Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive language games

  1. Adaptive Language Games with Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steels, Luc

    2010-11-01

    This paper surveys recent research into language evolution using computer simulations and robotic experiments. This field has made tremendous progress in the past decade going from simple simulations of lexicon formation with animallike cybernetic robots to sophisticated grammatical experiments with humanoid robots.

  2. The Role of Language-Game in Sociocultural Adaptation: Russian Students in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sablina, Svetlana; Kopiatina, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Higher educational institutions throughout the world are involved in communication with each other, exchanging instructional ideas and practices, as well as exchanging students through a number of international mobility programs. This paper examines sociocultural adaptation of international students with special attention to the dimensions of…

  3. Designing Language Games in Okapi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karamuftuoglu, Murat

    1997-01-01

    Describes the application of semiotic concepts and tools to information-retrieval systems design, which is viewed as a social practice in which the main disjunction is between the two conflicting acts of detonation and prescription. These two conflicting language games are discussed within the framework of the Okapi information retrieval system.…

  4. The Use of Games in Teaching a Second Language in the Classroom: A Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluto, Joseph A.

    Using games in the classroom is discussed as a means of promoting the learning of second language structure, fluency, and culture, and complementing concept development and learning. Attention is directed to the development or adaptation of games to the English as a second language curriculum and the development of games to meet specific needs. It…

  5. Games for the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Nancy; Madaras, Susan W.

    Two marketing games are described, "Le Marche Francais" and "El Mercado: The Mexican Market Comes to Life in the Spanish Classroom." Both are patterned after a published game entitled "Market: A Simulation Game." The adaptation in each instance relied on simplifying the original game and presenting it in a form understandable to middle school…

  6. Games in Language Learning: Opportunities and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2014-01-01

    There has been a substantial increase in recent years in the interest in using digital games for language learning. This coincides with the explosive growth in multiplayer online gaming and with the proliferation of mobile games for smart phones. It also reflects the growing recognition among educators of the importance of extramural, informal…

  7. Fun and Games with Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Helen V., Comp.

    Eleven West Virginia teachers contributed the games included in this publication. All of the games have been classroom tested for their educational results as well as for their promotion of student interest and are intended for use in a foreign language class. The following games are described in detail: (1) Advanced Verbs, (2) Artists, (3)…

  8. Communicating in English: The Value of Certain Language Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, William R.

    Language learners want to communicate with others about the sort of things that interest them. Nearly everybody is interested in playing games. Many language games are kept going by communication and break down if communication itself does so. Four types of game are described to illustrate this point: guessing games, certain number games, games…

  9. Video Game Adapts To Brain Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic training system based on video game developed to help children afflicted with attention-deficit disorder (ADD) learn to prolong their attention spans. Uses combination of electroencephalography (EEG) and adaptive control to encourage attentiveness. Monitors trainee's brain-wave activity: if EEG signal indicates attention is waning, system increases difficulty of game, forcing trainee to devote more attention to it. Game designed to make trainees want to win and, in so doing, learn to pay attention for longer times.

  10. Digital Game-Based Language Learning in Foreign Language Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alyaz, Yunus; Genc, Zubeyde Sinem

    2016-01-01

    New technologies including digital game-based language learning have increasingly received attention. However, their implementation is far from expected and desired levels due to technical, instructional, financial and sociological barriers. Previous studies suggest that there is a strong need to establish courses in order to support adaptation of…

  11. Predicting pragmatic reasoning in language games.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael C; Goodman, Noah D

    2012-05-25

    One of the most astonishing features of human language is its capacity to convey information efficiently in context. Many theories provide informal accounts of communicative inference, yet there have been few successes in making precise, quantitative predictions about pragmatic reasoning. We examined judgments about simple referential communication games, modeling behavior in these games by assuming that speakers attempt to be informative and that listeners use Bayesian inference to recover speakers' intended referents. Our model provides a close, parameter-free fit to human judgments, suggesting that the use of information-theoretic tools to predict pragmatic reasoning may lead to more effective formal models of communication.

  12. Digital Gaming and Language Learning: Autonomy and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chik, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between digital game play and second language (L2) learning is a particularly tricky issue in East Asia. Though there is an emerging presence of Chinese online games, many more young people are playing the English- or Japanese-language versions of the most popular commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) video games. In other words, most…

  13. Adherence as a language game.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, Espen Skarstein

    2017-03-02

    Non-adherence, i.e. medication intake behavior not corresponding with agreed recommendations, is associated with increased morbidity and death, and it has been estimated that as many as 50% of patients in developed countries are not taking their medications as prescribed. But even as efforts in improving medication adherence over the years have increased, results are inconsistent, with only a minority of clinical trials showing any improvement in both adherence and clinical outcome. Since patient education is central to promoting good medication adherence, and language is integral to education, perhaps an exploration of the meaning and use of language, using the philosophy of Ludwig Wittgenstein, is in order.

  14. The classification game: combining supervised learning and language evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarup, Samarth; Gasser, Les

    2010-03-01

    We study the emergence of shared representations in a population of agents engaged in a supervised classification task, using a model called the classification game. We connect languages with tasks by treating the agents' classification hypothesis space as an information channel. We show that by learning through the classification game, agents can implicitly perform complexity regularisation, which improves generalisation. Improved generalisation also means that the languages that emerge are well adapted to the given task. The improved language-task fit springs from the interplay of two opposing forces: the dynamics of collective learning impose a preference for simple representations, while the intricacy of the classification task imposes a pressure towards representations that are more complex. The push-pull of these two forces results in the emergence of a shared representation that is simple but not too simple. Our agents use artificial neural networks to solve the classification tasks they face, and a simple counting algorithm to learn a language as a form-meaning mapping. We present several experiments to demonstrate that both compositional and holistic languages can emerge in our system. We also demonstrate that the agents avoid overfitting on noisy data, and can learn some very difficult tasks through interaction, which they are unable to learn individually. Further, when the agents use simple recurrent networks to solve temporal classification tasks, we see the emergence of a rudimentary grammar, which does not have to be explicitly learned.

  15. Effects of Adapted Dialogic Reading on Oral Language and Vocabulary Knowledge of Latino Preschoolers at Risk for English Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correa, Vivian I.; Lo, Ya-Yu; Godfrey-Hurrell, Kristi; Swart, Katie; Baker, Doris Luft

    2015-01-01

    In this single-case design study, we examined the effects of an adapted dialogic reading intervention on the oral language and vocabulary skills of four Latino preschool children who were at risk for English language delays. We used adapted dialogic reading strategies in English and two literacy games that included a rapid naming activity and…

  16. Online Games for Young Learners' Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Yuko Goto; Someya, Yuumi; Fukuhara, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Young learners' use of instructional games in foreign language learning is not yet well understood. Using games that were part of the learning tools for an online assessment, Jido-Eiken, a standardized English proficiency test for young learners in Japan, we examined young learners' game-playing behaviours and the relationship of these behaviours…

  17. Adaptive RED algorithm based on minority game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiaolong; Lei, Ling; Qian, Jingjing

    2007-11-01

    With more and more applications appearing and the technology developing in the Internet, only relying on terminal system can not satisfy the complicated demand of QoS network. Router mechanisms must be participated into protecting responsive flows from the non-responsive. Routers mainly use active queue management mechanism (AQM) to avoid congestion. In the point of interaction between the routers, the paper applies minority game to describe the interaction of the users and observes the affection on the length of average queue. The parameters α, β of ARED being hard to confirm, adaptive RED based on minority game can depict the interactions of main body and amend the parameter α, β of ARED to the best. Adaptive RED based on minority game optimizes ARED and realizes the smoothness of average queue length. At the same time, this paper extends the network simulator plat - NS by adding new elements. Simulation has been implemented and the results show that new algorithm can reach the anticipative objects.

  18. A survey on adaptive engine technology for serious games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasim, Langi, Armein Z. R.; Munir, Rosmansyah, Yusep

    2016-02-01

    Serious Games has become a priceless tool in learning because it can simulate abstract concept to appear more realistic. The problem faced is that the players have different ability in playing the games. This causes the players to become frustrated if the game is too difficult or to get bored if it is too easy. Serious games have non-player character (NPC) in it. The NPC should be able to adapt to the players in such a way so that the players can feel comfortable in playing the games. Because of that, serious games development must involve an adaptive engine, which is by applying a learning machine that can adapt to different players. The development of adaptive engine can be viewed in terms of the frameworks and the algorithms. Frameworks include rules based, plan based, organization description based, proficiency of player based, and learning style and cognitive state based. Algorithms include agents based and non-agent based

  19. Complexity Thinking in PE: Game-Centred Approaches, Games as Complex Adaptive Systems, and Ecological Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storey, Brian; Butler, Joy

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article draws on the literature relating to game-centred approaches (GCAs), such as Teaching Games for Understanding, and dynamical systems views of motor learning to demonstrate a convergence of ideas around games as complex adaptive learning systems. This convergence is organized under the title "complexity thinking"…

  20. The evolutionary language game: an orthogonal approach.

    PubMed

    Lenaerts, Tom; Jansen, Bart; Tuyls, Karl; De Vylder, Bart

    2005-08-21

    Evolutionary game dynamics have been proposed as a mathematical framework for the cultural evolution of language and more specifically the evolution of vocabulary. This article discusses a model that is mutually exclusive in its underlying principals with some previously suggested models. The model describes how individuals in a population culturally acquire a vocabulary by actively participating in the acquisition process instead of passively observing and communicate through peer-to-peer interactions instead of vertical parent-offspring relations. Concretely, a notion of social/cultural learning called the naming game is first abstracted using learning theory. This abstraction defines the required cultural transmission mechanism for an evolutionary process. Second, the derived transmission system is expressed in terms of the well-known selection-mutation model defined in the context of evolutionary dynamics. In this way, the analogy between social learning and evolution at the level of meaning-word associations is made explicit. Although only horizontal and oblique transmission structures will be considered, extensions to vertical structures over different genetic generations can easily be incorporated. We provide a number of simplified experiments to clarify our reasoning.

  1. Leveraging Mobile Games for Place-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Christopher L.; Sykes, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper builds on the emerging body of research aimed at exploring the educational potential of mobile technologies, specifically, how to leverage place-based, augmented reality mobile games for language learning. Mentira is the first place-based, augmented reality mobile game for learning Spanish in a local neighborhood in the Southwestern…

  2. Supporting Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning through Kinect-Based Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urun, Mehmet Faith; Aksoy, Hasan; Comez, Rasim

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a Kinect-based game called Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon: Future Soldier to investigate possible contributions of game-based learning in a virtual language classroom at a state university in Ankara, Turkey. A quasi-experimental design where the treatment group (N= 26) was subjected to kinect-based…

  3. The Importance of Language Games in School Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusarelli, Lance; Sanders, Marla

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the language games played by superintendents as they work with school boards and community activists to craft school policy. We begin by examining the role of language in problem definition and the agenda-setting process. We then examine how political culture and the media affect problem definition. We argue that school…

  4. Serious Use of a Serious Game for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. Lewis

    2010-01-01

    The Tactical Language and Culture Training System (TLCTS) helps learners acquire basic communicative skills in foreign languages and cultures. Learners acquire communication skills through a combination of interactive lessons and serious games. Artificial intelligence plays multiple roles in this learning environment: to process the learner's…

  5. Natural Language Processing in Game Studies Research: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagal, Jose P.; Tomuro, Noriko; Shepitsen, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science and linguistics devoted to creating computer systems that use human (natural) language as input and/or output. The authors propose that NLP can also be used for game studies research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of NLP and describe some research possibilities…

  6. Le Jeu du Budget (The Budget Game). Promoting Functional Language Use Through a Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Leslie J.

    Materials and directions for classroom simulation of the formulation and upkeep of a typical French family's budget are presented. The game is intended for intermediate and advanced students of French and adaptable for various class sizes. It is a communicative game, designed to provide an enjoyable atmosphere for true-to-life information exchange…

  7. Adaptive thinking & leadership simulation game training for special forces officers.

    SciTech Connect

    Raybourn, Elaine Marie; Mendini, Kip; Heneghan, Jerry; Deagle, Edwin

    2005-07-01

    Complex problem solving approaches and novel strategies employed by the military at the squad, team, and commander level are often best learned experimentally. Since live action exercises can be costly, advances in simulation game training technology offer exciting ways to enhance current training. Computer games provide an environment for active, critical learning. Games open up possibilities for simultaneous learning on multiple levels; players may learn from contextual information embedded in the dynamics of the game, the organic process generated by the game, and through the risks, benefits, costs, outcomes, and rewards of alternative strategies that result from decision making. In the present paper we discuss a multiplayer computer game simulation created for the Adaptive Thinking & Leadership (ATL) Program to train Special Forces Team Leaders. The ATL training simulation consists of a scripted single-player and an immersive multiplayer environment for classroom use which leverages immersive computer game technology. We define adaptive thinking as consisting of competencies such as negotiation and consensus building skills, the ability to communicate effectively, analyze ambiguous situations, be self-aware, think innovatively, and critically use effective problem solving skills. Each of these competencies is an essential element of leader development training for the U.S. Army Special Forces. The ATL simulation is used to augment experiential learning in the curriculum for the U.S. Army JFK Special Warfare Center & School (SWCS) course in Adaptive Thinking & Leadership. The school is incorporating the ATL simulation game into two additional training pipelines (PSYOPS and Civil Affairs Qualification Courses) that are also concerned with developing cultural awareness, interpersonal communication adaptability, and rapport-building skills. In the present paper, we discuss the design, development, and deployment of the training simulation, and emphasize how the

  8. Integrating Adaptive Games in Student-Centered Virtual Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Blanco, Angel; Torrente, Javier; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2010-01-01

    The increasing adoption of e-Learning technology is facing new challenges, such as how to produce student-centered systems that can be adapted to each student's needs. In this context, educational video games are proposed as an ideal medium to facilitate adaptation and tracking of students' performance for assessment purposes, but integrating the…

  9. Games and Simulations in the Foreign Language Classroom. Language in Education, No. 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omaggio, Alice C.

    This paper presents some of the materials available for games and simulation activities in the foreign language classroom and organizes the materials in terms of their usefulness for reaching specific instructional objectives. The list of games and simulations represents a wide variety of activities that can be used in the development of various…

  10. The Impact of Adventure Video Games on Foreign Language Learning and the Perceptions of Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hao-Jan Howard; Yang, Ting-Yu Christine

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have highlighted the potential of applying adventure video games in second language acquisition; however, few studies have investigated the impact of adventure games on foreign language learning. This study aimed to examine the effects of a commercial adventure video game on foreign language learning and learners' perceptions…

  11. Adapting Authentic Materials for Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darian, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the process of adapting authentic materials for use in the English-as-a-Second-language classroom. Focuses on four areas: semantic elements, lexical elements, syntactic elements, and discourse elements.(Author/VWL)

  12. Adaptive strategy for multi-user robotic rehabilitation games.

    PubMed

    Caurin, Glauco A P; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Andrade, Kleber O; Joaquim, Ricardo C; Krebs, Hermano I

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a strategy for the adaptation of the "difficulty level" in games intended to include motor planning during robotic rehabilitation. We consider concurrently the motivation of the user and his/her performance in a Pong game. User motivation is classified in three levels (not motivated, well motivated and overloaded). User performance is measured as a combination of knowledge of results--achieved goals and score points in the game--and knowledge of performance--joint displacement, speed, aiming, user work, etc. Initial results of a pilot test with unimpaired healthy young volunteers are also presented showing a tendency for individualization of the parameter values.

  13. Adaptive Modeling Language and Its Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chemaly, Adel

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive Modeling Language (AML) is the underlying language of an object-oriented, multidisciplinary, knowledge-based engineering framework. AML offers an advanced modeling paradigm with an open architecture, enabling the automation of the entire product development cycle, integrating product configuration, design, analysis, visualization, production planning, inspection, and cost estimation.

  14. Why are some languages confused for others? Investigating data from the Great Language Game.

    PubMed

    Skirgård, Hedvig; Roberts, Seán G; Yencken, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we explore the results of a large-scale online game called 'the Great Language Game', in which people listen to an audio speech sample and make a forced-choice guess about the identity of the language from 2 or more alternatives. The data include 15 million guesses from 400 audio recordings of 78 languages. We investigate which languages are confused for which in the game, and if this correlates with the similarities that linguists identify between languages. This includes shared lexical items, similar sound inventories and established historical relationships. Our findings are, as expected, that players are more likely to confuse two languages that are objectively more similar. We also investigate factors that may affect players' ability to accurately select the target language, such as how many people speak the language, how often the language is mentioned in written materials and the economic power of the target language community. We see that non-linguistic factors affect players' ability to accurately identify the target. For example, languages with wider 'global reach' are more often identified correctly. This suggests that both linguistic and cultural knowledge influence the perception and recognition of languages and their similarity.

  15. Syntactic adaptability of programming languages

    SciTech Connect

    Gusev, V.V.

    1994-11-01

    Development of programming languages has to contend with a variety of conflicting criteria. Moreover, as in any other creative field, it is not always possible to arrive at a clear formulation of these criteria. Nevertheless, one of the main criteria is problem orientation, be it numerical algorithms, database management, simulation of hydraulic systems, or other applications. Idealizing, we can say that the programming language is based on a model of the application domain. This model may vary in its scope, covering some aspects of the application domain and ignoring others. Thus, for one application domain we may have a whole spectrum of models and correspondingly a whole spectrum of languages. Some are special-purpose languages designed for a specific class of problems, others are more general. Both special-purpose and general-purpose languages have definite advantages and find their own clientele, who are willing to ignore their shortcomings.

  16. Berlin Kompass: Multimodal Gameful Empowerment for Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallioniemi, Pekka; Posti, Laura-Pihkala; Hakulinen, Jaakko; Turunen, Markku; Keskinen, Tuuli; Raisamo, Roope

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an innovative, gameful, multimodal, and authentic learning environment for training of oral communication in a foreign language--a virtual adventure called Berlin Kompass. After a brief presentation of the pedagogical and technological backgrounds, the system is described. Central results of a series of pilots in autumn 2013…

  17. Differentially Positioned Language Games: Ethnomathematics from a Philosophical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knijnik, Gelsa

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new philosophical perspective for ethnomathematics which articulates Ludwig Wittgenstein's and Michel Foucault's theoretical notions. It is conceived as a theoretical toolbox which allows the analysis of, on the one hand, the mathematical language games of different forms of life and their family resemblances and, on the…

  18. Bridging the Gap: Adaptive Games and Student-Centered VLEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Blanco, Ángel; Torrente, Javier; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Fernández-Manjón, Baltasar

    The widely used e-learning technology is facing new challenges such as how to produce student-centered systems that can be adapted to the needs of each student. Those objectives should be met in a standard compliant way to simplify general adoption. In this context, educational videogames are proposed as an ideal medium to facilitate adaptation and tracking of the students’ performance for assessment purposes. However, there are still barriers between the gaming and e-learning worlds preventing their mutual interaction. In this paper we propose a middleware to bridge this gap, integrating adaptive educational videogames in e-learning environments with a special focus on the ongoing standardization efforts.

  19. Wittgenstein's language games as a theory of learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Timmons, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Sociological approaches to the understanding of learning disabilities are perhaps not as fully developed as they might be. Wittgenstein's notion of the language game is elucidated, and its relevance to the analysis of learning disabilities as a social phenomenon is explained. This gives some insight into an alternative conception of what learning disabilities might be, and why people who are classified as having learning disabilities continue, to some extent, to be excluded from full participation in society.

  20. Play It Again, Sam! Adapting Common Games into Multimedia Models Used for Student Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Karen K.; Barlow, Amy; Hudson, Lisa; Jones, Elizabeth; Lyons, Dennis; Piersall, James; Munfus, Laureen

    1998-01-01

    Provides guidelines on how to adapt common games such as checkers, tic tac toe, obstacle courses, and memory joggers into interactive games in multimedia courseware. Emphasizes creating generic games that can be recycled and used for multiple topics to save development time and keep costs low. Discusses topic themes, game structure, and…

  1. Adaptive role switching promotes fairness in networked ultimatum game.

    PubMed

    Wu, Te; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Yanling; Wang, Long

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, mechanisms favoring fair split in the ultimatum game have attracted growing interests because of its practical implications for international bargains. In this game, two players are randomly assigned two different roles respectively to split an offer: the proposer suggests how to split and the responder decides whether or not to accept it. Only when both agree is the offer successfully split; otherwise both get nothing. It is of importance and interest to break the symmetry in role assignment especially when the game is repeatedly played in a heterogeneous population. Here we consider an adaptive role assignment: whenever the split fails, the two players switch their roles probabilistically. The results show that this simple feedback mechanism proves much more effective at promoting fairness than other alternatives (where, for example, the role assignment is based on the number of neighbors).

  2. Language structure in the n -object naming game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipowski, Adam; Lipowska, Dorota

    2009-11-01

    We examine a naming game with two agents trying to establish a common vocabulary for n objects. Such efforts lead to the emergence of language that allows for an efficient communication and exhibits some degree of homonymy and synonymy. Although homonymy reduces the communication efficiency, it seems to be a dynamical trap that persists for a long, and perhaps indefinite, time. On the other hand, synonymy does not reduce the efficiency of communication but appears to be only a transient feature of the language. Thus, in our model the role of synonymy decreases and in the long-time limit it becomes negligible. A similar rareness of synonymy is observed in present natural languages. The role of noise, that distorts the communicated words, is also examined. Although, in general, the noise reduces the communication efficiency, it also regroups the words so that they are more evenly distributed within the available “verbal” space.

  3. Language Learners & Computer Games: From "Space Invaders" to "Second Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Graham; Mawer, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    The term serious game is often used to refer to "games used for training, advertising, simulation, or education." In this article, the authors use the term computer game in its broadest sense, believing it to encompass the broad spectrum of what is usually referred to now as all digital gaming (video games, console games, online games, etc.). They…

  4. The Use of Language Functions in Mathematical Group Games. Teacher Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Carolyn; Huerta, Maria G.

    1994-01-01

    Six group games were introduced into a second-grade bilingual classroom. Children's talk during each game was classified using a modification of Dyson's five language functions (representational, directive, heuristic, personal, and interactional). Group games provided many communication opportunities. Some children tried new communication styles.…

  5. Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games as Arenas for Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates contemporary research on the use of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) in language education. The development and key features of these games are explored. This is followed by an examination of the theories proposed as a basis for game-based learning, and the claims made regarding the value of…

  6. United Sugpiaq Alutiiq (USA) Video Game: Preserving Traditional Knowledge, Culture, and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leslie D.; Sanderville, James Mountain Chief

    2009-01-01

    Video games are explored as a means of reviving dying indigenous languages. The design and production of the place-based United Sugpiaq Alutiiq (USA) video game prototype involved work across generations and across cultures. The video game is one part of a proposed digital environment where Sugcestun speakers in traditional Alaskan villages could…

  7. Juegos y Diversiones. (Games Collected and Adapted to Teach Spanish to Children.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    Games, both from the folklore heritage of children in Spanish-speaking countries and those created in the classroom, are excellent ways to teach language to children because they accomplish their language goals while entertaining and involving the children, often physically. Most games, because they are rigidly patterned and repetitious, are…

  8. Effect of a large gaming neighborhood and a strategy adaptation neighborhood for bolstering network reciprocity in a prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Takashi; Tanimoto, Jun; Fukuda, Eriko; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2014-12-01

    In 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma (PD) games, network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, leading to a cooperative equilibrium. In this paper, we explain how gaming neighborhoods and strategy-adaptation neighborhoods affect network reciprocity independently in spatial PD games. We explore an appropriate range of strategy adaptation neighborhoods as opposed to the conventional method of making the gaming and strategy adaptation neighborhoods coincide to enhance the level of cooperation. In cases of expanding gaming neighborhoods, network reciprocity falls to a low level relative to the conventional setting. In the discussion below, which is based on the results of our simulation, we explore how these enhancements come about. Essentially, varying the range of the neighborhoods influences how cooperative clusters form and expand in the evolutionary process.

  9. Playing to Learn: A Review of Physical Games in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Brian; Masuhara, Hitomi

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the potential of competitive games involving physical movement to facilitate the acquisition of a second or foreign language and argues that such activities can promote educational development too. It first provides a critical overview of the literature on physical games in language learning. Then, it outlines our…

  10. How a Deaf Boy Gamed His Way to Second-Language Acquisition: Tales of Intersubjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salies, Tania Gastao; Starosky, Priscila

    2008-01-01

    Taking an experiential approach to language development, this article links gaming to the language development of a 10-year-old deaf child under speech therapy. Specifically, it examines face-to-face interactions between mediators and the child, during 1 year of gaming in clinical encounters. To do so, it codes data by means of interactional…

  11. Exploring the Potential of a Location Based Augmented Reality Game for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Donald

    2016-01-01

    This paper adds to the small but growing body of research into the potential of augmented reality games for teaching and learning English as a foreign language (EFL). It explores the extent to which such games enhance the language learning experience of advanced level EFL learners. The author draws on his work developing "Mission not really…

  12. Computerized Games and Simulations in Computer-Assisted Language Learning: A Meta-Analysis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This article explores research on the use of computerized games and simulations in language education. The author examined the psycholinguistic and sociocultural constructs proposed as a basis for the use of games and simulations in computer-assisted language learning. Research in this area is expanding rapidly. However, to date, few studies have…

  13. The Effect of Game Genres on Use of Second/Foreign Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of game genres on the choice of certain language learning strategies among Taiwanese college students. The sample for the study consists of 162 undergraduate freshmen in an institute of technology in Taiwan. The results show that game genres have an influence on the choice of different language learning…

  14. Dialogue-Games: Meta-Communication Structures for Natural Language Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    analogy from Wittgenstein’s term "language game" ( Wittgenstein , 1958). However, Dialogue-games represent knowledge people have about language as used to...and memory of narrative discourse. CoRtiiiive PsycholoRy, 1977, 9, 77-110. Wittgenstein , L. Philosophical inve-ÜRalions (3rd ed.). New York

  15. Five Board Games for the Language Classroom: Uvas, Montana Rusa, El Futbol, La Corrida de Verbos, Paso a Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Barbara

    A collection of five board games for the Spanish language classroom contains gameboards, game markers, and directions for each game. It also contains general instructions for the teacher about the classroom use of board games. The games include: "Uvas," for use in vocabulary development and cultural awareness; "Montana Rusa," for general…

  16. "Measuring up to measure" dysmorphophobia as a language game.

    PubMed

    Faccio, Elena; Centomo, Chiara; Mininni, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    We look into the transformation of meanings in psychotherapy and suggest a clinical application for Wittgenstein's intuitions concerning the role of linguistic practices in generating significance. In post-modern theory, therapy does not necessarily change reality as much as it does our way of experiencing it by intervening in the linguistic-representational rules responsible for constructing the text which expresses the problem. Since "states of mind assume the truths and forms of the language devices that we use to represent them" (Foucault, 1963, p. 57), therapy may be intended as a narrative path toward a new naming of one's reified experiences. The clinical problem we consider here, the pervasive feeling of inadequacy due to one's excessive height (dysmorphophobia), is an excellent example of "language game" by which a "perspicuous representation" (the "therapy" proposed by Wittgenstein in the 1953) may bring out alternatives to linguistically-built "traps", putting the blocked semiotic mechanism back into motion.

  17. Game-as-Teacher: Modification by Adaptation in Learning through Game-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper will explore how game-play in video games as well as game centered approaches in physical education (PE) such as Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) can draw on complexity thinking to inform the learning process in physical education. Using the video game concept of game-as-teacher (Gee, 2007), ideas such as enabling constraints…

  18. An adaptive contextual quantum language model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingfei; Zhang, Peng; Song, Dawei; Hou, Yuexian

    2016-08-01

    User interactions in search system represent a rich source of implicit knowledge about the user's cognitive state and information need that continuously evolves over time. Despite massive efforts that have been made to exploiting and incorporating this implicit knowledge in information retrieval, it is still a challenge to effectively capture the term dependencies and the user's dynamic information need (reflected by query modifications) in the context of user interaction. To tackle these issues, motivated by the recent Quantum Language Model (QLM), we develop a QLM based retrieval model for session search, which naturally incorporates the complex term dependencies occurring in user's historical queries and clicked documents with density matrices. In order to capture the dynamic information within users' search session, we propose a density matrix transformation framework and further develop an adaptive QLM ranking model. Extensive comparative experiments show the effectiveness of our session quantum language models.

  19. Teaching Adaptability of Object-Oriented Programming Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of object-oriented programming languages includes update of their own versions, update of development environments, and reform of new languages upon old languages. In this paper, the evolution analysis of object-oriented programming languages is presented in term of the characters and development. The notion of adaptive teaching upon…

  20. Laying the Foundations for Video-Game Based Language Instruction for the Teaching of EFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvis, Héctor Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces video-game based language instruction as a teaching approach catering to the different socio-economic and learning needs of English as a Foreign Language students. First, this paper reviews statistical data revealing the low participation of Colombian students in English as a second language programs abroad (U.S. context…

  1. Spatial structure enhanced cooperation in dissatisfied adaptive snowdrift game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Xu, Chen; Hui, Pak Ming

    2013-05-01

    The dissatisfied adaptive snowdrift game (DASG) describes the adaptive actions driven by the level of dissatisfaction when two connected agents interact. We study the DASG in static networks both numerically and analytically. In a random network of uniform degree k, the system evolves into a homogeneous state consisting only of cooperators when the cost-to-benefit ratio r < r 0 and a mixed phase with the coexistence of cooperators and defectors when r > r 0, where r 0 is a threshold. For an infinite population, the large k limit corresponding to the well-mixed case is solved analytically. A theory is developed based on the pair approximation. It gives the frequency of cooperation f c and the densities of different pairs that are in good agreement with simulation results. The results revealed that f c is enhanced in networked populations with a finite k, when compared with the well-mixed case. The reasons that the theory works well for the present model are traced back to the weak spatial correlation implied by the random network and the fact that the adaptive actions in DASG are driven only by the strategy pairs. The results shed light on the class of models that the pair approximation is applicable.

  2. Complex adaptive systems and game theory: An unlikely union

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hadzikadic, M.; Carmichael, T.; Curtin, C.

    2010-01-01

    A Complex Adaptive System is a collection of autonomous, heterogeneous agents, whose behavior is defined with a limited number of rules. A Game Theory is a mathematical construct that assumes a small number of rational players who have a limited number of actions or strategies available to them. The CAS method has the potential to alleviate some of the shortcomings of GT. On the other hand, CAS researchers are always looking for a realistic way to define interactions among agents. GT offers an attractive option for defining the rules of such interactions in a way that is both potentially consistent with observed real-world behavior and subject to mathematical interpretation. This article reports on the results of an effort to build a CAS system that utilizes GT for determining the actions of individual agents. ?? 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Complexity, 16,24-42, 2010.

  3. Content and Language Integrated Learning through an Online Game in Primary School: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dourda, Kyriaki; Bratitsis, Tharrenos; Griva, Eleni; Papadopoulou, Penelope

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an educational design proposal is presented which combines two well established teaching approaches, that of Game-based Learning (GBL) and Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). The context of the proposal was the design of an educational geography computer game, utilizing QR Codes and Google Earth for teaching English…

  4. BIT BY BIT: A Game Simulating Natural Language Processing in Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Taichi; Arakawa, Chuichi

    2008-01-01

    BIT BY BIT is an encryption game that is designed to improve students' understanding of natural language processing in computers. Participants encode clear words into binary code using an encryption key and exchange them in the game. BIT BY BIT enables participants who do not understand the concept of binary numbers to perform the process of…

  5. The Effect of Interactivity with a Music Video Game on Second Language Vocabulary Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deHaan, Jonathan; Reed, W. Michael; Kuwada, Katsuko

    2010-01-01

    Video games are potential sources of second language input; however, the medium's fundamental characteristic, interactivity, has not been thoroughly examined in terms of its effect on learning outcomes. This experimental study investigated to what degree, if at all, video game interactivity would help or hinder the noticing and recall of second…

  6. A Principled Approach to Utilizing Digital Games in the Language Learning Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baierschmidt, Jared

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research into the use of digital games for educational purposes has shown promising results such as increased learner motivation, improved learner retention of information, and increased learner interest in subject matter. Furthermore, in the field of language learning, digital games have been used successfully in a variety of ways such…

  7. Perceptual Adaptation to Sinewave-Vocoded Speech across Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Tessa; Loebach, Jeremy L.; Phillips, Lawrence; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Listeners rapidly adapt to many forms of degraded speech. What level of information drives this adaptation, however, remains unresolved. The current study exposed listeners to sinewave-vocoded speech in one of three languages, which manipulated the type of information shared between the training languages (German, Mandarin, or English) and the…

  8. Language Fluency and Study Abroad Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savicki, Victor; Arrúe, Carmen; Binder, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    Many study abroad programs require language proficiency, emphasize language learning, or otherwise support the development of language skills for their students. A general assumption underlying this attention to foreign language acquisition is that access to the host culture is increased as students are able to converse with host nationals using…

  9. A Model of Adaptive Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy J.

    2006-01-01

    This study applies theorizing from educational psychology and language learning to hypothesize a model of language learning that takes into account affect, motivation, and language learning strategies. The study employed a questionnaire to assess variables of motivation, self-efficacy, anxiety, and language learning strategies. The sample…

  10. Restrictions on biological adaptation in language evolution.

    PubMed

    Chater, Nick; Reali, Florencia; Christiansen, Morten H

    2009-01-27

    Language acquisition and processing are governed by genetic constraints. A crucial unresolved question is how far these genetic constraints have coevolved with language, perhaps resulting in a highly specialized and species-specific language "module," and how much language acquisition and processing redeploy preexisting cognitive machinery. In the present work, we explored the circumstances under which genes encoding language-specific properties could have coevolved with language itself. We present a theoretical model, implemented in computer simulations, of key aspects of the interaction of genes and language. Our results show that genes for language could have coevolved only with highly stable aspects of the linguistic environment; a rapidly changing linguistic environment does not provide a stable target for natural selection. Thus, a biological endowment could not coevolve with properties of language that began as learned cultural conventions, because cultural conventions change much more rapidly than genes. We argue that this rules out the possibility that arbitrary properties of language, including abstract syntactic principles governing phrase structure, case marking, and agreement, have been built into a "language module" by natural selection. The genetic basis of human language acquisition and processing did not coevolve with language, but primarily predates the emergence of language. As suggested by Darwin, the fit between language and its underlying mechanisms arose because language has evolved to fit the human brain, rather than the reverse.

  11. Adaptivity in Educational Games: Including Player and Gameplay Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewaetere, Mieke; Cornillie, Frederik; Clarebout, Geraldine; Desmet, Piet

    2013-01-01

    The use of educational games for teaching and training is nowadays well-known, although its effectiveness in terms of learning and motivation has not been firmly corroborated. A first reason for this is that research on instructional design research often does not reach the fields of game development and game design. Consequently, instructional…

  12. Revisiting the Wittgensteinian Legacy: Perspectives on Representational and Non-Representational Language-Games for Educational History and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul; Fendler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Debates in science seem to depend on referential language-games, but in other senses they do not. Language works in more complex ways, even in work that purports to be purely scientific. This article investigates the scope and limitations of language-games in educational history and theory. The study addresses concepts and pictures as examples of…

  13. Researching Travel Behavior and Adaptability: Using a Virtual Reality Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watcharasukarn, Montira; Krumdieck, Susan; Green, Richard; Dantas, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a virtual reality role-playing game that was developed as a survey tool to collect travel behavior data and explore and monitor travel behavior adaptation. The Advanced Energy and Material Systems Laboratory has designed, developed a prototype, and tested such a game platform survey tool, called Travel Activity Constraint…

  14. Understanding Attention to Adaptive Hints in Educational Games: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conati, Cristina; Jaques, Natasha; Muir, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a user study that investigates the factors affecting student attention to user-adaptive hints during interaction with an educational computer game. The study focuses on Prime Climb, an educational game designed to provide individualized support for learning number factorization skills in the form of textual hints based on a…

  15. Language games: Christian fundamentalism and the science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Cheryl J.

    Eighty years after the Scope's Trial, the debate over evolution in the public school curriculum is alive and well. Historically, Christian fundamentalists, the chief opponents of evolution in the public schools, have used the court system to force policymakers, to adopt their ideology regarding evolution in the science curriculum. However, in recent decades their strategy has shifted from the courts to the local level, where they pressure teachers and school boards to include "alternate theories" and the alleged "flaws" and "inconsistencies" of evolution in the science curriculum. The purpose of this content analysis study was to answer the question: How do Christian fundamentalists employ rhetorical strategies to influence the science curriculum? The rhetorical content of several public legal and media documents resulting from a lawsuit filed against the Athens Public Schools by the American Center of Law and Justice were analyzed for the types of rhetorical strategies employed by the participants engaged in the scientific, legal, and public discourse communities. The study employed an analytical schema based on Ludwig Wittgenstein's theory of language games, Lawrence Prelli's theory of discourse communities, and Michael Apple's notion of constitutive and preference rules. Ultimately, this study revealed that adroit use of the constitutive and preference rules of the legal and public discourse communities allowed the school district to reframe the creation-evolution debate, thereby avoiding a public spectacle and ameliorating the power of creationist language to affect change in the science curriculum. In addition, the study reinforced the assertion that speakers enjoy the most persuasive power when they attend to the preference rules of the public discourse community.

  16. Forms of Participation and Semiotic Mediation in Board Games for Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, Jasmine C. M.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses a study on how language use and language development can be promoted through engaging students in different participation roles in board games. Theoretically, the study is grounded in sociocultural perspectives of activity theory and the role of play as a form of human motivation. A group of Grade 4 primary students learning…

  17. Japanese Students' Perceptions of Digital Game Use for English-Language Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolliger, Doris U.; Mills, Daniel; White, Jeremy; Kohyama, Megumi

    2015-01-01

    Researchers investigated perceptions of Japanese college students toward the use of digital games in English-language learning. The study was conducted at one large private university in Japan. Undergraduate students who were enrolled in 14 English-language courses were invited to complete a paper-based survey during class time. The survey…

  18. Simulation/Gaming and the Acquisition of Communicative Competence in Another Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Carbonell, Amparo; Rising, Beverly; Montero, Begona; Watts, Frances

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of communicative competence in second language acquisition focuses on a theoretical and practical meshing of simulation and gaming methodology with theories of foreign language acquisition, including task-based learning, interaction, and comprehensible input. Describes experiments conducted with computer-assisted simulations in…

  19. Language Policy in the Making: An Analysis of Bilingual Gaming Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppanen, Sirpa; Piirainen-Marsh, Arja

    2009-01-01

    Building on an understanding of language policy as continually evolving, emergent and influenced by norms of specific communities and cultures, this paper investigates the practices through which young people negotiate informal language policies when interacting with new media in the context of electronic gaming. We examine how young new media…

  20. The Rules of the Game: Properties of a Database of Expository Language Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilmann, John; Malone, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors created a database of expository oral language samples with the aims of describing the nature of students' expository discourse and providing benchmark data for typically developing preteen and teenage students. Method: Using a favorite game or sport protocol, language samples were collected from 235 typically developing…

  1. Child Bilingualism in an Immigrant Society: Implications of Borrowing in the Hebrew 'Language of Games.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Adon, Aaron

    The first waves of immigrants arriving in Palestine were faced with the problem of forming a new culture and creating a new language, actually, reviving Hebrew, an ancient language. The children were faced with creating their own traditions, games, and folklore; in so doing, through straight borrowing, spontaneous translation (loan translation),…

  2. Wireless Adaptive Therapeutic TeleGaming in a Pervasive Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, James F.; Szturm, Tony; Borkowski, Maciej; Lockery, Dan; Ramanna, Sheela; Shay, Barbara

    This chapter introduces a wireless, pervasive computing approach to adaptive therapeutic telegaming considered in the context of near set theory. Near set theory provides a formal basis for observation, comparison and classification of perceptual granules. A perceptual granule is defined by a collection of objects that are graspable by the senses or by the mind. In the proposed pervasive computing approach to telegaming, a handicapped person (e.g., stroke patient with limited hand, finger, arm function) plays a video game by interacting with familiar instrumented objects such as cups, cutlery, soccer balls, nozzles, screw top-lids, spoons, so that the technology that makes therapeutic exercise game-playing possible is largely invisible (Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 89:2213-2217, 2008). The basic approach to adaptive learning (AL) in the proposed telegaming environment is ethology-inspired and is quite different from the traditional approach to reinforcement learning. In biologically-inspired learning, organisms learn to achieve some goal by durable modification of behaviours in response to signals from the environment resulting from specific experiences (Animal Behavior, 1995). The term adaptive is used here in an ethological sense, where learning by an organism results from modifying behaviour in response to perceived changes in the environment. To instill adaptivity in a video game, it is assumed that learning by a video game is episodic. During an episode, the behaviour of a player is measured indirectly by tracking the occurrence of gaming events such as a hit or a miss of a target (e.g., hitting a moving ball with a game paddle). An ethogram provides a record of behaviour feature values that provide a basis a functional registry for handicapped players for gaming adaptivity. An important practical application of adaptive gaming is therapeutic rehabilitation exercise carried out in parallel with playing action video games. Enjoyable and

  3. Adapting Cognitive Walkthrough to Support Game Based Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, David; Moffat, David C.

    2014-01-01

    For any given Game Based Learning (GBL) project to be successful, the player must learn something. Designers may base their work on pedagogical research, but actual game design is still largely driven by intuition. People are famously poor at unsupported methodical thinking and relying so much on instinct is an obvious weak point in GBL design…

  4. Exploring Learners' Perceptions of the Use of Digital Letter Games for Language Learning: The Case of Magic Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loiseau, Mathieu; Cervini, Cristiana; Ceccherelli, Andrea; Masperi, Monica; Salomoni, Paola; Roccetti, Marco; Valva, Antonella; Bianco, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present two versions of a learning game developed respectively at the Grenoble Alpes and Bologna University. This research focuses on a digital game aimed at favouring the learners' "playful attitude" and harnessing it towards "accuracy" aspects of language learning (lexicon and morphology, here). The game,…

  5. The Potential of Incorporating Computer Games in Foreign Language Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Kalajahi, Seyed Ali Rezvani; Naghdipour, Bakhtiar

    2014-01-01

    There is ample evidence that technology-enhanced instruction could result in students' learning. With the advancement and ever-increasing growth of technology, the use of educational electronic games or computer games in education has appealed to both educators and students. Because of their potential to enhance students' interest, motivation and…

  6. Learning to Play, Playing to Learn: Comparing the Experiences of Adult Foreign Language Learners with Off-the-Shelf and Specialized Games for Learning German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Grove, Frederik; Van Looy, Jan; Mechant, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Learning opportunities offered by digital games have become an important research topic in recent years. Language learning is one of the areas in which games could prosper but the question then is whether these should be specialized language-learning games or commercial off-the-shelf games for entertainment. The goal of this paper is to compare…

  7. The Iterated Classification Game: A New Model of the Cultural Transmission of Language

    PubMed Central

    Swarup, Samarth; Gasser, Les

    2010-01-01

    The Iterated Classification Game (ICG) combines the Classification Game with the Iterated Learning Model (ILM) to create a more realistic model of the cultural transmission of language through generations. It includes both learning from parents and learning from peers. Further, it eliminates some of the chief criticisms of the ILM: that it does not study grounded languages, that it does not include peer learning, and that it builds in a bias for compositional languages. We show that, over the span of a few generations, a stable linguistic system emerges that can be acquired very quickly by each generation, is compositional, and helps the agents to solve the classification problem with which they are faced. The ICG also leads to a different interpretation of the language acquisition process. It suggests that the role of parents is to initialize the linguistic system of the child in such a way that subsequent interaction with peers results in rapid convergence to the correct language. PMID:20190877

  8. Approaching sign language test construction: adaptation of the German sign language receptive skills test.

    PubMed

    Haug, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    There is a current need for reliable and valid test instruments in different countries in order to monitor deaf children's sign language acquisition. However, very few tests are commercially available that offer strong evidence for their psychometric properties. A German Sign Language (DGS) test focusing on linguistic structures that are acquired in preschool- and school-aged children (4-8 years old) is urgently needed. Using the British Sign Language Receptive Skills Test, that has been standardized and has sound psychometric properties, as a template for adaptation thus provides a starting point for tests of a sign language that is less documented, such as DGS. This article makes a novel contribution to the field by examining linguistic, cultural, and methodological issues in the process of adapting a test from the source language to the target language. The adapted DGS test has sound psychometric properties and provides the basis for revision prior to standardization.

  9. New Ways in Using Communicative Games in Language Teaching. New Ways in TESOL Series II: Innovative Classroom Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shameem, Nikhat, Ed.; Tickoo, Makhan, Ed.

    This guide describes 94 classroom games designed to teach communicative skills in English as a second language, allowing students to use communication strategies in English in realistic situations similar to those in which they would use their native language. An introductory section outlines the rationale for the use of games in communicative…

  10. Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Green, David W; Abutalebi, Jubin

    2013-08-01

    Speech comprehension and production are governed by control processes. We explore their nature and dynamics in bilingual speakers with a focus on speech production. Prior research indicates that individuals increase cognitive control in order to achieve a desired goal. In the adaptive control hypothesis we propose a stronger hypothesis: Language control processes themselves adapt to the recurrent demands placed on them by the interactional context. Adapting a control process means changing a parameter or parameters about the way it works (its neural capacity or efficiency) or the way it works in concert, or in cascade, with other control processes (e.g., its connectedness). We distinguish eight control processes (goal maintenance, conflict monitoring, interference suppression, salient cue detection, selective response inhibition, task disengagement, task engagement, opportunistic planning). We consider the demands on these processes imposed by three interactional contexts (single language, dual language, and dense code-switching). We predict adaptive changes in the neural regions and circuits associated with specific control processes. A dual-language context, for example, is predicted to lead to the adaptation of a circuit mediating a cascade of control processes that circumvents a control dilemma. Effective test of the adaptive control hypothesis requires behavioural and neuroimaging work that assesses language control in a range of tasks within the same individual.

  11. Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Abutalebi, Jubin

    2013-01-01

    Speech comprehension and production are governed by control processes. We explore their nature and dynamics in bilingual speakers with a focus on speech production. Prior research indicates that individuals increase cognitive control in order to achieve a desired goal. In the adaptive control hypothesis we propose a stronger hypothesis: Language control processes themselves adapt to the recurrent demands placed on them by the interactional context. Adapting a control process means changing a parameter or parameters about the way it works (its neural capacity or efficiency) or the way it works in concert, or in cascade, with other control processes (e.g., its connectedness). We distinguish eight control processes (goal maintenance, conflict monitoring, interference suppression, salient cue detection, selective response inhibition, task disengagement, task engagement, opportunistic planning). We consider the demands on these processes imposed by three interactional contexts (single language, dual language, and dense code-switching). We predict adaptive changes in the neural regions and circuits associated with specific control processes. A dual-language context, for example, is predicted to lead to the adaptation of a circuit mediating a cascade of control processes that circumvents a control dilemma. Effective test of the adaptive control hypothesis requires behavioural and neuroimaging work that assesses language control in a range of tasks within the same individual. PMID:25077013

  12. Using Educational Games for Sign Language Learning--A SignWriting Learning Game: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouzid, Yosra; Khenissi, Mohamed Ali; Essalmi, Fathi; Jemni, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Apart from being used as a means of entertainment, computer games have been adopted for a long time as a valuable tool for learning. Computer games can offer many learning benefits to students since they can consume their attention and increase their motivation and engagement which can then lead to stimulate learning. However, most of the research…

  13. If Language Is a Complex Adaptive System, What Is Language Assessment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Yin, Chengbin

    2009-01-01

    Individuals' use of language in contexts emerges from second-to-second processes of activating and integrating traces of past experiences--an interactionist view compatible with the study of language as a complex adaptive system but quite different from the trait-based framework through which measurement specialists investigate validity, establish…

  14. Adaptation of a Vocabulary Test from British Sign Language to American Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Wolfgang; Roy, Penny; Morgan, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the adaptation process of a vocabulary knowledge test for British Sign Language (BSL) into American Sign Language (ASL) and presents results from the first round of pilot testing with 20 deaf native ASL signers. The web-based test assesses the strength of deaf children's vocabulary knowledge by means of different mappings of…

  15. Instructional games: Scientific language use, concept understanding, and attitudinal development of middle school learners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongillo, Geraldine

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the influence of instructional games on middle school learners' use of scientific language, concept understanding, and attitude toward learning science. The rationale for this study stemmed from the lack of research concerning the value of play as an instructional strategy for older learners. Specifically, the study focused on the ways in which 6 average ability 7th grade students demonstrated scientific language and concept use during gameplay. The data were collected for this 6-week study in a southern New Jersey suburban middle school and included audio recordings of the 5 games observed in class, written documents (e.g., student created game questions, self-evaluation forms, pre- and post-assessments, and the final quiz) interviews, and researcher field notes. Data were coded and interpreted borrowing from the framework for scientific literacy developed by Bybee (1997). Based on the findings, the framework was modified to reflect the level of scientific understanding demonstrated by the participants and categorized as: Unacquainted, Nominal, Functional, and Conceptual. Major findings suggested that the participants predominantly achieved the Functional level of scientific literacy (i.e., the ability to adequately and appropriately use scientific language in both written and oral discourse) during games. Further, it was discovered that the participants achieved the Conceptual level of scientific literacy during gameplay. Through games participants were afforded the opportunity to use common, everyday language to explore concepts, promoted through peer collaboration. In games the participants used common language to build understandings that exceeded Nominal or token use of the technical vocabulary and concepts. Additionally, the participants reported through interviews and self-evaluation forms that their attitude (patterns included: Motivation, Interest, Fun, Relief from Boredom, and an Alternate Learning

  16. Expressed emotion measure adaptation into a foreign language.

    PubMed

    Rein, Z; Duclos, J; Perdereau, F; Curt, F; Apfel, Alexandre; Wallier, J; Verdier, A; Fermanian, J; Falissard, B; Zaden, S; Godart, N T

    2011-01-01

    Expressed emotion (EE) measures have been created in English; adaptation into a foreign language is difficult. The aim of this study was to adapt the five minutes speech sample (FMSS), with a designed procedure ensuring optimum quality of the adaptation, and thus better trans-cultural validity. A strategy for improving inter-rater agreement comprised three phases: (1) phase of initial ratings (70 French samples), (2) experimental phase in two steps: ratings of 40 other samples in French, followed by analysis of differences between the French-language ratings and English-language ratings and (3) final rating phase of the initial 70 samples. For each phase, the κ coefficients measuring inter-rater agreement were calculated and compared using a bootstrap procedure. The improvements between these scorings were significant at p < 0.05 (phase 2 initial versus phase 2 final and phases 1 versus 3). The French inter-rater agreement significantly improved after this procedure.

  17. Unmasking the Mystique: Utilizing Narrative Character-Playing Games to Support English Language Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killham, Jennifer E.; Saligman, Adam; Jette, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    This classroom-based action research study investigated the creative implementation of fluency instruction for English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners through the use of a virtual character-playing simulation called Place Out of Time (POOT). The researchers sought to identify what supported and impeded student participation in this game-based…

  18. Perceptual Adaptation to Sinewave-vocoded Speech Across Languages

    PubMed Central

    Bent, Tessa; Loebach, Jeremy L.; Phillips, Lawrence; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Listeners rapidly adapt to many forms of degraded speech. What level of information drives this adaptation, however, remains unresolved. The current study exposed listeners to sinewave-vocoded speech in one of three languages, which manipulated the type of information shared between the training languages (German, Mandarin, or English) and the testing language (English) in an audio-visual (AV) or an audio plus still frames modality (A+Stills). Three control groups were included to assess procedural learning effects. After training, listeners’ perception of novel sinewave-vocoded English sentences was tested. Listeners exposed to German-AV materials performed equivalently to listeners exposed to English AV or A+Stills materials and significantly better than two control groups. The Mandarin groups and German-A+Stills group showed an intermediate level of performance. These results suggest that full lexical access is not absolutely necessary for adaptation to degraded speech, but providing AV-training in a language that is similar phonetically to the testing language can facilitate adaptation. PMID:21688936

  19. Cultural Adaptation of Second Language Soldiers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-05

    Although we interviewed second language soldiers from Korea, the Philippeans, Micronesia, Samoa, Guam, Italy, Turkey, Bolivia, Colombia and Vietnam, by far...we are citizens of the US." Interview #26 LTC Littlefield, Director, Transportation Career Development Division and MAJ Saylor, Coordinator... Transportation Officer Basic Course, Transporta- tion School, Ft Eustis, VA, 14 Jun 81. NARRATIVE 4. This interview dealt with the performance of Puerto Rican

  20. Adaptive Incentive Controls for Stackelberg Games with Unknown Cost Functionals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Games with Incentives," Preprints of the 4th IFAC/IFORS/ IIASA Conf. on the Modelling and Control of National Economies, Washington, D. C., June 1983...34Robustness of Incentive Policies in Team Problems with Discrepancies in Goal Perceptions," Preprints of the 4th IFAC/IFORS/ IIASA Conf. on the

  1. Game-Like Language Learning in 3-D Virtual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Anke; Gonzalez-Pardo, Antonio; Camacho, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents our recent experiences with the design of game-like applications in 3-D virtual environments as well as its impact on student motivation and learning. Therefore our paper starts with a brief analysis of the motivational aspects of videogames and virtual worlds (VWs). We then go on to explore the possible benefits of both in the…

  2. Adapting tests of sign language assessment for other sign languages--a review of linguistic, cultural, and psychometric problems.

    PubMed

    Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from one natural sign language to another. Two tests which have been adapted for several other sign languages are focused upon: the Test for American Sign Language and the British Sign Language Receptive Skills Test. A brief description is given of each test as well as insights from ongoing adaptations of these tests for other sign languages. The problems reported in these adaptations were found to be grounded in linguistic and cultural differences, which need to be considered for future test adaptations. Other reported shortcomings of test adaptation are related to the question of how well psychometric measures transfer from one instrument to another.

  3. Conceptual and empirical problems with game theoretic approaches to language evolution

    PubMed Central

    Watumull, Jeffrey; Hauser, Marc D.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of game theoretic models to evolutionary theory has been in formulating elegant equations that specify the strategies to be played and the conditions to be satisfied for particular traits to evolve. These models, in conjunction with experimental tests of their predictions, have successfully described and explained the costs and benefits of varying strategies and the dynamics for establishing equilibria in a number of evolutionary scenarios, including especially cooperation, mating, and aggression. Over the past decade or so, game theory has been applied to model the evolution of language. In contrast to the aforementioned scenarios, however, we argue that these models are problematic due to conceptual confusions and empirical difficiences. In particular, these models conflate the comptutations and representations of our language faculty (mechanism) with its utility in communication (function); model languages as having different fitness functions for which there is no evidence; depend on assumptions for the starting state of the system, thereby begging the question of how these systems evolved; and to date, have generated no empirical studies at all. Game theoretic models of language evolution have therefore failed to advance how or why language evolved, or why it has the particular representations and computations that it does. We conclude with some brief suggestions for how this situation might be ameliorated, enabling this important theoretical tool to make substantive empirical contributions. PMID:24678305

  4. Experimental Investigation of Human Adaptation to Change in Agent's Strategy through a Competitive Two-Player Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Kazunori; Yamada, Seiji; Ito, Akira

    We conducted an experimental investigation on human adaptation to change in an agent's strategy through a competitive two-player game. Modeling the process of human adaptation to agents is important for designing intelligent interface agents and adaptive user interfaces that learn a user's preferences and behavior strategy. However, few studies on human adaptation to such an agent have been done. We propose a human adaptation model for a two-player game. We prepared an on-line experimental system in which a participant and an agent play a repeated penny-matching game with a bonus round. We then conducted experiments in which different opponent agents (human or robot) change their strategy during the game. The experimental results indicated that, as expected, there is an adaptation phase when a human is confronted with a change in the opponent agent's strategy, and adaptation is faster when a human is competing with robot than with another human.

  5. From General Game Descriptions to a Market Specification Language for General Trading Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielscher, Michael; Zhang, Dongmo

    The idea behind General Game Playing is to build systems that, instead of being programmed for one specific task, are intelligent and flexible enough to negotiate an unknown environment solely on the basis of the rules which govern it. In this paper, we argue that this principle has the great potential to bring to a new level artificially intelligent systems in other application areas as well. Our specific interest lies in General Trading Agents, which are able to understand the rules of unknown markets and then to actively participate in them without human intervention. To this end, we extend the general Game Description Language into a language that allows to formally describe arbitrary markets in such a way that these specifications can be automatically processed by a computer. We present both syntax and a transition-based semantics for this Market Specification Language and illustrate its expressive power by presenting axiomatizations of several well-known auction types.

  6. The Importance of Games in Teaching Foreign Languages to Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpar, Melek

    2013-01-01

    In teaching French as a foreign language, there is a constant development from traditional methods to action-oriented approaches. This development has arisen as a result of students' needs and of innovations in technology. Particularly in the last decade, there has been increasing interest in teaching foreign languages to children. Because of…

  7. Different Reasons to Play Games in an English Language Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevy-Biloon, Julia

    2017-01-01

    English language students at the Universidad Nacional de Educacion (UNAE) in Ecuador tend to have various learning styles and have a hard time being motivated to not only learn, but also remember the correct form of English language being taught in the classroom. It is mandatory for these students to learn English; therefore many do not have…

  8. Mispronunciation Detection for Language Learning and Speech Recognition Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Zhenhao

    2013-01-01

    The areas of "mispronunciation detection" (or "accent detection" more specifically) within the speech recognition community are receiving increased attention now. Two application areas, namely language learning and speech recognition adaptation, are largely driving this research interest and are the focal points of this work.…

  9. Adaptive Game Based Learning Using Brain Measures for Attention--Some Explorations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Pal, Jelke; Roos, Christopher; Sewnath, Ghanshaam; Rosheuvel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The prospective use of low fidelity simulation and gaming in aviation training is high, and may facilitate individual, personal training needs in usually asynchronous training setting. Without direct feedback from, or intervention by, an instructor, adaptivity of the training environment is in high demand to ensure training sessions maintain an…

  10. World of Wordcraft: Foreign Language Grammar and Composition Taught as a Term-Long Role-Playing Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellar-Goad, T. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines an innovative approach to the instruction of foreign languages: a term-long role-playing game in the style of tabletop role-playing games such as "Dungeons & Dragons." Students adopt personas, avatars, or "player characters" and take them through adventures, exploration, puzzles, and fights with…

  11. The Effect of Using Educational Games on the Students' Achievement in English Language for the Primary Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mubaslat, Mania Moayad

    2012-01-01

    This study attempts to determine the role of educational games on learning a foreign language, and to compare games with more traditional practices as effective learning tools on the basic educational stage students at governmental schools in Jordan, an experimental research is conducted using three groups out of six randomly. To determine the…

  12. Developing and Applying a Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning and Practicing Game: The Effect of VocaWord

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzun, Levent; Çetinavci, Ugur Recep; Korkmaz, Sedat; Salihoglu, Umut Muharrem

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports on the findings related to the effect of playing a vocabulary learning and practicing game in elementary English classes at university level, and the attitudes and beliefs of the subjects about playing games with the purpose of learning the foreign language. The subjects were 70 first year university students from two…

  13. Learning an EMG Controlled Game: Task-Specific Adaptations and Transfer

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Ludger; van der Sluis, Corry K.; van Dijk, Hylke W.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2016-01-01

    Video games that aim to improve myoelectric control (myogames) are gaining popularity and are often part of the rehabilitation process following an upper limb amputation. However, direct evidence for their effect on prosthetic skill is limited. This study aimed to determine whether and how myogaming improves EMG control and whether performance improvements transfer to a prosthesis-simulator task. Able-bodied right-handed participants (N = 28) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The intervention group was trained to control a video game (Breakout-EMG) using the myosignals of wrist flexors and extensors. Controls played a regular Mario computer game. Both groups trained 20 minutes a day for 4 consecutive days. Before and after training, two tests were conducted: one level of the Breakout-EMG game, and grasping objects with a prosthesis-simulator. Results showed a larger increase of in-game accuracy for the Breakout-EMG group than for controls. The Breakout-EMG group moreover showed increased adaptation of the EMG signal to the game. No differences were found in using a prosthesis-simulator. This study demonstrated that myogames lead to task-specific myocontrol skills. Transfer to a prosthesis task is therefore far from easy. We discuss several implications for future myogame designs. PMID:27556154

  14. Salapiggy: Usability Test of the Sifteo Cubes as a Game Interface for the Money Counting Game for Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orense, Adrian; Decena, Berlyn Anne; Feria, Rommel

    2013-01-01

    Kinesthetic learning, one of the VAK learning styles, is now also being adapted by different gaming consoles and platforms. This paper presents Salapiggy, a two-part kinesthetic educational Sifteo game that has both a tutorial on money and sorting game. It is localized in the Philippines and uses Filipino as the User Interface Language and the…

  15. Language Impairment, Family Interaction and the Design of a Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Guillermina

    2008-01-01

    This case study describes a user-centered design approach in the area of aphasia. Aphasia is a language impairment that can take many forms, so a particular case provides the foundation for this work. The particularities of the individual with this condition and his social context are key to developing and designing an intervention that supports…

  16. Motivation, students' needs and learning outcomes: a hybrid game-based app for enhanced language learning.

    PubMed

    Berns, Anke; Isla-Montes, José-Luis; Palomo-Duarte, Manuel; Dodero, Juan-Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In the context of European Higher Education students face an increasing focus on independent, individual learning-at the expense of face-to-face interaction. Hence learners are, all too often, not provided with enough opportunities to negotiate in the target language. The current case study aims to address this reality by going beyond conventional approaches to provide students with a hybrid game-based app, combining individual and collaborative learning opportunities. The 4-week study was carried out with 104 German language students (A1.2 CEFR) who had previously been enrolled in a first-semester A1.1 level course at a Spanish university. The VocabTrainerA1 app-designed specifically for this study-harnesses the synergy of combining individual learning tasks and a collaborative murder mystery game in a hybrid level-based architecture. By doing so, the app provides learners with opportunities to apply their language skills to real-life-like communication. The purpose of the study was twofold: on one hand we aimed to measure learner motivation, perceived usefulness and added value of hybrid game-based apps; on the other, we sought to determine their impact on language learning. To this end, we conducted focus group interviews and an anonymous Technology Acceptance Model survey (TAM). In addition, students took a pre-test and a post-test. Scores from both tests were compared with the results obtained in first-semester conventional writing tasks, with a view to measure learning outcomes. The study provides qualitative and quantitative data supporting our initial hypotheses. Our findings suggest that hybrid game-based apps like VocabTrainerA1-which seamlessly combine individual and collaborative learning tasks-motivate learners, stimulate perceived usefulness and added value, and better meet the language learning needs of today's digital natives. In terms of acceptance, outcomes and sustainability, the data indicate that hybrid game-based apps significantly improve

  17. Store-and-feedforward adaptive gaming system for hand-finger motion tracking in telerehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lockery, Daniel; Peters, James F; Ramanna, Sheela; Shay, Barbara L; Szturm, Tony

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a telerehabilitation system that encompasses a webcam and store-and-feedforward adaptive gaming system for tracking finger-hand movement of patients during local and remote therapy sessions. Gaming-event signals and webcam images are recorded as part of a gaming session and then forwarded to an online healthcare content management system (CMS) that separates incoming information into individual patient records. The CMS makes it possible for clinicians to log in remotely and review gathered data using online reports that are provided to help with signal and image analysis using various numerical measures and plotting functions. Signals from a 6 degree-of-freedom magnetic motion tracking system provide a basis for video-game sprite control. The MMT provides a path for motion signals between common objects manipulated by a patient and a computer game. During a therapy session, a webcam that captures images of the hand together with a number of performance metrics provides insight into the quality, efficiency, and skill of a patient.

  18. Adaptive and bounded investment returns promote cooperation in spatial public goods games.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaojie; Liu, Yongkui; Zhou, Yonghui; Wang, Long; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    The public goods game is one of the most famous models for studying the evolution of cooperation in sizable groups. The multiplication factor in this game can characterize the investment return from the public good, which may be variable depending on the interactive environment in realistic situations. Instead of using the same universal value, here we consider that the multiplication factor in each group is updated based on the differences between the local and global interactive environments in the spatial public goods game, but meanwhile limited to within a certain range. We find that the adaptive and bounded investment returns can significantly promote cooperation. In particular, full cooperation can be achieved for high feedback strength when appropriate limitation is set for the investment return. Also, we show that the fraction of cooperators in the whole population can become larger if the lower and upper limits of the multiplication factor are increased. Furthermore, in comparison to the traditionally spatial public goods game where the multiplication factor in each group is identical and fixed, we find that cooperation can be better promoted if the multiplication factor is constrained to adjust between one and the group size in our model. Our results highlight the importance of the locally adaptive and bounded investment returns for the emergence and dominance of cooperative behavior in structured populations.

  19. Adaptive significance of right hemisphere activation in aphasic language comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Jed A.; Wagage, Suraji; Ryder, Jennifer; Solomon, Beth; Braun, Allen R.

    2013-01-01

    Aphasic patients often exhibit increased right hemisphere activity during language tasks. This may represent takeover of function by regions homologous to the left-hemisphere language networks, maladaptive interference, or adaptation of alternate compensatory strategies. To distinguish between these accounts, we tested language comprehension in 25 aphasic patients using an online sentence-picture matching paradigm while measuring brain activation with MEG. Linguistic conditions included semantically irreversible (“The boy is eating the apple”) and reversible (“The boy is pushing the girl”) sentences at three levels of syntactic complexity. As expected, patients performed well above chance on irreversible sentences, and at chance on reversible sentences of high complexity. Comprehension of reversible non-complex sentences ranged from nearly perfect to chance, and was highly correlated with offline measures of language comprehension. Lesion analysis revealed that comprehension deficits for reversible sentences were predicted by damage to the left temporal lobe. Although aphasic patients activated homologous areas in the right temporal lobe, such activation was not correlated with comprehension performance. Rather, patients with better comprehension exhibited increased activity in dorsal fronto-parietal regions. Correlations between performance and dorsal network activity occurred bilaterally during perception of sentences, and in the right hemisphere during a post-sentence memory delay. These results suggest that effortful reprocessing of perceived sentences in short-term memory can support improved comprehension in aphasia, and that strategic recruitment of alternative networks, rather than homologous takeover, may account for some findings of right hemisphere language activation in aphasia. PMID:23566891

  20. Adaptive significance of right hemisphere activation in aphasic language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Jed A; Wagage, Suraji; Ryder, Jennifer; Solomon, Beth; Braun, Allen R

    2013-06-01

    Aphasic patients often exhibit increased right hemisphere activity during language tasks. This may represent takeover of function by regions homologous to the left-hemisphere language networks, maladaptive interference, or adaptation of alternate compensatory strategies. To distinguish between these accounts, we tested language comprehension in 25 aphasic patients using an online sentence-picture matching paradigm while measuring brain activation with MEG. Linguistic conditions included semantically irreversible ("The boy is eating the apple") and reversible ("The boy is pushing the girl") sentences at three levels of syntactic complexity. As expected, patients performed well above chance on irreversible sentences, and at chance on reversible sentences of high complexity. Comprehension of reversible non-complex sentences ranged from nearly perfect to chance, and was highly correlated with offline measures of language comprehension. Lesion analysis revealed that comprehension deficits for reversible sentences were predicted by damage to the left temporal lobe. Although aphasic patients activated homologous areas in the right temporal lobe, such activation was not correlated with comprehension performance. Rather, patients with better comprehension exhibited increased activity in dorsal fronto-parietal regions. Correlations between performance and dorsal network activity occurred bilaterally during perception of sentences, and in the right hemisphere during a post-sentence memory delay. These results suggest that effortful reprocessing of perceived sentences in short-term memory can support improved comprehension in aphasia, and that strategic recruitment of alternative networks, rather than homologous takeover, may account for some findings of right hemisphere language activation in aphasia.

  1. Detection of content adaptive LSB matching: a game theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denemark, Tomáš; Fridrich, Jessica

    2014-02-01

    This paper is an attempt to analyze the interaction between Alice and Warden in Steganography using the Game Theory. We focus on the modern steganographic embedding paradigm based on minimizing an additive distortion function. The strategies of both players comprise of the probabilistic selection channel. The Warden is granted the knowledge of the payload and the embedding costs, and detects embedding using the likelihood ratio. In particular, the Warden is ignorant about the embedding probabilities chosen by Alice. When adopting a simple multivariate Gaussian model for the cover, the payoff function in the form of the Warden's detection error can be numerically evaluated for a mutually independent embedding operation. We demonstrate on the example of a two-pixel cover that the Nash equilibrium is different from the traditional Alice's strategy that minimizes the KL divergence between cover and stego objects under an omnipotent Warden. Practical implications of this case study include computing the loss per pixel of Warden's ability to detect embedding due to her ignorance about the selection channel.

  2. Stochastic Game Analysis and Latency Awareness for Self-Adaptation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Tactic: is a primitive action that corresponds to a single step of adaptation, and has an associated: (i) cost/benefit impact on the different quality...dimensions, and (ii) latency, which corresponds to the time it takes since a tactic is started until its effect is observed.2 For instance, in... Gandhi et al. considers the setup time of servers, and is able to deal with unpredictable changes in load by be- ing conservative about removing servers

  3. Building Adaptive Game-Based Learning Resources: The Integration of IMS Learning Design and

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgos, Daniel; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Sierra, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) is a specification to create units of learning (UoLs), which express a certain pedagogical model or strategy (e.g., adaptive learning with games). However, the authoring process of a UoL remains difficult because of the lack of high-level authoring tools for IMS-LD, even more so when the focus is on specific topics,…

  4. Tinkering with Tasks Knows No Bounds: ESL Teachers' Adaptations of Task-Based Language-Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plews, John L.; Zhao, Kangxian

    2010-01-01

    Research on implementing task-based language-teaching (TBLT) shows that adapting TBLT in ways that are inconsistent with its principles is common among nonnative-speaker English-as-a-foreign-language teachers. Our study of Canadian native-speaker English-as-a-second language teachers reveals how they also adapt TBLT in ways that are incongruent…

  5. The Radio Language Arts Project: adapting the radio mathematics model.

    PubMed

    Christensen, P R

    1985-01-01

    Kenya's Radio Language Arts Project, directed by the Academy for Educational Development in cooperation with the Kenya Institute of Education in 1980-85, sought to teach English to rural school children in grades 1-3 through use of an intensive, radio-based instructional system. Daily 1/2 hour lessons are broadcast throughout the school year and supported by teachers and print materials. The project further was aimed at testing the feasibility of adaptation of the successful Nicaraguan Radio Math Project to a new subject area. Difficulties were encountered in articulating a language curriculum with the precision required for a media-based instructional system. Also a challenge was defining the acceptable regional standard for pronunciation and grammar; British English was finally selected. An important modification of the Radio Math model concerned the role of the teacher. While Radio Math sought to reduce the teacher's responsibilities during the broadcast, Radio Language Arts teachers played an important instructional role during the English lesson broadcasts by providing translation and checks on work. Evaluations of the Radio language Arts Project suggest significant gains in speaking, listening, and reading skills as well as high levels of satisfaction on the part of parents and teachers.

  6. Adapting Tests of Sign Language Assessment for Other Sign Languages--A Review of Linguistic, Cultural, and Psychometric Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from…

  7. Language Adaptive LVCSR Through Polyphone Decision Tree Specialization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    15.0 fectiveness of porting multilingual recognition systems to new tar- French (Bref) FR 7143 74 123K 13.9 get languages with very limited adaptation...22.9 Korean KO 6335 80 301K 16.4 recognition results are presented based on mono- and multilingual Spanish SP 5419 82 138K 17.6 recognizers developed in...limitation in developing LVCSR systems in new lan- lingual phonemic inventories and multilingual phoneme mod- guages is the need of large training data

  8. 21st Century Language and Literacy in Gamestar Mechanic: Middle School Students' Appropriation through Play of the Discourse of Computer Game Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Games, Ivan A.

    2009-01-01

    The research in this dissertation examined the language and literacy practices of middle school children as they played Gamestar Mechanic, a game-based learning environment constituted by a flash-based multiplayer online role-playing game designed to introduce them to the Discourse of game designers, by exposing them to key principles and…

  9. Dead on Arrival: Adapting Games to Finish at a Given Time or Location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Öhsen, Arne; Loviscach, Jörn

    Casual and other games often serve as time-killing applications, be it on the commuter train or in the back seat of a shared car. When one arrives at the destination, the game has to be interrupted or aborted, which is annoying or even frustrating. Hence, we propose to continuously adapt the game’s level of difficulty to the estimated remaining time to arrival. This can be preset as a number of minutes or can continuously be estimated from the player’s position in relation to a predefined destination. Our dungeon-style prototype is based on an automated engine for content placement and can also make use of GPS data. We report on preliminary results from user tests.

  10. The Design of Video Games in the Implementation of Malay Language Learning among Foreign Students in an Institution of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosman, Fuziah; Alias, Norlidah; Rahman, Mohd Nazri Abdul; Dewitt, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at reviewing the curriculum design by including video games in the implementation of the Malay language course at an Institute of Higher Learning. The objective of this study is to obtain expert opinion on the expected manner of implementation of video games in learning the Malay language. The Fuzzy Delphi technique (FDM) is used…

  11. Rangeland Rummy - a board game to support adaptive management of rangeland-based livestock systems.

    PubMed

    Farrié, B; Jouven, M; Launay, F; Moreau, J-C; Moulin, C-H; Piquet, M; Taverne, M; Tchakérian, E; Thénard, V; Martin, G

    2015-01-01

    Rangeland-based livestock systems have to deal with the significant instability and uncertainty of the agricultural context (policy changes, volatility of input prices, etc.), and especially of the climatic context. Thus, they are particularly concerned by adaptive management strategies. To support the development of such strategies, we developed a board game including a computer model called "Rangeland Rummy". It is to be used by groups of farmers and agricultural consultants in the context of short workshops (about 3 h). Rangeland Rummy builds upon five types of material object: (i) a game board; (ii) a calendar stick indicating the starting date of the game board; (iii) sticks marked with the feed resources available for combinations of vegetation types and their management practices; (iv) cards to define animal groups and their feeding requirements throughout the year; (v) cards related to types of feed that can be attributed to animal groups throughout the year. Using these material objects, farmers collectively design a rangeland-based livestock system. This system is immediately evaluated using a computer model, i.e. a spreadsheet providing graphs and indicators providing information on, among other things, the extent to which quantitative and qualitative animal feeding requirements are covered across the year. Playing the game thus consists in collectively and iteratively designing and evaluating rangeland-based livestock systems, while confronting the players with new contextual challenges (e.g. interannual variability of weather, volatility of input prices) or new farmers' objectives (e.g. being self-sufficient for animal feeding). An example of application of Rangeland Rummy with 3 farmers in southern France is reported. Applications show that it tends to develop farmers' adaptive capacity by stimulating their discussions and the exchange of locally-relevant knowledge on management strategies and practices in rangeland-based livestock systems.

  12. Language Model Combination and Adaptation Using Weighted Finite State Transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, X.; Gales, M. J. F.; Hieronymus, J. L.; Woodland, P. C.

    2010-01-01

    In speech recognition systems language model (LMs) are often constructed by training and combining multiple n-gram models. They can be either used to represent different genres or tasks found in diverse text sources, or capture stochastic properties of different linguistic symbol sequences, for example, syllables and words. Unsupervised LM adaption may also be used to further improve robustness to varying styles or tasks. When using these techniques, extensive software changes are often required. In this paper an alternative and more general approach based on weighted finite state transducers (WFSTs) is investigated for LM combination and adaptation. As it is entirely based on well-defined WFST operations, minimum change to decoding tools is needed. A wide range of LM combination configurations can be flexibly supported. An efficient on-the-fly WFST decoding algorithm is also proposed. Significant error rate gains of 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art broadcast audio recognition task using a history dependently adapted multi-level LM modelling both syllable and word sequences

  13. Evaluation of an Adaptive Game that Uses EEG Measures Validated during the Design Process as Inputs to a Biocybernetic Loop

    PubMed Central

    Ewing, Kate C.; Fairclough, Stephen H.; Gilleade, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Biocybernetic adaptation is a form of physiological computing whereby real-time data streaming from the brain and body is used by a negative control loop to adapt the user interface. This article describes the development of an adaptive game system that is designed to maximize player engagement by utilizing changes in real-time electroencephalography (EEG) to adjust the level of game demand. The research consists of four main stages: (1) the development of a conceptual framework upon which to model the interaction between person and system; (2) the validation of the psychophysiological inference underpinning the loop; (3) the construction of a working prototype; and (4) an evaluation of the adaptive game. Two studies are reported. The first demonstrates the sensitivity of EEG power in the (frontal) theta and (parietal) alpha bands to changing levels of game demand. These variables were then reformulated within the working biocybernetic control loop designed to maximize player engagement. The second study evaluated the performance of an adaptive game of Tetris with respect to system behavior and user experience. Important issues for the design and evaluation of closed-loop interfaces are discussed. PMID:27242486

  14. Evaluation of an Adaptive Game that Uses EEG Measures Validated during the Design Process as Inputs to a Biocybernetic Loop.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Kate C; Fairclough, Stephen H; Gilleade, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Biocybernetic adaptation is a form of physiological computing whereby real-time data streaming from the brain and body is used by a negative control loop to adapt the user interface. This article describes the development of an adaptive game system that is designed to maximize player engagement by utilizing changes in real-time electroencephalography (EEG) to adjust the level of game demand. The research consists of four main stages: (1) the development of a conceptual framework upon which to model the interaction between person and system; (2) the validation of the psychophysiological inference underpinning the loop; (3) the construction of a working prototype; and (4) an evaluation of the adaptive game. Two studies are reported. The first demonstrates the sensitivity of EEG power in the (frontal) theta and (parietal) alpha bands to changing levels of game demand. These variables were then reformulated within the working biocybernetic control loop designed to maximize player engagement. The second study evaluated the performance of an adaptive game of Tetris with respect to system behavior and user experience. Important issues for the design and evaluation of closed-loop interfaces are discussed.

  15. Adapting Tests for Use in Multiple Languages and Cultures. Laboratory of Psychometric and Evaluative Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambleton, Ronald K.; Patsula, Liane

    Whatever the purpose of test adaptation, questions arise concerning the validity of inferences from such adapted tests. This paper considers several advantages and disadvantages of adapting tests from one language and culture to another. The paper also reviews several sources of error or invalidity associated with adapting tests and suggests ways…

  16. The U.S.-China E-Language Project: A Study of a Gaming Approach to English Language Learning for Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Patricia J.; Sha, Mandy; Liu, Lu

    2011-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Education and the Ministry of Education in China entered into a bilateral partnership to develop a technology-driven approach to foreign language learning that integrated gaming, immersion, voice recognition, problem-based learning tasks, and other features that made it a significant research and development pilot…

  17. Educator Perceptions of Digital Game-Based Learning in the Instruction of Foreign Languages in Japanese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franciosi, Stephan J.

    2014-01-01

    Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) is an innovative educational approach that is becoming increasingly popular among researchers and practitioners in technologically advanced countries in the West, but is largely unknown or ignored in the instruction of Foreign Languages (FL) in Japanese higher education. This is problematic because more interest…

  18. Examining the Effects of Adapted Peer Tutoring on Social and Language Skills of Young English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yaoying

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of adapted peer tutoring (APT) on social interactions and early language and literacy skills of pre-school-age children who were English language learners (ELLs). APT was the treatment for this study. Quasi-experimental group comparison design was applied. Two inclusive pre-school classrooms…

  19. Using Commercial Games to Design Teacher-Made Games for the Mathematics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.; Lamb, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    The use of commercial games to design and construct games to drill specific mathematics skills is discussed. Game types discussed include card games and board games. Two game boards adapted from "Chutes and Ladders" and "Battleship" are provided. (CW)

  20. Adaptive Plasticity in the Healthy Language Network: Implications for Language Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Across the last three decades, the application of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has substantially increased the current knowledge of the brain's potential to undergo rapid short-term reorganization on the systems level. A large number of studies applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the healthy brain to probe the functional relevance and interaction of specific areas for different cognitive processes. NIBS is also increasingly being used to induce adaptive plasticity in motor and cognitive networks and shape cognitive functions. Recently, NIBS has been combined with electrophysiological techniques to modulate neural oscillations of specific cortical networks. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the use of NIBS to modulate neural activity and effective connectivity in the healthy language network, with a special focus on the combination of NIBS and neuroimaging or electrophysiological approaches. Moreover, we outline how these results can be transferred to the lesioned brain to unravel the dynamics of reorganization processes in poststroke aphasia. We conclude with a critical discussion on the potential of NIBS to facilitate language recovery after stroke and propose a phase-specific model for the application of NIBS in language rehabilitation. PMID:27830094

  1. Language Micro-gaming: Fun and Informal Microblogging Activities for Language Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perifanou, Maria A.

    'Learning is an active process of constructing rather than acquiring knowledge and instruction is a process of supporting that construction rather than communicating knowledge' [1]. Can this process of learning be fun for the learner? Successful learning involves a mixture of work and fun. One of the recent web 2.0 services that can offer great possibilities for learning is Microblogging [2]. This kind of motivation can raise students' natural curiosity and interest which promotes learning. Play can also promote excitement, enjoyment, and a relaxing atmosphere. As Vygotsky (1933) [3] advocates, play creates a zone of proximal development (ZDP) in children. According to Vygotsky, the ZDP is the distance between one's actual developmental level and one's potential developmental level when interacting with someone and/or something in the social environment [4]. Play can be highly influential in learning. What happens when play becomes informal learning supported by web 2.0 technologies? Practical ideas applied in an Italian foreign language classroom using microblogging to promote fun and informal learning showed that microblogging can enhance motivation, participation, collaboration and practice in basic language skills.

  2. Simultaneously selecting appropriate partners for gaming and strategy adaptation to enhance network reciprocity in the prisoner's dilemma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, which leads to cooperative equilibrium in 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma games. Previous studies have shown that cooperation can be enhanced by using a skewed, rather than a random, selection of partners for either strategy adaptation or the gaming process. Here we show that combining both processes for selecting a gaming partner and an adaptation partner further enhances cooperation, provided that an appropriate selection rule and parameters are adopted. We also show that this combined model significantly enhances cooperation by reducing the degree of activity in the underlying network; we measure the degree of activity with a quantity called effective degree. More precisely, during the initial evolutionary stage in which the global cooperation fraction declines because initially allocated cooperators becoming defectors, the model shows that weak cooperative clusters perish and only a few strong cooperative clusters survive. This finding is the most important key to attaining significant network reciprocity.

  3. Simultaneously selecting appropriate partners for gaming and strategy adaptation to enhance network reciprocity in the prisoner's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Network reciprocity is one mechanism for adding social viscosity, which leads to cooperative equilibrium in 2 × 2 prisoner's dilemma games. Previous studies have shown that cooperation can be enhanced by using a skewed, rather than a random, selection of partners for either strategy adaptation or the gaming process. Here we show that combining both processes for selecting a gaming partner and an adaptation partner further enhances cooperation, provided that an appropriate selection rule and parameters are adopted. We also show that this combined model significantly enhances cooperation by reducing the degree of activity in the underlying network; we measure the degree of activity with a quantity called effective degree. More precisely, during the initial evolutionary stage in which the global cooperation fraction declines because initially allocated cooperators becoming defectors, the model shows that weak cooperative clusters perish and only a few strong cooperative clusters survive. This finding is the most important key to attaining significant network reciprocity.

  4. Interplay of Languaging and Gameplay: Player-Game Interactions as Ecologies for Languaging and Situated L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Karim Hesham Shaker

    2016-01-01

    The field of game-mediated L2 learning has grown exponentially, and much has been discovered about the potentials of game-mediated interactions for L2 development, yet the fine-grained dynamics of player-game interactions and how they come to facilitate and afford L2 development are still largely underexplored. To address this gap in the…

  5. Serious-game for water resources management adaptation training to climatic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Eve; Saulnier, Georges-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Water resources access is a main issue for territorial development to ensure environmental and human well-being. Indeed, sustainable development is vulnerable to water availability and climate change may affect the quantity and temporality of available water resources for anthropogenic water uses. How then to adapt, how to change water management rules and practices and how to involve stakeholders is such process? To prevent water scarcity situations, which may generate conflicts and impacts on ecosystems, it is important to think about a sustainable development where anthropogenic water uses are in good balance with forecasted water resources availability. This implies to raise awareness and involve stakeholders for a sustainable water management. Stakeholders have to think about future territorial development taking into account climate change impacts on water resources. Collaboration between scientists and stakeholders is essential to insure consistent climate change knowledge, well identification of anthropogenic uses, tensions and stakes of the territory. However sharing information on complex questions such as climate change, hydro-meteorological modeling and practical constraints may be a difficult task. Therefore to contribute to an easier debate and to the global training of all the interested actors, a serious game about water management was built. The serious game uses scientist complex models with real data but via a simple and playful web-game interface. The advantage of this interface is that it may help stakeholders, citizen or the target group to raise their understandings of impacts of climate change on water resources and to raise their awareness to the need for a sustainable water management while using state-of-the-art knowledge. The principle of the game is simple. The gamer is a mayor of a city and has to manage the water withdrawals from hydro systems, water distribution and consumption, water retreatment etc. In the same time, a clock is

  6. Play to Learn, Learn to Play: Language Learning through Gaming Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryu, Dongwan

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers have investigated learning through playing games. However, after playing games, players often go online to establish and participate in the online community where they enrich their game experiences, discuss game-related issues, and create fan-fictions, screenshots, or scenarios. Although these emerging activities are an essential…

  7. Using Structural Equation Modeling to Validate Online Game Players' Motivations Relative to Self-Concept and Life Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shu Ching; Huang, Chiao Ling

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to validate a systematic instrument to measure online players' motivations for playing online games (MPOG) and examine how the interplay of differential motivations impacts young gamers' self-concept and life adaptation. Confirmatory factor analysis determined that a hierarchical model with a two-factor structure of…

  8. Effects of an Adaptive Game Intervention on Accessing Number Sense in Low-Socioeconomic-Status Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Anna J.; Dehaene, Stanislas; Dubois, Ophelie; Fayol, Michel

    2009-01-01

    "The Number Race" is an adaptive game designed to improve number sense. We tested its effectiveness using a cross-over design in 53 low socioeconomic status kindergarteners in France. Children showed improvements in tasks traditionally used to assess number sense (numerical comparison of digits and words). However, there was no…

  9. Evolution of cooperation in the spatial public goods game with adaptive reputation assortment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mei-huan; Wang, Li; Sun, Shi-wen; Wang, Juan; Xia, Cheng-yi

    2016-01-01

    We present a new spatial public goods game model, which takes the individual reputation and behavior diversity into account at the same time, to investigate the evolution of cooperation. Initially, each player x will be endowed with an integer Rx between 1 and Rmax to characterize his reputation value, which will be adaptively varied according to the strategy action at each time step. Then, the agents play the game and the system proceeds in accordance with a Fermi-like rule, in which a multiplicative factor (wy) to denote the individual difference to perform the strategy transfer will be placed before the traditional Fermi probability. For influential participants, wy is set to be 1.0, but be a smaller value w (0 < w < 1) for non-influential ones. Large quantities of simulations demonstrate that the cooperation behavior will be obviously influenced by the reputation threshold (RC), and the greater the threshold, the higher the fraction of cooperators. The origin of promotion of cooperation will be attributed to the fact that the larger reputation threshold renders the higher heterogeneity in the fraction of two types of players and strategy spreading capability. Our work is conducive to a better understanding of the emergence of cooperation within many real-world systems.

  10. Coevolution of adaptive technology, maladaptive culture and population size in a producer-scrounger game.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Laurent; Feldman, Marcus W

    2009-11-07

    Technology (i.e. tools, methods of cultivation and domestication, systems of construction and appropriation, machines) has increased the vital rates of humans, and is one of the defining features of the transition from Malthusian ecological stagnation to a potentially perpetual rising population growth. Maladaptations, on the other hand, encompass behaviours, customs and practices that decrease the vital rates of individuals. Technology and maladaptations are part of the total stock of culture carried by the individuals in a population. Here, we develop a quantitative model for the coevolution of cumulative adaptive technology and maladaptive culture in a 'producer-scrounger' game, which can also usefully be interpreted as an 'individual-social' learner interaction. Producers (individual learners) are assumed to invent new adaptations and maladaptations by trial-and-error learning, insight or deduction, and they pay the cost of innovation. Scroungers (social learners) are assumed to copy or imitate (cultural transmission) both the adaptations and maladaptations generated by producers. We show that the coevolutionary dynamics of producers and scroungers in the presence of cultural transmission can have a variety of effects on population carrying capacity. From stable polymorphism, where scroungers bring an advantage to the population (increase in carrying capacity), to periodic cycling, where scroungers decrease carrying capacity, we find that selection-driven cultural innovation and transmission may send a population on the path of indefinite growth or to extinction.

  11. Principles underlying the design of "The Number Race", an adaptive computer game for remediation of dyscalculia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Anna J; Dehaene, Stanislas; Pinel, Philippe; Revkin, Susannah K; Cohen, Laurent; Cohen, David

    2006-01-01

    Background Adaptive game software has been successful in remediation of dyslexia. Here we describe the cognitive and algorithmic principles underlying the development of similar software for dyscalculia. Our software is based on current understanding of the cerebral representation of number and the hypotheses that dyscalculia is due to a "core deficit" in number sense or in the link between number sense and symbolic number representations. Methods "The Number Race" software trains children on an entertaining numerical comparison task, by presenting problems adapted to the performance level of the individual child. We report full mathematical specifications of the algorithm used, which relies on an internal model of the child's knowledge in a multidimensional "learning space" consisting of three difficulty dimensions: numerical distance, response deadline, and conceptual complexity (from non-symbolic numerosity processing to increasingly complex symbolic operations). Results The performance of the software was evaluated both by mathematical simulations and by five weeks of use by nine children with mathematical learning difficulties. The results indicate that the software adapts well to varying levels of initial knowledge and learning speeds. Feedback from children, parents and teachers was positive. A companion article [1] describes the evolution of number sense and arithmetic scores before and after training. Conclusion The software, open-source and freely available online, is designed for learning disabled children aged 5–8, and may also be useful for general instruction of normal preschool children. The learning algorithm reported is highly general, and may be applied in other domains. PMID:16734905

  12. Adapting Language across the Curriculum to Diverse Linguistic Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Linda; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Language across the Curriculum programs operating at Hostos Community College for English-as-a-Second-Language students; at Miami-Dade Community College for bilingual transfer students; and Dawson College for faculty. (DMM)

  13. Language Learning Enhanced by Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) and the Underlying Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-e; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs’ appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers’ attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs’ positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers’ overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs. Mechanisms underlying the educational assistant role of MMORPGs in second language learning are discussed from both behavioral and neural perspectives. We suggest that attentional bias makes gamers/learners allocate more cognitive resources toward task-related stimuli in a controlled or an automatic way. Moreover, with a moderating role played by activation of reward circuit, playing the MMORPGs may strengthen or increase functional connectivity from seed regions such as left anterior insular/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and visual word form area to other language-related brain areas. PMID:28303097

  14. Language Learning Enhanced by Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) and the Underlying Behavioral and Neural Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongjun; Song, Hongwen; Liu, Xiaoming; Tang, Dinghong; Chen, Yue-E; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2017-01-01

    Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs' appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers' attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs' positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers' overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs. Mechanisms underlying the educational assistant role of MMORPGs in second language learning are discussed from both behavioral and neural perspectives. We suggest that attentional bias makes gamers/learners allocate more cognitive resources toward task-related stimuli in a controlled or an automatic way. Moreover, with a moderating role played by activation of reward circuit, playing the MMORPGs may strengthen or increase functional connectivity from seed regions such as left anterior insular/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and visual word form area to other language-related brain areas.

  15. Language Is a Complex Adaptive System: Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckner, Clay; Blythe, Richard; Bybee, Joan; Christiansen, Morten H.; Croft, William; Ellis, Nick C.; Holland, John; Ke, Jinyun; Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Schoenemann, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Language has a fundamentally social function. Processes of human interaction along with domain-general cognitive processes shape the structure and knowledge of language. Recent research in the cognitive sciences has demonstrated that patterns of use strongly affect how language is acquired, is used, and changes. These processes are not independent…

  16. Adaptive Motor Resistance Video Game Exercise Apparatus and Method of Use Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reich, Alton (Inventor); Shaw, James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention comprises a method and/or an apparatus using computer configured exercise equipment and an electric motor provided physical resistance in conjunction with a game system, such as a video game system, where the exercise system provides real physical resistance to a user interface. Results of user interaction with the user interface are integrated into a video game, such as running on a game console. The resistance system comprises: a subject interface, software control, a controller, an electric servo assist/resist motor, an actuator, and/or a subject sensor. The system provides actual physical interaction with a resistance device as input to the game console and game run thereon.

  17. A Psycho-Pedagogical Framework for Multi-Adaptive Educational Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kickmeier-Rust, Michael D.; Mattheiss, Elke; Steiner, Christina; Albert, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    One of the trump cards of digital educational games is their enormous intrinsic motivational potential. Although learning game design is often understood on a one-fitsall level, the actual motivational strength of an educational game strongly depends on the individual learners, their very specific goals, preferences, abilities, strength and…

  18. Discrete-Time Nonzero-Sum Games for Multiplayer Using Policy-Iteration-Based Adaptive Dynamic Programming Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaguang; Jiang, He; Luo, Chaomin; Xiao, Geyang

    2016-10-03

    In this paper, we investigate the nonzero-sum games for a class of discrete-time (DT) nonlinear systems by using a novel policy iteration (PI) adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) method. The main idea of our proposed PI scheme is to utilize the iterative ADP algorithm to obtain the iterative control policies, which not only ensure the system to achieve stability but also minimize the performance index function for each player. This paper integrates game theory, optimal control theory, and reinforcement learning technique to formulate and handle the DT nonzero-sum games for multiplayer. First, we design three actor-critic algorithms, an offline one and two online ones, for the PI scheme. Subsequently, neural networks are employed to implement these algorithms and the corresponding stability analysis is also provided via the Lyapunov theory. Finally, a numerical simulation example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed approach.

  19. Adaptive critic designs for discrete-time zero-sum games with application to H(infinity) control.

    PubMed

    Al-Tamimi, Asma; Abu-Khalaf, Murad; Lewis, Frank L

    2007-02-01

    In this correspondence, adaptive critic approximate dynamic programming designs are derived to solve the discrete-time zero-sum game in which the state and action spaces are continuous. This results in a forward-in-time reinforcement learning algorithm that converges to the Nash equilibrium of the corresponding zero-sum game. The results in this correspondence can be thought of as a way to solve the Riccati equation of the well-known discrete-time H(infinity) optimal control problem forward in time. Two schemes are presented, namely: 1) a heuristic dynamic programming and 2) a dual-heuristic dynamic programming, to solve for the value function and the costate of the game, respectively. An H(infinity) autopilot design for an F-16 aircraft is presented to illustrate the results.

  20. Competition and Students' Perceptions in a Game-Based Language Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandercruysse, Sylke; Vandewaetere, Mieke; Cornillie, Frederik; Clarebout, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Although educational games have become quite popular in recent research, only a limited number of studies have focused on the effectiveness of these games. While numerous claims have been made about the effectiveness of games, the studies that examine educational effectiveness often contain flaws resulting in unclear conclusions. One possible…

  1. An Alternate Reality Game for Language Learning: ARGuing for Multilingual Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Thomas M.; Stansfield, Mark; Hainey, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, Alternate Reality Games (ARGs), a form of narrative often involving multiple media and gaming elements to tell a story that might be affected by participants' actions, have been used in the marketing and promotion of a number of entertainment related products such as films, computer games and music. This paper discusses the…

  2. Emotion in languaging: languaging as affective, adaptive, and flexible behavior in social interaction

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues for a view on languaging as inherently affective. Informed by recent ecological tendencies within cognitive science and distributed language studies a distinction between first order languaging (language as whole-body sense making) and second order language (language as system like constraints) is put forward. Contrary to common assumptions within linguistics and communication studies separating language-as-a-system from language use (resulting in separations between language vs. body-language and verbal vs. non-verbal communication etc.) the first/second order distinction sees language as emanating from behavior making it possible to view emotion and affect as integral parts languaging behavior. Likewise, emotion and affect are studied, not as inner mental states, but as processes of organism-environment interactions. Based on video recordings of interaction between (1) children with special needs, and (2) couple in therapy and the therapist patterns of reciprocal influences between interactants are examined. Through analyzes of affective stance and patterns of inter-affectivity it is exemplified how language and emotion should not be seen as separate phenomena combined in language use, but rather as completely intertwined phenomena in languaging behavior constrained by second order patterns. PMID:25076921

  3. Web Delivery of Adaptive and Interactive Language Tutoring: Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude

    2016-01-01

    This commentary reconsiders the description and assessment of the design and implementation of "German Tutor," an Intelligent Language Tutoring System (ILTS) for learners of German as a foreign language, published in 2001. Based on our experience over the past 15 years with the design and real classroom use of an ILTS, we address a…

  4. Language, games and the role of interpreters in psychiatric diagnosis: a Wittgensteinian thought experiment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, P; Shah, A; Thornton, T

    2009-06-01

    British society is becoming increasingly culturally and linguistically diverse. This poses a major challenge to mental health services charged with the responsibility to work in ways that respect cultural and linguistic difference. In this paper we investigate the problems of interpretation in the diagnosis of depression using a thought experiment to demonstrate important features of language-games, an idea introduced by Ludwig Wittgenstein in his late work, Philosophical investigations. The thought experiment draws attention to the importance of culture and contexts in understanding the meaning of particular utterances. This has implications not only for how we understand the role of interpreters in clinical settings, and who might best be suited to function in such a role, but more generally it draws attention to the importance of involving members of black minority ethnic (BME) communities in working alongside mainstream mental health services. We conclude that the involvement of BME community development workers inside, alongside and outside statutory services can potentially improve the quality of care for people from BME communities who use these services.

  5. Multimedia Games for Fun and Learning English in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agudo, J. Enrique; Rico, Mercedes; Sánchez, Héctor

    2015-01-01

    Based on the assumption that educational software addressing Primary school learners must comprise a set of features to encourage children's creativity and development, the appropriate design of second language hypermedia adaptive games for Primary School children can pose a wide range of challenges both for the language teacher and computer…

  6. Say what you mean: rethinking disability language in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly.

    PubMed

    Peers, Danielle; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Eales, Lindsay

    2014-07-01

    Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) currently mandates that authors use person-first language in their publications. In this viewpoint article, we argue that although this policy is well intentioned, it betrays a very particular cultural and disciplinary approach to disability: one that is inappropriate given the international and multidisciplinary mandate of the journal. Further, we contend that APAQ's current language policy may serve to delimit the range of high-quality articles submitted and to encourage both theoretical inconsistency and the erasure of the ways in which research participants self-identify. The article begins with narrative accounts of each of our negotiations with disability terminology in adapted physical activity research and practice. We then provide historical and theoretical contexts for person-first language, as well as various other widely circulated alternative English-language disability terminology. We close with four suggested revisions to APAQ's language policy.

  7. The puzzle of partial migration: Adaptive dynamics and evolutionary game theory perspectives.

    PubMed

    De Leenheer, Patrick; Mohapatra, Anushaya; Ohms, Haley A; Lytle, David A; Cushing, J M

    2017-01-07

    We consider the phenomenon of partial migration which is exhibited by populations in which some individuals migrate between habitats during their lifetime, but others do not. First, using an adaptive dynamics approach, we show that partial migration can be explained on the basis of negative density dependence in the per capita fertilities alone, provided that this density dependence is attenuated for increasing abundances of the subtypes that make up the population. We present an exact formula for the optimal proportion of migrants which is expressed in terms of the vital rates of migrant and non-migrant subtypes only. We show that this allocation strategy is both an evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) as well as a convergence stable strategy (CSS). To establish the former, we generalize the classical notion of an ESS because it is based on invasion exponents obtained from linearization arguments, which fail to capture the stabilizing effects of the nonlinear density dependence. These results clarify precisely when the notion of a "weak ESS", as proposed in Lundberg (2013) for a related model, is a genuine ESS. Secondly, we use an evolutionary game theory approach, and confirm, once again, that partial migration can be attributed to negative density dependence alone. In this context, the result holds even when density dependence is not attenuated. In this case, the optimal allocation strategy towards migrants is the same as the ESS stemming from the analysis based on the adaptive dynamics. The key feature of the population models considered here is that they are monotone dynamical systems, which enables a rather comprehensive mathematical analysis.

  8. Adaptive evolution of cooperation through Darwinian dynamics in Public Goods games.

    PubMed

    Deng, Kuiying; Chu, Tianguang

    2011-01-01

    The linear or threshold Public Goods game (PGG) is extensively accepted as a paradigmatic model to approach the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. Here we explore the significant effect of nonlinearity of the structures of public goods on the evolution of cooperation within the well-mixed population by adopting Darwinian dynamics, which simultaneously consider the evolution of populations and strategies on a continuous adaptive landscape, and extend the concept of evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) as a coalition of strategies that is both convergent-stable and resistant to invasion. Results show (i) that in the linear PGG contributing nothing is an ESS, which contradicts experimental data, (ii) that in the threshold PGG contributing the threshold value is a fragile ESS, which cannot resist the invasion of contributing nothing, and (iii) that there exists a robust ESS of contributing more than half in the sigmoid PGG if the return rate is relatively high. This work reveals the significant effect of the nonlinearity of the structures of public goods on the evolution of cooperation, and suggests that, compared with the linear or threshold PGG, the sigmoid PGG might be a more proper model for the evolution of cooperation within the well-mixed population.

  9. Iterative Adaptive Dynamic Programming for Solving Unknown Nonlinear Zero-Sum Game Based on Online Data.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yuanheng; Zhao, Dongbin; Li, Xiangjun

    2017-03-01

    H∞ control is a powerful method to solve the disturbance attenuation problems that occur in some control systems. The design of such controllers relies on solving the zero-sum game (ZSG). But in practical applications, the exact dynamics is mostly unknown. Identification of dynamics also produces errors that are detrimental to the control performance. To overcome this problem, an iterative adaptive dynamic programming algorithm is proposed in this paper to solve the continuous-time, unknown nonlinear ZSG with only online data. A model-free approach to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs equation is developed based on the policy iteration method. Control and disturbance policies and value are approximated by neural networks (NNs) under the critic-actor-disturber structure. The NN weights are solved by the least-squares method. According to the theoretical analysis, our algorithm is equivalent to a Gauss-Newton method solving an optimization problem, and it converges uniformly to the optimal solution. The online data can also be used repeatedly, which is highly efficient. Simulation results demonstrate its feasibility to solve the unknown nonlinear ZSG. When compared with other algorithms, it saves a significant amount of online measurement time.

  10. Biological adaptations for functional features of language in the face of cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Morten H; Reali, Florencia; Chater, Nick

    2011-04-01

    Although there may be no true language universals, it is nonetheless possible to discern several family resemblance patterns across the languages of the world. Recent work on the cultural evolution of language indicates the source of these patterns is unlikely to be an innate universal grammar evolved through biological adaptations for arbitrary linguistic features. Instead, it has been suggested that the patterns of resemblance emerge because language has been shaped by the brain, with individual languages representing different but partially overlapping solutions to the same set of nonlinguistic constraints. Here, we use computational simulations to investigate whether biological adaptation for functional features of language, deriving from cognitive and communicative constraints, may nonetheless be possible alongside rapid cultural evolution. Specifically, we focus on the Baldwin effect as an evolutionary mechanism by which previously learned linguistic features might become innate through natural selection across many generations of language users. The results indicate that cultural evolution of language does not necessarily prevent functional features of language from becoming genetically fixed, thus potentially providing a particularly informative source of constraints on cross-linguistic resemblance patterns.

  11. Sharing the cost of river basin adaptation portfolios to climate change: Insights from social justice and cooperative game theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, Corentin; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The adaptation of water resource systems to the potential impacts of climate change requires mixed portfolios of supply and demand adaptation measures. The issue is not only to select efficient, robust, and flexible adaptation portfolios but also to find equitable strategies of cost allocation among the stakeholders. Our work addresses such cost allocation problems by applying two different theoretical approaches: social justice and cooperative game theory in a real case study. First of all, a cost-effective portfolio of adaptation measures at the basin scale is selected using a least-cost optimization model. Cost allocation solutions are then defined based on economic rationality concepts from cooperative game theory (the Core). Second, interviews are conducted to characterize stakeholders' perceptions of social justice principles associated with the definition of alternatives cost allocation rules. The comparison of the cost allocation scenarios leads to contrasted insights in order to inform the decision-making process at the river basin scale and potentially reap the efficiency gains from cooperation in the design of river basin adaptation portfolios.

  12. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  13. Communication Games in Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Ellen

    1990-01-01

    This article presents a rationale and ways to use communication games in written form to entice deaf children to try new forms of language. It emphasizes the importance of using communicative teaching methods and considering students' communicative adequacy rather than form. Games include picture/object matching games and bingo/lotto games. (JDD)

  14. Prosperity Game: Advanced Manufacturing Day, May 17, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.

    1994-12-01

    Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents a 90-minute Prosperity Game conducted as part of Advanced Manufacturing Day on May 17, 1994. This was the fourth game conducted under the direction of the Center for National Industrial Alliances at Sandia. Although previous games lasted from one to two days, this abbreviated game produced interesting and important results. Most of the strategies proposed in previous games were reiterated here. These included policy changes in international trade, tax laws, the legal system, and the educational system. Government support of new technologies was encouraged as well as government-industry partnerships. The importance of language in international trade was an original contribution of this game. The deliberations and recommendations of these teams provide valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning policy changes, foreign competition, and the development, delivery and commercialization of new technologies.

  15. Adaptive Communication: Languages with More Non-Native Speakers Tend to Have Fewer Word Forms

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Christian; Verkerk, Annemarie; Kiela, Douwe; Hill, Felix; Buttery, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Explaining the diversity of languages across the world is one of the central aims of typological, historical, and evolutionary linguistics. We consider the effect of language contact-the number of non-native speakers a language has-on the way languages change and evolve. By analysing hundreds of languages within and across language families, regions, and text types, we show that languages with greater levels of contact typically employ fewer word forms to encode the same information content (a property we refer to as lexical diversity). Based on three types of statistical analyses, we demonstrate that this variance can in part be explained by the impact of non-native speakers on information encoding strategies. Finally, we argue that languages are information encoding systems shaped by the varying needs of their speakers. Language evolution and change should be modeled as the co-evolution of multiple intertwined adaptive systems: On one hand, the structure of human societies and human learning capabilities, and on the other, the structure of language. PMID:26083380

  16. Can a "Shouting" Digital Game Help Learners Develop Oral Fluency in a Second Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Jennica; Cardoso, Walcir; Waddington, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the development of oral fluency in a Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) environment that uses a "shouting" digital game as a pedagogical tool: Spaceteam ESL4. Spaceteam ESL is a game for mobile devices that involves time-sensitive aural exchanges among players (English learners), with great potential to promote…

  17. "Gamestar Mechanic": Learning a Designer Mindset through Communicational Competence with the Language of Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Games, Ivan Alex

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a three-year study of "Gamestar Mechanic" (www.gamestarmechanic.com), a flash-based multiplayer online role-playing game developed for the MacArthur Foundation's digital media learning initiative by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and Gamelab in New York. The game's objective is to help children…

  18. Creating Video Games in a Middle School Language Arts Classroom: A Narrative Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldaker, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the author's experience co-facilitating a project for which seventh-grade students designed and created original video games based on Madeleine L'Engle's "A Wrinkle in Time". The author provides an overview of recent literature on video game implementation in the classroom and explains how the project was designed and…

  19. An Examination of Digital Game-Based Situated Learning Applied to Chinese Language Poetry Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hong-Ren; Lin, You-Shiuan

    2016-01-01

    By gradually placing more importance on game-based education and changing learning motivation by applying game-playing characteristics, students' learning experiences can be enhanced and a better learning effect can be achieved. When teaching the content of Chinese poetry in Taiwanese junior high schools, most teachers only explain the meaning of…

  20. Co-Evolution of Mobile Language Learning: Going Global with Games Consoles in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Akiko; Narumi-Munro, Fumiko; Alexander, Wilma; Parker, Helen; Yamauchi, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Game consoles have been adopted as a learning platform in school education. However, there is a scarcity of studies examining the utility of games consoles with built-in WiFi as affordable learning platforms in universities. This paper contributes to knowledge about the capacity of the Nintendo DSi to create new learning spaces mediated and…

  1. Adapting a Social Studies Lesson to Include English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lake, Vickie E.; Rice, Diana C.

    2005-01-01

    If one were to search for classroom strategies for English Language Learners (ELLs), it would not take much time to find many different types of activities that are all useful with ELLs. Additionally, if one were to search for social studies strategies to use with native English speakers, he or she would have little difficulty in finding a variety…

  2. Successfully Translating Language and Culture when Adapting Assessment Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornman, Juan; Sevcik, Rose A.; Romski, MaryAnn; Pae, Hye Kyeong

    2010-01-01

    A need exists for culturally valid and reliable developmental assessment tools for children with disabilities that are able to accommodate multiple languages. One way in which this goal can be achieved is through test translations. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine the use of translations of select developmental assessment…

  3. Theory of Mind, Language and Adaptive Functioning in ASD: A Neuroconstructivist Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Teresa Ann; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Duku, Eric; Vaccarella, Liezanne; Tuff, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Neuroconstructivist theories of development highlight the potential effect one developmental domain may have on constraining or facilitating another. Empirical validation of this theory requires further testing in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and may illuminate the complex interplay of developmental trajectories, particularly in the relationship between predictor and outcome variables. In ASD, language ability is an early predictor of important functional outcomes such as communication and socialization. We aimed to investigate whether theory of mind (ToM) mediates the relation between language ability and adaptive functioning in more cognitively able children with ASD (IQ > 70). Methods Thirty-nine children were followed prospectively every two years from 4–6 years to 12–14 years. Their language and theory of mind abilities and adaptive functioning were tested using the Test of Language Development-2 (the independent variable, at age 6–8 years), the “Eyes Test” (a measure of ToM, the mediator, at age 10–12) and the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (the outcome variable, at age 12–14). Results ToM mediated an association between language and adaptive functioning in the communication domain, but not in the social domain. Conclusion These results challenge the usefulness of ToM as a unifying theory for ASD deficits and highlight the potential usefulness of a neuroconstructivist framework for prospective studies. PMID:23390428

  4. Approaching Sign Language Test Construction: Adaptation of the German Sign Language Receptive Skills Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    There is a current need for reliable and valid test instruments in different countries in order to monitor deaf children's sign language acquisition. However, very few tests are commercially available that offer strong evidence for their psychometric properties. A German Sign Language (DGS) test focusing on linguistic structures that are acquired…

  5. The masquerade game: marine mimicry adaptation between egg-cowries and octocorals

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Pardo, Angela P.; Ní Almhain, Íde; Ardila-Espitia, Néstor E.; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime; Forero-Shelton, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Background matching, as a camouflage strategy, is one of the most outstanding examples of adaptation, where little error or mismatch means high vulnerability to predation. It is assumed that the interplay of natural selection and adaptation are the main evolutionary forces shaping the great diversity of phenotypes observed in mimicry; however, there may be other significant processes that intervene in the development of mimicry such as phenotypic plasticity. Based on observations of background mismatching during reproduction events of egg-cowries, sea snails of the family Ovulidae that mimic the octocoral where they inhabit, we wondered if they match the host species diversity. Using observations in the field and molecular systematics, we set out to establish whether the different egg-cowrie color/shape polymorphisms correspond to distinct lineages restricted to specific octocoral species. Methods. Collection and observations of egg-cowries and their octocoral hosts were done using SCUBA diving between 2009 and 2012 at two localities in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), Malpelo Island and Cabo Corrientes (Colombia). Detailed host preference observations were done bi-annually at Malpelo Island. We analyzed the DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genes COIand 16S rDNA, extensively used in phylogenetic and DNA barcoding studies, to assess the evolutionary relationship among different egg-cowrie colorations and morphologies. Results. No genetic divergence among egg-cowries associated to different species of the same octocoral genus was observed based on the two mitochondrial genes analyzed. For instance, all egg-cowrie individuals from the two sampled localities observed on 8 different Pacifigorgia-Eugorgia species showed negligible mitochondrial divergence yet large morphologic divergence, which suggests that morphologies belonging to at least two sea snail species, Simnia avena(=S. aequalis) and Simnialena rufa, can cross-fertilize. Discussion. Our study

  6. The masquerade game: marine mimicry adaptation between egg-cowries and octocorals.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Juan A; Fuentes-Pardo, Angela P; Ní Almhain, Íde; Ardila-Espitia, Néstor E; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime; Forero-Shelton, Manu

    2016-01-01

    Background. Background matching, as a camouflage strategy, is one of the most outstanding examples of adaptation, where little error or mismatch means high vulnerability to predation. It is assumed that the interplay of natural selection and adaptation are the main evolutionary forces shaping the great diversity of phenotypes observed in mimicry; however, there may be other significant processes that intervene in the development of mimicry such as phenotypic plasticity. Based on observations of background mismatching during reproduction events of egg-cowries, sea snails of the family Ovulidae that mimic the octocoral where they inhabit, we wondered if they match the host species diversity. Using observations in the field and molecular systematics, we set out to establish whether the different egg-cowrie color/shape polymorphisms correspond to distinct lineages restricted to specific octocoral species. Methods. Collection and observations of egg-cowries and their octocoral hosts were done using SCUBA diving between 2009 and 2012 at two localities in the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP), Malpelo Island and Cabo Corrientes (Colombia). Detailed host preference observations were done bi-annually at Malpelo Island. We analyzed the DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genes COIand 16S rDNA, extensively used in phylogenetic and DNA barcoding studies, to assess the evolutionary relationship among different egg-cowrie colorations and morphologies. Results. No genetic divergence among egg-cowries associated to different species of the same octocoral genus was observed based on the two mitochondrial genes analyzed. For instance, all egg-cowrie individuals from the two sampled localities observed on 8 different Pacifigorgia-Eugorgia species showed negligible mitochondrial divergence yet large morphologic divergence, which suggests that morphologies belonging to at least two sea snail species, Simnia avena(=S. aequalis) and Simnialena rufa, can cross-fertilize. Discussion. Our study

  7. Self-organization in a simple model of adaptive agents playing 2×2 games with arbitrary payoff matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fort, H.; Viola, S.

    2004-03-01

    We analyze, both analytically and numerically, the self-organization of a system of “selfish” adaptive agents playing an arbitrary iterated pairwise game (defined by a 2×2 payoff matrix). Examples of possible games to play are the prisoner’s dilemma (PD) game, the chicken game, the hero game, etc. The agents have no memory, use strategies not based on direct reciprocity nor “tags” and are chosen at random, i.e., geographical vicinity is neglected. They can play two possible strategies: cooperate (C) or defect (D). The players measure their success by comparing their utilities with an estimate for the expected benefits and update their strategy following a simple rule. Two versions of the model are studied: (1) the deterministic version (the agents are either in definite states C or D) and (2) the stochastic version (the agents have a probability c of playing C). Using a general master equation we compute the equilibrium states into which the system self-organizes, characterized by their average probability of cooperation ceq. Depending on the payoff matrix, we show that ceq can take five different values. We also consider the mixing of agents using two different payoff matrices and show that any value of ceq can be reached by tuning the proportions of agents using each payoff matrix. In particular, this can be used as a way to simulate the effect of a fraction d of “antisocial” individuals—incapable of realizing any value to cooperation—on the cooperative regime hold by a population of neutral or “normal” agents.

  8. NATIVE-It's Your Game: Adapting a Technology-Based Sexual Health Curriculum for American Indian and Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Shegog, Ross; Craig Rushing, Stephanie; Gorman, Gwenda; Jessen, Cornelia; Torres, Jennifer; Lane, Travis L; Gaston, Amanda; Revels, Taija Koogei; Williamson, Jennifer; Peskin, Melissa F; D'Cruz, Jina; Tortolero, Susan; Markham, Christine M

    2017-04-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) and birth rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth indicate a need for effective middle school HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention curricula to delay, or mitigate, the consequences of early sexual activity. While effective curricula exist, there is a dearth of curricula with content salient to AI/AN youth. Further, there is a lack of sexual health curricula that take advantage of the motivational appeal, reach, and fidelity of communication technology for this population, who are sophisticated technology users. We describe the adaptation process used to develop Native It's Your Game, a stand-alone 13-lesson Internet-based sexual health life-skills curriculum adapted from an existing promising sexual health curriculum, It's Your Game-Tech (IYG-Tech). The adaptation included three phases: (1) pre-adaptation needs assessment and IYG-Tech usability testing; (2) adaptation, including design document development, prototype programming, and alpha testing; and (3) post-adaption usability testing. Laboratory- and school-based tests with AI/AN middle school youth demonstrated high ratings on usability parameters. Youth rated the Native IYG lessons favorably in meeting the needs of AI/AN youth (54-86 % agreement across lessons) and in comparison to other learning channels (57-100 %) and rated the lessons as helpful in making better health choices (73-100 %). Tribal stakeholders rated Native IYG favorably, and suggested it was culturally appropriate for AI/AN youth and suitable for implementation in tribal settings. Further efficacy testing is indicated for Native IYG, as a potential strategy to deliver HIV/STI and pregnancy prevention to traditionally underserved AI/AN middle school youth.

  9. Learning with Calculator Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frahm, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…

  10. Adaptation of Internet Addiction Scale in Azerbaijani Language: A Validity-Reliability and Prevalence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerimova, Melek; Gunuc, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to adapt Gunuc and Kayri's (2010) "Internet Addiction Scale," with show validity and reliability for many various sampling groups, into the Azerbaijani language. Another objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among Azerbaijani adolescents and youth, which…

  11. Adaptations for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Families of English Language Learning Students with Autisim Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, grounded theory study was to describe adaptations for culturally and linguistically diverse families of English language learning students with autism spectrum disorders. Each family's parent was interviewed three separate times to gather information to understand the needs and experiences regarding their…

  12. Determinants of International Students' Adaptation: Examining Effects of Integrative Motivation, Instrumental Motivation and Second Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Baohua; Downing, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of integrative motivation, instrumental motivation and second language (L2) proficiency on socio-cultural/academic adaptation in a sample of two groups of international students studying Chinese in China. Results revealed that the non-Asian student group reported higher levels of integrative motivation,…

  13. Adaptation of the Students' Motivation towards Science Learning (SMTSL) Questionnaire in the Greek Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dermitzaki, Irini; Stavroussi, Panayiota; Vavougios, Denis; Kotsis, Konstantinos T.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed at adapting in the Greek language the Students' Motivation Towards Science Learning (SMTSL) questionnaire developed by Tuan, Chin, and Shieh ("INT J SCI EDUC" 27(6): 639-654, 2005a) into a different cultural context, a different age group, that is, in university students and with a focus on physics learning. Three…

  14. Computer Adaptive Language Tests (CALT) Offer a Great Potential for Functional Testing. Yet Why Don't They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Lydie E.

    1994-01-01

    Computer adaptive language testing (CALT) offers a variety of advantages; however, since CALT cannot test the multidimensional nature of language, it does not assess communicative/functional language. This article proposes to replace multiple choice and cloze formats and to apply CALT to live-action simulations. (18 references) (LB)

  15. Recognition of voice commands using adaptation of foreign language speech recognizer via selection of phonetic transcriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskeliunas, Rytis; Rudzionis, Vytautas

    2011-06-01

    In recent years various commercial speech recognizers have become available. These recognizers provide the possibility to develop applications incorporating various speech recognition techniques easily and quickly. All of these commercial recognizers are typically targeted to widely spoken languages having large market potential; however, it may be possible to adapt available commercial recognizers for use in environments where less widely spoken languages are used. Since most commercial recognition engines are closed systems the single avenue for the adaptation is to try set ways for the selection of proper phonetic transcription methods between the two languages. This paper deals with the methods to find the phonetic transcriptions for Lithuanian voice commands to be recognized using English speech engines. The experimental evaluation showed that it is possible to find phonetic transcriptions that will enable the recognition of Lithuanian voice commands with recognition accuracy of over 90%.

  16. [Measuring instruments in cardiology adapted into Portuguese language of Brazil: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa; São-João, Thaís Moreira

    2014-04-01

    This was a systematic review aimed at identifying and characterizing measuring instruments, developed in the context of cardiology, which were adapted into Portuguese language of Brazil. Systematic searches were performed in six databases. Information extracted included cultural adaptation process and measurement properties. To assess the methodological quality of studies, criteria based on international guidelines for cultural adaptation of instruments were used. Among the 114 articles found, 14 were eligible for review. Of these, most evaluated quality of life (35.7%) and health knowledge/learning (28.6%). Most studies followed all stages of the adaptation process recommended in the literature. With respect to measurement properties, internal consistency, verified by Cronbach's alpha, was the property reported in the majority of the studies, as well as construct and criterion validity. This study is expected to provide to the scientific community a critical evaluation of adapted questionnaires available in the context of cardiology.

  17. Feature Selection for Natural Language Call Routing Based on Self-Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koromyslova, A.; Semenkina, M.; Sergienko, R.

    2017-02-01

    The text classification problem for natural language call routing was considered in the paper. Seven different term weighting methods were applied. As dimensionality reduction methods, the feature selection based on self-adaptive GA is considered. k-NN, linear SVM and ANN were used as classification algorithms. The tasks of the research are the following: perform research of text classification for natural language call routing with different term weighting methods and classification algorithms and investigate the feature selection method based on self-adaptive GA. The numerical results showed that the most effective term weighting is TRR. The most effective classification algorithm is ANN. Feature selection with self-adaptive GA provides improvement of classification effectiveness and significant dimensionality reduction with all term weighting methods and with all classification algorithms.

  18. Play to Learn: Self-Directed Home Language Literacy Acquisition through Online Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenchlas, Susana A.; Schalley, Andrea C.; Moyes, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Home language literacy education in Australia has been pursued predominantly through Community Language Schools. At present, some 1,000 of these, attended by over 100,000 school-age children, cater for 69 of the over 300 languages spoken in Australia. Despite good intentions, these schools face a number of challenges. For instance, children may…

  19. An Infinite Game in a Finite Setting: Visualizing Foreign Language Teaching and Learning in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantero, Miguel

    According to contemporary thought and foundational research, this paper presents various elements of the foreign language teaching profession and language learning environment in the United States as either product-driven or process-based. It is argued that a process-based approach to language teaching and learning benefits not only second…

  20. VILLAGE--Virtual Immersive Language Learning and Gaming Environment: Immersion and Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yi Fei; Petrina, Stephen; Feng, Francis

    2017-01-01

    3D virtual worlds are promising for immersive learning in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Unlike English as a Second Language (ESL), EFL typically takes place in the learners' home countries, and the potential of the language is limited by geography. Although learning contexts where English is spoken is important, in most EFL courses at the…

  1. Higher Education Governance as Language Games: A Wittgensteinian Case Study of the Breakdown of Governance at the London School of Economics 2004-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2015-01-01

    This paper calls for a more detailed study of social practices in the analysis of governance failures. Using the Woolf report on the breakdown of governance at the London School of Economics as a case study and Wittgenstein's notion of language games as an analytic lens, the author argues that widely used institutional and structural theories of…

  2. The Influence of an Educational Course on Language Expression and Treatment of Gaming Addiction for Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Pyoung Won; Kim, Seo Young; Shim, Miseon; Im, Chang-Hwan; Shon, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) among juveniles has become a serious problem in Korea and has led to legislation prohibiting juveniles from playing games after midnight. One key factor in gaming addiction is the so-called narrative, or story, gamers create for themselves while playing. This study investigated how…

  3. Investigating Real-Time Predictors of Engagement: Implications for Adaptive Video Games and Online Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharek, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Engagement is a worthwhile psychological construct to examine in the context of online training and video games. In this context, previous research suggests that the more engaged a person is, the more likely they are to experience overall positive affect while performing at a high level. This research builds on theories of engagement, Flow Theory,…

  4. Non-Native Chinese Language Learners' Attitudes towards Online Vision-Based Motion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hao, Yungwei; Hong, Jon-Chao; Jong, Jyh-Tsorng; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Su, Chao-Ya; Yang, Jin-Shin

    2010-01-01

    Learning to write Chinese characters is often thought to be a very challenging and laborious task. However, new learning tools are being designed that might reduce learners' tedium. This study explores one such tool, an online program in which learners can learn Chinese characters through vision-based motion games. The learner's gestures are…

  5. The Good Behavior Game for Latino English Language Learners in a Small-Group Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortiz, Jennifer; Bray, Melissa A.; Bilias-Lolis, Evelyn; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is a group contingency intervention that has effectively reduced disruptive behavior and improved classroom management in many replications, for various settings and populations. The student composition of American public schools is changing, leading to culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms with unique…

  6. The SIMs Meet ESL Incorporating Authentic Computer Simulation Games into the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Megan; Hegelheimer, Volker

    2006-01-01

    Despite their motivational appeal to learners, innovative and technologically advanced computer simulation games targeting native English speakers frequently remain beyond the competence of ESL learners as independent didactic tools. Guided by Chapelle's (2001) criteria for determining CALL task appropriateness, this paper illustrates how the…

  7. The effects of types of reflective scaffolding and language proficiency on the acquisition of physics knowledge in a game-based learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tsu-Ting

    With the capability of creating a situated and engaging learning environment, video games have been considered as a powerful tool to enhance students' learning outcomes and interest in learning. Yet, little empirical evidence exists to support the effectiveness of video games in learning. Particularly, little attention has been given to the design of specific game elements. Focusing on middle school students, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of two types of representations of reflective scaffolds (verbal and visual) on students' learning outcomes, game performance, and level of engagement in a video game for physics learning. In addition, the role of students' level of English proficiency was examined to understand whether the effects of reflective scaffolds were influenced by students' language proficiency. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 playtested the game with target players and led to game modification for its use in Study 2, which focused on the effects of different types of reflective scaffolds and level of English proficiency. The results of Study 2 showed that students who received both verbal and visual reflective scaffolds completed the most levels compared to the other groups in the given time. No significant effect of type of reflective scaffolds were found on learning outcomes despite the fact that the pattern of the learning outcomes across conditions was close to prediction. Participants' engagement in gameplay was high regardless of the type of scaffolds they received, their interest in learning physics, and their prior knowledge of physics. The results of video analysis also showed that the game used in this study was able to engage students not only in gameplay but also in learning physics. Finally, English proficiency functioned as a significant factor moderating the effects of scaffolds, learning outcomes and game performance. Students with limited English proficiency benefited more from visual reflective scaffolds than

  8. Adapting existing natural language processing resources for cardiovascular risk factors identification in clinical notes.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Abdulrahman; Meystre, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 i2b2 natural language processing shared task focused on identifying cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, obesity and smoking status among other factors found in health records of diabetic patients. In addition, the task involved detecting medications, and time information associated with the extracted data. This paper presents the development and evaluation of a natural language processing (NLP) application conceived for this i2b2 shared task. For increased efficiency, the application main components were adapted from two existing NLP tools implemented in the Apache UIMA framework: Textractor (for dictionary-based lookup) and cTAKES (for preprocessing and smoking status detection). The application achieved a final (micro-averaged) F1-measure of 87.5% on the final evaluation test set. Our attempt was mostly based on existing tools adapted with minimal changes and allowed for satisfying performance with limited development efforts.

  9. Brain Games for Babies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberg, Jackie

    2001-01-01

    Presents games for caregivers to use with infants to enhance brain development. Includes games that develop trust and security, language skills, and fine motor skills, as well as games that are fun or stimulate vision. Includes videotape references for parents and caregivers. (KB)

  10. Game Theory, Adaptation, and Genetic Programming: Some Perspectives on Operations Research for Counter-IED

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    memes ” (Dawkins, 1989; Gabora, 1995; Boal & Schultz, 2007). As Weeks & Galunic (2003) point out: “ Memes are the replicators in cultural evolution ...the process of social and organisational adaptation through meme evolution . It is a more general approach than the evolutionary adaptation of...adaptivity, because of its ability to simulate the innovation and evolution of organisational “ memes .” 8. References Angeline, P.J. & Pollack, J.B

  11. Recognizing the Effects of Comprehension Language Barriers and Adaptability Cultural Barriers on Selected First-Generation Undergraduate Vietnamese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Christian Phuoc-Lanh

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is about recognizing the effects of comprehension language barriers and adaptability cultural barriers on selected first-generation Vietnamese undergraduate students in the Puget Sound region of Washington State. Most Vietnamese students know little or no English before immigrating to the United States; as such, language and…

  12. Sports teams as complex adaptive systems: manipulating player numbers shapes behaviours during football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio

    2016-01-01

    Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.

  13. Persian adaptation of Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale: a psychometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Baghaei, Purya; Hohensinn, Christine; Kubinger, Klaus D

    2014-04-01

    The validity and psychometric properties of a new Persian adaptation of the Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale were investigated. The scale was translated into Persian and administered to 160 undergraduate students (131 women, 29 men; M age = 23.4 yr., SD = 4.3). Rasch model analysis on the scale's original 20 items revealed that the data do not fit the partial credit model. Principal components analysis identified three factors: one related to feelings of anxiety about reading, the second reflected the reverse-worded items, and the third related to general ideas about reading in a foreign language. In a re-analysis, the 12 items that loaded on the first factor showed a good fit with the partial credit model.

  14. Negotiation for Action: English Language Learning in Game-Based Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Dongping; Young, Michael F.; Wagner, Manuela Maria; Brewer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzes the user chat logs and other artifacts of a virtual world, "Quest Atlantis" (QA), and proposes the concept of Negotiation for Action (NfA) to explain how interaction, specifically, avatar-embodied collaboration between native English speakers and nonnative English speakers, provided resources for English language acquisition.…

  15. Second Language Use, Socialization, and Learning in Internet Interest Communities and Online Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Steven L.; Black, Rebecca W.; Sykes, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of research and pedagogical experimentation relating to the uses of technology in second (L2) and foreign language education. The majority of this research has usefully described and examined the efficacy of in-class and directly classroom-related uses of technology. This article broadens the scope of…

  16. Language Games and Meaning as Used in Student Encounters with Scientific Literacy Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serder, Margareta; Jakobsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Previous research in science education has suggested that difficulties among students learning science relate to challenges in framing its discourse. This article examines the role that language plays in a scientific literacy test for which everyday life is an augmented aspect. Video-recorded data was collected in four ninth-grade science classes…

  17. Estimating the Effectiveness and Feasibility of a Game-Based Project for Early Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griva, Eleni; Semoglou, Klio

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the rationale for and the purpose of designing and implementing a project aiming to make very young EFL learners develop their language skills through their involvement in interactive psychomotor activities. The project, which is a part of a broader longitudinal project having introduced EFL in the first primary school grade,…

  18. Far transfer to language and math of a short software-based gaming intervention.

    PubMed

    Goldin, Andrea Paula; Hermida, María Julia; Shalom, Diego E; Elias Costa, Martín; Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Segretin, María Soledad; Fernández-Slezak, Diego; Lipina, Sebastián J; Sigman, Mariano

    2014-04-29

    Executive functions (EF) in children can be trained, but it remains unknown whether training-related benefits elicit far transfer to real-life situations. Here, we investigate whether a set of computerized games might yield near and far transfer on an experimental and an active control group of low-SES otherwise typically developing 6-y-olds in a 3-mo pretest-training-posttest design that was ecologically deployed (at school). The intervention elicits transfer to some (but not all) facets of executive function. These changes cascade to real-world measures of school performance. The intervention equalizes academic outcomes across children who regularly attend school and those who do not because of social and familiar circumstances.

  19. Far transfer to language and math of a short software-based gaming intervention

    PubMed Central

    Goldin, Andrea Paula; Hermida, María Julia; Shalom, Diego E.; Elias Costa, Martín; Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Segretin, María Soledad; Fernández-Slezak, Diego; Lipina, Sebastián J.; Sigman, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) in children can be trained, but it remains unknown whether training-related benefits elicit far transfer to real-life situations. Here, we investigate whether a set of computerized games might yield near and far transfer on an experimental and an active control group of low-SES otherwise typically developing 6-y-olds in a 3-mo pretest–training–posttest design that was ecologically deployed (at school). The intervention elicits transfer to some (but not all) facets of executive function. These changes cascade to real-world measures of school performance. The intervention equalizes academic outcomes across children who regularly attend school and those who do not because of social and familiar circumstances. PMID:24711403

  20. Adaptive Personalized Training Games for Individual and Collaborative Rehabilitation of People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Any rehabilitation involves people who are unique individuals with their own characteristics and rehabilitation needs, including patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The prominent variation of MS symptoms and the disease severity elevate a need to accommodate the patient diversity and support adaptive personalized training to meet every patient's rehabilitation needs. In this paper, we focus on integrating adaptivity and personalization in rehabilitation training for MS patients. We introduced the automatic adjustment of difficulty levels as an adaptation that can be provided in individual and collaborative rehabilitation training exercises for MS patients. Two user studies have been carried out with nine MS patients to investigate the outcome of this adaptation. The findings showed that adaptive personalized training trajectories have been successfully provided to MS patients according to their individual training progress, which was appreciated by the patients and the therapist. They considered the automatic adjustment of difficulty levels to provide more variety in the training and to minimize the therapists involvement in setting up the training. With regard to social interaction in the collaborative training exercise, we have observed some social behaviors between the patients and their training partner which indicated the development of social interaction during the training. PMID:24982862

  1. Adaptive personalized training games for individual and collaborative rehabilitation of people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Octavia, Johanna Renny; Coninx, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Any rehabilitation involves people who are unique individuals with their own characteristics and rehabilitation needs, including patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The prominent variation of MS symptoms and the disease severity elevate a need to accommodate the patient diversity and support adaptive personalized training to meet every patient's rehabilitation needs. In this paper, we focus on integrating adaptivity and personalization in rehabilitation training for MS patients. We introduced the automatic adjustment of difficulty levels as an adaptation that can be provided in individual and collaborative rehabilitation training exercises for MS patients. Two user studies have been carried out with nine MS patients to investigate the outcome of this adaptation. The findings showed that adaptive personalized training trajectories have been successfully provided to MS patients according to their individual training progress, which was appreciated by the patients and the therapist. They considered the automatic adjustment of difficulty levels to provide more variety in the training and to minimize the therapists involvement in setting up the training. With regard to social interaction in the collaborative training exercise, we have observed some social behaviors between the patients and their training partner which indicated the development of social interaction during the training.

  2. An adaptive structure data acquisition system using a graphical-based programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroth, Edmund C.; Clark, Douglas J.; Losey, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    An example of the implementation of data fusion using a PC and a graphical programming language is discussed. A schematic of the data acquisition system and user interface panel for an adaptive structure test are presented. The computer programs (a series of icons 'wired' together) are also discussed. The way in which using graphical-based programming software to control a data acquisition system can simplify analysis of data, promote multidisciplinary interaction, and provide users a more visual key to understanding their data are shown.

  3. Real-time investigation of referential domains in unscripted conversation: a targeted language game approach

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Schmidt, Sarah; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments examined the restriction of referential domains during unscripted conversation by analyzing the modification and on-line interpretation of referring expressions. Experiment 1 demonstrated that from the earliest moments of processing, addressees interpreted referring expressions with respect to referential domains constrained by the conversation. Analysis of eye movements during the conversation showed elimination of standard competition effects seen with scripted language. Results from Experiment 2 pinpointed two pragmatic factors responsible for restriction of the referential domains used by speakers to design referential expressions and demonstrated that the same factors predict whether addressees consider local competitors to be potential referents during on-line interpretation of the same expressions. These experiments demonstrate for the first time that on-line interpretation of referring expressions in conversation is facilitated by referential domains constrained by pragmatic factors which predict when addressees are likely to encounter temporary ambiguity in language processing. PMID:19890480

  4. Adaptive Role Playing Games: An Immersive Approach for Problem Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sancho, Pilar; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Fuentes-Fernandez, Ruben; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a general framework, called NUCLEO, for the application of socio-constructive educational approaches in higher education. The underlying pedagogical approach relies on an adaptation model in order to improve group dynamics, as this has been identified as one of the key features in the success of collaborative learning…

  5. An Evolving Simulation/Gaming Process to Facilitate Adaptive Watershed Management in Northern Mountainous Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaud, Cecile; Promburom, Tanya; Trebuil, Guy; Bousquet, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The decentralization of natural resource management provides an opportunity for communities to increase their participation in related decision making. Research should propose adapted methodologies enabling the numerous stakeholders of these complex socioecological settings to define their problems and identify agreed-on solutions. This article…

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation of research instruments: language, setting, time and statistical considerations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Research questionnaires are not always translated appropriately before they are used in new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect what they are supposed to measure. This paper aims to illustrate the process and required steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of a research instrument using the adaptation process of an attitudinal instrument as an example. Methods A questionnaire was needed for the implementation of a study in Norway 2007. There was no appropriate instruments available in Norwegian, thus an Australian-English instrument was cross-culturally adapted. Results The adaptation process included investigation of conceptual and item equivalence. Two forward and two back-translations were synthesized and compared by an expert committee. Thereafter the instrument was pretested and adjusted accordingly. The final questionnaire was administered to opioid maintenance treatment staff (n=140) and harm reduction staff (n=180). The overall response rate was 84%. The original instrument failed confirmatory analysis. Instead a new two-factor scale was identified and found valid in the new setting. Conclusions The failure of the original scale highlights the importance of adapting instruments to current research settings. It also emphasizes the importance of ensuring that concepts within an instrument are equal between the original and target language, time and context. If the described stages in the cross-cultural adaptation process had been omitted, the findings would have been misleading, even if presented with apparent precision. Thus, it is important to consider possible barriers when making a direct comparison between different nations, cultures and times. PMID:20144247

  7. Automatic classification of schizophrenia using resting-state functional language network via an adaptive learning algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Maohu; Jie, Nanfeng; Jiang, Tianzi

    2014-03-01

    A reliable and precise classification of schizophrenia is significant for its diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a novel tool increasingly used in schizophrenia research. Recent advances in statistical learning theory have led to applying pattern classification algorithms to access the diagnostic value of functional brain networks, discovered from resting state fMRI data. The aim of this study was to propose an adaptive learning algorithm to distinguish schizophrenia patients from normal controls using resting-state functional language network. Furthermore, here the classification of schizophrenia was regarded as a sample selection problem where a sparse subset of samples was chosen from the labeled training set. Using these selected samples, which we call informative vectors, a classifier for the clinic diagnosis of schizophrenia was established. We experimentally demonstrated that the proposed algorithm incorporating resting-state functional language network achieved 83.6% leaveone- out accuracy on resting-state fMRI data of 27 schizophrenia patients and 28 normal controls. In contrast with KNearest- Neighbor (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and l1-norm, our method yielded better classification performance. Moreover, our results suggested that a dysfunction of resting-state functional language network plays an important role in the clinic diagnosis of schizophrenia.

  8. Shell Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Bill

    1982-01-01

    The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)

  9. Translation, Validation, and Adaptation of the Time Use Diary from English into the Malay Language for Use in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Asmuri, Siti Noraini; Brown, Ted; Broom, Lisa J

    2016-07-01

    Valid translations of time use scales are needed by occupational therapists for use in different cross-cultural contexts to gather relevant data to inform practice and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of translating, adapting, and validating the Time Use Diary from its current English language edition into a Malay language version. Five steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were completed: (i) translation from English into the Malay language by a qualified translator, (ii) synthesis of the translated Malay version, (iii) backtranslation from Malay to English by three bilingual speakers, (iv) expert committee review and discussion, and (v) pilot testing of the Malay language version with two participant groups. The translated version was found to be a reliable and valid tool identifying changes and potential challenges in the time use of older adults. This provides Malaysian occupational therapists with a useful tool for gathering time use data in practice settings and for research purposes.

  10. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management.

    PubMed

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C

    2010-12-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design.

  11. ALTEC Learning Games: Successful Integration of Learning and Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Melanie A.; Ault, Marilyn M.

    2009-01-01

    Of the 53 million K-12 students in the United States, 93%, or 51 million, of them play video games (Etuk, 2008). ALTEC Learning Games utilize the excitement of video games to engage students and provide teachers authentic online resources that reinforce skills in math and language arts. Our recent work was partially supported by a partnership with…

  12. Moving Past Curricula and Strategies: Language and the Development of Adaptive Pedagogy for Immersive Learning Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Brian; Cavagnetto, Andy; Chen, Ying-Chih; Park, Soonhye

    2016-04-01

    Given current concerns internationally about student performance in science and the need to shift how science is being learnt in schools, as a community, we need to shift how we approach the issue of learning and teaching in science. In the future, we are going to have to close the gap between how students construct and engage with knowledge in a media-rich environment, and how school classroom environments engage them. This is going to require a shift to immersive environments where attention is paid to the knowledge bases and resources students bring into the classroom. Teachers will have to adopt adaptive pedagogical approaches that are framed around a more nuanced understanding of epistemological orientation, language and the nature of prosocial environments.

  13. The pharmacology game.

    PubMed

    Batscha, Catherine

    2002-09-01

    This article gives instructions for designing a visually attractive, entertaining, faculty-led computer game for pharmacology review in a nursing education program. The game uses Microsoft PowerPoint, a presentation program that is inexpensive, easy to master, and widely available. Instructions for using Visual Basic for Applications to customize the game are included to allow tracking questions asked and the score of groups playing the game. The game can be easily adapted to material by specific nursing programs with access to PowerPoint.

  14. Family Impact Scale (FIS): Cross-cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties for the Peruvian Spanish Language.

    PubMed

    Abanto, Jenny; Albites, Ursula; Bönecker, Marcelo; Paiva, Saul M; Castillo, Jorge L; Aguilar-Gálvez, Denisse

    2015-12-01

    The lack of a Family Impact Scale (FIS) in Spanish language limits its use as an indicator in Spanish-speaking countries and precludes comparisons with data from other cultural and ethnic groups. The purpose of this study was therefore to adapt the FIS cross-culturally to the Peruvian Spanish language and assess its reliability and validity. In order to translate and adapt the FIS cross-culturally, it was answered by 60 parents in two pilot tests, after which it was tested on 200 parents of children aged 11 to 14 years who were clinically examined for dental caries experience and malocclusions. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient while repeat administration of the FIS on the same 200 parents enabled the test-retest reliability to be assessed via intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Construct and discriminant validity were based on associations of the FIS with global ratings of oral health and clinical groups, respectively. Mean (standard deviation) FIS total score was 5.20 (5.86). Internal consistency was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha 0.84. Test-retest reliability revealed excellent reproducibility (ICC = 0.96). Construct validity was good, demonstrating statistically significant associations between total FIS score and global ratings of oral health (p=0.007) and overall wellbeing (p=0.002), as well as for the subscale scores (p<0.05) with exception of the financial burden subscale. The FIS was also able to discriminate between children with and without dental caries experience and malocclusions (p<0.05). Satisfactory psychometric results for the Peruvian Spanish FIS confirm it as a reliable, valid instrument for assessing the impact on the family caused by children's oral conditions.

  15. The Adaptation of the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Elementary Form into Turkish, Language Validity, and Preliminary Psychometric Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Mustafa; Balgalmis, Esra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to adapt the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale- Elementary Form (MARS-E, Suinn, 1988) into Turkish by first doing the translation of its items and then the preliminary psychometric investigation of the Turkish form. The study included four different samples: 30 bilingual language experts, 50 Turkish language…

  16. Adaptive Agent Modeling of Distributed Language: Investigations on the Effects of Cultural Variation and Internal Action Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangelosi, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the "grounded adaptive agent" computational framework for studying the emergence of communication and language. This modeling framework is based on simulations of population of cognitive agents that evolve linguistic capabilities by interacting with their social and physical environment (internal and external symbol…

  17. Early Vocabulary Development in Deaf Native Signers: A British Sign Language Adaptation of the Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfe, Tyron; Herman, Rosalind; Roy, Penny; Woll, Bencie

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of assessments of sign language development in young deaf children. This study gathered age-related scores from a sample of deaf native signing children using an adapted version of the MacArthur-Bates CDI (Fenson et al., 1994). Method: Parental reports on children's receptive and expressive signing were collected…

  18. Adaptation of the Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills to Turkish Children Aged 61 to 72 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uyanik, Ozgun; Kandir, Adalet

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is s to adapt and apply t the Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS) to Turkish children in the city of Ankara. In the study, a descriptive screening model was used. The population of the study consisted of children who showed normal developmental characteristics and who were enrolled at public…

  19. Brief Report: The Relationship between Language Skills, Adaptive Behavior, and Emotional and Behavior Problems in Pre-Schoolers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Carlie J.; Yelland, Gregory W.; Taffe, John R.; Gray, Kylie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between structural language skills, and communication skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-school children with autism. Participants were aged 3-5 years with autism (n = 27), and two comparison groups of children with developmental delay without autism (n = 12) and typically…

  20. Integrating dynamic stopping, transfer learning and language models in an adaptive zero-training ERP speller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindermans, Pieter-Jan; Tangermann, Michael; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Most BCIs have to undergo a calibration session in which data is recorded to train decoders with machine learning. Only recently zero-training methods have become a subject of study. This work proposes a probabilistic framework for BCI applications which exploit event-related potentials (ERPs). For the example of a visual P300 speller we show how the framework harvests the structure suitable to solve the decoding task by (a) transfer learning, (b) unsupervised adaptation, (c) language model and (d) dynamic stopping. Approach. A simulation study compares the proposed probabilistic zero framework (using transfer learning and task structure) to a state-of-the-art supervised model on n = 22 subjects. The individual influence of the involved components (a)-(d) are investigated. Main results. Without any need for a calibration session, the probabilistic zero-training framework with inter-subject transfer learning shows excellent performance—competitive to a state-of-the-art supervised method using calibration. Its decoding quality is carried mainly by the effect of transfer learning in combination with continuous unsupervised adaptation. Significance. A high-performing zero-training BCI is within reach for one of the most popular BCI paradigms: ERP spelling. Recording calibration data for a supervised BCI would require valuable time which is lost for spelling. The time spent on calibration would allow a novel user to spell 29 symbols with our unsupervised approach. It could be of use for various clinical and non-clinical ERP-applications of BCI.

  1. Norm Comparisons of the Spanish-language and English-language WAIS-III: Implications for Clinical Assessment and Test Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Funes, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Juventino Hernandez; Lopez, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a systematic comparison of the norms of three Spanish-language WAIS-III batteries from Mexico, Spain and Puerto Rico, and the US English-language WAIS-III battery. Specifically, we examined the performance of the four normative samples on two identical subtests (Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding) and one nearly identical subtest (Block Design). We found that across most age groups the means associated with the Spanish-language versions of the three subtests were lower than the means of the US English-language version. In addition, we found that for most age ranges the Mexican subsamples scored lower than the Spanish subsamples. Lower educational levels of Mexicans and Spaniards compared to US residents are consistent with the general pattern of findings. These results suggest that because of the different norms, applying any of the three Spanish-language versions of the WAIS-III generally risks underestimating deficits, and that applying the English-language WAIS-III norms risks overestimating deficits of Spanish-speaking adults. There were a few exceptions to these general patterns. For example, the Mexican subsample aged 70 and above performed significantly better on the Digit Symbol and Block Design than the US and Spanish subsamples. Implications for the clinical assessment of US Spanish-speaking Latinos and test adaptation are discussed with an eye toward improving the clinical care for this community. PMID:26950442

  2. Methodological and Theoretical Issues in the Adaptation of Sign Language Tests: An Example from the Adaptation of a Test to German Sign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Despite the current need for reliable and valid test instruments in different countries in order to monitor the sign language acquisition of deaf children, very few tests are commercially available that offer strong evidence for their psychometric properties. This mirrors the current state of affairs for many sign languages, where very little…

  3. Classroom Games in the Compulsory School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus-Serbic, Eva

    1976-01-01

    Keeping the pupils' interest up throughout the year in a compulsory language class is a major problem and therefore, language-teaching games are very important. Some new suggestions for games to be used in the elementary school are: (1) The Parrot; (2) The Robot; (3) Ping-Pong; and (4) Telephone. Card games such as Happy Families can be played…

  4. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-phonetic Properties of Cross-language Lexical-tone Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of Adaptive Dispersion (TAD) (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972). This is a cross-language investigation of whether and how the size of a tonal inventory affects (A) acoustic tone-space size and (B) dispersion of tone categories within the tone-space. I compared five languages with very different tone inventories: Cantonese (3 contour, 3 level tones); Mandarin (3 contour, 1 level tone); Thai (2 contour, 3 level tones); Yoruba (3 level tones only); and Igbo (2 level tones only). Six native speakers (3 female) of each language produced 18 CV syllables in isolation, with each of his/her language's tones, six times. I measured tonal F0 across the vowel at onset, midpoint, and offglide. Tone-space size was the F0 difference in semitones (ST) between each language's highest and lowest tones. Tone dispersion was the F0 distance (ST) between two tones shared by multiple languages. Following the TAD, I predicted that languages with larger tone inventories would have larger tone-spaces. Against expectations, tone-space size was fixed across level-tone languages at midpoint and offglide, and across contour-tone languages (except Thai) at offglide. However, within each language type (level-tone vs. contour-tone), languages with smaller tone inventories had larger tone spaces at onset. Tone-dispersion results were also unexpected. The Cantonese mid-level tone was further dispersed from a tonal baseline than the Yoruba mid-level tone; Cantonese mid-level tone dispersion was therefore greater than theoretically necessary. The Cantonese high-level tone was also further dispersed from baseline than the Mandarin high-level tone -- at midpoint

  5. Characterizing cognitive control abilities in children with 16p11.2 deletion using adaptive ‘video game' technology: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Anguera, J A; Brandes-Aitken, A N; Rolle, C E; Skinner, S N; Desai, S S; Bower, J D; Martucci, W E; Chung, W K; Sherr, E H; Marco, E J

    2016-01-01

    Assessing cognitive abilities in children is challenging for two primary reasons: lack of testing engagement can lead to low testing sensitivity and inherent performance variability. Here we sought to explore whether an engaging, adaptive digital cognitive platform built to look and feel like a video game would reliably measure attention-based abilities in children with and without neurodevelopmental disabilities related to a known genetic condition, 16p11.2 deletion. We assessed 20 children with 16p11.2 deletion, a genetic variation implicated in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism, as well as 16 siblings without the deletion and 75 neurotypical age-matched children. Deletion carriers showed significantly slower response times and greater response variability when compared with all non-carriers; by comparison, traditional non-adaptive selective attention assessments were unable to discriminate group differences. This phenotypic characterization highlights the potential power of administering tools that integrate adaptive psychophysical mechanics into video-game-style mechanics to achieve robust, reliable measurements. PMID:27648915

  6. Games, the Socialization of Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton-Smith, Brian

    The function of games in a society is discussed in this paper. An earlier definition of games as a concretistic way of processing information of cultural antitheses is enlarged to include a more bio-adaptive definition: the game is also a socialization of conflict. This view is compared and contrasted with those of Sigmund Freud and G. H. Mead.…

  7. The Guppy Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blattner, Margaret; Hug, Barbara; Watson, Patrick; Korol, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation, interactions between species and their environments, and change over time are fundamental principles in biology. They represent aspects of two of the big ideas in science: evolution and natural selection. To help students understand these ideas, the authors developed the "Guppy Game." In this article, they describe the game and how…

  8. Do Teachers Make All Their Students Play the Same Learning Games? A Comparative Study of Learning Games in Biology and English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruson, Brigitte; Marlot, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    This article, based upon the field of comparative didactics, seeks to contribute to the identification of generic and specific features in the teaching and learning process. More particularly, its aim was to examine, through the study of two different school subjects: biology and English as a second language, how "passive didactic…

  9. Norm comparisons of the Spanish-language and English-language WAIS-III: Implications for clinical assessment and test adaptation.

    PubMed

    Funes, Cynthia M; Rodriguez, Juventino Hernandez; Lopez, Steven Regeser

    2016-12-01

    This study provides a systematic comparison of the norms of 3 Spanish-language Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS-III) batteries from Mexico, Spain, and Puerto Rico, and the U.S. English-language WAIS-III battery. Specifically, we examined the performance of the 4 normative samples on 2 identical subtests (Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding) and 1 nearly identical subtest (Block Design). We found that across most age groups the means associated with the Spanish-language versions of the 3 subtests were lower than the means of the U.S. English-language version. In addition, we found that for most age ranges the Mexican subsamples scored lower than the Spanish subsamples. Lower educational levels of Mexicans and Spaniards compared to U.S. residents are consistent with the general pattern of findings. These results suggest that because of the different norms, applying any of the 3 Spanish-language versions of the WAIS-III generally risks underestimating deficits, and that applying the English-language WAIS-III norms risks overestimating deficits of Spanish-speaking adults. There were a few exceptions to these general patterns. For example, the Mexican subsample ages 70 years and above performed significantly better on the Digit Symbol and Block Design than did the U.S. and Spanish subsamples. Implications for the clinical assessment of U.S. Spanish-speaking Latinos and test adaptation are discussed with an eye toward improving the clinical care for this community. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. F-LARSP 1.0: An Adaptation of the LARSP Language Profile for French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maillart, Christelle; Parisse, Christophe; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2012-01-01

    The Language Assessment, Remediation and Screening Procedure (Crystal, Fletcher and Garman, 1976; "The grammatical analysis of language disability". London: Edward Arnold) is a linguistic profile commonly used by researchers and clinicians to carry out detailed analyses of the grammar and morphology of children's spontaneous language samples. This…

  11. The Key to Global Understanding: World Languages Education--Why Schools Need to Adapt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tochon, Francois Victor

    2009-01-01

    This review article is a plea for the education community to reconsider the place of world languages teaching within the schools. With globalization, languages education should be one of the strategic goals of public as well as private education. The article reviews research on the best age level for learning a language, the assets of…

  12. The application of language-game theory to the analysis of science learning: Developing an interpretive classroom-level learning framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadibasir, Mohammad

    In this study an interpretive learning framework that aims to measure learning on the classroom level is introduced. In order to develop and evaluate the value of the framework, a theoretical/empirical study is designed. The researcher attempted to illustrate how the proposed framework provides insights on the problem of classroom-level learning. The framework is developed by construction of connections between the current literature on science learning and Wittgenstein's language-game theory. In this framework learning is defined as change of classroom language-game or discourse. In the proposed framework, learning is measured by analysis of classroom discourse. The empirical explanation power of the framework is evaluated by applying the framework in the analysis of learning in a fifth-grade science classroom. The researcher attempted to analyze how students' colloquial discourse changed to a discourse that bears more resemblance to science discourse. The results of the empirical part of the investigation are presented in three parts: first, the gap between what students did and what they were supposed to do was reported. The gap showed that students during the classroom inquiry wanted to do simple comparisons by direct observation, while they were supposed to do tool-assisted observation and procedural manipulation for a complete comparison. Second, it was illustrated that the first attempt to connect the colloquial to science discourse was done by what was immediately intelligible for students and then the teacher negotiated with students in order to help them to connect the old to the new language-game more purposefully. The researcher suggested that these two events in the science classroom are critical in discourse change. Third, it was illustrated that through the academic year, the way that students did the act of comparison was improved and by the end of the year more accurate causal inferences were observable in classroom communication. At the end of the

  13. Quantum games as quantum types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbecque, Yannick

    In this thesis, we present a new model for higher-order quantum programming languages. The proposed model is an adaptation of the probabilistic game semantics developed by Danos and Harmer [DH02]: we expand it with quantum strategies which enable one to represent quantum states and quantum operations. Some of the basic properties of these strategies are established and then used to construct denotational semantics for three quantum programming languages. The first of these languages is a formalisation of the measurement calculus proposed by Danos et al. [DKP07]. The other two are new: they are higher-order quantum programming languages. Previous attempts to define a denotational semantics for higher-order quantum programming languages have failed. We identify some of the key reasons for this and base the design of our higher-order languages on these observations. The game semantics proposed in this thesis is the first denotational semantics for a lambda-calculus equipped with quantum types and with extra operations which allow one to program quantum algorithms. The results presented validate the two different approaches used in the design of these two new higher-order languages: a first one where quantum states are used through references and a second one where they are introduced as constants in the language. The quantum strategies presented in this thesis allow one to understand the constraints that must be imposed on quantum type systems with higher-order types. The most significant constraint is the fact that abstraction over part of the tensor product of many unknown quantum states must not be allowed. Quantum strategies are a new mathematical model which describes the interaction between classical and quantum data using system-environment dialogues. The interactions between the different parts of a quantum system are described using the rich structure generated by composition of strategies. This approach has enough generality to be put in relation with other

  14. Effects of Word Games, Culturally Relevant Songs, and Stories on Students' Motivation in a Nigerian English Language Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajibade, Yetunde; Ndububa, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which word games and culturally relevant songs and stories could motivate senior secondary school students in Nigeria, thereby enhancing their performance in English. A pre-test/post-test control group design was used. The sample consisted of 100 senior secondary school II students randomly assigned into…

  15. Automated Microscopy: Macro Language Controlling a Confocal Microscope and its External Illumination: Adaptation for Photosynthetic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Gábor; Kaňa, Radek

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis research employs several biophysical methods, including the detection of fluorescence. Even though fluorescence is a key method to detect photosynthetic efficiency, it has not been applied/adapted to single-cell confocal microscopy measurements to examine photosynthetic microorganisms. Experiments with photosynthetic cells may require automation to perform a large number of measurements with different parameters, especially concerning light conditions. However, commercial microscopes support custom protocols (through Time Controller offered by Olympus or Experiment Designer offered by Zeiss) that are often unable to provide special set-ups and connection to external devices (e.g., for irradiation). Our new system combining an Arduino microcontroller with the Cell⊕Finder software was developed for controlling Olympus FV1000 and FV1200 confocal microscopes and the attached hardware modules. Our software/hardware solution offers (1) a text file-based macro language to control the imaging functions of the microscope; (2) programmable control of several external hardware devices (light sources, thermal controllers, actuators) during imaging via the Arduino microcontroller; (3) the Cell⊕Finder software with ergonomic user environment, a fast selection method for the biologically important cells and precise positioning feature that reduces unwanted bleaching of the cells by the scanning laser. Cell⊕Finder can be downloaded from http://www.alga.cz/cellfinder. The system was applied to study changes in fluorescence intensity in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cells under long-term illumination. Thus, we were able to describe the kinetics of phycobilisome decoupling. Microscopy data showed that phycobilisome decoupling appears slowly after long-term (>1 h) exposure to high light.

  16. Developmental Inventories Using Illiterate Parents as Informants: Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) Adaptation for Two Kenyan Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcock, K. J.; Rimba, K.; Holding, P.; Kitsao-Wekulo, P.; Abubakar, A.; Newton, C. R. J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs, parent-completed language development checklists) are a helpful tool to assess language in children who are unused to interaction with unfamiliar adults. Generally, CDIs are completed in written form, but in developing country settings parents may have insufficient literacy to complete them alone. We…

  17. Developmental inventories using illiterate parents as informants: Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) adaptation for two Kenyan languages.

    PubMed

    Alcock, K J; Rimba, K; Holding, P; Kitsao-Wekulo, P; Abubakar, A; Newton, C R J C

    2015-07-01

    Communicative Development Inventories (CDIs, parent-completed language development checklists) are a helpful tool to assess language in children who are unused to interaction with unfamiliar adults. Generally, CDIs are completed in written form, but in developing country settings parents may have insufficient literacy to complete them alone. We designed CDIs to assess language development in children aged 0;8 to 2;4 in two languages used in Coastal communities in Kenya. Measures of vocabulary, gestures, and grammatical constructions were developed using both interviews with parents from varying backgrounds, and vocabulary as well as grammatical constructions from recordings of children's spontaneous speech. The CDIs were then administered in interview format to over 300 families. Reliability and validity ranged from acceptable to excellent, supporting the use of CDIs when direct language testing is impractical, even when children have multiple caregivers and where respondents have low literacy levels.

  18. Adapting Language Arts, Social Studies, and Science Materials for the Inclusive Classroom. Volume 3: Grades Six through Eight. ERIC/OSEP Mini-Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumaker, Jean; Lenz, Keith

    This book offers teachers guidelines and suggestions for adapting and/or selecting materials for use with students with disabilities in general language arts, social studies, and science classrooms (grades 6 through 8). Following an introduction, chapter 1 offers a nine-step procedure for adapting materials from first, creating a plan for adapting…

  19. Modular Sequence: English as a Second Language, Methods and Techniques. TTP 001.13 Evaluating and Adapting Materials. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Alberto; Melnick, Susan L.

    The purpose of this unit of work is to provide the teacher participant with some useful guidelines for evaluating and adapting written materials for specific English as a second language (ESL) classes. There is pre- and post-assessment of specific learning tasks relevant to evaluating and adapting materials as well as learning activities, which…

  20. Effects of Bilingual and English as a Second Language Adaptations of Success for All on the Reading Achievement of Students Acquiring English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Studied the effects of two adaptations of the Success for All program, a Spanish bilingual version (Exito para Todos) and an adaptation that integrates English-as-a-Second-Language strategies with English reading instruction using data from six studies. Notes substantially positive effects of both approaches on students acquiring English. (SLD)

  1. Games Magazine Junior Kids' Big Book of Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Karen C., Ed.

    Providing entertainment and recreation at home and in the classroom, this book presents over 125 verbal, visual, and logic puzzles which may also enhance problem-solving abilities and improve language skills. The games in the book are arranged in chapters: (1) Picture Puzzles; (2) Word Play; (3) Games and Trivia; (4) Mystery, Logic, and Numbers;…

  2. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  3. Verification Games: Crowd-Sourced Formal Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Formal Verification the verification tools developed by the Programming Languages and Software Engineering group were improved. A series of games...were developed by the Center for Game Science: Pipe Jam, Traffic Jam, Flow Jam and Paradox. Verification tools and games were integrated to verify...N/A i Contents List of Figures 1. SUMMARY .............................................................................................. 1 2

  4. Playful Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  5. Adapting Language Arts, Social Studies, and Science Materials for the Inclusive Classroom. ERIC/OSEP Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Keith; Schumaker, Jean

    This digest, based on a larger publication of the same title, offers a nine-step process for planning and implementing adaptations to instructional materials for students with disabilities in the inclusive classroom. Introductory material notes that adaptations should be approached as a short-term solution to increase access to the curriculum and…

  6. Adaptive Teaching for English Language Arts: Following the Pathway of Classroom Data in Preservice Teacher Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanases, Steven Z.; Bennett, Lisa H.; Wahleithner, Juliet Michelsen

    2015-01-01

    Consensus exists that effective teaching includes capacity to adapt instruction to respond to student learning challenges as they arise. Adaptive teachers may keep pace with rapidly evolving youth literacies and students' increasing cultural and linguistic diversity. Teachers are challenged to critically examine pedagogy when some contexts expect…

  7. Spoken language interaction with model uncertainty: an adaptive human-robot interaction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Finale; Roy, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    Spoken language is one of the most intuitive forms of interaction between humans and agents. Unfortunately, agents that interact with people using natural language often experience communication errors and do not correctly understand the user's intentions. Recent systems have successfully used probabilistic models of speech, language and user behaviour to generate robust dialogue performance in the presence of noisy speech recognition and ambiguous language choices, but decisions made using these probabilistic models are still prone to errors owing to the complexity of acquiring and maintaining a complete model of human language and behaviour. In this paper, a decision-theoretic model for human-robot interaction using natural language is described. The algorithm is based on the Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP), which allows agents to choose actions that are robust not only to uncertainty from noisy or ambiguous speech recognition but also unknown user models. Like most dialogue systems, a POMDP is defined by a large number of parameters that may be difficult to specify a priori from domain knowledge, and learning these parameters from the user may require an unacceptably long training period. An extension to the POMDP model is described that allows the agent to acquire a linguistic model of the user online, including new vocabulary and word choice preferences. The approach not only avoids a training period of constant questioning as the agent learns, but also allows the agent actively to query for additional information when its uncertainty suggests a high risk of mistakes. The approach is demonstrated both in simulation and on a natural language interaction system for a robotic wheelchair application.

  8. The Communication Game: Perspectives on the Devevelopment of Speech, Language and Non-Verbal Communication Skills. Pediatric Round Table: 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Abigail Peterson

    The conferencee discussions and papers presented in this volume reflect the opinions and research of 20 authorities in the field of communication development. These authorities offer new perspectives on nonverbal communication, speech reception and production, and the development of language and thought. To provide a better understanding of…

  9. Adaptations for English Language Learners: Differentiating between Linguistic and Instructional Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lynn, C. Allen

    2016-01-01

    While many teachers and teacher educators in the United States K-12 system acknowledge that the English language learners (ELLs) in our schools need modifications and accommodations to help them succeed in school, few attempt to parse out how different types of accommodations may affect learning in the mainstream classroom, specifically linguistic…

  10. Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish-Language Trauma Symptom Inventory in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez Wang, Lisa; Cosden, Merith; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This research was conducted to assess the Spanish-language Trauma Symptom Inventory's (Briere, 1995) suitability for use with a Puerto Rican sample. Minor revisions were made to the original instrument following a comprehensive appraisal involving a bilingual committee and pilot focus group. The present study outlines the review and…

  11. Language Learner/Native Speaker Interactions: Exploring Adaptability in Intercultural Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin-Quinlisk, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Diversity and intercultural awareness initiatives are increasingly common at institutions of higher education in the USA. Although students recognize and appreciate the diversity of their surroundings, studies show that intercultural interactions at the social level are lacking. This study focuses on how English language learners, multilingual…

  12. Adapting a Vocabulary Notebook Strategy to the Needs of Community College English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taveggia, Diane Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Vocabulary, both the number of words and the knowledge about each word, are important in the comprehension of academic text in post-secondary education, and adult English language learners often have vocabularies of low quantity (number of words) and quality (knowledge about words). Research points to the effectiveness of teaching independent…

  13. Digital Game-Based Learning: What's Literacy Got to Do With It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spires, Hiller A.

    2015-01-01

    Just as literacy practices are contextualized in social situations and relationships, game players establish shared language and understandings within a game; in essence, they gain fluency in specialized languages. This commentary explores the importance of digital game-based learning for schooling, the relationship between game-based learning,…

  14. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  15. Fun & Games, but Learning Too. Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Paula

    1989-01-01

    Recommends the use of visual art games to organize learning for short time periods. Outlines strategies for seven visual art games adaptable for most age and skill levels. Based on familiar games such as "I-Spy" or "Bingo," these activities deal with artistic terms or concepts, artists, artworks, and art history. (LS)

  16. Fun and Games, but Learning Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Paula

    1989-01-01

    Recommends the use of visual art games to introduce art units and stimulate student interest. Outlines strategies for 10 visual art games adaptable for most age and skill levels. Based on familiar games such as "tic-tac-toe" or "hangman," these activities deal with artists, artistic skills or concepts, and art history. (LS)

  17. The Use of Gaming Strategies in a Transcultural Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Rebecca; Marrone, Stephen; Boyles, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Nurse educators in Saudi hospitals are challenged by diversity, language barriers, and alternative ways of knowing and learning. Gaming (Jeopardy!, puzzles, board games) provides flexibility and a nonthreatening atmosphere in which to mediate different communication patterns and learning styles. (SK)

  18. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  19. Differential games.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varaiya, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    General discussion of the theory of differential games with two players and zero sum. Games starting at a fixed initial state and ending at a fixed final time are analyzed. Strategies for the games are defined. The existence of saddle values and saddle points is considered. A stochastic version of a differential game is used to examine the synthesis problem.

  20. Violence in Teen-Rated Video Games

    PubMed Central

    Haninger, Kevin; Ryan, M. Seamus; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2004-01-01

    Context: Children's exposure to violence in the media remains a source of public health concern; however, violence in video games rated T (for “Teen”) by the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) has not been quantified. Objective: To quantify and characterize the depiction of violence and blood in T-rated video games. According to the ESRB, T-rated video games may be suitable for persons aged 13 years and older and may contain violence, mild or strong language, and/or suggestive themes. Design: We created a database of all 396 T-rated video game titles released on the major video game consoles in the United States by April 1, 2001 to identify the distribution of games by genre and to characterize the distribution of content descriptors for violence and blood assigned to these games. We randomly sampled 80 game titles (which included 81 games because 1 title included 2 separate games), played each game for at least 1 hour, and quantitatively assessed the content. Given the release of 2 new video game consoles, Microsoft Xbox and Nintendo GameCube, and a significant number of T-rated video games released after we drew our random sample, we played and assessed 9 additional games for these consoles. Finally, we assessed the content of 2 R-rated films, The Matrix and The Matrix: Reloaded, associated with the T-rated video game Enter the Matrix. Main Outcome Measures: Game genre; percentage of game play depicting violence; depiction of injury; depiction of blood; number of human and nonhuman fatalities; types of weapons used; whether injuring characters, killing characters, or destroying objects is rewarded or is required to advance in the game; and content that may raise concerns about marketing T-rated video games to children. Results: Based on analysis of the 396 T-rated video game titles, 93 game titles (23%) received content descriptors for both violence and blood, 280 game titles (71%) received only a content descriptor for violence, 9 game titles (2

  1. Adaptation of Organizational Justice in Sport Scale into Turkish Language: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayin, Ayfer; Sahin, Mustafa Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to provide a Turkish adaptation of the Organizational Justice in Sport Scale and perform reliability and validity studies. Answers provided by 260 participants who work as football, male basketball and female basketball coaches in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) were analysed using the original scale that…

  2. The replicator equation and other game dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cressman, Ross; Tao, Yi

    2014-01-01

    The replicator equation is the first and most important game dynamics studied in connection with evolutionary game theory. It was originally developed for symmetric games with finitely many strategies. Properties of these dynamics are briefly summarized for this case, including the convergence to and stability of the Nash equilibria and evolutionarily stable strategies. The theory is then extended to other game dynamics for symmetric games (e.g., the best response dynamics and adaptive dynamics) and illustrated by examples taken from the literature. It is also extended to multiplayer, population, and asymmetric games. PMID:25024202

  3. New Names for New Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Jerry; and others

    1969-01-01

    A collection of the following original games, adapted from traditional sports: frisbee baseball, rollerboard hockey, bell ball, throw and go netball, boardless basketball, crosseball, flag football, french dodgeball, korfbal, german bat ball, and flag football. (AP)

  4. Language and communication skills in preschool children with autism spectrum disorders: contribution of cognition, severity of autism symptoms, and adaptive functioning to the variability.

    PubMed

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Åsa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis of caregiver completion of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI). The children were classified into three cognitive groups: (a) Normal intelligence; (b) Developmental delay; and (c) Intellectual disability. Autism symptom severity was measured by the Autistic Behavior Checklist (ABC), and adaptive functioning by the Daily Living Skills (DLS) and Socialization (Soc) subscales from the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales. For each of five CDI variables (Phrases understood, Words understood, Words produced, Gestures and actions, and Language use), the contribution of cognition, severity of autism symptoms, and adaptive functioning to the variability was examined. Cognition and age explained about half or more of the variance in the four verbal language CDI variables, but only about one fourth of the variance in the non-verbal communication variable Gestures and actions. Severity of autism symptoms and the two adaptive measures (DLS and Soc) each only accounted for a few percent more of the variance in the four CDI language variables; however, for Gestures and actions, an additional 11-21% of the variance was accounted for. In conclusion, for children with ASD, receptive and expressive language is mainly related to cognitive level, whereas non-verbal communication skills seem to also be related to severity of autism symptoms and adaptive functioning.

  5. Games in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walford, Rex

    Six games designed for classroom use are described in this book: 1) Shopping Game; 2) Bus Service Game; 3) North Sea Gas Game; 4) Railway Pioneers Game; 5) Development Game; and 6) Export Drive Game. The description of each game comprises a separate chapter, and includes information about the general aims of the game, how the various game elements…

  6. Language and Communication Skills in Preschool Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Contribution of Cognition, Severity of Autism Symptoms, and Adaptive Functioning to the Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kjellmer, Liselotte; Hedvall, Asa; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher; Norrelgen, Fritjof

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of cognitive function, severity of autism, and adaptive functioning to the variability in language and communication skills in 129 preschool children (aged 24-63 months) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were selected from a representative research cohort of 208 preschool children on the basis…

  7. Effects of Bilingual and English as a Second Language Adaptations of Success for All on the Reading Achievement of Students Acquiring English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.; Madden, Nancy A.

    Two adaptations of Success for All, a comprehensive instructional reform program for elementary schools, have been used with students acquiring English as a second language. One is a Spanish bilingual version called "Exito para Todos," in which students are taught to read in Spanish and then transitioned to English reading, usually in…

  8. University Prosperity Game. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, K.W.; Berman, M.

    1996-03-01

    Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the University Prosperity Game conducted under the sponsorship of the Anderson Schools of Management at the University of New Mexico. This Prosperity Game was initially designed for the roadmap making effort of the National Electronics Manufacturing Initiative (NEMI) of the Electronics Subcommittee of the Civilian Industrial Technology Committee under the aegis of the National Science and Technology Council. The game was modified to support course material in MGT 508, Ethical, Political, and Social Environment of Business. Thirty-five students participated as role players. In this educational context the game`s main objectives were to: (1) introduce and teach global competitiveness and business cultures in an experiential classroom setting; (2) explore ethical, political, and social issues and address them in the context of global markets and competition; and (3) obtain non-government views regarding the technical and non-technical (i.e., policy) issues developed in the NEMI roadmap-making endeavor. The negotiations and agreements made during the game, along with the student journals detailing the players feelings and reactions to the gaming experience, provide valuable insight into the benefits of simulation as an advanced learning tool in higher education.

  9. Game engines and immersive displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  10. Combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical formulation is proposed of a combat game between two opponents with offensive capabilities and offensive objective is proposed. Resolution of the combat involves solving two differential games with state constraints. Depending on the game dynamics and parameters, the combat can terminate in one of four ways: the first player wins; the second player wins; a draw (neither wins); or joint capture. In the first two cases, the optimal strategies of the two players are determined from suitable zero-sum games, whereas in the latter two the relevant games are nonzero-sum. Further, to avoid certain technical difficulties, the concept of a delta-combat game is introduced.

  11. Fiche pratique: In situ; Jeu de l'oie; Tete de chef; Du singe a l'homme (Practical Ideas: In Situ; The Game of Goose; The Head's Head; From Monkey to Man).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blas, Ana; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Four language classroom activities are described, including an exercise using maps and new vocabulary to discuss geographic location; an adaptation of a common board game that encourages classroom communication; an activity to enrich vocabulary and understanding of the historical relationships between words; and a comprehension exercise using a…

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of nasal obstruction symptom evaluation questionnaire in Slovenian language

    PubMed Central

    Soklič Košak, Tanja; Jenko, Klemen; Božanić Urbančič, Nina; Hudoklin, Peter; Delakorda, Matej; Juvanec, Ajda; Zupančič Urbančič, Katarina; Vadnjal, Jana; Gluvajić, Daša

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Nasal obstruction is highly subjective perception with numerous efforts being made towards objective measuring. Many instruments in quality of life studies encompass subjective symptom of nasal obstruction, but only NOSE has been properly validated and is easy to use in every day practice. Methods Multicenter prospective instrument validation and cross-cultural adaptation cohort study was conducted on patients with deviated nasal septum, with or without inferior turbinate hypertrophy, to develop the Slovenian version of NOSE questionnaire. A cross-cultural adaptation of the original questionnaire was done in five steps, producing Slovenian NOSE-si, used on a pilot group to confirm the quality of adapted tools and, afterwards, on the main study and control group. Symptoms were lasting for more than 12 months and all had an indication for septal surgery. A control group was selected from a pool of healthy subjects, self-assessed as having no rhinological complaints. Results NOSE-si was used on 116 patients (58 from the study group vs. 58 from the control group). High degree of internal consistency - Cronbach’s a 0.971 and reliability after retesting - Goodman-Kruskal gamma coefficient 0.984 was proven. Responsiveness was confirmed in the surgery subgroup with standardized response mean (SRM) 2.76 (p<0.001). Conclusions The study produced a valid Slovenian version of NOSE questionnaire through rigorous and well defined five-phase effort to maintain scientifically comparable QoL instrument, and may be used by clinicians and researchers. PMID:28289459

  13. How we see electronic games.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Andrew K; Weinstein, Netta

    2016-01-01

    Theories regarding the influences of electronic games drive scientific study, popular debate, and public policy. The fractious interchanges among parents, pundits, and scholars hint at the rich phenomenological and psychological dynamics that underlie how people view digital technologies such as games. The current research applied Martin Heidegger's concept of interpretive frameworks (Heidegger, 1987) and Robert Zajonc's exposure-attitude hypothesis (Zajonc, 1968) to explore how attitudes towards technologies such as electronic games arise. Three studies drew on representative cohorts of American and British adults and evaluated how direct and indirect experiences with games shape how they are seen. Results indicated this approach was fruitful: negative attitudes and beliefs linking games to real-world violence were prominent among those with little direct exposure to electronic gaming contexts, whereas those who played games and reported doing so with their children tended to evaluate gaming more positively. Further findings indicated direct experience tended to inform the accuracy of beliefs about the effects of digital technology, as those who had played were more likely to believe that which is empirically known about game effects. Results are discussed with respect to ongoing debates regarding gaming and broader applications of this approach to understand the psychological dynamics of adapting to technological advances.

  14. How we see electronic games

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Netta

    2016-01-01

    Theories regarding the influences of electronic games drive scientific study, popular debate, and public policy. The fractious interchanges among parents, pundits, and scholars hint at the rich phenomenological and psychological dynamics that underlie how people view digital technologies such as games. The current research applied Martin Heidegger’s concept of interpretive frameworks (Heidegger, 1987) and Robert Zajonc’s exposure-attitude hypothesis (Zajonc, 1968) to explore how attitudes towards technologies such as electronic games arise. Three studies drew on representative cohorts of American and British adults and evaluated how direct and indirect experiences with games shape how they are seen. Results indicated this approach was fruitful: negative attitudes and beliefs linking games to real-world violence were prominent among those with little direct exposure to electronic gaming contexts, whereas those who played games and reported doing so with their children tended to evaluate gaming more positively. Further findings indicated direct experience tended to inform the accuracy of beliefs about the effects of digital technology, as those who had played were more likely to believe that which is empirically known about game effects. Results are discussed with respect to ongoing debates regarding gaming and broader applications of this approach to understand the psychological dynamics of adapting to technological advances. PMID:27077016

  15. Serious games for Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes

  16. Shorthand Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostal, June

    1973-01-01

    Games can be used to stimulate interest and to make learning shorthand fun. Suggested games include these: geographic shorthand rummy, shorthand concentration, shorthand baseball geography, shorthand geography spelldown, shorthand password, and shorthand hangman's bluff. (SC)

  17. Proto-Plasm: parallel language for adaptive and scalable modelling of biosystems

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; DiCarlo, Antonio; Paoluzzi, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the design goals and the first developments of Proto-Plasm, a novel computational environment to produce libraries of executable, combinable and customizable computer models of natural and synthetic biosystems, aiming to provide a supporting framework for predictive understanding of structure and behaviour through multiscale geometric modelling and multiphysics simulations. Admittedly, the Proto-Plasm platform is still in its infancy. Its computational framework—language, model library, integrated development environment and parallel engine—intends to provide patient-specific computational modelling and simulation of organs and biosystem, exploiting novel functionalities resulting from the symbolic combination of parametrized models of parts at various scales. Proto-Plasm may define the model equations, but it is currently focused on the symbolic description of model geometry and on the parallel support of simulations. Conversely, CellML and SBML could be viewed as defining the behavioural functions (the model equations) to be used within a Proto-Plasm program. Here we exemplify the basic functionalities of Proto-Plasm, by constructing a schematic heart model. We also discuss multiscale issues with reference to the geometric and physical modelling of neuromuscular junctions. PMID:18559320

  18. PROTO-PLASM: parallel language for adaptive and scalable modelling of biosystems.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Chandrajit; DiCarlo, Antonio; Paoluzzi, Alberto

    2008-09-13

    This paper discusses the design goals and the first developments of PROTO-PLASM, a novel computational environment to produce libraries of executable, combinable and customizable computer models of natural and synthetic biosystems, aiming to provide a supporting framework for predictive understanding of structure and behaviour through multiscale geometric modelling and multiphysics simulations. Admittedly, the PROTO-PLASM platform is still in its infancy. Its computational framework--language, model library, integrated development environment and parallel engine--intends to provide patient-specific computational modelling and simulation of organs and biosystem, exploiting novel functionalities resulting from the symbolic combination of parametrized models of parts at various scales. PROTO-PLASM may define the model equations, but it is currently focused on the symbolic description of model geometry and on the parallel support of simulations. Conversely, CellML and SBML could be viewed as defining the behavioural functions (the model equations) to be used within a PROTO-PLASM program. Here we exemplify the basic functionalities of PROTO-PLASM, by constructing a schematic heart model. We also discuss multiscale issues with reference to the geometric and physical modelling of neuromuscular junctions.

  19. Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12, translation, adaptation and validation for the Persian language population.

    PubMed

    Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Naghdi, Soofia; Mohammadi, Roghaye; Hasson, Scott

    2015-02-01

    The Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) is a multi-item rating scale used to assess the perspectives of patients about the impact of MS on their walking ability. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the MSWS-12 in Persian speaking patients with MS. The MSWS-12 questionnaire was translated into Persian language according to internationally adopted standards involving forward-backward translation, reviewed by an expert committee and tested on the pre-final version. In this cross-sectional study, 100 participants (50 patients with MS and 50 healthy subjects) were included. The MSWS-12 was administered twice 7 days apart to 30 patients with MS for test and retest reliability. Internal consistency reliability was Cronbach's α 0.96 for test and 0.97 for retest. There were no significant floor or ceiling effects. Test-retest reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] agreement of 0.98, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99) confirming the reproducibility of the Persian MSWS-12. Construct validity using known group methods was demonstrated through a significant difference in the Persian MSWS-12 total score between the patients with MS and healthy subjects. Factor analysis extracted 2 latent factors (79.24% of the total variance). A second factor analysis suggested the 9-item Persian MSWS as a unidimensional scale for patients with MS. The Persian MSWS-12 was found to be valid and reliable for assessing walking ability in Persian speaking patients with MS.

  20. Playful Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alex

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of playful gaming (an idea not expressed fully by either term alone) and uses it as an analytical tool to study the playfulness of games in the context of several social phenomena; i.e., social change, socialization, utopian systems, and educational gaming. An extensive reference list is provided. (MBR)

  1. Winter Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

    Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

  2. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  3. Assessing Hippocampal Development and Language in Early Childhood: Evidence From a New Application of the Automatic Segmentation Adapter Tool

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joshua K.; Nordahl, Christine W.; Amaral, David G.; Lee, Aaron; Solomon, Marjorie; Ghetti, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric assessments of the hippocampus and other brain structures during childhood provide useful indices of brain development and correlates of cognitive functioning in typically and atypically developing children. Automated methods such as FreeSurfer promise efficient and replicable segmentation, but may include errors which are avoided by trained manual tracers. A recently devised automated correction tool that uses a machine learning algorithm to remove systematic errors, the Automatic Segmentation Adapter Tool (ASAT), was capable of substantially improving the accuracy of FreeSurfer segmentations in an adult sample [Wang et al., 2011], but the utility of ASAT has not been examined in pediatric samples. In Study 1, the validity of FreeSurfer and ASAT corrected hippocampal segmentations were examined in 20 typically developing children and 20 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 2 and 3 years. We showed that while neither FreeSurfer nor ASAT accuracy differed by disorder or age, the accuracy of ASAT corrected segmentations were substantially better than FreeSurfer segmentations in every case, using as few as 10 training examples. In Study 2, we applied ASAT to 89 typically developing children aged 2 to 4 years to examine relations between hippocampal volume, age, sex, and expressive language. Girls had smaller hippocampi overall, and in left hippocampus this difference was larger in older than younger girls. Expressive language ability was greater in older children, and this difference was larger in those with larger hippocampi, bilaterally. Overall, this research shows that ASAT is highly reliable and useful to examinations relating behavior to hippocampal structure. PMID:26279309

  4. Assessing hippocampal development and language in early childhood: Evidence from a new application of the Automatic Segmentation Adapter Tool.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joshua K; Nordahl, Christine W; Amaral, David G; Lee, Aaron; Solomon, Marjorie; Ghetti, Simona

    2015-11-01

    Volumetric assessments of the hippocampus and other brain structures during childhood provide useful indices of brain development and correlates of cognitive functioning in typically and atypically developing children. Automated methods such as FreeSurfer promise efficient and replicable segmentation, but may include errors which are avoided by trained manual tracers. A recently devised automated correction tool that uses a machine learning algorithm to remove systematic errors, the Automatic Segmentation Adapter Tool (ASAT), was capable of substantially improving the accuracy of FreeSurfer segmentations in an adult sample [Wang et al., 2011], but the utility of ASAT has not been examined in pediatric samples. In Study 1, the validity of FreeSurfer and ASAT corrected hippocampal segmentations were examined in 20 typically developing children and 20 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 2 and 3 years. We showed that while neither FreeSurfer nor ASAT accuracy differed by disorder or age, the accuracy of ASAT corrected segmentations were substantially better than FreeSurfer segmentations in every case, using as few as 10 training examples. In Study 2, we applied ASAT to 89 typically developing children aged 2 to 4 years to examine relations between hippocampal volume, age, sex, and expressive language. Girls had smaller hippocampi overall, and in left hippocampus this difference was larger in older than younger girls. Expressive language ability was greater in older children, and this difference was larger in those with larger hippocampi, bilaterally. Overall, this research shows that ASAT is highly reliable and useful to examinations relating behavior to hippocampal structure.

  5. Adaptive Tele-Therapies Based on Serious Games for Health for People with Time-Management and Organisational Problems: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Frutos-Pascual, Maite; García Zapirain, Begoña; Méndez Zorrilla, Amaia

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders within the child population today. Inattention problems can lead to greater difficulties in completing assignments, as well as problems with time management and prioritisation of tasks. This article presents an intelligent tele-therapy tool based on Serious Games for Health, aimed at the improvement of time management skills and the prioritisation of tasks. This tele-system is based on the use of decision trees within Django, a high-level Python Web framework. The technologies and techniques used were selected so as to boost user involvement and to enable the system to be easily customised. This article shows the preliminary results of the pilot-phase in an experiment performed to evaluate the use of adaptive tele-therapies within a group of typically developing children and adolescents aged between 12 and 19 years old without ADHD. To do so, we relied on the collection of parameters and the conduct of surveys for assessing time management skills, as well as measuring system usability and availability. The results of a time management survey highlighted that the users involved in the trial did not use any specific or effective time management techniques, scoring 1.98 and 2.30 out of 5 points in this area for ages under 15 and over 16 years old, respectively. The final calculations based on the usability questionnaire resulted in an average score of 78.75 out of 100. The creation of a customisable tool capable of working with different skills, in conjunction with the replication of the current study, may help to understand these users’ needs, as well as boosting time management skills among teenagers with and without ADHD. PMID:24402063

  6. Adaptive tele-therapies based on serious games for health for people with time-management and organisational problems: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Frutos-Pascual, Maite; Zapirain, Begoña García; Zorrilla, Amaia Méndez

    2014-01-07

    Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent disorders within the child population today. Inattention problems can lead to greater difficulties in completing assignments, as well as problems with time management and prioritisation of tasks. This article presents an intelligent tele-therapy tool based on Serious Games for Health, aimed at the improvement of time management skills and the prioritisation of tasks. This tele-system is based on the use of decision trees within Django, a high-level Python Web framework. The technologies and techniques used were selected so as to boost user involvement and to enable the system to be easily customised. This article shows the preliminary results of the pilot-phase in an experiment performed to evaluate the use of adaptive tele-therapies within a group of typically developing children and adolescents aged between 12 and 19 years old without ADHD. To do so, we relied on the collection of parameters and the conduct of surveys for assessing time management skills, as well as measuring system usability and availability. The results of a time management survey highlighted that the users involved in the trial did not use any specific or effective time management techniques, scoring 1.98 and 2.30 out of 5 points in this area for ages under 15 and over 16 years old, respectively. The final calculations based on the usability questionnaire resulted in an average score of 78.75 out of 100. The creation of a customisable tool capable of working with different skills, in conjunction with the replication of the current study, may help to understand these users' needs, as well as boosting time management skills among teenagers with and without ADHD.

  7. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis questionnaire (MHISS) into the Dutch language.

    PubMed

    Schouffoer, A A; Strijbos, E; Schuerwegh, A J M; Mouthon, L; Vliet Vlieland, T P M

    2013-11-01

    The Mouth Handicap in Systemic Sclerosis (MHISS) is a French-generic questionnaire evaluating mouth-opening restriction, dryness, and esthetic concerns. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the MHISS questionnaire into the Dutch language and evaluate its psychometric properties. The MHISS was translated according to international guidelines, field-tested among 16 systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients, and adapted. Subsequently, the Dutch MHISS was administered to 52 SSc patients visiting the outpatient or day patient clinic of a university hospital and readministered after 2 weeks. Internal consistency was tested by computing Cronbach's alpha. Test-retest reliability was determined by computing the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and validity by determining associations with measures of overall functioning (Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)), maximum mouth opening (MMO, in millimeter), subjective xerostomia (visual analog scale), and objective xerostomia (Saxon test). Patients had mean ± standard deviation (SD) age and disease duration of 55 ± 21 and 7.2 ± 7.3 years. Twenty-seven (52 %) patients had diffuse cutaneous SSc. The mean Dutch MHISS score was 17.5 (SD 10.0) with Cronbach's alpha being 0.862. Dutch MHISS scores differed significantly between patients with high and low disability levels (HAQ, MMO, and subjective and objective xerostomia divided according to the median; paired t test). Spearman rank correlations with HAQ (r = 0.599, p = 0.000), MMO (r = -0.518, p = 0.000), and subjective xerostomia (r = 0.536, p = 0.000) were moderate; correlation with objective xerostomia did not reach statistical significance. The ICC was 0.94. The Dutch version of the MHISS demonstrated good psychometric properties and is useful in assessing mouth disability in SSc patients.

  8. Game theory.

    PubMed

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Video games.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-06-01

    The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values.

  10. A regionalized perinatal continuing education programme: successful adaptation to a foreign health care system and language.

    PubMed

    Kattwinkel, J; Nowacek, G; Cook, L J; Pietrzyk, J; Borkowski, V; Karasinska-Urbanik, O; Molicki, J; Godlewska, Z; Rozanski, B

    1997-05-01

    Much of the decline in perinatal mortality over the past two decades in the United States has been attributed to regionalization of perinatal care. Outreach education from regional medical centres to community hospitals is an essential component of regionalization. The Perinatal Continuing Education Program (PCEP) has been successfully used for outreach education in more than 30 states since 1979. This project tested the efficacy of implementing the PCEP strategy in Poland. PCEP was adapted to Polish conditions, translated, and implemented in four phases. The scheme allowed gradual transfer of ownership to Polish leaders and use of the existing regional structure to disseminate information from regional centres to community hospitals. Evaluation included measures of programme use (participation and completion rates) and acceptance (participant evaluation forms), cognitive knowledge (pre- vs. post-tests), and patient care (chart reviews). Of 2093 doctors, nurses and midwives who began, 1615 (77%) completed the programme, with higher completion by regional centre than community hospital staff. All participant groups responded favourably to the materials and expressed moderate confidence in their mastery of the information and skills. Test scores improved significantly for all phases and for all disciplines, with baseline and final scores consistent with degrees of previous professional education. Large baseline and inter-hospital variations in chart review data restricted analysis of care practices. A comprehensive perinatal education programme can be successfully transferred to a foreign health care system. We believe the following to be particularly important: multidisciplinary instructors and students; a self-instructional format; content aimed at practice rather than theory; and an organized implementation strategy co-ordinated by local personnel.

  11. Environmental Prosperity Game. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Boyack, K.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1995-12-01

    Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Environmental Prosperity Game conducted under the sponsorship of the Silicon Valley Environmental Partnership. Players were drawn from all stakeholders involved in environmental technologies including small and large companies, government, national laboratories, universities, environmentalists, the legal profession, finance, and the media. The primary objectives of this game were to: investigate strategies for developing a multi-agency (national/state/regional), one-step regulatory approval process for certifying and implementing environmental technologies and evaluating the simulated results; identify the regulatory hurdles and requirements, and the best approaches for surmounting them; identify technical problems and potential resources (environmental consultants, labs, universities) for solving them. The deliberations and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning environmental issues, including the development, licensing, and commercialization of new technologies.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport scale to Persian language.

    PubMed

    Naghdi, Soofia; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Farhadi, Yasaman; Ebadi, Safoora; Entezary, Ebrahim; Glazer, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and provide validation statistics for the Persian Injury-Psychological Readiness to Return to Sport scale (I-PRRS) following a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study design. The I-PRRS was forward/back-translated and culturally adapted into Persian language. The Persian I-PRRS was administered to 100 injured athletes (93 male; age 26.0 ± 5.6 years; time since injury 4.84 ± 6.4 months) and 50 healthy athletes (36 male; mean age 25.7 ± 6.0 years). The Persian I-PRRS was re-administered to 50 injured athletes at 1 week to examine test-retest reliability. There were no floor or ceiling effects confirming the content validity of Persian I-PRRS. The internal consistency reliability was good. Excellent test-retest reliability and agreement were demonstrated. The statistically significant difference in Persian I-PRRS total scores between the injured athletes and healthy athletes provides an evidence of discriminative validity. The Persian I-PRRS total scores were positively correlated with the Farsi Mood Scale (FARMS) total scores, showing construct validity. The principal component analysis indicated a two-factor solution consisting of "Confidence to play" and "Confidence in the injured body part and skill level". The Persian I-PRRS showed excellent reliability and validity and can be used to assess injured athletes' psychological readiness to return to sport among Persian-speaking populations.

  13. A Climate Change Board Game for Interdisciplinary Communication and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenack, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    This article reports and reflects on the design and use of the board game KEEP COOL on climate change. The game covers and integrates central biophysical, economic, and political aspects of the issue. By using a board game as common language between students and scientists from different scientific cultures, knowledge of different disciplines can…

  14. Sustaining Motivation for Japanese "Kanji" Learning: Can Digital Games Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Dallas; Müller, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Educational digital games are often presented at Technology in Language Education conferences. The games are entertaining and are backed by research detailing how games can improve the learning experience through active critical learning, learner interaction, competition, challenge, and high learner motivation. The authors, inspired by such…

  15. A Rating Tool for Sharing Experiences with Serious Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Maurice; Backlund, Per; Vampula, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Computer Games for non-entertainment purposes, such as education, is well established. A wide variety of games have been developed for the educational market, covering subjects such as mathematics and languages. However, while a growing industry developing educational games exist, the practical uptake in schools is not as high as…

  16. Vocabulary Games: More than Just Wordplay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzutti, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Games offer more than just fun and play, and the analyses suggest that varying vocabulary activities is important if learners are to practice all the aspects of word knowledge. However, despite all the evidence, just claiming that playing games is a good way to practice the language is often not enough to win the argument. Because author Nico…

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of an Arabic language version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Saarti, Stéphanie; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Hajj, Aline; Khabbaz, Lydia Rabbaa

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients’ positive illness perceptions (IPs) significantly contribute to treatment success. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ) is widely used in various diseases for assessing IPs. It was developed in English-speaking countries and studies on it in Arab countries are scarce. Objectives, Setting and design This observational cross-sectional study aimed to cross-culturally adapt the Brief IPQ English version into a modern Arabic language version and determine its psychometric properties in a sample of Lebanese cardiac disease patients. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Saint Joseph University of Beirut, Lebanon. Participants A convenience sample of 30 patients with cardiac disease were recruited during routine visits to cardiologists’ offices in Beirut, Lebanon. Inclusion criteria were at least one cardiac disease for at least 6 months with no acute episode or exacerbation of the disease during the 6 preceding months, age≥18 years, and the ability to read and comprehend Arabic. The pre-final version of the Brief IPQ Arabic version was tested for face and content validity. The meaning, comprehensibility, and acceptability were studied by individual interviews. For discriminant validity and internal consistency of the Brief IPQ Arabic version (Brief IPQ-Ar), 100 patients were recruited in a similar manner using the same inclusion criteria. To assess reproducibility, 30 patients, selected randomly from the 100 patients, filled the questionnaire a second time, 3–4 weeks after its first administration and under the same conditions. Main outcome measures Psychometric properties of the Brief IPQ-Ar among Lebanese patients suffering from cardiac diseases. Results Semantic equivalence between the Brief IPQ-Ar questions and patients’ descriptions was 100%. Cronbach's alpha was 0.717, which shows good internal consistency. Reproducibility was satisfactory (ICC values>0.776). Moreover, the Brief IPQ

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of an Arabic language version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Saarti, Stéphanie; Jabbour, Hicham; Osta, Nada El; Hajj, Aline; Khabbaz, Lydia Rabbaa

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients' positive illness perceptions (IPs) significantly contribute to treatment success. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ) is widely used in various diseases for assessing IPs. It was developed in English-speaking countries and studies on it in Arab countries are scarce. Objectives, Setting and design This observational cross-sectional study aimed to cross-culturally adapt the Brief IPQ English version into a modern Arabic language version and determine its psychometric properties in a sample of Lebanese cardiac disease patients. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Saint Joseph University of Beirut, Lebanon. Participants A convenience sample of 30 patients with cardiac disease were recruited during routine visits to cardiologists' offices in Beirut, Lebanon. Inclusion criteria were at least one cardiac disease for at least 6 months with no acute episode or exacerbation of the disease during the 6 preceding months, age≥18 years, and the ability to read and comprehend Arabic. The pre-final version of the Brief IPQ Arabic version was tested for face and content validity. The meaning, comprehensibility, and acceptability were studied by individual interviews. For discriminant validity and internal consistency of the Brief IPQ Arabic version (Brief IPQ-Ar), 100 patients were recruited in a similar manner using the same inclusion criteria. To assess reproducibility, 30 patients, selected randomly from the 100 patients, filled the questionnaire a second time, 3-4 weeks after its first administration and under the same conditions. Main outcome measures Psychometric properties of the Brief IPQ-Ar among Lebanese patients suffering from cardiac diseases. Results Semantic equivalence between the Brief IPQ-Ar questions and patients' descriptions was 100%. Cronbach's alpha was 0.717, which shows good internal consistency. Reproducibility was satisfactory (ICC values>0.776). Moreover, the Brief IPQ-Ar discriminated

  19. Une lecon de francais avec des jeux electroniques (A French Lesson with Electronic Games).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandain, Jean-Louis

    1996-01-01

    Electronic games are proposed as a means for encouraging students of French to learn and use the language while solving problems. A computerized card game and mine-removal game are offered as illustration of the language skills and vocabulary that can be developed and the appeal that such exercises can have for students. (MSE)

  20. "The Wesker Trilogy" Revisited: Games to Compensate for the Inadequacy of Words.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Thomas P.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how Wesker conveys his central intuition about the limitations of language by employing verbal and visual games and rituals in his plays. Games take the form of playfulness to indicate emotional solidarity of everyday rituals with archetypal or religious undertones, or of games about the acquisition of language itself. (JMF)

  1. Developing Oral Interaction Skills with a Digital Information Gap Activity Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueb, Avery; Cardoso, Walcir; Grimshaw, Jennica

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces the digital game Prêt à négocier, an information gap digital game, and investigates language learners' perceptions of its use in a French as a Second Language (FSL) context. In the game, students negotiate orally and synchronously with a partner for items like cars, houses, and even pirate ships. Inspired by Larsen-Freeman…

  2. Affect and Willingness to Communicate in Digital Game-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hayo; Wattana, Sorada

    2015-01-01

    The possible benefits of digital games for language learning and teaching have received increasing interest in recent years. Games are said, amongst others, to be motivating, to lower affective barriers in learning, and to encourage foreign or second language (L2) interaction. But how do learners actually experience the use of games? What impact…

  3. Juegos de videos: Investigacion, puntajes y recomendaciones (Video Games: Research, Ratings and Recommendations). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Spanish-language digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders…

  4. Kanienkehaka Tiontenientenstakwa [Mohawk Guide Book]. Activities and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine; And Others

    This collection of activities and games is a supplement to "The Language Guide for Elementary Mohawk." These activities and games provide additional classroom practice for the topical language components in the companion book. The vocabulary encompasses names, singular commands, colors, numbers, foods, animals, clothing, household,…

  5. Game theory and plant ecology.

    PubMed

    McNickle, Gordon G; Dybzinski, Ray

    2013-04-01

    The fixed and plastic traits possessed by a plant, which may be collectively thought of as its strategy, are commonly modelled as density-independent adaptations to its environment. However, plant strategies may also represent density- or frequency-dependent adaptations to the strategies used by neighbours. Game theory provides the tools to characterise such density- and frequency-dependent interactions. Here, we review the contributions of game theory to plant ecology. After briefly reviewing game theory from the perspective of plant ecology, we divide our review into three sections. First, game theoretical models of allocation to shoots and roots often predict investment in those organs beyond what would be optimal in the absence of competition. Second, game theoretical models of enemy defence suggest that an individual's investment in defence is not only a means of reducing its own tissue damage but also a means of deflecting enemies onto competitors. Finally, game theoretical models of trade with mutualistic partners suggest that the optimal trade may reflect competition for access to mutualistic partners among plants. In short, our review provides an accessible entrance to game theory that will help plant ecologists enrich their research with its worldview and existing predictions.

  6. Inuit Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keewatin Regional Education Authority, Rankin Inlet (Northwest Territories).

    The purpose of this publication is to record the traditional games played by the Inuit and to preserve a unique form of sports and recreation found in northern Canada. Written in English and Inupiaq, this manual contains descriptions of games played throughout the Arctic with special emphasis on the Keewatin Region, suggestions for teaching Inuit…

  7. Game Time!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Edmund; Howell, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classic playground game called "Sharks and Fishes" to introduce second- to fourth-grade students to the concept of "predation," or the relationships between a predator and its prey. By incorporating the game in a learning cycle on predation, students not only learn about predation in a memorable way, but they…

  8. Stochastic games

    PubMed Central

    Solan, Eilon; Vieille, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In 1953, Lloyd Shapley contributed his paper “Stochastic games” to PNAS. In this paper, he defined the model of stochastic games, which were the first general dynamic model of a game to be defined, and proved that it admits a stationary equilibrium. In this Perspective, we summarize the historical context and the impact of Shapley’s contribution. PMID:26556883

  9. Epistemic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David Williamson

    2005-01-01

    In an article in this issue of "Innovate", Jim Gee asks the question "What would a state of the art instructional video game look like?" Based on the game "Full Spectrum Warrior", he concludes that one model is "to pick [a] domain of authentic professionalism well, intelligently select the skills and knowledge to…

  10. Fun & Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Amy; Kohl, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how math skills, teamwork and higher-level thinking come together when students create strategic board games. In this article, the authors provide a glimpse of what it was like to be part of "To the Sun!," a game designed by students in the fifth-grade class at Olive Martin School in Lake Villa, IL. Students combined a math…

  11. Game On!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deubel, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This article describes digital game-based learning (DGBL), the uniting of educational content with computer or online games, that holds the potential for a wealth of educational applications, if managed properly. DGBL motivates by virtue of being fun. It is versatile, can be used to teach almost any subject or skill, and, when used correctly, is…

  12. A Study on the Game Programming Education Based on Educational Game Engine at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Jongho; Kim, Kwanwoong; Jung, Soonyoung

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that the game programming education at school should be conducted in consideration of an individual student's ability, an elementary programmer. Language to be used in the programming education also need to be associated with the ones that are actually used in the game industry. Lately, many researches on the educational programming…

  13. Game Over?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level marks the ending of the book. After comparing the game design process to a children's book about designing a butterfly, it goes into how a balance is found when designing a game. To explain this, an analogy is made with the concept of Yin and Yang. This level further deals with the “so what” and “who cares” question of the Triadic Game Design (TGD) approach. It is concluded that it can be used as an “analytical lens,” “application tool,” or “puzzle frame” in the field of games. But to have a real impact on the actual practice, it is needed that people are familiar with the idea of TGD. Since game design is (generally) collaborative, it would be beneficial that more than one person knows about it. For this reason, a game-based workshop has been developed that can be employed at the beginning of a project. Besides making sure that a project runs smoothly during the design, considerations should also be made about what happens if the game is finished. From the observations of the “life after the design” it becomes clear that this is certainly an issue that should not be neglected. The main message of this level concerns, however, that although this book is “game over,” it is everything but “over” for the design and research of games. To bring the field to “the next level,” structural approaches are needed and TGD is one of them. With the insights of this approach in mind, people can start to “dance.” Because it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a game with a meaningful purpose.

  14. Student-Made Games to Learn the History of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntley, Mary Ann; Flores, Alfinio

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how prospective secondary mathematics teachers designed their own adaptations of popular board and computer games to learn the history of mathematics. They begin the article by describing some of the games students designed and used, and follow this with a discussion of factors for successful use of games in…

  15. Games and Activities for Career Education. Manual for Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James C., Comp.

    The program document provides games and activities for primary and elementary grades which may be adapted to various career clusters. Most of the games may be constructed by the class. Illustrations and diagrams are provided, and each game specifies the grade level for which it is intended. (Author/MF)

  16. Reading Games: Close Viewing and Guided Playing of Multimedia Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozdras, Deborah; Joseph, Christine; Schneider, Jenifer Jasinski

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe how literacy strategies can be adapted for playing (and reading) video games--games that embed disciplinary content in multimedia texts. Using close viewing and guided playing strategies with online games and simulations, we share ideas for helping students navigate and comprehend multimedia texts in order to learn…

  17. Implementing a Game for Supporting Learning in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katmada, Aikaterini; Mavridis, Apostolos; Tsiatsos, Thrasyvoulos

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design, implementation and evaluation of an online game for elementary and middle school mathematics. Its aim is twofold: (a) the development of the prototype of a flexible and adaptable computer game, and (b) the evaluation of this prototype, as to its usability and technical aspects. The particular computer game was…

  18. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-Phonetic Properties of Cross-Language Lexical-Tone Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of…

  19. The Relative Effectiveness of Digital Game-Based Learning Types in English as a Foreign Language Setting: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Yi-hui; Kao, Chian-wen; Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2012-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the number of digital game-based learning (DGBL) studies has significantly increased (Hwang & Wu, 2012). DGBL is generally found to be positive over traditional instruction (Liao, 2010) and it has had great impact on education (Prensky, 2001). The DGBL effectiveness, however, might vary according to subjects taught or…

  20. Do-It-Yourself Learning Games: Software That Lets You Pick the Questions--and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hively, Wells

    1984-01-01

    Reviews user-adaptable learning games that can be customized for any subject, including Tic Tac Show and the Game Show from Computer Advanced Ideas, which are question-answer learning programs based on game shows, and Master Match from Computer Advanced Ideas and Square Pairs from Scholastic Inc., which are based on the card game Concentration.…

  1. Methodological adaptations for investigating the perceptions of language-impaired adolescents regarding the relative importance of selected communication skills.

    PubMed

    Reed, Vicki A; Brammall, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the systematic and detailed processes undertaken to modify a research methodology for use with language-impaired adolescents. The original methodology had been used previously with normally achieving adolescents and speech pathologists to obtain their opinions about the relative importance of selected communication skills for adolescents' positive peer relationships. Modifications attempted to address language-impaired adolescents' characteristic metalinguistic, literacy, cognitive, and information processing weaknesses. Revising the original wording of the communication skills, reducing the reading level of the skills from grade 10 to 4.6, using a Q-sort approach to ranking the importance of the skills, and revising the instructions and administration procedures led to what pilot testing results indicated was a valid methodology for use with language-impaired adolescents. Results of a preliminary study using the revised methodology suggested that language-impaired adolescents may perceive the relative importance of some communication skills differently from their normally achieving peers.

  2. J's Rhymes: A Longitudinal Case Study of Language Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inkelas, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal study of one children documents an invented language game consisting of suffixal reduplication and onset replacement. Argues that this game may more closely resemble adult rhyme. (Author/VWL)

  3. [Portuguese-language cultural adaptation of the Items Banks of Anxiety and Depression of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)].

    PubMed

    Castro, Natália Fontes Caputo de; Rezende, Carlos Henrique Alves de; Mendonça, Tânia Maria da Silva; Silva, Carlos Henrique Martins da; Pinto, Rogério de Melo Costa

    2014-04-01

    The Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS), structured in Itens Banks, provides a new tool for evaluating results that apply to various chronic diseases through advanced statistical techniques (TRI) and computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The aim of this study was to culturally adapt the Items Banks of Anxiety and Depression of PROMIS to the Portuguese language. The process followed the recommendations of PROMIS through the advanced translation, reconciliation, back-translation, FACIT review, independent review, finalization, pre-test, and incorporation of the results from the pre-test. The translated version was pre-tested in ten patients, and items 3, 46, and 53 of the Bank of Anxiety and item 46 of the bank of Depression had to be changed. Changes affected equivalence of meaning, and the final version was consistent with the Brazilian population's linguistic and cultural skills. In conclusion, for the Brazilian population the translated version proved semantically and conceptually equivalent to the original.

  4. Night Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

  5. Game Animals of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game animals typical of Colorado. Discussions in both English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game animals, individual game species, and introduced species of game animals. (RE)

  6. Donor Tag Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter your ...

  7. Imitation games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Junji; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    1994-08-01

    Mutual-imitation games among artificial birds are studied. By employing a variety of mappings and game rules, the evolution to the edge between chaos and windows is confirmed. Some other general features are observed, including punctuated equilibria, and successive alternations of dominant species with temporal complexity. It is also shown that diversity of species is drastically enhanced if the songs are represented by discrete symbols.

  8. Assessment of Study Abroad Outcomes in Chinese as a Second Language: Gains in Cross-Cultural Adaptability, Language Contact and Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taguchi, Naoko; Xiao, Feng; Li, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Participants were 109 American college students studying Chinese in a study-abroad programme in Beijing. Following Kelley and Meyer, intercultural competence was defined as cross-cultural adaptability involving four dimensions (emotional resilience, flexibility/openness, perceptual acuity and personal autonomy) and was measured with a survey. A…

  9. High User Control in Game Design Elements Increases Compliance and In-game Performance in a Memory Training Game.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Aniket; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Computer games are increasingly being used for training cognitive functions like working memory and attention among the growing population of older adults. While cognitive training games often include elements like difficulty adaptation, rewards, and visual themes to make the games more enjoyable and effective, the effect of different degrees of afforded user control in manipulating these elements has not been systematically studied. To address this issue, two distinct implementations of the three aforementioned game elements were tested among healthy older adults (N = 21, 69.9 ± 6.4 years old) playing a game-like version of the n-back task on a tablet at home for 3 weeks. Two modes were considered, differentiated by the afforded degree of user control of the three elements: user control of difficulty vs. automatic difficulty adaptation, difficulty-dependent rewards vs. automatic feedback messages, and user choice of visual theme vs. no choice. The two modes ("USER-CONTROL" and "AUTO") were compared for frequency of play, duration of play, and in-game performance. Participants were free to play the game whenever and for however long they wished. Participants in USER-CONTROL exhibited significantly higher frequency of playing, total play duration, and in-game performance than participants in AUTO. The results of the present study demonstrate the efficacy of providing user control in the three game elements, while validating a home-based study design in which participants were not bound by any training regimen, and could play the game whenever they wished. The results have implications for designing cognitive training games that elicit higher compliance and better in-game performance, with an emphasis on home-based training.

  10. High User Control in Game Design Elements Increases Compliance and In-game Performance in a Memory Training Game

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Aniket; Riener, Robert; Wolf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Computer games are increasingly being used for training cognitive functions like working memory and attention among the growing population of older adults. While cognitive training games often include elements like difficulty adaptation, rewards, and visual themes to make the games more enjoyable and effective, the effect of different degrees of afforded user control in manipulating these elements has not been systematically studied. To address this issue, two distinct implementations of the three aforementioned game elements were tested among healthy older adults (N = 21, 69.9 ± 6.4 years old) playing a game-like version of the n-back task on a tablet at home for 3 weeks. Two modes were considered, differentiated by the afforded degree of user control of the three elements: user control of difficulty vs. automatic difficulty adaptation, difficulty-dependent rewards vs. automatic feedback messages, and user choice of visual theme vs. no choice. The two modes (“USER-CONTROL” and “AUTO”) were compared for frequency of play, duration of play, and in-game performance. Participants were free to play the game whenever and for however long they wished. Participants in USER-CONTROL exhibited significantly higher frequency of playing, total play duration, and in-game performance than participants in AUTO. The results of the present study demonstrate the efficacy of providing user control in the three game elements, while validating a home-based study design in which participants were not bound by any training regimen, and could play the game whenever they wished. The results have implications for designing cognitive training games that elicit higher compliance and better in-game performance, with an emphasis on home-based training. PMID:26635681

  11. Speaking the Language of Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Leslie B.

    1997-01-01

    Round Robin is a game in which students must express accounting information in their own words. It is a means of familiarizing students with the language of vocabulary and of developing their verbal expressiveness. (SK)

  12. Implementation of quantum game theory simulations using Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid S., A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper provides some examples about quantum games simulated in Python's programming language. The quantum games have been developed with the Sympy Python library, which permits solving quantum problems in a symbolic form. The application of these methods of quantum mechanics to game theory gives us more possibility to achieve results not possible before. To illustrate the results of these methods, in particular, there have been simulated the quantum battle of the sexes, the prisoner's dilemma and card games. These solutions are able to exceed the classic bottle neck and obtain optimal quantum strategies. In this form, python demonstrated that is possible to do more advanced and complicated quantum games algorithms.

  13. Industrial Partnership Prosperity Game{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Boyak, K.; Berman, M.; Beck, D.

    1998-02-01

    Prosperity Games TM are an outgrowth and adaptation move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games TM are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education, and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games TM are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Industry Partnership Prosperity Game sponsored by the Technology Partnerships and Commercialization Center at Sandia National Laboratories. Players came from the Sandia line organizations, the Sandia business development and technology partnerships organizations, the US Department of Energy, academia, and industry The primary objectives of this game were to: explore ways to increase industry partnerships to meet long-term Sandia goals; improve Sandia business development and marketing strategies and tactics; improve the process by which Sandia develops long-term strategic alliances. The game actions and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to what Sandia can do to meet these objectives.

  14. Examining the Roles of Reasoning and Working Memory in Predicting Casual Game Performance across Extended Gameplay

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Michael B.; Baniqued, Pauline L.; Voss, Michelle W.; Lee, Hyunkyu; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2017-01-01

    The variety and availability of casual video games presents an exciting opportunity for applications such as cognitive training. Casual games have been associated with fluid abilities such as working memory (WM) and reasoning, but the importance of these cognitive constructs in predicting performance may change across extended gameplay and vary with game structure. The current investigation examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and casual game performance over time by analyzing first and final session performance over 4–5 weeks of game play. We focused on two groups of subjects who played different types of casual games previously shown to relate to WM and reasoning when played for a single session: (1) puzzle-based games played adaptively across sessions and (2) speeded switching games played non-adaptively across sessions. Reasoning uniquely predicted first session casual game scores for both groups and accounted for much of the relationship with WM. Furthermore, over time, WM became uniquely important for predicting casual game performance for the puzzle-based adaptive games but not for the speeded switching non-adaptive games. These results extend the burgeoning literature on cognitive abilities involved in video games by showing differential relationships of fluid abilities across different game types and extended play. More broadly, the current study illustrates the usefulness of using multiple cognitive measures in predicting performance, and provides potential directions for game-based cognitive training research. PMID:28326042

  15. Examining the Roles of Reasoning and Working Memory in Predicting Casual Game Performance across Extended Gameplay.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Michael B; Baniqued, Pauline L; Voss, Michelle W; Lee, Hyunkyu; Kramer, Arthur F

    2017-01-01

    The variety and availability of casual video games presents an exciting opportunity for applications such as cognitive training. Casual games have been associated with fluid abilities such as working memory (WM) and reasoning, but the importance of these cognitive constructs in predicting performance may change across extended gameplay and vary with game structure. The current investigation examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and casual game performance over time by analyzing first and final session performance over 4-5 weeks of game play. We focused on two groups of subjects who played different types of casual games previously shown to relate to WM and reasoning when played for a single session: (1) puzzle-based games played adaptively across sessions and (2) speeded switching games played non-adaptively across sessions. Reasoning uniquely predicted first session casual game scores for both groups and accounted for much of the relationship with WM. Furthermore, over time, WM became uniquely important for predicting casual game performance for the puzzle-based adaptive games but not for the speeded switching non-adaptive games. These results extend the burgeoning literature on cognitive abilities involved in video games by showing differential relationships of fluid abilities across different game types and extended play. More broadly, the current study illustrates the usefulness of using multiple cognitive measures in predicting performance, and provides potential directions for game-based cognitive training research.

  16. Adaptations to vision-for-action in primate brain evolution: Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Erin

    2016-03-01

    As Arbib [1] notes, the two-streams hypothesis [5] has provided a powerful explanatory framework for understanding visual processing. The inferotemporal ventral stream recognizes objects and agents - "what" one is seeing. The dorsal "how" or "where" stream through parietal cortex processes motion, spatial location, and visuo-proprioceptive relationships - "vision for action." Hickock and Poeppel's [3] extension of this model to the auditory system raises the question of deeper, multi- or supra-sensory themes in dorsal vs. ventral processing. Petrides and Pandya [10] postulate that the evolution of language may have been influenced by the fact that the dorsal stream terminates in posterior Broca's area (BA44) while the ventral stream terminates in anterior Broca's area (BA45). In an intriguing potential parallel, a recent ALE metanalysis of 54 fMRI studies found that semantic processing is located more anteriorly and superiorly than syntactic processing in Broca's area [13]. But clearly, macaques do not have language, nor other likely pre- or co-adaptations to language, such as complex imitation and tool use. What changed in the brain that enabled these functions to evolve?

  17. Modeling the Player: Predictability of the Models of Bartle and Kolb Based on NEO-FFI (Big5) and the Implications for Game Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konert, Johannes; Gutjahr, Michael; Göbel, Stefan; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    For adaptation and personalization of game play sophisticated player models and learner models are used in game-based learning environments. Thus, the game flow can be optimized to increase efficiency and effectiveness of gaming and learning in parallel. In the field of gaming still the Bartle model is commonly used due to its simplicity and good…

  18. English Language and Literature in the Post-War Bosnia and Herzegovina: Challenges and Experiences of a Transcultural Academic Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bal, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an account of the author's firsthand experiences between 2006 and 2010, relating to his involvement in the establishment of the English Language and Literature department at the International University of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and of the difficulties and challenges of the venture in the post-war country, whose…

  19. Methodological Adaptations for Investigating the Perceptions of Language-Impaired Adolescents Regarding the Relative Importance of Selected Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Vicki A.; Brammall, Helen

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the systematic and detailed processes undertaken to modify a research methodology for use with language-impaired adolescents. The original methodology had been used previously with normally achieving adolescents and speech pathologists to obtain their opinions about the relative importance of selected communication skills…

  20. Lesson Adaptations and Accommodations: Working with Native Speakers and English Language Learners in the Same Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Diana C.; Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Lake, Vickie E.

    2004-01-01

    This article brings theory into practice and demonstrates clearly how to apply commonly accepted language acquisition theories to science lesson plans designed for native speakers of English. In the first section of the article, readers will learn not only how to apply theory to science lessons, but also, and more important, why to apply certain…

  1. Using Digital Board Games for Genuine Communication in EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Jung; Chen, Gwo-Dong; Huang, Chi-Wen

    2014-01-01

    EFL learners in Taiwan have a low-level communication ability because many learners are still not provided opportunities to use language for genuine communication in classrooms and receive insufficient language input due to the environment. This study examines the use of digital board game language learning set in a task-collaborative platform,…

  2. Video game characteristics, happiness and flow as predictors of addiction among video game players: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Damien C.; Williams, Glenn A.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Video games provide opportunities for positive psychological experiences such as flow-like phenomena during play and general happiness that could be associated with gaming achievements. However, research has shown that specific features of game play may be associated with problematic behaviour associated with addiction-like experiences. The study was aimed at analysing whether certain structural characteristics of video games, flow, and global happiness could be predictive of video game addiction. Method: A total of 110 video game players were surveyed about a game they had recently played by using a 24-item checklist of structural characteristics, an adapted Flow State Scale, the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, and the Game Addiction Scale. Results: The study revealed decreases in general happiness had the strongest role in predicting increases in gaming addiction. One of the nine factors of the flow experience was a significant predictor of gaming addiction – perceptions of time being altered during play. The structural characteristic that significantly predicted addiction was its social element with increased sociability being associated with higher levels of addictive-like experiences. Overall, the structural characteristics of video games, elements of the flow experience, and general happiness accounted for 49.2% of the total variance in Game Addiction Scale levels. Conclusions: Implications for interventions are discussed, particularly with regard to making players more aware of time passing and in capitalising on benefits of social features of video game play to guard against addictive-like tendencies among video game players. PMID:25215196

  3. Markov Chain Analysis of Musical Dice Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volchenkov, D.; Dawin, J. R.

    2012-07-01

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  4. Games, Game-Playing and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avedon, Elliott M.

    1982-01-01

    Game-playing has become a more generalized phenomenon than ever, entering into public recreation, school programs, and commercial promotional efforts. Games require competitive interaction between two or more individuals, making game-playing useful in clinical therapy and opening games to technological innovation. The latest such innovation is the…

  5. Serious Games: Video Games for Good?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…

  6. Math Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzi, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…

  7. Got Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Around the country, disabled sports are often treated like second-class siblings to their able-bodied counterparts, largely because the latter bring in prestigious tournaments and bowl games, lucrative TV contracts and national exposure for top athletes and coaches. Because disabled people are so sparsely distributed in the general population, it…

  8. Children of Immigrants' Self-Esteem in Early Adolescence: The Role of Ethnicity, Context, Language, and Family in Cultural Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portes, Pedro R.; Zady, Madelon F.

    This study examined the extent to which self-esteem differences existed across various groups of immigrant adolescents and the role of factors operating at structural and subjective levels. Data came from the Youth Adaptation and Growth Questionnaire developed for the Second Generation Project in Miami, Florida and San Diego, California. The…

  9. Learning Strategies and Learner Attitudes in the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game Cube World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Shu Li

    2016-01-01

    The rapid progress of technology has revolutionized learning and in the field of computer assisted language learning, the use of digital games has expanded significantly. One type of game that has been attracting interest is massively multiplayer online role-playing games (henceforth MMORPGs). Recent research has drawn attention to the potential…

  10. Our Princess Is in Another Castle: A Review of Trends in Serious Gaming for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael F.; Slota, Stephen; Cutter, Andrew B.; Jalette, Gerard; Mullin, Greg; Lai, Benedict; Simeoni, Zeus; Tran, Matthew; Yukhymenko, Mariya

    2012-01-01

    Do video games show demonstrable relationships to academic achievement gains when used to support the K-12 curriculum? In a review of literature, we identified 300+ articles whose descriptions related to video games and academic achievement. We found some evidence for the effects of video games on language learning, history, and physical education…

  11. African Games of Strategy: A Teaching Manual. African Outreach Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Louise

    Appreciation of African games has increased in this country; especially board games which have been popularized through commercial versions. African games are invaluable resources for studying subjects requiring mathematical concepts, as well as social studies, history, geography, and languages. This manual presents some of the better known…

  12. What Do Students Learn by Playing an Online Simulation Game?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franciosi, Stephan J.; Mehring, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that simulations and games not only improve target language skills, but they can also support knowledge creation regarding a broader variety of topics. Thus, we wanted to explore how playing an online simulation game affected knowledge of energy supply and its relationship to environmental and economic factors among learners of…

  13. Teaching Academic Discussion Skills with a Card Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Curt; Wells, Terri

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a game used for teaching discussion skills to English as a Second Language (ESL) students. It was originally designed for students wanting to prepare for graduate study at U.S. universities has been since used for other ESL students wanting to improve conversation skills. The game focuses on common phrases helpful for…

  14. ChemOkey: A Game to Reinforce Nomenclature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavak, Nusret

    2012-01-01

    Learning the symbolic language of chemistry is a difficult task that can be frustrating for students. This article introduces a game, ChemOkey, that can help students learn the names and symbols of common ions and their compounds in a fun environment. ChemOkey, a game similar to Rummikub, is played with a set of 106 plastic or wooden tiles. The…

  15. Performance Analysis of GAME: A Generic Automated Marking Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstein, Michael; Green, Steve; Fogelman, Shoshana; Nguyen, Ann; Muthukkumarasamy, Vallipuram

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the Generic Automated Marking Environment (GAME) and provides a detailed analysis of its performance in assessing student programming projects and exercises. GAME has been designed to automatically assess programming assignments written in a variety of languages based on the "structure" of the source code and the correctness…

  16. A Frame-Reflective Discourse Analysis of Serious Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Igor; Warmelink, Harald; Zhou, Qiqi

    2016-01-01

    The authors explore how framing theory and the method of frame-reflective discourse analysis provide foundations for the emerging discipline of serious games (SGs) research. Starting with Wittgenstein's language game and Berger and Luckmann's social constructivist view on science, the authors demonstrate why a definitional or taxonomic approach to…

  17. Learning Games for Infants and Toddlers: A Playtime Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, J. Ronald; Gordon, Ira J.

    This book of play activities for children from 2 months to 2 years of age is designed to be used by parents, caregivers, or child care students. The games described include activities for motor, language and cognitive development, self-concept development, and interpersonal relationships. The games are grouped into eight series based on the…

  18. Teachers Like To Play Too! (Games for English Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Issa, Ali S. M.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a number of games for promoting second language learners' linguistic skills. Theses include spot the errors, order and match, match, out of the bag, the panel, and terminology square. (Author/VWL)

  19. [Ageism: adaptation of the Fraboni of Ageism Scale-Revised to the French language and testing the effects of empathy, social dominance orientation and dogmatism on ageism].

    PubMed

    Boudjemad, Valérian; Gana, Kamel

    2009-12-01

    ABSTRACTThis article presents two studies dealing with ageism. The objective of the first study was to adapt to French language and validate the Fraboni of Ageism Scale-Revised (FSA-R) which contains 23 items, while the objective of the second study was to test a structural model containing ageism as measured by the FSA-R and the "Big Three": empathy, social dominance orientation, and dogmatism, controlled for by sex and age. The results of the first study (n = 323) generated a version of the FSA-R comprising 14 items, of which the psychometric properties were very satisfactory. Using structural equation modelling and bootstrap procedure, the results of the second study (n = 284) showed a direct negative and significant effect of empathy on agism. They also showed that this negative effect was mediated by dogmatism and social dominance orientation, which both exerted a positive effect on ageism.

  20. Business Games Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Robert G.; Gray, Clifford F.

    The aim of this handbook is to provide training directors and all others interested in business games with an organized listing and description of business games and their sources; and to provide a source of sufficient data to help them select games for a particular purpose. The games are categorized as general purpose games, used in management…

  1. Dynamics in atomic signaling games.

    PubMed

    Fox, Michael J; Touri, Behrouz; Shamma, Jeff S

    2015-07-07

    We study an atomic signaling game under stochastic evolutionary dynamics. There are a finite number of players who repeatedly update from a finite number of available languages/signaling strategies. Players imitate the most fit agents with high probability or mutate with low probability. We analyze the long-run distribution of states and show that, for sufficiently small mutation probability, its support is limited to efficient communication systems. We find that this behavior is insensitive to the particular choice of evolutionary dynamic, a property that is due to the game having a potential structure with a potential function corresponding to average fitness. Consequently, the model supports conclusions similar to those found in the literature on language competition. That is, we show that efficient languages eventually predominate the society while reproducing the empirical phenomenon of linguistic drift. The emergence of efficiency in the atomic case can be contrasted with results for non-atomic signaling games that establish the non-negligible possibility of convergence, under replicator dynamics, to states of unbounded efficiency loss.

  2. Adaptive Units of Learning and Educational Videogames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Thomas, Pilar Sancho; Martinez-Ortiz, Ivan; Sierra, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose three different ways of using IMS Learning Design to support online adaptive learning modules that include educational videogames. The first approach relies on IMS LD to support adaptation procedures where the educational games are considered as Learning Objects. These games can be included instead of traditional content…

  3. TRANSLATION TO PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE AND CROSS-CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF THE MODIFIED ROWE SCORE FOR OVERHEAD ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Marcondes, Freddy Beretta; de Vasconcelos, Rodrigo Antunes; Marchetto, Adriano; de Andrade, André Luis Lugnani; Filho, Américo Zoppi; Etchebehere, Maurício

    2015-01-01

    Objetctive: Study was to translate and culturally adapt the modified Rowe score for overhead athletes. Methods: The translation and cultural adaptation process initially involved the stages of translation, synthesis, back-translation, and revision by the Translation Group. It was than created the pre-final version of the questionnaire, being the areas “function” and “pain” applied to 20 athletes that perform overhead movements and that suffered SLAP lesions in the dominant shoulder and the areas “active compression test and anterior apprehension test” and “motion” were applied to 15 health professionals. Results: During the translation process there were made little modifications in the questionnaire in order to adapt it to Brazilian culture, without changing the semantics and the idiomatic concept originally described. Conclusion: The questionnaire was easily understood by the subjects of the study, being possible to obtain the Brazilian version of the modified Rowe score for overhead athletes that underwent surgical treatment of the SLAP lesion. PMID:27047903

  4. Developing e-Bug web games to teach microbiology.

    PubMed

    Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Lazareck, Lisa; Weerasinghe, Dasun; Weinberg, Julius; Lecky, Donna M; Adriaenssens, Niels; Koprivová Herotová, Tereza; Holt, Jette; Touboul, Pia; Merakou, Kyriakoula; Koncan, Raffaella; Olczak-Pienkowska, Anna; Avô, António Brito; Campos, José; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2011-06-01

    As a complement to the e-Bug teaching pack, two e-Bug games were developed to provide content that aimed to entertain as well as to educate. A set of agreed learning outcomes (LOs) were provided by the scientific partners of the e-Bug Project and the games were developed using user-centred design techniques (the needs, wants and limitations of the potential game players were assessed at each stage of the design process). The e-Bug games were designed for two age groups: Junior (9-12 year olds); and Senior (13-15 year olds). A study using focus groups was done to gain an understanding as to the types of games enjoyed by the target users. According to the preliminary study, the Junior Game was developed as a platform game and the Senior Game was developed as a story-based detective game. The Junior Game consists of five levels, each associated with a set of LOs. Similarly, the Senior Game consists of four missions, each comprising five stages using problem-based learning techniques and LOs. In this paper, the process of development for each game is described in detail and an illustration is provided of how each game level or mission addresses the target LOs. Development of the games used feedback acquired from children in four schools across the UK (Glasgow, London and two in Gloucester). The children were selected according to their willingness to participate. European Partners of the e-Bug Project also provided further support, translation and requests for modifications. The knowledge gained of LOs and further evaluation of the games is continuing, and preliminary results are in press. The final versions of the games, translated into 11 European languages, are available online via www.e-bug.eu.

  5. Into the Curriculum. Art: Pueblo Storyteller Figures [and] Physical Education: Games That Rely on Feet [and] Reading/Language Arts: Movie Reviews [and] Reading/Language Arts: Reader's Choice [and] Science: Float or Sink [and] Social Studies: Buildings and Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Jean; Rains, Annette

    1996-01-01

    Presents six curriculum guides for art, physical education, reading/language arts, science, and social studies. Each guide identifies library media skills objectives; curriculum objectives; grade levels; print and nonprint resources; instructional roles; the activity; and procedures for completion, evaluation, and follow-up activities. (AEF)

  6. Blood Type Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  7. Three Dialogs: A Framework for the Analysis and Assessment of Twenty-First-Century Literacy Practices, and Its Use in the Context of Game Design within "Gamestar Mechanic"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Games, Ivan Alex

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a framework for the analysis and assessment of twenty-first-century language and literacy practices in game and design-based contexts. It presents the framework in the context of game design within "Gamestar Mechanic", an innovative game-based learning environment where children learn the Discourse of game design. It…

  8. Games, Simulations and Role-Playing. ELT Documents, 77/1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, J. Y. K.; And Others

    Games, simulations and related techniques as an extension of the language teacher's repertory are receiving renewed attention. The value of goal-directed pair or group activities in teaching for communicative competence is obvious. Less value is attached to the sort of "language games" which consist of juggling verbal formulae of little or no…

  9. Computer Games and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sigmund, Ed.; Fletcher, J. D., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There is intense interest in computer games. A total of 65 percent of all American households play computer games, and sales of such games increased 22.9 percent last year. The average amount of game playing time was found to be 13.2 hours per week. The popularity and market success of games is evident from both the increased earnings from games,…

  10. Sparky's Firehouse (Games)

    MedlinePlus

    Parents Educators MENU Home Videos Games & Apps Activities Sparky Firetrucks Parents Educators Firetrucks Videos Games Sparky Apps Activities The name and image of Sparky are registered trademarks ...

  11. Joint attention and language evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwisthout, Johan; Vogt, Paul; Haselager, Pim; Dijkstra, Ton

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates how more advanced joint attentional mechanisms, rather than only shared attention between two agents and an object, can be implemented and how they influence the results of language games played by these agents. We present computer simulations with language games showing that adding constructs that mimic the three stages of joint attention identified in children's early development (checking attention, following attention, and directing attention) substantially increase the performance of agents in these language games. In particular, the rates of improved performance for the individual attentional mechanisms have the same ordering as that of the emergence of these mechanisms in infants' development. These results suggest that language evolution and joint attentional mechanisms have developed in a co-evolutionary way, and that the evolutionary emergence of the individual attentional mechanisms is ordered just like their developmental emergence.

  12. Evolution of Brain and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenemann, P. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of language and the evolution of the brain are tightly interlinked. Language evolution represents a special kind of adaptation, in part because language is a complex behavior (as opposed to a physical feature) but also because changes are adaptive only to the extent that they increase either one's understanding of others, or one's…

  13. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ): robust nine-dimension Danish language confirmatory factor model.

    PubMed

    Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Kayser, Lars; Norgaard, Ole; Bo, Anne; Elsworth, Gerald R; Osborne, Richard H

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is an important construct in population health and healthcare requiring rigorous measurement. The Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ), with nine scales, measures a broad perception of health literacy. This study aimed to adapt the HLQ to the Danish setting, and to examine the factor structure, homogeneity, reliability and discriminant validity. The HLQ was adapted using forward-backward translation, consensus conference and cognitive interviews (n = 15). Psychometric properties were examined based on data collected by face-to-face interview (n = 481). Tests included difficulty level, composite scale reliability and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Cognitive testing revealed that only minor re-wording was required. The easiest scale to respond to positively was 'Social support for health', and the hardest were 'Navigating the healthcare system' and 'Appraisal of health information'. CFA of the individual scales showed acceptably high loadings (range 0.49-0.93). CFA fit statistics after including correlated residuals were good for seven scales, acceptable for one. Composite reliability and Cronbach's α were >0.8 for all but one scale. A nine-factor CFA model was fitted to items with no cross-loadings or correlated residuals allowed. Given this restricted model, the fit was satisfactory. The HLQ appears robust for its intended application of assessing health literacy in a range of settings. Further work is required to demonstrate sensitivity to measure changes.

  14. Toward using games to teach fundamental computer science concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgington, Jeffrey Michael

    Video and computer games have become an important area of study in the field of education. Games have been designed to teach mathematics, physics, raise social awareness, teach history and geography, and train soldiers in the military. Recent work has created computer games for teaching computer programming and understanding basic algorithms. We present an investigation where computer games are used to teach two fundamental computer science concepts: boolean expressions and recursion. The games are intended to teach the concepts and not how to implement them in a programming language. For this investigation, two computer games were created. One is designed to teach basic boolean expressions and operators and the other to teach fundamental concepts of recursion. We describe the design and implementation of both games. We evaluate the effectiveness of these games using before and after surveys. The surveys were designed to ascertain basic understanding, attitudes and beliefs regarding the concepts. The boolean game was evaluated with local high school students and students in a college level introductory computer science course. The recursion game was evaluated with students in a college level introductory computer science course. We present the analysis of the collected survey information for both games. This analysis shows a significant positive change in student attitude towards recursion and modest gains in student learning outcomes for both topics.

  15. Fleet Arctic Operations Game: Game Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    By: Director: CDR Christopher Gray Designer : Prof. Leif Bergey Analyst: Prof. Walter A. Berbrick Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...7 II. GAME DESIGN & RESEARCH...METHODOLOGY ......................................................................... 9 Discussion of Game Design

  16. Fieldwork Game Play: Masterminding Evidentiality in Desano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Wilson; AnderBois, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a methodology for collecting naturally occurring data on evidentials and epistemic modals. We use Desano (Eastern Tukanoan) as a case study. This language has a complex evidential system with six evidential forms. The methodology in question consists of having Desano speakers to play a logic game, "Mastermind".…

  17. Games To Play with Babies. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberg, Jackie

    Intended for parents with infants, this book is a collection of 230 simple, fun-filled games that can be played with infants from birth to age 1 year. The book begins with guidelines for growth in motor, auditory, visual, language, cognitive, and self-concept skills from birth to 6 months and from 6 to 12 months. The remainder of the book presents…

  18. A Medical Language Processor for Two Indo-European Languages

    PubMed Central

    Nhan, Ngo Thanh; Sager, Naomi; Lyman, Margaret; Tick, Leo J.; Borst, François; Su, Yun

    1989-01-01

    The syntax and semantics of clinical narrative across Indo-European languages are quite similar, making it possible to envison a single medical language processor that can be adapted for different European languages. The Linguistic String Project of New York University is continuing the development of its Medical Language Processor in this direction. The paper describes how the processor operates on English and French.

  19. Affordances for Second Language Learning in "World of Warcraft"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rama, Paul S.; Black, Rebecca W.; van Es, Elizabeth; Warschauer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    What are the affordances of online gaming environments for second language learning and socialization? To answer this question, this qualitative study examines two college-age Spanish learners' experiences participating in the Spanish language version of the massively multi-player online game "World of Warcraft." Using data culled from participant…

  20. Accelerating Early Language Development with Multi-Sensory Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorn, Piia M.; Kakkuri, Irma; Karvonen, Pirkko; Leppanen, Paavo H. T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the outcome of a multi-sensory intervention on infant language skills. A programme titled "Rhyming Game and Exercise Club", which included kinaesthetic-tactile mother-child rhyming games performed in natural joint attention situations, was intended to accelerate Finnish six- to eight-month-old infants' language development. The…

  1. Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…

  2. The Impact of Individual, Competitive, and Collaborative Mathematics Game Play on Learning, Performance, and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plass, Jan L.; O'Keefe, Paul A.; Homer, Bruce D.; Case, Jennifer; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Stein, Murphy; Perlin, Ken

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined how mode of play in an educational mathematics video game impacts learning, performance, and motivation. The game was designed for the practice and automation of arithmetic skills to increase fluency and was adapted to allow for individual, competitive, or collaborative game play. Participants (N = 58) from urban…

  3. Quest for Cavities: A Hole-istic Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabb, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Describes adaptation of children's Musical Chairs game, illustrating different animals'"quest for cavities." Game uses role play to simulate wildlife "cavity excavators" and secondary-user animals that compete for nesting holes. Classifies 44 animals according to nesting practice and gives hole sizes for 25. Promotes ecology, conservation studies.…

  4. An Analysis of Stochastic Game Theory for Multiagent Reinforcement Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Learning behaviors in a multiagent environment are crucial for developing and adapting multiagent systems. Reinforcement learning techniques have...presentation of the relevant techniques for solving stochastic games from both the game theory community and reinforcement learning communities. We examine the

  5. Piaget in Performance: The Role of "Games" in Creative Dramatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    Jean Piaget's theories of child development and the nature of intelligence are adapted to creative dramatics in this description of two games for children aged 6 through 12. The first game discussed incorporates a "touchy-feely box," a cardboard construction with openings on two sides so that a child may reach inside, select, and…

  6. The Foreign Language Feature Film and Language Teaching Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Martin

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of foreign language films, featuring consideration of film sequence, image and film analysis, and literary adaptation, is an effective teaching activity with foreign language students. An example illustrates film analysis activities in a first-year French class. (CB)

  7. Game Birds of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game birds typical of Colorado. Discussions in English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game birds, individual game bird species, and endangered species of birds related to game birds. (RE)

  8. Environmental Games and Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Tom, Comp.

    This publication consists of a lengthy list of environmental games (35) on the market today, their source and purchase price. Included is a description of the major changes the types of games have undergone. The first group of games resembled closely ordinary board games with success dependent on skill and/or chance rather than understanding of…

  9. Games for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    2013-01-01

    Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…

  10. Playing interprofessional games: reflections on using the Interprofessional Education Game (iPEG).

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sundari; Diack, Lesley

    2015-05-01

    This report explores the relevance of gaming in IPE curriculum design with the use of the Interprofessional Education Game (iPEG) as an activity aimed to achieve positive interprofessional learning outcomes for students. It was designed to enable the understanding of professional roles and responsibilities in patient/client care settings. We provide a description of its implementation and evaluation with first year student cohorts (900+ per cohort) over a 3-year period within an established interprofessional education (IPE) programme. The game encapsulates fun and memorable learning styles to explore professional stereotypes and team approaches to care delivery. It can be a valuable teaching tool for those designing IPE curriculum. Evaluation data from students and staff were mainly positive. We discuss the use of the game and its potential to be adapted in flexible and creative ways to assist educators in consider incorporating gaming within their own IPE programmes.

  11. The Uses of Teaching Games in Game Theory Classes and Some Experimental Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubik, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of lightly controlled games, primarily in classes in game theory. Considers the value of such games from the viewpoint of both teaching and experimentation and discusses context; control; pros and cons of games in teaching; experimental games; and games in class, including cooperative game theory. (Author/LRW)

  12. Again at the Looking Glass: Language Arts Curriculum Materials for Combatting Sex Stereotyping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feminists Northwest, Seattle, WA.

    Classroom activities in language arts designed to make students aware of sex stereotyping are presented. Ninety-two learning games that encompass a wide array of language-arts skills are described. Topics covered in the various games and exercises are organized into four sections: (1) "Sexist Language: Watch What You Say!" introduces students to…

  13. Alternative Assessment: The Use of Games in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidalgo, Reyes I.; von Schmidt, Wolff

    Use of games in the second language classroom to assess class participation and development of oral skills is discussed. Difficulties in assessing oral second language skills are outlined, and a central issue is identified: the discrepancy between a syllabus in which class participation is required and students unwilling to participate due to lack…

  14. Information Transmission in Communication Games Signaling with an Audience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satari, Farishta

    2013-01-01

    Communication is a goal-oriented activity where interlocutors use language as a means to achieve an end while taking into account the goals and plans of others. Game theory, being the scientific study of strategically interactive decision-making, provides the mathematical tools for modeling language use among rational decision makers. When we…

  15. Bug or Feature: The Role of "Gamestar Mechanic's" Material Dialog on the Metacognitive Game Design Strategies of Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Games, Alex

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the language and literacy practices of middle-school children as they worked toward constructing their own computer games using "Gamestar Mechanic," a game intended to teach them key ways of thinking and communicating germane to the discourse of game designers. It examines the changes that took place in what previous work…

  16. Adaptive and Optimal Control of Stochastic Dynamical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-14

    control and stochastic differential games . Stochastic linear-quadratic, continuous time, stochastic control problems are solved for systems with noise...control problems for systems with arbitrary correlated n 15. SUBJECT TERMS Adaptive control, optimal control, stochastic differential games 16. SECURITY...explicit results have been obtained for problems of stochastic control and stochastic differential games . Stochastic linear- quadratic, continuous time

  17. Supporting online learning with games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, JingTao; Kim, DongWon; Herbert, Joseph P.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a study on Web-based learning support systems that is enhanced with two major subsystems: a Web-based learning game and a learning-oriented Web search. The Internet and theWeb may be considered as a first resource for students seeking for information and help. However, much of the information available online is not related to the course contents or is wrong in the worse case. The search subsystem aims to provide students with precise, relative and adaptable documents about certain courses or classes. Therefore, students do not have to spend time to verify the relationship of documents to the class. The learning game subsystem stimulates students to study, enables students to review their studies and to perform self-evaluation through a Web-based learning game such as a treasure hunt game. During the challenge and entertaining learning and evaluation process, it is hoped that students will eventually understand and master the course concepts easily. The goal of developing such a system is to provide students with an efficient and effective learning environment.

  18. Is it all in the game? Flow experience and scientific practices during an INPLACE mobile game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressler, Denise M.

    Mobile science learning games show promise for promoting scientific practices and high engagement. Researchers have quantified this engagement according to flow theory. Using an embedded mixed methods design, this study investigated whether an INPLACE mobile game promotes flow experience, scientific practices, and effective team collaboration. Students playing the game (n=59) were compared with students in a business-as-usual control activity (n=120). Using an open-ended instrument designed to measure scientific practices and a self-report flow survey, this study empirically assessed flow and learner's scientific practices. The game players had significantly higher levels of flow and scientific practices. Using a multiple case study approach, collaboration among game teams (n=3 teams) were qualitatively compared with control teams (n=3 teams). Game teams revealed not only higher levels of scientific practices but also higher levels of engaged responses and communal language. Control teams revealed lower levels of scientific practice along with higher levels of rejecting responses and command language. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  19. Game relativity: how context influences strategic decision making.

    PubMed

    Vlaev, Ivo; Chater, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Existing models of strategic decision making typically assume that only the attributes of the currently played game need be considered when reaching a decision. The results presented in this article demonstrate that the so-called "co-operativeness" of the previously played prisoner's dilemma games influence choices and predictions in the current prisoner's dilemma game, which suggests that games are not considered independently. These effects involved reinforcement-based assimilation to the previous choices and also a perceptual contrast of the present game with preceding games, depending on the range and the rank of their co-operativeness. A. Parducci's (1965) range frequency theory and H. Helson's (1964) adaptation level theory are plausible theories of relative judgment of magnitude information, which could provide an account of these context effects.

  20. Diabetic Mario: Designing and Evaluating Mobile Games for Diabetes Education.

    PubMed

    Baghaei, Nilufar; Nandigam, David; Casey, John; Direito, Artur; Maddison, Ralph

    2016-08-01

    Traditionally, diabetes education has relied on written materials, with limited resources available for children with diabetes. Mobile games can be effective and motivating tools for the promotion of children's health. In our earlier work, we proposed a novel approach for designing computer games aimed at educating children with diabetes. In this article, we apply our game design to a mobile Android game (Mario Brothers). We also introduce four heuristics that are specifically designed for evaluating the mobile game, by adapting traditional usability heuristics. Results of a pilot study (n = 12) to evaluate gameplay over 1-week showed that the children found the game engaging and improved their knowledge of healthy diet and lifestyle.

  1. Digital gaming for HIV prevention with young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Enah, Comfort; Moneyham, Linda; Vance, David E; Childs, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    The search for intervention strategies appropriate for young adolescents has recently led to the use of digital games. Digital gaming interventions are promising because they may be developmentally appropriate for adolescent populations. The gaming approach also capitalizes on an inherent interest to adolescents and circumvents traditional barriers to access to prevention interventions faced in some geographical areas. Notwithstanding, research on gaming in HIV prevention is quite limited. In this review article, we examine the need for contextually relevant HIV prevention interventions among young adolescents. From this, we provide a theoretical framework for exploring contextually relevant HIV risk factors and a foundation for gathering and using input from the target population to adapt an existing game or to create a developmentally appropriate and contextually relevant HIV prevention game.

  2. Between Learning and Playing? Exploring Learners' Perceptions of Corrective Feedback in an Immersive Game for English Pragmatics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornillie, Frederik; Clarebout, Geraldine; Desmet, Piet

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a rationale for the utility of corrective feedback (CF) in digital games designed for language learning, with specific reference to learners' perceptions. Explicit and elaborate CF has the potential to increase learners' understanding of language, but might not be found useful in a game-based learning environment where…

  3. Open Your Cupboards to Learning Center Games: Activities for Reinforcing Math and Reading Skills for Teacher and Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langham, Martha A.; Peterson, Nancy M.

    This book has been developed to furnish teachers and parents with ideas for activities and games which aid children in the transition from oral language to printed language for reading and math. These games are designed to provide children with activities and experiences that increase vocabularies and make them useful in communication, language…

  4. Biomedical technology prosperity game{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Boyack, K.W.; Wesenberg, D.L.

    1996-07-01

    Prosperity Games{trademark} are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games{trademark} are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games{trademark} are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Biomedical Technology Prosperity Game{trademark} conducted under the sponsorship of Sandia National Laboratories, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Koop Foundation, Inc. Players were drawn from all stakeholders involved in biomedical technologies including patients, hospitals, doctors, insurance companies, legislators, suppliers/manufacturers, regulators, funding organizations, universities/laboratories, and the legal profession. The primary objectives of this game were to: (1) Identify advanced/critical technology issues that affect the cost and quality of health care. (2) Explore the development, patenting, manufacturing and licensing of needed technologies that would decrease costs while maintaining or improving quality. (3) Identify policy and regulatory changes that would reduce costs and improve quality and timeliness of health care delivery. (4) Identify and apply existing resources and facilities to develop and implement improved technologies and policies. (5) Begin to develop Biomedical Technology Roadmaps for industry and government cooperation. The deliberations and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning biomedical issues. Significant progress was made in the roadmapping of key areas in the biomedical technology field.

  5. Perspectives on Games, Computers, and Mental Health: Questions about Paradoxes, Evidences, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Desseilles, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In the field of mental health, games and computerized games present questions about paradoxes, evidences, and challenges. This perspective article offers perspectives and personal opinion about these questions, evidences, and challenges with an objective of presenting several ideas and issues in this rapidly developing field. First, games raise some questions in the sense of the paradox between a game and an issue, as well as the paradox of using an amusing game to treat a serious pathology. Second, games also present evidence in the sense that they involve relationships with others, as well as learning, communication, language, emotional regulation, and hedonism. Third, games present challenges, such as the risk of abuse, the critical temporal period that may be limited to childhood, their important influence on sociocognitive learning and the establishment of social norms, and the risk of misuse of games.

  6. Perspectives on Games, Computers, and Mental Health: Questions about Paradoxes, Evidences, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Desseilles, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In the field of mental health, games and computerized games present questions about paradoxes, evidences, and challenges. This perspective article offers perspectives and personal opinion about these questions, evidences, and challenges with an objective of presenting several ideas and issues in this rapidly developing field. First, games raise some questions in the sense of the paradox between a game and an issue, as well as the paradox of using an amusing game to treat a serious pathology. Second, games also present evidence in the sense that they involve relationships with others, as well as learning, communication, language, emotional regulation, and hedonism. Third, games present challenges, such as the risk of abuse, the critical temporal period that may be limited to childhood, their important influence on sociocognitive learning and the establishment of social norms, and the risk of misuse of games. PMID:27458390

  7. Play, Games, and Attitude: Student and Teacher Perspectives of Educational Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongillo, Gerri

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of this qualitative study was to determine the influence of participation in educational games on cognition and attitudes of seventh-grade students. Student attitude towards learning scientific language and concepts during gameplay was examined. This study was conducted in a seventh-grade science classroom in a North Eastern (USA)…

  8. Why Darwin would have loved evolutionary game theory

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Humans have marvelled at the fit of form and function, the way organisms' traits seem remarkably suited to their lifestyles and ecologies. While natural selection provides the scientific basis for the fit of form and function, Darwin found certain adaptations vexing or particularly intriguing: sex ratios, sexual selection and altruism. The logic behind these adaptations resides in frequency-dependent selection where the value of a given heritable phenotype (i.e. strategy) to an individual depends upon the strategies of others. Game theory is a branch of mathematics that is uniquely suited to solving such puzzles. While game theoretic thinking enters into Darwin's arguments and those of evolutionists through much of the twentieth century, the tools of evolutionary game theory were not available to Darwin or most evolutionists until the 1970s, and its full scope has only unfolded in the last three decades. As a consequence, game theory is applied and appreciated rather spottily. Game theory not only applies to matrix games and social games, it also applies to speciation, macroevolution and perhaps even to cancer. I assert that life and natural selection are a game, and that game theory is the appropriate logic for framing and understanding adaptations. Its scope can include behaviours within species, state-dependent strategies (such as male, female and so much more), speciation and coevolution, and expands beyond microevolution to macroevolution. Game theory clarifies aspects of ecological and evolutionary stability in ways useful to understanding eco-evolutionary dynamics, niche construction and ecosystem engineering. In short, I would like to think that Darwin would have found game theory uniquely useful for his theory of natural selection. Let us see why this is so. PMID:27605503

  9. Why Darwin would have loved evolutionary game theory.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joel S

    2016-09-14

    Humans have marvelled at the fit of form and function, the way organisms' traits seem remarkably suited to their lifestyles and ecologies. While natural selection provides the scientific basis for the fit of form and function, Darwin found certain adaptations vexing or particularly intriguing: sex ratios, sexual selection and altruism. The logic behind these adaptations resides in frequency-dependent selection where the value of a given heritable phenotype (i.e. strategy) to an individual depends upon the strategies of others. Game theory is a branch of mathematics that is uniquely suited to solving such puzzles. While game theoretic thinking enters into Darwin's arguments and those of evolutionists through much of the twentieth century, the tools of evolutionary game theory were not available to Darwin or most evolutionists until the 1970s, and its full scope has only unfolded in the last three decades. As a consequence, game theory is applied and appreciated rather spottily. Game theory not only applies to matrix games and social games, it also applies to speciation, macroevolution and perhaps even to cancer. I assert that life and natural selection are a game, and that game theory is the appropriate logic for framing and understanding adaptations. Its scope can include behaviours within species, state-dependent strategies (such as male, female and so much more), speciation and coevolution, and expands beyond microevolution to macroevolution. Game theory clarifies aspects of ecological and evolutionary stability in ways useful to understanding eco-evolutionary dynamics, niche construction and ecosystem engineering. In short, I would like to think that Darwin would have found game theory uniquely useful for his theory of natural selection. Let us see why this is so.

  10. The Easiest Lights Out Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrence, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The game "Lights Out" and its mathematical predecessor, the sigma-plus game, has inspired an extensive mathematical literature. In this paper, the original game and a borderless version played on a torus are considered. We define an easy game to be one in which pushing the buttons that are originally lit solves the game. Easy games are classified…

  11. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  12. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-07

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game.

  13. Gaming Gains Respect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Will

    2012-01-01

    The idea of learning through games isn't necessarily new. In fact, over the past decade, researchers have been espousing the use of games to help both children and adults learn. But it's only been recently that games have begun to make serious inroads into classrooms. As the world becomes more and more driven by mobile apps and tablet…

  14. The Ultimate Flag Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy

    This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…

  15. Inventing Music Education Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghere, David; Amram, Fred M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The first British patent describing an educational game designed for musical "amusement and instruction" was granted in 1801 to Ann Young of Edinburgh, Scotland. The authors' discovery of Young's game box has prompted an examination of the nature and purpose of the six games she designed. Ann Young's patent is discussed in the context of…

  16. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  17. Online Strategy Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    A strategy game is an online interactive game that requires thinking in order to be played at its best and whose winning strategy is not obvious. Provides information on strategy games that are written in Java or JavaScript and freely available on the web. (KHR)

  18. The Merchandising Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeninger, Jimmy G.

    The decision-making game is built on a model which adheres to the economic principles of supply and demand. Game participants are faced with the task of generating profit in a simulated competitive situation. The game provides the opportunity for participants to gain a greater understanding of: (1) the relationship between income and costs and…

  19. Playing the Cell Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Wood, Carol A.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the use of games to facilitate learning scientific concepts and principles. Describes the Cell Game, which simulates plant and animal cells; the Energy Quest, which requires players to buy property that generates largest amounts of electricity; the Blood Flow Game, which illustrates circulation of blood through the human body. (CS)

  20. Reputations and Games

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-04

    4/09 14ONR MURI Review Payoffs in Repeated Games (Economics) Player i plays game at each time instant. At time t receives payoff fi(t). Discounted...payoff to player i : (1-d) Σ dt fi(t) (Also possible to consider average payoff per game if limit exists… but discounted makes more sense usually.) 11

  1. Simulation Games in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boocock, Sarane S., Ed.; Schild, E.O., Ed.

    Simulation games serve many functions, but the important one to educators is that they present the student player with a real-life situation allowing him to use his knowledge and abilities while discovering decision-making skills for himself. To provide a basic reference on simulation gaming, essays on various aspects of games were collected from…

  2. Assessing Game Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaydos, Matthew; Harris, Shannon; Squire, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Player responses to a brief survey gauging their understanding of content after playing an educational game, "Virulent," are presented. Response accuracy was higher for picture-based questions than text-based questions, despite the presentation of both within the game. Given that games may present educational content in multiple ways…

  3. Stay Teen: Games

    MedlinePlus

    ... by You are here Home » Games and Quizzes Games and Quizzes Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 53 quiz ... Year’s Relationship Resolution Be? Shares · 6 Comments · 0 game Block Party Shares · 34 Comments · 0 quiz Should ...

  4. Games, Logic and Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Paul A.; Penner, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Gaming (the use of formal games for specific academic purposes) is a method for teaching formal thinking processes that is particularly suited to the gifted student. Various games can be used to develop deductive reasoning, the concept of subsets, inductive reasoning, and attention to detail. (Author/SW)

  5. Kids and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Regis Q.; McBride, Susan

    1980-01-01

    States that more use should be made of simulation games in elementary school social studies classrooms because pupils enjoy games and can learn a lot from playing them. Describes a simulation game which is modeled on the function of a zoning board. Objectives and evaluation are discussed. (DB)

  6. Educational Games for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noemí, Peña-Miguel; Máximo, Sedano Hoyuelos

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies in society has created a need for interactive contents that can make the most of the potential that technological advances offer. Serious games as educational games are such content: they can be defined as video games or interactive applications whose main purpose is to provide not only entertainment but also…

  7. Energy parity games.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent

    2012-11-02

    Energy parity games are infinite two-player turn-based games played on weighted graphs. The objective of the game combines a (qualitative) parity condition with the (quantitative) requirement that the sum of the weights (i.e., the level of energy in the game) must remain positive. Beside their own interest in the design and synthesis of resource-constrained omega-regular specifications, energy parity games provide one of the simplest model of games with combined qualitative and quantitative objectives. Our main results are as follows: (a) exponential memory is sufficient and may be necessary for winning strategies in energy parity games; (b) the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games can be solved in NP [Formula: see text] coNP; and (c) we give an algorithm to solve energy parity by reduction to energy games. We also show that the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games is logspace-equivalent to the problem of deciding the winner in mean-payoff parity games, which can thus be solved in NP [Formula: see text] coNP. As a consequence we also obtain a conceptually simple algorithm to solve mean-payoff parity games.

  8. Getting into the Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Statistics reveal that students spend more time on electronic games than on any other recreational activity and 32% admit to playing them during class. The gaming revolution contains lessons for teachers, and understanding the pedagogical potential of computer and video games and developing curriculum that supports the educational use of…

  9. Games for Health, 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    for Families of Returning Veterans Using Emotionally Responsive Avatars Ron Goldman, Kognito, Inc. Games for Shoppers : Brainstorming Play at...Nutrition Education with Online Game Experiences Sally Schmidt & Jori Clarke, Circle1Network Camp Eatapita: A Nutrition Game for Young Kids Steve

  10. Language Arts - Spanish Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrade, Magdalena; Sones, Mary

    This publication presents three suggested language arts curriculum units. They represent a cross-section of materials that have been developed to deal with the learning problems of students with special language difficulties. Originally developed for grades 7-12, these units may be adapted for use in adult education or at other grade levels. They…

  11. Game Literacy, Gaming Cultures and Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of how the popular "3-Cs" model (creative, critical and cultural) for literacy and media literacy can be applied to the study of computer games in the English and Media classroom. Focusing on the development of an existing computer games course that encompasses many opportunities for critical activity…

  12. The Development of Ojibway Language Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheasant-Williams, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    Revitalization of the Nishinaabeg language started in 1998 with the development of language materials. A committee on Nishinaabemwin orthography advised on the development of the text and writing system. Teaching methods follow the four parts of Medicine Wheel teachings: spiritual, emotional, physical, and mental. An interactive hockey game and a…

  13. First Video Game

    ScienceCinema

    Takacs, Peter

    2016-07-12

    More than fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the electronic tennis game with separate controllers that connected to an analog computer and used an oscilloscope for a screen. The game's creator, William Higinbotham, was a physicist who lobbied for nuclear nonproliferation as the first chair of the Federation of American Scientists.

  14. First Video Game

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, Peter

    2008-10-21

    More than fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the electronic tennis game with separate controllers that connected to an analog computer and used an oscilloscope for a screen. The game's creator, William Higinbotham, was a physicist who lobbied for nuclear nonproliferation as the first chair of the Federation of American Scientists.

  15. The Complexity of Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes a complexity theory approach to looking at language learning, an approach that investigates how language learners adapt to and interact with people and their environment. Based on interviews with four graduate students, it shows how complexity theory can help us understand both the situatedness of language learning and also…

  16. Games and Game Settings for the Preschool Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedtke, Werner; Stott, Gwen

    1979-01-01

    Describes and illustrates games and game settings used in two observational projects dealing with game play by young children. One project presented games encouraging use of strategies; the other provided game equipment and invited the children to invent their own rules and playing procedures. (DS)

  17. Understanding Complex Adaptive Systems by Playing Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Bilsen, Arthur; Bekebrede, Geertje; Mayer, Igor

    2010-01-01

    While educators teach their students about decision making in complex environments, managers have to deal with the complexity of large projects on a daily basis. To make better decisions it is assumed, that the latter would benefit from better understanding of complex phenomena, as do students as the professionals of the future. The goal of this…

  18. Evolution of brain and language.

    PubMed

    Schoenemann, P Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter evolutionary changes in the human brain that are relevant to language are reviewed. Most of what is known involves assessments of the relative sizes of brain regions. Overall brain size is associated with some key behavioral features relevant to language, including complexity of the social environment and the degree of conceptual complexity. Prefrontal cortical and temporal lobe areas relevant to language appear to have increased disproportionately. Areas relevant to language production and perception have changed less dramatically. The extent to which these changes were a consequence specifically of language versus other behavioral adaptations is a good question, but the process may best be viewed as a complex adaptive system, whereby cultural learning interacts with biology iteratively over time to produce language. Overall, language appears to have adapted to the human brain more so than the reverse.

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of a smoothed war of attrition game.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Swami; Killingback, Timothy

    2016-05-07

    In evolutionary game theory the War of Attrition game is intended to model animal contests which are decided by non-aggressive behavior, such as the length of time that a participant will persist in the contest. The classical War of Attrition game assumes that no errors are made in the implementation of an animal׳s strategy. However, it is inevitable in reality that such errors must sometimes occur. Here we introduce an extension of the classical War of Attrition game which includes the effect of errors in the implementation of an individual׳s strategy. This extension of the classical game has the important feature that the payoff is continuous, and as a consequence admits evolutionary behavior that is fundamentally different from that possible in the original game. We study the evolutionary dynamics of this new game in well-mixed populations both analytically using adaptive dynamics and through individual-based simulations, and show that there are a variety of possible outcomes, including simple monomorphic or dimorphic configurations which are evolutionarily stable and cannot occur in the classical War of Attrition game. In addition, we study the evolutionary dynamics of this extended game in a variety of spatially and socially structured populations, as represented by different complex network topologies, and show that similar outcomes can also occur in these situations.

  20. Future{at}Labs.Prosperity Game{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.F.; Boyack, K.W.; Berman, M.

    1996-10-01

    Prosperity Games{trademark} are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games, Prosperity Games{trademark} are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education, and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions specific industries. All Prosperity Games{trademark} are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Future{at}Labs.Prosperity Game{trademark} conducted under the sponsorship of the Industry Advisory Boards of the national labs, the national labs, Lockheed Martin Corporation, and the University of California. Players were drawn from all stakeholders involved including government, industry, labs, and academia. The primary objectives of this game were to: (1) explore ways to optimize the role of the multidisciplinary labs in serving national missions and needs; (2) explore ways to increase collaboration and partnerships among government, laboratories, universities, and industry; and (3) create a network of partnership champions to promote findings and policy options. The deliberations and recommendations of these players provided valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning the future of the labs.

  1. Game-Based Approaches’ Pedagogical Principles: Exploring Task Constraints in Youth Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; González-Víllora, Sixto; García-López, Luis Miguel; Araújo, Duarte

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the use of two pedagogical principles of Game-based approaches, representation and exaggeration, in the context of game performance of U10 soccer players. Twenty-one players participated in two 3 vs. 3 small-sided games. The first small-sided game was modified by representation. The second small-sided game was modified by enhancing the penetration of the defense tactical problem for invasion games. Decision-making and execution were assessed using the Game Performance Evaluation Tool. No significant differences were observed between games in the number of decision-making units related to keeping possession, nor in those related to penetrating the defense. No significant differences were observed in any execution ability (ball control, passing, dribbling and get free movements). The findings suggested that both games could provide similar degeneracy processes to the players for skill acquisition (specific and contextualized task constraints in which they could develop their game performance and the capability to achieve different outcomes in varying contexts). Probably both games had similar learner-environment dynamics leading players to develop their capabilities for adapting their behaviours to the changing performance situations. More research is necessary, from the ecological dynamics point of view, to determine how we should use small-sided games in Game-based approaches. PMID:26240668

  2. Game-Based Approaches' Pedagogical Principles: Exploring Task Constraints in Youth Soccer.

    PubMed

    Serra-Olivares, Jaime; González-Víllora, Sixto; García-López, Luis Miguel; Araújo, Duarte

    2015-06-27

    This study tested the use of two pedagogical principles of Game-based approaches, representation and exaggeration, in the context of game performance of U10 soccer players. Twenty-one players participated in two 3 vs. 3 small-sided games. The first small-sided game was modified by representation. The second small-sided game was modified by enhancing the penetration of the defense tactical problem for invasion games. Decision-making and execution were assessed using the Game Performance Evaluation Tool. No significant differences were observed between games in the number of decision-making units related to keeping possession, nor in those related to penetrating the defense. No significant differences were observed in any execution ability (ball control, passing, dribbling and get free movements). The findings suggested that both games could provide similar degeneracy processes to the players for skill acquisition (specific and contextualized task constraints in which they could develop their game performance and the capability to achieve different outcomes in varying contexts). Probably both games had similar learner-environment dynamics leading players to develop their capabilities for adapting their behaviours to the changing performance situations. More research is necessary, from the ecological dynamics point of view, to determine how we should use small-sided games in Game-based approaches.

  3. The Effect of Computer Game-Based Learning on FL Vocabulary Transferability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franciosi, Stephan J.

    2017-01-01

    In theory, computer game-based learning can support several vocabulary learning affordances that have been identified in the foreign language learning research. In the observable evidence, learning with computer games has been shown to improve performance on vocabulary recall tests. However, while simple recall can be a sign of learning,…

  4. A Game-Theoretic Model of Grounding for Referential Communication Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, William

    2009-01-01

    Conversational grounding theory proposes that language use is a form of rational joint action, by which dialog participants systematically and collaboratively add to their common ground of shared knowledge and beliefs. Following recent work applying "game theory" to pragmatics, this thesis develops a game-theoretic model of grounding that…

  5. Operation ARIES!: Methods, Mystery, and Mixed Models: Discourse Features Predict Affect in a Serious Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Carol M.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Pavlik, Philip, Jr.; Cai, Zhiqiang; Butler, Heather; Halpern, Diane; Millis, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Operation ARIES! is an Intelligent Tutoring System that is designed to teach scientific methodology in a game-like atmosphere. A fundamental goal of this serious game is to engage students during learning through natural language tutorial conversations. A tight integration of cognition, discourse, motivation, and affect is desired to meet this…

  6. The Effects of Modern Mathematics Computer Games on Mathematics Achievement and Class Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kebritchi, Mansureh; Hirumi, Atsusi; Bai, Haiyan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a computer game on students' mathematics achievement and motivation, and the role of prior mathematics knowledge, computer skill, and English language skill on their achievement and motivation as they played the game. A total of 193 students and 10 teachers participated in this study. The teachers were randomly…

  7. Gaming in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trueblood, Cecil R.; Yawkey, Thomas Daniels

    This article discusses how developmental and behaviorist learning theories can be used to create educational games. The Piagetian rationale for the use of games is examined and three benefits of gaming are identified: (1) games are related to intellectual, socio-emotional, and motor learning in young children, (2) gaming requires aspects of…

  8. Sex, Lies and Video Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja

    2007-01-01

    Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…

  9. Moving Beyond the Stigma: Systematic Review of Video Games and Their Potential to Combat Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Stacey; Ratzki-Leewing, Alexandria; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida

    2011-01-01

    Increasing epidemic proportions of overweight children in the United States presents formidable challenges for education and healthcare. Given the popularity and pervasiveness of video gaming culture in North American children, the perfect opportunity arises to investigate the potential of video games to promote healthful behaviour. Our objective was to systematically review the literature for possible benefits of active and educational video games targeting diet and physical activity in children. A review of English-language journal articles from 1998 to 2011 using EMBASE and PubMed was conducted. Thirty-four studies concerned with children, video games, physical, and/or nutritional outcomes were included. Results of these studies that showed some benefit (increased physical activity and nutritional knowledge as a result of gaming) demonstrate the possibility of video games to combat childhood obesity—looking beyond the stigma attached to gaming. PMID:21629863

  10. Moving beyond the stigma: systematic review of video games and their potential to combat obesity.

    PubMed

    Guy, Stacey; Ratzki-Leewing, Alexandria; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida

    2011-01-01

    Increasing epidemic proportions of overweight children in the United States presents formidable challenges for education and healthcare. Given the popularity and pervasiveness of video gaming culture in North American children, the perfect opportunity arises to investigate the potential of video games to promote healthful behaviour. Our objective was to systematically review the literature for possible benefits of active and educational video games targeting diet and physical activity in children. A review of English-language journal articles from 1998 to 2011 using EMBASE and PubMed was conducted. Thirty-four studies concerned with children, video games, physical, and/or nutritional outcomes were included. Results of these studies that showed some benefit (increased physical activity and nutritional knowledge as a result of gaming) demonstrate the possibility of video games to combat childhood obesity-looking beyond the stigma attached to gaming.

  11. Game theoretical multi-agent modelling of coalition formation for multilateral trades

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, C.S.K.; Poon, A.S.Y.; Wu, F.F.

    1999-08-01

    In recent years, the electric utility industries world wide have been undergoing deregulation to introduce competitiveness in the generation, transmission , and distribution of electric power. The once centralized system planning and operation management must be remodelled to adapt to the new market structure. In particular, the trading mechanism needs to be totally revised as any party may get involved in this free-market, subject to the unavoidable constraints such as generation volumes, physical transmission means, and days-ahead scheduling. This paper presents a multi-agent model in conjunction with game theory to resolve the coalition formation for multilateral trades. The authors have implemented the model using the Java programming language and the JATLite/JAT0.3 agent development tools developed by Stanford University.

  12. Structure-preserving desynchronization of minority games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosetti, G.; Challet, D.; Solomon, S.

    2009-10-01

    Perfect synchronicity in N-player games is a useful theoretical dream, but communication delays are inevitable and may result in asynchronous interactions. Some systems such as financial markets are asynchronous by design, and yet most theoretical models assume perfectly synchronized actions. We propose a general method to transform standard models of adaptive agents into asynchronous systems while preserving their global structure under some conditions. Using the minority game as an example, we find that the phase and fluctuations structure of the standard game subsists even in maximally asynchronous deterministic case, but that it disappears if too much stochasticity is added to the temporal structure of interaction. Allowing for heterogeneous communication speeds and activity patterns gives rise to a new information ecology that we study in details. in here

  13. The good behavior game: 1969-2002.

    PubMed

    Tingstrom, Daniel H; Sterling-Turner, Heather E; Wilczynski, Susan M

    2006-03-01

    The Good Behavior Game (GBG), a type of interdependent group-oriented contingency management procedure, was first introduced in 1969 and has been used with overwhelming success in classrooms and other settings. Since its inception, the "game" has utilized team competition and peer influence combined with reinforcement procedures. It has been found to be popular, easy-to-use, time-efficient, and widely applicable and versatile. This review describes the game and its numerous variations and adaptations, as well as empirical findings specific to the variety of target behaviors and participants to which it has been applied. In addition, different types of reinforcers used, information on consumer acceptance, and issues related to implementation are considered.

  14. Evolution and stability of altruist strategies in microbial games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adami, Christoph; Schossau, Jory; Hintze, Arend

    2012-01-01

    When microbes compete for limited resources, they often engage in chemical warfare using bacterial toxins. This competition can be understood in terms of evolutionary game theory (EGT). We study the predictions of EGT for the bacterial “suicide bomber” game in terms of the phase portraits of population dynamics, for parameter combinations that cover all interesting games for two-players, and seven of the 38 possible phase portraits of the three-player game. We compare these predictions to simulations of these competitions in finite well-mixed populations, but also allowing for probabilistic rather than pure strategies, as well as Darwinian adaptation over tens of thousands of generations. We find that Darwinian evolution of probabilistic strategies stabilizes games of the rock-paper-scissors type that emerge for parameters describing realistic bacterial populations, and point to ways in which the population fixed point can be selected by changing those parameters.

  15. Task-Oriented Gaming for Transfer to Prosthesis Use.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Ludger; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Dijk, Hylke W; Bongers, Raoul M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the effect of task-oriented video gaming on using a myoelectric prosthesis in a basic activity of daily life (ADL). Forty-one able-bodied right-handed participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups. In three of these groups the participants trained to control a video game using the myosignals of the flexors and extensors of the wrist: in the Adaptive Catching group participants needed to catch falling objects by opening and closing a grabber and received ADL-relevant feedback during performance. The Free Catching group used the same game, but without augmented feedback. The Interceptive Catching group trained a game where the goal was to intercept a falling object by moving a grabber to the left and right. They received no additional feedback. The control group played a regular Mario computer game. All groups trained 20 minutes a day for four consecutive days. Two tests were conducted before and after training: one level of the training game was performed, and participants grasped objects with a prosthesis simulator. Results showed all groups improved their game performance over controls. In the prosthesis-simulator task, after training the Adaptive Catching group outperformed the other groups in their ability to adjust the hand aperture to the size of the objects and the degree of compression of compressible objects. This study is the first to demonstrate transfer effects from a serious game to a myoelectric prosthesis task. The specificity of the learning effects suggests that research into serious gaming will benefit from placing ADL-specific constraints on game development.

  16. 78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming... compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This amendment...

  17. 77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  18. 76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  19. 77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  20. 77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  1. 75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  2. 76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  3. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  4. 76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  5. 78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming... compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This amendment...

  6. Combinatorial optimization games

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, X.; Ibaraki, Toshihide; Nagamochi, Hiroshi

    1997-06-01

    We introduce a general integer programming formulation for a class of combinatorial optimization games, which immediately allows us to improve the algorithmic result for finding amputations in the core (an important solution concept in cooperative game theory) of the network flow game on simple networks by Kalai and Zemel. An interesting result is a general theorem that the core for this class of games is nonempty if and only if a related linear program has an integer optimal solution. We study the properties for this mathematical condition to hold for several interesting problems, and apply them to resolve algorithmic and complexity issues for their cores along the line as put forward in: decide whether the core is empty; if the core is empty, find an imputation in the core; given an imputation x, test whether x is in the core. We also explore the properties of totally balanced games in this succinct formulation of cooperative games.

  7. Enabling Venus In-Situ Science - Deployable Entry System Technology, Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT): A Technology Development Project funded by Game Changing Development Program of the Space Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Gage, Peter J.; Yount, Bryan C.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Smith, Brandon; Arnold, James O.; Makino, alberto; Peterson, Keith Hoppe; Chinnapongse, Ronald I.

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the important planetary destinations for scientific exploration, but: The combination of extreme entry environment coupled with extreme surface conditions have made mission planning and proposal efforts very challenging. We present an alternate, game-changing approach (ADEPT) where a novel entry system architecture enables more benign entry conditions and this allows for greater flexibility and lower risk in mission design

  8. Predictive Game Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.

  9. The Game of Hex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the game of Hex, including its history, strategies and problems. Like all good games, the rules are very simple. Hex is played on a diamond shaped board made up of hexagons. It can be of any size, but an 11x11 board makes for a good game. Two opposite sides of the diamond are labelled "red," the other two…

  10. Healthy Gaming – Video Game Design to promote Health

    PubMed Central

    Brox, E.; Fernandez-Luque, L.; Tøllefsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. Objective The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Methods Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. Results The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. Conclusion There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion. PMID:23616865

  11. Educational card games for understanding gastrointestinal physiology.

    PubMed

    Odenweller, C M; Hsu, C T; DiCarlo, S E

    1998-12-01

    In the last few years, there has been an emphasis on the development of creative educational materials that supplement the traditional lecture format. The new materials should engage students in interactive learning and enhance critical thinking, small group discussion, and problem-solving skills. To help students understand and apply basic science concepts in a challenging, interactive format, we developed two card games. Although the principles of the games can be adapted to many scientific disciplines, these specific games provide a unique opportunity to integrate, analyze, and interpret basic concepts of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology. Go GI and GI Rummy were developed to assist students in the understanding of GI physiology and were designed to function as a tool for learning lecture material. Both games were evaluated by medical, graduate, and high school students. Student evaluation of the educational material showed that the games were successful in promoting the learning of GI physiology and engaging students in the discussion of GI concepts. Through this new approach, the students' level of understanding and ability to apply and synthesize materials were enhanced.

  12. Extraversion in Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lankveld, Giel; Schreurs, Sonny; Spronck, Pieter; van den Herik, Jaap

    The behavior of a human player in a game expresses the personality of that player. Personality is an important characteristic for modeling the player's profile. In our research we use the five factor model of personality, in which extraversion is a notable factor. Extraversion is the human tendency of being sensitive to rewards. This often results in humans seeking socially rewarding situations. Extraversion plays a prominent part in the in-game behavior of a player. The in-game behavior can be decomposed in 20 different in-game elements.

  13. Universal Reading Processes Are Modulated by Language and Writing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Harris, Lindsay N.

    2013-01-01

    The connections among language, writing system, and reading are part of what confronts a child in learning to read. We examine these connections in addressing how reading processes adapt to the variety of written language and how writing adapts to language. The first adaptation (reading to writing), as evidenced in behavioral and neuroscience…

  14. The limits and robustness of reinforcement learning in Lewis signalling games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catteeuw, David; Manderick, Bernard

    2014-04-01

    Lewis signalling games are a standard model to study the emergence of language. We introduce win-stay/lose-inaction, a random process that only updates behaviour on success and never deviates from what was once successful, prove that it always ends up in a state of optimal communication in all Lewis signalling games, and predict the number of interactions it needs to do so: N3 interactions for Lewis signalling games with N equiprobable types. We show three reinforcement learning algorithms (Roth-Erev learning, Q-learning, and Learning Automata) that can imitate win-stay/lose-inaction and can even cope with errors in Lewis signalling games.

  15. Serious games experiment toward agent-based simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wein, Anne; Labiosa, William

    2013-01-01

    within challenging environmental and ecosystem-management contexts and to provide an interactive way of learning about the complexity of interactions between people and natural systems. Further progress on the use of pedagogical games to fulfill the USGS mission will require collaboration among scientists, game developers, educators, and stakeholders. We conclude that as the USGS positions itself to communicate and convey the results of multiple science strategies, including natural-resource security and sustainability, pedagogical game development and agent-based modeling offer a means to (1) establish interdisciplinary and collaborative teams with a focused integrated outcome; (2) contribute to the modeling of interaction, feedback, and adaptation of ecosystems; and (3) enable social learning through a broadly appealing and increasingly sophisticated medium.

  16. ACTIVITIES: Graphs and Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Christian R.

    1975-01-01

    Using a set of worksheets, students will discover and apply Euler's formula regarding connected planar graphs and play and analyze the game of Sprouts. One sheet leads to the discovery of Euler's formula; another concerns traversability of a graph; another gives an example and a game involving these ideas. (Author/KM)

  17. Mixed Reality Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Jean-Charles; Carron, Thibault; Pernelle, Philippe; Talbot, Stéphane; Houzet, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The authors' research work deals with the development of new game-based learning (gbl) environments. They think that the way of acquiring knowledge during a learning session is similar to following an adventure in a role-playing game and they apply the metaphor of exploring a virtual world, where each student embarks on a quest in order to collect…

  18. Gaming and Gamification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The New Media Consortium's "Horizon Report" for higher education cites games and gamification with a time-to-adoption of two to three years. The use of digital games is almost ubiquitous in social media and is swiftly gaining popularity in other industries as well. Many in higher education have embraced gamification due to its…

  19. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  20. Gaming in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.; Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors have devoted a considerable amount of time evaluating the role that gaming and game development plays in the form of curricula integration and as a future career focus for students interested in this field. From the research conducted through the completed National Science Foundation (NSF) project, VisTE: Visualization in Technology…