

    Over the past several years, taste receptors have emerged as key players in the regulation of innate immune defenses in the mammalian respiratory tract. Several cell types in the airway, including ciliated epithelial cells, solitary chemosensory cells, and bronchial smooth muscle cells, all display chemoresponsive properties that utilize taste receptors. A variety of bitter products secreted by microbes are detected with resultant downstream inflammation, increased mucous clearance, antimicrobial peptide secretion, and direct bacterial killing. Genetic variation of bitter taste receptors also appears to play a role in the susceptibility to infection in respiratory disease states, including that of chronic rhinosinusitis. Ongoing taste receptor research may yield new therapeutics that harness innate immune defenses in the respiratory tract and may offer alternatives to antibiotic treatment. The present review discusses taste receptor-protective responses and analyzes the role these receptors play in mediating airway immune function.

  5. The Role of Bitter and Sweet Taste Receptors in Upper Airway Immunity.

    PubMed

    Workman, Alan D; Palmer, James N; Adappa, Nithin D; Cohen, Noam A

    2015-12-01

    Over the past several years, taste receptors have emerged as key players in the regulation of innate immune defenses in the mammalian respiratory tract. Several cell types in the airway, including ciliated epithelial cells, solitary chemosensory cells, and bronchial smooth muscle cells, all display chemoresponsive properties that utilize taste receptors. A variety of bitter products secreted by microbes are detected with resultant downstream inflammation, increased mucous clearance, antimicrobial peptide secretion, and direct bacterial killing. Genetic variation of bitter taste receptors also appears to play a role in the susceptibility to infection in respiratory disease states, including that of chronic rhinosinusitis. Ongoing taste receptor research may yield new therapeutics that harness innate immune defenses in the respiratory tract and may offer alternatives to antibiotic treatment. The present review discusses taste receptor-protective responses and analyzes the role these receptors play in mediating airway immune function. PMID:26492878

  6. Inflammatory caspases are innate immune receptors for intracellular LPS.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianjin; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Yupeng; Gao, Wenqing; Ding, Jingjin; Li, Peng; Hu, Liyan; Shao, Feng

    2014-10-01

    The murine caspase-11 non-canonical inflammasome responds to various bacterial infections. Caspase-11 activation-induced pyroptosis, in response to cytoplasmic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is critical for endotoxic shock in mice. The mechanism underlying cytosolic LPS sensing and the responsible pattern recognition receptor are unknown. Here we show that human monocytes, epithelial cells and keratinocytes undergo necrosis upon cytoplasmic delivery of LPS. LPS-induced cytotoxicity was mediated by human caspase-4 that could functionally complement murine caspase-11. Human caspase-4 and the mouse homologue caspase-11 (hereafter referred to as caspase-4/11) and also human caspase-5, directly bound to LPS and lipid A with high specificity and affinity. LPS associated with endogenous caspase-11 in pyroptotic cells. Insect-cell purified caspase-4/11 underwent oligomerization upon LPS binding, resulting in activation of the caspases. Underacylated lipid IVa and lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (LPS-RS) could bind to caspase-4/11 but failed to induce their oligomerization and activation. LPS binding was mediated by the CARD domain of the caspase. Binding-deficient CARD-domain point mutants did not respond to LPS with oligomerization or activation and failed to induce pyroptosis upon LPS electroporation or bacterial infections. The function of caspase-4/5/11 represents a new mode of pattern recognition in immunity and also an unprecedented means of caspase activation. PMID:25119034

  7. A Large Repertoire of Parasite Epitopes Matched by a Large Repertoire of Host Immune Receptors in an Invertebrate Host/Parasite Model

    PubMed Central

    Moné, Yves; Gourbal, Benjamin; Duval, David; Du Pasquier, Louis; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Mitta, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    For many decades, invertebrate immunity was believed to be non-adaptive, poorly specific, relying exclusively on sometimes multiple but germ-line encoded innate receptors and effectors. But recent studies performed in different invertebrate species have shaken this paradigm by providing evidence for various types of somatic adaptations at the level of putative immune receptors leading to an enlarged repertoire of recognition molecules. Fibrinogen Related Proteins (FREPs) from the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata are an example of these putative immune receptors. They are known to be involved in reactions against trematode parasites. Following not yet well understood somatic mechanisms, the FREP repertoire varies considerably from one snail to another, showing a trend towards an individualization of the putative immune repertoire almost comparable to that described from vertebrate adaptive immune system. Nevertheless, their antigenic targets remain unknown. In this study, we show that a specific set of these highly variable FREPs from B. glabrata forms complexes with similarly highly polymorphic and individually variable mucin molecules from its specific trematode parasite S. mansoni (Schistosoma mansoni Polymorphic Mucins: SmPoMucs). This is the first evidence of the interaction between diversified immune receptors and antigenic variant in an invertebrate host/pathogen model. The same order of magnitude in the diversity of the parasite epitopes and the one of the FREP suggests co-evolutionary dynamics between host and parasite regarding this set of determinants that could explain population features like the compatibility polymorphism observed in B. glabrata/S. mansoni interaction. In addition, we identified a third partner associated with the FREPs/SmPoMucs in the immune complex: a Thioester containing Protein (TEP) belonging to a molecular category that plays a role in phagocytosis or encapsulation following recognition. The presence of this last partner in this

  8. Differential pathways regulating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses by particulate and soluble yeast-derived β-glucans

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Chunjian; Cai, Yihua; Gunn, Lacey; Ding, Chuanlin; Li, Bing; Kloecker, Goetz; Qian, Keqing; Vasilakos, John; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Yannelli, John R.

    2011-01-01

    β-glucans have been reported to function as a potent adjuvant to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. However, β-glucans from different sources are differential in their structure, conformation, and thus biologic activity. Different preparations of β-glucans, soluble versus particulate, further complicate their mechanism of action. Here we show that yeast-derived particulate β-glucan activated dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages via a C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 pathway. Activated DCs by particulate β-glucan promoted Th1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and differentiation in vitro. Treatment of orally administered yeast-derived particulate β-glucan elicited potent antitumor immune responses and drastically down-regulated immunosuppressive cells, leading to the delayed tumor progression. Deficiency of the dectin-1 receptor completely abrogated particulate β-glucan–mediated antitumor effects. In contrast, yeast-derived soluble β-glucan bound to DCs and macrophages independent of the dectin-1 receptor and did not activate DCs. Soluble β-glucan alone had no therapeutic effect but significantly augmented antitumor monoclonal antibody-mediated therapeutic efficacy via a complement activation pathway but independent of dectin-1 receptor. These findings reveal the importance of different preparations of β-glucans in the adjuvant therapy and allow for the rational design of immunotherapeutic protocols usable in clinical trials. PMID:21531981

  9. Differential pathways regulating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses by particulate and soluble yeast-derived β-glucans.

    PubMed

    Qi, Chunjian; Cai, Yihua; Gunn, Lacey; Ding, Chuanlin; Li, Bing; Kloecker, Goetz; Qian, Keqing; Vasilakos, John; Saijo, Shinobu; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Yannelli, John R; Yan, Jun

    2011-06-23

    β-glucans have been reported to function as a potent adjuvant to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. However, β-glucans from different sources are differential in their structure, conformation, and thus biologic activity. Different preparations of β-glucans, soluble versus particulate, further complicate their mechanism of action. Here we show that yeast-derived particulate β-glucan activated dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages via a C-type lectin receptor dectin-1 pathway. Activated DCs by particulate β-glucan promoted Th1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and differentiation in vitro. Treatment of orally administered yeast-derived particulate β-glucan elicited potent antitumor immune responses and drastically down-regulated immunosuppressive cells, leading to the delayed tumor progression. Deficiency of the dectin-1 receptor completely abrogated particulate β-glucan-mediated antitumor effects. In contrast, yeast-derived soluble β-glucan bound to DCs and macrophages independent of the dectin-1 receptor and did not activate DCs. Soluble β-glucan alone had no therapeutic effect but significantly augmented antitumor monoclonal antibody-mediated therapeutic efficacy via a complement activation pathway but independent of dectin-1 receptor. These findings reveal the importance of different preparations of β-glucans in the adjuvant therapy and allow for the rational design of immunotherapeutic protocols usable in clinical trials.

  10. Innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor 4 signalling in neuropsychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    García Bueno, B; Caso, J R; Madrigal, J L M; Leza, J C

    2016-05-01

    The innate immunity is a stereotyped first line of defense against pathogens and unspecified damage signals. One of main actors of innate immunity are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and one of the better characterized members of this family is TLR-4, that it is mainly activated by Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide. In brain, TLR-4 organizes innate immune responses against infections or cellular damage, but also possesses other physiological functions. In the last years, some evidences suggest a role of TLR-4 in stress and stress-related neuropsychiatric diseases. Peripheral and brain TLR-4 activation triggers sickness behavior, and its expression is a risk factor of depression. Some elements of the TLR-4 signaling pathway are up-regulated in peripheral samples and brain post-mortem tissue from depressed and suicidal patients. The "leaky gut" hypothesis of neuropsychiatric diseases is based on the existence of an increase of the intestinal permeability which results in bacterial translocation able to activate TLR-4. Enhanced peripheral TLR-4 expression/activity has been described in subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and in autistic children. A role for TLR-4 in drugs abuse has been also proposed. The therapeutic potential of pharmacological/genetic modulation of TLRs signaling pathways in neuropsychiatry is promising, but a great preclinical/clinical scientific effort is still needed.

  11. Phagocytic receptors activate and immune inhibitory receptor SIRPα inhibits phagocytosis through paxillin and cofilin.

    PubMed

    Gitik, Miri; Kleinhaus, Rachel; Hadas, Smadar; Reichert, Fanny; Rotshenker, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    The innate immune function of phagocytosis of apoptotic cells, tissue debris, pathogens, and cancer cells is essential for homeostasis, tissue repair, fighting infection, and combating malignancy. Phagocytosis is carried out in the central nervous system (CNS) by resident microglia and in both CNS and peripheral nervous system by recruited macrophages. While phagocytosis proceeds, bystander healthy cells protect themselves by sending a "do not eat me" message to phagocytes as CD47 on their surface ligates immune inhibitory receptor SIRPα on the surface of phagocytes and SIRPα then produces the signaling which inhibits phagocytosis. This helpful mechanism becomes harmful when tissue debris and unhealthy cells inhibit their own phagocytosis by employing the same mechanism. However, the inhibitory signaling that SIRPα produces has not been fully revealed. We focus here on how SIRPα inhibits the phagocytosis of the tissue debris "degenerated myelin" which hinders repair in axonal injury and neurodegenerative diseases. We tested whether SIRPα inhibits phagocytosis by regulating cytoskeleton function through paxillin and cofilin since (a) the cytoskeleton generates the mechanical forces that drive phagocytosis and (b) both paxillin and cofilin control cytoskeleton function. Paxillin and cofilin were transiently activated in microglia as phagocytosis was activated. In contrast, paxillin and cofilin were continuously activated and phagocytosis augmented in microglia in which SIRPα expression was knocked-down by SIRPα-shRNA. Further, levels of phagocytosis, paxillin activation, and cofilin activation positively correlated with one another. Taken together, these observations suggest a novel mechanism whereby paxillin and cofilin are targeted to control phagocytosis by both the activating signaling that phagocytic receptors produce by promoting the activation of paxillin and cofilin and the inhibiting signaling that immune inhibitory SIRPα produces by promoting the

  12. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Immunity; Inflammatory response; Acquired (adaptive) immunity ... and usually does not react against them. INNATE IMMUNITY Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense system ...

  13. Clathrin-dependent endocytosis is required for immunity mediated by pattern recognition receptor kinases.

    PubMed

    Mbengue, Malick; Bourdais, Gildas; Gervasi, Fabio; Beck, Martina; Zhou, Ji; Spallek, Thomas; Bartels, Sebastian; Boller, Thomas; Ueda, Takashi; Kuhn, Hannah; Robatzek, Silke

    2016-09-27

    Sensing of potential pathogenic bacteria is of critical importance for immunity. In plants, this involves plasma membrane-resident pattern recognition receptors, one of which is the FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) receptor kinase. Ligand-activated FLS2 receptors are internalized into endosomes. However, the extent to which these spatiotemporal dynamics are generally present among pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and their regulation remain elusive. Using live-cell imaging, we show that at least three other receptor kinases associated with plant immunity, PEP RECEPTOR 1/2 (PEPR1/2) and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), internalize in a ligand-specific manner. In all cases, endocytosis requires the coreceptor BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1), and thus depends on receptor activation status. We also show the internalization of liganded FLS2, suggesting the transport of signaling competent receptors. Trafficking of activated PRRs requires clathrin and converges onto the same endosomal vesicles that are also shared with the hormone receptor BRASSINOSTERIOD INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1). Importantly, clathrin-dependent endocytosis participates in plant defense against bacterial infection involving FLS2-mediated stomatal closure and callose deposition, but is uncoupled from activation of the flagellin-induced oxidative burst and MAP kinase signaling. In conclusion, immunity mediated by pattern recognition receptors depends on clathrin, a critical component for the endocytosis of signaling competent receptors into a common endosomal pathway. PMID:27651493

  14. Quantifying the Early Immune Response and Adaptive Immune Response Kinetics in Mice Infected with Influenza A Virus ▿

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Hongyu; Hollenbaugh, Joseph A.; Zand, Martin S.; Holden-Wiltse, Jeanne; Mosmann, Tim R.; Perelson, Alan S.; Wu, Hulin; Topham, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal and pandemic influenza A virus (IAV) continues to be a public health threat. However, we lack a detailed and quantitative understanding of the immune response kinetics to IAV infection and which biological parameters most strongly influence infection outcomes. To address these issues, we use modeling approaches combined with experimental data to quantitatively investigate the innate and adaptive immune responses to primary IAV infection. Mathematical models were developed to describe the dynamic interactions between target (epithelial) cells, influenza virus, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), and virus-specific IgG and IgM. IAV and immune kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting models to a large data set obtained from primary H3N2 IAV infection of 340 mice. Prior to a detectable virus-specific immune response (before day 5), the estimated half-life of infected epithelial cells is ∼1.2 days, and the half-life of free infectious IAV is ∼4 h. During the adaptive immune response (after day 5), the average half-life of infected epithelial cells is ∼0.5 days, and the average half-life of free infectious virus is ∼1.8 min. During the adaptive phase, model fitting confirms that CD8+ CTLs are crucial for limiting infected cells, while virus-specific IgM regulates free IAV levels. This may imply that CD4 T cells and class-switched IgG antibodies are more relevant for generating IAV-specific memory and preventing future infection via a more rapid secondary immune response. Also, simulation studies were performed to understand the relative contributions of biological parameters to IAV clearance. This study provides a basis to better understand and predict influenza virus immunity. PMID:20410284

  15. The dipeptidylpeptidase-IV inhibitors sitagliptin, vildagliptin and saxagliptin do not impair innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Anz, D; Kruger, S; Haubner, S; Rapp, M; Bourquin, C; Endres, S

    2014-06-01

    Inhibitors of dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP-IV) represent a novel class of frequently used anti-diabetic drugs. In addition to its function in metabolic regulation, DPP-IV also plays a role in the immune system. Whether the DPP-IV inhibitors sitagliptin, vildagliptin or saxagliptin impair immune responses is, however, currently unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of these agents on both innate and adaptive immunity. We found that the DPP-IV inhibitors did not affect the innate immune response induced by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, as cytokine secretion and induction of co-stimulatory molecules by human blood mononuclear cells was not impaired. Furthermore, proliferation of T cells and suppressive function of regulatory T cells was preserved. Mice treated with vildagliptin showed normal cytokine production, immune cell activation and lymphocyte trafficking upon TLR activation. Thus, crucial immunological parameters remain unaffected upon treatment with DPP-IV inhibitors, a fact that is reassuring with respect to safety of these drugs. PMID:24320733

  16. The adaptive immune system restrains Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis by modulating microglial function.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Samuel E; Abud, Edsel M; Lakatos, Anita; Karimzadeh, Alborz; Yeung, Stephen T; Davtyan, Hayk; Fote, Gianna M; Lau, Lydia; Weinger, Jason G; Lane, Thomas E; Inlay, Matthew A; Poon, Wayne W; Blurton-Jones, Mathew

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune system is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast, the role of adaptive immunity in AD remains largely unknown. However, numerous clinical trials are testing vaccination strategies for AD, suggesting that T and B cells play a pivotal role in this disease. To test the hypothesis that adaptive immunity influences AD pathogenesis, we generated an immune-deficient AD mouse model that lacks T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. The resulting "Rag-5xfAD" mice exhibit a greater than twofold increase in β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology. Gene expression analysis of the brain implicates altered innate and adaptive immune pathways, including changes in cytokine/chemokine signaling and decreased Ig-mediated processes. Neuroinflammation is also greatly exacerbated in Rag-5xfAD mice as indicated by a shift in microglial phenotype, increased cytokine production, and reduced phagocytic capacity. In contrast, immune-intact 5xfAD mice exhibit elevated levels of nonamyloid reactive IgGs in association with microglia, and treatment of Rag-5xfAD mice or microglial cells with preimmune IgG enhances Aβ clearance. Last, we performed bone marrow transplantation studies in Rag-5xfAD mice, revealing that replacement of these missing adaptive immune populations can dramatically reduce AD pathology. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that adaptive immune cell populations play an important role in restraining AD pathology. In contrast, depletion of B cells and their appropriate activation by T cells leads to a loss of adaptive-innate immunity cross talk and accelerated disease progression. PMID:26884167

  17. The adaptive immune system restrains Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis by modulating microglial function.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Samuel E; Abud, Edsel M; Lakatos, Anita; Karimzadeh, Alborz; Yeung, Stephen T; Davtyan, Hayk; Fote, Gianna M; Lau, Lydia; Weinger, Jason G; Lane, Thomas E; Inlay, Matthew A; Poon, Wayne W; Blurton-Jones, Mathew

    2016-03-01

    The innate immune system is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In contrast, the role of adaptive immunity in AD remains largely unknown. However, numerous clinical trials are testing vaccination strategies for AD, suggesting that T and B cells play a pivotal role in this disease. To test the hypothesis that adaptive immunity influences AD pathogenesis, we generated an immune-deficient AD mouse model that lacks T, B, and natural killer (NK) cells. The resulting "Rag-5xfAD" mice exhibit a greater than twofold increase in β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology. Gene expression analysis of the brain implicates altered innate and adaptive immune pathways, including changes in cytokine/chemokine signaling and decreased Ig-mediated processes. Neuroinflammation is also greatly exacerbated in Rag-5xfAD mice as indicated by a shift in microglial phenotype, increased cytokine production, and reduced phagocytic capacity. In contrast, immune-intact 5xfAD mice exhibit elevated levels of nonamyloid reactive IgGs in association with microglia, and treatment of Rag-5xfAD mice or microglial cells with preimmune IgG enhances Aβ clearance. Last, we performed bone marrow transplantation studies in Rag-5xfAD mice, revealing that replacement of these missing adaptive immune populations can dramatically reduce AD pathology. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that adaptive immune cell populations play an important role in restraining AD pathology. In contrast, depletion of B cells and their appropriate activation by T cells leads to a loss of adaptive-innate immunity cross talk and accelerated disease progression.

  18. Adaptive immunity maintains occult cancer in an equilibrium state.

    PubMed

    Koebel, Catherine M; Vermi, William; Swann, Jeremy B; Zerafa, Nadeen; Rodig, Scott J; Old, Lloyd J; Smyth, Mark J; Schreiber, Robert D

    2007-12-01

    The capacity of immunity to control and shape cancer, that is, cancer immunoediting, is the result of three processes that function either independently or in sequence: elimination (cancer immunosurveillance, in which immunity functions as an extrinsic tumour suppressor in naive hosts); equilibrium (expansion of transformed cells is held in check by immunity); and escape (tumour cell variants with dampened immunogenicity or the capacity to attenuate immune responses grow into clinically apparent cancers). Extensive experimental support now exists for the elimination and escape processes because immunodeficient mice develop more carcinogen-induced and spontaneous cancers than wild-type mice, and tumour cells from immunodeficient mice are more immunogenic than those from immunocompetent mice. In contrast, the equilibrium process was inferred largely from clinical observations, including reports of transplantation of undetected (occult) cancer from organ donor into immunosuppressed recipients. Herein we use a mouse model of primary chemical carcinogenesis and demonstrate that equilibrium occurs, is mechanistically distinguishable from elimination and escape, and that neoplastic cells in equilibrium are transformed but proliferate poorly in vivo. We also show that tumour cells in equilibrium are unedited but become edited when they spontaneously escape immune control and grow into clinically apparent tumours. These results reveal that, in addition to destroying tumour cells and sculpting tumour immunogenicity, the immune system of a naive mouse can also restrain cancer growth for extended time periods.

  19. Biochemical and Functional Insights into the Integrated Regulation of Innate Immune Cell Responses by Teleost Leukocyte Immune-Type Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Chenjie; Pemberton, Joshua G.; Lillico, Dustin M. E.; Zwozdesky, Myron A.; Stafford, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Across vertebrates, innate immunity consists of a complex assortment of highly specialized cells capable of unleashing potent effector responses designed to destroy or mitigate foreign pathogens. The execution of various innate cellular behaviors such as phagocytosis, degranulation, or cell-mediated cytotoxicity are functionally indistinguishable when being performed by immune cells isolated from humans or teleost fishes; vertebrates that diverged from one another more than 450 million years ago. This suggests that vital components of the vertebrate innate defense machinery are conserved and investigating such processes in a range of model systems provides an important opportunity to identify fundamental features of vertebrate immunity. One characteristic that is highly conserved across vertebrate systems is that cellular immune responses are dependent on specialized immunoregulatory receptors that sense environmental stimuli and initiate intracellular cascades that can elicit appropriate effector responses. A wide variety of immunoregulatory receptor families have been extensively studied in mammals, and many have been identified as cell- and function-specific regulators of a range of innate responses. Although much less is known in fish, the growing database of genomic information has recently allowed for the identification of several immunoregulatory receptor gene families in teleosts. Many of these putative immunoregulatory receptors have yet to be assigned any specific role(s), and much of what is known has been based solely on structural and/or phylogenetic relationships with mammalian receptor families. As an attempt to address some of these shortcomings, this review will focus on our growing understanding of the functional roles played by specific members of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocyte immune-type receptors (IpLITRs), which appear to be important regulators of several innate cellular responses via classical as well as unique

  20. Genes of the adaptive immune system are expressed early in zebrafish larval development following lipopolysaccharide stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengling; Zhang, Shicui; Wang, Zhiping; Li, Hongyan

    2011-03-01

    Information regarding immunocompetence of the adaptive immune system (AIS) in zebrafish Danio rerio remains limited. Here, we stimulated an immune response in fish embryos, larvae and adults using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and measured the upregulation of a number of AIS-related genes ( Rag2, AID, TCRAC, IgLC-1, mIg, sIg, IgZ and DAB) 3 and 18 h later. We found that all of the genes evaluated were strongly induced following LPS stimulation, with most of them responding at 8 d post fertilization. This confirms that a functional adaptive immune response is present in D. rerio larvae, and provides a window for further functional analyses.

  1. From inflamm-aging to immune-paralysis: a slippery slope during aging for immune-adaptation.

    PubMed

    Fulop, T; Dupuis, G; Baehl, S; Le Page, A; Bourgade, K; Frost, E; Witkowski, J M; Pawelec, G; Larbi, A; Cunnane, S

    2016-02-01

    Aging is accompanied by many physiological changes including those in the immune system. These changes are designated as immunosenescence indicating that age induces a decrease in immune functions. However, since many years we know that some aspects are not decreasing but instead are increasing like the pro-inflammatory activity by the innate immune cells, especially by monocytes/macrophages. Recently it became evident that these cells may possess a sort of memory called trained memory sustained by epigenetic changes occurring long after even in the absence of the initiator aggressor. In this review we are reviewing evidences that such changes may occur in aging and describe the relationship between inflamm-aging and immunosenescence as an adaptation/remodelling process leading on one hand to increased inflammation and on the other to decreased immune response (immune-paralysis) mastered by the innate immune system. These changes may collectively induce a state of alertness which assure an immune response even if ultimately resulting in age-related deleterious inflammatory diseases. PMID:26472173

  2. The confounding complexity of innate immune receptors within and between teleost species.

    PubMed

    Wcisel, Dustin J; Yoder, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-01

    Teleost genomes encode multiple multigene families of immunoglobulin domain-containing innate immune receptors (IIIRs) with unknown function and no clear mammalian orthologs. However, the genomic organization of IIIR gene clusters and the structure and signaling motifs of the proteins they encode are similar to those of mammalian innate immune receptor families such as the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILRs), Fc receptors, triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells (TREMs) and CD300s. Teleost IIIRs include novel immune-type receptors (NITRs); diverse immunoglobulin domain containing proteins (DICPs); polymeric immunoglobulin receptor-like proteins (PIGRLs); novel immunoglobulin-like transcripts (NILTs) and leukocyte immune-type receptors (LITRs). The accumulation of genomic sequence data has revealed that IIIR gene clusters in zebrafish display haplotypic and gene content variation. This intraspecific genetic variation, as well as significant interspecific variation, frequently confounds the identification of definitive orthologous IIIR sequences between teleost species. Nevertheless, by defining which teleost lineages encode (and do not encode) different IIIR families, predictions can be made about the presence (or absence) of specific IIIR families in each teleost lineage. It is anticipated that further investigations into available genomic resources and the sequencing of a variety of multiple teleost genomes will identify additional IIIR families and permit the modeling of the evolutionary origins of IIIRs. PMID:26997203

  3. Innate and Adaptive Immunity Synergize to Trigger Inflammation in the Mammary Gland.

    PubMed

    Rainard, Pascal; Cunha, Patricia; Gilbert, Florence B

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is able to detect and react to bacterial intrusion through innate immunity mechanisms, but mammary inflammation can also result from antigen-specific adaptive immunity. We postulated that innate and adaptive immune responses could synergize to trigger inflammation in the mammary gland. To test this hypothesis, we immunized cows with the model antigen ovalbumin and challenged the sensitized animals with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as innate immunity agonist, ovalbumin as adaptive immunity agonist, or both agonists in three different udder quarters of lactating cows. There was a significant amplification of the initial milk leukocytosis in the quarters challenged with the two agonists compared to leukocytosis in quarters challenged with LPS or ovalbumin alone. This synergistic response occurred only with the cows that developed the ovalbumin-specific inflammatory response, and there were significant correlations between milk leukocytosis and production of IL-17A and IFN-γ in a whole-blood ovalbumin stimulation assay. The antigen-specific response induced substantial concentrations of IL-17A and IFN-γ in milk contrary to the response to LPS. Such a synergy at the onset of the reaction of the mammary gland suggests that induction of antigen-specific immune response with bacterial antigens could improve the initial immune response to infection, hence reducing the bacterial load and contributing to protection. PMID:27100324

  4. Innate and Adaptive Immunity Synergize to Trigger Inflammation in the Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Rainard, Pascal; Cunha, Patricia; Gilbert, Florence B.

    2016-01-01

    The mammary gland is able to detect and react to bacterial intrusion through innate immunity mechanisms, but mammary inflammation can also result from antigen-specific adaptive immunity. We postulated that innate and adaptive immune responses could synergize to trigger inflammation in the mammary gland. To test this hypothesis, we immunized cows with the model antigen ovalbumin and challenged the sensitized animals with either Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as innate immunity agonist, ovalbumin as adaptive immunity agonist, or both agonists in three different udder quarters of lactating cows. There was a significant amplification of the initial milk leukocytosis in the quarters challenged with the two agonists compared to leukocytosis in quarters challenged with LPS or ovalbumin alone. This synergistic response occurred only with the cows that developed the ovalbumin-specific inflammatory response, and there were significant correlations between milk leukocytosis and production of IL-17A and IFN-γ in a whole-blood ovalbumin stimulation assay. The antigen-specific response induced substantial concentrations of IL-17A and IFN-γ in milk contrary to the response to LPS. Such a synergy at the onset of the reaction of the mammary gland suggests that induction of antigen-specific immune response with bacterial antigens could improve the initial immune response to infection, hence reducing the bacterial load and contributing to protection. PMID:27100324

  5. Evasion of Influenza A Viruses from Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    van de Sandt, Carolien E.; Kreijtz, Joost H. C. M.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.

    2012-01-01

    The influenza A virus is one of the leading causes of respiratory tract infections in humans. Upon infection with an influenza A virus, both innate and adaptive immune responses are induced. Here we discuss various strategies used by influenza A viruses to evade innate immune responses and recognition by components of the humoral and cellular immune response, which consequently may result in reduced clearing of the virus and virus-infected cells. Finally, we discuss how the current knowledge about immune evasion can be used to improve influenza A vaccination strategies. PMID:23170167

  6. From The Cover: Induction of antiviral immunity requires Toll-like receptor signaling in both stromal and dendritic cell compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ayuko; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2004-11-01

    Pattern recognition by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) is known to be important for the induction of dendritic cell (DC) maturation. DCs, in turn, are critically important in the initiation of T cell responses. However, most viruses do not infect DCs. This recognition system poses a biological problem in ensuring that most viral infections be detected by pattern recognition receptors. Furthermore, it is unknown what, if any, is the contribution of TLRs expressed by cells that are infected by a virus, versus TLRs expressed by DCs, in the initiation of antiviral adaptive immunity. Here we address these issues using a physiologically relevant model of mucosal infection with herpes simplex virus type 2. We demonstrate that innate immune recognition of viral infection occurs in two distinct stages, one at the level of the infected epithelial cells and the other at the level of the noninfected DCs. Importantly, both TLR-mediated recognition events are required for the induction of effector T cells. Our results demonstrate that virally infected tissues instruct DCs to initiate the appropriate class of effector T cell responses and reveal the critical importance of the stromal cells in detecting infectious agents through their own pattern recognition receptors. mucosal immunity | pattern recognition | viral infection

  7. The microbiota in adaptive immune homeostasis and disease.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kenya; Littman, Dan R

    2016-07-06

    In the mucosa, the immune system's T cells and B cells have position-specific phenotypes and functions that are influenced by the microbiota. These cells play pivotal parts in the maintenance of immune homeostasis by suppressing responses to harmless antigens and by enforcing the integrity of the barrier functions of the gut mucosa. Imbalances in the gut microbiota, known as dysbiosis, can trigger several immune disorders through the activity of T cells that are both near to and distant from the site of their induction. Elucidation of the mechanisms that distinguish between homeostatic and pathogenic microbiota-host interactions could identify therapeutic targets for preventing or modulating inflammatory diseases and for boosting the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.

  8. Modulation of host adaptive immunity by hRSV proteins

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Janyra A; Bohmwald, Karen; Céspedes, Pablo F; Riedel, Claudia A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2014-01-01

    Globally, the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants and children younger than 2 years old. Furthermore, the number of hospitalizations due to LRTIs has shown a sustained increase every year due to the lack of effective vaccines against hRSV. Thus, this virus remains as a major public health and economic burden worldwide. The lung pathology developed in hRSV-infected humans is characterized by an exacerbated inflammatory and Th2 immune response. In order to rationally design new vaccines and therapies against this virus, several studies have focused in elucidating the interactions between hRSV virulence factors and the host immune system. Here, we discuss the main features of hRSV biology, the processes involved in virus recognition by the immune system and the most relevant mechanisms used by this pathogen to avoid the antiviral host response. PMID:25513775

  9. Dual-Track Clearance of Circulating Bacteria Balances Rapid Restoration of Blood Sterility with Induction of Adaptive Immunity.

    PubMed

    Broadley, Steven P; Plaumann, Ann; Coletti, Raffaele; Lehmann, Christin; Wanisch, Andreas; Seidlmeier, Amelie; Esser, Knud; Luo, Shanshan; Rämer, Patrick C; Massberg, Steffen; Busch, Dirk H; van Lookeren Campagne, Menno; Verschoor, Admar

    2016-07-13

    Efficient clearance of bacteremia prevents life-threatening disease. Platelet binding to intravascular bacteria, a process involving platelet glycoprotein GPIb and bacterial opsonization with activated complement C3, influences blood clearance and anti-infective immunity. Using intravital microscopy of the bloodstream of mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes, we show that bacterial clearance is not a uniform process but a "dual-track" mechanism consisting of parallel "fast" and "slow" pathways. "Slow clearance" is regulated by time-dependent bacterial opsonization, stochastic platelet binding, and capture of bacteria-platelet-complexes via the complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, CRIg. The mechanism spares some bacteria from "fast clearance" and rapid destruction in the liver via Kupffer cell scavenger receptors, keeping them available for adaptive immunity induction by splenic CD8α(+) dendritic cells. We consistently find "fast" and "slow" clearance patterns for a broad panel of other Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. Thus, dual-track clearance balances rapid restoration of blood sterility with induction of specific antibacterial immunity.

  10. Dual-Track Clearance of Circulating Bacteria Balances Rapid Restoration of Blood Sterility with Induction of Adaptive Immunity.

    PubMed

    Broadley, Steven P; Plaumann, Ann; Coletti, Raffaele; Lehmann, Christin; Wanisch, Andreas; Seidlmeier, Amelie; Esser, Knud; Luo, Shanshan; Rämer, Patrick C; Massberg, Steffen; Busch, Dirk H; van Lookeren Campagne, Menno; Verschoor, Admar

    2016-07-13

    Efficient clearance of bacteremia prevents life-threatening disease. Platelet binding to intravascular bacteria, a process involving platelet glycoprotein GPIb and bacterial opsonization with activated complement C3, influences blood clearance and anti-infective immunity. Using intravital microscopy of the bloodstream of mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes, we show that bacterial clearance is not a uniform process but a "dual-track" mechanism consisting of parallel "fast" and "slow" pathways. "Slow clearance" is regulated by time-dependent bacterial opsonization, stochastic platelet binding, and capture of bacteria-platelet-complexes via the complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, CRIg. The mechanism spares some bacteria from "fast clearance" and rapid destruction in the liver via Kupffer cell scavenger receptors, keeping them available for adaptive immunity induction by splenic CD8α(+) dendritic cells. We consistently find "fast" and "slow" clearance patterns for a broad panel of other Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. Thus, dual-track clearance balances rapid restoration of blood sterility with induction of specific antibacterial immunity. PMID:27345696

  11. Complement receptor 2, natural antibodies and innate immunity: Inter-relationships in B cell selection and activation.

    PubMed

    Holers, V Michael; Kulik, Liudmila

    2007-01-01

    Complement receptor type 2 (CR2) is a receptor that serves as an important interface between the complement system and adaptive immunity. Recent studies have shown that CR2 is also centrally involved in innate immunity, and one key area is the development of potentially pathogenic natural antibodies that target neo-epitopes revealed in ischemic tissue undergoing reperfusion. Mice lacking either total immunoglobulins or CR2 alone are protected from the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and this effect can be reversed by introducing CR2-sufficient B-1 cells or by transferring polyclonal natural IgM antibody from wild type mice as well as monoclonal antibodies that recognize phospholipids, DNA or non-muscle myosin. We will report at the XXI ICW an additional membrane-associated protein to which pathogenic IgM antibodies are directed. Whether B cells producing these natural antibodies are differentially selected in CR2-deficient mice is as yet not well understood, and the complement-related mechanism(s) whereby this differential repertoire selection process could occur have yet to be explored in any detail. In addition to this important role in innate immunity, CR2 can also act as a receptor for other components or activators of innate immunity. One such component is interferon-alpha, an anti-viral cytokine that binds CR2 and induces a component of its mRNA signature in B cells through this receptor. Other potential CR2 ligands are DNA and DNA-containing complexes such as chromatin. The biologic role of these CR2 interactions with interferon-alpha and DNA-containing complexes is not well understood, but may be important in the development of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus that is characterized by enhanced interferon-alpha levels and loss of self tolerance to DNA-containing self antigens. PMID:16876864

  12. Food-Nonfood Discrimination in Ancestral Vertebrates: Gamete Cannibalism and the Origin of the Adaptive Immune System.

    PubMed

    Corcos, D

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity is a complex system that appeared twice in vertebrates (in gnathostomes and in jawless fish) although it is not required for invertebrate defence. The adaptive immune system is tightly associated with self-non-self discrimination, and it is now clear that this interplay is not limited to the prevention of autoreactivity. Micro-organisms are usually considered for their pathogenicity or symbiotic ability, but, for most small metazoans, they mainly constitute food. Vertebrates are characterized by feeding by predation on larger preys, when compared to their ancestors who were filter feeders and ate micro-organisms. Predation gives a strong selective advantage, not only due to the availability of new food resources but also by the ability to eliminate competitors for environmental resources (intraguild predation (IGP)). Unlike size-structured IGP, intraspecific predation of juveniles, zygotes or gametes can be detrimental for species fitness in some circumstances. The ability of individuals to recognize highly polymorphic molecules on the surface of gametes present in the plankton and so distinguish self versus non-self gametes might have constituted a strong selective advantage in intraspecific competition. Here, I propose the theory that the capacity to rearrange receptors has been selected in ancestral vertebrates as a consequence of this strong need for discriminating between hetero-cannibalism versus filial cannibalism. This evolutionary origin sheds light on presently unexplained features of the immune system, including the existence of regulatory T cells and of non-pathogenic natural autoimmunity. PMID:26286030

  13. Receptor-like kinase SOBIR1/EVR interacts with receptor-like proteins in plant immunity against fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Liebrand, Thomas W H; van den Berg, Grardy C M; Zhang, Zhao; Smit, Patrick; Cordewener, Jan H G; America, Antoine H P; America, Antione H P; Sklenar, Jan; Jones, Alexandra M E; Tameling, Wladimir I L; Robatzek, Silke; Thomma, Bart P H J; Joosten, Matthieu H A J

    2013-06-11

    The plant immune system is activated by microbial patterns that are detected as nonself molecules. Such patterns are recognized by immune receptors that are cytoplasmic or localized at the plasma membrane. Cell surface receptors are represented by receptor-like kinases (RLKs) that frequently contain extracellular leucine-rich repeats and an intracellular kinase domain for activation of downstream signaling, as well as receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that lack this signaling domain. It is therefore hypothesized that RLKs are required for RLPs to activate downstream signaling. The RLPs Cf-4 and Ve1 of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mediate resistance to the fungal pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Verticillium dahliae, respectively. Despite their importance, the mechanism by which these immune receptors mediate downstream signaling upon recognition of their matching ligand, Avr4 and Ave1, remained enigmatic. Here we show that the tomato ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana RLK Suppressor Of BIR1-1/Evershed (SOBIR1/EVR) and its close homolog S. lycopersicum (Sl)SOBIR1-like interact in planta with both Cf-4 and Ve1 and are required for the Cf-4- and Ve1-mediated hypersensitive response and immunity. Tomato SOBIR1/EVR interacts with most of the tested RLPs, but not with the RLKs FLS2, SERK1, SERK3a, BAK1, and CLV1. SOBIR1/EVR is required for stability of the Cf-4 and Ve1 receptors, supporting our observation that these RLPs are present in a complex with SOBIR1/EVR in planta. We show that SOBIR1/EVR is essential for RLP-mediated immunity and propose that the protein functions as a regulatory RLK of this type of cell-surface receptors.

  14. Integrating Antimicrobial Therapy with Host Immunity to Fight Drug-Resistant Infections: Classical vs. Adaptive Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Gjini, Erida; Brito, Patricia H.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of infectious agents is a growing problem worldwide. To prevent the continuing selection and spread of drug resistance, rational design of antibiotic treatment is needed, and the question of aggressive vs. moderate therapies is currently heatedly debated. Host immunity is an important, but often-overlooked factor in the clearance of drug-resistant infections. In this work, we compare aggressive and moderate antibiotic treatment, accounting for host immunity effects. We use mathematical modelling of within-host infection dynamics to study the interplay between pathogen-dependent host immune responses and antibiotic treatment. We compare classical (fixed dose and duration) and adaptive (coupled to pathogen load) treatment regimes, exploring systematically infection outcomes such as time to clearance, immunopathology, host immunization, and selection of resistant bacteria. Our analysis and simulations uncover effective treatment strategies that promote synergy between the host immune system and the antimicrobial drug in clearing infection. Both in classical and adaptive treatment, we quantify how treatment timing and the strength of the immune response determine the success of moderate therapies. We explain key parameters and dimensions, where an adaptive regime differs from classical treatment, bringing new insight into the ongoing debate of resistance management. Emphasizing the sensitivity of treatment outcomes to the balance between external antibiotic intervention and endogenous natural defenses, our study calls for more empirical attention to host immunity processes. PMID:27078624

  15. Integrating Antimicrobial Therapy with Host Immunity to Fight Drug-Resistant Infections: Classical vs. Adaptive Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gjini, Erida; Brito, Patricia H

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of infectious agents is a growing problem worldwide. To prevent the continuing selection and spread of drug resistance, rational design of antibiotic treatment is needed, and the question of aggressive vs. moderate therapies is currently heatedly debated. Host immunity is an important, but often-overlooked factor in the clearance of drug-resistant infections. In this work, we compare aggressive and moderate antibiotic treatment, accounting for host immunity effects. We use mathematical modelling of within-host infection dynamics to study the interplay between pathogen-dependent host immune responses and antibiotic treatment. We compare classical (fixed dose and duration) and adaptive (coupled to pathogen load) treatment regimes, exploring systematically infection outcomes such as time to clearance, immunopathology, host immunization, and selection of resistant bacteria. Our analysis and simulations uncover effective treatment strategies that promote synergy between the host immune system and the antimicrobial drug in clearing infection. Both in classical and adaptive treatment, we quantify how treatment timing and the strength of the immune response determine the success of moderate therapies. We explain key parameters and dimensions, where an adaptive regime differs from classical treatment, bringing new insight into the ongoing debate of resistance management. Emphasizing the sensitivity of treatment outcomes to the balance between external antibiotic intervention and endogenous natural defenses, our study calls for more empirical attention to host immunity processes.

  16. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Immune Cell Receptors, Coreceptors, and Cofactors: Implications for Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Woodham, Andrew W; Skeate, Joseph G; Sanna, Adriana M; Taylor, Julia R; Da Silva, Diane M; Cannon, Paula M; Kast, W Martin

    2016-07-01

    In the last three decades, extensive research on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has highlighted its capability to exploit a variety of strategies to enter and infect immune cells. Although CD4(+) T cells are well known as the major HIV target, with infection occurring through the canonical combination of the cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) receptor and either the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) or C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) coreceptors, HIV has also been found to enter other important immune cell types such as macrophages, dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, B cells, and granulocytes. Interestingly, the expression of distinct cellular cofactors partially regulates the rate in which HIV infects each distinct cell type. Furthermore, HIV can benefit from the acquisition of new proteins incorporated into its envelope during budding events. While several publications have investigated details of how HIV manipulates particular cell types or subtypes, an up-to-date comprehensive review on HIV tropism for different immune cells is lacking. Therefore, this review is meant to focus on the different receptors, coreceptors, and cofactors that HIV exploits to enter particular immune cells. Additionally, prophylactic approaches that have targeted particular molecules associated with HIV entry and infection of different immune cells will be discussed. Unveiling the underlying cellular receptors and cofactors that lead to HIV preference for specific immune cell populations is crucial in identifying novel preventative/therapeutic targets for comprehensive strategies to eliminate viral infection.

  17. Olfactory Receptor Subgenomes Linked with Broad Ecological Adaptations in Sauropsida.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imran; Yang, Zhikai; Maldonado, Emanuel; Li, Cai; Zhang, Guojie; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Jarvis, Erich D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Antunes, Agostinho

    2015-11-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) govern a prime sensory function. Extant birds have distinct olfactory abilities, but the molecular mechanisms underlining diversification and specialization remain mostly unknown. We explored OR diversity in 48 phylogenetic and ecologically diverse birds and 2 reptiles (alligator and green sea turtle). OR subgenomes showed species- and lineage-specific variation related with ecological requirements. Overall 1,953 OR genes were identified in reptiles and 16,503 in birds. The two reptiles had larger OR gene repertoires (989 and 964 genes, respectively) than birds (182-688 genes). Overall, birds had more pseudogenes (7,855) than intact genes (1,944). The alligator had significantly more functional genes than sea turtle, likely because of distinct foraging habits. We found rapid species-specific expansion and positive selection in OR14 (detects hydrophobic compounds) in birds and in OR51 and OR52 (detect hydrophilic compounds) in sea turtle, suggestive of terrestrial and aquatic adaptations, respectively. Ecological partitioning among birds of prey, water birds, land birds, and vocal learners showed that diverse ecological factors determined olfactory ability and influenced corresponding olfactory-receptor subgenome. OR5/8/9 was expanded in predatory birds and alligator, suggesting adaptive specialization for carnivory. OR families 2/13, 51, and 52 were correlated with aquatic adaptations (water birds), OR families 6 and 10 were more pronounced in vocal-learning birds, whereas most specialized land birds had an expanded OR family 14. Olfactory bulb ratio (OBR) and OR gene repertoire were correlated. Birds that forage for prey (carnivores/piscivores) had relatively complex OBR and OR gene repertoires compared with modern birds, including passerines, perhaps due to highly developed cognitive capacities facilitating foraging innovations. PMID:26219582

  18. Role of inhibitory BCR co-receptors in immunity.

    PubMed

    Tsubata, Takeshi

    2012-06-01

    B lymphocytes (B cells) express a variety of membrane molecules containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs) in the cytoplasmic region such as FcγRIIB, FCRLs, CD22, mouse Siglec-G/human Siglec-10, PECAM-1, mouse PIR-B/human LIRB1 and LIRB2PD-1 and CD72. When phosphorylated, ITIMs in these molecules recruit and activate phosphatases such as SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1), SHP-2, SH2 domain- containing inositol 5-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) and SHIP2 depending on receptors. These phosphatases then negatively regulate B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling. Because of their ability to inhibit BCR signaling, these ITIMcontaining molecules are called inhibitory BCR co-receptors. Studies on mice deficient in an inhibitory co-receptor have demonstrated that the inhibitory co-receptors regulate B cell development, antibody responses and development of autoimmune diseases. Moreover, polymorphisms in some inhibitory co-receptors such as FcγRIIB, FCRL3 and CD72 are associated with autoimmune diseases, suggesting a crucial role of inhibitory co-receptor polymorphisms in the regulation of autoimmune diseases. The ligands for inhibitory co-receptors regulate their inhibitory activity by inducing co-ligation of the co-receptors with BCR or some other regulatory mechanisms. Inhibitory co-receptors and their ligands are therefore good targets for controlling antibody responses and autoimmune diseases. PMID:22394175

  19. A receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase, BIK1, associates with a flagellin receptor complex to initiate plant innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Dongping; Wu, Shujing; Gao, Xiquan; Zhang, Yulan; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2010-01-01

    Plants and animals rely on innate immunity to prevent infections by detection of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) through pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). The plant PRR FLS2, a leucine-rich repeat-receptor kinase, recognizes bacterial flagellin and initiates immune signaling by association with another leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like kinase, BAK1. It remains unknown how the FLS2/BAK1 receptor complex activates intracellular signaling cascades. Here we identified the receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase BIK1 that is rapidly phosphorylated upon flagellin perception, depending on both FLS2 and BAK1. BIK1 associates with FLS2 and BAK1 in vivo and in vitro. BIK1 is phosphorylated by BAK1, and BIK1 also directly phosphorylates BAK1 and FLS2 in vitro. The flagellin phosphorylation site Thr237 of BIK1 is required for its phosphorylation on BAK1 and FLS2, suggesting that BIK1 is likely first phosphorylated upon flagellin perception and subsequently transphosphorylates FLS2/BAK1 to propagate flagellin signaling. Importantly, bik1 mutants are compromised in diverse flagellin-mediated responses and immunity to the nonpathogenic bacterial infection. Thus, BIK1 is an essential component in MAMP signal transduction, which links the MAMP receptor complex to downstream intracellular signaling. PMID:20018686

  20. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P; Ullrich, Stephen E

    2004-03-15

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependent manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin. PMID:15020195

  1. Innate and adaptive immunity in bacteria: mechanisms of programmed genetic variation to fight bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Bikard, David; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2012-02-01

    Bacteria are constantly challenged by bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), the most abundant microorganism on earth. Bacteria have evolved a variety of immunity mechanisms to resist bacteriophage infection. In response, bacteriophages can evolve counter-resistance mechanisms and launch a 'virus versus host' evolutionary arms race. In this context, rapid evolution is fundamental for the survival of the bacterial cell. Programmed genetic variation mechanisms at loci involved in immunity against bacteriophages generate diversity at a much faster rate than random point mutation and enable bacteria to quickly adapt and repel infection. Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) and phase variation mechanisms enhance the generic (innate) immune response against bacteriophages. On the other hand, the integration of small bacteriophage sequences in CRISPR loci provide bacteria with a virus-specific and sequence-specific adaptive immune response. Therefore, although using different molecular mechanisms, both prokaryotes and higher organisms rely on programmed genetic variation to increase genetic diversity and fight rapidly evolving infectious agents.

  2. Toward a molecular understanding of adaptive immunity: a chronology, part I

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kendall A.

    2012-01-01

    The adaptive immune system has been the core of immunology for the past century, as immunologists have been primarily focused on understanding the basis for adaptive immunity for the better part of this time. Immunological thought has undergone an evolution with regard to our understanding as the complexity of the cells and the molecules of the system became elucidated. The original immunologists performed their experiments with whole animals (or humans), and for the most part they were focused on observing what happens when a foreign substance is introduced into the body. However, since Burnet formulated his clonal selection theory we have witnessed reductionist science focused first on cell populations, then individual cells and finally on molecules, in our quests to learn how the system works. This review is the first part of a chronology of our evolution toward a molecular understanding of adaptive immunity. PMID:23230443

  3. MyD88-Dependent Silencing of Transgene Expression During the Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Helper-Dependent Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masataka; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Bertin, Terry K.; Cela, Racel; Clarke, Christian; Guenther, Margaretha; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Activation of the host innate immune response after systemic administration of adenoviral vectors constitutes a principal impediment to successful clinical gene replacement therapies. Although helper-dependent adenoviruses (HDAds) lack all viral functional genes, systemic administration of a high dose of HDAd still elicits a potent innate immune response in host animals. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate receptors that sense microbial products and trigger the maturation of antigen-presenting cells and cytokine production via MyD88-dependent signaling (except TLR3). Here we show that mice lacking MyD88 exhibit a dramatic reduction in proinflammatory cytokines after intravenous injection of a high dose of HDAd, and show significantly reduced induction of the adaptive immune response when compared with wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice. Importantly, MyD88–/– mice also show significantly higher and longer sustained transgene expression than do wild-type mice. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies using wild-type and MyD88-deficient primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed significant MyD88-dependent transcriptional silencing of the HDAd-encoded transgenes. Our results demonstrate that MyD88 signaling, activated by systemic delivery of HDAd, initiates an innate immune response that suppresses transgene expression at the transcriptional level before initiation of the adaptive immune response. PMID:19824822

  4. Powerful Complex Immunoadjuvant Based on Synergistic Effect of Combined TLR4 and NOD2 Activation Significantly Enhances Magnitude of Humoral and Cellular Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Tukhvatulin, Amir I; Dzharullaeva, Alina S; Tukhvatulina, Natalia M; Shcheblyakov, Dmitry V; Shmarov, Maxim M; Dolzhikova, Inna V; Stanhope-Baker, Patricia; Naroditsky, Boris S; Gudkov, Andrei V; Logunov, Denis Y; Gintsburg, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    Binding of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activates innate immune responses and contributes to development of adaptive immunity. Simultaneous stimulation of different types of PRRs can have synergistic immunostimulatory effects resulting in enhanced production of molecules that mediate innate immunity such as inflammatory cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, etc. Here, we evaluated the impact of combined stimulation of PRRs from different families on adaptive immunity by generating alum-based vaccine formulations with ovalbumin as a model antigen and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist MPLA and the Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) agonist MDP adsorbed individually or together on the alum-ovalbumin particles. Multiple in vitro and in vivo readouts of immune system activation all showed that while individual PRR agonists increased the immunogenicity of vaccines compared to alum alone, the combination of both PRR agonists was significantly more effective. Combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2 results in a stronger and broader transcriptional response in THP-1 cells compared to individual PRR stimulation. Immunostimulatory composition containing both PRR agonists (MPLA and MDP) in the context of the alum-based ovalbumin vaccine also enhanced uptake of vaccine particles by bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and promoted maturation (up-regulation of expression of CD80, CD86, MHCII) and activation (production of cytokines) of BMDCs. Finally, immunization of mice with vaccine particles containing both PRR agonists resulted in enhanced cellular immunity as indicated by increased proliferation and activation (IFN-γ production) of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following in vitro restimulation with ovalbumin and enhanced humoral immunity as indicated by higher titers of ovalbumin-specific IgG antibodies. These results indicate that combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2

  5. Modulatory Effects of Antidepressant Classes on the Innate and Adaptive Immune System in Depression.

    PubMed

    Eyre, H A; Lavretsky, H; Kartika, J; Qassim, A; Baune, B T

    2016-05-01

    Current reviews exploring for unique immune-modulatory profiles of antidepressant classes are limited by focusing mainly on cytokine modulation only and neglecting other aspects of the innate and adaptive immune system. These reviews also do not include recent comparative clinical trials, immune-genetic studies and therapeutics with unique neurotransmitter profiles (e. g., agomelatine). This systematic review extends the established literature by comprehensively reviewing the effects of antidepressants classes on both the innate and adaptive immune system. Antidepressants appear, in general, to reduce pro-inflammatory factor levels, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. We caution against conclusions as to which antidepressant possesses the greater anti-inflammatory effect, given the methodological heterogeneity among studies and the small number of comparative studies. The effects of antidepressant classes on adaptive immune factors are complex and poorly understood, and few studies have been conducted. Methodological heterogeneity is high among these studies (e. g., length of study, cohort characteristics, dosage used and immune marker analysis). We recommend larger, comparative studies - in clinical and pre-clinical populations. PMID:26951496

  6. Modulatory Effects of Antidepressant Classes on the Innate and Adaptive Immune System in Depression.

    PubMed

    Eyre, H A; Lavretsky, H; Kartika, J; Qassim, A; Baune, B T

    2016-05-01

    Current reviews exploring for unique immune-modulatory profiles of antidepressant classes are limited by focusing mainly on cytokine modulation only and neglecting other aspects of the innate and adaptive immune system. These reviews also do not include recent comparative clinical trials, immune-genetic studies and therapeutics with unique neurotransmitter profiles (e. g., agomelatine). This systematic review extends the established literature by comprehensively reviewing the effects of antidepressants classes on both the innate and adaptive immune system. Antidepressants appear, in general, to reduce pro-inflammatory factor levels, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. We caution against conclusions as to which antidepressant possesses the greater anti-inflammatory effect, given the methodological heterogeneity among studies and the small number of comparative studies. The effects of antidepressant classes on adaptive immune factors are complex and poorly understood, and few studies have been conducted. Methodological heterogeneity is high among these studies (e. g., length of study, cohort characteristics, dosage used and immune marker analysis). We recommend larger, comparative studies - in clinical and pre-clinical populations.

  7. Signaling through RIG-I and type I interferon receptor: Immune activation by Newcastle disease virus in man versus immune evasion by Ebola virus (Review).

    PubMed

    Schirrmacher, Volker

    2015-07-01

    In this review, two types of RNA viruses are compared with regard to the type I interferon (IFN) response in order to obtain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of immune activation or evasion. Upon human infection, both viruses exert either beneficial or detrimental effects. The Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is a type strain for avian paramyxoviruses, while the Ebola virus (EBOV), is a virus affecting primates. During evolution, both viruses specifically adapted to their respective hosts, acquiring sophisticated viral escape mechanisms. Two types of receptors play an important role in the life cycle of these two viruses: cytoplasmic retinoic acid‑inducible gene I (RIG‑I) and membrane expressed type I IFN receptor (IFNAR). In mouse and human cells, NDV is a strong inducer of the type I IFN response. The early phase of this is initiated by signaling through RIG‑I and the late response by signaling through IFNAR. EBOV does not induce type I IFN responses in humans as it has viral proteins that specifically and strongly interfere with RIG‑I and IFNAR signaling, as well as immune activation. In this review, we discuss whether the beneficial effects of one virus can be exploited in the fight against the detrimental effects of the other.

  8. Neutrophil-Mediated Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity: The Role of Myeloperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    Odobasic, Dragana; Kitching, A. Richard; Holdsworth, Stephen R.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are no longer seen as leukocytes with a sole function of being the essential first responders in the removal of pathogens at sites of infection. Being armed with numerous pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, these phagocytes can also contribute to the development of various autoimmune diseases and can positively or negatively regulate the generation of adaptive immune responses. In this review, we will discuss how myeloperoxidase, the most abundant neutrophil granule protein, plays a key role in the various functions of neutrophils in innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:26904693

  9. Inhibitory receptor expression on memory CD8 T cells following Ad vector immunization.

    PubMed

    Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Alayo, Quazim A; Ra, Joshua; Provine, Nicholas M; Larocca, Rafael; Lee, Benjamin; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-09-22

    T cells are an important component of immune responses, and their function is influenced by their expression of inhibitory receptors. Immunization with alternative serotype adenovirus (Ad) vectors induces highly functional T cell responses with lower programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expression and increased boostability relative to Ad5 vectors. However, a detailed phenotypic characterization of other inhibitory receptors is lacking, and it is unknown whether Ad5-induced CD8 T cells eventually recover function with time. In this report, we measure the expression of various inhibitory receptors and memory markers during early and late time points following vaccination with Ad5 and alternative serotype Ad vectors. CD8 T cells induced by Ad5 exhibited increased expression of the inhibitory receptor Tim-3 and showed decreased central memory differentiation as compared with alternative serotype Ad vectors, even a year following immunization. Moreover, relative to Ad5-primed mice, Ad26-primed mice exhibited substantially improved recall of SIV Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses following heterologous boosting with MVA or Ad35 vectors. We also demonstrate that low doses of Ad5 priming resulted in more boostable immune responses with lower PD-1 expression as compared to high Ad5 doses, suggesting a role for vector dose in influencing immune dysfunction following Ad5 vaccination. These data suggest that Ad5 vectors induce a long-term pattern of immune exhaustion that can be partly overcome by lowering vector dose and modulating inhibitory signals. PMID:27566899

  10. No Compensatory Relationship between the Innate and Adaptive Immune System in Wild-Living European Badgers

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Yung Wa; Newman, Chris; Dugdale, Hannah L.; Buesching, Christina; Mannarelli, Maria-Elena; Annavi, Geetha; Burke, Terry; Macdonald, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system provides the primary vertebrate defence system against pathogen invasion, but it is energetically costly and can have immune pathological effects. A previous study in sticklebacks found that intermediate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) diversity correlated with a lower leukocyte coping capacity (LCC), compared to individuals with fewer, or many, MHC alleles. The organization of the MHC genes in mammals, however, differs to the highly duplicated MHC genes in sticklebacks by having far fewer loci. Using European badgers (Meles meles), we therefore investigated whether innate immune activity, estimated functionally as the ability of an individual’s leukocytes to produce a respiratory burst, was influenced by MHC diversity. We also investigated whether LCC was influenced by factors such as age-class, sex, body condition, season, year, neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, and intensity of infection with five different pathogens. We found that LCC was not associated with specific MHC haplotypes, MHC alleles, or MHC diversity, indicating that the innate immune system did not compensate for the adaptive immune system even when there were susceptible MHC alleles/haplotypes, or when the MHC diversity was low. We also identified a seasonal and annual variation of LCC. This temporal variation of innate immunity was potentially due to physiological trade-offs or temporal variation in pathogen infections. The innate immunity, estimated as LCC, does not compensate for MHC diversity suggests that the immune system may function differently between vertebrates with different MHC organizations, with implications for the evolution of immune systems in different taxa. PMID:27695089

  11. Dendritic Cells under Hypoxia: How Oxygen Shortage Affects the Linkage between Innate and Adaptive Immunity.

    PubMed

    Winning, Sandra; Fandrey, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered as one of the main regulators of immune responses. They collect antigens, process them, and present typical antigenic structures to lymphocytes, thereby inducing an adaptive immune response. All these processes take place under conditions of oxygen shortage (hypoxia) which is often not considered in experimental settings. This review highlights how deeply hypoxia modulates human as well as mouse immature and mature dendritic cell functions. It tries to link in vitro results to actual in vivo studies and outlines how hypoxia-mediated shaping of dendritic cells affects the activation of (innate) immunity.

  12. Dendritic Cells under Hypoxia: How Oxygen Shortage Affects the Linkage between Innate and Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Winning, Sandra; Fandrey, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are considered as one of the main regulators of immune responses. They collect antigens, process them, and present typical antigenic structures to lymphocytes, thereby inducing an adaptive immune response. All these processes take place under conditions of oxygen shortage (hypoxia) which is often not considered in experimental settings. This review highlights how deeply hypoxia modulates human as well as mouse immature and mature dendritic cell functions. It tries to link in vitro results to actual in vivo studies and outlines how hypoxia-mediated shaping of dendritic cells affects the activation of (innate) immunity. PMID:26966693

  13. Evasion of Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses by Influenza A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Schmolke, Mirco; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Summary Host organisms have developed sophisticated antiviral responses in order to defeat emerging influenza A viruses (IAV). At the same time IAV have evolved immune evasion strategies. The immune system of mammals provides several lines of defense to neutralize invading pathogens or limit their replication. Here, we summarize the mammalian innate and adaptive immune mechanisms involved in host defense against viral infection and review strategies by which IAV avoid, circumvent or subvert these mechanisms. We highlight well-characterized, as well as recently described features of this intriguing virus-host molecular battle. PMID:20482552

  14. The interplay between the microbiome and the adaptive immune response in cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Edda; Taddei, Antonio; Ringressi, Maria Novella; Ricci, Federica; Amedei, Amedeo

    2016-01-01

    The data from different studies suggest a bacterial role in cancer genesis/progression, often modulating the local immune response. This is particularly so at the mucosal level where the bacterial presence is strong and the immune system is highly reactive. The epithelial surfaces of the body, such as the skin and mucosa, are colonized by a vast number of microorganisms, which represent the so-called normal microbiome. Normally the microbiome does not cause a proinflammatory response because the immune system has developed different strategies for the tolerance of commensal bacteria, but when these mechanisms are impaired or new pathogenic bacteria are introduced into this balanced system, the immune system reacts to the microbiome and can trigger tumor growth in the intestine. In this review, we discuss the potential role of the bacterial microbiome in carcinogenesis, focusing on the direct and indirect immune adaptive mechanisms, that the bacteria can modulate in different ways. PMID:27366226

  15. The Role of TAM Family Receptors in Immune Cell Function: Implications for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Paolino, Magdalena; Penninger, Josef M.

    2016-01-01

    The TAM receptor protein tyrosine kinases—Tyro3, Axl, and Mer—are essential regulators of immune homeostasis. Guided by their cognate ligands Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) and Protein S (Pros1), these receptors ensure the resolution of inflammation by dampening the activation of innate cells as well as by restoring tissue function through promotion of tissue repair and clearance of apoptotic cells. Their central role as negative immune regulators is highlighted by the fact that deregulation of TAM signaling has been linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmune, inflammatory, and infectious diseases. Importantly, TAM receptors have also been associated with cancer development and progression. In a cancer setting, TAM receptors have a dual regulatory role, controlling the initiation and progression of tumor development and, at the same time, the associated anti-tumor responses of diverse immune cells. Thus, modulation of TAM receptors has emerged as a potential novel strategy for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how TAM receptors control immunity, with a particular focus on the regulation of anti-tumor responses and its implications for cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27775650

  16. The role of the immune system in neurodegenerative disorders: Adaptive or maladaptive?

    PubMed

    Doty, Kevin R; Guillot-Sestier, Marie-Victoire; Town, Terrence

    2015-08-18

    Neurodegenerative diseases share common features, including catastrophic neuronal loss that leads to cognitive or motor dysfunction. Neuronal injury occurs in an inflammatory milieu that is populated by resident and sometimes, infiltrating, immune cells - all of which participate in a complex interplay between secreted inflammatory modulators and activated immune cell surface receptors. The importance of these immunomodulators is highlighted by the number of immune factors that have been associated with increased risk of neurodegeneration in recent genome-wide association studies. One of the more difficult tasks for designing therapeutic strategies for immune modulation against neurodegenerative diseases is teasing apart beneficial from harmful signals. In this regard, learning more about the immune components of these diseases has yielded common themes. These unifying concepts should eventually enable immune-based therapeutics for treatment of Alzheimer׳s and Parkinson׳s diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Targeted immune modulation should be possible to temper maladaptive factors, enabling beneficial immune responses in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease.

  17. Participation of blood vessel cells in human adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pober, Jordan S; Tellides, George

    2012-01-01

    Circulating T cells contact blood vessels either when they extravasate across the walls of microvessels into inflamed tissues or when they enter into the walls of larger vessels in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. The blood vessel wall is largely composed of three cell types: endothelial cells lining the entire vascular tree; pericytes supporting the endothelium of microvessels; and smooth muscle cells forming the bulk of large vessel walls. Each of these cell types interacts with and alters the behavior of infiltrating T cells in different ways, making these cells active participants in the processes of immune-mediated inflammation. In this review, we compare and contrast what is known about the nature of these interactions in humans. PMID:22030237

  18. Dual disease resistance mediated by the immune receptor Cf-2 in tomato requires a common virulence target of a fungus and a nematode

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Torres, Jose L.; Wilbers, Ruud H. P.; Gawronski, Piotr; Boshoven, Jordi C.; Finkers-Tomczak, Anna; Cordewener, Jan H. G.; America, Antoine H. P.; Overmars, Hein A.; Van ‘t Klooster, John W.; Baranowski, Lukasz; Sobczak, Miroslaw; Ilyas, Muhammad; van der Hoorn, Renier A. L.; Schots, Arjen; de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Bakker, Jaap; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2012-01-01

    Plants lack the seemingly unlimited receptor diversity of a somatic adaptive immune system as found in vertebrates and rely on only a relatively small set of innate immune receptors to resist a myriad of pathogens. Here, we show that disease-resistant tomato plants use an efficient mechanism to leverage the limited nonself recognition capacity of their innate immune system. We found that the extracellular plant immune receptor protein Cf-2 of the red currant tomato (Solanum pimpinellifolium) has acquired dual resistance specificity by sensing perturbations in a common virulence target of two independently evolved effectors of a fungus and a nematode. The Cf-2 protein, originally identified as a monospecific immune receptor for the leaf mold fungus Cladosporium fulvum, also mediates disease resistance to the root parasitic nematode Globodera rostochiensis pathotype Ro1-Mierenbos. The Cf-2–mediated dual resistance is triggered by effector-induced perturbations of the apoplastic Rcr3pim protein of S. pimpinellifolium. Binding of the venom allergen-like effector protein Gr-VAP1 of G. rostochiensis to Rcr3pim perturbs the active site of this papain-like cysteine protease. In the absence of the Cf-2 receptor, Rcr3pim increases the susceptibility of tomato plants to G. rostochiensis, thus showing its role as a virulence target of these nematodes. Furthermore, both nematode infection and transient expression of Gr-VAP1 in tomato plants harboring Cf-2 and Rcr3pim trigger a defense-related programmed cell death in plant cells. Our data demonstrate that monitoring host proteins targeted by multiple pathogens broadens the spectrum of disease resistances mediated by single plant immune receptors. PMID:22675118

  19. Delayed adaptive immunity is related to higher MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers in children.

    PubMed

    Strömbeck, Anna; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2016-04-01

    There are notable inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in vaccinated children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. In the FARMFLORA birth cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with the MMR vaccine at 18 months of age. MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers were measured in plasma samples obtained at 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples obtained at birth, 3-5 days and at 4 and 18 months of age were analyzed for T- and B-cell numbers, proportions of naive and memory T and B cells, and fractions of putative regulatory T cells. Multivariate factor analyses show that higher anti-MMR antibody titers were associated with a lower degree of adaptive immune maturation, that is, lower proportions of memory T cells and a lower capacity of mononuclear cells to produce cytokines, but with higher proportions of putative regulatory T cells. Further, children born by cesarean section (CS) had significantly higher anti-measles titers than vaginally-born children; and CS was found to be associated with delayed adaptive immunity. Also, girls presented with significantly higher anti-mumps and anti-rubella antibody levels than boys at 36 months of age. These results indicate that delayed adaptive immune maturation before and in close proximity to immunization seems to be advantageous for the ability of children to respond with higher anti-MMR antibody levels after vaccination.

  20. Delayed adaptive immunity is related to higher MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers in children.

    PubMed

    Strömbeck, Anna; Lundell, Anna-Carin; Nordström, Inger; Andersson, Kerstin; Adlerberth, Ingegerd; Wold, Agnes E; Rudin, Anna

    2016-04-01

    There are notable inter-individual variations in vaccine-specific antibody responses in vaccinated children. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early-life environmental factors and adaptive immune maturation prior and close to measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization relate to magnitudes of vaccine-specific antibody titers. In the FARMFLORA birth cohort, including both farming and non-farming families, children were immunized with the MMR vaccine at 18 months of age. MMR vaccine-induced antibody titers were measured in plasma samples obtained at 36 months of age. Infants' blood samples obtained at birth, 3-5 days and at 4 and 18 months of age were analyzed for T- and B-cell numbers, proportions of naive and memory T and B cells, and fractions of putative regulatory T cells. Multivariate factor analyses show that higher anti-MMR antibody titers were associated with a lower degree of adaptive immune maturation, that is, lower proportions of memory T cells and a lower capacity of mononuclear cells to produce cytokines, but with higher proportions of putative regulatory T cells. Further, children born by cesarean section (CS) had significantly higher anti-measles titers than vaginally-born children; and CS was found to be associated with delayed adaptive immunity. Also, girls presented with significantly higher anti-mumps and anti-rubella antibody levels than boys at 36 months of age. These results indicate that delayed adaptive immune maturation before and in close proximity to immunization seems to be advantageous for the ability of children to respond with higher anti-MMR antibody levels after vaccination. PMID:27195118

  1. The Adaptor CARD9 Is Required for Adaptive but Not Innate Immunity to Oral Mucosal Candida albicans Infections

    PubMed Central

    Bishu, Shrinivas; Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Simpson-Abelson, Michelle R.; Huppler, Anna R.; Conti, Heather R.; Ghilardi, Nico; Mamo, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC [thrush]) is an opportunistic infection caused by the commensal fungus Candida albicans. OPC is common in individuals with HIV/AIDS, infants, patients on chemotherapy, and individuals with congenital immune defects. Immunity to OPC is strongly dependent on the interleukin-23 (IL-23)/IL-17R axis, as mice and humans with defects in IL-17R signaling (IL17F, ACT1, IL-17RA) or in genes that direct Th17 differentiation (STAT3, STAT1, CARD9) are prone to mucocutaneous candidiasis. Conventional Th17 cells are induced in response to C. albicans infection via signals from C-type lectin receptors, which signal through the adaptor CARD9, leading to production of Th17-inducing cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-23. Recent data indicate that IL-17 can also be made by numerous innate cell subsets. These innate “type 17” cells resemble conventional Th17 cells, but they can be activated without need for prior antigen exposure. Because C. albicans is not a commensal organism in rodents and mice are thus naive to this fungus, we had the opportunity to assess the role of CARD9 in innate versus adaptive responses using an OPC infection model. As expected, CARD9−/− mice failed to mount an adaptive Th17 response following oral Candida infection. Surprisingly, however, CARD9−/− mice had preserved innate IL-17-dependent responses to Candida and were almost fully resistant to OPC. Thus, CARD9 is important primarily for adaptive immunity to C. albicans, whereas alternate recognition systems appear to be needed for effective innate responses. PMID:24379290

  2. The role of mammalian antimicrobial peptides and proteins in awakening of innate host defenses and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Yang, D; Chertov, O; Oppenheim, J J

    2001-06-01

    Since we live in a dirty environment, we have developed many host defenses to contend with microorganisms. The epithelial lining of our skin, gastrointestinal tract and bronchial tree produces a number of antibacterial peptides, and our phagocytic neutrophils rapidly ingest and enzymatically degrade invading organisms, as well as produce peptides and enzymes with antimicrobial activities. Some of these antimicrobial moieties also appear to alert host cells involved in both innate host defense and adaptive immune responses. The epithelial cells are a source of constitutively produced beta defensin (HBD1) and proinflammatory cytokine-inducible beta defensins (HBD2 and -3) and cathelicidin (LL37). The neutrophils-derived antimicrobial peptides are released on demand from their cytoplasmic granules. They include the enzymes cathepsin G and chymase, azurocidin, a defensins and cathelicidin. In contrast, C5a and C3b are produced by activation of the serum complement cascade. The antimicrobial moieties direct the migration and activate target cells by interacting with selected G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptors (GPCRs) on cell surfaces. The beta defensins interact with the CCR6 chemokine GPCRs, whereas cathelicidins interact with the low-affinity FPRL-1 receptors. The neutrophil-derived cathepsin G acts on the high-affinity FMLP receptor (GPCR) known as FPR, while the receptors for chymase and azurocidin have not been identified as yet. The serum-derived C5a uses a GPCR known as C5aR to mediate its chemotactic and cell-activating effects. Consequently, all these ligand-receptor interactions in addition to mediating chemotaxis also activate receptor-expressing cells to produce other mediators of inflammation.

  3. The Split Virus Influenza Vaccine rapidly activates immune cells through Fcγ receptors.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, William E; Huang, Huang; Wei, Yu-Ling; Davis, Kara L; Leipold, Michael D; Bendall, Sean C; Kidd, Brian A; Dekker, Cornelia L; Maecker, Holden T; Chien, Yueh-Hsiu; Davis, Mark M

    2014-10-14

    Seasonal influenza vaccination is one of the most common medical procedures and yet the extent to which it activates the immune system beyond inducing antibody production is not well understood. In the United States, the most prevalent formulations of the vaccine consist of degraded or "split" viral particles distributed without any adjuvants. Based on previous reports we sought to determine whether the split influenza vaccine activates innate immune receptors-specifically Toll-like receptors. High-dimensional proteomic profiling of human whole-blood using Cytometry by Time-of-Flight (CyTOF) was used to compare signaling pathway activation and cytokine production between the split influenza vaccine and a prototypical TLR response ex vivo. This analysis revealed that the split vaccine rapidly and potently activates multiple immune cell types but yields a proteomic signature quite distinct from TLR activation. Importantly, vaccine induced activity was dependent upon the presence of human sera indicating that a serum factor was necessary for vaccine-dependent immune activation. We found this serum factor to be human antibodies specific for influenza proteins and therefore immediate immune activation by the split vaccine is immune-complex dependent. These studies demonstrate that influenza virus "splitting" inactivates any potential adjuvants endogenous to influenza, such as RNA, but in previously exposed individuals can elicit a potent immune response by facilitating the rapid formation of immune complexes. PMID:25203448

  4. Effects of Air Pollutants on Innate Immunity: The Role of Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions between exposure to ambient air pollutants and respiratory pathogens have been shown to modify respiratory immune responses. Emerging data suggest key roles for toll-like receptor (TLR) and NOD-like receptor (NLR) signaling in pathogen-induced immune responses. Simil...

  5. In vivo Therapy with Monoclonal Anti-I-A Antibody Suppresses Immune Responses to Acetylcholine Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldor, Matthew K.; Sriram, Subramaniam; McDevitt, Hugh O.; Steinman, Lawrence

    1983-05-01

    A monoclonal antibody to I-A gene products of the immune response gene complex attenuates both humoral and cellular responses to acetylcholine receptor and appears to suppress clinical manifestations of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. This demonstrates that use of antibodies against immune response gene products that are associated with susceptibility to disease may be feasible for therapy in autoimmune conditions such as myasthenia gravis.

  6. Structural and Functional Analysis of DDX41: a bispecific immune receptor for DNA and cyclic dinucleotide

    PubMed Central

    Omura, Hiroki; Oikawa, Daisuke; Nakane, Takanori; Kato, Megumi; Ishii, Ryohei; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Tokunaga, Fuminori; Nureki, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    In the innate immune system, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) specifically recognize ligands derived from bacteria or viruses, to trigger the responsible downstream pathways. DEAD box protein 41 (DDX41) is an intracellular PRR that triggers the downstream pathway involving the adapter STING, the kinase TBK1, and the transcription factor IRF3, to activate the type I interferon response. DDX41 is unique in that it recognizes two different ligands; i.e., double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and cyclic dinucleotides (CDN), via its DEAD domain. However, the structural basis for the ligand recognition by the DDX41 DEAD domain has remained elusive. Here, we report two crystal structures of the DDX41 DEAD domain in apo forms, at 1.5 and 2.2 Å resolutions. A comparison of the two crystal structures revealed the flexibility in the ATP binding site, suggesting its formation upon ATP binding. Structure-guided functional analyses in vitro and in vivo demonstrated the overlapped binding surface for dsDNA and CDN, which is distinct from the ATP-binding site. We propose that the structural rearrangement of the ATP binding site is crucial for the release of ADP, enabling the fast turnover of DDX41 for the dsDNA/CDN-induced STING activation pathway. PMID:27721487

  7. Innate and adaptive immune responses to in utero infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of pregnant cows with noncytopathic (ncp) BVDV induces rapid innate and adaptive immune responses resulting in clearance of the virus in less than 3 weeks. Seven to 14 days after inoculation of the cow, ncpBVDV crosses the placenta and induces a fetal viremia. Establishment of persistent ...

  8. IL-17A in Human Respiratory Diseases: Innate or Adaptive Immunity? Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bullens, Dominique M. A.; Decraene, Ann; Seys, Sven; Dupont, Lieven J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of IL-17 in 1995 as a T-cell cytokine, inducing IL-6 and IL-8 production by fibroblasts, and the report of a separate T-cell lineage producing IL-17(A), called Th17 cells, in 2005, the role of IL-17 has been studied in several inflammatory diseases. By inducing IL-8 production and subsequent neutrophil attraction towards the site of inflammation, IL-17A can link adaptive and innate immune responses. More specifically, its role in respiratory diseases has intensively been investigated. We here review its role in human respiratory diseases and try to unravel the question whether IL-17A only provides a link between the adaptive and innate respiratory immunity or whether this cytokine might also be locally produced by innate immune cells. We furthermore briefly discuss the possibility to reduce local IL-17A production as a treatment option for respiratory diseases. PMID:23401702

  9. Regulation of Adaptive Immunity in Health and Disease by Cholesterol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Four decades ago, it was observed that stimulation of T cells induces rapid changes in cellular cholesterol that are required before proliferation can commence. Investigators returning to this phenomenon have finally revealed its molecular underpinnings. Cholesterol trafficking and its dysregulation are now also recognized to strongly influence dendritic cell function, T cell polarization, and antibody responses. In this review, the state of the literature is reviewed on how cholesterol and its trafficking regulate the cells of the adaptive immune response and in vivo disease phenotypes of dysregulated adaptive immunity, including allergy, asthma, and autoimmune disease. Emerging evidence supporting a potential role for statins and other lipid-targeted therapies in the treatment of these diseases is presented. Just as vascular biologists have embraced immunity in the pathogenesis and treatment of atherosclerosis, so should basic and clinical immunologists in allergy, pulmonology, and other disciplines seek to encompass a basic understanding of lipid science. PMID:26149587

  10. Regulation of the Adaptive Immune Response by the IκB Family Protein Bcl-3

    PubMed Central

    Herrington, Felicity D.; Nibbs, Robert J. B.

    2016-01-01

    Bcl-3 is a member of the IκB family of proteins and an important regulator of Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB activity. The ability of Bcl-3 to bind and regulate specific NF-κB dimers has been studied in great depth, but its physiological roles in vivo are still not fully understood. It is, however, becoming clear that Bcl-3 is essential for the proper development, survival and activity of adaptive immune cells. Bcl-3 dysregulation can be observed in a number of autoimmune pathologies, and Bcl3-deficient animals are more susceptible to bacterial and parasitic infection. This review will describe our current understanding of the roles played by Bcl-3 in the development and regulation of the adaptive immune response, including lymphoid organogenesis, immune tolerance, lymphocyte function and dendritic cell biology. PMID:27023613

  11. MALT1 Protease Activity Is Required for Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jong W.; Hoffman, Sandy; Beal, Allison M.; Dykon, Angela; Ringenberg, Michael A.; Hughes, Anna C.; Dare, Lauren; Anderson, Amber D.; Finger, Joshua; Kasparcova, Viera; Rickard, David; Berger, Scott B.; Ramanjulu, Joshi; Emery, John G.; Gough, Peter J.; Bertin, John; Foley, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    CARMA-BCL10-MALT1 signalosomes play important roles in antigen receptor signaling and other pathways. Previous studies have suggested that as part of this complex, MALT1 functions as both a scaffolding protein to activate NF-κB through recruitment of ubiquitin ligases, and as a protease to cleave and inactivate downstream inhibitory signaling proteins. However, our understanding of the relative importance of these two distinct MALT1 activities has been hampered by a lack of selective MALT1 protease inhibitors with suitable pharmacologic properties. To fully investigate the role of MALT1 protease activity, we generated mice homozygous for a protease-dead mutation in MALT1. We found that some, but not all, MALT1 functions in immune cells were dependent upon its protease activity. Protease-dead mice had defects in the generation of splenic marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells displayed decreased T cell receptor-stimulated proliferation and IL-2 production while B cell receptor-stimulated proliferation was partially dependent on protease activity. In dendritic cells, stimulation of cytokine production through the Dectin-1, Dectin-2, and Mincle C-type lectin receptors was also found to be partially dependent upon protease activity. In vivo, protease-dead mice had reduced basal immunoglobulin levels, and showed defective responses to immunization with T-dependent and T-independent antigens. Surprisingly, despite these decreased responses, MALT1 protease-dead mice, but not MALT1 null mice, developed mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates in multiple organs, suggesting MALT1 protease activity plays a role in immune homeostasis. These findings highlight the importance of MALT1 protease activity in multiple immune cell types, and in integrating immune responses in vivo. PMID:25965667

  12. Enhancement of glioma-specific immunity in mice by "NOBEL", an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor antisense oligodeoxynucleotide.

    PubMed

    Morin-Brureau, Mélanie; Hooper, Kirsten M; Prosniak, Michael; Sauma, Sami; Harshyne, Larry A; Andrews, David W; Hooper, D Craig

    2015-04-01

    Autologous glioblastoma multiforme tumor cells treated with an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) targeting insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R) are the basis of a vaccine with therapeutic effects on tumor recurrence in a pilot clinical trial. As a preface to continued clinical investigation of this vaccination strategy, we have studied the contribution of an optimized IGF-1R AS-ODN, designated "NOBEL", to the induction of immunity to mouse GL261 glioma cells. The impact of NOBEL on mechanisms contributing to the development of GL261 immunity was first examined in the periphery. GL261 cells are naturally immunogenic when implanted into the flanks of congenic C57BL/6 mice, immunizing rather than forming tumors in around 50 % of these animals but causing tumors in the majority of mice lacking T and B lymphocytes. Overnight treatment with NOBEL in vitro reduces IGF-1R expression by GL261 cells but has minimal effect on cell viability and does not reduce the capacity of the cells to form tumors upon implantation. In contrast, tumors are extremely rare when GL261 cells are mixed with NOBEL at inoculation into the flanks of C57BL/6, and the recipient mice become immune to subcutaneous and intracranial challenge with untreated GL261. Adaptive immune mechanisms contribute to this effect, as immunocompromised mice fail to either fully control tumor formation or develop immunity following flank administration of the GL261/NOBEL mix. NOBEL's structure has known immunostimulatory motifs that likely contribute to the immunogenicity of the mix, but its specificity for IGF-1R mRNA is also important as a similarly structured sense molecule is not effective.

  13. [Demographic aspects of adaptive changes of human immune system in the North].

    PubMed

    Gelfgat, E L; Lozovoĭ, V P; Konenkov, V I

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of an immunotypological structure in migrants in Magadan was studied in relation to the duration of residence in the North. The changes were assessed by the integrated immune heterogeneity index, the atypic immune status index, frequencies of some immune phenotypes, the prevalence of clinical immunopathological signs and HLA Class 1 antigen distribution in the groups of the examinees. The dynamics of the immunotypological structure of migrants to the North was shown to have regular features depending upon the duration of "life in the North", some certain time-dependent, qualitative and quantitative characteristics. The mechanisms of some changes in the population immune structure and their role in the adaptation of northern newcomers to extreme ecological conditions are discussed.

  14. Innate Immune Sensing by Toll-like Receptors in Newborns and the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kollmann, Tobias R.; Levy, Ofer; Montgomery, Ruth R.; Goriely, Stanislas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Given the "inborn" nature of the innate immune system, it is surprising to find that innate immune function does in fact change with age. Similar patterns of distinct Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated immune responses come to light when one contrasts innate immune development at the beginning of life with that toward the end of life. Importantly, these developmental patterns of innate cytokine responses correlate with clinical patterns of susceptibility to disease: A heightened risk of suffering from excessive inflammation is often detected in prematurely born infants, disappears over the first few months of life, and reappears toward the end of life. In addition, risk periods for particular infections in early life reemerge in older adults. The near-mirror-image patterns that emerge in contrasts of early versus late innate immune ontogeny emphasize changes in host-environment interactions as the underlying molecular and teleologic drivers. PMID:23159225

  15. Expanding the universe of cytokines and pattern recognition receptors: galectins and glycans in innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Cerliani, Juan P; Stowell, Sean R; Mascanfroni, Iván D; Arthur, Connie M; Cummings, Richard D; Rabinovich, Gabriel A

    2011-02-01

    Effective immunity relies on the recognition of pathogens and tumors by innate immune cells through diverse pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that lead to initiation of signaling processes and secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Galectins, a family of endogenous lectins widely expressed in infected and neoplastic tissues have emerged as part of the portfolio of soluble mediators and pattern recognition receptors responsible for eliciting and controlling innate immunity. These highly conserved glycan-binding proteins can control immune cell processes through binding to specific glycan structures on pathogens and tumors or by acting intracellularly via modulation of selective signaling pathways. Recent findings demonstrate that various galectin family members influence the fate and physiology of different innate immune cells including polymorphonuclear neutrophils, mast cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Moreover, several pathogens may actually utilize galectins as a mechanism of host invasion. In this review, we aim to highlight and integrate recent discoveries that have led to our current understanding of the role of galectins in host-pathogen interactions and innate immunity. Challenges for the future will embrace the rational manipulation of galectin-glycan interactions to instruct and shape innate immunity during microbial infections, inflammation, and cancer.

  16. Graphene Oxides Decorated with Carnosine as an Adjuvant To Modulate Innate Immune and Improve Adaptive Immunity in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chunchun; Zhi, Xiao; Li, Chao; Li, Chuanfeng; Chen, Zongyan; Qiu, Xusheng; Ding, Chan; Ma, Lijun; Lu, Hongmin; Chen, Di; Liu, Guangqing; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-02-23

    Current studies have revealed the immune effects of graphene oxide (GO) and have utilized them as vaccine carriers and adjuvants. However, GO easily induces strong oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction at the site of injection. It is very necessary to develop an alternative adjuvant based on graphene oxide derivatives for improving immune responses and decreasing side effects. Carnosine (Car) is an outstanding and safe antioxidant. Herein, the feasibility and efficiency of ultrasmall graphene oxide decorated with carnosine as an alternative immune adjuvant were explored. OVA@GO-Car was prepared by simply mixing ovalbumin (OVA, a model antigen) with ultrasmall GO covalently modified with carnosine (GO-Car). We investigated the immunological properties of the GO-Car adjuvant in model mice. Results show that OVA@GO-Car can promote robust and durable OVA-specific antibody response, increase lymphocyte proliferation efficiency, and enhance CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell activation. The presence of Car in GO also probably contributes to enhancing the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through modulating the expression of some cytokines, including IL-6, CXCL1, CCL2, and CSF3. In addition, the safety of GO-Car as an adjuvant was evaluated comprehensively. No symptoms such as allergic response, inflammatory redness swelling, raised surface temperatures, physiological anomalies of blood, and remarkable weight changes were observed. Besides, after modification with carnosine, histological damages caused by GO-Car in lung, muscle, kidney, and spleen became weaken significantly. This study sufficiently suggest that GO-Car as a safe adjuvant can effectively enhance humoral and innate immune responses against antigens in vivo.

  17. Innate immunity and adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence against invading pathogens. Furthermore, TLRs were found to act as adjuvant receptors that create a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and to have important roles in the induction of adaptive immunity. This paradigm shift is now changing our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious, immune and allergic diseases, as well as cancers. Besides TLRs, recent findings have revealed the presence of a cytosolic detector system for invading pathogens. I will review the mechanisms of pathogen recognition by TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, and then discuss the roles of these receptors in the development of adaptive immunity in response to viral infection. PMID:21893536

  18. Sublingual Vaccination Induces Mucosal and Systemic Adaptive Immunity for Protection against Lung Tumor Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shailbala; Yang, Guojun; Schluns, Kimberly S.; Anthony, Scott M.; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2014-01-01

    Sublingual route offers a safer and more practical approach for delivering vaccines relative to other systemic and mucosal immunization strategies. Here we present evidence demonstrating protection against ovalbumin expressing B16 (B16-OVA) metastatic melanoma lung tumor formation by sublingual vaccination with the model tumor antigen OVA plus synthetic glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (aGalCer) for harnessing the adjuvant potential of natural killer T (NKT) cells, which effectively bridge innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. The protective efficacy of immunization with OVA plus aGalCer was antigen-specific as immunized mice challenged with parental B16 tumors lacking OVA expression were not protected. Multiple sublingual immunizations in the presence, but not in the absence of aGalCer, resulted in repeated activation of NKT cells in the draining lymph nodes, spleens, and lungs of immunized animals concurrent with progressively increasing OVA-specific CD8+ T cell responses as well as serum IgG and vaginal IgA levels. Furthermore, sublingual administration of the antigen only in the presence of the aGalCer adjuvant effectively boosted the OVA-specific immune responses. These results support potential clinical utility of sublingual route of vaccination with aGalCer-for prevention of pulmonary metastases. PMID:24599269

  19. Enhanced response to mouse thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor immunization in TSH receptor-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Mami; Mitsutake, Norisato; Sakamoto, Hikaru; Chen, Chun-Rong; Rapoport, Basil; McLachlan, Sandra M; Nagayama, Yuji

    2010-08-01

    Graves-like hyperthyroidism is induced in BALB/c mice by immunization with adenovirus expressing the human TSH receptor (TSHR) A-subunit (amino acids 1-289). However, because of nonidentity between the human and mouse TSHR ( approximately 87% amino acid homology), we compared the responses of mice immunized with adenoviruses expressing either the mouse or the human TSHR A-subunit. Wild-type (wt) BALB/c mice immunized with the mouse A-subunit developed neither TSHR antibodies (measured by flow cytometry) nor thyroid lymphocytic infiltration. However, wt C57BL/6 mice developed sparse intrathyroidal lymphocyte infiltration without antibody production. Depletion of naturally occurring regulatory CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells had little effect. These results indicate the inability to break tolerance to the mouse TSHR in wt mice. In contrast, TSHR knockout (KO) BALB/c mice generated mouse TSHR antibodies in response to mouse A-subunit immunization and augmented human TSHR antibody response to human A-subunit immunization. Thyroid-stimulating antibody titers measured in a functional bioassay were comparable in human A-subunit immunized wt mice and in TSHR KO mice immunized with either the mouse or human A-subunit. In conclusion, immune response to the mouse TSHR is readily induced in TSHR KO but not in wt mice. Only in the former does immunization with adenovirus expressing the mouse A-subunit generate antibodies capable of activating the mouse TSHR. TSHR KO mice are, therefore, of value for future studies dissecting the autoimmune response to the mouse TSHR.

  20. Molecular Interactions between NR4A Orphan Nuclear Receptors and NF-κB Are Required for Appropriate Inflammatory Responses and Immune Cell Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Evelyn P.; Crean, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate innate and adaptive immune responses are essential for protection and resolution against chemical, physical or biological insults. Immune cell polarization is fundamental in orchestrating distinct phases of inflammation, specifically acute phase responses followed by resolution and tissue repair. Dysregulation of immune cell and inflammatory responses is a hallmark of multiple diseases encompassing atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and metabolic syndromes. A master transcriptional mediator of diverse inflammatory signaling and immune cell function is NF-κB, and altered control of this key regulator can lead to an effective switch from acute to chronic inflammatory responses. Members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors crosstalk with NF-κB to regulate immune cell function(s). Within the NR superfamily the NR4A1-3 orphan receptors have emerged as important regulators of immune cell polarization and NF-κB signaling. NR4A receptors modulate NF-κB activity in a dynamic fashion, either repressing or enhancing target gene expression leading to altered inflammatory outcome. Here we will discuss the pivotal role NR4A’s receptors play in orchestrating immune cell homeostasis through molecular crosstalk with NF-κB. Specifically, we will examine such NR4A/NF-κB interactions within the context of distinct cell phenotypes, including monocyte, macrophage, T cells, endothelial, and mesenchymal cells, which play a role in inflammation-associated disease. Finally, we review the therapeutic potential of altering NR4A/NF-κB interactions to limit hyper-inflammatory responses in vivo. PMID:26131976

  1. [Congenital components of immunity: Toll-like receptors in the normal state and in immunopathology].

    PubMed

    Koval'chuk, L V; Khoreva, M V; Varivoda, A S

    2005-01-01

    This review deals with rapidly accumulating information on a highly important components of the congenital immune system: Toll-like receptors playing a leading role in the recognition of microbial patterns. The data on the main structural and functional features of Toll-like receptors and their distribution in the body are summarized. The main signal paths are characterized and the key molecules which take part in the transduction are pointed out. Special attention is paid to the activating action of lipopolysaccharides through TLR4. Pathological processes developing as the result of damages in the structure and function of Toll-like receptors in humans and experimental animals are determined.

  2. Adaptive resistance to therapeutic PD-1 blockade is associated with upregulation of alternative immune checkpoints.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Shohei; Akbay, Esra A; Li, Yvonne Y; Herter-Sprie, Grit S; Buczkowski, Kevin A; Richards, William G; Gandhi, Leena; Redig, Amanda J; Rodig, Scott J; Asahina, Hajime; Jones, Robert E; Kulkarni, Meghana M; Kuraguchi, Mari; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Fecci, Peter E; Johnson, Bruce E; Janne, Pasi A; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Gangadharan, Sidharta P; Costa, Daniel B; Freeman, Gordon J; Bueno, Raphael; Hodi, F Stephen; Dranoff, Glenn; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Hammerman, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Despite compelling antitumour activity of antibodies targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1): programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint in lung cancer, resistance to these therapies has increasingly been observed. In this study, to elucidate mechanisms of adaptive resistance, we analyse the tumour immune microenvironment in the context of anti-PD-1 therapy in two fully immunocompetent mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma. In tumours progressing following response to anti-PD-1 therapy, we observe upregulation of alternative immune checkpoints, notably T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3), in PD-1 antibody bound T cells and demonstrate a survival advantage with addition of a TIM-3 blocking antibody following failure of PD-1 blockade. Two patients who developed adaptive resistance to anti-PD-1 treatment also show a similar TIM-3 upregulation in blocking antibody-bound T cells at treatment failure. These data suggest that upregulation of TIM-3 and other immune checkpoints may be targetable biomarkers associated with adaptive resistance to PD-1 blockade. PMID:26883990

  3. Adaptive resistance to therapeutic PD-1 blockade is associated with upregulation of alternative immune checkpoints

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Shohei; Akbay, Esra A.; Li, Yvonne Y.; Herter-Sprie, Grit S.; Buczkowski, Kevin A.; Richards, William G.; Gandhi, Leena; Redig, Amanda J.; Rodig, Scott J.; Asahina, Hajime; Jones, Robert E.; Kulkarni, Meghana M.; Kuraguchi, Mari; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Fecci, Peter E.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Janne, Pasi A.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Gangadharan, Sidharta P.; Costa, Daniel B.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Bueno, Raphael; Hodi, F. Stephen; Dranoff, Glenn; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Hammerman, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite compelling antitumour activity of antibodies targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1): programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint in lung cancer, resistance to these therapies has increasingly been observed. In this study, to elucidate mechanisms of adaptive resistance, we analyse the tumour immune microenvironment in the context of anti-PD-1 therapy in two fully immunocompetent mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma. In tumours progressing following response to anti-PD-1 therapy, we observe upregulation of alternative immune checkpoints, notably T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3), in PD-1 antibody bound T cells and demonstrate a survival advantage with addition of a TIM-3 blocking antibody following failure of PD-1 blockade. Two patients who developed adaptive resistance to anti-PD-1 treatment also show a similar TIM-3 upregulation in blocking antibody-bound T cells at treatment failure. These data suggest that upregulation of TIM-3 and other immune checkpoints may be targetable biomarkers associated with adaptive resistance to PD-1 blockade. PMID:26883990

  4. Adaptive Immunity in Schizophrenia: Functional Implications of T Cells in the Etiology, Course and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Monojit

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and highly complex neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiopathology. Recently, immunopathogenesis has emerged as one of the most compelling etiological models of schizophrenia. Over the past few years considerable research has been devoted to the role of innate immune responses in schizophrenia. The findings of such studies have helped to conceptualize schizophrenia as a chronic low-grade inflammatory disorder. Although the contribution of adaptive immune responses has also been emphasized, however, the precise role of T cells in the underlying neurobiological pathways of schizophrenia is yet to be ascertained comprehensively. T cells have the ability to infiltrate brain and mediate neuro-immune cross-talk. Conversely, the central nervous system and the neurotransmitters are capable of regulating the immune system. Neurotransmitter like dopamine, implicated widely in schizophrenia risk and progression can modulate the proliferation, trafficking and functions of T cells. Within brain, T cells activate microglia, induce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as reactive oxygen species and subsequently lead to neuroinflammation. Importantly, such processes contribute to neuronal injury/death and are gradually being implicated as mediators of neuroprogressive changes in schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs, commonly used to treat schizophrenia are also known to affect adaptive immune system; interfere with the differentiation and functions of T cells. This understanding suggests a pivotal role of T cells in the etiology, course and treatment of schizophrenia and forms the basis of this review.

  5. Characterization of additional novel immune type receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mining of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) expressed sequence tag databases identified seven new novel immune type receptors (IpNITRs). These differed in sequence, but not structure, from previously described IpNITR1-11. IpNITR12a, 12b, 13 and 14, encode proteins containing a single variable (V...

  6. Activation of NOD receptors by Neisseria gonorrhoeae modulates the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Mavrogiorgos, Nikolaos; Mekasha, Samrawit; Yang, Yibin; Kelliher, Michelle A; Ingalls, Robin R

    2014-05-01

    NOD1 and NOD2 are members of the NOD-like receptor family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that recognize specific fragments of the bacterial cell wall component peptidoglycan. Neisseria species are unique amongst Gram-negative bacteria in that they turn over large amounts of peptidoglycan during growth. We examined the ability of NOD1 and NOD2 to recognize Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and determined the role of NOD-dependent signaling in regulating the immune response to gonococcal infection. Gonococci, as well as conditioned medium from mid-logarithmic phase grown bacteria, were capable of activating both human NOD1 and NOD2, as well as mouse NOD2, leading to the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and polyubiquitination of the adaptor receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2. We identified a number of cytokines and chemokines that were differentially expressed in wild type versus NOD2-deficient macrophages in response to gonococcal infection. Moreover, NOD2 signaling up-regulated complement pathway components and cytosolic nucleic acid sensors, suggesting a broad impact of NOD activation on innate immunity. Thus, NOD1 and NOD2 are important intracellular regulators of the immune response to infection with N. gonorrhoeae. Given the intracellular lifestyle of this pathogen, we believe these cytosolic receptors may provide a key innate immune defense mechanism for the host during gonococcal infection. PMID:23884094

  7. Inhibitory leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors: Immune checkpoint proteins and tumor sustaining factors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Xunlei; Kim, Jaehyup; Deng, Mi; John, Samuel; Chen, Heyu; Wu, Guojin; Phan, Hiep; Zhang, Cheng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILRBs 1-5) transduce signals via intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) that recruit protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 6 (PTPN6 or SHP-1), protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 11 (PTPN11 or SHP-2), or Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP), leading to negative regulation of immune cell activation. Certain of these receptors also play regulatory roles in neuronal activity and osteoclast development. The activation of LILRBs on immune cells by their ligands may contribute to immune evasion by tumors. Recent studies found that several members of LILRB family are expressed by tumor cells, notably hematopoietic cancer cells, and may directly regulate cancer development and relapse as well as the activity of cancer stem cells. LILRBs thus have dual concordant roles in tumor biology - as immune checkpoint molecules and as tumor-sustaining factors. Importantly, the study of knockout mice indicated that LILRBs do not affect hematopoiesis and normal development. Therefore LILRBs may represent ideal targets for tumor treatment. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on expression patterns, ligands, signaling, and functions of LILRB family members in the context of cancer development. PMID:26636629

  8. Synthesizing within-host and population-level selective pressures on viral populations: the impact of adaptive immunity on viral immune escape

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Igor; Pepin, Kim M.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Banavar, Jayanth R.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of viruses to escape prevailing host immunity involves selection at multiple integrative scales, from within-host viral and immune kinetics to the host population level. In order to understand how viral immune escape occurs, we develop an analytical framework that links the dynamical nature of immunity and viral variation across these scales. Our epidemiological model incorporates within-host viral evolutionary dynamics for a virus that causes acute infections (e.g. influenza and norovirus) with changes in host immunity in response to genetic changes in the virus population. We use a deterministic description of the within-host replication dynamics of the virus, the pool of susceptible host cells and the host adaptive immune response. We find that viral immune escape is most effective at intermediate values of immune strength. At very low levels of immunity, selection is too weak to drive immune escape in recovered hosts, while very high levels of immunity impose such strong selection that viral subpopulations go extinct before acquiring enough genetic diversity to escape host immunity. This result echoes the predictions of simpler models, but our formulation allows us to dissect the combination of within-host and transmission-level processes that drive immune escape. PMID:20335194

  9. Interleukin-10 receptor signaling in innate immune cells regulates mucosal immune tolerance and anti-inflammatory macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Shouval, Dror S; Biswas, Amlan; Goettel, Jeremy A; McCann, Katelyn; Conaway, Evan; Redhu, Naresh S; Mascanfroni, Ivan D; Al Adham, Ziad; Lavoie, Sydney; Ibourk, Mouna; Nguyen, Deanna D; Samsom, Janneke N; Escher, Johanna C; Somech, Raz; Weiss, Batia; Beier, Rita; Conklin, Laurie S; Ebens, Christen L; Santos, Fernanda G M S; Ferreira, Alexandre R; Sherlock, Mary; Bhan, Atul K; Müller, Werner; Mora, J Rodrigo; Quintana, Francisco J; Klein, Christoph; Muise, Aleixo M; Horwitz, Bruce H; Snapper, Scott B

    2014-05-15

    Intact interleukin-10 receptor (IL-10R) signaling on effector and T regulatory (Treg) cells are each independently required to maintain immune tolerance. Here we show that IL-10 sensing by innate immune cells, independent of its effects on T cells, was critical for regulating mucosal homeostasis. Following wild-type (WT) CD4(+) T cell transfer, Rag2(-/-)Il10rb(-/-) mice developed severe colitis in association with profound defects in generation and function of Treg cells. Moreover, loss of IL-10R signaling impaired the generation and function of anti-inflammatory intestinal and bone-marrow-derived macrophages and their ability to secrete IL-10. Importantly, transfer of WT but not Il10rb(-/-) anti-inflammatory macrophages ameliorated colitis induction by WT CD4(+) T cells in Rag2(-/-)Il10rb(-/-) mice. Similar alterations in the generation and function of anti-inflammatory macrophages were observed in IL-10R-deficient patients with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease. Collectively, our studies define innate immune IL-10R signaling as a key factor regulating mucosal immune homeostasis in mice and humans.

  10. Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 promote control of the fungal pathogen Trichophyton rubrum independently of IL-17 and adaptive immunity in experimental deep dermatophytosis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Fabio Sy; Yabe, Rikio; Iwakura, Yoichiro; de Almeida, Sandro R; Saijo, Shinobu

    2016-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are chronic fungal infections, the main causative agent of which is Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum). Despite their high occurrence worldwide, the immunological mechanisms underlying these diseases remain largely unknown. Here, we uncovered the C-type lectin receptors, Dectin-1 and Dectin-2, as key elements in the immune response to T. rubrum infection in a model of deep dermatophytosis. In vitro, we observed that deficiency in Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 severely compromised cytokine production by dendritic cells. In vivo, mice lacking Dectin-1 and/or Dectin-2 showed an inadequate pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to T. rubrum infection, impairing its resolution. Strikingly, neither adaptive immunity nor IL-17 response were required for fungal clearance, highlighting innate immunity as the main checkpoint in the pathogenesis of T. rubrum infection. PMID:27189427

  11. Critical roles of co-activation receptor DNAX accessory molecule-1 in natural killer cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Peng; Sang, Hai-Wei; Zhu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, which can exert early and powerful anti-tumour and anti-viral responses, are important components of the innate immune system. DNAX accessory molecule-1 (DNAM-1) is an activating receptor molecule expressed on the surface of NK cells. Recent findings suggest that DNAM-1 is a critical regulator of NK cell biology. DNAM-1 is involved in NK cell education and differentiation, and also plays a pivotal role in the development of cancer, viral infections and immune-related diseases. However, tumours and viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to evade the immune system. They are able to impair DNAM-1 activity by targeting the DNAM-1 receptor–ligand system. We have reviewed the roles of DNAM-1, and its biological functions, with respect to NK cell biology and DNAM-1 chimeric antigen receptor-based immunotherapy. PMID:26235210

  12. Emerging Role of the CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor in Immune Regulation and Therapeutic Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, G. A.; Griffin-Thomas, L.

    2009-01-01

    There is now a large body of data that indicates that the CB2 cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) is linked to a variety of immune functional events. This functional relevance appears to be most salient in the course of inflammation, a process during which there is an increased number of receptors that are available for activation. Studies aimed at elucidating signal transductional events resulting from CB2 interaction with its native ligands, and of the role of exogenous cannabinoids in modulating this process, are providing novel insights into the role of the CB2 in maintaining a homeostatic immune balance within the host. Furthermore, these studies suggest that the CB2 may serve as a selective molecular target for therapeutic manipulation of untoward immune responses including those associated with a variety of neuropathies that exhibit a hyperinflammatory component. PMID:19152719

  13. Changes in pituitary and ovarian LHRH receptors after active immunization of female rats against LH or LHRH.

    PubMed

    Popkin, R M; Fraser, H M

    1985-03-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis of female rats was disrupted at the site of LHRH stimulation by active immunization against LHRH or at the site of LH action by active immunization against LH. Active immunization against LH was associated with an increase in pituitary LHRH receptors to levels comparable to control values at pro-oestrus whereas immunization against LHRH led to a marked reduction in receptor numbers. Ovarian LHRH receptor concentrations were increased by both treatments. It is concluded, therefore, that (1) LHRH receptors in the pituitary and ovary are not concomitantly controlled, and (2) pituitary receptor numbers are primarily under positive autoregulatory control by LHRH and that ovarian LHRH receptor concentrations may be under long-term influence of LH.

  14. The Split Virus Influenza Vaccine rapidly activates immune cells through Fcγ Receptors

    PubMed Central

    O’Gorman, William E.; Huang, Huang; Wei, Yu-Ling; Davis, Kara L.; Leipold, Michael D.; Bendall, Sean C.; Kidd, Brian A.; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Maecker, Holden T.; Chien, Yueh-Hsiu; Davis, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal influenza vaccination is one of the most common medical procedures and yet the extent to which it activates the immune system beyond inducing antibody production is not well understood. In the United States, the most prevalent formulations of the vaccine consist of degraded or “split” viral particles distributed without any adjuvants. Based on previous reports we sought to determine whether the split influenza vaccine activates innate immune receptors—specifically Toll-like receptors. High-dimensional proteomic profiling of human whole-blood using Cytometry by Time-of-Flight (CyTOF) was used to compare signaling pathway activation and cytokine production between the split influenza vaccine and a prototypical TLR response ex vivo. This analysis revealed that the split vaccine rapidly and potently activates multiple immune cell types but yields a proteomic signature quite distinct from TLR activation. Importantly, vaccine induced activity was dependent upon the presence of human sera indicating that a serum factor was necessary for vaccine-dependent immune activation. We found this serum factor to be human antibodies specific for influenza proteins and therefore immediate immune activation by the split vaccine is immune-complex dependent. These studies demonstrate that influenza virus “splitting” inactivates any potential adjuvants endogenous to influenza, such as RNA, but in previously exposed individuals can elicit a potent immune response by facilitating the rapid formation of immune complexes. PMID:25203448

  15. Pavlovian conditioning of morphine-induced alterations of immune status: evidence for opioid receptor involvement.

    PubMed

    Coussons-Read, M E; Dykstra, L A; Lysle, D T

    1994-12-01

    Prior work in our laboratory has shown that morphine's immunomodulatory effects can become conditioned to environmental stimuli that predict drug administration. These immune alterations include conditioned changes in natural killer cell activity, interleukin-2 production, and mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. The present study examined the involvement of opioid receptor activity in the establishment and expression of conditioned morphine-induced alterations of immune status. During the training phase of the experiment, Lewis rats received two conditioning sessions during which a subcutaneous injection of 15 mg/kg morphine sulfate was paired with exposure to a distinctive environment. On the test day, animals were re-exposed to the distinctive environment alone prior to sacrifice. Saline or naltrexone (0.3, 1.0, 3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg) was administered during either the training or the test session. Administration of naltrexone prior to training antagonized the development of all of the conditioned alterations of immune status including changes in the mitogenic responsiveness of splenocytes, suppression of natural killer cell activity, and interleukin-2 production by splenocytes. Naltrexone administration prior to testing also was effective in antagonizing the expression of a subset of morphine-induced conditioned alterations in immune status. Taken together, these studies indicate that opioid receptor activity is involved in the establishment of conditioned morphine-induced immune alterations, as well as in the expression of a subset of these conditioned alterations of immune status.

  16. Lymphocyte-derived ACh regulates local innate but not adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Colin; Duncan, Gordon S.; Brüstle, Anne; Brenner, Dirk; Tusche, Michael W.; Olofsson, Peder S.; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Tracey, Kevin J.; Mak, Tak W.

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate control of immune responses is a critical determinant of health. Here, we show that choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) is expressed and ACh is produced by B cells and other immune cells that have an impact on innate immunity. ChAT expression occurs in mucosal-associated lymph tissue, subsequent to microbial colonization, and is reduced by antibiotic treatment. MyD88-dependent Toll-like receptor up-regulates ChAT in a transient manner. Unlike the previously described CD4+ T-cell population that is stimulated by norepinephrine to release ACh, ChAT+ B cells release ACh after stimulation with sulfated cholecystokinin but not norepinephrine. ACh-producing B-cells reduce peritoneal neutrophil recruitment during sterile endotoxemia independent of the vagus nerve, without affecting innate immune cell activation. Endothelial cells treated with ACh in vitro reduced endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression in a muscarinic receptor-dependent manner. Despite this ability, ChAT+ B cells were unable to suppress effector T-cell function in vivo. Therefore, ACh produced by lymphocytes has specific functions, with ChAT+ B cells controlling the local recruitment of neutrophils. PMID:23297238

  17. Comparative immune systems in animals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shaochun; Tao, Xin; Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

    2014-02-01

    Animal immune systems can be classified into those of innate immunity and those of adaptive immunity. It is generally thought that the former are universal for all animals and depend on germline-encoded receptors that recognize highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), whereas the latter are vertebrate specific and are mediated primarily by lymphocytes bearing a unique antigen receptor. However, novel adaptive or adaptive-like immunities have been found in invertebrates and jawless vertebrates, and extraordinarily complex innate immunities, created through huge expansions of many innate gene families, have recently been found in the cephalochordate amphioxus and the echinoderm sea urchin. These studies not only inspire immunologists to seek novel immune mechanisms in invertebrates but also raise questions about the origin and evolution of vertebrate immunities.

  18. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Brian P; Fisher, Kathleen M; Colvin, Michael E; Benda, Susan E; Peterson, James T; Kent, Michael L; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  19. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Brian P; Fisher, Kathleen M; Colvin, Michael E; Benda, Susan E; Peterson, James T; Kent, Michael L; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning. PMID:26581919

  20. Innate and adaptive immune responses in migrating spring-run adult chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dolan, Brian P.; Fisher, Kathleen M.; Colvin, Michael E.; Benda, Susan E.; Peterson, James T.; Kent, Michael L.; Schreck, Carl B.

    2016-01-01

    Adult Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) migrate from salt water to freshwater streams to spawn. Immune responses in migrating adult salmon are thought to diminish in the run up to spawning, though the exact mechanisms for diminished immune responses remain unknown. Here we examine both adaptive and innate immune responses as well as pathogen burdens in migrating adult Chinook salmon in the Upper Willamette River basin. Messenger RNA transcripts encoding antibody heavy chain molecules slightly diminish as a function of time, but are still present even after fish have successfully spawned. In contrast, the innate anti-bacterial effector proteins present in fish plasma rapidly decrease as spawning approaches. Fish also were examined for the presence and severity of eight different pathogens in different organs. While pathogen burden tended to increase during the migration, no specific pathogen signature was associated with diminished immune responses. Transcript levels of the immunosuppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF beta were measured and did not change during the migration. These results suggest that loss of immune functions in adult migrating salmon are not due to pathogen infection or cytokine-mediated immune suppression, but is rather part of the life history of Chinook salmon likely induced by diminished energy reserves or hormonal changes which accompany spawning.

  1. A rice lectin receptor-like kinase that is involved in innate immune responses also contributes to seed germination.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yan; Guo, Jianping; Du, Bo; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2013-11-01

    Seed germination and innate immunity both have significant effects on plant life spans because they control the plant's entry into the ecosystem and provide defenses against various external stresses, respectively. Much ecological evidence has shown that seeds with high vigor are generally more tolerant of various environmental stimuli in the field than those with low vigor. However, there is little genetic evidence linking germination and immunity in plants. Here, we show that the rice lectin receptor-like kinase OslecRK contributes to both seed germination and plant innate immunity. We demonstrate that knocking down the OslecRK gene depresses the expression of α-amylase genes, reducing seed viability and thereby decreasing the rate of seed germination. Moreover, it also inhibits the expression of defense genes, and so reduces the resistance of rice plants to fungal and bacterial pathogens as well as herbivorous insects. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that OslecRK interacts with an actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) in vivo via its kinase domain. Moreover, the rice adf mutant exhibited a reduced seed germination rate due to the suppression of α-amylase gene expression. This mutant also exhibited depressed immune responses and reduced resistance to biotic stresses. Our results thus provide direct genetic evidence for a common physiological pathway connecting germination and immunity in plants. They also partially explain the common observation that high-vigor seeds often perform well in the field. The dual effects of OslecRK may be indicative of progressive adaptive evolution in rice.

  2. The immune phenotype of AhR null mouse mutants: not a simple mirror of xenobiotic receptor over-activation.

    PubMed

    Esser, Charlotte

    2009-02-15

    Intrinsic and induced cell differentiation and the cellular response to endogenous and exogenous signals are hallmarks of the immune system. Specific and common signalling cascades ensure a highly flexible and adapted response. Increasing evidence suggests that gene modulation by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, is an important part of these processes. For decades the AhR has been studied mainly for its toxic effects after artificial activation by man-made chemical pollutants such as dioxins. These studies gave important, albeit to some extent skewed, evidence for a mechanistic link between the AhR and the immune system. AhR null mutants and other mutants of the AhR signalling pathway have been generated and used to analyse the physiological function of the AhR, including for the developing and antigen-responding immune system. In this review I look at the natural immunological function(s) of the AhR.

  3. Introgression of Neandertal- and Denisovan-like Haplotypes Contributes to Adaptive Variation in Human Toll-like Receptors.

    PubMed

    Dannemann, Michael; Andrés, Aida M; Kelso, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens and the diseases they cause have been among the most important selective forces experienced by humans during their evolutionary history. Although adaptive alleles generally arise by mutation, introgression can also be a valuable source of beneficial alleles. Archaic humans, who lived in Europe and Western Asia for more than 200,000 years, were probably well adapted to this environment and its local pathogens. It is therefore conceivable that modern humans entering Europe and Western Asia who admixed with them obtained a substantial immune advantage from the introgression of archaic alleles. Here we document a cluster of three Toll-like receptors (TLR6-TLR1-TLR10) in modern humans that carries three distinct archaic haplotypes, indicating repeated introgression from archaic humans. Two of these haplotypes are most similar to the Neandertal genome, and the third haplotype is most similar to the Denisovan genome. The Toll-like receptors are key components of innate immunity and provide an important first line of immune defense against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The unusually high allele frequencies and unexpected levels of population differentiation indicate that there has been local positive selection on multiple haplotypes at this locus. We show that the introgressed alleles have clear functional effects in modern humans; archaic-like alleles underlie differences in the expression of the TLR genes and are associated with increased [corrected] microbial resistance and increased allergic disease in large cohorts. This provides strong evidence for recurrent adaptive introgression at the TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 locus, resulting in differences in disease phenotypes in modern humans.

  4. Introgression of Neandertal- and Denisovan-like Haplotypes Contributes to Adaptive Variation in Human Toll-like Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dannemann, Michael; Andrés, Aida M.; Kelso, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens and the diseases they cause have been among the most important selective forces experienced by humans during their evolutionary history. Although adaptive alleles generally arise by mutation, introgression can also be a valuable source of beneficial alleles. Archaic humans, who lived in Europe and Western Asia for more than 200,000 years, were probably well adapted to this environment and its local pathogens. It is therefore conceivable that modern humans entering Europe and Western Asia who admixed with them obtained a substantial immune advantage from the introgression of archaic alleles. Here we document a cluster of three Toll-like receptors (TLR6-TLR1-TLR10) in modern humans that carries three distinct archaic haplotypes, indicating repeated introgression from archaic humans. Two of these haplotypes are most similar to the Neandertal genome, and the third haplotype is most similar to the Denisovan genome. The Toll-like receptors are key components of innate immunity and provide an important first line of immune defense against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The unusually high allele frequencies and unexpected levels of population differentiation indicate that there has been local positive selection on multiple haplotypes at this locus. We show that the introgressed alleles have clear functional effects in modern humans; archaic-like alleles underlie differences in the expression of the TLR genes and are associated with reduced microbial resistance and increased allergic disease in large cohorts. This provides strong evidence for recurrent adaptive introgression at the TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 locus, resulting in differences in disease phenotypes in modern humans. PMID:26748514

  5. Introgression of Neandertal- and Denisovan-like Haplotypes Contributes to Adaptive Variation in Human Toll-like Receptors.

    PubMed

    Dannemann, Michael; Andrés, Aida M; Kelso, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens and the diseases they cause have been among the most important selective forces experienced by humans during their evolutionary history. Although adaptive alleles generally arise by mutation, introgression can also be a valuable source of beneficial alleles. Archaic humans, who lived in Europe and Western Asia for more than 200,000 years, were probably well adapted to this environment and its local pathogens. It is therefore conceivable that modern humans entering Europe and Western Asia who admixed with them obtained a substantial immune advantage from the introgression of archaic alleles. Here we document a cluster of three Toll-like receptors (TLR6-TLR1-TLR10) in modern humans that carries three distinct archaic haplotypes, indicating repeated introgression from archaic humans. Two of these haplotypes are most similar to the Neandertal genome, and the third haplotype is most similar to the Denisovan genome. The Toll-like receptors are key components of innate immunity and provide an important first line of immune defense against bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The unusually high allele frequencies and unexpected levels of population differentiation indicate that there has been local positive selection on multiple haplotypes at this locus. We show that the introgressed alleles have clear functional effects in modern humans; archaic-like alleles underlie differences in the expression of the TLR genes and are associated with increased [corrected] microbial resistance and increased allergic disease in large cohorts. This provides strong evidence for recurrent adaptive introgression at the TLR6-TLR1-TLR10 locus, resulting in differences in disease phenotypes in modern humans. PMID:26748514

  6. Porcine Sialoadhesin: A Newly Identified Xenogeneic Innate Immune Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Linda G.; Delputte, Peter L.; Waldman, Joshua P.; Nauwynck, Hans J.; Rees, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Extracorporeal porcine liver perfusion is being developed as a bridge to liver allotransplantation for patients with fulminant hepatic failure. This strategy is limited by porcine Kupffer cell destruction of human erythrocytes, mediated by lectin binding of a sialic acid motif in the absence of antibody and complement. Sialoadhesin, a macrophage restricted lectin that binds sialic acid, was originally described as a sheep erythrocyte binding receptor. Given similarities between sialoadhesin and the unidentified macrophage lectin in our model, we hypothesized porcine sialoadhesin contributed to recognition of human erythrocytes. Two additional types of macrophages were identified to bind human erythrocytes - spleen and alveolar. Expression of sialoadhesin was confirmed by immunofluorescence in porcine tissues and by flow cytometry on primary macrophages. A stable transgenic cell line expressing porcine sialoadhesin (pSn CHO) bound human erythrocytes, while a sialoadhesin mutant cell line did not. Porcine macrophage and pSn CHO recognition of human erythrocytes was inhibited approximately 90% by an anti-porcine sialoadhesin monoclonal antibody and by human erythrocyte glycoproteins. Furthermore, this binding was substantially reduced by sialidase treatment of erythrocytes. These data support the hypothesis that porcine sialoadhesin is a xenogeneic receptor that mediates porcine macrophage binding of human erythrocytes in a sialic acid-dependent manner. PMID:22958948

  7. A cascade reaction network mimicking the basic functional steps of adaptive immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Da; Wu, Cuichen; You, Mingxu; Zhang, Tao; Wan, Shuo; Chen, Tao; Qiu, Liping; Zheng, Zheng; Liang, Hao; Tan, Weihong

    2015-10-01

    Biological systems use complex ‘information-processing cores’ composed of molecular networks to coordinate their external environment and internal states. An example of this is the acquired, or adaptive, immune system (AIS), which is composed of both humoral and cell-mediated components. Here we report the step-by-step construction of a prototype mimic of the AIS that we call an adaptive immune response simulator (AIRS). DNA and enzymes are used as simple artificial analogues of the components of the AIS to create a system that responds to specific molecular stimuli in vitro. We show that this network of reactions can function in a manner that is superficially similar to the most basic responses of the vertebrate AIS, including reaction sequences that mimic both humoral and cellular responses. As such, AIRS provides guidelines for the design and engineering of artificial reaction networks and molecular devices.

  8. The Scavenger Receptor SREC-I Cooperates with Toll-Like Receptors to Trigger Inflammatory Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Murshid, Ayesha; Borges, Thiago J.; Lang, Benjamin J.; Calderwood, Stuart K.

    2016-01-01

    Scavenger receptor expressed by endothelial cell-I (SREC-I) is a class F scavenger receptor expressed by immune cells with a significant role in CD8+- and CD4+-mediated T cell immunity. This receptor can also modulate the function of toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play essential roles in innate immunity. Earlier, it was found that human monocyte/macrophage THP1 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice exhibited increased responses to polyinosine–polycytidylic acid (poly I:C, PIC) and CpG (unmethylated) DNA and enhanced production of inflammatory cytokines with overexpressed SREC-I. Our data also showed that intracellular/endocytic TLR3 and TLR9 could directly interact with SREC-I in the presence of their respective ligands. We also observed that the internalized ligand along with TLR3/TLR9 colocalized in the endosome in macrophages and THP-1 cells overexpressing these receptors. In the absence of these ligands, there was no detectable colocalization between the SREC-I and endocytic TLRs. Earlier, it was shown that SREC-I stimulated double-stranded RNA/CpGDNA-mediated TLR3/TLR9 activation of the innate immune response by triggering signaling through the NF-κB, IRF3, and MAP kinase pathways leading to transcription of cytokine genes. We also established that SREC-I can associate with plasma membrane TLRs, such as TLR2 and TLR4. We demonstrated that SREC-I–TLR4 signals more efficiently from lipid microdomain in which lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can associate with SREC-I–TLR4 complex. We also proved that SREC-I is an alternate receptor for LPS capable of internalizing the complex and for endocytic TLR ligands as well. This binding activated endocytic TLR-mediated downstream cytokine production in THP1 cells and macrophages. Finally, SREC-I could also form complexes with TLR2 and induce the release of cytokines in the presence of bacterial, viral, and fungal ligands. PMID:27379091

  9. Innate and adaptive immune responses against picornaviruses and their counteractions: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Dotzauer, Andreas; Kraemer, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Picornaviruses, small positive-stranded RNA viruses, cause a wide range of diseases which is based on their differential tissue and cell type tropisms. This diversity is reflected by the immune responses, both innate and adaptive, induced after infection, and the subsequent interactions of the viruses with the immune system. The defense mechanisms of the host and the countermeasures of the virus significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of the infections. Important human pathogens are poliovirus, coxsackievirus, human rhinovirus and hepatitis A virus. These viruses are the best-studied members of the family, and in this review we want to present the major aspects of the reciprocal effects between the immune system and these viruses. PMID:24175214

  10. Multifunctional host defense peptides: antimicrobial peptides, the small yet big players in innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Auvynet, Constance; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2009-11-01

    The term 'antimicrobial peptides' refers to a large number of peptides first characterized on the basis of their antibiotic and antifungal activities. In addition to their role as endogenous antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, also called host defense peptides, participate in multiple aspects of immunity (inflammation, wound repair, and regulation of the adaptive immune system) as well as in maintaining homeostasis. The possibility of utilizing these multifunctional molecules to effectively combat the ever-growing group of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has intensified research aimed at improving their antibiotic activity and therapeutic potential, without the burden of an exacerbated inflammatory response, but conserving their immunomodulatory potential. In this minireview, we focus on the contribution of small cationic antimicrobial peptides - particularly human cathelicidins and defensins - to the immune response and disease, highlighting recent advances in our understanding of the roles of these multifunctional molecules.

  11. Regulating adaptive immune responses using small molecule modulators of aminopeptidases that process antigenic peptides.

    PubMed

    Stratikos, Efstratios

    2014-12-01

    Antigenic peptide processing by intracellular aminopeptidases has emerged recently as an important pathway that regulates adaptive immune responses. Pathogens and cancer can manipulate the activity of key enzymes of this pathway to promote immune evasion. Furthermore, the activity of these enzymes is naturally variable due to polymorphic variation, contributing to predisposition to disease, most notably autoimmunity. Here, we review recent findings that suggest that the pharmacological regulation of the activity of these aminopeptidases constitutes a valid approach for regulating human immune responses. We furthermore review the state of the art in chemical tools for inhibiting these enzymes and how these tools can be useful for the development of innovative therapeutic approaches for a variety of diseases including cancer, viral infections and autoimmunity.

  12. Innate and adaptive immune responses against picornaviruses and their counteractions: An overview.

    PubMed

    Dotzauer, Andreas; Kraemer, Leena

    2012-06-12

    Picornaviruses, small positive-stranded RNA viruses, cause a wide range of diseases which is based on their differential tissue and cell type tropisms. This diversity is reflected by the immune responses, both innate and adaptive, induced after infection, and the subsequent interactions of the viruses with the immune system. The defense mechanisms of the host and the countermeasures of the virus significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of the infections. Important human pathogens are poliovirus, coxsackievirus, human rhinovirus and hepatitis A virus. These viruses are the best-studied members of the family, and in this review we want to present the major aspects of the reciprocal effects between the immune system and these viruses.

  13. Modulation of ovarian function in female dogs immunized with bovine luteinizing hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Saxena, B B; Clavio, A; Singh, M; Rathnam, P; Bukharovich, Y; Reimers, T; Saxena, A; Perkins, Scott

    2002-02-01

    Adult female dogs were immunized with 0.5 mg bovine luteinizing hormone receptor (LH-R) encapsulated in a silastic subdermal implant and subsequently with four intramuscular booster injections of 0.1 mg LH-R each. Circulating LH-R antibody was detected in the sera 3 weeks post-implant. The appearance of LH-R antibody was associated with a decline in the serum progesterone concentrations to a range of 0-0.5 ng/ml until day 365 in the immunized dogs in comparison with a range of 5-10 ng in the control animals, suggesting a lack of ovulation and corpus luteum function in immunized dogs. The immunized dogs did not show signs of 'standing heat' and failed to ovulate when induced by LH-RH challenge. Serum oestradiol levels, however, remained in the range of 30-40 pg/ml in both the immunized and the control dogs. With the decline in the antibody titres, the hormonal profile and vaginal cytology returned to a fertile state and the dogs exhibited signs of 'standing heat', as well as vaginal bleeding. Dogs immunized with LH-R did not show any serious metabolic, local or systemic adverse effects. The hypothalamic--pituitary gonadal axis remained intact as indicated by little difference in pituitary LH levels between control and immunized animals, and by the release of LH by LH-RH challenge. These studies demonstrate that active immunization of female dogs with LH-R could immunomodulate ovarian function to cause a reversible state of infertility. It may be postulated that, due to extensive interspecies homology, a recombinant LH receptor-based immunocontraceptive vaccine may also be effective in other vertebrates.

  14. Virulent Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium evades adaptive immunity by preventing dendritic cells from activating T cells.

    PubMed

    Tobar, Jaime A; Carreño, Leandro J; Bueno, Susan M; González, Pablo A; Mora, Jorge E; Quezada, Sergio A; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2006-11-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute the link between innate and adaptive immunity by directly recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in bacteria and by presenting bacterial antigens to T cells. Recognition of PAMPs renders DCs as professional antigen-presenting cells able to prime naïve T cells and initiate adaptive immunity against bacteria. Therefore, interfering with DC function would promote bacterial survival and dissemination. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that have evolved in virulent bacteria to evade activation of adaptive immunity requires the characterization of virulence factors that interfere with DC function. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the causative agent of typhoid-like disease in the mouse, can prevent antigen presentation to T cells by avoiding lysosomal degradation in DCs. Here, we show that this feature of virulent Salmonella applies in vivo to prevent activation of adaptive immunity. In addition, this attribute of virulent Salmonella requires functional expression of a type three secretion system (TTSS) and effector proteins encoded within the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2). In contrast to wild-type virulent Salmonella, mutant strains carrying specific deletions of SPI-2 genes encoding TTSS components or effectors proteins are targeted to lysosomes and are no longer able to prevent DCs from activating T cells in vitro or in vivo. SPI-2 mutant strains are attenuated in vivo, showing reduced tissue colonization and enhanced T-cell activation, which confers protection against a challenge with wild-type virulent Salmonella. Our data suggest that impairment of DC function by the activity of SPI-2 gene products is crucial for Salmonella pathogenesis.

  15. The appearance of the thymus and the integrated evolution of adaptive immune and neuroendocrine systems.

    PubMed

    Geenen, V

    2012-01-01

    The immune system may be considered as a sensory organ able to respond to different kinds of danger signals that are not detected by nervous cells. The immune response is not autonomous but also regulated by the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as by neuropeptides, vitamin D and neuroendocrine axes such as the corticotrope, somatotrope, thyrotrope and gonadotrope axes. During evolution, the thymus emerged concomitantly with recombinase-dependent adaptive immunity as an'immune brain' or a'master class' highly specialized in the orchestration of central immunological self-tolerance. This was an absolute requirement for survival of species because of the high risk of autotoxicity inherent to the stochastic generation of extreme diversity characterizing this novel adaptive type of immune defenses against non-self. The thymus now appears to be an obligatory intersection for the integrated evolution of the major systems of cell-to-cell signalling, the nervous, endocrine and immune systems. The presentation of many self-peptides by thymic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins is controlled by the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene/protein and is responsible for the clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells. In the same time, by still unexplained mechanisms, MHC presentation of the same self-peptides in the thymus promotes the generation of self-specific FOXP3+ CD4+CD25+ natural regulatory T cells (nTreg) that are able to inhibit in periphery self-reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells having escaped the thymus censorship. Moreover, a thymus dysfunction is more and more established as the primary event driving the development of organ-specific autoimmunity, which is the tribute paid, mainly by mankind, for the preservation of self against non-self. Our novel knowledge about thymus physiology and physiopathology already serves as the basis for the development of various innovative and efficient immunomodulating strategies in pharmacology. PMID:22897070

  16. CRISPR-Cas: evolution of an RNA-based adaptive immunity system in prokaryotes.

    PubMed

    Koonin, Eugene V; Makarova, Kira S

    2013-05-01

    The CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, CRISPR-associated genes) is an adaptive immunity system in bacteria and archaea that functions via a distinct self-non-self recognition mechanism that is partially analogous to the mechanism of eukaryotic RNA interference (RNAi). The CRISPR-Cas system incorporates fragments of virus or plasmid DNA into the CRISPR repeat cassettes and employs the processed transcripts of these spacers as guide RNAs to cleave the cognate foreign DNA or RNA. The Cas proteins, however, are not homologous to the proteins involved in RNAi and comprise numerous, highly diverged families. The majority of the Cas proteins contain diverse variants of the RNA recognition motif (RRM), a widespread RNA-binding domain. Despite the fast evolution that is typical of the cas genes, the presence of diverse versions of the RRM in most Cas proteins provides for a simple scenario for the evolution of the three distinct types of CRISPR-cas systems. In addition to several proteins that are directly implicated in the immune response, the cas genes encode a variety of proteins that are homologous to prokaryotic toxins that typically possess nuclease activity. The predicted toxins associated with CRISPR-Cas systems include the essential Cas2 protein, proteins of COG1517 that, in addition to a ligand-binding domain and a helix-turn-helix domain, typically contain different nuclease domains and several other predicted nucleases. The tight association of the CRISPR-Cas immunity systems with predicted toxins that, upon activation, would induce dormancy or cell death suggests that adaptive immunity and dormancy/suicide response are functionally coupled. Such coupling could manifest in the persistence state being induced and potentially providing conditions for more effective action of the immune system or in cell death being triggered when immunity fails.

  17. Once Upon a Time: The Adaptive Immune Response in Atherosclerosis—a Fairy Tale No More

    PubMed Central

    Le Borgne, Marie; Caligiuri, Giuseppina; Nicoletti, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Extensive research has been carried out to decipher the function of the adaptive immune response in atherosclerosis, with the expectation that it will pave the road for the design of immunomodulatory therapies that will prevent or reverse the progression of the disease. All this work has led to the concept that some T- and B-cell subsets are proatherogenic, whereas others are atheroprotective. In addition to the immune response occurring in the spleen and lymph nodes, it has been shown that lymphoid neo-genesis takes place in the adventitia of atherosclerotic vessels, leading to the formation of tertiary lymphoid organs where an adaptive immune response can be mounted. Whereas the mechanisms orchestrating the formation of these organs are becoming better understood, their impact on atherosclerosis progression remains unclear. Several potential therapeutic strategies against atherosclerosis, such as protective vaccination against atherosclerosis antigens or inhibiting the activation of proatherogenic B cells, have been proposed based on our improving knowledge of the role of the immune system in atherosclerosis. These strategies have shown success in preclinical studies, giving hope that they will lead to clinical applications. PMID:26605642

  18. Structural basis of pathogen recognition by an integrated HMA domain in a plant NLR immune receptor

    PubMed Central

    Maqbool, A; Saitoh, H; Franceschetti, M; Stevenson, CEM; Uemura, A; Kanzaki, H; Kamoun, S; Terauchi, R; Banfield, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved intracellular immune receptors to detect pathogen proteins known as effectors. How these immune receptors detect effectors remains poorly understood. Here we describe the structural basis for direct recognition of AVR-Pik, an effector from the rice blast pathogen, by the rice intracellular NLR immune receptor Pik. AVR-PikD binds a dimer of the Pikp-1 HMA integrated domain with nanomolar affinity. The crystal structure of the Pikp-HMA/AVR-PikD complex enabled design of mutations to alter protein interaction in yeast and in vitro, and perturb effector-mediated response both in a rice cultivar containing Pikp and upon expression of AVR-PikD and Pikp in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. These data reveal the molecular details of a recognition event, mediated by a novel integrated domain in an NLR, which initiates a plant immune response and resistance to rice blast disease. Such studies underpin novel opportunities for engineering disease resistance to plant pathogens in staple food crops. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08709.001 PMID:26304198

  19. Leptin's metabolic and immune functions can be uncoupled at the ligand/receptor interaction level.

    PubMed

    Zabeau, Lennart; Jensen, Cathy J; Seeuws, Sylvie; Venken, Koen; Verhee, Annick; Catteeuw, Dominiek; van Loo, Geert; Chen, Hui; Walder, Ken; Hollis, Jacob; Foote, Simon; Morris, Margaret J; Van der Heyden, José; Peelman, Frank; Oldfield, Brian J; Rubio, Justin P; Elewaut, Dirk; Tavernier, Jan

    2015-02-01

    The adipocyte-derived cytokine leptin acts as a metabolic switch, connecting the body's metabolism to high-energy consuming processes such as reproduction and immune responses. We here provide genetic and biochemical evidence that the metabolic and immune functions of leptin can be uncoupled at the receptor level. First, homozygous mutant fatt/fatt mice carry a spontaneous splice mutation causing deletion of the leptin receptor (LR) immunoglobulin-like domain (IGD) in all LR isoforms. These mice are hyperphagic and morbidly obese, but display only minimal changes in size and cellularity of the thymus, and cellular immune responses are unaffected. These animals also displayed liver damage in response to concavalin A comparable to wild-type and heterozygous littermates. Second, treatment of healthy mice with a neutralizing nanobody targeting IGD induced weight gain and hyperinsulinaemia, but completely failed to block development of experimentally induced autoimmune diseases. These data indicate that leptin receptor deficiency or antagonism profoundly affects metabolism, with little concomitant effects on immune functions. PMID:25098352

  20. The adaptive immune response does not influence hantavirus disease or persistence in the Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Robertson, Shelly; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-10-01

    Pathogenic New World hantaviruses cause severe disease in humans characterized by a vascular leak syndrome, leading to pulmonary oedema and respiratory distress with case fatality rates approaching 40%. Hantaviruses infect microvascular endothelial cells without conspicuous cytopathic effects, indicating that destruction of the endothelium is not a mechanism of disease. In humans, high levels of inflammatory cytokines are present in the lungs of patients that succumb to infection. This, along with other observations, suggests that disease has an immunopathogenic component. Currently the only animal model available to study hantavirus disease is the Syrian hamster, where infection with Andes virus (ANDV), the primary agent of disease in South America, results in disease that closely mimics that seen in humans. Conversely, inoculation of hamsters with a passaged Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the virus responsible for most cases of disease in North America, results in persistent infection with high levels of viral replication. We found that ANDV elicited a stronger innate immune response, whereas SNV elicited a more robust adaptive response in the lung. Additionally, ANDV infection resulted in significant changes in the blood lymphocyte populations. To determine whether the adaptive immune response influences infection outcome, we depleted hamsters of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells before infection with hantaviruses. Depletion resulted in inhibition of virus-specific antibody responses, although the pathogenesis and replication of these viruses were unaltered. These data show that neither hantavirus replication, nor pathogenesis caused by these viruses, is influenced by the adaptive immune response in the Syrian hamster.

  1. Markedly impaired humoral immune response in mice deficient in complement receptors 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Molina, H; Holers, V M; Li, B; Fung, Y; Mariathasan, S; Goellner, J; Strauss-Schoenberger, J; Karr, R W; Chaplin, D D

    1996-04-16

    Complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35) and complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) have been implicated as regulators of B-cell activation. We explored the role of these receptors in the development of humoral immunity by generating CR1- and CR2-deficient mice using gene-targeting techniques. These mice have normal basal levels of IgM and of IgG isotypes. B- and T-cell development are overtly normal. Nevertheless, B-cell responses to low and high doses of a T-cell-dependent antigen are impaired with decreased titers of antigen-specific IgM and IgG isotypes. This defect is not complete because there is still partial activation of B lymphocytes during the primary immune response, with generation of splenic germinal centers and a detectable, although reduced, secondary antibody response. These data suggest that certain T-dependent antigens manifest an absolute dependence on complement receptors for the initiation of a normally robust immune response.

  2. Markedly impaired humoral immune response in mice deficient in complement receptors 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Molina, H; Holers, V M; Li, B; Fung, Y; Mariathasan, S; Goellner, J; Strauss-Schoenberger, J; Karr, R W; Chaplin, D D

    1996-04-16

    Complement receptor 1 (CR1, CD35) and complement receptor 2 (CR2, CD21) have been implicated as regulators of B-cell activation. We explored the role of these receptors in the development of humoral immunity by generating CR1- and CR2-deficient mice using gene-targeting techniques. These mice have normal basal levels of IgM and of IgG isotypes. B- and T-cell development are overtly normal. Nevertheless, B-cell responses to low and high doses of a T-cell-dependent antigen are impaired with decreased titers of antigen-specific IgM and IgG isotypes. This defect is not complete because there is still partial activation of B lymphocytes during the primary immune response, with generation of splenic germinal centers and a detectable, although reduced, secondary antibody response. These data suggest that certain T-dependent antigens manifest an absolute dependence on complement receptors for the initiation of a normally robust immune response. PMID:8622941

  3. Protective Humoral Immunity Elicited by a Needle-Free Malaria Vaccine Comprised of a Chimeric Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein and a Toll-Like Receptor 5 Agonist, Flagellin

    PubMed Central

    Carapau, Daniel; Mitchell, Robert; Nacer, Adéla; Shaw, Alan; Othoro, Caroline; Frevert, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Immunization with Plasmodium sporozoites can elicit high levels of sterile immunity, and neutralizing antibodies from protected hosts are known to target the repeat region of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein on the parasite surface. CS-based subunit vaccines have been hampered by suboptimal immunogenicity and the requirement for strong adjuvants to elicit effective humoral immunity. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that signal through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can function as potent adjuvants for innate and adaptive immunity. We examined the immunogenicity of recombinant proteins containing a TLR5 agonist, flagellin, and either full-length or selected epitopes of the Plasmodium falciparum CS protein. Mice immunized with either of the flagellin-modified CS constructs, administered intranasally (i.n.) or subcutaneously (s.c.), developed similar levels of malaria-specific IgG1 antibody and interleukin-5 (IL-5)-producing T cells. Importantly, immunization via the i.n. but not the s.c. route elicited sporozoite neutralizing antibodies capable of inhibiting >90% of sporozoite invasion in vitro and in vivo, as measured using a transgenic rodent parasite expressing P. falciparum CS repeats. These findings demonstrate that functional sporozoite neutralizing antibody can be elicited by i.n. immunization with a flagellin-modified P. falciparum CS protein and raise the potential of a scalable, safe, needle-free vaccine for the 40% of the world's population at risk of malaria. PMID:24042110

  4. Physical model of the immune response of bacteria against bacteriophage through the adaptive CRISPR-Cas immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Pu; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Barrick, Jeffrey E.; Deem, Michael W.

    2013-04-01

    Bacteria and archaea have evolved an adaptive, heritable immune system that recognizes and protects against viruses or plasmids. This system, known as the CRISPR-Cas system, allows the host to recognize and incorporate short foreign DNA or RNA sequences, called ‘spacers’ into its CRISPR system. Spacers in the CRISPR system provide a record of the history of bacteria and phage coevolution. We use a physical model to study the dynamics of this coevolution as it evolves stochastically over time. We focus on the impact of mutation and recombination on bacteria and phage evolution and evasion. We discuss the effect of different spacer deletion mechanisms on the coevolutionary dynamics. We make predictions about bacteria and phage population growth, spacer diversity within the CRISPR locus, and spacer protection against the phage population.

  5. Physical Model of the Immune Response of Bacteria Against Bacteriophage Through the Adaptive CRISPR-Cas Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Han, Pu; Niestemski, Liang Ren; Barrick, Jeffrey E.; Deem, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria and archaea have evolved an adaptive, heritable immune system that recognizes and protects against viruses or plasmids. This system, known as the CRISPR-Cas system, allows the host to recognize and incorporate short foreign DNA or RNA sequences, called ‘spacers’ into its CRISPR system. Spacers in the CRISPR system provide a record of the history of bacteria and phage coevolution. We use a physical model to study the dynamics of this coevolution as it evolves stochastically over time. We focus on the impact of mutation and recombination on bacteria and phage evolution and evasion. We discuss the effect of different spacer deletion mechanisms on the coevolutionary dynamics. We make predictions about bacteria and phage population growth, spacer diversity within the CRISPR locus, and spacer protection against the phage population. PMID:23492852

  6. Variable NK cell receptors and their MHC class I ligands in immunity, reproduction and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Parham, Peter; Moffett, Ashley

    2013-02-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells have roles in immunity and reproduction that are controlled by variable receptors that recognize MHC class I molecules. The variable NK cell receptors found in humans are specific to simian primates, in which they have progressively co-evolved with MHC class I molecules. The emergence of the MHC-C gene in hominids drove the evolution of a system of NK cell receptors for MHC-C molecules that is most elaborate in chimpanzees. By contrast, the human system of MHC-C receptors seems to have been subject to different selection pressures that have acted in competition on the immunological and reproductive functions of MHC class I molecules. We suggest that this compromise facilitated the development of the bigger brains that enabled archaic and modern humans to migrate out of Africa and populate other continents.

  7. Immune responses against protozoan parasites: a focus on the emerging role of Nod-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-08-01

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) have gained attention in recent years because of the ability of some family members to assemble into a multimeric protein complex known as the inflammasome. The role of NLRs and the inflammasome in regulating innate immunity against bacterial pathogens has been well studied. However, recent studies show that NLRs and inflammasomes also play a role during infections caused by protozoan parasites, which pose a significant global health burden. Herein, we review the diseases caused by the most common protozoan parasites in the world and discuss the roles of NLRs and inflammasomes in host immunity against these parasites.

  8. Evaluation of innate and adaptive immunity contributing to the antitumor effects of PD1 blockade in an orthotopic murine model of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    D'Alincourt Salazar, Marcela; Manuel, Edwin R; Tsai, Weimin; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Goldstein, Leanne; Blazar, Bruce R; Diamond, Don J

    2016-06-01

    Despite the clinical success of anti-PD1 antibody (α-PD1) therapy, the immune mechanisms contributing to the antineoplastic response remain unclear. Here, we describe novel aspects of the immune response involved in α-PD1-induced antitumor effects using an orthotopic Kras (G12D)/p53(R172H)/Pdx1-Cre (KPC) model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). We found that positive therapeutic outcome involved both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Adoptive transfer of total splenocytes after short-term (3 d) but not long-term (28 d) PD1 blockade significantly extended survival of non-treated tumor-bearing recipient mice. This protective effect appeared to be mostly mediated by T cells, as adoptive transfer of purified natural killer (NK) cells and/or granulocyte receptor 1 (Gr1)(+) cells or splenocytes depleted of Gr1(+) cells and NK cells did not exhibit transferrable antitumor activity following short-term PD1 blockade. Nevertheless, splenic and tumor-derived CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells and NK cells showed significant persistence of α-PD1 bound to these cells in the treated primary recipient mice. We observed that short-term inhibition of PD1 signaling modulated the profiles of multifunctional cytokines in the tumor immune-infiltrate, including downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A). Altogether, the data suggest that systemic blockade of PD1 results in rapid modulation of antitumor immunity that differs in the tumor microenvironment (TME) when compared to the spleen. These results demonstrate a key role for early immune-mediated events in controlling tumor progression in response to α-PD1 treatment and warrant further investigation into the mechanisms governing responses to the therapy at the innate-adaptive immune interface. PMID:27471630

  9. Complex Adaptive Immunity to Enteric Fevers in Humans: Lessons Learned and the Path Forward

    PubMed Central

    Sztein, Marcelo B.; Salerno-Goncalves, Rosangela; McArthur, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever, and S. Paratyphi A and B, causative agents of paratyphoid fever, are major public health threats throughout the world. Although two licensed typhoid vaccines are currently available, they are only moderately protective and immunogenic necessitating the development of novel vaccines. A major obstacle in the development of improved typhoid, as well as paratyphoid vaccines is the lack of known immunological correlates of protection in humans. Considerable progress has been made in recent years in understanding the complex adaptive host responses against S. Typhi. Although the induction of S. Typhi-specific antibodies (including their functional properties) and memory B cells, as well as their cross-reactivity with S. Paratyphi A and S. Paratyphi B has been shown, the role of humoral immunity in protection remains undefined. Cell mediated immunity (CMI) is likely to play a dominant role in protection against enteric fever pathogens. Detailed measurements of CMI performed in volunteers immunized with attenuated strains of S. Typhi have shown, among others, the induction of lymphoproliferation, multifunctional type 1 cytokine production, and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell responses. In addition to systemic responses, the local microenvironment of the gut is likely to be of paramount importance in protection from these infections. In this review, we will critically assess current knowledge regarding the role of CMI and humoral immunity following natural S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi infections, experimental challenge, and immunization in humans. We will also address recent advances regarding cross-talk between the host’s gut microbiota and immunization with attenuated S. Typhi, mechanisms of systemic immune responses, and the homing potential of S. Typhi-specific B- and T-cells to the gut and other tissues. PMID:25386175

  10. Activation/modulation of adaptive immunity emerges simultaneously after 17DD yellow fever first-time vaccination: is this the key to prevent severe adverse reactions following immunization?

    PubMed Central

    Martins, M Â; Silva, M L; Marciano, A P V; Peruhype-Magalhães, V; Eloi-Santos, S M; Ribeiro, J G L; Correa-Oliveira, R; Homma, A; Kroon, E G; Teixeira-Carvalho, A; Martins-Filho, O A

    2007-01-01

    Over past decades the 17DD yellow fever vaccine has proved to be effective in controlling yellow fever and promises to be a vaccine vector for other diseases, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which it elicits such broad-based immunity are still unclear. In this study we describe a detailed phenotypic investigation of major and minor peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations aimed at characterizing the kinetics of the adaptive immune response following primary 17DD vaccination. Our major finding is a decreased frequency of circulating CD19+ cells at day 7 followed by emerging activation/modulation phenotypic features (CD19+interleukin(IL)10R+/CD19+CD32+) at day 15. Increased frequency of CD4+human leucocyte antigen D-related(HLA-DR+) at day 7 and CD8+HLA-DR+ at day 30 suggest distinct kinetics of T cell activation, with CD4+ T cells being activated early and CD8+ T cells representing a later event following 17DD vaccination. Up-regulation of modulatory features on CD4+ and CD8+ cells at day 15 seems to be the key event leading to lower frequency of CD38+ T cells at day 30. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the co-existence of phenotypic features associated with activation events and modulatory pathways. Positive correlations between CD4+HLA-DR+ cells and CD4+CD25high regulatory T cells and the association between the type 0 chemokine receptor CCR2 and the activation status of CD4+ and CD8+ cells further support this hypothesis. We hypothesize that this controlled microenviroment seems to be the key to prevent the development of serious adverse events, and even deaths, associated with the 17DD vaccine reported in the literature. PMID:17309541

  11. Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate OFF responses in light-adapted ON bipolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Ji-Jie; Gao, Fan; Wu, Samuel M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that photoreceptor synaptic inputs to depolarizing bipolar cells (DBCs or ON bipolar cells) are mediated by mGluR6 receptors and those to hyperpolarizing bipolar cells (HBCs or OFF bipolar cells) are mediated by AMPA/kainate receptors. Here we show that in addition to mGluR6 receptors which mediate the sign-inverting, depolarizing light responses, subpopulations of cone-dominated and rod/cone mixed DBCs use GluR4 AMPA receptors to generate a transient sign-preserving OFF response under light adapted conditions. These AMPA receptors are located at the basal junctions postsynaptic to rods and they are silent under dark-adapted conditions, as tonic glutamate release in darkness desensitizes these receptors. Light adaptation enhances rod-cone coupling and thus allows cone photocurrents with an abrupt OFF depolarization to enter the rods. The abrupt rod depolarization triggers glutamate activation of unoccupied AMPA receptors, resulting in a transient OFF response in DBCs. It has been widely accepted that the DNQX-sensitive, OFF transient responses in retinal amacrine cells and ganglion cells are mediated exclusively by HBCs. Our results suggests that this view needs revision as AMPA receptors in subpopulations of DBCs are likely to significantly contribute to the DNQX-sensitive OFF transient responses in light-adapted third- and higher-order visual neurons. PMID:22842089

  12. Structural Basis for Platelet Collagen Responses by the Immune-type Receptor Glycoprotein VI

    SciTech Connect

    Horii,K.; Kahn, M.; Herr, A.

    2006-01-01

    Activation of circulating platelets by exposed vessel wall collagen is a primary step in the pathogenesis of heart attack and stroke, and drugs to block platelet activation have successfully reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In humans and mice, collagen activation of platelets is mediated by glycoprotein VI (GPVI), a receptor that is homologous to immune receptors but bears little sequence similarity to known matrix protein adhesion receptors. Here we present the crystal structure of the collagen-binding domain of human GPVI and characterize its interaction with a collagen-related peptide. Like related immune receptors, GPVI contains 2 immunoglobulin-like domains arranged in a perpendicular orientation. Significantly, GPVI forms a back-to-back dimer in the crystal, an arrangement that could explain data previously obtained from cell-surface GPVI inhibition studies. Docking algorithms identify 2 parallel grooves on the GPVI dimer surface as collagen-binding sites, and the orientation and spacing of these grooves precisely match the dimensions of an intact collagen fiber. These findings provide a structural basis for the ability of an immunetype receptor to generate signaling responses to collagen and for the development of GPVI inhibitors as new therapies for human cardiovascular disease.

  13. Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a “phagocytic synapse”

    PubMed Central

    Goodridge, Helen S.; Reyes, Christopher N.; Becker, Courtney A.; Katsumoto, Tamiko R.; Ma, Jun; Wolf, Andrea J.; Bose, Nandita; Chan, Anissa S. H.; Magee, Andrew S.; Danielson, Michael E.; Weiss, Arthur; Vasilakos, John P.; Underhill, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Innate immune cells must be able to distinguish between direct binding to microbes and detection of components shed from the surface of microbes located at a distance. Dectin-1 is a pattern recognition receptor expressed by myeloid phagocytes (macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils) that detects β-glucans in fungal cell walls and triggers direct cellular anti-microbial activity, including phagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species1, 2. In contrast to inflammatory responses stimulated upon detection of soluble ligands by other pattern recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), these responses are only useful when a cell comes into direct contact with a microbe and must not be spuriously activated by soluble stimuli. In this study we show that despite its ability to bind both soluble and particulate β-glucan polymers, Dectin-1 signalling is only activated by particulate β-glucans, which cluster the receptor in synapse-like structures from which regulatory tyrosine phosphatases CD45 and CD148 are excluded (Supplementary Figure 1). The “phagocytic synapse” now provides a model mechanism by which innate immune receptors can distinguish direct microbial contact from detection of microbes at a distance, thereby initiating direct cellular anti-microbial responses only when they are required. PMID:21525931

  14. HLA alleles associated with the adaptive immune response to smallpox vaccine: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Pankratz, V Shane; Salk, Hannah M; Kennedy, Richard B; Poland, Gregory A

    2014-09-01

    We previously reported HLA allelic associations with vaccinia virus (VACV)-induced adaptive immune responses in a cohort of healthy individuals (n = 1,071 subjects) after a single dose of the licensed smallpox (Dryvax) vaccine. This study demonstrated that specific HLA alleles were significantly associated with VACV-induced neutralizing antibody (NA) titers (HLA-B*13:02, *38:02, *44:03, *48:01, and HLA-DQB1*03:02, *06:04) and cytokine (HLA-DRB1*01:03, *03:01, *10:01, *13:01, *15:01) immune responses. We undertook an independent study of 1,053 healthy individuals and examined associations between HLA alleles and measures of adaptive immunity after a single dose of Dryvax-derived ACAM2000 vaccine to evaluate previously discovered HLA allelic associations from the Dryvax study and determine if these associations are replicated with ACAM2000. Females had significantly higher NA titers than male subjects in both study cohorts [median ID50 discovery cohort 159 (93, 256) vs. 125 (75, 186), p < 0.001; replication cohort 144 (82, 204) vs. 110 (61, 189), p = 0.024]. The association between the DQB1*03:02 allele (median ID50 discovery cohort 152, p = 0.015; replication cohort 134, p = 0.010) and higher NA titers was replicated. Two HLA associations of comparable magnitudes were consistently found between DRB1*04:03 and DRB1*08:01 alleles and IFN-γ ELISPOT responses. The association between the DRB1*15:01 allele with IFN-γ secretion was also replicated (median pg/mL discovery cohort 182, p = 0.052; replication cohort 203, p = 0.014). Our results suggest that smallpox vaccine-induced adaptive immune responses are significantly influenced by HLA gene polymorphisms. These data provide information for functional studies and design of novel candidate smallpox vaccines.

  15. Case of Yellow Fever Vaccine–Associated Viscerotropic Disease with Prolonged Viremia, Robust Adaptive Immune Responses, and Polymorphisms in CCR5 and RANTES Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pulendran, Bali; Miller, Joseph; Querec, Troy D.; Akondy, Rama; Moseley, Nelson; Laur, Oscar; Glidewell, John; Monson, Nathan; Zhu, Tuofu; Zhu, Haiying; Staprans, Sylvija; Lee, David; Brinton, Margo A.; Perelygin, Andrey A.; Vellozzi, Claudia; Brachman, Philip; Lalor, Susan; Teuwen, Dirk; Eidex, Rachel B.; Cetron, Marty; Priddy, Frances; del Rio, Carlos; Altman, John; Ahmed, Rafi

    2013-01-01

    Background The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine 17D (YF-17D) is one of the most effective vaccines. Despite its excellent safety record, some cases of viscerotropic adverse events develop, which are sometimes fatal. The mechanisms underlying such events remain a mystery. Here, we present an analysis of the immunologic and genetic factors driving disease in a 64-year-old male who developed viscerotropic symptoms. Methods We obtained clinical, serologic, virologic, immunologic and genetic data on this case patient. Results Viral RNA was detected in the blood 33 days after vaccination, in contrast to the expected clearance of virus by day 7 after vaccination in healthy vaccinees. Vaccination induced robust antigen-specific T and B cell responses, which suggested that persistent virus was not due to adaptive immunity of suboptimal magnitude. The genes encoding OAS1, OAS2, TLR3, and DC-SIGN, which mediate antiviral innate immunity, were wild type. However, there were heterozygous genetic polymorphisms in chemokine receptor CCR5, and its ligand RANTES, which influence the migration of effector T cells and CD14+CD16bright monocytes to tissues. Consistent with this, there was a 200-fold increase in the number of CD14+CD16bright monocytes in the blood during viremia and even several months after virus clearance. Conclusion; In this patient, viscerotropic disease was not due to the impaired magnitude of adaptive immunity but instead to anomalies in the innate immune system and a possible disruption of the CCR5-RANTES axis. PMID:18598196

  16. RECONSTRUCTING IMMUNE PHYLOGENY: NEW PERSPECTIVES

    PubMed Central

    Litman, Gary W.; Cannon, John P.; Dishaw, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies of the mammalian immune system have begun to uncover profound interrelationships, as well as fundamental differences, between the adaptive and innate systems of immune recognition. Coincident with these investigations, the increasing experimental accessibility of non-mammalian jawed vertebrates, jawless vertebrates, protochordates and invertebrates has provided intriguing new information regarding the likely patterns of emergence of immune-related molecules during metazoan phylogeny, as well as the evolution of alternative mechanisms for receptor diversification. Such findings blur traditional distinctions between adaptive and innate immunity and emphasize that, throughout evolution, the immune system has used a remarkably extensive variety of solutions to meet fundamentally similar requirements for host protection. PMID:16261174

  17. Immune evasion by murine melanoma mediated through CC chemokine receptor-10.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Cardones, Adela R; Finkelstein, Steven E; Restifo, Nicholas P; Klaunberg, Brenda A; Nestle, Frank O; Castillo, S Sianna; Dennis, Phillip A; Hwang, Sam T

    2003-11-01

    Human melanoma cells frequently express CC chemokine receptor (CCR)10, a receptor whose ligand (CCL27) is constitutively produced by keratinocytes. Compared with B16 murine melanoma, cells rendered more immunogenic via overexpression of luciferase, B16 cells that overexpressed both luciferase and CCR10 resisted host immune responses and readily formed tumors. In vitro, exposure of tumor cells to CCL27 led to rapid activation of Akt, resistance to cell death induced by melanoma antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-dependent protection from apoptosis induced by Fas cross-linking. In vivo, cutaneous injection of neutralizing antibodies to endogenous CCL27 blocked growth of CCR10-expressing melanoma cells. We propose that CCR10 engagement by locally produced CCL27 allows melanoma cells to escape host immune antitumor killing mechanisms (possibly through activation of PI3K/Akt), thereby providing a means for tumor progression. PMID:14581607

  18. The Gut Epithelial Receptor LRRC19 Promotes the Recruitment of Immune Cells and Gut Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shuisong; Su, Xiaomin; Zeng, Benhua; Yan, Hui; Huang, Yugang; Wang, Enlin; Yun, Huan; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Feifei; Li, Wenxia; Wei, Hong; Che, Yongzhe; Yang, Rongcun

    2016-01-01

    Summary Commensal microbes are necessary for a healthy gut immune system. However, the mechanism involving these microbes that establish and maintain gut immune responses is largely unknown. Here, we have found that the gut immune receptor leucine-rich repeat (LRR) C19 is involved in host-microbiota interactions. LRRC19 deficiency not only impairs the gut immune system but also reduces inflammatory responses in gut tissues. We demonstrate that the LRRC19-associated chemokines CCL6, CCL9, CXCL9, and CXCL10 play a critical role in immune cell recruitment and intestinal inflammation. The expression of these chemokines is associated with regenerating islet-derived (REG) protein-mediated microbiotas. We also found that the expression of REGs may be regulated by gut Lactobacillus through LRRC19-mediated activation of NF-κB. Therefore, our study establishes a regulatory axis of LRRC19, REGs, altered microbiotas, and chemokines for the recruitment of immune cells and the regulation of intestinal inflammation. PMID:26776522

  19. Genetic Adaptation and Neandertal Admixture Shaped the Immune System of Human Populations.

    PubMed

    Quach, Hélène; Rotival, Maxime; Pothlichet, Julien; Loh, Yong-Hwee Eddie; Dannemann, Michael; Zidane, Nora; Laval, Guillaume; Patin, Etienne; Harmant, Christine; Lopez, Marie; Deschamps, Matthieu; Naffakh, Nadia; Duffy, Darragh; Coen, Anja; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Clément, Frederic; Boland, Anne; Deleuze, Jean-François; Kelso, Janet; Albert, Matthew L; Quintana-Murci, Lluis

    2016-10-20

    Humans differ in the outcome that follows exposure to life-threatening pathogens, yet the extent of population differences in immune responses and their genetic and evolutionary determinants remain undefined. Here, we characterized, using RNA sequencing, the transcriptional response of primary monocytes from Africans and Europeans to bacterial and viral stimuli-ligands activating Toll-like receptor pathways (TLR1/2, TLR4, and TLR7/8) and influenza virus-and mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). We identify numerous cis-eQTLs that contribute to the marked differences in immune responses detected within and between populations and a strong trans-eQTL hotspot at TLR1 that decreases expression of pro-inflammatory genes in Europeans only. We find that immune-responsive regulatory variants are enriched in population-specific signals of natural selection and show that admixture with Neandertals introduced regulatory variants into European genomes, affecting preferentially responses to viral challenges. Together, our study uncovers evolutionarily important determinants of differences in host immune responsiveness between human populations.

  20. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J. B.; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    Affymetrix oligonucleotide arrays were used to monitor expression of 8796 genes and probe sets in activated T-cells; analysis revealed that 217 genes were significantly upregulated within 4 h. Induced genes included transcription factors, cytokines and their receptor genes. Analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the significant induction of IL-2, IL-2R(gamma) and IL-2R(alpha). Forty-eight of the 217 induced genes are known to or predicted to be regulated by a CRE promoter/enhancer. We found that T-cell activation caused a significant increase in CREB phosphorylation furthermore, inhibition of the PKC pathway by GF109203 reduced CREB activation by 50% and inhibition of the PKA pathway caused a total block of CREB phosphorylation and significantly reduced IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha) gene expression by approximately 40% (p<0.001). PKC(theta) plays a major role in T-cell activation: inhibition of PKC significantly reduced the expression of IFN(gamma), IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Since PKC blocked activation of CREB, we studied potential cross-talk between the PKC and the PKA/MAPK pathways, PMA-stimulated Jurkat cells were studied with specific signal pathway inhibitors. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK2) pathway was found to be significantly activated greater than seven-fold within 30 min; however, there was little activation of ERK-1 and no activation of JNK or p38 MAPK. Inhibition of the PKA pathway, but not the PKC pathway, resulted in inhibition of ERK1/2 activation at all time points, inhibition of MEK1 and 2 significantly blocked expression of IL-2 and IL-2R(alpha). Gene expression of IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) was dependent on PKA in S49 wt cells but not in kin- mutants. Using gel shift analysis, we found that forskolin activation of T-cells resulted in activation of AP1 sites; this increase in nuclear extract AP1 was significantly blocked by MEK1 inhibitor U0126. Taken together, these results suggest that the PKA in addition to PKC and

  1. The Secreted Peptide PIP1 Amplifies Immunity through Receptor-Like Kinase 7

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shuguo; Wang, Xin; Chen, Donghua; Yang, Xue; Wang, Mei; Turrà, David; Di Pietro, Antonio; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In plants, innate immune responses are initiated by plasma membrane-located pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) upon recognition of elicitors, including exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Arabidopsis thaliana produces more than 1000 secreted peptide candidates, but it has yet to be established whether any of these act as elicitors. Here we identified an A. thaliana gene family encoding precursors of PAMP-induced secreted peptides (prePIPs) through an in-silico approach. The expression of some members of the family, including prePIP1 and prePIP2, is induced by a variety of pathogens and elicitors. Subcellular localization and proteolytic processing analyses demonstrated that the prePIP1 product is secreted into extracellular spaces where it is cleaved at the C-terminus. Overexpression of prePIP1 and prePIP2, or exogenous application of PIP1 and PIP2 synthetic peptides corresponding to the C-terminal conserved regions in prePIP1 and prePIP2, enhanced immune responses and pathogen resistance in A. thaliana. Genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that the receptor-like kinase 7 (RLK7) functions as a receptor of PIP1. Once perceived by RLK7, PIP1 initiates overlapping and distinct immune signaling responses together with the DAMP PEP1. PIP1 and PEP1 cooperate in amplifying the immune responses triggered by the PAMP flagellin. Collectively, these studies provide significant insights into immune modulation by Arabidopsis endogenous secreted peptides. PMID:25188390

  2. Inducible viral receptor, A possible concept to induce viral protection in primitive immune animals.

    PubMed

    Pasharawipas, Tirasak

    2011-01-01

    A pseudolysogen (PL) is derived from the lysogenic Vibrio harveyi (VH) which is infected with the VHS1 (Vibrio harveyi Siphoviridae-like 1) bacteriophage. The lysogenic Vibrio harveyi undergoes an unequivalent division of the extra-chromosomal VHS1 phage genome and its VH host chromosome and produces a true lysogen (TL) and pseudolysogen (PL). The PL is tolerant to super-infection of VHS1, as is of the true lysogen (TL), but the PL does not contain the VHS1 phage genome while the TL does. However, the PL can become susceptible to VHS1 phage infection if the physiological state of the PL is changed. It is postulated that this is due to a phage receptor molecule which can be inducible to an on-and-off regulation influence by an alternating condition of the bacterial host cell. This characteristic of the PL leads to speculate that this phenomenon can also occur in high organisms with low immunity such as shrimp. This article proposes a hypothesis that the viral receptor molecule on the target cell can play a crucial role in which the invertebrate aquaculture animals can become tolerant to viral infection. A possible mechanism may be that the target cell disrupts the viral receptor molecule to prevent super infection. This concept can explain a mechanism for the prevention of viral infection in invertebrate animals which do not have acquired immunity in response to pathogens. It can guide us to develop a mechanism of immunity to viral infection in low-evolved-immune animals. Also, it can be an additional mechanism that exists in high immune organism, as in human for the prevention of viral infection. PMID:21711515

  3. Administration of DNA Encoding the Interleukin-27 Gene Augments Antitumour Responses through Non-adaptive Immunity.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Sato, A; Shimozato, O; Shingyoji, M; Tada, Y; Tatsumi, K; Shimada, H; Hiroshima, K; Tagawa, M

    2015-10-01

    DNA-mediated immunization of a tumour antigen is a possible immunotherapy for cancer, and interleukin (IL)-27 has diverse functions in adaptive immunity. In this study, we examined whether IL-27 DNA administration enhanced antitumour effects in mice vaccinated with DNA encoding a putative tumour antigen, β-galactosidase (β-gal). An intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin before DNA administration facilitated the exogenous gene expression. In mice received β-gal and IL-27 DNA, growth of β-gal-positive P815 tumours was retarded and survival of the mice was prolonged. Development of β-gal-positive Colon 26 tumours was suppressed by vaccination of β-gal DNA and further inhibited by additional IL-27 DNA administration or IL-12 family cytokines. Nevertheless, a population of β-gal-specific CD8(+) T cells did not increase, and production of anti-β-gal antibody was not enhanced by IL-27 DNA administration. Spleen cells from mice bearing IL-27-expressing Colon 26 tumours showed greater YAC-1-targeted cytotoxicity although CD3(-)/DX5(+) natural killer (NK) cell numbers remained unchanged. Recombinant IL-27 enhanced YAC-1-targeted cytotoxicity of IL-2-primed splenic NK cells and augmented a phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and an expression of perforin. These data collectively indicate that IL-27 DNA administration activates NK cells and augments vaccination effects of DNA encoding a tumour antigen through non-adaptive immune responses. PMID:26095954

  4. Disease-specific adaptive immune biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease and related pathologies.

    PubMed

    Dorothée, G; Sarazin, M; Aucouturier, P

    2013-10-01

    Identification of disease-specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers allowing for an early characterization and accurate clinical follow-up of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients is a major clinical objective. Increasing evidences implicate both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses in the pathophysiology of AD. Such disease-related B- and T-cell responses constitute a promising source of potential specific early biomarkers. Among them, levels of anti-Aβ antibodies in the serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid of patients may correlate with AD progression, clinical presentation of the disease, and occurrence of associated pathologies related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In the same line, Aβ-specific T cell responses and immune regulatory populations implicated in their modulation appear to play a role in the pathophysiology of AD and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Further characterization of both autoantibodies and T cell responses specific for disease-related proteins, i.e. Aβ and hyperphosphorylated Tau, will allow better deciphering their interest as early diagnostic and prognostic markers in AD. Biomarkers of adaptive immune responses specific for other pathological proteins may also apply to other neurological disorders associated with abnormal protein deposition.

  5. CD47 Promotes Protective Innate and Adaptive Immunity in a Mouse Model of Disseminated Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Stein, Erica V.; Lessey-Morillon, Elizabeth C.; Nayak, Debasis; Martin-Manso, Gema; Roberts, David D.

    2015-01-01

    CD47 is a widely expressed receptor that regulates immunity by engaging its counter-receptor SIRPα on phagocytes and its secreted ligand thrombospondin-1. Mice lacking CD47 can exhibit enhanced or impaired host responses to bacterial pathogens, but its role in fungal immunity has not been examined. cd47-/- mice on a C57BL/6 background showed significantly increased morbidity and mortality following Candida albicans infection when compared with wild-type mice. Despite normal fungal colonization at earlier times, cd47-/- mice at four days post-infection had increased colonization of brain and kidneys accompanied by stronger inflammatory reactions. Neutrophil and macrophage numbers were significantly elevated in kidneys and neutrophils in the brains of infected cd47-/- mice. However, no defect in phagocytic activity towards C. albicans was observed in cd47-/- bone-marrow-derived macrophages, and neutrophil and macrophage killing of C. albicans was not impaired. CD47-deficiency did not alter the early humoral immune response to C. albicans. Th1, Th2, and Th17 population of CD4+ T cells were expanded in the spleen, and gene expression profiles of spleen and kidney showed stronger pro-inflammatory signaling in infected cd47-/- mice. The chemoattractant chemokines MIP-2α and MIP-2β were highly expressed in infected spleens of cd47-/- mice. G-CSF, GM-CSF, and the inflammasome component NLRP3 were more highly expressed in infected cd47-/- kidneys than in infected wild-type controls. Circulating pro- (TNF-α, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) were significantly elevated, but IL-17 was decreased. These data indicate that CD47 plays protective roles against disseminated candidiasis and alters pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive pathways known to regulate innate and T cell immunity. PMID:26010544

  6. CD47 Promotes Protective Innate and Adaptive Immunity in a Mouse Model of Disseminated Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Navarathna, Dhammika H M L P; Stein, Erica V; Lessey-Morillon, Elizabeth C; Nayak, Debasis; Martin-Manso, Gema; Roberts, David D

    2015-01-01

    CD47 is a widely expressed receptor that regulates immunity by engaging its counter-receptor SIRPα on phagocytes and its secreted ligand thrombospondin-1. Mice lacking CD47 can exhibit enhanced or impaired host responses to bacterial pathogens, but its role in fungal immunity has not been examined. cd47-/- mice on a C57BL/6 background showed significantly increased morbidity and mortality following Candida albicans infection when compared with wild-type mice. Despite normal fungal colonization at earlier times, cd47-/- mice at four days post-infection had increased colonization of brain and kidneys accompanied by stronger inflammatory reactions. Neutrophil and macrophage numbers were significantly elevated in kidneys and neutrophils in the brains of infected cd47-/- mice. However, no defect in phagocytic activity towards C. albicans was observed in cd47-/- bone-marrow-derived macrophages, and neutrophil and macrophage killing of C. albicans was not impaired. CD47-deficiency did not alter the early humoral immune response to C. albicans. Th1, Th2, and Th17 population of CD4+ T cells were expanded in the spleen, and gene expression profiles of spleen and kidney showed stronger pro-inflammatory signaling in infected cd47-/- mice. The chemoattractant chemokines MIP-2α and MIP-2β were highly expressed in infected spleens of cd47-/- mice. G-CSF, GM-CSF, and the inflammasome component NLRP3 were more highly expressed in infected cd47-/- kidneys than in infected wild-type controls. Circulating pro- (TNF-α, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) were significantly elevated, but IL-17 was decreased. These data indicate that CD47 plays protective roles against disseminated candidiasis and alters pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive pathways known to regulate innate and T cell immunity.

  7. The Role of Vitamin D and Vitamin D Receptor in Immunity to Leishmania major Infection

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, James P.; DeAgostino, Mary; Ballentine, Mark; Fu, Jun; Tenniswood, Martin; Welsh, JoEllen; Cantorna, Margherita; McDowell, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D signaling modulates a variety of immune responses. Here, we assessed the role of vitamin D in immunity to experimental leishmaniasis infection in vitamin D receptor-deficient mice (VDRKO). We observed that VDRKO mice on a genetically resistant background have decreased Leishmania major-induced lesion development compared to wild-type (WT) mice; additionally, parasite loads in infected dermis were significantly lower at the height of infection. Enzymatic depletion of the active form of vitamin D mimics the ablation of VDR resulting in an increased resistance to L. major. Conversely, VDRKO or vitamin D-deficient mice on the susceptible Th2-biased background had no change in susceptibility. These studies indicate vitamin D deficiency, either through the ablation of VDR or elimination of its ligand, 1,25D3, leads to an increase resistance to L. major infection but only in a host that is predisposed for Th-1 immune responses. PMID:22007288

  8. Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate immunity by directly coupling to the FLS2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Xiangxiu; Ding, Pingtao; Lian, Kehui; Wang, Jinlong; Ma, Miaomiao; Li, Lin; Li, Lei; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, She; Zhang, Yuelin; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis immune receptor FLS2 perceives bacterial flagellin epitope flg22 to activate defenses through the central cytoplasmic kinase BIK1. The heterotrimeric G proteins composed of the non-canonical Gα protein XLG2, the Gβ protein AGB1, and the Gγ proteins AGG1 and AGG2 are required for FLS2-mediated immune responses through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that in the pre-activation state, XLG2 directly interacts with FLS2 and BIK1, and it functions together with AGB1 and AGG1/2 to attenuate proteasome-mediated degradation of BIK1, allowing optimum immune activation. Following the activation by flg22, XLG2 dissociates from AGB1 and is phosphorylated by BIK1 in the N terminus. The phosphorylated XLG2 enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) likely by modulating the NADPH oxidase RbohD. The study demonstrates that the G proteins are directly coupled to the FLS2 receptor complex and regulate immune signaling through both pre-activation and post-activation mechanisms. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13568.001 PMID:27043937

  9. Adaptation Mechanism of the Aspartate Receptor: Electrostatics of the Adaptation Subdomain Play a Key Role in Modulating Kinase Activity†

    PubMed Central

    Starrett, Diane J.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The aspartate receptor of the Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium chemotaxis pathway generates a transmembrane signal that regulates the activity of the cytoplasmic kinase CheA. Previous studies have identified a region of the cytoplasmic domain that is critical to receptor adaptation and kinase regulation. This region, termed the adaptation subdomain, contains a high density of acidic residues, including specific glutamate residues that serve as receptor adaptation sites. However, the mechanism of signal propagation through this region remains poorly understood. This study uses site-directed mutagenesis to neutralize each acidic residue within the subdomain to probe the hypothesis that electrostatics in this region play a significant role in the mechanism of kinase activation and modulation. Each point mutant was tested for its ability to regulate chemotaxis in vivo and kinase activity in vitro. Four point mutants (D273N, E281Q, D288N, and E477Q) were found to superactivate the kinase relative to the wild-type receptor, and all four of these kinase-activating substitutions are located along the same intersubunit interface as the adaptation sites. These activating substitutions retained the wild-type ability of the attractant-occupied receptor to inhibit kinase activity. When combined in a quadruple mutant (D273N/E281Q/D288N/E477Q), the four charge-neutralizing substitutions locked the receptor in a kinase-superactivating state that could not be fully inactivated by the attractant. Similar lock-on character was observed for a charge reversal substitution, D273R. Together, these results implicate the electrostatic interactions at the intersubunit interface as a major player in signal transduction and kinase regulation. The negative charge in this region destabilizes the local structure in a way that enhances conformational dynamics, as detected by disulfide trapping, and this effect is reversed by charge neutralization of the adaptation sites. Finally, two

  10. Enhancement of adaptive immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae by local intravaginal administration of microencapsulated interleukin 12.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingru; Egilmez, Nejat K; Russell, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Gonorrhea remains one of the most frequent infectious diseases, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is emerging as resistant to most available antibiotics, yet it does not induce a state of specific protective immunity against reinfection. Our recent studies have demonstrated that N. gonorrhoeae proactively suppresses host T-helper (Th) 1/Th2-mediated adaptive immune responses, which can be manipulated to generate protective immunity. Here we show that intravaginally administered interleukin 12 (IL-12) encapsulated in sustained-release polymer microspheres significantly enhanced both Th1 and humoral immune responses in a mouse model of genital gonococcal infection. Treatment of mice with IL-12 microspheres during gonococcal challenge led to faster clearance of infection and induced resistance to reinfection, with the generation of gonococcus-specific circulating immunoglobulin G and vaginal immunoglobulin A and G antibodies. These results suggest that local administration of microencapsulated IL-12 can serve as a novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategy against gonorrhea, with implications for the development of an effective vaccine. PMID:24048962

  11. NPY receptor subtype specification for behavioral adaptive strategies during limited food access.

    PubMed

    Pjetri, E; Adan, R A; Herzog, H; de Haas, R; Oppelaar, H; Spierenburg, H A; Olivier, B; Kas, M J

    2012-02-01

    The neuropeptide Y (NPY) system in the brain regulates a wide variety of behavioral, metabolic and hormonal homeostatic processes required for energy balance control. During times of limited food availability, NPY promotes behavioral hyperactivity necessary to explore and prepare for novel food resources. As NPY can act via 5 different receptor subtypes, we investigated the path through which NPY affects different behavioral components relevant for adaptation to such conditions. We tested NPY Y1 and Y2 receptor knockout mice and their wild-type littermate controls in a daily scheduled limited food access paradigm with unlimited access to running wheel. Here we show that NPY Y1 receptor deficient mice lack the expression of appetitive behavior and that NPY Y2 receptors control the level of hyperactive behavior under these conditions. Thus, receptor specificity determines the differential expression of NPY-mediated behavioral adaptations to overcome a negative energy status.

  12. Targeted nucleotide editing using hybrid prokaryotic and vertebrate adaptive immune systems.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Keiji; Arazoe, Takayuki; Yachie, Nozomu; Banno, Satomi; Kakimoto, Mika; Tabata, Mayura; Mochizuki, Masao; Miyabe, Aya; Araki, Michihiro; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Shimatani, Zenpei; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-16

    The generation of genetic variation (somatic hypermutation) is an essential process for the adaptive immune system in vertebrates. We demonstrate the targeted single-nucleotide substitution of DNA using hybrid vertebrate and bacterial immune systems components. Nuclease-deficient type II CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) and the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) ortholog PmCDA1 were engineered to form a synthetic complex (Target-AID) that performs highly efficient target-specific mutagenesis. Specific point mutation was induced primarily at cytidines within the target range of five bases. The toxicity associated with the nuclease-based CRISPR/Cas9 system was greatly reduced. Although combination of nickase Cas9(D10A) and the deaminase was highly effective in yeasts, it also induced insertion and deletion (indel) in mammalian cells. Use of uracil DNA glycosylase inhibitor suppressed the indel formation and improved the efficiency. PMID:27492474

  13. Type I interferon as a link between innate and adaptive immunity through dendritic cell stimulation.

    PubMed

    Tough, David F

    2004-02-01

    Type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) is expressed rapidly after infection and plays a key role in innate defense against pathogens. Recent studies have shown that a connection exists between IFN-alpha/beta and antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) at two levels. Firstly, a specific DC precursor, the plasmacytoid pre-DC (p-preDC), was identified as a cell type able to secrete very high amounts of IFN-alpha/beta following stimulation with infectious agents. Secondly, IFN-alpha/beta has been shown to act as a differentiation/maturation factor for DCs. These findings will be discussed in association with evidence indicating that IFN-alpha/beta can enhance and modulate immune responses in vivo. Taken together, the available data suggest that IFN-alpha/beta serves as a link between the innate response to infection and the adaptive immune response. PMID:15101709

  14. Targeted nucleotide editing using hybrid prokaryotic and vertebrate adaptive immune systems.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Keiji; Arazoe, Takayuki; Yachie, Nozomu; Banno, Satomi; Kakimoto, Mika; Tabata, Mayura; Mochizuki, Masao; Miyabe, Aya; Araki, Michihiro; Hara, Kiyotaka Y; Shimatani, Zenpei; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-09-16

    The generation of genetic variation (somatic hypermutation) is an essential process for the adaptive immune system in vertebrates. We demonstrate the targeted single-nucleotide substitution of DNA using hybrid vertebrate and bacterial immune systems components. Nuclease-deficient type II CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated) and the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) ortholog PmCDA1 were engineered to form a synthetic complex (Target-AID) that performs highly efficient target-specific mutagenesis. Specific point mutation was induced primarily at cytidines within the target range of five bases. The toxicity associated with the nuclease-based CRISPR/Cas9 system was greatly reduced. Although combination of nickase Cas9(D10A) and the deaminase was highly effective in yeasts, it also induced insertion and deletion (indel) in mammalian cells. Use of uracil DNA glycosylase inhibitor suppressed the indel formation and improved the efficiency.

  15. Effects of air pollutants on innate immunity: The role of Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Rebecca N.; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between exposure to ambient air pollutants and respiratory pathogens have been shown to modify respiratory immune responses. Emerging data suggest key roles for Toll-like receptor (TLR) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptor (NLR) signaling in pathogen-induced immune responses. Similarly, immune responses elicited by exposure to air pollutants are mediated by specific TLR- and NLR-dependent mechanisms. This review article will summarize current knowledge about how air pollutants modify TLR- and NLR-dependent signaling and host defense responses in the lung. PMID:22196521

  16. Tomato receptor FLAGELLIN-SENSING 3 binds flgII-28 and activates the plant immune system.

    PubMed

    Hind, Sarah R; Strickler, Susan R; Boyle, Patrick C; Dunham, Diane M; Bao, Zhilong; O'Doherty, Inish M; Baccile, Joshua A; Hoki, Jason S; Viox, Elise G; Clarke, Christopher R; Vinatzer, Boris A; Schroeder, Frank C; Martin, Gregory B

    2016-01-01

    Plants and animals detect the presence of potential pathogens through the perception of conserved microbial patterns by cell surface receptors. Certain solanaceous plants, including tomato, potato and pepper, detect flgII-28, a region of bacterial flagellin that is distinct from that perceived by the well-characterized FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 receptor. Here we identify and characterize the receptor responsible for this recognition in tomato, called FLAGELLIN-SENSING 3. This receptor binds flgII-28 and enhances immune responses leading to a reduction in bacterial colonization of leaf tissues. Further characterization of FLS3 and its signalling pathway could provide new insights into the plant immune system and transfer of the receptor to other crop plants offers the potential of enhancing resistance to bacterial pathogens that have evolved to evade FLS2-mediated immunity. PMID:27548463

  17. Adaptive immunity against gut microbiota enhances apoE-mediated immune regulation and reduces atherosclerosis and western-diet-related inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Saita, Diego; Ferrarese, Roberto; Foglieni, Chiara; Esposito, Antonio; Canu, Tamara; Perani, Laura; Ceresola, Elisa Rita; Visconti, Laura; Burioni, Roberto; Clementi, Massimo; Canducci, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Common features of immune-metabolic and inflammatory diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases are an altered gut microbiota composition and a systemic pro-inflammatory state. We demonstrate that active immunization against the outer membrane protein of bacteria present in the gut enhances local and systemic immune control via apoE-mediated immune-modulation. Reduction of western-diet-associated inflammation was obtained for more than eighteen weeks after immunization. Immunized mice had reduced serum cytokine levels, reduced insulin and fasting glucose concentrations; and gene expression in both liver and visceral adipose tissue confirmed a reduced inflammatory steady-state after immunization. Moreover, both gut and atherosclerotic plaques of immunized mice showed reduced inflammatory cells and an increased M2 macrophage fraction. These results suggest that adaptive responses directed against microbes present in our microbiota have systemic beneficial consequences and demonstrate the key role of apoE in this mechanism that could be exploited to treat immune-metabolic diseases. PMID:27383250

  18. Zearalenone Mycotoxin Affects Immune Mediators, MAPK Signalling Molecules, Nuclear Receptors and Genome-Wide Gene Expression in Pig Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Pistol, Gina Cecilia; Braicu, Cornelia; Motiu, Monica; Gras, Mihail Alexandru; Marin, Daniela Eliza; Stancu, Mariana; Calin, Loredana; Israel-Roming, Florentina; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Taranu, Ionelia

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of zearalenone (ZEA) was evaluated in swine spleen, a key organ for the innate and adaptative immune response. Weaned pigs were fed for 18 days with a control or a ZEA contaminated diet. The effect of ZEA was assessed on wide genome expression, pro- (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-4) cytokines, other molecules involved in inflammatory processes (MMPs/TIMPs), as well as signaling molecules, (p38/JNK1/JNK2-MAPKs) and nuclear receptors (PPARγ/NFkB/AP-1/STAT3/c-JUN). Microarray analysis showed that 46% of total number of differentially expressed genes was involved in cellular signaling pathway, 13% in cytokine network and 10% in the inflammatory response. ZEA increased expression and synthesis of pro- inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β) and had no effect on IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 cytokines in spleen. The inflammatory stimulation might be a consequence of JNK pathway activation rather than of p-38MAPK and NF-kB involvement whose gene and protein expression were suppressed by ZEA action. In summary, our findings indicated the role of ZEA as an immune disruptor at spleen level. PMID:26011631

  19. Ebolavirus evolves in human to minimize the detection by immune cells by accumulating adaptive mutations.

    PubMed

    Ramaiah, Arunachalam; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja

    2016-06-01

    The current outbreak of Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) lasted longer than the previous outbreaks and there is as yet no proven treatment or vaccine available. Understanding host immune pressure and associated EBOV immune evasion that drive the evolution of EBOV is vital for diagnosis as well as designing a highly effective vaccine. The aim of this study was to deduce adaptive selection pressure acting on each amino acid sites of EBOV responsible for the recent 2014 outbreak. Multiple statistical methods employed in the study include SLAC, FEL, REL, IFEL, FUBAR and MEME. Results show that a total of 11 amino acid sites from sGP and ssGP, and 14 sites from NP, VP40, VP24 and L proteins were inferred as positively and negatively selected, respectively. Overall, the function of 11 out of 25 amino acid sites under selection pressure exactly found to be involved in T cell and B-cell epitopes. We identified that the EBOV had evolved through purifying selection pressure, which is a predictor that is known to aid the virus to adapt better to the human host and subsequently reduce the efficiency of existing immunity. Furthermore, computational RNA structure prediction showed that the three synonymous nucleotide mutations in NP gene altered the RNA secondary structure and optimal base-pairing energy, implicating a possible effect on genome replication. Here, we have provided evidence that the EBOV strains involved in the recent 2014 outbreak have evolved to minimize the detection by T and B cells by accumulating adaptive mutations to increase the survival fitness. PMID:27366764

  20. Essential Role for Neutrophils in Pathogenesis and Adaptive Immunity in Chlamydia caviae Ocular Infections ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, H. Marie; Bowlin, Anne K.; Hennings, Leah; Scurlock, Amy M.; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Rank, Roger G.

    2011-01-01

    Trachoma, the world's leading cause of preventable blindness, is produced by chronic ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium. While many studies have focused on immune mechanisms for trachoma during chronic stages of infection, less research has targeted immune mechanisms in primary ocular infections, events that could impact chronic responses. The goal of this study was to investigate the function of neutrophils during primary chlamydial ocular infection by using the guinea pig model of Chlamydia caviae inclusion conjunctivitis. We hypothesized that neutrophils help modulate the adaptive response and promote host tissue damage. To test these hypotheses, guinea pigs with primary C. caviae ocular infections were depleted of neutrophils by using rabbit antineutrophil antiserum, and immune responses and immunopathology were evaluated during the first 7 days of infection. Results showed that neutrophil depletion dramatically decreased ocular pathology, both clinically and histologically. The adaptive response was also altered, with increased C. caviae-specific IgA titers in tears and serum and decreased numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in infected conjunctivae. Additionally, there were changes in conjunctival chemokines and cytokines, such as increased expression of IgA-promoting interleukin-5 and anti-inflammatory transforming growth factor β, along with decreased expression of T cell-recruiting CCL5 (RANTES). This study, the first to investigate the role of neutrophils in primary chlamydial ocular infection, indicates a previously unappreciated role for neutrophils in modulating the adaptive response and suggests a prominent role for neutrophils in chlamydia-associated ocular pathology. PMID:21402767

  1. Essential role for neutrophils in pathogenesis and adaptive immunity in Chlamydia caviae ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Lacy, H Marie; Bowlin, Anne K; Hennings, Leah; Scurlock, Amy M; Nagarajan, Uma M; Rank, Roger G

    2011-05-01

    Trachoma, the world's leading cause of preventable blindness, is produced by chronic ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium. While many studies have focused on immune mechanisms for trachoma during chronic stages of infection, less research has targeted immune mechanisms in primary ocular infections, events that could impact chronic responses. The goal of this study was to investigate the function of neutrophils during primary chlamydial ocular infection by using the guinea pig model of Chlamydia caviae inclusion conjunctivitis. We hypothesized that neutrophils help modulate the adaptive response and promote host tissue damage. To test these hypotheses, guinea pigs with primary C. caviae ocular infections were depleted of neutrophils by using rabbit antineutrophil antiserum, and immune responses and immunopathology were evaluated during the first 7 days of infection. Results showed that neutrophil depletion dramatically decreased ocular pathology, both clinically and histologically. The adaptive response was also altered, with increased C. caviae-specific IgA titers in tears and serum and decreased numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in infected conjunctivae. Additionally, there were changes in conjunctival chemokines and cytokines, such as increased expression of IgA-promoting interleukin-5 and anti-inflammatory transforming growth factor β, along with decreased expression of T cell-recruiting CCL5 (RANTES). This study, the first to investigate the role of neutrophils in primary chlamydial ocular infection, indicates a previously unappreciated role for neutrophils in modulating the adaptive response and suggests a prominent role for neutrophils in chlamydia-associated ocular pathology. PMID:21402767

  2. Immune malfunction in the GPR39 zinc receptor of knockout mice: Its relationship to depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Trojan, Ewa; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Głombik, Katarzyna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Skrzeszewski, Jakub; Siwek, Agata; Holst, Birgitte; Nowak, Gabriel

    2016-02-15

    Depression is a serious psychiatric disorder affecting not only the monaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurosystems, but also the immune system. Patients suffering from depression show disturbance in the immune parameters as well as increased susceptibility to infections. Zinc is well known as an anti-inflammatory agent, and its link with depression has been proved, zinc deficiency causing depression- and anxiety-like behavior with immune malfunction. It has been discovered that trace-element zinc acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system via zinc receptor GPR39. In this study we investigated whether GPR39 knockout would cause depressive-like behavior as measured by the forced swim test, and whether these changes would coexist with immune malfunction. In GPR39 knockout mice versus a wild-type control we found: i) depressive-like behavior; ii) significantly reduced thymus weight; (iii) reduced cell viability of splenocytes; iv) reduced proliferative response of splenocytes; and v) increased IL-6 production of splenocytes after ConA stimulation and decreased IL-1b and IL-6 release after LPS stimulation. The results indicate depressive-like behavior in GPR39 KO animals with an immune response similar to that observed in depressive disorder. Here for the first time we show immunological changes under GPR39-deficient conditions. PMID:26857489

  3. Immune malfunction in the GPR39 zinc receptor of knockout mice: Its relationship to depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Trojan, Ewa; Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Głombik, Katarzyna; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Skrzeszewski, Jakub; Siwek, Agata; Holst, Birgitte; Nowak, Gabriel

    2016-02-15

    Depression is a serious psychiatric disorder affecting not only the monaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurosystems, but also the immune system. Patients suffering from depression show disturbance in the immune parameters as well as increased susceptibility to infections. Zinc is well known as an anti-inflammatory agent, and its link with depression has been proved, zinc deficiency causing depression- and anxiety-like behavior with immune malfunction. It has been discovered that trace-element zinc acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system via zinc receptor GPR39. In this study we investigated whether GPR39 knockout would cause depressive-like behavior as measured by the forced swim test, and whether these changes would coexist with immune malfunction. In GPR39 knockout mice versus a wild-type control we found: i) depressive-like behavior; ii) significantly reduced thymus weight; (iii) reduced cell viability of splenocytes; iv) reduced proliferative response of splenocytes; and v) increased IL-6 production of splenocytes after ConA stimulation and decreased IL-1b and IL-6 release after LPS stimulation. The results indicate depressive-like behavior in GPR39 KO animals with an immune response similar to that observed in depressive disorder. Here for the first time we show immunological changes under GPR39-deficient conditions.

  4. Steroid Sulfates from Ophiuroids (Brittle Stars): Action on Some Factors of Innate and Adaptive Immunity.

    PubMed

    Gazha, Anna K; Ivanushko, Lyudmila A; Levina, Eleonora V; Fedorov, Sergey N; Zaporozets, Tatyana S; Stonik, Valentin A; Besednova, Nataliya N

    2016-06-01

    The action of seven polyhydroxylated sterol mono- and disulfates (1-7), isolated from ophiuroids, on innate and adaptive immunity was examined in in vitro and in vivo experiments. At least, three of them (1, 2 and 4) increased the functional activities of neutrophils, including levels of oxygen-dependent metabolism, adhesive and phagocytic properties, and induced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-8. Compound 4 was the most active for enhancing the production of antibody forming cells in the mouse spleen. PMID:27534108

  5. Targeting the adaptive immune system: new strategies in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zarzycka, Barbara; Nicolaes, Gerry A F; Lutgens, Esther

    2015-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. Current treatment of atherosclerosis is focused on limiting its risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia or hypertension. However, treatments that target the inflammatory nature of atherosclerosis are still under development. Discovery of novel targets involved in the inflammation of the arterial wall creates opportunities to design new therapeutics that successfully modulate atherosclerosis. Here, we review drug targets that have proven to play pivotal roles in the adaptive immune system in atherosclerosis, and we discuss their potential as novel therapeutics.

  6. Immune Modulation by Different Types of β2→1-Fructans Is Toll-Like Receptor Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Leonie; Ramasamy, Uttara; Meyer, Diederick; Pullens, Gerdie; Venema, Koen; Faas, Marijke M.; Schols, Henk A.; de Vos, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Introduction β2→1-fructans are dietary fibers. Main objectives of this study were 1) to demonstrate direct signalling of β2→1-fructans on immune cells, 2) to study whether this is mediated by the pattern recognition receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing proteins (NODs), and 3) to relate the observed effects to the chain length differences in β2→1-fructans. Methods Four different β2→1-fructan formulations were characterised for their chain length profile. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated in vitro with β2→1-fructans, and production of IL-1Ra, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, and TNF-α was analysed. Reporter cells for TLRs and NODs were incubated with β2→1-fructans and analysed for NF-κB/AP-1 activation. Results Cytokine production in human PBMCs was dose- and chain length-dependent. Strikingly, short chain enriched β2→1-fructans induced a regulatory cytokine balance compared to long chain enriched β2→1-fructans as measured by IL-10/IL-12 ratios. Activation of reporter cells showed that signalling was highly dependent on TLRs and their adapter, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88). In human embryonic kidney reporter cells, TLR2 was prominently activated, while TLR4, 5, 7, 8, and NOD2 were mildly activated. Conclusions β2→1-fructans possess direct signalling capacity on human immune cells. By activating primarily TLR2, and to a lesser extent TLR4, 5, 7, 8, and NOD2, β2→1-fructan stimulation results in NF-κB/AP-1 activation. Chain length of β2→1-fructans is important for the induced activation pattern and IL-10/IL-12 ratios. PMID:23861894

  7. The effects of stress hormones on immune function may be vital for the adaptive reconfiguration of the immune system during fight-or-flight behavior.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Shelley A

    2014-09-01

    Intense, short-term stress (i.e., robust activation of the fight-or-flight response) typically produces a transient decline in resistance to disease in animals across phyla. Chemical mediators of the stress response (e.g., stress hormones) help induce this decline, suggesting that this transient immunosuppression is an evolved response. However, determining the function of stress hormones on immune function is difficult because of their complexity. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that stress hormones help maintain maximal resistance to disease during the physiological changes needed to optimize the body for intense physical activity. Work on insects demonstrates that stress hormones both shunt resources away from the immune system during fight-or-flight responses as well as reconfigure the immune system. Reconfiguring the immune system minimizes the impact of the loss of these resources and reduces the increased costs of some immune functions due to the physiological changes demanded by the fight-or-flight response. For example, during the stress response of the cricket Gryllus texensis, some molecular resources are shunted away from the immune system and toward lipid transport, resulting in a reduction in resistance to disease. However, insects' immune cells (hemocytes) have receptors for octopamine (the insect stress neurohormone). Octopamine increases many hemocyte functions, such as phagocytosis, and these changes would tend to mitigate the decline in immunity due to the loss of molecular resources. Moreover, because the stress response generates oxidative stress, some immune responses are probably more costly when activated during a stress response (e.g., those that produce reactive molecules). Some of these immune responses are depressed during stress in crickets, while others, whose costs are probably not increased during a stress response, are enhanced. Some effects of stress hormones on immune systems may be better understood as examples of reconfiguration

  8. Suitability of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α7 and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor 3 Antibodies for Immune Detection

    PubMed Central

    Rommel, Frank R.; Raghavan, Badrinarayanan; Paddenberg, Renate; Kummer, Wolfgang; Tumala, Susanne; Lochnit, Günter; Gieler, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence reveals a crucial role for acetylcholine and its receptors in the regulation of inflammation, particularly of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (Chrna7) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor 3 (Chrm3). Immunohistochemistry is a key tool for their cellular localization in functional tissues. We evaluated nine different commercially available antibodies on back skin tissue from wild-type (Wt) and gene-deficient (KO) mice. In the immunohistochemical analysis, we focused on key AChR-ligand sensitive skin cells (mast cells, nerve fibers and keratinocytes). All five antibodies tested for Chrm3 and the first three Chrna7 antibodies stained positive in both Wt and respective KO skin. With the 4th antibody (ab23832) nerve fibers were unlabeled in the KO mice. By western blot analysis, this antibody detected bands in both Wt and Chrna7 KO skin and brain. qRT-PCR revealed mRNA amplification with a primer set for the undeleted region in both Wt and KO mice, but none with a primer set for the deleted region in KO mice. By 2D electrophoresis, we found β-actin and β-enolase cross reactivity, which was confirmed by double immunolabeling. In view of the present results, the tested antibodies are not suitable for immunolocalization in skin and suggest thorough control of antibody specificity is required if histomorphometry is intended. PMID:25673288

  9. The receptor kinase CERK1 has dual functions in symbiosis and immunity signalling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Dong, Wentao; Sun, Jongho; Feng, Feng; Deng, Yiwen; He, Zuhua; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Wang, Ertao

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of symbiotic interactions between mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobial bacteria and their legume hosts involves a common symbiosis signalling pathway. This signalling pathway is activated by Nod factors produced by rhizobia and these are recognised by the Nod factor receptors NFR1/LYK3 and NFR5/NFP. Mycorrhizal fungi produce lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs) similar to Nod factors, as well as short-chain chitin oligomers (CO4/5), implying commonalities in signalling during mycorrhizal and rhizobial associations. Here we show that NFR1/LYK3, but not NFR5/NFP, is required for the establishment of the mycorrhizal interaction in legumes. NFR1/LYK3 is necessary for the recognition of mycorrhizal fungi and the activation of the symbiosis signalling pathway leading to induction of calcium oscillations and gene expression. Chitin oligosaccharides also act as microbe associated molecular patterns that promote plant immunity via similar LysM receptor-like kinases. CERK1 in rice has the highest homology to NFR1 and we show that this gene is also necessary for the establishment of the mycorrhizal interaction as well as for resistance to the rice blast fungus. Our results demonstrate that NFR1/LYK3/OsCERK1 represents a common receptor for chitooligosaccharide-based signals produced by mycorrhizal fungi, rhizobial bacteria (in legumes) and fungal pathogens. It would appear that mycorrhizal recognition has been conserved in multiple receptors across plant species, but additional diversification in certain plant species has defined other signals that this class of receptors can perceive.

  10. Repurposed transcriptomic data facilitate discovery of innate immunity toll-like receptor (TLR) Genes across Lophotrochozoa.

    PubMed

    Halanych, Kenneth M; Kocot, Kevin M

    2014-10-01

    The growing volume of genomic data from across life represents opportunities for deriving valuable biological information from data that were initially collected for another purpose. Here, we use transcriptomes collected for phylogenomic studies to search for toll-like receptor (TLR) genes in poorly sampled lophotrochozoan clades (Annelida, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Phoronida, and Entoprocta) and one ecdysozoan clade (Priapulida). TLR genes are involved in innate immunity across animals by recognizing potential microbial infection. They have an extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain connected to a transmembrane domain and an intracellular toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. Consequently, these genes are important in initiating a signaling pathway to trigger defense. We found at least one TLR ortholog in all but two taxa examined, suggesting that a broad array of lophotrochozoans may have innate immune systems similar to those observed in vertebrates and arthropods. Comparison to the SMART database confirmed the presence of both the LRR and the TIR protein motifs characteristic of TLR genes. Because we looked at only one transcriptome per species, discovery of TLR genes was limited for most taxa. However, several TRL-like genes that vary in the number and placement of LRR domains were found in phoronids. Additionally, several contigs contained LRR domains but lacked TIR domains, suggesting they were not TLRs. Many of these LRR-containing contigs had other domains (e.g., immunoglobin) and are likely involved in innate immunity.

  11. Within-host co-evolution of chronic viruses and the adaptive immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourmohammad, Armita

    We normally think of evolution occurring in a population of organisms, in response to their external environment. Rapid evolution of cellular populations also occurs within our bodies, as the adaptive immune system works to eliminate infection. Some pathogens, such as HIV, are able to persist in a host for extended periods of time, during which they also evolve to evade the immune response. In this talk I will introduce an analytical framework for the rapid co-evolution of B-cell and viral populations, based on the molecular interactions between them. Since the co-evolution of antibodies and viruses is perpetually out of equilibrium, I will show how to quantify the amount of adaptation in each of the two populations by analysis of their co-evolutionary history. I will discuss the consequences of competition between lineages of antibodies, and characterize the fate of a given lineage dependent on the state of the antibody and viral populations. In particular, I will discuss the conditions for emergence of highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies, which are now recognized as critical for designing an effective vaccine against HIV.

  12. Preserved antiviral adaptive immunity following polyclonal antibody immunotherapy for severe murine influenza infection

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Natalie E.; Hatjopolous, Antoinette; Fraser, Cara K.; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Hayball, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy may have particular benefits for the treatment of severe influenza infection in at-risk populations, however little is known of the impact of passive immunotherapy on the formation of memory responses to the virus. Ideally, passive immunotherapy should attenuate the severity of infection while still allowing the formation of adaptive responses to confer protection from future exposure. In this study, we sought to determine if administration of influenza-specific ovine polyclonal antibodies could inhibit adaptive immune responses in a murine model of lethal influenza infection. Ovine polyclonal antibodies generated against recombinant PR8 (H1N1) hemagglutinin exhibited potent prophylactic capacity and reduced lethality in an established influenza infection, particularly when administered intranasally. Surviving mice were also protected against reinfection and generated normal antibody and cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to the virus. The longevity of ovine polyclonal antibodies was explored with a half-life of over two weeks following a single antibody administration. These findings support the development of an ovine passive polyclonal antibody therapy for treatment of severe influenza infection which does not affect the formation of subsequent acquired immunity to the virus. PMID:27380890

  13. Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor mediated dynamic immune dysfunction in children with fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inheritable intellectual disability in male children, and is predominantly caused by a single gene mutation resulting in expanded trinucleotide CGG-repeats within the 5’ untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene. Reports have suggested the presence of immune dysregulation in FXS with evidence of altered plasma cytokine levels; however, no studies have directly assessed functional cellular immune responses in children with FXS. In order to ascertain if immune dysregulation is present in children with FXS, dynamic cellular responses to immune stimulation were examined. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were from male children with FXS (n = 27) and from male aged-matched typically developing (TD) controls (n = 8). PBMC were cultured for 48 hours in media alone or with lipopolysaccharides (LPS; 1 μg/mL) to stimulate the innate immune response or with phytohemagglutinin (PHA; 8 μg/mL) to stimulate the adaptive T-cell response. Additionally, the group I mGluR agonist, DHPG, was added to cultures to ascertain the role of mGluR signaling in the immune response in subject with FXS. Supernatants were harvested and cytokine levels were assessed using Luminex multiplexing technology. Results Children with FXS displayed similar innate immune response following challenge with LPS alone when compared with TD controls; however, when LPS was added in the presence of a group I mGluR agonist, DHPG, increased immune response were observed in children with FXS for a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 (P = 0.02), and IL-12p40 (P < 0.01). Following PHA stimulation, with or without DHPG, no significant differences between subjects with FXS and TD were seen. Conclusions In unstimulated cultures, subjects with FXS did not display altered dynamic immune response to LPS or PHA alone; however, subjects with FXS showed an altered response to co

  14. Lipoxin A4 decreases human memory B cell antibody production via an ALX/FPR2-dependent mechanism: A link between resolution signals and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, Sesquile; Bancos, Simona; Serhan, Charles N.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs) are endogenous bioactive lipid molecules that play a fundamental role in the regulation of inflammation and its resolution. SPMs are classified into lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins. Lipoxins and other SPMs have been identified in important immunological tissues including bone marrow, spleen and blood. Lipoxins regulate functions of the innate immune system including the promotion of monocyte recruitment and increase macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. A major knowledge gap is whether lipoxins influence adaptive immune cells. Here, we analyzed the actions of lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and its receptor ALX/FPR2 on human B cells. LXA4 decreased IgM and IgG production on activated B cells through ALX/FPR2-dependent signaling, which downregulated NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. LXA4 also inhibited human memory B cell antibody production and proliferation, but not naïve B cell function. Lastly, LXA4 decreased antigen-specific antibody production in vivo. To our knowledge, this is the first description of the actions of lipoxins on human B cells, which shows a link between resolution signals and adaptive immunity. Regulating antibody production is crucial to prevent unwanted inflammation. Harnessing the ability of lipoxins to decrease memory B cell antibody production can be beneficial to threat inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. PMID:24166736

  15. Risk factors that may modify the innate and adaptive immune responses in periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Knight, Ellie T; Liu, Jenny; Seymour, Gregory J; Faggion, Clovis M; Cullinan, Mary P

    2016-06-01

    Plaque-induced periodontal diseases occur in response to the accumulation of dental plaque. Disease manifestation and progression is determined by the nature of the immune response to the bacterial complexes in plaque. In general, predisposing factors for these periodontal diseases can be defined as those factors which retain or hinder the removal of plaque and, depending upon the nature of the immune response to this plaque, the disease will either remain stable and not progress or it may progress and result in chronic periodontitis. In contrast, modifying factors can be defined as those factors that alter the nature or course of the inflammatory lesion. These factors do not cause the disease but rather modify the chronic inflammatory response, which, in turn, is determined by the nature of the innate and adaptive immune responses and the local cytokine and inflammatory mediator networks. Chronic inflammation is characterized by vascular, cellular and repair responses within the tissues. This paper will focus on how common modifying factors, such as smoking, stress, hormonal changes, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and HIV/AIDS, influence each of these responses, together with treatment implications. As treatment planning in periodontics requires an understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease, it is important for all modifying factors to be taken into account. For some of these, such as smoking, stress and diabetic control, supportive health behavior advice within the dental setting should be an integral component for overall patient management. PMID:27045429

  16. Control of Dichotomic Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses by Artery Tertiary Lymphoid Organs in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weih, Falk; Gräbner, Rolf; Hu, Desheng; Beer, Michael; Habenicht, Andreas J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) emerge in tissues in response to non-resolving inflammation such as chronic infection, graft rejection, and autoimmune disease. We identified artery TLOs (ATLOs) in the adventitia adjacent to atherosclerotic plaques of aged hyperlipidemic ApoE−/− mice. ATLOs are structured into T cell areas harboring conventional dendritic cells and monocyte-derived DCs; B cell follicles containing follicular dendritic cells within activated germinal centers; and peripheral niches of plasma cells. ATLOs also show extensive neoangiogenesis, aberrant lymphangiogenesis, and high endothelial venule (HEV) neogenesis. Newly formed conduit networks connect the external lamina of the artery with HEVs in T cell areas. ATLOs recruit and generate lymphocyte subsets with opposing activities including activated CD4+ and CD8+ effector T cells, natural and induced CD4+ T regulatory (nTregs; iTregs) cells as well as B-1 and B-2 cells at different stages of differentiation. These data indicate that ATLOs organize dichotomic innate and adaptive immune responses in atherosclerosis. In this review we discuss the novel concept that dichotomic immune responses toward atherosclerosis-specific antigens are carried out by ATLOs in the adventitia of the arterial wall and that malfunction of the tolerogenic arm of ATLO immunity triggers transition from silent autoimmune reactivity to clinically overt disease. PMID:22783198

  17. Differential Regulation of the Interleukin-12 Receptor during the Innate Immune Response to Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Douglas; Elloso, M. Merle; Showe, Louise; Williams, Donna; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Scott, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the central role of interleukin 12 (IL-12) in the development of resistance to Leishmania major infection in C3H mice. We now show that during the innate immune response the lymph node cells of L. major-infected C3H mice upregulate the IL-12 receptor on CD4+, CD8+, and B220+ cells. An increase in the ability of the lymph node cells to bind IL-12 correlates with 9.3- and 4.6-fold increases in the mRNA expression levels of the IL-12Rβ1 and -β2 subunits, respectively. In contrast, BALB/c mice, which are susceptible to L. major infection, have no increase in the ability of the lymph node cells to bind IL-12 and correspondingly smaller increases in the mRNA expression levels of the IL-12Rβ1 and -β2 subunits of 2- and 1.5-fold, respectively. Neutralizing IL-4 and the administration of exogenous IL-12 upregulate IL-12R expression in BALB/c mice, while the neutralization of IL-12 in C3H mice blocks increased IL-12 receptor expression. These experiments reveal an important role for the regulation of the IL-12 receptor during the innate immune response after infection of mice with a pathogen. PMID:9673267

  18. Microbially cleaved immunoglobulins are sensed by the innate immune receptor LILRA2.

    PubMed

    Hirayasu, Kouyuki; Saito, Fumiji; Suenaga, Tadahiro; Shida, Kyoko; Arase, Noriko; Oikawa, Keita; Yamaoka, Toshifumi; Murota, Hiroyuki; Chibana, Hiroji; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Kubori, Tomoko; Nagai, Hiroki; Nakamaru, Yuji; Katayama, Ichiro; Colonna, Marco; Arase, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Microbial proteases degrade a variety of host proteins(1-3). However, it has remained largely unknown why microorganisms have evolved to acquire such proteases and how the host responds to microbially degraded products. Here, we have found that immunoglobulins disrupted by microbial pathogens are specifically detected by leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor A2 (LILRA2), an orphan activating receptor expressed on human myeloid cells. Proteases from Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Legionella pneumophila, Streptococcus pneumonia and Candida albicans cleaved the N-terminus of immunoglobulins. Identification of the immunoglobulin-cleaving protease from L. pneumophila revealed that the protease is conserved across some bacteria including Vibrio spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These microbially cleaved immunoglobulins but not normal immunoglobulins stimulated human neutrophils via LILRA2. In addition, stimulation of primary monocytes via LILRA2 inhibited the growth of L. pneumophila. When mice were infected with L. pneumophila, immunoglobulins were cleaved and recognized by LILRA2. More importantly, cleaved immunoglobulins were detected in patients with bacterial infections and stimulated LILRA2-expressing cells. Our findings demonstrate that LILRA2 is a type of innate immune receptor in the host immune system that detects immunoglobulin abnormalities caused by microbial pathogens. PMID:27572839

  19. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells orchestrate TLR7-mediated innate and adaptive immunity for the initiation of autoimmune inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Hideaki; Arimura, Keiichi; Uto, Tomofumi; Fukaya, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Takeshi; Choijookhuu, Narantsog; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Sato, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Endosomal toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated detection of viral nucleic acids (NAs) and production of type I interferon (IFN-I) are key elements of antiviral defense, while inappropriate recognition of self NAs with the induction of IFN-I responses is linked to autoimmunity such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are cells specialized in robust IFN-I secretion by the engagement of endosomal TLRs, and predominantly express sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec)-H. However, how pDCs control endosomal TLR-mediated immune responses that cause autoimmunity remains unclear. Here we show a critical role of pDCs in TLR7-mediated autoimmunity using gene-modified mice with impaired expression of Siglec-H and selective ablation of pDCs. pDCs were shown to be indispensable for the induction of systemic inflammation and effector T-cell responses triggered by TLR7 ligand. pDCs aggravated psoriasiform dermatitis mediated through the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and enhanced dermal infiltration of granulocytes and γδ T cells. Furthermore, pDCs promoted the production of anti-self NA antibodies and glomerulonephritis in lupus-like disease by activating inflammatory monocytes. On the other hand, Siglec-H regulated the TLR7-mediated activation of pDCs. Thus, our findings reveal that pDCs provide an essential link between TLR7-mediated innate and adaptive immunity for the initiation of IFN-I-associated autoimmune inflammation. PMID:27075414

  20. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells orchestrate TLR7-mediated innate and adaptive immunity for the initiation of autoimmune inflammation.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Hideaki; Arimura, Keiichi; Uto, Tomofumi; Fukaya, Tomohiro; Nakamura, Takeshi; Choijookhuu, Narantsog; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Sato, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Endosomal toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated detection of viral nucleic acids (NAs) and production of type I interferon (IFN-I) are key elements of antiviral defense, while inappropriate recognition of self NAs with the induction of IFN-I responses is linked to autoimmunity such as psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are cells specialized in robust IFN-I secretion by the engagement of endosomal TLRs, and predominantly express sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec)-H. However, how pDCs control endosomal TLR-mediated immune responses that cause autoimmunity remains unclear. Here we show a critical role of pDCs in TLR7-mediated autoimmunity using gene-modified mice with impaired expression of Siglec-H and selective ablation of pDCs. pDCs were shown to be indispensable for the induction of systemic inflammation and effector T-cell responses triggered by TLR7 ligand. pDCs aggravated psoriasiform dermatitis mediated through the hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and enhanced dermal infiltration of granulocytes and γδ T cells. Furthermore, pDCs promoted the production of anti-self NA antibodies and glomerulonephritis in lupus-like disease by activating inflammatory monocytes. On the other hand, Siglec-H regulated the TLR7-mediated activation of pDCs. Thus, our findings reveal that pDCs provide an essential link between TLR7-mediated innate and adaptive immunity for the initiation of IFN-I-associated autoimmune inflammation. PMID:27075414

  1. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  2. Investigating the adaptive immune response in influenza and secondary bacterial pneumonia and nanoparticle based therapeutic delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarthy, Krishnan V.

    In early 2000, influenza and its associated complications were the 7 th leading cause of death in the United States[1-4]. As of today, this major health problem has become even more of a concern, with the possibility of a potentially devastating avian flu (H5N1) or swine flu pandemic (H1N1). According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), over 10 countries have reported transmission of influenza A (H5N1) virus to humans as of June 2006 [5]. In response to this growing concern, the United States pledged over $334 million dollars in international aid for battling influenza[1-4]. The major flu pandemic of the early 1900's provided the first evidence that secondary bacterial pneumonia (not primary viral pneumonia) was the major cause of death in both community and hospital-based settings. Secondary bacterial infections currently account for 35-40% mortality following a primary influenza viral infection [1, 6]. The first component of this work addresses the immunological mechanisms that predispose patients to secondary bacterial infections following a primary influenza viral infection. By assessing host immune responses through various immune-modulatory tools, such as use of volatile anesthetics (i.e. halothane) and Apilimod/STA-5326 (an IL-12/Il-23 transcription blocker), we provide experimental evidence that demonstrates that the overactive adaptive Th1 immune response is critical in mediating increased susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections. We also present data that shows that suppressing the adaptive Th1 immune response enhances innate immunity, specifically in alveolar macrophages, by favoring a pro anti-bacterial phenotype. The second component of this work addresses the use of nanotechnology to deliver therapeutic modalities that affect the primary viral and associated secondary bacterial infections post influenza. First, we used surface functionalized quantum dots for selective targeting of lung alveolar macrophages both in vitro and in vivo

  3. Persistence and Adaptation in Immunity: T Cells Balance the Extent and Thoroughness of Search.

    PubMed

    Fricke, G Matthew; Letendre, Kenneth A; Moses, Melanie E; Cannon, Judy L

    2016-03-01

    Effective search strategies have evolved in many biological systems, including the immune system. T cells are key effectors of the immune response, required for clearance of pathogenic infection. T cell activation requires that T cells encounter antigen-bearing dendritic cells within lymph nodes, thus, T cell search patterns within lymph nodes may be a crucial determinant of how quickly a T cell immune response can be initiated. Previous work suggests that T cell motion in the lymph node is similar to a Brownian random walk, however, no detailed analysis has definitively shown whether T cell movement is consistent with Brownian motion. Here, we provide a precise description of T cell motility in lymph nodes and a computational model that demonstrates how motility impacts T cell search efficiency. We find that both Brownian and Lévy walks fail to capture the complexity of T cell motion. Instead, T cell movement is better described as a correlated random walk with a heavy-tailed distribution of step lengths. Using computer simulations, we identify three distinct factors that contribute to increasing T cell search efficiency: 1) a lognormal distribution of step lengths, 2) motion that is directionally persistent over short time scales, and 3) heterogeneity in movement patterns. Furthermore, we show that T cells move differently in specific frequently visited locations that we call "hotspots" within lymph nodes, suggesting that T cells change their movement in response to the lymph node environment. Our results show that like foraging animals, T cells adapt to environmental cues, suggesting that adaption is a fundamental feature of biological search.

  4. Persistence and Adaptation in Immunity: T Cells Balance the Extent and Thoroughness of Search

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, G. Matthew; Letendre, Kenneth A.; Moses, Melanie E.; Cannon, Judy L.

    2016-01-01

    Effective search strategies have evolved in many biological systems, including the immune system. T cells are key effectors of the immune response, required for clearance of pathogenic infection. T cell activation requires that T cells encounter antigen-bearing dendritic cells within lymph nodes, thus, T cell search patterns within lymph nodes may be a crucial determinant of how quickly a T cell immune response can be initiated. Previous work suggests that T cell motion in the lymph node is similar to a Brownian random walk, however, no detailed analysis has definitively shown whether T cell movement is consistent with Brownian motion. Here, we provide a precise description of T cell motility in lymph nodes and a computational model that demonstrates how motility impacts T cell search efficiency. We find that both Brownian and Lévy walks fail to capture the complexity of T cell motion. Instead, T cell movement is better described as a correlated random walk with a heavy-tailed distribution of step lengths. Using computer simulations, we identify three distinct factors that contribute to increasing T cell search efficiency: 1) a lognormal distribution of step lengths, 2) motion that is directionally persistent over short time scales, and 3) heterogeneity in movement patterns. Furthermore, we show that T cells move differently in specific frequently visited locations that we call “hotspots” within lymph nodes, suggesting that T cells change their movement in response to the lymph node environment. Our results show that like foraging animals, T cells adapt to environmental cues, suggesting that adaption is a fundamental feature of biological search. PMID:26990103

  5. Phosphate groups of lipid A are essential for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium virulence and affect innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingke; Six, David A; Liu, Qing; Gu, Lillian; Wang, Shifeng; Alamuri, Praveen; Raetz, Christian R H; Curtiss, Roy

    2012-09-01

    Lipid A is a key component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and stimulates proinflammatory responses via the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MD2-CD14 pathway. Its endotoxic activity depends on the number and length of acyl chains and its phosphorylation state. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, removal of the secondary laurate or myristate chain in lipid A results in bacterial attenuation and growth defects in vitro. However, the roles of the two lipid A phosphate groups in bacterial virulence and immunogenicity remain unknown. Here, we used an S. Typhimurium msbB pagL pagP lpxR mutant, carrying penta-acylated lipid A, as the parent strain to construct a series of mutants synthesizing 1-dephosphorylated, 4'-dephosphorylated, or nonphosphorylated penta-acylated lipid A. Dephosphorylated mutants exhibited increased sensitivity to deoxycholate and showed increased resistance to polymyxin B. Removal of both phosphate groups severely attenuated the mutants when administered orally to BALB/c mice, but the mutants colonized the lymphatic tissues and were sufficiently immunogenic to protect the host from challenge with wild-type S. Typhimurium. Mice receiving S. Typhimurium with 1-dephosphorylated or nonphosphorylated penta-acylated lipid A exhibited reduced levels of cytokines. Attenuated and dephosphorylated Salmonella vaccines were able to induce adaptive immunity against heterologous (PspA of Streptococcus pneumoniae) and homologous antigens (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] and outer membrane proteins [OMPs]).

  6. Restriction by SAMHD1 Limits cGAS/STING-Dependent Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Maelfait, Jonathan; Bridgeman, Anne; Benlahrech, Adel; Cursi, Chiara; Rehwinkel, Jan

    2016-08-01

    SAMHD1 is a restriction factor for HIV-1 infection. SAMHD1 mutations cause the autoinflammatory Aicardi-Goutières syndrome that is characterized by chronic type I interferon (IFN) secretion. We show that the spontaneous IFN response in SAMHD1-deficient cells and mice requires the cGAS/STING cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway. We provide genetic evidence that cell-autonomous control of lentivirus infection in myeloid cells by SAMHD1 limits virus-induced production of IFNs and the induction of co-stimulatory markers. This program of myeloid cell activation required reverse transcription, cGAS and STING, and signaling through the IFN receptor. Furthermore, SAMHD1 reduced the induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T cells in vivo. Therefore, virus restriction by SAMHD1 limits the magnitude of IFN and T cell responses. This demonstrates a competition between cell-autonomous virus control and subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses, a concept with important implications for the treatment of infection. PMID:27477283

  7. Immunization

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against things like measles, ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  8. Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immunizations KidsHealth > For Teens > Immunizations Print A A A ... That Shot? en español Las vacunas Why Are Vaccinations Important? Measles, mumps, and whooping cough may seem ...

  9. Modulation of Immunity and Inflammation by the Mineralocorticoid Receptor and Aldosterone

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Durango, N.; Vecchiola, A.; Gonzalez-Gomez, L. M.; Simon, F.; Riedel, C. A.; Fardella, C. E.; Kalergis, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand dependent transcription factor. MR has been traditionally associated with the control of water and electrolyte homeostasis in order to keep blood pressure through aldosterone activation. However, there is growing evidence indicating that MR expression is not restricted to vascular and renal tissues, as it can be also expressed by cells of the immune system, where it responds to stimulation or antagonism, controlling immune cell function. On the other hand, aldosterone also has been associated with proinflammatory immune effects, such as the release of proinflammatory cytokines, generating oxidative stress and inducing fibrosis. The inflammatory participation of MR and aldosterone in the cardiovascular disease suggests an association with alterations in the immune system. Hypertensive patients show higher levels of proinflammatory mediators that can be modulated by MR antagonism. Although these proinflammatory properties have been observed in other autoimmune and chronic inflammatory diseases, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects remain unknown. Here we review and discuss the scientific work aimed at determining the immunological role of MR and aldosterone in humans, as well as animal models. PMID:26448944

  10. Interleukin-2 receptor signaling: at the interface between tolerance and immunity.

    PubMed

    Malek, Thomas R; Castro, Iris

    2010-08-27

    Interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling regulates tolerance and immunity. Here, we review recent work concerning the structure, signaling, and function of the IL-2R, emphasizing the contribution of IL-2 for T cell-dependent activity in vivo. IL-2R signaling influences two discrete aspects of immune responses by CD8(+) T cells, terminal differentiation of effector cells in primary responses, and aspects of memory recall responses. IL-2 also delivers essential signals for thymic development of regulatory T (Treg) cells and later to promote their homeostasis and function. Each of these outcomes on T effector and Treg cells requires distinct amounts of IL-2R signaling, with low IL-2R signaling sufficient for many key aspects of Treg cells. Thus, tolerance is readily maintained and favored with limited IL-2.

  11. Interleukin-2 Receptor Signaling: At the Interface between Tolerance and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Thomas R.; Castro, Iris

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling regulates tolerance and immunity. Here, we review recent work concerning the structure, signaling, and function of the IL-2R, emphasizing the contribution of IL-2 for T cell-dependent activity in vivo. IL-2R signaling influences two discrete aspects of immune responses by CD8+ T cells, terminal differentiation of effector cells in primary responses, and aspects of memory recall responses. IL-2 also delivers essential signals for thymic development of regulatory T (Treg) cells and later to promote their homeostasis and function. Each of these outcomes on T effector and Treg cells requires distinct amounts of IL-2R signaling, with low IL-2R signaling sufficient for many key aspects of Treg cells. Thus, tolerance is readily maintained and favored with limited IL-2. PMID:20732639

  12. HIV-specific Immunity Derived From Chimeric Antigen Receptor-engineered Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Anjie; Kamata, Masakazu; Rezek, Valerie; Rick, Jonathan; Levin, Bernard; Kasparian, Saro; Chen, Irvin Sy; Yang, Otto O; Zack, Jerome A; Kitchen, Scott G

    2015-08-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is critical in controlling HIV infection. Since the immune response does not eliminate HIV, it would be beneficial to develop ways to enhance the HIV-specific CTL response to allow long-term viral suppression or clearance. Here, we report the use of a protective chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) in a hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC)-based approach to engineer HIV immunity. We determined that CAR-modified HSPCs differentiate into functional T cells as well as natural killer (NK) cells in vivo in humanized mice and these cells are resistant to HIV infection and suppress HIV replication. These results strongly suggest that stem cell-based gene therapy with a CAR may be feasible and effective in treating chronic HIV infection and other morbidities. PMID:26050990

  13. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: a perspective on potential roles in the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Emily A; Mezrich, Joshua D; Bradfield, Christopher A

    2009-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a protein best known for its role in mediating toxicity. Over 30 years of research has uncovered additional roles for the AHR in xenobiotic metabolism and normal vascular development. Activation of the AHR has long been known to cause immunotoxicity, including thymic involution. Recent data suggesting a role for the AHR in regulatory T-cell (Treg) and T-helper 17 (Th17) cell development have only added to the excitement about this biology. In this review, we will attempt to illustrate what is currently known about AHR biology in the hope that data from fields as diverse as evolutionary biology and pharmacology will help elucidate the mechanism by which AHR modifies immune responses. We also will discuss the complexities of AHR pharmacology and genetics that may influence future studies of AHR in the immune system. PMID:19538249

  14. Enhancement of Innate and Adaptive Immune Functions by Multiple Echinacea Species

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Zili; Liu, Yi; Wu, Lankun; Senchina, David S.; Wurtele, Eve S.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Kohut, Marian L.; Cunnick, Joan E.

    2008-01-01

    Echinacea preparations are commonly used as nonspecific immunomodulatory agents. Alcohol extracts from three widely used Echinacea species, Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida, and Echinacea purpurea, were investigated for immunomodulating properties. The three Echinacea species demonstrated a broad difference in concentrations of individual lipophilic amides and hydrophilic caffeic acid derivatives. Mice were gavaged once a day (for 7 days) with one of the Echinacea extracts (130 mg/kg) or vehicle and immunized with sheep red blood cells (sRBC) 4 days prior to collection of immune cells for multiple immunological assays. The three herb extracts induced similar, but differential, changes in the percentage of immune cell populations and their biological functions, including increased percentages of CD49+ and CD19+ lymphocytes in spleen and natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Antibody response to sRBC was significantly increased equally by extracts of all three Echinacea species. Concanavalin A-stimulated splenocytes from E. angustifolia- and E. pallida-treated mice demonstrated significantly higher T cell proliferation. In addition, the Echinacea treatment significantly altered the cytokine production by mitogen-stimulated splenic cells. The three herbal extracts significantly increased interferon-γ production, but inhibited the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1β. Only E. angustifolia- and E. pallida-treated mice demonstrated significantly higher production of IL-4 and increased IL-10 production. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that Echinacea is a wide-spectrum immunomodulator that modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. In particular, E. angustifolia or E. pallida may have more anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:17887935

  15. Mechanism of HSV infection through soluble adapter-mediated virus bridging to the EGF receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Kenji; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Nakanishi, Takeshi; Asano, Ryutaro; Kumagai, Izumi; Tahara, Hideaki; Kuwano, Michihiko; Cohen, Justus B.; Glorioso, Joseph C.

    2011-04-25

    Herpes simplex virus entry into cells requires the binding of envelope glycoprotein D (gD) to an entry receptor. Depending on the cell, entry occurs by different mechanisms, including fusion at the cell surface or endocytosis. Here we examined the entry mechanism through a non-HSV receptor mediated by a soluble bi-specific adapter protein composed of recognition elements for gD and the EGF receptor (EGFR). Virus entered into endosomes using either EGF or an EGFR-specific single chain antibody (scFv) for receptor recognition. Infection was less efficient with the EGF adapter which could be attributed to its weaker binding to a viral gD. Infection mediated by the scFv adapter was pH sensitive, indicating that gD-EGFR bridging alone was insufficient for capsid release from endosomes. We also show that the scFv adapter enhanced infection of EGFR-expressing tumor tissue in vivo. Our results indicate that adapters may retarget HSV infection without drastically changing the entry mechanism.

  16. ERECTA and BAK1 Receptor Like Kinases Interact to Regulate Immune Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jordá, Lucía; Sopeña-Torres, Sara; Escudero, Viviana; Nuñez-Corcuera, Beatriz; Delgado-Cerezo, Magdalena; Torii, Keiko U; Molina, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ERECTA (ER) receptor-like kinase (RLK) regulates Arabidopsis thaliana organ growth, and inflorescence and stomatal development by interacting with the ERECTA-family genes (ERf) paralogs, ER-like 1 (ERL1) and ERL2, and the receptor-like protein (RLP) TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). ER also controls immune responses and resistance to pathogens such as the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto) and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina BMM (PcBMM). We found that er null-mutant plants overexpressing an ER dominant-negative version lacking the cytoplasmic kinase domain (ERΔK) showed an enhanced susceptibility to PcBMM, suggesting that ERΔK associates and forms inactive complexes with additional RLKs/RLPs required for PcBMM resistance. Genetic analyses demonstrated that ER acts in a combinatorial specific manner with ERL1, ERL2, and TMM to control PcBMM resistance. Moreover, BAK1 (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated kinase 1) RLK, which together with ERf/TMM regulates stomatal patterning and resistance to Pto, was also found to have an unequal contribution with ER in regulating immune responses and resistance to PcBMM. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana further demonstrated BAK1-ER protein interaction. The secreted epidermal pattern factor peptides (EPF1 and EPF2), which are perceived by ERf members to specify stomatal patterning, do not seem to regulate ER-mediated immunity to PcBMM, since their inducible overexpression in A. thaliana did not impact on PcBMM resistance. Our results indicate that the multiproteic receptorsome formed by ERf, TMM and BAK1 modulates A. thaliana resistance to PcBMM, and suggest that the cues underlying ERf/TMM/BAK1-mediated immune responses are distinct from those regulating stomatal pattering. PMID:27446127

  17. ERECTA and BAK1 Receptor Like Kinases Interact to Regulate Immune Responses in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Jordá, Lucía; Sopeña-Torres, Sara; Escudero, Viviana; Nuñez-Corcuera, Beatriz; Delgado-Cerezo, Magdalena; Torii, Keiko U.; Molina, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ERECTA (ER) receptor-like kinase (RLK) regulates Arabidopsis thaliana organ growth, and inflorescence and stomatal development by interacting with the ERECTA-family genes (ERf) paralogs, ER-like 1 (ERL1) and ERL2, and the receptor-like protein (RLP) TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). ER also controls immune responses and resistance to pathogens such as the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto) and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina BMM (PcBMM). We found that er null-mutant plants overexpressing an ER dominant-negative version lacking the cytoplasmic kinase domain (ERΔK) showed an enhanced susceptibility to PcBMM, suggesting that ERΔK associates and forms inactive complexes with additional RLKs/RLPs required for PcBMM resistance. Genetic analyses demonstrated that ER acts in a combinatorial specific manner with ERL1, ERL2, and TMM to control PcBMM resistance. Moreover, BAK1 (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated kinase 1) RLK, which together with ERf/TMM regulates stomatal patterning and resistance to Pto, was also found to have an unequal contribution with ER in regulating immune responses and resistance to PcBMM. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana further demonstrated BAK1-ER protein interaction. The secreted epidermal pattern factor peptides (EPF1 and EPF2), which are perceived by ERf members to specify stomatal patterning, do not seem to regulate ER-mediated immunity to PcBMM, since their inducible overexpression in A. thaliana did not impact on PcBMM resistance. Our results indicate that the multiproteic receptorsome formed by ERf, TMM and BAK1 modulates A. thaliana resistance to PcBMM, and suggest that the cues underlying ERf/TMM/BAK1-mediated immune responses are distinct from those regulating stomatal pattering. PMID:27446127

  18. ERECTA and BAK1 Receptor Like Kinases Interact to Regulate Immune Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jordá, Lucía; Sopeña-Torres, Sara; Escudero, Viviana; Nuñez-Corcuera, Beatriz; Delgado-Cerezo, Magdalena; Torii, Keiko U; Molina, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ERECTA (ER) receptor-like kinase (RLK) regulates Arabidopsis thaliana organ growth, and inflorescence and stomatal development by interacting with the ERECTA-family genes (ERf) paralogs, ER-like 1 (ERL1) and ERL2, and the receptor-like protein (RLP) TOO MANY MOUTHS (TMM). ER also controls immune responses and resistance to pathogens such as the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto) and the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina BMM (PcBMM). We found that er null-mutant plants overexpressing an ER dominant-negative version lacking the cytoplasmic kinase domain (ERΔK) showed an enhanced susceptibility to PcBMM, suggesting that ERΔK associates and forms inactive complexes with additional RLKs/RLPs required for PcBMM resistance. Genetic analyses demonstrated that ER acts in a combinatorial specific manner with ERL1, ERL2, and TMM to control PcBMM resistance. Moreover, BAK1 (BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-associated kinase 1) RLK, which together with ERf/TMM regulates stomatal patterning and resistance to Pto, was also found to have an unequal contribution with ER in regulating immune responses and resistance to PcBMM. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana further demonstrated BAK1-ER protein interaction. The secreted epidermal pattern factor peptides (EPF1 and EPF2), which are perceived by ERf members to specify stomatal patterning, do not seem to regulate ER-mediated immunity to PcBMM, since their inducible overexpression in A. thaliana did not impact on PcBMM resistance. Our results indicate that the multiproteic receptorsome formed by ERf, TMM and BAK1 modulates A. thaliana resistance to PcBMM, and suggest that the cues underlying ERf/TMM/BAK1-mediated immune responses are distinct from those regulating stomatal pattering.

  19. Adenosine A1 receptors contribute to immune regulation after neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Winerdal, Max; Winerdal, Malin E; Wang, Ying-Qing; Fredholm, Bertil B; Winqvist, Ola; Ådén, Ulrika

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal brain hypoxic ischemia (HI) often results in long-term motor and cognitive impairments. Post-ischemic inflammation greatly effects outcome and adenosine receptor signaling modulates both HI and immune cell function. Here, we investigated the influence of adenosine A1 receptor deficiency (A1R(-/-)) on key immune cell populations in a neonatal brain HI model. Ten-day-old mice were subjected to HI. Functional outcome was assessed by open locomotion and beam walking test and infarction size evaluated. Flow cytometry was performed on brain-infiltrating cells, and semi-automated analysis of flow cytometric data was applied. A1R(-/-) mice displayed larger infarctions (+33%, p < 0.05) and performed worse in beam walking tests (44% more mistakes, p < 0.05) than wild-type (WT) mice. Myeloid cell activation after injury was enhanced in A1R(-/-) versus WT brains. Activated B lymphocytes expressing IL-10 infiltrated the brain after HI in WT, but were less activated and did not increase in relative frequency in A1R(-/-). Also, A1R(-/-) B lymphocytes expressed less IL-10 than their WT counterparts, the A1R antagonist DPCPX decreased IL-10 expression whereas the A1R agonist CPA increased it. CD4(+) T lymphocytes including FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells, were unaffected by genotype, whereas CD8(+) T lymphocyte responses were smaller in A1R(-/-) mice. Using PCA to characterize the immune profile, we could discriminate the A1R(-/-) and WT genotypes as well as sham operated from HI-subjected animals. We conclude that A1R signaling modulates IL-10 expression by immune cells, influences the activation of these cells in vivo, and affects outcome after HI. PMID:26608888

  20. Pteromalus puparum venom impairs host cellular immune responses by decreasing expression of its scavenger receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qi; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yangkeng; Stanley, David W; Chen, Xuexin; Hu, Cui; Ye, Gongyin

    2011-11-01

    Insect host/parasitoid interactions are co-evolved systems in which host defenses are balanced by parasitoid mechanisms to disable or hide from host immune effectors. Although there is a rich literature on these systems, parasitoid immune-disabling mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here we report on a newly discovered immune-disabling mechanism in the Pieris rapae/Pteromalus puparum host/parasitoid system. Because venom injections and parasitization suppresses host phagocytosis, we turned attention to the P. rapae scavenger receptor (Pr-SR), posing the hypothesis that P. puparum venom suppresses expression of the host Pr-SR gene. To test our hypothesis, we cloned a full-length cDNA of the Pr-SR. Multiple sequences alignment showed the deduced amino acid sequence of Pr-SR is similar to scavenger receptors of other lepidopterans. Bacterial and bead injections induced Pr-SR mRNA and protein expression, which peaked at 4h post-bead injection. Venom injection inhibited Pr-SR expression. Pr-SR was specifically expressed in granulocytes compared to plasmatocytes. We localized the Pr-SR protein in cytoplasm and cellular membrane, with no evidence of secretion into host plasma. Double-strand RNA designed to Pr-SR mRNA silenced expression of Pr-SR and significantly impaired host phagocytosis and encapsulation reactions. Venom injections similarly silenced Pr-SR expression during the first 8h post-treatment, after which the silencing effects gradually abated. We infer from these findings that one mechanism of impairing P. rapae hemocytic immune reactions is by silencing expression of Pr-SR.

  1. Androgen receptor and immune inflammation in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Izumi, Kouji; Li, Lei; Chang, Chawnshang

    2014-01-01

    Both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa) are frequent diseases in middle-aged to elderly men worldwide. While both diseases are linked to abnormal growth of the prostate, the epidemiological and pathological features of these two prostate diseases are different. BPH nodules typically arise from the transitional zone, and, in contrast, PCa arises from the peripheral zone. Androgen deprivation therapy alone may not be sufficient to cure these two prostatic diseases due to its undesirable side effects. The alteration of androgen receptor-mediated inflammatory signals from infiltrating immune cells and prostate stromal/epithelial cells may play key roles in those unwanted events. Herein, this review will focus on the roles of androgen/androgen receptor signals in the inflammation-induced progression of BPH and PCa. PMID:26594314

  2. Human Immune Disorder Arising from Mutation of the α Chain of the Interleukin-2 Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharfe, Nigel; Dadi, Harjit K.; Shahar, Michal; Roifman, Chaim M.

    1997-04-01

    Profound cellular immunodeficiency occurs as the result of mutations in proteins involved in both the differentiation and function of mature lymphoid cells. We describe here a novel human immune aberration arising from a truncation mutation of the interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25), a subunit of the tripartite high-affinity receptor for interleukin 2. This immunodeficiency is characterized by decreased numbers of peripheral T cells displaying abnormal proliferation but normal B cell development. Extensive lymphocytic infiltration of tissues, including lung, liver, gut, and bone, is observed, accompanied by tissue atrophy and inflammation. Although mature T cells are present, the absence of CD25 does affect the differentiation of thymocytes. While displaying normal development of CD2, CD3, CD4, and CD8 expression, CD25-deficient cortical thymocytes do not express CD1, and furthermore they fail to normally down-regulate levels of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2.

  3. Ubiquitin signaling in immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongbo; Sun, Shao-Cong

    2016-01-01

    Ubiquitination has emerged as a crucial mechanism that regulates signal transduction in diverse biological processes, including different aspects of immune functions. Ubiquitination regulates pattern-recognition receptor signaling that mediates both innate immune responses and dendritic cell maturation required for initiation of adaptive immune responses. Ubiquitination also regulates the development, activation, and differentiation of T cells, thereby maintaining efficient adaptive immune responses to pathogens and immunological tolerance to self-tissues. Like phosphorylation, ubiquitination is a reversible reaction tightly controlled by the opposing actions of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases. Deregulated ubiquitination events are associated with immunological disorders, including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:27012466

  4. In Vivo Synthesis of Cyclic-di-GMP Using a Recombinant Adenovirus Preferentially Improves Adaptive Immune Responses against Extracellular Antigens.

    PubMed

    Alyaqoub, Fadel S; Aldhamen, Yasser A; Koestler, Benjamin J; Bruger, Eric L; Seregin, Sergey S; Pereira-Hicks, Cristiane; Godbehere, Sarah; Waters, Christopher M; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2016-02-15

    There is a compelling need for more effective vaccine adjuvants to augment induction of Ag-specific adaptive immune responses. Recent reports suggested the bacterial second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-dimeric-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) acts as an innate immune system modulator. We recently incorporated a Vibrio cholerae diguanylate cyclase into an adenovirus vaccine, fostering production of c-di-GMP as well as proinflammatory responses in mice. In this study, we recombined a more potent diguanylate cyclase gene, VCA0848, into a nonreplicating adenovirus serotype 5 (AdVCA0848) that produces elevated amounts of c-di-GMP when expressed in mammalian cells in vivo. This novel platform further improved induction of type I IFN-β and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells early after administration into mice as compared with control vectors. Coadministration of the extracellular protein OVA and the AdVCA0848 adjuvant significantly improved OVA-specific T cell responses as detected by IFN-γ and IL-2 ELISPOT, while also improving OVA-specific humoral B cell adaptive responses. In addition, we found that coadministration of AdVCA0848 with another adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing the HIV-1-derived Gag Ag or the Clostridium difficile-derived toxin B resulted in significant inhibitory effects on the induction of Gag and toxin B-specific adaptive immune responses. As a proof of principle, these data confirm that in vivo synthesis of c-di-GMP stimulates strong innate immune responses that correlate with enhanced adaptive immune responses to concomitantly administered extracellular Ag, which can be used as an adjuvant to heighten effective immune responses for protein-based vaccine platforms against microbial infections and cancers. PMID:26792800

  5. In Vivo Synthesis of Cyclic-di-GMP Using a Recombinant Adenovirus Preferentially Improves Adaptive Immune Responses against Extracellular Antigens.

    PubMed

    Alyaqoub, Fadel S; Aldhamen, Yasser A; Koestler, Benjamin J; Bruger, Eric L; Seregin, Sergey S; Pereira-Hicks, Cristiane; Godbehere, Sarah; Waters, Christopher M; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2016-02-15

    There is a compelling need for more effective vaccine adjuvants to augment induction of Ag-specific adaptive immune responses. Recent reports suggested the bacterial second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-dimeric-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) acts as an innate immune system modulator. We recently incorporated a Vibrio cholerae diguanylate cyclase into an adenovirus vaccine, fostering production of c-di-GMP as well as proinflammatory responses in mice. In this study, we recombined a more potent diguanylate cyclase gene, VCA0848, into a nonreplicating adenovirus serotype 5 (AdVCA0848) that produces elevated amounts of c-di-GMP when expressed in mammalian cells in vivo. This novel platform further improved induction of type I IFN-β and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells early after administration into mice as compared with control vectors. Coadministration of the extracellular protein OVA and the AdVCA0848 adjuvant significantly improved OVA-specific T cell responses as detected by IFN-γ and IL-2 ELISPOT, while also improving OVA-specific humoral B cell adaptive responses. In addition, we found that coadministration of AdVCA0848 with another adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing the HIV-1-derived Gag Ag or the Clostridium difficile-derived toxin B resulted in significant inhibitory effects on the induction of Gag and toxin B-specific adaptive immune responses. As a proof of principle, these data confirm that in vivo synthesis of c-di-GMP stimulates strong innate immune responses that correlate with enhanced adaptive immune responses to concomitantly administered extracellular Ag, which can be used as an adjuvant to heighten effective immune responses for protein-based vaccine platforms against microbial infections and cancers.

  6. A new cell-based innate immune receptor assay for the examination of receptor activity, ligand specificity, signalling pathways and the detection of pyrogens.

    PubMed

    Burger-Kentischer, Anke; Abele, Ina S; Finkelmeier, Doris; Wiesmüller, Karl-Heinz; Rupp, Steffen

    2010-06-30

    The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) of the innate immune system are the first defence line of the immune system. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the most well known and the best examined of the PR receptors. In the last years TLRs had been studied in different ways resulting in a lot of new insights in the function and signalling pathways of these receptors. However, it was not possible to investigate individual combinations of the TLRs and their specific ligands, because of the complex network in immune signalling resulting in interference with each other. This work shows a new cell-based assay, established for the analysis of single PRRs or heterodimers. For this purpose NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblasts) were stably transfected with the NF-kappaB-inducible reporter gene secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) together with the corresponding combinations of human TLRs and their co-receptors (e.g. TLR1/2, TLR2/6 and TLR4/CD14). The specificity of the respective cell lines was shown by induction with variations of specific and unspecific ligands (immune-stimulating components of microorganisms or synthetic ligands). Analysis via the NF-kappaB-dependent reporter gene SEAP allows a direct way to detect the human TLR-activity. Our results showed that this assay is highly sensitive and specific for the respective ligands. For the synthetic ligands Pam(2)CysSK(4) the assay demonstrates a detection limit of 1 pg/ml for TLR2/6. In summary, this test system allows the investigation of individual human PRR-receptors in a highly specific way, without interference with other immune components opening new avenues for novel insights in the innate immune system and its applications.

  7. Adaptation of the receptors of the cosmonauts during of space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, Volodymyr

    Perception and analysis of information characterizing outside environment and the inner state of the man's own systems define the efficiency of the astronauts to a great extent. This information is being perceived by a system of various receptors: visual, oral, tactile, gustatory, olfactory etc. The sensitivity of these receptors depend upon a number of factors. Usually the study of the receptors aimed at finding out the relations between their sensitivity through the time which defined the so-called adaptation process. The developed by authors the theory of the adaptation process enables to predict behaviour of individuals not only on the Earth, but also in conditions of space flight. Key parameters of the theory is time constant of information processing in memory and the amount of information retained by memory after sufficiently long period of time. Values of these sizes are received as a result of processing the numerous literary data. In paper the dependences of these sizes on overloads and microgravitation that enables to predict adaptation of all analyzers of cosmonauts during space flight are determined: light and darkness adaptation with consideration of the effect of the duration of pre-adaptation lighting, of the period of long adaptation to a certain colours, of the effect of brightness of preexposition lighting, of brightness of different colours, of the size of test objects, of the angular distance of the test object from the fixed point, of the areas of the test object, of the effect of adaptation to light on the subsequent darkness adaptation. Adaptation to gustatory stimuli, to tactile sensations for olfactory sensations are dealt too. The received results enable to take into account changes of sensitivity of analyzers of cosmonauts in flight and them to correct in case of need.

  8. Creating leptin-like biofunctions by active immunization against chicken leptin receptor in growing chickens.

    PubMed

    Lei, M M; Wu, S Q; Shao, X B; Li, X W; Chen, Z; Ying, S J; Shi, Z D

    2015-01-01

    In this study, immunization against chicken leptin receptor (cLEPR) extracellular domain (ECD) was applied to investigate leptin regulation and LEPR biofunction in growing chicken pullets. A recombinant protein (cLEPR ECD) based on the cLEPR complemenary DNA sequence corresponding to the 582nd to 796th amino acid residues of cLEPR mature peptide was prepared and used as antigen. Immunization against cLEPR ECD in growing chickens increased anti-cLEPR ECD antibody titers in blood, enhanced proportions of phosphorylated janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and served as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in liver tissue. Chicken live weight gain and abdominal fat mass were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), but feed intake was stimulated by cLEPR ECD immunization (P < 0.05). The treatment also upregulated the gene expression levels of lepR, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl CoA carboxylase-2 (ACC2), and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in liver, abdominal fat, and breast muscle (P < 0.05) but decreased fasn expression levels (P < 0.01). Apart from that of lepR, the expression of appetite-regulating genes, such as orexigenic genes, agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), were upregulated (P < 0.01), whereas the anorexigenic gene proopiomelanocortin (POMC) was downregulated in the hypothalamic tissue of cLEPR-immunized pullets (P < 0.01). Blood concentrations of metabolic molecules, such as glucose, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein, were significantly decreased in cLEPR-immunized pullets but those of cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein increased. These results demonstrate that antibodies to membrane proximal cLEPR ECD enhance cLEPR signal transduction, which stimulates metabolism and reduces fat deposition in chickens.

  9. Immune response of mice to non-adapted avian influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Stropkovská, A; Mikušková, T; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-12-01

    Human infections with avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) without or with clinical symptoms of disease were recently reported from several continents, mainly in high risk groups of people, who came into the contact with infected domestic birds or poultry. It was shown that avian IAVs are able to infect humans directly without previous adaptation, however, their ability to replicate and to cause a disease in this new host can differ. No spread of these avian IAVs among humans has been documented until now, except for one case described in Netherlands in the February of 2003 in people directly involved in handling IAV (H7N7)-infected poultry. The aim of our work was to examine whether a low pathogenic avian IAV can induce a virus-specific immune response of biological relevancy, in spite of its restricted replication in mammals. As a model we used a low pathogenic virus A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) (A/Duck), which replicated well in MDCK cells and produced plaques on cell monolayers, but was unable to replicate productively in mouse lungs. We examined how the immune system of mice responds to the intranasal application of this non-adapted avian virus. Though we did not prove the infectious virus in lungs of mice following A/Duck application even after its multiple passaging in mice, we detected virus-specific vRNA till day 8 post infection. Moreover, we detected virus-specific mRNA and de novo synthesized viral nucleoprotein (NP) and membrane protein (M1) in lungs of mice on day 2 and 4 after exposure to A/Duck. Virus-specific antibodies in sera of these mice were detectable by ELISA already after a single intranasal dose of A/Duck virus. Not only antibodies specific to the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) were induced, but also antibodies specific to the NP and M1 of IAV were detected by Western blot and their titers increased after the second exposure of mice to this virus. Importantly, antibodies neutralizing virus A/Duck were proved in mouse

  10. Immune response of mice to non-adapted avian influenza A virus.

    PubMed

    Stropkovská, A; Mikušková, T; Bobišová, Z; Košík, I; Mucha, V; Kostolanský, F; Varečková, E

    2015-12-01

    Human infections with avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) without or with clinical symptoms of disease were recently reported from several continents, mainly in high risk groups of people, who came into the contact with infected domestic birds or poultry. It was shown that avian IAVs are able to infect humans directly without previous adaptation, however, their ability to replicate and to cause a disease in this new host can differ. No spread of these avian IAVs among humans has been documented until now, except for one case described in Netherlands in the February of 2003 in people directly involved in handling IAV (H7N7)-infected poultry. The aim of our work was to examine whether a low pathogenic avian IAV can induce a virus-specific immune response of biological relevancy, in spite of its restricted replication in mammals. As a model we used a low pathogenic virus A/Duck/Czechoslovakia/1956 (H4N6) (A/Duck), which replicated well in MDCK cells and produced plaques on cell monolayers, but was unable to replicate productively in mouse lungs. We examined how the immune system of mice responds to the intranasal application of this non-adapted avian virus. Though we did not prove the infectious virus in lungs of mice following A/Duck application even after its multiple passaging in mice, we detected virus-specific vRNA till day 8 post infection. Moreover, we detected virus-specific mRNA and de novo synthesized viral nucleoprotein (NP) and membrane protein (M1) in lungs of mice on day 2 and 4 after exposure to A/Duck. Virus-specific antibodies in sera of these mice were detectable by ELISA already after a single intranasal dose of A/Duck virus. Not only antibodies specific to the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) were induced, but also antibodies specific to the NP and M1 of IAV were detected by Western blot and their titers increased after the second exposure of mice to this virus. Importantly, antibodies neutralizing virus A/Duck were proved in mouse

  11. CRISPR-Cas: From the Bacterial Adaptive Immune System to a Versatile Tool for Genome Engineering.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Marion; Schneider, Sabine

    2015-11-01

    The field of biology has been revolutionized by the recent advancement of an adaptive bacterial immune system as a universal genome engineering tool. Bacteria and archaea use repetitive genomic elements termed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in combination with an RNA-guided nuclease (CRISPR-associated nuclease: Cas) to target and destroy invading DNA. By choosing the appropriate sequence of the guide RNA, this two-component system can be used to efficiently modify, target, and edit genomic loci of interest in plants, insects, fungi, mammalian cells, and whole organisms. This has opened up new frontiers in genome engineering, including the potential to treat or cure human genetic disorders. Now the potential risks as well as the ethical, social, and legal implications of this powerful new technique move into the limelight. PMID:26382836

  12. An adaptive immune optimization algorithm with dynamic lattice searching operation for fast optimization of atomic clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Genhua

    2014-08-01

    Geometrical optimization of atomic clusters is performed by a development of adaptive immune optimization algorithm (AIOA) with dynamic lattice searching (DLS) operation (AIOA-DLS method). By a cycle of construction and searching of the dynamic lattice (DL), DLS algorithm rapidly makes the clusters more regular and greatly reduces the potential energy. DLS can thus be used as an operation acting on the new individuals after mutation operation in AIOA to improve the performance of the AIOA. The AIOA-DLS method combines the merit of evolutionary algorithm and idea of dynamic lattice. The performance of the proposed method is investigated in the optimization of Lennard-Jones clusters within 250 atoms and silver clusters described by many-body Gupta potential within 150 atoms. Results reported in the literature are reproduced, and the motif of Ag61 cluster is found to be stacking-fault face-centered cubic, whose energy is lower than that of previously obtained icosahedron.

  13. Mechanisms and implications of adaptive immune responses after traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ankeny, Daniel P.; Popovich, Phillip G.

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals causes widespread glial activation and recruitment to the CNS of innate (e.g., neutrophils, monocytes) and adaptive (e.g., T and B lymphocytes) immune cells. To date, most studies have sought to understand or manipulate the post-traumatic functions of astrocytes, microglia, neutrophils or monocytes. Significantly less is known about the consequences of SCI-induced lymphocyte activation. Yet, emerging data suggest that T and B cells are activated by SCI and play significant roles in shaping post-traumatic inflammation and downstream cascades of neurodegeneration and repair. Here, we provide neurobiologists with a timely review of the mechanisms and implications of SCI-induced lymphocyte activation, including a discussion of different experimental strategies that have been designed to manipulate lymphocyte function for therapeutic gain. PMID:18674593

  14. CRISPR-Cas: From the Bacterial Adaptive Immune System to a Versatile Tool for Genome Engineering.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Marion; Schneider, Sabine

    2015-11-01

    The field of biology has been revolutionized by the recent advancement of an adaptive bacterial immune system as a universal genome engineering tool. Bacteria and archaea use repetitive genomic elements termed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in combination with an RNA-guided nuclease (CRISPR-associated nuclease: Cas) to target and destroy invading DNA. By choosing the appropriate sequence of the guide RNA, this two-component system can be used to efficiently modify, target, and edit genomic loci of interest in plants, insects, fungi, mammalian cells, and whole organisms. This has opened up new frontiers in genome engineering, including the potential to treat or cure human genetic disorders. Now the potential risks as well as the ethical, social, and legal implications of this powerful new technique move into the limelight.

  15. The Nuclear Orphan Receptor NR2F6 Is a Central Checkpoint for Cancer Immune Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hermann-Kleiter, Natascha; Klepsch, Victoria; Wallner, Stephanie; Siegmund, Kerstin; Klepsch, Sebastian; Tuzlak, Selma; Villunger, Andreas; Kaminski, Sandra; Pfeifhofer-Obermair, Christa; Gruber, Thomas; Wolf, Dominik; Baier, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 6 (NR2F6) is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Here, we show that genetic ablation of Nr2f6 significantly improves survival in the murine transgenic TRAMP prostate cancer model. Furthermore, Nr2f6−/− mice spontaneously reject implanted tumors and develop host-protective immunological memory against tumor rechallenge. This is paralleled by increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and higher expression levels of interleukin 2 and interferon γ at the tumor site. Mechanistically, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-intrinsic NR2F6 acts as a direct repressor of the NFAT/AP-1 complex on both the interleukin 2 and the interferon γ cytokine promoters, attenuating their transcriptional thresholds. Adoptive transfer of Nr2f6-deficient T cells into tumor-bearing immunocompetent mice is sufficient to delay tumor outgrowth. Altogether, this defines NR2F6 as an intracellular immune checkpoint in effector T cells, governing the amplitude of anti-cancer immunity. PMID:26387951

  16. Humoral Immune Pressure Selects for HIV-1 CXC-chemokine Receptor 4-using Variants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nina; Gonzalez, Oscar A; Registre, Ludy; Becerril, Carlos; Etemad, Behzad; Lu, Hong; Wu, Xueling; Lockman, Shahin; Essex, Myron; Moyo, Sikhulile; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Sagar, Manish

    2016-06-01

    Although both C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)- and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)-using HIV-1 strains cause AIDS, the emergence of CXCR4-utilizing variants is associated with an accelerated decline in CD4+ T cells. It remains uncertain if CXCR4-using viruses hasten disease or if these variants only emerge after profound immunological damage. We show that exclusively CXCR4- as compared to cocirculating CCR5-utilizing variants are less sensitive to neutralization by both contemporaneous autologous plasma and plasma pools from individuals that harbor only CCR5-using HIV-1. The CXCR4-utilizing variants, however, do not have a global antigenic change because they remain equivalently susceptible to antibodies that do not target coreceptor binding domains. Studies with envelope V3 loop directed antibodies and chimeric envelopes suggest that the neutralization susceptibility differences are potentially influenced by the V3 loop. In vitro passage of a neutralization sensitive CCR5-using virus in the presence of autologous plasma and activated CD4+ T cells led to the emergence of a CXCR4-utilizing virus in 1 of 3 cases. These results suggest that in some but not necessarily all HIV-1 infected individuals humoral immune pressure against the autologous virus selects for CXCR4-using variants, which potentially accelerates disease progression. Our observations have implications for using antibodies for HIV-1 immune therapy. PMID:27428434

  17. The many roles of FAS receptor signaling in the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, Andreas; Jost, Philipp J; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2010-01-01

    Summary FAS (also known as APO-1 or CD95) belongs to the subgroup of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) family that contain an intra-cellular ‘death domain’ and can trigger apoptosis. Its physiological ligand, FASL (CD95L), is a member of the corresponding TNF cytokine family. Studies with spontaneous mutant mice, gene-targeted mice and cells from human patients have shown that FAS and FASL play critical roles in the immune system, in particular in the killing of pathogen infected target cells and the death of no longer needed, potentially deleterious as well as autoreactive lymphocytes. This ligand-receptor pair thereby functions as a guardian against autoimmunity and tumor development. FASL-FAS signaling triggers apoptosis through FADD (Fas-associated protein with death domain, also called MORT1) adaptor protein-mediated recruitment and activation of the aspartate-specific cysteine protease, caspase-8. In certain cells such as hepatocytes, albeit not in lymphocytes, FAS-induced apoptosis signaling requires amplification through proteolytic activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member BID. Curiously, several components of the FAS signaling machinery have been implicated in non-apoptotic processes, including cellular activation, differentiation and proliferation. Here we describe current knowledge of the roles of FASL and FAS in the immune system, discuss important unresolved issues and propose experimental approaches to address them. PMID:19239902

  18. An E4 Ligase Facilitates Polyubiquitination of Plant Immune Receptor Resistance Proteins in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Minaker, Sean; Roth, Charlotte; Huang, Shuai; Hieter, Philip; Lipka, Volker; Wiermer, Marcel; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Proteins with nucleotide binding and leucine-rich repeat domains (NLRs) serve as immune receptors in animals and plants that recognize pathogens and activate downstream defense responses. As high accumulation of NLRs can result in unwarranted autoimmune responses, their cellular concentrations must be tightly regulated. However, the molecular mechanisms of this process are poorly detailed. The F-box protein Constitutive expressor of PR genes 1 (CPR1) was previously identified as a component of a Skp1, Cullin1, F-box protein E3 complex that targets NLRs, including Suppressor of NPR1, Constitutive 1 (SNC1) and Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae 2 (RPS2), for ubiquitination and further protein degradation. From a forward genetic screen, we identified Mutant, snc1-enhancing 3 (MUSE3), an E4 ubiquitin ligase involved in polyubiquitination of its protein targets. Knocking out MUSE3 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in increased levels of NLRs, including SNC1 and RPS2, whereas overexpressing MUSE3 together with CPR1 enhances polyubiquitination and protein degradation of these immune receptors. This report on the functional role of an E4 ligase in plants provides insight into the scarcely understood NLR degradation pathway. PMID:24449689

  19. The Role of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and Cortical Adaptation in Habituation of Odor-Guided Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadon, Carly A.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2005-01-01

    Decreases in behavioral investigation of novel stimuli over time may be mediated by a variety of factors including changes in attention, internal state, and motivation. Sensory cortical adaptation, a decrease in sensory cortical responsiveness over prolonged stimulation, may also play a role. In olfaction, metabotropic glutamate receptors on…

  20. Formulation of the respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein with a polymer-based combination adjuvant promotes transient and local innate immune responses and leads to improved adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Indranil; Garg, Ravendra; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2016-09-30

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious upper and lower respiratory tract infections in newborns and infants. Presently, there is no licensed vaccine against RSV. We previously reported the safety and efficacy of a novel vaccine candidate (ΔF/TriAdj) in rodent and lamb models following intranasal immunization. However, the effects of the vaccine on the innate immune system in the upper and lower respiratory tracts, when delivered intranasally, have not been characterized. In the present study, we found that ΔF/TriAdj triggered transient production of chemokines, cytokines and interferons in the nasal tissues and lungs of BALB/c mice. The types of chemokines produced were consistent with the populations of immune cells recruited, i.e. dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils, in the nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), lung and their draining lymph nodes of the ΔF/TriAdj-immunized group. In addition, ΔF/TriAdj stimulated cellular activation with generation of mucosal and systemic antibody responses, and conferred complete protection from viral infection in the lungs upon RSV challenge. The effect of ΔF/TriAdj was short-lived in the nasal tissues and more prolonged in the lungs. In addition, both innate and adaptive immune responses were lower when mice were immunized with ΔF alone. These results suggest that ΔF/TriAdj modulates the innate mucosal environment in both upper and lower respiratory tracts, which contributes to robust adaptive immune responses and long-term protective efficacy of this novel vaccine formulation. PMID:27591951

  1. Innate and adaptive immunity in the development of depression: An update on current knowledge and technological advances.

    PubMed

    Haapakoski, Rita; Ebmeier, Klaus P; Alenius, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-04-01

    The inflammation theory of depression, proposed over 20years ago, was influenced by early studies on T cell responses and since then has been a stimulus for numerous research projects aimed at understanding the relationship between immune function and depression. Observational studies have shown that indicators of immunity, especially C reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6, are associated with an increased risk of depressive disorders, although the evidence from randomized trials remains limited and only few studies have assessed the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in depression. In this paper, we review current knowledge on the interactions between central and peripheral innate and adaptive immune molecules and the potential role of immune-related activation of microglia, inflammasomes and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the development of depressive symptoms. We highlight how combining basic immune methods with more advanced 'omics' technologies would help us to make progress in unravelling the complex associations between altered immune function and depressive disorders, in the identification of depression-specific biomarkers and in developing immunotherapeutic treatment strategies that take individual variability into account.

  2. Innate and adaptive immunity in the development of depression: An update on current knowledge and technological advances

    PubMed Central

    Haapakoski, Rita; Ebmeier, Klaus P.; Alenius, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-01-01

    The inflammation theory of depression, proposed over 20 years ago, was influenced by early studies on T cell responses and since then has been a stimulus for numerous research projects aimed at understanding the relationship between immune function and depression. Observational studies have shown that indicators of immunity, especially C reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6, are associated with an increased risk of depressive disorders, although the evidence from randomized trials remains limited and only few studies have assessed the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in depression. In this paper, we review current knowledge on the interactions between central and peripheral innate and adaptive immune molecules and the potential role of immune-related activation of microglia, inflammasomes and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the development of depressive symptoms. We highlight how combining basic immune methods with more advanced ‘omics’ technologies would help us to make progress in unravelling the complex associations between altered immune function and depressive disorders, in the identification of depression-specific biomarkers and in developing immunotherapeutic treatment strategies that take individual variability into account. PMID:26631274

  3. Immune adaptive response induced by Bicotylophora trachinoti (Monogenea: Diclidophoridae) infestation in pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Perciformes: Carangidae).

    PubMed

    Chaves, I S; Luvizzotto-Santos, R; Sampaio, L A N; Bianchini, A; Martínez, P E

    2006-09-01

    Fish have developed protective strategies against monogeneans through immunological responses. In this study, immune adaptive response to parasites was analysed in the pompano Trachinotus marginatus infested by Bicotylophora trachinoti. Hosts were pre-treated with formalin and after 10 days assigned to one of the following experimental treatments: (1) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti; (2) fish infested with remaining eggs of B. trachinoti and experimentally re-infested by exposure to T. marginatus heavily infested with B. trachinoti. Samples were collected at 0, 15, and 30 days. Gills were dissected to check the presence of B. trachinoti. Blood was collected for haematological and biochemical assays. Spleen and head-kidney were dissected for phagocytosis assay. The spleen-somatic index was also calculated. Re-infested fish showed a faster and higher parasite infestation than infested ones. The parasite mean abundance at 15 days was 24.86+/-13.32 and 11.67+/-8.57 for re-infested and infested fish, respectively. In both groups, hosts showed an immune adaptive response to parasite infestation that was marked by an increased number of leukocytes. Also, phagocytosis (%) in spleen and head-kidney cells was stimulated after parasite infestation (92.50+/-3.73 and 66.00+/-9.54, respectively), becoming later depressed (77.39+/-6.69 and 53.23+/-9.14, respectively). These results support the hypothesis that monogenean infestation induces a biphasic response of the non-specific defence mechanisms in the pompano T. marginatus. This response is marked by an initial stimulation followed by a later depression of the non-specific defence mechanisms.

  4. The DosR Regulon Modulates Adaptive Immunity and Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Smriti; Foreman, Taylor W.; Didier, Peter J.; Ahsan, Muhammad H.; Hudock, Teresa A.; Kissee, Ryan; Golden, Nadia A.; Gautam, Uma S.; Johnson, Ann-Marie; Alvarez, Xavier; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E.; Doyle, Lara A.; Roy, Chad J.; Niu, Tianhua; Blanchard, James L.; Khader, Shabaana A.; Lackner, Andrew A.; Sherman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Hypoxia promotes dormancy by causing physiologic changes to actively replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DosR controls the response of M. tuberculosis to hypoxia. Objectives: To understand DosR's contribution in the persistence of M. tuberculosis, we compared the phenotype of various DosR regulon mutants and a complemented strain to M. tuberculosis in macaques, which faithfully model M. tuberculosis infection. Methods: We measured clinical and microbiologic correlates of infection with M. tuberculosis relative to mutant/complemented strains in the DosR regulon, studied lung pathology and hypoxia, and compared immune responses in lung using transcriptomics and flow cytometry. Measurements and Main Results: Despite being able to replicate initially, mutants in DosR regulon failed to persist or cause disease. On the contrary, M. tuberculosis and a complemented strain were able to establish infection and tuberculosis. The attenuation of pathogenesis in animals infected with the mutants coincided with the appearance of a Th1 response and organization of hypoxic lesions wherein M. tuberculosis expressed dosR. The lungs of animals infected with the mutants (but not the complemented strain) exhibited early transcriptional signatures of T-cell recruitment, activation, and proliferation associated with an increase of T cells expressing homing and proliferation markers. Conclusions: Delayed adaptive responses, a hallmark of M. tuberculosis infection, not only lead to persistence but also interfere with the development of effective antituberculosis vaccines. The DosR regulon therefore modulates both the magnitude and the timing of adaptive immune responses in response to hypoxia in vivo, resulting in persistent infection. Hence, DosR regulates key aspects of the M. tuberculosis life cycle and limits lung pathology. PMID:25730547

  5. The role of idiotypic interactions in the adaptive immune system: a belief-propagation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolucci, Silvia; Mozeika, Alexander; Annibale, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    In this work we use belief-propagation techniques to study the equilibrium behaviour of a minimal model for the immune system comprising interacting T and B clones. We investigate the effect of the so-called idiotypic interactions among complementary B clones on the system’s activation. Our results show that B-B interactions increase the system’s resilience to noise, making clonal activation more stable, while increasing the cross-talk between different clones. We derive analytically the noise level at which a B clone gets activated, in the absence of cross-talk, and find that this increases with the strength of idiotypic interactions and with the number of T cells sending signals to the B clones. We also derive, analytically and numerically, via population dynamics, the critical line where clonal cross-talk arises. Our approach allows us to derive the B clone size distribution, which can be experimentally measured and gives important information about the adaptive immune system response to antigens and vaccination.

  6. The role of idiotypic interactions in the adaptive immune system: a belief-propagation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolucci, Silvia; Mozeika, Alexander; Annibale, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    In this work we use belief-propagation techniques to study the equilibrium behaviour of a minimal model for the immune system comprising interacting T and B clones. We investigate the effect of the so-called idiotypic interactions among complementary B clones on the system’s activation. Our results show that B–B interactions increase the system’s resilience to noise, making clonal activation more stable, while increasing the cross-talk between different clones. We derive analytically the noise level at which a B clone gets activated, in the absence of cross-talk, and find that this increases with the strength of idiotypic interactions and with the number of T cells sending signals to the B clones. We also derive, analytically and numerically, via population dynamics, the critical line where clonal cross-talk arises. Our approach allows us to derive the B clone size distribution, which can be experimentally measured and gives important information about the adaptive immune system response to antigens and vaccination.

  7. Type Six Secretion System of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Adaptive Immune Components Limit Intracellular Survival During Infection.

    PubMed

    Bendor, Liron; Weyrich, Laura S; Linz, Bodo; Rolin, Olivier Y; Taylor, Dawn L; Goodfield, Laura L; Smallridge, William E; Kennett, Mary J; Harvill, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    The Type Six Secretion System (T6SS) is required for Bordetella bronchiseptica cytotoxicity, cytokine modulation, infection, and persistence. However, one-third of recently sequenced Bordetella bronchiseptica strains of the predominantly human-associated Complex IV have lost their T6SS through gene deletion or degradation. Since most human B. bronchiseptica infections occur in immunocompromised patients, we determine here whether loss of Type Six Secretion is beneficial to B. bronchiseptica during infection of immunocompromised mice. Infection of mice lacking adaptive immunity (Rag1-/- mice) with a T6SS-deficient mutant results in a hypervirulent phenotype that is characterized by high numbers of intracellular bacteria in systemic organs. In contrast, wild-type B. bronchiseptica kill their eukaryotic cellular hosts via a T6SS-dependent mechanism that prevents survival in systemic organs. High numbers of intracellular bacteria recovered from immunodeficient mice but only low numbers from wild-type mice demonstrates that B. bronchiseptica survival in an intracellular niche is limited by B and T cell responses. Understanding the nature of intracellular survival during infection, and its effects on the generation and function of the host immune response, are important to contain and control the spread of Bordetella-caused disease. PMID:26485303

  8. Influence of phthalates on in vitro innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Juliana Frohnert; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Brorson, Marianne Møller; Frederiksen, Hanne; Hartoft-Nielsen, Marie-Louise; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh; Bendtzen, Klaus; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Phthalates are a group of endocrine disrupting chemicals, suspected to influence the immune system. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of phthalates on cytokine secretion from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin-P were used for stimulation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells, respectively. Cells were exposed for 20 to 22 hours to either di-ethyl, di-n-butyl or mono-n-butyl phthalate at two different concentrations. Both diesters were metabolised to their respective monoester and influenced cytokine secretion from both monocytes/macrophages and T cells in a similar pattern: the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and the chemokine CXCL8 by monocytes/macrophages was enhanced, while tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by monocytes/macrophages was impaired, as was the secretion of IL-2 and IL-4, TNF-α and interferon-γ by T cells. The investigated phthalate monoester also influenced cytokine secretion from monocytes/macrophages similar to that of the diesters. In T cells, however, the effect of the monoester was different compared to the diesters. The influence of the phthalates on the cytokine secretion did not seem to be a result of cell death. Thus, results indicate that both human innate and adaptive immunity is influenced in vitro by phthalates, and that phthalates therefore may affect cell differentiation and regenerative and inflammatory processes in vivo.

  9. Type Six Secretion System of Bordetella bronchiseptica and Adaptive Immune Components Limit Intracellular Survival During Infection.

    PubMed

    Bendor, Liron; Weyrich, Laura S; Linz, Bodo; Rolin, Olivier Y; Taylor, Dawn L; Goodfield, Laura L; Smallridge, William E; Kennett, Mary J; Harvill, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    The Type Six Secretion System (T6SS) is required for Bordetella bronchiseptica cytotoxicity, cytokine modulation, infection, and persistence. However, one-third of recently sequenced Bordetella bronchiseptica strains of the predominantly human-associated Complex IV have lost their T6SS through gene deletion or degradation. Since most human B. bronchiseptica infections occur in immunocompromised patients, we determine here whether loss of Type Six Secretion is beneficial to B. bronchiseptica during infection of immunocompromised mice. Infection of mice lacking adaptive immunity (Rag1-/- mice) with a T6SS-deficient mutant results in a hypervirulent phenotype that is characterized by high numbers of intracellular bacteria in systemic organs. In contrast, wild-type B. bronchiseptica kill their eukaryotic cellular hosts via a T6SS-dependent mechanism that prevents survival in systemic organs. High numbers of intracellular bacteria recovered from immunodeficient mice but only low numbers from wild-type mice demonstrates that B. bronchiseptica survival in an intracellular niche is limited by B and T cell responses. Understanding the nature of intracellular survival during infection, and its effects on the generation and function of the host immune response, are important to contain and control the spread of Bordetella-caused disease.

  10. Role of α7 nicotinic receptor in the immune system and intracellular signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zdanowski, Robert; Ujazdowska, Dominika; Lewicka, Aneta; Lewicki, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine has been well known as one of the most exemplary neurotransmitters. In humans, this versatile molecule and its synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, have been found in various non-neural tissues such as the epithelium, endothelium, mesothelium muscle, blood cells and immune cells. The non-neuronal acetylcholine is accompanied by the expression of acetylcholinesterase and nicotinic/muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence of the non-neuronal acetylcholine system found throughout the last few years has indicated this neurotransmitter as one of the major cellular signaling molecules (associated e.g. with kinases and transcription factors activity). This system is responsible for maintenance and optimization of the cellular function, such as proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, intercellular contact and apoptosis. Additionally, it controls proper activity of immune cells and affects differentiation, antigen presentation or cytokine production (both pro- and anti-inflammatory). The present article reviews recent findings about the non-neuronal cholinergic system in the field of immune system and intracellular signaling pathways. PMID:26648784

  11. Neonatal Fc receptor expression in dendritic cells mediates protective immunity against colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kristi; Rath, Timo; Flak, Magdalena B; Arthur, Janelle C; Chen, Zhangguo; Glickman, Jonathan N; Zlobec, Inti; Karamitopoulou, Eva; Stachler, Matthew D; Odze, Robert D; Lencer, Wayne I; Jobin, Christian; Blumberg, Richard S

    2013-12-12

    Cancers arising in mucosal tissues account for a disproportionately large fraction of malignancies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and the neonatal Fc receptor for IgG (FcRn) have an important function in the mucosal immune system that we have now shown extends to the induction of CD8(+) T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. We demonstrate that FcRn within dendritic cells (DCs) was critical for homeostatic activation of mucosal CD8(+) T cells that drove protection against the development of colorectal cancers and lung metastases. FcRn-mediated tumor protection was driven by DCs activation of endogenous tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells via the cross-presentation of IgG complexed antigens (IgG IC), as well as the induction of cytotoxicity-promoting cytokine secretion, particularly interleukin-12, both of which were independently triggered by the FcRn-IgG IC interaction in murine and human DCs. FcRn thus has a primary role within mucosal tissues in activating local immune responses that are critical for priming efficient anti-tumor immunosurveillance.

  12. MGL Receptor and Immunity: When the Ligand Can Make the Difference

    PubMed Central

    Zizzari, Ilaria Grazia; Battisti, Federico; Rahimi, Hassan; Caponnetto, Salvatore; Pierelli, Luca; Nuti, Marianna; Rughetti, Aurelia

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) facilitate uptake of carbohydrate antigens for antigen presentation, modulating the immune response in infection, homeostasis, autoimmunity, allergy, and cancer. In this review, we focus on the role of the macrophage galactose type C-type lectin (MGL) in the immune response against self-antigens, pathogens, and tumor associated antigens (TAA). MGL is a CLR exclusively expressed by dendritic cells (DCs) and activated macrophages (MØs), able to recognize terminal GalNAc residues, including the sialylated and nonsialylated Tn antigens. We discuss the effects on DC function induced throughout the engagement of MGL, highlighting the importance of the antigen structure in the modulation of immune response. Indeed modifying Tn-density, the length, and steric structure of the Tn-antigens can result in generating immunogens that can efficiently bind to MGL, strongly activate DCs, mimic the effects of a danger signal, and achieve an efficient presentation in HLA classes I and II compartments. PMID:26839900

  13. Toll Receptor-Mediated Hippo Signaling Controls Innate Immunity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Zheng, Yonggang; Yin, Feng; Yu, Jianzhong; Silverman, Neal; Pan, Duojia

    2016-01-28

    The Hippo signaling pathway functions through Yorkie to control tissue growth and homeostasis. How this pathway regulates non-developmental processes remains largely unexplored. Here, we report an essential role for Hippo signaling in innate immunity whereby Yorkie directly regulates the transcription of the Drosophila IκB homolog, Cactus, in Toll receptor-mediated antimicrobial response. Loss of Hippo pathway tumor suppressors or activation of Yorkie in fat bodies, the Drosophila immune organ, leads to elevated cactus mRNA levels, decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides, and vulnerability to infection by Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, Gram-positive bacteria acutely activate Hippo-Yorkie signaling in fat bodies via the Toll-Myd88-Pelle cascade through Pelle-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of the Cka subunit of the Hippo-inhibitory STRIPAK PP2A complex. Our studies elucidate a Toll-mediated Hippo signaling pathway in antimicrobial response, highlight the importance of regulating IκB/Cactus transcription in innate immunity, and identify Gram-positive bacteria as extracellular stimuli of Hippo signaling under physiological settings. PMID:26824654

  14. Role of α7 nicotinic receptor in the immune system and intracellular signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zdanowski, Robert; Krzyżowska, Małgorzata; Ujazdowska, Dominika; Lewicka, Aneta; Lewicki, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Acetylcholine has been well known as one of the most exemplary neurotransmitters. In humans, this versatile molecule and its synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, have been found in various non-neural tissues such as the epithelium, endothelium, mesothelium muscle, blood cells and immune cells. The non-neuronal acetylcholine is accompanied by the expression of acetylcholinesterase and nicotinic/muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence of the non-neuronal acetylcholine system found throughout the last few years has indicated this neurotransmitter as one of the major cellular signaling molecules (associated e.g. with kinases and transcription factors activity). This system is responsible for maintenance and optimization of the cellular function, such as proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, migration, intercellular contact and apoptosis. Additionally, it controls proper activity of immune cells and affects differentiation, antigen presentation or cytokine production (both pro- and anti-inflammatory). The present article reviews recent findings about the non-neuronal cholinergic system in the field of immune system and intracellular signaling pathways.

  15. The mitochondrial fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 modulates T-cell receptor signalling at the immune synapse

    PubMed Central

    Baixauli, Francesc; Martín-Cófreces, Noa B; Morlino, Giulia; Carrasco, Yolanda R; Calabia-Linares, Carmen; Veiga, Esteban; Serrador, Juan M; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    During antigen-specific T-cell activation, mitochondria mobilize towards the vicinity of the immune synapse. We show here that the mitochondrial fission factor dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) docks at mitochondria, regulating their positioning and activity near the actin-rich ring of the peripheral supramolecular activation cluster (pSMAC) of the immune synapse. Mitochondrial redistribution in response to T-cell receptor engagement was abolished by Drp1 silencing, expression of the phosphomimetic mutant Drp1S637D and the Drp1-specific inhibitor mdivi-1. Moreover, Drp1 knockdown enhanced mitochondrial depolarization and T-cell receptor signal strength, but decreased myosin phosphorylation, ATP production and T-cell receptor assembly at the central supramolecular activation cluster (cSMAC). Our results indicate that Drp1-dependent mitochondrial positioning and activity controls T-cell activation by fuelling central supramolecular activation cluster assembly at the immune synapse. PMID:21326213

  16. Mechanisms of Host Receptor Adaptation by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kailang; Peng, Guiqing; Wilken, Matthew; Geraghty, Robert J.; Li, Fang

    2012-12-10

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) from palm civets has twice evolved the capacity to infect humans by gaining binding affinity for human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Numerous mutations have been identified in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of different SARS-CoV strains isolated from humans or civets. Why these mutations were naturally selected or how SARS-CoV evolved to adapt to different host receptors has been poorly understood, presenting evolutionary and epidemic conundrums. In this study, we investigated the impact of these mutations on receptor recognition, an important determinant of SARS-CoV infection and pathogenesis. Using a combination of biochemical, functional, and crystallographic approaches, we elucidated the molecular and structural mechanisms of each of these naturally selected RBD mutations. These mutations either strengthen favorable interactions or reduce unfavorable interactions with two virus-binding hot spots on ACE2, and by doing so, they enhance viral interactions with either human (hACE2) or civet (cACE2) ACE2. Therefore, these mutations were viral adaptations to either hACE2 or cACE2. To corroborate the above analysis, we designed and characterized two optimized RBDs. The human-optimized RBD contains all of the hACE2-adapted residues (Phe-442, Phe-472, Asn-479, Asp-480, and Thr-487) and possesses exceptionally high affinity for hACE2 but relative low affinity for cACE2. The civet-optimized RBD contains all of the cACE2-adapted residues (Tyr-442, Pro-472, Arg-479, Gly-480, and Thr-487) and possesses exceptionally high affinity for cACE2 and also substantial affinity for hACE2. These results not only illustrate the detailed mechanisms of host receptor adaptation by SARS-CoV but also provide a molecular and structural basis for tracking future SARS-CoV evolution in animals.

  17. Danger- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns recognition by pattern-recognition receptors and ion channels of the transient receptor potential family triggers the inflammasome activation in immune cells and sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Giorgio; Cardinali, Claudio; Morelli, Maria Beatrice; Santoni, Matteo; Nabissi, Massimo; Amantini, Consuelo

    2015-02-03

    An increasing number of studies show that the activation of the innate immune system and inflammatory mechanisms play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. The innate immune system is present in almost all multicellular organisms and its activation occurs in response to pathogens or tissue injury via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Intracellular pathways, linking immune and inflammatory response to ion channel expression and function, have been recently identified. Among ion channels, the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a major family of non-selective cation-permeable channels that function as polymodal cellular sensors involved in many physiological and pathological processes. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of interactions between immune cells and PRRs and ion channels of TRP families with PAMPs and DAMPs to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. TRP channels have been found to interfere with innate immunity via both nuclear factor-kB and procaspase-1 activation to generate the mature caspase-1 that cleaves pro-interleukin-1β cytokine into the mature interleukin-1β.Sensory neurons are also adapted to recognize dangers by virtue of their sensitivity to intense mechanical, thermal and irritant chemical stimuli. As immune cells, they possess many of the same molecular recognition pathways for danger. Thus, they express PRRs including Toll-like receptors 3, 4, 7, and 9, and stimulation by Toll-like receptor ligands leads to induction of inward currents and sensitization in TRPs. In addition, the expression of inflammasomes in neurons and the involvement of TRPs in central nervous system diseases strongly support a role of TRPs in inflammasome-mediated neurodegenerative pathologies. This field is still at its beginning and further studies may be required.Overall, these

  18. Immunization with cationized BSA inhibits progression of disease in ApoBec-1/LDL receptor deficient mice with manifest atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kolbus, Daniel; Wigren, Maria; Ljungcrantz, Irena; Söderberg, Ingrid; Alm, Ragnar; Björkbacka, Harry; Nilsson, Jan; Fredrikson, Gunilla N

    2011-06-01

    Immune responses against modified self-antigens generated by hypercholesterolemia play an important role in atherosclerosis identifying the immune system as a possible novel target for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. It has recently been shown that these immune responses can be modulated by subcutaneous injection of adjuvant. In the present study we immunized 25-week old ApoBec-1/LDL receptor deficient mice with manifest atherosclerosis with adjuvant and two different concentrations of the carrier molecule cationized BSA (cBSA). Plasma levels of Th2-induced apolipoprotein B (apoB)/IgG1 immune complexes were increased in the cBSA immunized groups verifying induction of immunity against a self-antigen. Mice were sacrificed at 36 weeks of age and atherosclerosis was monitored by en face Oil red O staining of the aorta. Immunization with 100 μg cBSA inhibited plaque progression, whereas the lower dose (50 μg) did not. In addition, the higher dose induced a more stable plaque phenotype, indicated by a higher content of collagen and less macrophages and T cells in the plaques. Moreover, there was an increased ratio of Foxp3+/Foxp3⁻ T cells in the circulation suggesting activation of a regulatory T cell response. In conclusion, we show that immunization with cBSA induces an immune response against apoB as well as an activation of Treg cells. This was associated with development of a more stable plaque phenotype and reduced atherosclerosis progression.

  19. Fault-Tolerant Trajectory Tracking of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Immunity-Based Model Reference Adaptive Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilburn, Brenton K.

    This dissertation presents the design, development, and simulation testing of an adaptive trajectory tracking algorithm capable of compensating for various aircraft subsystem failures and upset conditions. A comprehensive adaptive control framework, here within referred to as the immune model reference adaptive control (IMRAC) algorithm, is developed by synergistically merging core concepts from the biologically- inspired artificial immune system (AIS) paradigm with more traditional optimal and adaptive control techniques. In particular, a model reference adaptive control (MRAC) algorithm is enhanced with the detection and learning capabilities of a novel, artificial neural network augmented AIS scheme. With the given modifications, the MRAC scheme is capable of detecting and identifying a given failure or upset condition, learning how to adapt to the problem, responding in a manner specific to the given failure condition, and retaining the learning parameters for quicker adaptation to subsequent failures of the same nature. The IMRAC algorithm developed in this dissertation is applicable to a wide range of control problems. However, the proposed methodology is demonstrated in simulation for an unmanned aerial vehicle. The results presented show that the IMRAC algorithm is an effective and valuable extension to traditional optimal and adaptive control techniques. The implementation of this methodology can potentially have significant impacts on the operational safety of many complex systems.

  20. Anti-infective mannose receptor immune mechanism in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiangli; Li, Jiji; He, Jianyu; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Lihua; Ye, Yingying; Wu, Changwen

    2016-07-01

    Mannose receptor (MR) is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that plays a significant role in immunity responses. Its role has been described extensively in mammals, but very rarely in fish. Recently, with the rapid development of an aquaculture industry cultivating large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria and parasites are becoming more frequent and more severe, in particular bacterial infections caused by Vibrio anguillarum, resulting in great economical losses. Extensive use of antibiotics as conventional treatment has led to microenvironment imbalances, development of drug-resistant bacteria and deposition of drug residues, which cause environmental pollution and ultimately affect human health. The purpose of this pilot study was to detect the transcriptional levels of C-type mannose receptor genes MRC1 (4710-bp ORF; encoding 1437 aa; a signal peptide, a SMART RICIN domain, a SMART FN2 domain, eight SMART CLECT domain, and a transmembrane helix region) and MRC2 (3996-bp ORF; encoding 1484 aa; a SMART FN2 domain, eight SMART CLECT domains, and a transmembrane region) in the liver, kidney and spleen tissues of L. crocea challenged by V. anguillarum, to explore the effective domain and the molecular response mechanisms of MRC1 and MRC2, and, ultimately, to explore the possibility of developing a vaccine targeting V. anguillarum infections.

  1. Anti-infective mannose receptor immune mechanism in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiangli; Li, Jiji; He, Jianyu; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Lihua; Ye, Yingying; Wu, Changwen

    2016-07-01

    Mannose receptor (MR) is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that plays a significant role in immunity responses. Its role has been described extensively in mammals, but very rarely in fish. Recently, with the rapid development of an aquaculture industry cultivating large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea), infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria and parasites are becoming more frequent and more severe, in particular bacterial infections caused by Vibrio anguillarum, resulting in great economical losses. Extensive use of antibiotics as conventional treatment has led to microenvironment imbalances, development of drug-resistant bacteria and deposition of drug residues, which cause environmental pollution and ultimately affect human health. The purpose of this pilot study was to detect the transcriptional levels of C-type mannose receptor genes MRC1 (4710-bp ORF; encoding 1437 aa; a signal peptide, a SMART RICIN domain, a SMART FN2 domain, eight SMART CLECT domain, and a transmembrane helix region) and MRC2 (3996-bp ORF; encoding 1484 aa; a SMART FN2 domain, eight SMART CLECT domains, and a transmembrane region) in the liver, kidney and spleen tissues of L. crocea challenged by V. anguillarum, to explore the effective domain and the molecular response mechanisms of MRC1 and MRC2, and, ultimately, to explore the possibility of developing a vaccine targeting V. anguillarum infections. PMID:27071518

  2. Complement receptor type two (CR2,CR21): a target for influencing the humoral immune response and antigen-trapping.

    PubMed

    Prodinger, W M

    1999-01-01

    Cellular receptors for complement C3 fragments deposited on antigens are important bricks in the wall defending against microbial pathogens. The part of complement receptor type 2 (CR2; CD21) deals with enhancing humoral immune responses and with long-term trapping of C3d-coated antigen by follicular dendritic cells. CR2 is also pivotal for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Here, the current understanding, how CR2 interacts with its ligands C3d, EBV, and CD23 is summarized. The potential to target CR2 for clinical therapy or immunization purposes are discussed. PMID:10741859

  3. Protective immune response of live attenuated thermo-adapted peste des petits ruminants vaccine in goats.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, V; Sen, A; Venkatesan, G; Bhanuprakash, V; Singh, R K

    2014-01-01

    Virulent isolate of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) of Indian origin (PPRV Jhansi 2003) initially adapted in Vero cells was further propagated in thermo-adapted (Ta) Vero cells grown at 40 °C for attaining thermo-adaption and attenuation of virus for development of Ta vaccine against PPR in goats and sheep. The virus was attenuated up to 50 passages in Ta Vero cells, at which, the virus was found sterile, innocuous in mice and guinea pigs and safe in seronegative goats and sheep. The developed vaccine was tested for its immunogenicity in goats and sheep by subcutaneous inoculation of 100 TCID50 (0.1 field dose), 10(3) TCID50 (one field dose) and 10(5) TCID50 (100 field doses) of the attenuated virus along with controls as per OIE described protocols for PPR vaccine testing and were assessed for PPRV-specific antibodies 7-28 days post vaccination (dpv) by PPR competitive ELISA and serum neutralization tests. The PPRV antibodies were detected in all immunized goats and sheep and goats were protective when challenged with virulent PPRV at 28th dpv along with controls for potency testing of the vaccine. The attenuated vaccine did not induce any adverse reaction at high dose (10(5) TCID50) in goats and sheep and provided complete protection even at low dose (10(2) TCID50) in goats when challenged with virulent virus. There was no shedding and horizontal transmission of the attenuated virus to in-contact controls. The results indicate that the developed PPR Ta attenuated virus is innocuous, safe, immunogenic and potent or efficacious vaccine candidate alternative to the existing vaccines for the protection of goats and sheep against PPR in the tropical countries like India. PMID:25674603

  4. The rice immune receptor XA21 recognizes a tyrosine-sulfated protein from a Gram-negative bacterium.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Rory N; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Joe, Anna; Thomas, Nicholas; Liu, Furong; Albert, Markus; Robinson, Michelle R; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Luu, Dee Dee; Chen, Huamin; Bahar, Ofir; Daudi, Arsalan; De Vleesschauwer, David; Caddell, Daniel; Zhang, Weiguo; Zhao, Xiuxiang; Li, Xiang; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Ruan, Deling; Majumder, Dipali; Chern, Mawsheng; Kalbacher, Hubert; Midha, Samriti; Patil, Prabhu B; Sonti, Ramesh V; Petzold, Christopher J; Liu, Chang C; Brodbelt, Jennifer S; Felix, Georg; Ronald, Pamela C

    2015-07-01

    Surveillance of the extracellular environment by immune receptors is of central importance to eukaryotic survival. The rice receptor kinase XA21, which confers robust resistance to most strains of the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is representative of a large class of cell surface immune receptors in plants and animals. We report the identification of a previously undescribed Xoo protein, called RaxX, which is required for activation of XA21-mediated immunity. Xoo strains that lack RaxX, or carry mutations in the single RaxX tyrosine residue (Y41), are able to evade XA21-mediated immunity. Y41 of RaxX is sulfated by the prokaryotic tyrosine sulfotransferase RaxST. Sulfated, but not nonsulfated, RaxX triggers hallmarks of the plant immune response in an XA21-dependent manner. A sulfated, 21-amino acid synthetic RaxX peptide (RaxX21-sY) is sufficient for this activity. Xoo field isolates that overcome XA21-mediated immunity encode an alternate raxX allele, suggesting that coevolutionary interactions between host and pathogen contribute to RaxX diversification. RaxX is highly conserved in many plant pathogenic Xanthomonas species. The new insights gained from the discovery and characterization of the sulfated protein, RaxX, can be applied to the development of resistant crop varieties and therapeutic reagents that have the potential to block microbial infection of both plants and animals.

  5. The rice immune receptor XA21 recognizes a tyrosine-sulfated protein from a Gram-negative bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Rory N.; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Joe, Anna; Thomas, Nicholas; Liu, Furong; Albert, Markus; Robinson, Michelle R.; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Luu, Dee Dee; Chen, Huamin; Bahar, Ofir; Daudi, Arsalan; De Vleesschauwer, David; Caddell, Daniel; Zhang, Weiguo; Zhao, Xiuxiang; Li, Xiang; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Ruan, Deling; Majumder, Dipali; Chern, Mawsheng; Kalbacher, Hubert; Midha, Samriti; Patil, Prabhu B.; Sonti, Ramesh V.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Liu, Chang C.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Felix, Georg; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of the extracellular environment by immune receptors is of central importance to eukaryotic survival. The rice receptor kinase XA21, which confers robust resistance to most strains of the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is representative of a large class of cell surface immune receptors in plants and animals. We report the identification of a previously undescribed Xoo protein, called RaxX, which is required for activation of XA21-mediated immunity. Xoo strains that lack RaxX, or carry mutations in the single RaxX tyrosine residue (Y41), are able to evade XA21-mediated immunity. Y41 of RaxX is sulfated by the prokaryotic tyrosine sulfotransferase RaxST. Sulfated, but not nonsulfated, RaxX triggers hallmarks of the plant immune response in an XA21-dependent manner. A sulfated, 21–amino acid synthetic RaxX peptide (RaxX21-sY) is sufficient for this activity. Xoo field isolates that overcome XA21-mediated immunity encode an alternate raxX allele, suggesting that coevolutionary interactions between host and pathogen contribute to RaxX diversification. RaxX is highly conserved in many plant pathogenic Xanthomonas species. The new insights gained from the discovery and characterization of the sulfated protein, RaxX, can be applied to the development of resistant crop varieties and therapeutic reagents that have the potential to block microbial infection of both plants and animals. PMID:26601222

  6. Reptile Toll-like receptor 5 unveils adaptive evolution of bacterial flagellin recognition.

    PubMed

    Voogdt, Carlos G P; Bouwman, Lieneke I; Kik, Marja J L; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Putten, Jos P M

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are ancient innate immune receptors crucial for immune homeostasis and protection against infection. TLRs are present in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish but have not been functionally characterized in reptiles despite the central position of this animal class in vertebrate evolution. Here we report the cloning, characterization, and function of TLR5 of the reptile Anolis carolinensis (Green Anole lizard). The receptor (acTLR5) displays the typical TLR protein architecture with 22 extracellular leucine rich repeats flanked by a N- and C-terminal leucine rich repeat domain, a membrane-spanning region, and an intracellular TIR domain. The receptor is phylogenetically most similar to TLR5 of birds and most distant to fish TLR5. Transcript analysis revealed acTLR5 expression in multiple lizard tissues. Stimulation of acTLR5 with TLR ligands demonstrated unique responsiveness towards bacterial flagellin in both reptile and human cells. Comparison of acTLR5 and human TLR5 using purified flagellins revealed differential sensitivity to Pseudomonas but not Salmonella flagellin, indicating development of species-specific flagellin recognition during the divergent evolution of mammals and reptiles. Our discovery of reptile TLR5 fills the evolutionary gap regarding TLR conservation across vertebrates and provides novel insights in functional evolution of host-microbe interactions.

  7. Reptile Toll-like receptor 5 unveils adaptive evolution of bacterial flagellin recognition

    PubMed Central

    Voogdt, Carlos G. P.; Bouwman, Lieneke I.; Kik, Marja J. L.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; van Putten, Jos P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are ancient innate immune receptors crucial for immune homeostasis and protection against infection. TLRs are present in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish but have not been functionally characterized in reptiles despite the central position of this animal class in vertebrate evolution. Here we report the cloning, characterization, and function of TLR5 of the reptile Anolis carolinensis (Green Anole lizard). The receptor (acTLR5) displays the typical TLR protein architecture with 22 extracellular leucine rich repeats flanked by a N- and C-terminal leucine rich repeat domain, a membrane-spanning region, and an intracellular TIR domain. The receptor is phylogenetically most similar to TLR5 of birds and most distant to fish TLR5. Transcript analysis revealed acTLR5 expression in multiple lizard tissues. Stimulation of acTLR5 with TLR ligands demonstrated unique responsiveness towards bacterial flagellin in both reptile and human cells. Comparison of acTLR5 and human TLR5 using purified flagellins revealed differential sensitivity to Pseudomonas but not Salmonella flagellin, indicating development of species-specific flagellin recognition during the divergent evolution of mammals and reptiles. Our discovery of reptile TLR5 fills the evolutionary gap regarding TLR conservation across vertebrates and provides novel insights in functional evolution of host-microbe interactions. PMID:26738735

  8. Absence of LTB4/BLT1 axis facilitates generation of mouse GM-CSF-induced long-lasting antitumor immunologic memory by enhancing innate and adaptive immune systems.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Yosuke; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Matsumura, Yumiko; Nabeta, Haruka; Narusawa, Megumi; Watanabe, Ayumi; Sakamoto, Chika; Hijikata, Yasuki; Iga-Murahashi, Mutsunori; Takayama, Koichi; Sasaki, Fumiyuki; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Yokomizo, Takehiko; Tani, Kenzaburo

    2012-10-25

    BLT1 is a high-affinity receptor for leukotriene B4 (LTB4) that is a potent lipid chemoattractant for myeloid leukocytes. The role of LTB4/BLT1 axis in tumor immunology, including cytokine-based tumor vaccine, however, remains unknown. We here demonstrated that BLT1-deficient mice rejected subcutaneous tumor challenge of GM-CSF gene-transduced WEHI3B (WGM) leukemia cells (KO/WGM) and elicited robust antitumor responses against second tumor challenge with WEHI3B cells. During GM-CSF-induced tumor regression, the defective LTB4/BLT1 signaling significantly reduced tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells, increased the maturation status of dendritic cells in tumor tissues, enhanced their CD4(+) T-cell stimulation capacity and migration rate of dendritic cells that had phagocytosed tumor-associated antigens into tumor-draining lymph nodes, suggesting a positive impact on GM-CSF-sensitized innate immunity. Furthermore, KO/WGM mice displayed activated adaptive immunity by attenuating regulatory CD4(+) T subsets and increasing numbers of Th17 and memory CD44(hi)CD4(+) T subsets, both of which elicited superior antitumor effects as evidenced by adoptive cell transfer. In vivo depletion assays also revealed that CD4(+) T cells were the main effectors of the persistent antitumor immunity. Our data collectively underscore a negative role of LTB4/BLT1 signaling in effective generation and maintenance of GM-CSF-induced antitumor memory CD4(+) T cells.

  9. The Carbomer-Lecithin Adjuvant Adjuplex Has Potent Immunoactivating Properties and Elicits Protective Adaptive Immunity against Influenza Virus Challenge in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, Frank; Moghaddam, Amin E; Schiffner, Torben; Gartlan, Kate H; Powell, Timothy J; Russell, Rebecca A; Baart, Matthijs; Carrow, Emily W; Sattentau, Quentin J

    2015-09-01

    The continued discovery and development of adjuvants for vaccine formulation are important to safely increase potency and/or reduce the antigen doses of existing vaccines and tailor the adaptive immune response to newly developed vaccines. Adjuplex is a novel adjuvant platform based on a purified lecithin and carbomer homopolymer. Here, we analyzed the adjuvant activity of Adjuplex in mice for the soluble hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of influenza A virus. The titration of Adjuplex revealed an optimal dose of 1% for immunogenicity, eliciting high titers of HA-specific IgG but inducing no significant weight loss. At this dose, Adjuplex completely protected mice from an otherwise lethal influenza virus challenge and was at least as effective as the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and alum in preventing disease. Adjuplex elicited balanced Th1-/Th2-type immune responses with accompanying cytokines and triggered antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell proliferation. The use of the peritoneal inflammation model revealed that Adjuplex recruited dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and neutrophils in the context of innate cytokine and chemokine secretion. Adjuplex neither triggered classical maturation of DCs nor activated a pathogen recognition receptor (PRR)-expressing NF-κB reporter cell line, suggesting a mechanism of action different from that reported for classical pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-activated innate immunity. Taken together, these data reveal Adjuplex to be a potent and well-tolerated adjuvant with application for subunit vaccines.

  10. The Carbomer-Lecithin Adjuvant Adjuplex Has Potent Immunoactivating Properties and Elicits Protective Adaptive Immunity against Influenza Virus Challenge in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wegmann, Frank; Moghaddam, Amin E; Schiffner, Torben; Gartlan, Kate H; Powell, Timothy J; Russell, Rebecca A; Baart, Matthijs; Carrow, Emily W; Sattentau, Quentin J

    2015-09-01

    The continued discovery and development of adjuvants for vaccine formulation are important to safely increase potency and/or reduce the antigen doses of existing vaccines and tailor the adaptive immune response to newly developed vaccines. Adjuplex is a novel adjuvant platform based on a purified lecithin and carbomer homopolymer. Here, we analyzed the adjuvant activity of Adjuplex in mice for the soluble hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of influenza A virus. The titration of Adjuplex revealed an optimal dose of 1% for immunogenicity, eliciting high titers of HA-specific IgG but inducing no significant weight loss. At this dose, Adjuplex completely protected mice from an otherwise lethal influenza virus challenge and was at least as effective as the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and alum in preventing disease. Adjuplex elicited balanced Th1-/Th2-type immune responses with accompanying cytokines and triggered antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell proliferation. The use of the peritoneal inflammation model revealed that Adjuplex recruited dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and neutrophils in the context of innate cytokine and chemokine secretion. Adjuplex neither triggered classical maturation of DCs nor activated a pathogen recognition receptor (PRR)-expressing NF-κB reporter cell line, suggesting a mechanism of action different from that reported for classical pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-activated innate immunity. Taken together, these data reveal Adjuplex to be a potent and well-tolerated adjuvant with application for subunit vaccines. PMID:26135973

  11. The Carbomer-Lecithin Adjuvant Adjuplex Has Potent Immunoactivating Properties and Elicits Protective Adaptive Immunity against Influenza Virus Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wegmann, Frank; Moghaddam, Amin E.; Schiffner, Torben; Gartlan, Kate H.; Powell, Timothy J.; Russell, Rebecca A.; Baart, Matthijs; Carrow, Emily W.

    2015-01-01

    The continued discovery and development of adjuvants for vaccine formulation are important to safely increase potency and/or reduce the antigen doses of existing vaccines and tailor the adaptive immune response to newly developed vaccines. Adjuplex is a novel adjuvant platform based on a purified lecithin and carbomer homopolymer. Here, we analyzed the adjuvant activity of Adjuplex in mice for the soluble hemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein of influenza A virus. The titration of Adjuplex revealed an optimal dose of 1% for immunogenicity, eliciting high titers of HA-specific IgG but inducing no significant weight loss. At this dose, Adjuplex completely protected mice from an otherwise lethal influenza virus challenge and was at least as effective as the adjuvants monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and alum in preventing disease. Adjuplex elicited balanced Th1-/Th2-type immune responses with accompanying cytokines and triggered antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell proliferation. The use of the peritoneal inflammation model revealed that Adjuplex recruited dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, and neutrophils in the context of innate cytokine and chemokine secretion. Adjuplex neither triggered classical maturation of DCs nor activated a pathogen recognition receptor (PRR)-expressing NF-κB reporter cell line, suggesting a mechanism of action different from that reported for classical pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-activated innate immunity. Taken together, these data reveal Adjuplex to be a potent and well-tolerated adjuvant with application for subunit vaccines. PMID:26135973

  12. Innate and adaptive immune responses in male and female reproductive tracts in homeostasis and following HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Philip V; Kafka, Jessica K; Ferreira, Victor H; Roth, Kristy; Kaushic, Charu

    2014-09-01

    The male and female reproductive tracts are complex microenvironments that have diverse functional demands. The immune system in the reproductive tract has the demanding task of providing a protective environment for a fetal allograft while simultaneously conferring protection against potential pathogens. As such, it has evolved a unique set of adaptations, primarily under the influence of sex hormones, which make it distinct from other mucosal sites. Here, we discuss the various components of the immune system that are present in both the male and female reproductive tracts, including innate soluble factors and cells and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immunity under homeostatic conditions. We review the evidence showing unique phenotypic and functional characteristics of immune cells and responses in the male and female reproductive tracts that exhibit compartmentalization from systemic immunity and discuss how these features are influenced by sex hormones. We also examine the interactions among the reproductive tract, sex hormones and immune responses following HIV-1 infection. An improved understanding of the unique characteristics of the male and female reproductive tracts will provide insights into improving clinical treatments of the immunological causes of infertility and the design of prophylactic interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections.

  13. Innate and adaptive immune responses in male and female reproductive tracts in homeostasis and following HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Philip V; Kafka, Jessica K; Ferreira, Victor H; Roth, Kristy; Kaushic, Charu

    2014-01-01

    The male and female reproductive tracts are complex microenvironments that have diverse functional demands. The immune system in the reproductive tract has the demanding task of providing a protective environment for a fetal allograft while simultaneously conferring protection against potential pathogens. As such, it has evolved a unique set of adaptations, primarily under the influence of sex hormones, which make it distinct from other mucosal sites. Here, we discuss the various components of the immune system that are present in both the male and female reproductive tracts, including innate soluble factors and cells and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immunity under homeostatic conditions. We review the evidence showing unique phenotypic and functional characteristics of immune cells and responses in the male and female reproductive tracts that exhibit compartmentalization from systemic immunity and discuss how these features are influenced by sex hormones. We also examine the interactions among the reproductive tract, sex hormones and immune responses following HIV-1 infection. An improved understanding of the unique characteristics of the male and female reproductive tracts will provide insights into improving clinical treatments of the immunological causes of infertility and the design of prophylactic interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:24976268

  14. Adaptive Evolution as a Predictor of Species-Specific Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Andrew E.; Gerek, Z. Nevin; Morgan, Claire C.; Walsh, Thomas A.; Loscher, Christine E.; Edwards, Scott V.; O’Connell, Mary J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that positive selection may be associated with protein functional change. For example, human and macaque have different outcomes to HIV infection and it has been shown that residues under positive selection in the macaque TRIM5α receptor locate to the region known to influence species-specific response to HIV. In general, however, the relationship between sequence and function has proven difficult to fully elucidate, and it is the role of large-scale studies to help bridge this gap in our understanding by revealing major patterns in the data that correlate genotype with function or phenotype. In this study, we investigate the level of species-specific positive selection in innate immune genes from human and mouse. In total, we analyzed 456 innate immune genes using codon-based models of evolution, comparing human, mouse, and 19 other vertebrate species to identify putative species-specific positive selection. Then we used population genomic data from the recently completed Neanderthal genome project, the 1000 human genomes project, and the 17 laboratory mouse genomes project to determine whether the residues that were putatively positively selected are fixed or variable in these populations. We find evidence of species-specific positive selection on both the human and the mouse branches and we show that the classes of genes under positive selection cluster by function and by interaction. Data from this study provide us with targets to test the relationship between positive selection and protein function and ultimately to test the relationship between positive selection and discordant phenotypes. PMID:25758009

  15. Adaptive Evolution as a Predictor of Species-Specific Innate Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Webb, Andrew E; Gerek, Z Nevin; Morgan, Claire C; Walsh, Thomas A; Loscher, Christine E; Edwards, Scott V; O'Connell, Mary J

    2015-07-01

    It has been proposed that positive selection may be associated with protein functional change. For example, human and macaque have different outcomes to HIV infection and it has been shown that residues under positive selection in the macaque TRIM5α receptor locate to the region known to influence species-specific response to HIV. In general, however, the relationship between sequence and function has proven difficult to fully elucidate, and it is the role of large-scale studies to help bridge this gap in our understanding by revealing major patterns in the data that correlate genotype with function or phenotype. In this study, we investigate the level of species-specific positive selection in innate immune genes from human and mouse. In total, we analyzed 456 innate immune genes using codon-based models of evolution, comparing human, mouse, and 19 other vertebrate species to identify putative species-specific positive selection. Then we used population genomic data from the recently completed Neanderthal genome project, the 1000 human genomes project, and the 17 laboratory mouse genomes project to determine whether the residues that were putatively positively selected are fixed or variable in these populations. We find evidence of species-specific positive selection on both the human and the mouse branches and we show that the classes of genes under positive selection cluster by function and by interaction. Data from this study provide us with targets to test the relationship between positive selection and protein function and ultimately to test the relationship between positive selection and discordant phenotypes.

  16. Adaptive Evolution as a Predictor of Species-Specific Innate Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Webb, Andrew E; Gerek, Z Nevin; Morgan, Claire C; Walsh, Thomas A; Loscher, Christine E; Edwards, Scott V; O'Connell, Mary J

    2015-07-01

    It has been proposed that positive selection may be associated with protein functional change. For example, human and macaque have different outcomes to HIV infection and it has been shown that residues under positive selection in the macaque TRIM5α receptor locate to the region known to influence species-specific response to HIV. In general, however, the relationship between sequence and function has proven difficult to fully elucidate, and it is the role of large-scale studies to help bridge this gap in our understanding by revealing major patterns in the data that correlate genotype with function or phenotype. In this study, we investigate the level of species-specific positive selection in innate immune genes from human and mouse. In total, we analyzed 456 innate immune genes using codon-based models of evolution, comparing human, mouse, and 19 other vertebrate species to identify putative species-specific positive selection. Then we used population genomic data from the recently completed Neanderthal genome project, the 1000 human genomes project, and the 17 laboratory mouse genomes project to determine whether the residues that were putatively positively selected are fixed or variable in these populations. We find evidence of species-specific positive selection on both the human and the mouse branches and we show that the classes of genes under positive selection cluster by function and by interaction. Data from this study provide us with targets to test the relationship between positive selection and protein function and ultimately to test the relationship between positive selection and discordant phenotypes. PMID:25758009

  17. Toll-like receptors are part of the innate immune defense system of sponges (demospongiae: Porifera).

    PubMed

    Wiens, Matthias; Korzhev, Michael; Perovic-Ottstadt, Sanja; Luthringer, Bérengère; Brandt, David; Klein, Stefanie; Müller, Werner E G

    2007-03-01

    During evolution and with the emergence of multicellular animals, the need arose to ward off foreign organisms that threaten the integrity of the animal body. Among many different receptors that participate in the recognition of microbial invaders, toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in mediating the innate immune response. After binding distinct microbial components, TLRs activate intracellular signaling cascades that result in an induced expression of diverse antimicrobial molecules. Because sponges (phylum Porifera) are filter feeders, they are abundantly exposed to microorganisms that represent a potential threat. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and deduced protein sequence from 3 major elements of the poriferan innate response (to bacterial lipopeptides): the TLR, the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4-like protein (IRAK-4l), and a novel effector caspase from the demosponge Suberites domuncula. Each molecule shares significant sequence similarity with its homologues in higher Metazoa. Sequence homologies were found in particular within the family-specific domains toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance (TLR family), Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase domain (IRAK family), and CASc (caspase family). In addition, in situ hybridization and immunohistological analyses revealed an abundance of SDTLR (TLR) transcripts in epithelial layers of the sponge surface (exopinacoderm and endopinacoderm). Furthermore, it is shown that both SDTLR and SDIRAK-4 like (IRAK) are expressed constitutively, regardless of treatment with synthetic triacyl lipopeptide Pam(3)Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4). In contrast, SDCASL (caspase) expression is highly Pam(3)Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4) inducible. However, blocking of the lipopeptide with recombinant TLR prior to its application completely prevented the induced expression of this poriferan caspase. These results underscore that the phylogenetically oldest extant metazoan phylum is provided already with the signaling pathways of the antimicrobial

  18. Innate and adaptive cellular phenotypes contributing to pulmonary disease in mice after respiratory syncytial virus immunization and infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Youri; Kwon, Young-Man; Ko, Eun-Ju; Jung, Yu-Jin; Lee, Yu-Na; Kim, Min-Chul; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major leading cause of infantile viral bronchiolitis. However, cellular phenotypes contributing to the RSV protection and vaccine-enhanced disease remain largely unknown. Upon RSV challenge, we analyzed phenotypes and cellularity in the lung of mice that were naïve, immunized with formalin inactivated RSV (FI-RSV), or re-infected with RSV. In comparison with naïve and live RSV re-infected mice, the high levels of eosinophils, neutrophils, plasmacytoid and CD11b(+) dendritic cells, and IL-4(+) CD4(+) T cells were found to be contributing to pulmonary inflammation in FI-RSV immune mice despite lung viral clearance. Alveolar macrophages appeared to play differential roles in protection and inflammation upon RSV infection of different RSV immune mice. These results suggest that multiple innate and adaptive immune components differentially contribute to RSV disease and inflammation.

  19. Mononuclear Phagocyte-Mediated Antifungal Immunity: The Role of Chemotactic Receptors and Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Break, Timothy J.; Lionakis, Michail S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades, fungal infections have emerged as significant causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies, hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Besides neutrophils and CD4+ T lymphocytes, which have long been known to play an indispensable role in promoting protective antifungal immunity, mononuclear phagocytes are now being increasingly recognized as critical mediators of host defense against fungi. Thus, a recent surge of research studies has focused on understanding the mechanisms by which resident and recruited monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells accumulate and become activated at the sites of fungal infection. Herein, we critically review how a variety of G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptors and their ligands mediate mononuclear phagocyte recruitment and effector function during infection by the most common human fungal pathogens. PMID:25715741

  20. Mononuclear phagocyte-mediated antifungal immunity: the role of chemotactic receptors and ligands.

    PubMed

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Break, Timothy J; Lionakis, Michail S

    2015-06-01

    Over the past two decades, fungal infections have emerged as significant causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies, hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Besides neutrophils and CD4(+) T lymphocytes, which have long been known to play an indispensable role in promoting protective antifungal immunity, mononuclear phagocytes are now being increasingly recognized as critical mediators of host defense against fungi. Thus, a recent surge of research studies has focused on understanding the mechanisms by which resident and recruited monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells accumulate and become activated at the sites of fungal infection. Herein, we critically review how a variety of G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptors and their ligands mediate mononuclear phagocyte recruitment and effector function during infection by the most common human fungal pathogens. PMID:25715741

  1. RIG-I-like receptor regulation in virus infection and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ying Kai; Gack, Michaela U

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells have the intrinsic capacity to detect viral pathogens and to initiate an antiviral response that is characterized by the induction of interferons (IFNs) and proinflammatory cytokines. A delicate regulation of the signaling pathways that lead to cytokine production is needed to ensure effective clearance of the virus, while preventing tissue damage caused by excessive cytokine release. Here, we focus on the mechanisms that modulate the signal transduction triggered by RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and their adaptor protein MAVS, key components of the host machinery for sensing foreign RNA. Specifically, we summarize recent advances in understanding how RLR signaling is regulated by posttranslational and posttranscriptional mechanisms, microRNAs (miRNAs) and autophagy. We further discuss how viruses target these regulatory mechanisms for immune evasion. PMID:25644461

  2. Allelic barley MLA immune receptors recognize sequence-unrelated avirulence effectors of the powdery mildew pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xunli; Kracher, Barbara; Saur, Isabel M. L.; Bauer, Saskia; Ellwood, Simon R.; Wise, Roger; Yaeno, Takashi; Maekawa, Takaki; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Disease-resistance genes encoding intracellular nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRs) are key components of the plant innate immune system and typically detect the presence of isolate-specific avirulence (AVR) effectors from pathogens. NLR genes define the fastest-evolving gene family of flowering plants and are often arranged in gene clusters containing multiple paralogs, contributing to copy number and allele-specific NLR variation within a host species. Barley mildew resistance locus a (Mla) has been subject to extensive functional diversification, resulting in allelic resistance specificities each recognizing a cognate, but largely unidentified, AVRa gene of the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). We applied a transcriptome-wide association study among 17 Bgh isolates containing different AVRa genes and identified AVRa1 and AVRa13, encoding candidate-secreted effectors recognized by Mla1 and Mla13 alleles, respectively. Transient expression of the effector genes in barley leaves or protoplasts was sufficient to trigger Mla1 or Mla13 allele-specific cell death, a hallmark of NLR receptor-mediated immunity. AVRa1 and AVRa13 are phylogenetically unrelated, demonstrating that certain allelic MLA receptors evolved to recognize sequence-unrelated effectors. They are ancient effectors because corresponding loci are present in wheat powdery mildew. AVRA1 recognition by barley MLA1 is retained in transgenic Arabidopsis, indicating that AVRA1 directly binds MLA1 or that its recognition involves an evolutionarily conserved host target of AVRA1. Furthermore, analysis of transcriptome-wide sequence variation among the Bgh isolates provides evidence for Bgh population structure that is partially linked to geographic isolation. PMID:27702901

  3. Population-Level Immune-Mediated Adaptation in HIV-1 Polymerase during the North American Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Kinloch, Natalie N.; MacMillan, Daniel R.; Le, Anh Q.; Cotton, Laura A.; Bangsberg, David R.; Buchbinder, Susan; Carrington, Mary; Fuchs, Jonathan; Harrigan, P. Richard; Koblin, Beryl; Kushel, Margot; Markowitz, Martin; Mayer, Kenneth; Milloy, M. J.; Schechter, Martin T.; Wagner, Theresa; Walker, Bruce D.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Poon, Art F. Y.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-associated polymorphisms in HIV-1 that persist upon transmission to HLA-mismatched hosts may spread in the population as the epidemic progresses. Transmission of HIV-1 sequences containing such adaptations may undermine cellular immune responses to the incoming virus in future hosts. Building upon previous work, we investigated the extent of HLA-associated polymorphism accumulation in HIV-1 polymerase (Pol) through comparative analysis of linked HIV-1/HLA class I genotypes sampled during historic (1979 to 1989; n = 338) and modern (2001 to 2011; n = 278) eras from across North America (Vancouver, BC, Canada; Boston, MA; New York, NY; and San Francisco, CA). Phylogenies inferred from historic and modern HIV-1 Pol sequences were star-like in shape, with an inferred most recent common ancestor (epidemic founder virus) sequence nearly identical to the modern North American subtype B consensus sequence. Nevertheless, modern HIV-1 Pol sequences exhibited roughly 2-fold-higher patristic (tip-to-tip) genetic distances than historic sequences, with HLA pressures likely driving ongoing diversification. Moreover, the frequencies of published HLA-associated polymorphisms in individuals lacking the selecting HLA class I allele was on average ∼2.5-fold higher in the modern than in the historic era, supporting their spread in circulation, though some remained stable in frequency during this time. Notably, polymorphisms restricted by protective HLA alleles appear to be spreading to a greater relative extent than others, though these increases are generally of modest absolute magnitude. However, despite evidence of polymorphism spread, North American hosts generally remain at relatively low risk of acquiring an HIV-1 polymerase sequence substantially preadapted to their HLA profiles, even in the present era. IMPORTANCE HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations in HIV-1 that persist upon transmission may

  4. Altered immune response in mice deficient for the G protein-coupled receptor GPR34.

    PubMed

    Liebscher, Ines; Müller, Uwe; Teupser, Daniel; Engemaier, Eva; Engel, Kathrin M Y; Ritscher, Lars; Thor, Doreen; Sangkuhl, Katrin; Ricken, Albert; Wurm, Antje; Piehler, Daniel; Schmutzler, Sandra; Fuhrmann, Herbert; Albert, Frank W; Reichenbach, Andreas; Thiery, Joachim; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schulz, Angela

    2011-01-21

    The X-chromosomal GPR34 gene encodes an orphan G(i) protein-coupled receptor that is highly conserved among vertebrates. To evaluate the physiological relevance of GPR34, we generated a GPR34-deficient mouse line. GPR34-deficient mice were vital, reproduced normally, and showed no gross abnormalities in anatomical, histological, laboratory chemistry, or behavioral investigations under standard housing. Because GPR34 is highly expressed in mononuclear cells of the immune system, mice were specifically tested for altered functions of these cell types. Following immunization with methylated BSA, the number of granulocytes and macrophages in spleens was significantly lower in GPR34-deficient mice as in wild-type mice. GPR34-deficient mice showed significantly increased paw swelling in the delayed type hypersensitivity test and higher pathogen burden in extrapulmonary tissues after pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans compared with wild-type mice. The findings in delayed type hypersensitivity and infection tests were accompanied by significantly different basal and stimulated TNF-α, GM-CSF, and IFN-γ levels in GPR34-deficient animals. Our data point toward a functional role of GPR34 in the cellular response to immunological challenges. PMID:21097509

  5. Altered Immune Response in Mice Deficient for the G Protein-coupled Receptor GPR34*

    PubMed Central

    Liebscher, Ines; Müller, Uwe; Teupser, Daniel; Engemaier, Eva; Engel, Kathrin M. Y.; Ritscher, Lars; Thor, Doreen; Sangkuhl, Katrin; Ricken, Albert; Wurm, Antje; Piehler, Daniel; Schmutzler, Sandra; Fuhrmann, Herbert; Albert, Frank W.; Reichenbach, Andreas; Thiery, Joachim; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schulz, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The X-chromosomal GPR34 gene encodes an orphan Gi protein-coupled receptor that is highly conserved among vertebrates. To evaluate the physiological relevance of GPR34, we generated a GPR34-deficient mouse line. GPR34-deficient mice were vital, reproduced normally, and showed no gross abnormalities in anatomical, histological, laboratory chemistry, or behavioral investigations under standard housing. Because GPR34 is highly expressed in mononuclear cells of the immune system, mice were specifically tested for altered functions of these cell types. Following immunization with methylated BSA, the number of granulocytes and macrophages in spleens was significantly lower in GPR34-deficient mice as in wild-type mice. GPR34-deficient mice showed significantly increased paw swelling in the delayed type hypersensitivity test and higher pathogen burden in extrapulmonary tissues after pulmonary infection with Cryptococcus neoformans compared with wild-type mice. The findings in delayed type hypersensitivity and infection tests were accompanied by significantly different basal and stimulated TNF-α, GM-CSF, and IFN-γ levels in GPR34-deficient animals. Our data point toward a functional role of GPR34 in the cellular response to immunological challenges. PMID:21097509

  6. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-10-13

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent.

  7. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent. PMID:26473845

  8. Improved Chemotherapeutic Activity by Morus alba Fruits through Immune Response of Toll-Like Receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo Yoon; Kim, Seon Beom; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Park, Hyun; Kim, Sung Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Morus alba L. fruits have long been used in traditional medicine by many cultures. Their medicinal attributes include cardiovascular, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions. However, their mechanism of macrophage activation and anti-cancer effects remain unclear. The present study investigated the molecular mechanisms of immune stimulation and improved chemotherapeutic effect of M. alba L. fruit extract (MFE). MFE stimulated the production of cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumoricidal properties of macrophages. MFE activated macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKinase) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways downstream from toll-like receptor (TLR) 4. MFE was shown to exhibit cytotoxicity of CT26 cells via the activated macrophages, even though MFE did not directly affect CT26 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, MFE significantly enhanced anti-cancer activity combined with 5-fluorouracil and markedly promoted splenocyte proliferation, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and IFN-γ production. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels were significantly increased. These results indicate the indirect anti-cancer activity of MFE through improved immune response mediated by TLR4 signaling. M. alba L. fruit extract might be a potential anti-tumor immunomodulatory candidate chemotherapy agent. PMID:26473845

  9. Mucosal Immunization with Iron Receptor Antigens Protects against Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sara N.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2009-01-01

    Uncomplicated infections of the urinary tract, caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli, are among the most common diseases requiring medical intervention. A preventive vaccine to reduce the morbidity and fiscal burden these infections have upon the healthcare system would be beneficial. Here, we describe the results of a large-scale selection process that incorporates bioinformatic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic screens to identify six vaccine candidates from the 5379 predicted proteins encoded by uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073. The vaccine candidates, ChuA, Hma, Iha, IreA, IroN, and IutA, all belong to a functional class of molecules that is involved in iron acquisition, a process critical for pathogenesis in all microbes. Intranasal immunization of CBA/J mice with these outer membrane iron receptors elicited a systemic and mucosal immune response that included the production of antigen-specific IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies. The cellular response to vaccination was characterized by the induction and secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17. Of the six potential vaccine candidates, IreA, Hma, and IutA provided significant protection from experimental infection. In immunized animals, class-switching from IgM to IgG and production of antigen-specific IgA in the urine represent immunological correlates of protection from E. coli bladder colonization. These findings are an important first step toward the development of a subunit vaccine to prevent urinary tract infections and demonstrate how targeting an entire class of molecules that are collectively required for pathogenesis may represent a fundamental strategy to combat infections. PMID:19806177

  10. A leukocyte immune-type receptor (LITR) subset is a marker of antiviral cytotoxic cells in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, leukocyte immune type-receptors (LITRs) represent a multigene family that encodes immunoglobulin superfamily proteins that mediate activating or inhibitory signaling. Here we demonstrate the utility of mAb CC41 to monitor viral cytotoxic responses in catfish an...

  11. Clec4A4 is a regulatory receptor for dendritic cells that impairs inflammation and T-cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Uto, Tomofumi; Fukaya, Tomohiro; Takagi, Hideaki; Arimura, Keiichi; Nakamura, Takeshi; Kojima, Naoya; Malissen, Bernard; Sato, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) comprise several subsets that are critically involved in the initiation and regulation of immunity. Clec4A4/DC immunoreceptor 2 (DCIR2) is a C-type lectin receptor (CLR) exclusively expressed on CD8α− conventional DCs (cDCs). However, how Clec4A4 controls immune responses through regulation of the function of CD8α− cDCs remains unclear. Here we show that Clec4A4 is a regulatory receptor for the activation of CD8α− cDCs that impairs inflammation and T-cell immunity. Clec4a4−/−CD8α− cDCs show enhanced cytokine production and T-cell priming following Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated activation. Furthermore, Clec4a4−/− mice exhibit TLR-mediated hyperinflammation. On antigenic immunization, Clec4a4−/− mice show not only augmented T-cell responses but also progressive autoimmune pathogenesis. Conversely, Clec4a4−/− mice exhibit resistance to microbial infection, accompanied by enhanced T-cell responses against microbes. Thus, our findings highlight roles of Clec4A4 in regulation of the function of CD8α− cDCs for control of the magnitude and quality of immune response. PMID:27068492

  12. Genotype-by-environment interactions and adaptation to local temperature affect immunity and fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lazzaro, Brian P; Flores, Heather A; Lorigan, James G; Yourth, Christopher P

    2008-03-01

    Natural populations of most organisms harbor substantial genetic variation for resistance to infection. The continued existence of such variation is unexpected under simple evolutionary models that either posit direct and continuous natural selection on the immune system or an evolved life history "balance" between immunity and other fitness traits in a constant environment. However, both local adaptation to heterogeneous environments and genotype-by-environment interactions can maintain genetic variation in a species. In this study, we test Drosophila melanogaster genotypes sampled from tropical Africa, temperate northeastern North America, and semi-tropical southeastern North America for resistance to bacterial infection and fecundity at three different environmental temperatures. Environmental temperature had absolute effects on all traits, but there were also marked genotype-by-environment interactions that may limit the global efficiency of natural selection on both traits. African flies performed more poorly than North American flies in both immunity and fecundity at the lowest temperature, but not at the higher temperatures, suggesting that the African population is maladapted to low temperature. In contrast, there was no evidence for clinal variation driven by thermal adaptation within North America for either trait. Resistance to infection and reproductive success were generally uncorrelated across genotypes, so this study finds no evidence for a fitness tradeoff between immunity and fecundity under the conditions tested. Both lo