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Sample records for adaptive learning environment

  1. Adaptive E-Learning Environments: Research Dimensions and Technological Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Bitonto, Pierpaolo; Roselli, Teresa; Rossano, Veronica; Sinatra, Maria

    2013-01-01

    One of the most closely investigated topics in e-learning research has always been the effectiveness of adaptive learning environments. The technological evolutions that have dramatically changed the educational world in the last six decades have allowed ever more advanced and smarter solutions to be proposed. The focus of this paper is to depict…

  2. Adaptive versus Learner Control in a Multiple Intelligence Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Declan

    2008-01-01

    Within the field of technology enhanced learning, adaptive educational systems offer an advanced form of learning environment that attempts to meet the needs of different students. Such systems capture and represent, for each student, various characteristics such as knowledge and traits in an individual learner model. Subsequently, using the…

  3. A Context-Adaptive Teacher Training Model in a Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Min; Chiang, Feng Kuang; Jiang, Ya Na; Yu, Sheng Quan

    2017-01-01

    In view of the discrepancies in teacher training and teaching practice, this paper put forward a context-adaptive teacher training model in a ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment. The innovative model provides teachers of different subjects with adaptive and personalized learning content in a u-learning environment, implements intra- and…

  4. Teacher-Led Design of an Adaptive Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavroudi, Anna; Hadzilacos, Thanasis; Kalles, Dimitris; Gregoriades, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses a requirements engineering process that exemplifies teacher-led design in the case of an envisioned system for adaptive learning. Such a design poses various challenges and still remains an open research issue in the field of adaptive learning. Starting from a scenario-based elicitation method, the whole process was highly…

  5. Adaptive User Model for Web-Based Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalakis, John; Sirmakessis, Spiros; Sakkopoulos, Evangelos; Tsakalidis, Athanasios

    This paper describes the design of an adaptive user model and its implementation in an advanced Web-based Virtual University environment that encompasses combined and synchronized adaptation between educational material and well-known communication facilities. The Virtual University environment has been implemented to support a postgraduate…

  6. Integrating Adaptive Games in Student-Centered Virtual Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Blanco, Angel; Torrente, Javier; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2010-01-01

    The increasing adoption of e-Learning technology is facing new challenges, such as how to produce student-centered systems that can be adapted to each student's needs. In this context, educational video games are proposed as an ideal medium to facilitate adaptation and tracking of students' performance for assessment purposes, but integrating the…

  7. Dynamic Learner Profiling and Automatic Learner Classification for Adaptive E-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premlatha, K. R.; Dharani, B.; Geetha, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    E-learning allows learners individually to learn "anywhere, anytime" and offers immediate access to specific information. However, learners have different behaviors, learning styles, attitudes, and aptitudes, which affect their learning process, and therefore learning environments need to adapt according to these differences, so as to…

  8. Physically distributed learning: adapting and reinterpreting physical environments in the development of fraction concepts.

    PubMed

    Martin, Taylor; Schwartz, Daniel L

    2005-07-08

    Five studies examined how interacting with the physical environment can support the development of fraction concepts. Nine- and 10-year-old children worked on fraction problems they could not complete mentally. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that manipulating physical pieces facilitated children's ability to develop an interpretation of fractions. Experiment 3 demonstrated that when children understood a content area well, they used their interpretations to repurpose many environments to support problem solving, whereas when they needed to learn, they were prone to the structure of the environment. Experiments 4 and 5 examined transfer after children had learned by manipulating physical pieces. Children who learned by adapting relatively unstructured environments transferred to new materials better than children who learned with "well-structured" environments that did not require equivalent adaptation. Together, the findings reveal that during physically distributed learning, the opportunity to adapt an environment permits the development of new interpretations that can advance learning.

  9. An Adaptive Approach to Managing Knowledge Development in a Project-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an adaptive approach to managing the development of students' knowledge in the comprehensive project-based learning (PBL) environment. Subject study is realized by two-stage PBL. It shapes adaptive knowledge management (KM) process and promotes the correct balance between personalized and collaborative learning. The…

  10. A Framework for Adaptive Learning Design in a Web-Conferencing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Many recent technologies provide the ability to dynamically adjust the interface depending on the emerging cognitive and collaborative needs of the learning episode. This means that educators can adaptively re-design the learning environment during the lesson, rather than purely relying on preemptive learning design thinking. Based on a…

  11. OPUS One: An Intelligent Adaptive Learning Environment Using Artificial Intelligence Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrazzoli, Attilio

    2010-06-01

    AI based Tutoring and Learning Path Adaptation are well known concepts in e-Learning scenarios today and increasingly applied in modern learning environments. In order to gain more flexibility and to enhance existing e-learning platforms, the OPUS One LMS Extension package will enable a generic Intelligent Tutored Adaptive Learning Environment, based on a holistic Multidimensional Instructional Design Model (PENTHA ID Model), allowing AI based tutoring and adaptation functionality to existing Web-based e-learning systems. Relying on "real time" adapted profiles, it allows content- / course authors to apply a dynamic course design, supporting tutored, collaborative sessions and activities, as suggested by modern pedagogy. The concept presented combines a personalized level of surveillance, learning activity- and learning path adaptation suggestions to ensure the students learning motivation and learning success. The OPUS One concept allows to implement an advanced tutoring approach combining "expert based" e-tutoring with the more "personal" human tutoring function. It supplies the "Human Tutor" with precise, extended course activity data and "adaptation" suggestions based on predefined subject matter rules. The concept architecture is modular allowing a personalized platform configuration.

  12. An Online Adaptive Learning Environment for Critical-Thinking-Infused English Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Ya-Ting Carolyn; Gamble, Jeffrey Hugh; Hung, Yu-Wan; Lin, Tzu-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking (CT) and English literacy are two essential 21st century competencies that are a priority for teaching and learning in an increasingly digital learning environment. Taking advantage of innovations in educational technology, this study empirically investigates the effectiveness of CT-infused adaptive English literacy instruction…

  13. Particle Swarm Social Model for Group Social Learning in Adaptive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Potok, Thomas E; Treadwell, Jim N; Patton, Robert M; Pullum, Laura L

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a study of integrating particle swarm algorithm, social knowledge adaptation and multi-agent approaches for modeling the social learning of self-organized groups and their collective searching behavior in an adaptive environment. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of social learning for a dynamic environment. The research provides a platform for understanding and insights into knowledge discovery and strategic search in human self-organized social groups, such as insurgents or online communities.

  14. A Hybrid Approach for Supporting Adaptivity in E-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Omari, Mohammad; Carter, Jenny; Chiclana, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify a framework to support adaptivity in e-learning environments. The framework reflects a novel hybrid approach incorporating the concept of the event-condition-action (ECA) model and intelligent agents. Moreover, a system prototype is developed reflecting the hybrid approach to supporting adaptivity…

  15. Adaptive Semantic and Social Web-based learning and assessment environment for the STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaie, Hassan; Atchison, Chris; Sunderraman, Rajshekhar

    2014-05-01

    We are building a cloud- and Semantic Web-based personalized, adaptive learning environment for the STEM fields that integrates and leverages Social Web technologies to allow instructors and authors of learning material to collaborate in semi-automatic development and update of their common domain and task ontologies and building their learning resources. The semi-automatic ontology learning and development minimize issues related to the design and maintenance of domain ontologies by knowledge engineers who do not have any knowledge of the domain. The social web component of the personal adaptive system will allow individual and group learners to interact with each other and discuss their own learning experience and understanding of course material, and resolve issues related to their class assignments. The adaptive system will be capable of representing key knowledge concepts in different ways and difficulty levels based on learners' differences, and lead to different understanding of the same STEM content by different learners. It will adapt specific pedagogical strategies to individual learners based on their characteristics, cognition, and preferences, allow authors to assemble remotely accessed learning material into courses, and provide facilities for instructors to assess (in real time) the perception of students of course material, monitor their progress in the learning process, and generate timely feedback based on their understanding or misconceptions. The system applies a set of ontologies that structure the learning process, with multiple user friendly Web interfaces. These include the learning ontology (models learning objects, educational resources, and learning goal); context ontology (supports adaptive strategy by detecting student situation), domain ontology (structures concepts and context), learner ontology (models student profile, preferences, and behavior), task ontologies, technological ontology (defines devices and places that surround the

  16. Reinforcement learning and counterfactual reasoning explain adaptive behavior in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Paik, Jaehyon; Pirolli, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Animals routinely adapt to changes in the environment in order to survive. Though reinforcement learning may play a role in such adaptation, it is not clear that it is the only mechanism involved, as it is not well suited to producing rapid, relatively immediate changes in strategies in response to environmental changes. This research proposes that counterfactual reasoning might be an additional mechanism that facilitates change detection. An experiment is conducted in which a task state changes over time and the participants had to detect the changes in order to perform well and gain monetary rewards. A cognitive model is constructed that incorporates reinforcement learning with counterfactual reasoning to help quickly adjust the utility of task strategies in response to changes. The results show that the model can accurately explain human data and that counterfactual reasoning is key to reproducing the various effects observed in this change detection paradigm.

  17. Moving Past Curricula and Strategies: Language and the Development of Adaptive Pedagogy for Immersive Learning Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, Brian; Cavagnetto, Andy; Chen, Ying-Chih; Park, Soonhye

    2016-04-01

    Given current concerns internationally about student performance in science and the need to shift how science is being learnt in schools, as a community, we need to shift how we approach the issue of learning and teaching in science. In the future, we are going to have to close the gap between how students construct and engage with knowledge in a media-rich environment, and how school classroom environments engage them. This is going to require a shift to immersive environments where attention is paid to the knowledge bases and resources students bring into the classroom. Teachers will have to adopt adaptive pedagogical approaches that are framed around a more nuanced understanding of epistemological orientation, language and the nature of prosocial environments.

  18. Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Thomas G., Ed.; Wright, Benjamin E., Ed.

    The focus of the 16 essays in this book is the physical environment of learning, specifically the man-made or built environment. The authors contend that educators have tended to overlook the influence of built environments on the learning process--a process not confined to schools, but involving play areas, tree houses, and the city itself. The…

  19. SSD-Optimized Workload Placement with Adaptive Learning and Classification in HPC Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Lipeng; Lu, Zheng; Cao, Qing; Wang, Feiyi; Oral, H Sarp; Settlemyer, Bradley W

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, non-volatile memory devices such as SSD drives have emerged as a viable storage solution due to their increasing capacity and decreasing cost. Due to the unique capability and capacity requirements in large scale HPC (High Performance Computing) storage environment, a hybrid config- uration (SSD and HDD) may represent one of the most available and balanced solutions considering the cost and performance. Under this setting, effective data placement as well as movement with controlled overhead become a pressing challenge. In this paper, we propose an integrated object placement and movement framework and adaptive learning algorithms to address these issues. Specifically, we present a method that shuffle data objects across storage tiers to optimize the data access performance. The method also integrates an adaptive learning algorithm where real- time classification is employed to predict the popularity of data object accesses, so that they can be placed on, or migrate between SSD or HDD drives in the most efficient manner. We discuss preliminary results based on this approach using a simulator we developed to show that the proposed methods can dynamically adapt storage placements and access pattern as workloads evolve to achieve the best system level performance such as throughput.

  20. Hypermedia Environments and Adaptive Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Pat-Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Reviews relevant professional literature concerning hypermedia environments and adaptive instruction for online learning for distance education and continuing education. Highlights include aptitude-treatment interaction; cognitive processes; navigational paths; log files; and intelligent tutors. Contains 125 references. (LRW)

  1. Towards Individualized Online Learning: The Design and Development of an Adaptive Web Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inan, Fethi A.; Flores, Raymond; Ari, Fatih; Arslan-Ari, Ismahan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the design and development of an adaptive system which individualizes instruction such as content, interfaces, instructional strategies, and resources dependent on two factors, namely student motivation and prior knowledge levels. Combining adaptive hypermedia methods with strategies proposed by…

  2. Providing Adaptation and Guidance for Design Learning by Problem Solving: The Design Planning Approach in DomoSim-TPC Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redondo, Miguel A.; Bravo, Crescencio; Ortega, Manuel; Verdejo, M. Felisa

    2007-01-01

    Experimental learning environments based on simulation usually require monitoring and adaptation to the actions the users carry out. Some systems provide this functionality, but they do so in a way which is static or cannot be applied to problem solving tasks. In response to this problem, we propose a method based on the use of intermediate…

  3. Adaptation for a Changing Environment: Developing Learning and Teaching with Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Adrian; Price, Linda

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and learning and teaching, particularly in distance education contexts. We argue that environmental changes (societal, educational, and technological) make it necessary to adapt systems and practices that are no longer appropriate. The need…

  4. Use of Adaptive Study Material in Education in E-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostolányová, Katerina; Šarmanová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Personalised education is a topical matter today and the impact of ICT on education has been covered extensively. The adaptation of education to various types of student is an issue of a vast number of papers presented at diverse conferences. The topic incorporates the fields of information technologies and eLearning, but in no small part also the…

  5. Gearsketch: An Adaptive Drawing-Based Learning Environment for the Gears Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Frank A.; Joolingen, Wouter R.; Gijlers, Hannie; Bollen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    GearSketch is a learning environment for the gears domain, aimed at students in the final years of primary school. It is designed for use with a touchscreen device and is based on ideas from drawing-based learning and research on cognitive tutors. At the heart of GearSketch is a domain model that is used to transform learners' strokes into…

  6. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment.

    PubMed

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot-human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a "baby" robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a "caregiver" to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two "idealized" robot profiles-a "needy" and an "independent" robot-in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the "stress" (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness-"responsive" and "non-responsive"-to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the "needy" and "independent" axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot.

  7. Arousal regulation and affective adaptation to human responsiveness by a robot that explores and learns a novel environment

    PubMed Central

    Hiolle, Antoine; Lewis, Matthew; Cañamero, Lola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of our work in developmental robotics regarding robot–human caregiver interactions, in this paper we investigate how a “baby” robot that explores and learns novel environments can adapt its affective regulatory behavior of soliciting help from a “caregiver” to the preferences shown by the caregiver in terms of varying responsiveness. We build on two strands of previous work that assessed independently (a) the differences between two “idealized” robot profiles—a “needy” and an “independent” robot—in terms of their use of a caregiver as a means to regulate the “stress” (arousal) produced by the exploration and learning of a novel environment, and (b) the effects on the robot behaviors of two caregiving profiles varying in their responsiveness—“responsive” and “non-responsive”—to the regulatory requests of the robot. Going beyond previous work, in this paper we (a) assess the effects that the varying regulatory behavior of the two robot profiles has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the robots; (b) bring together the two strands previously investigated in isolation and take a step further by endowing the robot with the capability to adapt its regulatory behavior along the “needy” and “independent” axis as a function of the varying responsiveness of the caregiver; and (c) analyze the effects that the varying regulatory behavior has on the exploratory and learning patterns of the adaptive robot. PMID:24860492

  8. Model-Based Design Methods for Adaptive E-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adonis, Anastase; Drira, Khalil

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a methodological road for the next generation of e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper considers a survey of recent publications (1995-2002), which aim to provide practical and theoretical indications and advice, which are coupled with practical experimentations. Findings: The paper…

  9. Adaptively Ubiquitous Learning in Campus Math Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Liu, Yu-Lung

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study are to develop and evaluate the instructional model and learning system which integrate ubiquitous learning, computerized adaptive diagnostic testing system and campus math path learning. The researcher first creates a ubiquitous learning environment which is called "adaptive U-learning math path system". This…

  10. An Adaptive Web-Based Learning Environment for the Application of Remote Sensing in Schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, N.; Fuchsgruber, V.; Riembauer, G.; Siegmund, A.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite images have great educational potential for teaching on environmental issues and can promote the motivation of young people to enter careers in natural science and technology. Due to the importance and ubiquity of remote sensing in science, industry and the public, the use of satellite imagery has been included into many school curricular in Germany. However, its implementation into school practice is still hesitant, mainly due to lack of teachers' know-how and education materials that align with the curricula. In the project "Space4Geography" a web-based learning platform is developed with the aim to facilitate the application of satellite imagery in secondary school teaching and to foster effective student learning experiences in geography and other related subjects in an interdisciplinary way. The platform features ten learning modules demonstrating the exemplary application of original high spatial resolution remote sensing data (RapidEye and TerraSAR-X) to examine current environmental issues such as droughts, deforestation and urban sprawl. In this way, students will be introduced into the versatile applications of spaceborne earth observation and geospatial technologies. The integrated web-based remote sensing software "BLIF" equips the students with a toolset to explore, process and analyze the satellite images, thereby fostering the competence of students to work on geographical and environmental questions without requiring prior knowledge of remote sensing. This contribution presents the educational concept of the learning environment and its realization by the example of the learning module "Deforestation of the rainforest in Brasil".

  11. Curriculum Adaptations within the Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Barbara N; Craig, Dorothy Valcarcel; Patten, Kathryn Boudreau

    2006-01-01

    As the demand for online learning increases, teacher preparation programs must offer a variety of courses utilizing E-learning formats. These formats must model effective teaching practices, curriculum design, and adaptations for the online learning environment. In addition, teacher preparation programs--following the Dewey philosophy as well as…

  12. Neural adaptation and perceptual learning using a portable real-time cochlear implant simulator in natural environments.

    PubMed

    Smalt, Christopher J; Talavage, Thomas M; Pisoni, David B; Svirsky, Mario A

    2011-01-01

    A portable real-time speech processor that implements an acoustic simulation model of a cochlear implant (CI) has been developed on the Apple iPhone / iPod Touch to permit testing and experimentation under extended exposure in real-world environments. This simulator allows for both a variable number of noise band channels and electrode insertion depth. Utilizing this portable CI simulator, we tested perceptual learning in normal hearing listeners by measuring word and sentence comprehension behaviorally before and after 2 weeks of exposure. To evaluate changes in neural activation related to adaptation to transformed speech, fMRI was also conducted. Differences in brain activation after training occurred in the inferior frontal gyrus and areas related to language processing. A 15-20% improvement in word and sentence comprehension of cochlear implant simulated speech was also observed. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of a portable CI simulator as a research tool and provide new information about the physiological changes that accompany perceptual learning of degraded auditory input.

  13. Adaptive Learning Systems: Beyond Teaching Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Nuri; Sevim, Nese

    2013-01-01

    Since 1950s, teaching machines have changed a lot. Today, we have different ideas about how people learn, what instructor should do to help students during their learning process. We have adaptive learning technologies that can create much more student oriented learning environments. The purpose of this article is to present these changes and its…

  14. Moving Past Curricula and Strategies: Language and the Development of Adaptive Pedagogy for Immersive Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Brian; Cavagnetto, Andy; Chen, Ying-Chih; Park, Soonhye

    2016-01-01

    Given current concerns internationally about student performance in science and the need to shift how science is being learnt in schools, as a community, we need to shift how we approach the issue of learning and teaching in science. In the future, we are going to have to close the gap between how students construct and engage with knowledge in a…

  15. Adaptation of Foreign Students to the Foreign Culture Learning Environment Using the Six Thinking Hats Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanislavovna, Vershinina Tatiana; Leopoldovna, Kocheva Olga

    2015-01-01

    The contemporary life is characterized by various ways and forms of communication, sometimes but not always successful and leading to conflict situations. When a man occurs in the environment, alien to him, he meets misunderstanding and is overwhelmed with incomprehensible emotions as if he were covered with an avalanche. He has to solve problems…

  16. Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment (aCe) is a software system that includes a language, compiler, and run-time library for parallel computing. aCe was developed to enable programmers to write programs, more easily than was previously possible, for a variety of parallel computing architectures. Heretofore, it has been perceived to be difficult to write parallel programs for parallel computers and more difficult to port the programs to different parallel computing architectures. In contrast, aCe is supportable on all high-performance computing architectures. Currently, it is supported on LINUX clusters. aCe uses parallel programming constructs that facilitate writing of parallel programs. Such constructs were used in single-instruction/multiple-data (SIMD) programming languages of the 1980s, including Parallel Pascal, Parallel Forth, C*, *LISP, and MasPar MPL. In aCe, these constructs are extended and implemented for both SIMD and multiple- instruction/multiple-data (MIMD) architectures. Two new constructs incorporated in aCe are those of (1) scalar and virtual variables and (2) pre-computed paths. The scalar-and-virtual-variables construct increases flexibility in optimizing memory utilization in various architectures. The pre-computed-paths construct enables the compiler to pre-compute part of a communication operation once, rather than computing it every time the communication operation is performed.

  17. Adaptive social learning strategies in temporally and spatially varying environments : how temporal vs. spatial variation, number of cultural traits, and costs of learning influence the evolution of conformist-biased transmission, payoff-biased transmission, and individual learning.

    PubMed

    Nakahashi, Wataru; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Henrich, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Long before the origins of agriculture human ancestors had expanded across the globe into an immense variety of environments, from Australian deserts to Siberian tundra. Survival in these environments did not principally depend on genetic adaptations, but instead on evolved learning strategies that permitted the assembly of locally adaptive behavioral repertoires. To develop hypotheses about these learning strategies, we have modeled the evolution of learning strategies to assess what conditions and constraints favor which kinds of strategies. To build on prior work, we focus on clarifying how spatial variability, temporal variability, and the number of cultural traits influence the evolution of four types of strategies: (1) individual learning, (2) unbiased social learning, (3) payoff-biased social learning, and (4) conformist transmission. Using a combination of analytic and simulation methods, we show that spatial-but not temporal-variation strongly favors the emergence of conformist transmission. This effect intensifies when migration rates are relatively high and individual learning is costly. We also show that increasing the number of cultural traits above two favors the evolution of conformist transmission, which suggests that the assumption of only two traits in many models has been conservative. We close by discussing how (1) spatial variability represents only one way of introducing the low-level, nonadaptive phenotypic trait variation that so favors conformist transmission, the other obvious way being learning errors, and (2) our findings apply to the evolution of conformist transmission in social interactions. Throughout we emphasize how our models generate empirical predictions suitable for laboratory testing.

  18. Adaptive manifold learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyue; Wang, Jing; Zha, Hongyuan

    2012-02-01

    Manifold learning algorithms seek to find a low-dimensional parameterization of high-dimensional data. They heavily rely on the notion of what can be considered as local, how accurately the manifold can be approximated locally, and, last but not least, how the local structures can be patched together to produce the global parameterization. In this paper, we develop algorithms that address two key issues in manifold learning: 1) the adaptive selection of the local neighborhood sizes when imposing a connectivity structure on the given set of high-dimensional data points and 2) the adaptive bias reduction in the local low-dimensional embedding by accounting for the variations in the curvature of the manifold as well as its interplay with the sampling density of the data set. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods for improving the performance of manifold learning algorithms using both synthetic and real-world data sets.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Models for Adaptive Learning in Changing Environments

    PubMed Central

    Marković, Dimitrije; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic models of decision making under various forms of uncertainty have been applied in recent years to numerous behavioral and model-based fMRI studies. These studies were highly successful in enabling a better understanding of behavior and delineating the functional properties of brain areas involved in decision making under uncertainty. However, as different studies considered different models of decision making under uncertainty, it is unclear which of these computational models provides the best account of the observed behavioral and neuroimaging data. This is an important issue, as not performing model comparison may tempt researchers to over-interpret results based on a single model. Here we describe how in practice one can compare different behavioral models and test the accuracy of model comparison and parameter estimation of Bayesian and maximum-likelihood based methods. We focus our analysis on two well-established hierarchical probabilistic models that aim at capturing the evolution of beliefs in changing environments: Hierarchical Gaussian Filters and Change Point Models. To our knowledge, these two, well-established models have never been compared on the same data. We demonstrate, using simulated behavioral experiments, that one can accurately disambiguate between these two models, and accurately infer free model parameters and hidden belief trajectories (e.g., posterior expectations, posterior uncertainties, and prediction errors) even when using noisy and highly correlated behavioral measurements. Importantly, we found several advantages of Bayesian inference and Bayesian model comparison compared to often-used Maximum-Likelihood schemes combined with the Bayesian Information Criterion. These results stress the relevance of Bayesian data analysis for model-based neuroimaging studies that investigate human decision making under uncertainty. PMID:27148030

  20. Adapting to the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovach, Amy L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an activity on natural selection and how the peppered moth's adaptive values for their colors changed during the Industrial Revolution in Manchester, England, influencing their survival and ultimately affecting the survival of their offspring. Includes activity objectives. (Author/KHR)

  1. Open Access Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentor, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Educational institutions are increasingly adopting "closed" learning environments that hide learning materials in password-protected areas. While this may be a logical solution to a range of problems, much is lost in this mode of course delivery. Although there are logical reasons for moving toward closed environments, we may be erring…

  2. Advanced Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubal, Robert C.; Helms, Robert F.; Triplett, Suzanne E.

    Leading-edge technologies, integrated with emerging educational methodologies, make the Advanced Learning Environment (ALE) model cost effective and efficient for learning. The ALE integrates virtual reality and other enabling technologies such as natural language processing, animation, video, courseware, sound, projection, CD-ROM, and distance…

  3. Learning Environment: A Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Sacit; Bag, Huseyin; Gezer, Kutret

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the Learning Environment Research-Bibliography includes studies on Educational subject. We have analyzed many journals, books, and theses published in international. The references listed here primarily focus on the empirical research related to the learning environmental research as an educational goal; along with a few learning…

  4. Environment: A Learning Resource.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    The aim of this document is to give teachers in Tasmania an understanding of the importance and usefulness of the environment as a learning resource both as an immediate stimulus for learning and for the long term process of forming sound community values. The document provides schools with a basis for the development of environmental resources…

  5. The Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Electric Power System, New York, NY.

    The basic factors in personal comfort, the nature of the processes of teaching and learning, and the effects of environment on these functions are discussed. The role of climate conditioning and space conditioning as interpreted by sensory factors during the learning process gives guidelines for design solutions. Technical supplements on climate…

  6. MEAT: An Authoring Tool for Generating Adaptable Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Yen-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2009-01-01

    Mobile learning (m-learning) is a new trend in the e-learning field. The learning services in m-learning environments are supported by fundamental functions, especially the content and assessment services, which need an authoring tool to rapidly generate adaptable learning resources. To fulfill the imperious demand, this study proposes an…

  7. An Engaging Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The author believes that a stimulating learning environment can offer benefits to the general classroom conduct of young people through the different charts displayed in his classroom. Students see the teacher taking pride in their shared working environment and wall or table graffiti. He mentions that he does not only care for his students'…

  8. Visual learning in multisensory environments.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Robert A; Shams, Ladan

    2010-04-01

    We study the claim that multisensory environments are useful for visual learning because nonvisual percepts can be processed to produce error signals that people can use to adapt their visual systems. This hypothesis is motivated by a Bayesian network framework. The framework is useful because it ties together three observations that have appeared in the literature: (a) signals from nonvisual modalities can "teach" the visual system; (b) signals from nonvisual modalities can facilitate learning in the visual system; and (c) visual signals can become associated with (or be predicted by) signals from nonvisual modalities. Experimental data consistent with each of these observations are reviewed.

  9. Flexible Ubiquitous Learning Management System Adapted to Learning Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ji-Seong; Kim, Mihye; Park, Chan; Yoo, Jae-Soo; Yoo, Kwan-Hee

    This paper proposes a u-learning management system (ULMS) appropriate to the ubiquitous learning environment, with emphasis on the significance of context awareness and adaptation in learning. The proposed system supports the basic functions of an e-learning management system and incorporates a number of tools and additional features to provide a more customized learning service. The proposed system automatically corresponds to various forms of user terminal without modifying the existing system. The functions, formats, and course learning activities of the system are dynamically and adaptively constructed at runtime according to user terminals, course types, pedagogical goals as well as student characteristics and learning context. A prototype for university use has been implemented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed approach. We regard the proposed ULMS as an ideal u-learning system because it can not only lead students into continuous and mobile 'anytime, anywhere' learning using any kind of terminal, but can also foster enhanced self-directed learning through the establishment of an adaptive learning environment.

  10. The Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver and Co., Salina, KS.

    The learning environment is discussed in terms of environmental components or factors that should be considered by the architect. The design factors to be considered and elaborated on are as follows--(1) program, (2) function, (3)light, (4) color, (5) acoustics, (6) temperature, (7) humidity, (8) spatial conformation, (9) structure, (10) site…

  11. Learning Environments for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanoff, Henry; And Others

    This booklet (prepared by architects, educators, and community groups) presents some guidelines for creating learning environments in child care centers. The ideas and information could be used for creating new centers, for redesigning facilities, or for remodeling existing buildings. Emphasis is placed on the interrelatedness of the goals of a…

  12. U-ALS: A Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piovesan, Sandra Dutra; Passerino, Liliana Maria; Medina, Roseclea Duarte

    2012-01-01

    The diffusion of the use of the learning virtual environments presents a great potential for the development of an application which meet the necessities in the education area. In view of the importance of a more dynamic application and that can adapt itself continuously to the students' necessities, the "U-ALS" (Ubiquitous Adapted Learning…

  13. Managing Content in E-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwanza, Daisy; Engestrm, Yrj

    2005-01-01

    The use of e-learning environments to support teaching and learning has had great impact on the way content is developed and managed. In most cases, both teachers and students have had to re-adapt the way they prepare, access and engage with educational matter. The adjustment in human mechanisms for organising and interacting with educational…

  14. Adaptive Learning and Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denrell, Jerker

    2007-01-01

    Humans and animals learn from experience by reducing the probability of sampling alternatives with poor past outcomes. Using simulations, J. G. March (1996) illustrated how such adaptive sampling could lead to risk-averse as well as risk-seeking behavior. In this article, the author develops a formal theory of how adaptive sampling influences risk…

  15. Adaptive robot path planning in changing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.C.

    1994-08-01

    Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses past experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm allows the robot to adapt to its environment by having two experience manipulation schemes: For minor environmental change, we use an object-attached experience abstraction scheme to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, we use an on-demand experience repair scheme to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. Using this algorithm, we can effectively reduce the overall robot planning time by re-using the computation result for one task to plan a path for another.

  16. Learning Spaces in Mobile Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solvberg, Astrid M.; Rismark, Marit

    2012-01-01

    Mobile learning (m-learning) environments open a wide range of new and exciting learning opportunities, and envision students who are continually on the move, learn across space and time, and move from topic to topic and in and out of interaction with technology. In this article we present findings from a study of how students manoeuvre and study…

  17. Adaptable Computing Environment/Self-Assembling Software

    SciTech Connect

    Osbourn, Gordon C.; Bouchard, Ann M.; Bartholomew, John W.

    2007-09-25

    Complex software applications are difficult to learn to use and to remember how to use. Further, the user has no control over the functionality available in a given application. The software we use can be created and modified only by a relatively small group of elite, highly skilled artisans known as programmers. "Normal users" are powerless to create and modify software themselves, because the tools for software development, designed by and for programmers, are a barrier to entry. This software, when completed, will be a user-adaptable computing environment in which the user is really in control of his/her own software, able to adapt the system, make new parts of the system interactive, and even modify the behavior of the system itself. Som key features of the basic environment that have been implemented are (a) books in bookcases, where all data is stored, (b) context-sensitive compass menus (compass, because the buttons are located in compass directions relative to the mouose cursor position), (c) importing tabular data and displaying it in a book, (d) light-weight table querying/sorting, (e) a Reach&Get capability (sort of a "smart" copy/paste that prevents the user from copying invalid data), and (f) a LogBook that automatically logs all user actions that change data or the system itself. To bootstrap toward full end-user adaptability, we implemented a set of development tools. With the development tools, compass menus can be made and customized.

  18. The Integration of Personal Learning Environments & Open Network Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Chih-Hsiung; Sujo-Montes, Laura; Yen, Cherng-Jyh; Chan, Junn-Yih; Blocher, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Learning management systems traditionally provide structures to guide online learners to achieve their learning goals. Web 2.0 technology empowers learners to create, share, and organize their personal learning environments in open network environments; and allows learners to engage in social networking and collaborating activities. Advanced…

  19. Clarifying the Empirical Connection of New Entrants' E-Learning Systems Use to Their Job Adaptation and Their Use Patterns under the Collective-Individual Training Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsiu-Ju

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the development of e-learning, it is feasible for enterprises to adopt information systems to enhance organizations' human capital and knowledge renewal for competition. e-Learning systems designed for new entrants training aim to facilitate new entrants' job adaptation; however, the empirical link between their system use…

  20. Interoperability in Personalized Adaptive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroyo, Lora; Dolog, Peter; Houben, Geert-Jan; Kravcik, Milos; Naeve, Ambjorn; Nilsson, Mikael; Wild, Fridolin

    2006-01-01

    Personalized adaptive learning requires semantic-based and context-aware systems to manage the Web knowledge efficiently as well as to achieve semantic interoperability between heterogeneous information resources and services. The technological and conceptual differences can be bridged either by means of standards or via approaches based on the…

  1. Learning in a Changing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speekenbrink, Maarten; Shanks, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple cue probability learning studies have typically focused on stationary environments. We present 3 experiments investigating learning in changing environments. A fine-grained analysis of the learning dynamics shows that participants were responsive to both abrupt and gradual changes in cue-outcome relations. We found no evidence that…

  2. Blended Learning in Personalized Assistive Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinagi, Catherine; Skourlas, Christos

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the special needs/requirements of disabled students and cost-benefits for applying blended learning in Personalized Educational Learning Environments (PELE) in Higher Education are studied. The authors describe how blended learning can form an attractive and helpful framework for assisting Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing (D-HH) students to…

  3. Adaptive path planning in changing environments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pang C.

    1993-10-01

    Path planning needs to be fast to facilitate real-time robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To overcome this difficulty, we present an adaptive algorithm that uses previous experience to speed up future performance. It is a learning algorithm suitable for incrementally-changing environments such as those encountered in manufacturing of evolving products and waste-site remediation. The algorithm extends our previous work for stationary environments in two directions: For minor environmental change, an object-attached experience abstraction scheme is introduced to increase the flexibility of the learned experience; for major environmental change, an on-demand experience repair scheme is also introduced to retain those experiences that remain valid and useful. In addition to presenting this algorithm, we identify three other variants with different repair strategies. To compare these algorithms, we develop an analytic model to compare the costs and benefits of the corresponding repair processes. Using this model, we formalize the concept of incremental change, and prove the optimality of our proposed algorithm under such change. Empirically, we also characterize the performance curve of each variant, confirm our theoretical optimality results, and demonstrate the practicality of our algorithm.

  4. Learning Experiences Reuse Based on an Ontology Modeling to Improve Adaptation in E-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadj M'tir, Riadh; Rumpler, Béatrice; Jeribi, Lobna; Ben Ghezala, Henda

    2014-01-01

    Current trends in e-Learning focus mainly on personalizing and adapting the learning environment and learning process. Although their increasingly number, theses researches often ignore the concepts of capitalization and reuse of learner experiences which can be exploited later by other learners. Thus, the major challenge of distance learning is…

  5. Adaptable, Personalised E-Learning Incorporating Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Sophie E.; Bacon, Elizabeth; Dastbaz, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how learning styles and theories are currently used within personalised adaptable e-learning adaptive systems. This paper then aims to describe the e-learning platform iLearn and how this platform is designed to incorporate learning styles as part of the personalisation offered by the system.…

  6. Adaptive functional systems: learning with chaos.

    PubMed

    Komarov, M A; Osipov, G V; Burtsev, M S

    2010-12-01

    We propose a new model of adaptive behavior that combines a winnerless competition principle and chaos to learn new functional systems. The model consists of a complex network of nonlinear dynamical elements producing sequences of goal-directed actions. Each element describes dynamics and activity of the functional system which is supposed to be a distributed set of interacting physiological elements such as nerve or muscle that cooperates to obtain certain goal at the level of the whole organism. During "normal" behavior, the dynamics of the system follows heteroclinic channels, but in the novel situation chaotic search is activated and a new channel leading to the target state is gradually created simulating the process of learning. The model was tested in single and multigoal environments and had demonstrated a good potential for generation of new adaptations.

  7. Humanization of the Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Claude G.

    The ability of individuals to concentrate on a learning activity is strongly influenced by factors in their environment. Therefore, the author of this paper has offered a number of suggestions about how the classroom environment can be made more conducive to learning. (RH)

  8. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H., Ed.; Land, Susan M., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" describes the most contemporary psychological and pedagogical theories that are foundations for the conception and design of open-ended learning environments and new applications of educational technologies. In the past decade, the cognitive revolution of the 60s and 70s has been…

  9. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  10. Designing Electronic Collaborative Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschner, Paul; Strijbos, Jan-Willem; Kreijns, Karel; Beers, Pieter Jelle

    2004-01-01

    Electronic collaborative learning environments for learning and working are in vogue. Designers design them according to their own constructivist interpretations of what collaborative learning is and what it should achieve. Educators employ them with different educational approaches and in diverse situations to achieve different ends. Students use…

  11. Adaptation to rotating artificial gravity environments.

    PubMed

    Lackner, James R; DiZio, Paul A

    2003-01-01

    A series of pioneering experiments on adaptation to rotating artificial gravity environments was conducted in the 1960s. The results of these experiments led to the general belief that humans with normal vestibular function would not be able to adapt to rotating environments with angular velocities above 3 or 4 rpm. By contrast, our recent work has shown that sensory-motor adaptation to 10 rpm can be achieved relatively easily and quickly if subjects make the same movement repeatedly. This repetition allows the nervous system to gauge how the Coriolis forces generated by movements in a rotating reference frame are deflecting movement paths and endpoints and to institute corrective adaptations. Independent mechanisms appear to underlie restoration of straight movement paths and of accurate movement endpoints. Control of head movements involves adaptation of vestibulo-collic and vestibulo-spinal mechanisms as well as adaptation to motor control of the head as an inertial mass. The vestibular adaptation has a long time constant and the motor adaptation a short one. Surprisingly, Coriolis forces generated by natural turning and reaching movements in our normal environment are typically larger than those elicited in rotating artificial gravity environments. They are not recognized as such because self-generated Coriolis forces during voluntary trunk rotation are perceptually transparent. After adaptation to a rotating environment is complete, the Coriolis forces generated by movements within it also become transparent and are not felt although they are still present.

  12. Perceptual learning reconfigures the effects of visual adaptation.

    PubMed

    McGovern, David P; Roach, Neil W; Webb, Ben S

    2012-09-26

    Our sensory experiences over a range of different timescales shape our perception of the environment. Two particularly striking short-term forms of plasticity with manifestly different time courses and perceptual consequences are those caused by visual adaptation and perceptual learning. Although conventionally treated as distinct forms of experience-dependent plasticity, their neural mechanisms and perceptual consequences have become increasingly blurred, raising the possibility that they might interact. To optimize our chances of finding a functionally meaningful interaction between learning and adaptation, we examined in humans the perceptual consequences of learning a fine discrimination task while adapting the neurons that carry most information for performing this task. Learning improved discriminative accuracy to a level that ultimately surpassed that in an unadapted state. This remarkable improvement came at a price: adapting directions that before learning had little effect elevated discrimination thresholds afterward. The improvements in discriminative accuracy grew quickly and surpassed unadapted levels within the first few training sessions, whereas the deterioration in discriminative accuracy had a different time course. This learned reconfiguration of adapted discriminative accuracy occurred without a concomitant change to the characteristic perceptual biases induced by adaptation, suggesting that the system was still in an adapted state. Our results point to a functionally meaningful push-pull interaction between learning and adaptation in which a gain in sensitivity in one adapted state is balanced by a loss of sensitivity in other adapted states.

  13. Approach for Using Learner Satisfaction to Evaluate the Learning Adaptation Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeghal, Adil; Oughdir, Lahcen; Tairi, Hamid; Radouane, Abdelhay

    2016-01-01

    The learning adaptation is a very important phase in a learning situation in human learning environments. This paper presents the authors' approach used to evaluate the effectiveness of learning adaptive systems. This approach is based on the analysis of learner satisfaction notices collected by a questionnaire on a learning situation; to analyze…

  14. Designing Productive Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knirk, Frederick G.

    Based on the premise that school facility design should actively encourage efficient and effective learning, this book explores key design decisions that have a crucial impact on the kind of student-teacher-media interactions which take place in all school rooms and open spaces. Topics addressed include learning space specifications; the…

  15. Virtual Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madjidi, Farzin; Hughes, H. Woodrow; Johnson, Ruth N.; Cary, Kim

    Focusing on online learning opportunities in higher education, this paper reviews the various tools of virtual learning and electronic synchronous and asynchronous communication, discusses their strengths and weaknesses, presents strategies for their best use, and warns against potential pitfalls. Implementation issues, including cost and training…

  16. Adaptive Units of Learning and Educational Videogames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Thomas, Pilar Sancho; Martinez-Ortiz, Ivan; Sierra, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose three different ways of using IMS Learning Design to support online adaptive learning modules that include educational videogames. The first approach relies on IMS LD to support adaptation procedures where the educational games are considered as Learning Objects. These games can be included instead of traditional content…

  17. Instructional Design and Adaptation Issues in Distance Learning Via Satellite.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thach, Liz

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a qualitative research study conducted in a distance-learning environment using satellite delivery. Describes changes in instructional design and adaptation issues which faculty and professionals involved in satellite-delivery learning situations used to be successful. (Author/AEF)

  18. Do Learning Style and Learning Environment Affect Learning Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartola, Leesa M.; Miller, Miriam K.; Turley, Catherine L.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was completed by 29 allied health students on campus and 27 in distance education. Both groups had similar learning outcomes. Only the Diverger learning style showed a correlation between learning environment and outcome: 83% of Divergers with above average grades were in distance education. (Contains 20…

  19. Evaluation of Hybrid and Distance Education Learning Environments in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Walker, Scott L.; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Fernandez-Pascual, Maria Dolores; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation and validation of the "Distance Education Learning Environments Survey" (DELES) for use in investigating the qualities found in distance and hybrid education psycho-social learning environments in Spain. As Europe moves toward post-secondary student mobility, equanimity in access to higher education,…

  20. Adaptive Dialogue Systems for Assistive Living Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papangelis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive Dialogue Systems (ADS) are intelligent systems, able to interact with users via multiple modalities, such as speech, gestures, facial expressions and others. Such systems are able to make conversation with their users, usually on a specific, narrow topic. Assistive Living Environments are environments where the users are by definition not…

  1. Forest Environment Learning Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szuhy, Donna L. T.; Shepard, Clint L.

    Environmental education, as a teaching methodology, is appropriate for all subject areas and environments. Two teaching approaches are presented with the 13 activities in this booklet serving as examples of their application to the forest environment and different disciplines. The first approach is based upon the understanding that learners retain…

  2. Climate Change Adaptation in the Urban Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    This overview chapter considers five questions that cut across the four case studies in the section to follow: (1) why are urban environments of particular interest; (2) what does an 'urban environment' mean as a focus for adaptation actions, (3) what do we know about climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation potentials in urban areas; (4) what can we expect in the future with adaptation in urban areas; and (5) what is happening with climate change adaptation in urban areas? After decades of inattention, adaptation to risks and impacts of climate change is now receiving long overdue attention, and it is only natural that a considerable share of this attention is focused on the places where most people live. This section considers climate change adaptation in the urban environment, defined as settings where human populations cluster - generally implying relatively large clusters, but not excluding smaller settlements that operate as coherent geopolitical and economic entities. Consistent with the topic of the book, the emphasis of this overview will be on urban environments in developed countries, but it will also draw on knowledge being developed from urban experiences across the globe.

  3. Learning environment, learning styles and conceptual understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Lourdes M.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there have been many studies on learners developing conceptions of natural phenomena. However, so far there have been few attempts to investigate how the characteristics of the learners and their environment influence such conceptions. This study began with an attempt to use an instrument developed by McCarthy (1981) to describe learners in Malaysian primary schools. This proved inappropriate as Asian primary classrooms do not provide the same kind of environment as US classrooms. It was decided to develop a learning style checklist to suit the local context and which could be used to describe differences between learners which teachers could appreciate and use. The checklist included four dimensions — perceptual, process, self-confidence and motivation. The validated instrument was used to determine the learning style preferences of primary four pupils in Penang, Malaysia. Later, an analysis was made regarding the influence of learning environment and learning styles on conceptual understanding in the topics of food, respiration and excretion. This study was replicated in the Philippines with the purpose of investigating the relationship between learning styles and achievement in science, where the topics of food, respiration and excretion have been taken up. A number of significant relationships were observed in these two studies.

  4. Cognitive state monitoring and the design of adaptive instruction in digital environments: lessons learned from cognitive workload assessment using a passive brain-computer interface approach

    PubMed Central

    Gerjets, Peter; Walter, Carina; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Bogdan, Martin; Zander, Thorsten O.

    2014-01-01

    According to Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), one of the crucial factors for successful learning is the type and amount of working-memory load (WML) learners experience while studying instructional materials. Optimal learning conditions are characterized by providing challenges for learners without inducing cognitive over- or underload. Thus, presenting instruction in a way that WML is constantly held within an optimal range with regard to learners' working-memory capacity might be a good method to provide these optimal conditions. The current paper elaborates how digital learning environments, which achieve this goal can be developed by combining approaches from Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, and Computer Science. One of the biggest obstacles that needs to be overcome is the lack of an unobtrusive method of continuously assessing learners' WML in real-time. We propose to solve this problem by applying passive Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) approaches to realistic learning scenarios in digital environments. In this paper we discuss the methodological and theoretical prospects and pitfalls of this approach based on results from the literature and from our own research. We present a strategy on how several inherent challenges of applying BCIs to WML and learning can be met by refining the psychological constructs behind WML, by exploring their neural signatures, by using these insights for sophisticated task designs, and by optimizing algorithms for analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) data. Based on this strategy we applied machine-learning algorithms for cross-task classifications of different levels of WML to tasks that involve studying realistic instructional materials. We obtained very promising results that yield several recommendations for future work. PMID:25538544

  5. Cognitive state monitoring and the design of adaptive instruction in digital environments: lessons learned from cognitive workload assessment using a passive brain-computer interface approach.

    PubMed

    Gerjets, Peter; Walter, Carina; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Bogdan, Martin; Zander, Thorsten O

    2014-01-01

    According to Cognitive Load Theory (CLT), one of the crucial factors for successful learning is the type and amount of working-memory load (WML) learners experience while studying instructional materials. Optimal learning conditions are characterized by providing challenges for learners without inducing cognitive over- or underload. Thus, presenting instruction in a way that WML is constantly held within an optimal range with regard to learners' working-memory capacity might be a good method to provide these optimal conditions. The current paper elaborates how digital learning environments, which achieve this goal can be developed by combining approaches from Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience, and Computer Science. One of the biggest obstacles that needs to be overcome is the lack of an unobtrusive method of continuously assessing learners' WML in real-time. We propose to solve this problem by applying passive Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) approaches to realistic learning scenarios in digital environments. In this paper we discuss the methodological and theoretical prospects and pitfalls of this approach based on results from the literature and from our own research. We present a strategy on how several inherent challenges of applying BCIs to WML and learning can be met by refining the psychological constructs behind WML, by exploring their neural signatures, by using these insights for sophisticated task designs, and by optimizing algorithms for analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) data. Based on this strategy we applied machine-learning algorithms for cross-task classifications of different levels of WML to tasks that involve studying realistic instructional materials. We obtained very promising results that yield several recommendations for future work.

  6. Novel Hybrid Adaptive Controller for Manipulation in Complex Perturbation Environments

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alex M. C.; Yang, Chenguang; Ma, Hongbin; Culverhouse, Phil; Cangelosi, Angelo; Burdet, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a hybrid control scheme, combining the advantages of task-space and joint-space control. The controller is based on a human-like adaptive design, which minimises both control effort and tracking error. Our novel hybrid adaptive controller has been tested in extensive simulations, in a scenario where a Baxter robot manipulator is affected by external disturbances in the form of interaction with the environment and tool-like end-effector perturbations. The results demonstrated improved performance in the hybrid controller over both of its component parts. In addition, we introduce a novel method for online adaptation of learning parameters, using the fuzzy control formalism to utilise expert knowledge from the experimenter. This mechanism of meta-learning induces further improvement in performance and avoids the need for tuning through trial testing. PMID:26029916

  7. Integrating Learning Styles into Adaptive E-Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truong, Huong May

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview and update on my PhD research project which focuses on integrating learning styles into adaptive e-learning system. The project, firstly, aims to develop a system to classify students' learning styles through their online learning behaviour. This will be followed by a study on the complex relationship between…

  8. HEAT Sensor: Harsh Environment Adaptable Thermionic Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Limb, Scott J.

    2016-05-31

    This document is the final report for the “HARSH ENVIRONMENT ADAPTABLE THERMIONIC SENSOR” project under NETL’s Crosscutting contract DE-FE0013062. This report addresses sensors that can be made with thermionic thin films along with the required high temperature hermetic packaging process. These sensors can be placed in harsh high temperature environments and potentially be wireless and self-powered.

  9. Creating an environment for learning.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-03-16

    This article, the third in a series of 11, provides guidance to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence that meets the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice (SSLAP). The importance of developing a high quality practice placement is discussed in relation to the fifth domain of the SSLAP, 'creating an environment for learning'. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements of this domain.

  10. Group Learning Environment Linking Synchronous and Asynchronous Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Toshihiro; Nakanishi, Yoshinari; Hayashida, Yukuo

    This paper describes the design and features of LEA (Learning Environment with Agent), an educational system which has the features of both synchronous and asynchronous group learning environments. The first section discusses group learning environments, including differences between individual learning and group learning, and the classification…

  11. Science Learning Outcomes in Alignment with Learning Environment Preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Chang, Yueh-Hsia

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated students' learning environment preferences and compared the relative effectiveness of instructional approaches on students' learning outcomes in achievement and attitude among 10th grade earth science classes in Taiwan. Data collection instruments include the Earth Science Classroom Learning Environment Inventory and Earth Science Learning Outcomes Inventory. The results showed that most students preferred learning in a classroom environment where student-centered and teacher-centered instructional approaches coexisted over a teacher-centered learning environment. A multivariate analysis of covariance also revealed that the STBIM students' cognitive achievement and attitude toward earth science were enhanced when the learning environment was congruent with their learning environment preference.

  12. Skeletal adaptation in altered gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Tony S.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1990-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the single factor that most limits human survivability in non Earth environments is the phenomenon of bone demineralization and the medical problems induced by the subsequent imbalance in the calcium metabolism. Alterations of skeletal properties occur as a result of disturbances in the normal mechanical loading environment of bone. These alterations or adaptations obey physical laws, but the precise mathematical relationship remains to be determined. Principles governing unloading and overloading of bone are gaining more attention as a consequence of the planning of manned space stations, Moon and Mars bases and spaceflights of long duration. A mathematical framework which allows for the prediction of skeletal adaptation on Earth and in non Earth gravity environments by power law relationships is presented.

  13. (Re)Designing Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edutopia, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This 20-page issue explores the opportunity for creating 21st century learning environments that not only focus on different kinds of educational architecture but also emphasize how time is used, teacher-student relationships, collaboration, the benefits of real-world projects, and community involvement. In Minnesota, high school juniors and…

  14. Managing the Collaborative Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, June G.

    2002-01-01

    The feature story in this issue, "Managing the Collaborative Learning Environment," focuses on the growing emphasis on teamwork in the workplace. It discusses how the concept of empowering employees in the workplace is evolving and the benefits--faster decision making, lower costs and absenteeism, higher productivity and quality, and…

  15. Learning in a Chaotic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Ellen; Plack, Margaret; Roche, Colleen; Smith, Jeffrey; Turley, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand how, when, and why emergency medicine residents learn while working in the chaotic environment of a hospital emergency room. Design/methodology/approach: This research used a qualitative interview methodology with thematic data analysis that was verified with the entire population of learners.…

  16. Can More Become Less? Effects of an Intensive Assessment Environment on Students' Learning Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khawaja, M. Asif; Prusty, Gangadhara B.; Ford, Robin A. J.; Marcus, Nadine; Russell, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Online interactive systems offer the beguiling prospect of an improved environment for learning at minimum extra cost. We have developed online interactive tutorials that adapt the learning environment to the current learning status of each individual student. These Adaptive Tutorials (ATs) modify the tasks given to each student according to their…

  17. Scaffolding in Connectivist Mobile Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozan, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Social networks and mobile technologies are transforming learning ecology. In this changing learning environment, we find a variety of new learner needs. The aim of this study is to investigate how to provide scaffolding to the learners in connectivist mobile learning environment: (1) to learn in a networked environment; (2) to manage their…

  18. Towards Motivation-Based Adaptation of Difficulty in E-Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endler, Anke; Rey, Gunter Daniel; Butz, Martin V.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if an e-learning environment may use measurements of the user's current motivation to adapt the level of task difficulty for more effective learning. In the reported study, motivation-based adaptation was applied randomly to collect a wide range of data for different adaptations in a variety of…

  19. Educational Software and Adaptive Technology for Students with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Mario D.; Sachs, Rose

    Technological solutions have enabled postsecondary students with learning disabilities to compete equally with nondisabled peers in the educational environment. Such solutions have included a variety of educational software, word processing applications, and adaptive technology. Educational software has many benefits over more traditional…

  20. Adaptive User Profiles in Pervasive Advertising Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, Florian; Balz, Moritz; Kristes, Stefanie; Shirazi, Alireza Sahami; Mennenöh, Julian; Schmidt, Albrecht; Schröder, Hendrik; Goedicke, Michael

    Nowadays modern advertising environments try to provide more efficient ads by targeting costumers based on their interests. Various approaches exist today as to how information about the users' interests can be gathered. Users can deliberately and explicitly provide this information or user's shopping behaviors can be analyzed implicitly. We implemented an advertising platform to simulate an advertising environment and present adaptive profiles, which let users setup profiles based on a self-assessment, and enhance those profiles with information about their real shopping behavior as well as about their activity intensity. Additionally, we explain how pervasive technologies such as Bluetooth can be used to create a profile anonymously and unobtrusively.

  1. Probabilistic adaptation in changing microbial environments

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Microbes growing in animal host environments face fluctuations that have elements of both randomness and predictability. In the mammalian gut, fluctuations in nutrient levels and other physiological parameters are structured by the host’s behavior, diet, health and microbiota composition. Microbial cells that can anticipate environmental fluctuations by exploiting this structure would likely gain a fitness advantage (by adapting their internal state in advance). We propose that the problem of adaptive growth in structured changing environments, such as the gut, can be viewed as probabilistic inference. We analyze environments that are “meta-changing”: where there are changes in the way the environment fluctuates, governed by a mechanism unobservable to cells. We develop a dynamic Bayesian model of these environments and show that a real-time inference algorithm (particle filtering) for this model can be used as a microbial growth strategy implementable in molecular circuits. The growth strategy suggested by our model outperforms heuristic strategies, and points to a class of algorithms that could support real-time probabilistic inference in natural or synthetic cellular circuits. PMID:27994963

  2. Teacher Adaptation to Personalized Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deed, Craig; Lesko, Thomas M.; Lovejoy, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Personalized learning spaces are emerging in schools as a critical reaction to "industrial-era" school models. As the form and function of schools and pedagogy change, this places pressure on teachers to adapt their conventional practice. This paper addresses the question of how teachers can adapt their classroom practice to create…

  3. The learning environment and learning styles: a guide for mentors.

    PubMed

    Vinales, James Jude

    The learning environment provides crucial exposure for the pre-registration nursing student. It is during this time that the student nurse develops his or her repertoire of skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in order to meet competencies and gain registration with the Nursing and Midwifery Council. The role of the mentor is vital within the learning environment for aspiring nurses. The learning environment is a fundamental platform for student learning, with mentors key to identifying what is conducive to learning. This article will consider the learning environment and learning styles, and how these two essential elements guide the mentor in making sure they are conducive to learning.

  4. Designing for Learning: Multiplayer Digital Game Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Chung On

    2010-01-01

    Many people in general think that digital game environment has potential as a learning environment. However, empirical research in digital game environment and education is a still relative young field, so to create a digital learning environment where students are actively engaged in the learning process is a great challenge. In part, it has been…

  5. Adaptive Educational Software by Applying Reinforcement Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennane, Abdellah

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of the intelligence in teaching software is the object of this paper. In software elaboration process, one uses some learning techniques in order to adapt the teaching software to characteristics of student. Generally, one uses the artificial intelligence techniques like reinforcement learning, Bayesian network in order to adapt…

  6. Different Futures of Adaptive Collaborative Learning Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rummel, Nikol; Walker, Erin; Aleven, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    In this position paper we contrast a Dystopian view of the future of adaptive collaborative learning support (ACLS) with a Utopian scenario that--due to better-designed technology, grounded in research--avoids the pitfalls of the Dystopian version and paints a positive picture of the practice of computer-supported collaborative learning 25 years…

  7. Animal social learning: associations and adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Reader, Simon M.

    2016-01-01

    Social learning, learning from others, is a powerful process known to impact the success and survival of humans and non-human animals alike. Yet we understand little about the neurocognitive and other processes that underpin social learning. Social learning has often been assumed to involve specialized, derived cognitive processes that evolve and develop independently from other processes. However, this assumption is increasingly questioned, and evidence from a variety of organisms demonstrates that current, recent, and early life experience all predict the reliance on social information and thus can potentially explain variation in social learning as a result of experiential effects rather than evolved differences. General associative learning processes, rather than adaptive specializations, may underpin much social learning, as well as social learning strategies. Uncovering these distinctions is important to a variety of fields, for example by widening current views of the possible breadth and adaptive flexibility of social learning. Nonetheless, just like adaptationist evolutionary explanations, associationist explanations for social learning cannot be assumed, and empirical work is required to uncover the mechanisms involved and their impact on the efficacy of social learning. This work is being done, but more is needed. Current evidence suggests that much social learning may be based on ‘ordinary’ processes but with extraordinary consequences. PMID:27635227

  8. Animal social learning: associations and adaptations.

    PubMed

    Reader, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Social learning, learning from others, is a powerful process known to impact the success and survival of humans and non-human animals alike. Yet we understand little about the neurocognitive and other processes that underpin social learning. Social learning has often been assumed to involve specialized, derived cognitive processes that evolve and develop independently from other processes. However, this assumption is increasingly questioned, and evidence from a variety of organisms demonstrates that current, recent, and early life experience all predict the reliance on social information and thus can potentially explain variation in social learning as a result of experiential effects rather than evolved differences. General associative learning processes, rather than adaptive specializations, may underpin much social learning, as well as social learning strategies. Uncovering these distinctions is important to a variety of fields, for example by widening current views of the possible breadth and adaptive flexibility of social learning. Nonetheless, just like adaptationist evolutionary explanations, associationist explanations for social learning cannot be assumed, and empirical work is required to uncover the mechanisms involved and their impact on the efficacy of social learning. This work is being done, but more is needed. Current evidence suggests that much social learning may be based on 'ordinary' processes but with extraordinary consequences.

  9. ALISA: adaptive learning image and signal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Peter

    1999-01-01

    ALISA (Adaptive Learning Image and Signal Analysis) is an adaptive statistical learning engine that may be used to detect and classify the surfaces and boundaries of objects in images. The engine has been designed, implemented, and tested at both the George Washington University and the Research Institute for Applied Knowledge Processing in Ulm, Germany over the last nine years with major funding from Robert Bosch GmbH and Lockheed-Martin Corporation. The design of ALISA was inspired by the multi-path cortical- column architecture and adaptive functions of the mammalian visual cortex.

  10. Group Modeling in Social Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna

    2012-01-01

    Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…

  11. Simultaneous sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Overduin, Simon A; Richardson, Andrew G; Bizzi, Emilio; Press, Daniel Z

    2008-01-01

    Sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning have often been treated as distinct forms of motor learning. But frequently the motor system must acquire both types of experience simultaneously. Here, we investigated the interaction of these two forms of motor learning by having subjects adapt to predictable forces imposed by a robotic manipulandum while simultaneously reaching to an implicit sequence of targets. We show that adaptation to novel dynamics and learning of a sequence of movements can occur simultaneously and without significant interference or facilitation. When both conditions were presented simultaneously to subjects, their trajectory error and reaction time decreased to the same extent as those of subjects who experienced the force field or sequence independently.

  12. Adaptations to a Learning Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libbrecht, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Learning resources have been created to represent digital units of exchangeable materials that teachers and learners can pull from in order to support the learning processes. They resource themselves. Leveraging the web, one can often find these resources. But what characteristics do they need in order to be easily exchangeable? Although several…

  13. Two different motor learning mechanisms contribute to learning reaching movements in a rotated visual environment

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Virginia Way Tong; Sanger, Terence David

    2014-01-01

    Practice of movement in virtual-reality and other artificially altered environments has been proposed as a method for rehabilitation following neurological injury and for training new skills in healthy humans.  For such training to be useful, there must be transfer of learning from the artificial environment to the performance of desired skills in the natural environment.  Therefore an important assumption of such methods is that practice in the altered environment engages the same learning and plasticity mechanisms that are required for skill performance in the natural environment.  We test the hypothesis that transfer of learning may fail because the learning and plasticity mechanism that adapts to the altered environment is different from the learning mechanism required for improvement of motor skill.  In this paper, we propose that a model that separates skill learning and environmental adaptation is necessary to explain the learning and aftereffects that are observed in virtual reality experiments.  In particular, we studied the condition where practice in the altered environment should lead to correct skill performance in the original environment. Our 2-mechanism model predicts that aftereffects will still be observed when returning to the original environment, indicating a lack of skill transfer from the artificial environment to the original environment. To illustrate the model prediction, we tested 10 healthy participants on the interaction between a simple overlearned motor skill (straight hand movements to targets in different directions) and an artificially altered visuomotor environment (rotation of visual feedback of the results of movement).  As predicted by the models, participants show adaptation to the altered environment and after-effects on return to the baseline environment even when practice in the altered environment should have led to correct skill performance.  The presence of aftereffect under all conditions that involved changes in

  14. Two different motor learning mechanisms contribute to learning reaching movements in a rotated visual environment.

    PubMed

    Chu, Virginia Way Tong; Sanger, Terence David

    2014-01-01

    Practice of movement in virtual-reality and other artificially altered environments has been proposed as a method for rehabilitation following neurological injury and for training new skills in healthy humans.  For such training to be useful, there must be transfer of learning from the artificial environment to the performance of desired skills in the natural environment.  Therefore an important assumption of such methods is that practice in the altered environment engages the same learning and plasticity mechanisms that are required for skill performance in the natural environment.  We test the hypothesis that transfer of learning may fail because the learning and plasticity mechanism that adapts to the altered environment is different from the learning mechanism required for improvement of motor skill.  In this paper, we propose that a model that separates skill learning and environmental adaptation is necessary to explain the learning and aftereffects that are observed in virtual reality experiments.  In particular, we studied the condition where practice in the altered environment should lead to correct skill performance in the original environment. Our 2-mechanism model predicts that aftereffects will still be observed when returning to the original environment, indicating a lack of skill transfer from the artificial environment to the original environment. To illustrate the model prediction, we tested 10 healthy participants on the interaction between a simple overlearned motor skill (straight hand movements to targets in different directions) and an artificially altered visuomotor environment (rotation of visual feedback of the results of movement).  As predicted by the models, participants show adaptation to the altered environment and after-effects on return to the baseline environment even when practice in the altered environment should have led to correct skill performance.  The presence of aftereffect under all conditions that involved changes in

  15. Exploring Adaptability through Learning Layers and Learning Loops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lof, Annette

    2010-01-01

    Adaptability in social-ecological systems results from individual and collective action, and multi-level interactions. It can be understood in a dual sense as a system's ability to adapt to disturbance and change, and to navigate system transformation. Inherent in this conception, as found in resilience thinking, are the concepts of learning and…

  16. An adaptive learning control system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mekel, R.; Nachmias, S.

    1976-01-01

    A learning control system is developed which blends the gain scheduling and adaptive control into a single learning system that has the advantages of both. An important feature of the developed learning control system is its capability to adjust the gain schedule in a prescribed manner to account for changing aircraft operating characteristics. Furthermore, if tests performed by the criteria of the learning system preclude any possible change in the gain schedule, then the overall system becomes an ordinary gain scheduling system. Examples are discussed.

  17. Students' Personal Networks in Virtual and Personal Learning Environments: A Case Study in Higher Education Using Learning Analytics Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casquero, Oskar; Ovelar, Ramón; Romo, Jesús; Benito, Manuel; Alberdi, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effect of the affordances of a virtual learning environment and a personal learning environment (PLE) in the configuration of the students' personal networks in a higher education context. The results are discussed in light of the adaptation of the students to the learning network made up by two…

  18. Adaptive typography for dynamic mapping environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardon, Didier

    1991-08-01

    When typography moves across a map, it passes over areas of different colors, densities, and textures. In such a dynamic environment, the aspect of typography must be constantly adapted to provide disernibility for every new background. Adaptive typography undergoes two adaptive operations: background control and contrast control. The background control prevents the features of the map (edges, lines, abrupt changes of densities) from destroying the integrity of the letterform. This is achieved by smoothing the features of the map in the area where a text label is displayed. The modified area is limited to the space covered by the characters of the label. Dispositions are taken to insure that the smoothing operation does not introduce any new visual noise. The contrast control assures that there are sufficient lightness differences between the typography and its ever-changing background. For every new situation, background color and foreground color are compared and the foreground color lightness is adjusted according to a chosen contrast value. Criteria and methods of choosing the appropriate contrast value are presented as well as the experiments that led to them.

  19. A Networked Learning Model for Construction of Personal Learning Environments in Seventh Grade Life Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drexler, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this design-based research case study was to apply a networked learning approach to a seventh grade science class at a public school in the southeastern United States. Students adapted Web applications to construct personal learning environments for in-depth scientific inquiry of poisonous and venomous life forms. API widgets were…

  20. A Blended Mobile Learning Environment for Museum Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Huei-Tse; Wu, Sheng-Yi; Lin, Peng-Chun; Sung, Yao-Ting; Lin, Jhe-Wei; Chang, Kuo-En

    2014-01-01

    The use of mobile devices for informal learning has gained attention over recent years. Museum learning is also regarded as an important research topic in the field of informal learning. This study explored a blended mobile museum learning environment (BMMLE). Moreover, this study applied three blended museum learning modes: (a) the traditional…

  1. Brain aerobic glycolysis and motor adaptation learning

    PubMed Central

    Shannon, Benjamin J.; Vaishnavi, Sanjeev Neil; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Shimony, Joshua S.; Rutlin, Jerrel; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Ten percent to 15% of glucose used by the brain is metabolized nonoxidatively despite adequate tissue oxygenation, a process termed aerobic glycolysis (AG). Because of the known role of glycolysis in biosynthesis, we tested whether learning-induced synaptic plasticity would lead to regionally appropriate, learning-dependent changes in AG. Functional MRI (fMRI) before, during, and after performance of a visual–motor adaptation task demonstrated that left Brodmann area 44 (BA44) played a key role in adaptation, with learning-related changes to activity during the task and altered resting-state, functional connectivity after the task. PET scans before and after task performance indicated a sustained increase in AG in left BA 44 accompanied by decreased oxygen consumption. Intersubject variability in behavioral adaptation rate correlated strongly with changes in AG in this region, as well as functional connectivity, which is consistent with a role for AG in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27217563

  2. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  3. Adapting the Speed of Reproduction of Audio Content and Using Text Reinforcement for Maximizing the Learning Outcome though Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Organero, M.; Munoz-Merino, P. J.; Kloos, Carlos Delgado

    2011-01-01

    The use of technology in learning environments should be targeted at improving the learning outcome of the process. Several technology enhanced techniques can be used for maximizing the learning gain of particular students when having access to learning resources. One of them is content adaptation. Adapting content is especially important when…

  4. Constructivist Learning Environment among Palestinian Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidan, Afif

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the constructivist learning environment among Palestinian science students. The study also aimed to investigate the effects of gender and learning level of these students on their perceptions of the constructivist learning environment. Data were collected from 125 male and 101 female students from the…

  5. Virtual Representations in 3D Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shonfeld, Miri; Kritz, Miki

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the extent to which virtual worlds can serve as online collaborative learning environments for students by increasing social presence and engagement. 3D environments enable learning, which simulates face-to-face encounters while retaining the advantages of online learning. Students in Education departments created avatars…

  6. Student Motivation in Constructivist Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin-Dindar, Ayla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between constructivist learning environment and students'motivation to learn science by testing whether students' self-efficacy in learning science, intrinsically and extrinsically motivated science learning increase and students' anxiety about science assessment decreases when more…

  7. Learning multiple visuomotor transformations: adaptation and context-dependent recall.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Sima; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2004-10-01

    Recent motor control theories suggest that the brain uses internal models to plan and control accurate movements. An internal model is thought to represent how the biomechanics of the arm interacting with the outside world would respond to a motor command; therefore it can be seen as a predictive model of the reafference that helps the system plan ahead. Moreover, adaptation studies show that humans can learn multiple internal models. It is not clear, however, whether and how contextual cues are used to switch among competing internal models, which are required to compensate for altered environments. To investigate this question, we asked healthy participants to perform center-out pointing movements under normal and distorted visual feedback (0 degrees , 30 degrees counterclockwise, and 60 degrees clockwise rotation of hand-screen cursor relationships) conditions. The results suggest that humans can learn multiple environments simultaneously and can use contextual cues to facilitate adaptation and to recall the appropriate internal model of the visuomotor transformation.

  8. Adaptable Learning Assistant for Item Bank Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuntiyagul, Atorn; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Wongsawang, Damras

    2008-01-01

    We present PKIP, an adaptable learning assistant tool for managing question items in item banks. PKIP is not only able to automatically assist educational users to categorize the question items into predefined categories by their contents but also to correctly retrieve the items by specifying the category and/or the difficulty level. PKIP adapts…

  9. Making Mistakes: Emotional Adaptation and Classroom Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Mary; Vriesema, Christine C.; Burggraf, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background: We studied how students in Grades 4-6 participate in and emotionally adapt to the give-and-take of learning in classrooms, particularly when making mistakes. Our approach is consistent with researchers who (a) include cognitive appraisals in the study of emotional experiences, (b) consider how personal concerns might mediate…

  10. Adapting Cooperative Learning in Tertiary ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    An updated guideline for tertiary ELT in China has shifted the emphasis to the development of learners' ability to communicate in English. Using group work and getting learners actively involved in the actual use of English are highlighted more than before. This article focuses on adapting cooperative learning methods for ELT with tertiary…

  11. Learning with Hypertext Learning Environments: Theory, Design, and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied 69 undergraduates who used conceptually-indexed hypertext learning environments with differently structured thematic criss-crossing (TCC) treatments: guided and learner selected. Found that students need explicit modeling and scaffolding support to learn complex knowledge from these learning environments, and considers implications for…

  12. Science Learning Outcomes in Alignment with Learning Environment Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Hsiao, Chien-Hua; Chang, Yueh-Hsia

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated students' learning environment preferences and compared the relative effectiveness of instructional approaches on students' learning outcomes in achievement and attitude among 10th grade earth science classes in Taiwan. Data collection instruments include the Earth Science Classroom Learning Environment Inventory and Earth…

  13. Adaptive primal-dual genetic algorithms in dynamic environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongfeng; Yang, Shengxiang; Ip, W H; Wang, Dingwei

    2009-12-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in applying genetic algorithms (GAs) in dynamic environments. Inspired by the complementary and dominance mechanisms in nature, a primal-dual GA (PDGA) has been proposed for dynamic optimization problems (DOPs). In this paper, an important operator in PDGA, i.e., the primal-dual mapping (PDM) scheme, is further investigated to improve the robustness and adaptability of PDGA in dynamic environments. In the improved scheme, two different probability-based PDM operators, where the mapping probability of each allele in the chromosome string is calculated through the statistical information of the distribution of alleles in the corresponding gene locus over the population, are effectively combined according to an adaptive Lamarckian learning mechanism. In addition, an adaptive dominant replacement scheme, which can probabilistically accept inferior chromosomes, is also introduced into the proposed algorithm to enhance the diversity level of the population. Experimental results on a series of dynamic problems generated from several stationary benchmark problems show that the proposed algorithm is a good optimizer for DOPs.

  14. The Usability Analysis of an E-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torun, Fulya; Tekedere, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    In this research, an E-learning environment is developed for the teacher candidates taking the course on Scientific Research Methods. The course contents were adapted to one of the constructivist approach models referred to as 5E, and an expert opinion was received for the compliance of this model. An usability analysis was also performed to…

  15. Developing a Survey for Assessing Preferences in Constructivist Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, P.-S.; Tsai, C.-C.; Hwang, G.-J.

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a survey to explore students' preferences in constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning environments. A constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment survey (CULES) was developed, consisting of eight scales, including ease of use, continuity, relevance, adaptive content, multiple sources,…

  16. Personalized Virtual Learning Environment from the Detection of Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez Cartas, M. L.; Cruz Pérez, N.; Deliche Quesada, D.; Mateo Quero, S.

    2013-01-01

    Through the previous detection of existing learning styles in a classroom, a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) has been designed for students of several Engineering degrees, using the Learning Management System (LMS) utilized in the University of Jaen, ILIAS. Learning styles of three different Knowledge Areas; Chemical Engineering, Materials…

  17. Evidence of Molecular Adaptation to Extreme Environments and Applicability to Space Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipovic, M. D.; Ognjanovic, S.; Ognjanovic, M.

    2008-06-01

    This is initial investigation of gene signatures responsible for adapting microscopic life to the extreme Earth environments. We present preliminary results on identification of the clusters of orthologous groups (COGs) common to several hyperthermophiles and exclusion of those common to a mesophile (non-hyperthermophile): Escherichia coli (E. coli K12), will yield a group of proteins possibly involved in adaptation to life under extreme temperatures. Comparative genome analyses represent a powerful tool in discovery of novel genes responsible for adaptation to specific extreme environments. Methanogens stand out as the only group of organisms that have species capable of growth at 0° C (Metarhizium frigidum (M.~frigidum) and Methanococcoides burtonii (M.~burtonii)) and 110° C (Methanopyrus kandleri (M.~kandleri)). Although not all the components of heat adaptation can be attributed to novel genes, the chaperones known as heat shock proteins stabilize the enzymes under elevated temperature. However, highly conserved chaperons found in bacteria and eukaryots are not present in hyperthermophilic Archea, rather, they have a unique chaperone TF55. Our aim was to use software which we specifically developed for extremophile genome comparative analyses in order to search for additional novel genes involved in hyperthermophile adaptation. The following hyperthermophile genomes incorporated in this software were used for these studies: Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (M.~jannaschii), M.~kandleri, Archaeoglobus fulgidus (A.~fulgidus) and three species of Pyrococcus. Common genes were annotated and grouped according to their roles in cellular processes where such information was available and proteins not previously implicated in the heat-adaptation of hyperthermophiles were identified. Additional experimental data are needed in order to learn more about these proteins. To address non-gene based components of thermal adaptation, all sequenced extremophiles were analysed for

  18. Improving Adaptive Learning Technology through the Use of Response Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mettler, Everett; Massey, Christine M.; Kellman, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive learning techniques have typically scheduled practice using learners' accuracy and item presentation history. We describe an adaptive learning system (Adaptive Response Time Based Sequencing--ARTS) that uses both accuracy and response time (RT) as direct inputs into sequencing. Response times are used to assess learning strength and…

  19. [Genome, environment and plasticity of the brain underlying individual adaptation].

    PubMed

    Paunio, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms mediate the interaction between environment and genome. On molecular level, these mechanisms are active in plastic processes of the brain and influence brain function and the person's ability to adapt to the environment. Genomic variations provide individual options for this adaptation, and a spectrum of behavioral patterns necessary for species preservation. Adaptation processes may also be harmful in respect of individual health, leading even to psychiatric illnesses, but are still meaningful as seen through the person's inner experience, genome or environment.

  20. Human Adaptation to Isolated and Confined Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sybil

    1987-01-01

    A study was conducted over seven months in a winter Antarctic isolated and confined environment (ICE). Physiological and psychological data was collected several times a week. Information was collected on a monthly basis on behavior and the use of physical facilities. Adaptation and information indicated that there was a significant decrease in epinephrine and norepinephrine during the middle trimester of the winter. No vital changes were found for blood pressure. Self reports of hostility and anxiety show a linear increase. There were no significant changes in depression during ICE. The physiological and psychological data do not move in a synchronous fashion over time. The data also suggest that both ambient qualities of an ICE and discrete social environmental events, such as the arrival of the summer crew, have an impact on the outcome measures used. It may be most appropiate to develop a model for ICE's that incorporates not only global chronic stressors common to all ICE's but also the role of discrete environmental effects which can minimize or enhance the influence of more chronic stressors. Behavioral adjustment information highlight the importance of developing schedules which balance work and recreational activities.

  1. Soft Systems Methodology for Personalized Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Uday

    2015-01-01

    There are two sides to a coin when it comes to implementing technology at universities; on one side, there is the university using technologies via the virtual learning environment that seems to be outdated with the digital needs of the students, and on the other side, while implementing technology at the university learning environment the focus…

  2. Lego-Logo as a Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kwok-Wing

    1993-01-01

    Thirteen 8- to 10-year-old students participated in a Lego-LOGO learning environment, coupling Lego building-block activities with Logo computer programming, to evaluate whether this learning environment was conducive to metacognitive awareness and cooperation. Results suggested positive cognitive and affective outcomes, especially for the younger…

  3. Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David, Ed.; Land, Susan, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Theoretical Foundations of Learning Environments" provides students, faculty, and instructional designers with a clear, concise introduction to the major pedagogical and psychological theories and their implications for the design of new learning environments for schools, universities, or corporations. Leading experts describe the most…

  4. Relationships between Learning Environment and Mathematics Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bret A.; Fraser, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated relationships between the learning environment and students' mathematics anxiety, as well as differences between the sexes in perceptions of learning environment and anxiety. A sample of 745 high-school students in 34 different mathematics classrooms in four high schools in Southern California was used to cross-validate the What Is…

  5. A Collaborative Model for Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbosa, Jorge; Barbosa, Debora; Rabello, Solon

    2016-01-01

    Use of mobile devices and widespread adoption of wireless networks have enabled the emergence of Ubiquitous Computing. Application of this technology to improving education strategies gave rise to Ubiquitous e-Learning, also known as Ubiquitous Learning. There are several approaches to organizing ubiquitous learning environments, but most of them…

  6. Preparing Teachers for Emerging Blended Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kevin M.; Stallings, Dallas T.

    2014-01-01

    Blended learning environments that merge learning strategies, resources, and modes have been implemented in higher education settings for nearly two decades, and research has identified many positive effects. More recently, K-12 traditional and charter schools have begun to experiment with blended learning, but to date, research on the effects of…

  7. An Environment for Mobile Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrovic, Otto; Babcicky, Philipp; Puchleitner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In experiential learning courses students acquire new knowledge through learning that takes place in real-life scenarios. By utilizing mobile devices to conduct observations outside of the classroom, learners can arrive at a broader and deeper understanding of their inquiries. In this paper, we propose a learning environment that integrates mobile…

  8. Peer Interaction in Three Collaborative Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staarman, Judith Kleine; Krol, Karen; Meijden, Henny van der

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to gain insight into the occurrence of different types of peer interaction and particularly the types of interaction beneficial for learning in different collaborative learning environments. Based on theoretical notions related to collaborative learning and peer interaction, a coding scheme was developed to analyze the…

  9. Genome-environment associations in sorghum landraces predict adaptive traits

    PubMed Central

    Lasky, Jesse R.; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Ramu, Punna; Deshpande, Santosh; Hash, C. Tom; Bonnette, Jason; Juenger, Thomas E.; Hyma, Katie; Acharya, Charlotte; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Buckler, Edward S.; Brenton, Zachary; Kresovich, Stephen; Morris, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Improving environmental adaptation in crops is essential for food security under global change, but phenotyping adaptive traits remains a major bottleneck. If associations between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles and environment of origin in crop landraces reflect adaptation, then these could be used to predict phenotypic variation for adaptive traits. We tested this proposition in the global food crop Sorghum bicolor, characterizing 1943 georeferenced landraces at 404,627 SNPs and quantifying allelic associations with bioclimatic and soil gradients. Environment explained a substantial portion of SNP variation, independent of geographical distance, and genic SNPs were enriched for environmental associations. Further, environment-associated SNPs predicted genotype-by-environment interactions under experimental drought stress and aluminum toxicity. Our results suggest that genomic signatures of environmental adaptation may be useful for crop improvement, enhancing germplasm identification and marker-assisted selection. Together, genome-environment associations and phenotypic analyses may reveal the basis of environmental adaptation. PMID:26601206

  10. Concept Based Approach for Adaptive Personalized Course Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salahli, Mehmet Ali; Özdemir, Muzaffer; Yasar, Cumali

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important factors for improving the personalization aspects of learning systems is to enable adaptive properties to them. The aim of the adaptive personalized learning system is to offer the most appropriate learning path and learning materials to learners by taking into account their profiles. In this paper, a new approach to…

  11. Social influences on adaptive criterion learning.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Dubé, Chad; Gutchess, Angela H

    2015-07-01

    People adaptively shift decision criteria when given biased feedback encouraging specific types of errors. Given that work on this topic has been conducted in nonsocial contexts, we extended the literature by examining adaptive criterion learning in both social and nonsocial contexts. Specifically, we compared potential differences in criterion shifting given performance feedback from social sources varying in reliability and from a nonsocial source. Participants became lax when given false positive feedback for false alarms, and became conservative when given false positive feedback for misses, replicating prior work. In terms of a social influence on adaptive criterion learning, people became more lax in response style over time if feedback was provided by a nonsocial source or by a social source meant to be perceived as unreliable and low-achieving. In contrast, people adopted a more conservative response style over time if performance feedback came from a high-achieving and reliable source. Awareness that a reliable and high-achieving person had not provided their feedback reduced the tendency to become more conservative, relative to those unaware of the source manipulation. Because teaching and learning often occur in a social context, these findings may have important implications for many scenarios in which people fine-tune their behaviors, given cues from others.

  12. Effects of fragmentation on plant adaptation to urban environments.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Jonathan; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier

    2017-01-19

    Urban ecosystems are relatively recent and heavily human-altered terrestrial ecosystems with a surprisingly high diversity of animals, plants and other organisms. Urban habitats are also strongly fragmented and subject to higher temperatures, providing a compelling model for studying adaptation to global change. Crepis sancta (Asteraceae), an annual Mediterranean wasteland weed, occupies fragmented urban environments as well as certain unfragmented landscapes in southern France. We tested for shifts in dispersal, reproductive traits and size across a rural-urban gradient to learn whether and how selection may be driving changes in life history in urban and fragmented habitats. We specifically compared the structure of quantitative genetic variation and of neutral markers (microsatellites) between urban and rural and between fragmented and unfragmented habitats. We showed that fragmentation provides a better descriptor of trait variation than urbanization per se for dispersal traits. Fragmentation also affected reproductive traits and plant size though one rural population did conform to this scheme. Our study shows the role of fragmentation for dispersal traits shift in urban environments and a more complex pattern for other traits. We discuss the role of pollinator scarcity and an inhospitable matrix as drivers of adaptation.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'.

  13. Utilizing Virtual and Personal Learning Environments for Optimal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Krista, Ed.; Cheney, Amy, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The integration of emerging technologies in higher education presents a new set of challenges and opportunities for educators. With a growing need for customized lesson plans in online education, educators are rethinking the design and development of their learning environments. "Utilizing Virtual and Personal Learning Environments for…

  14. Yet Another Adaptive Learning Management System Based on Felder and Silverman's Learning Styles and Mashup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi-Hsing; Chen, Yen-Yi; Chen, Nian-Shing; Lu, You-Te; Fang, Rong-Jyue

    2016-01-01

    This study designs and implements an adaptive learning management system based on Felder and Silverman's Learning Style Model and the Mashup technology. In this system, Felder and Silverman's Learning Style model is used to assess students' learning styles, in order to provide adaptive learning to leverage learners' learning preferences.…

  15. Learning Objects and Virtual Learning Environments Technical Evaluation Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Dagiene, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    The main scientific problems investigated in this article deal with technical evaluation of quality attributes of the main components of e-Learning systems (referred here as DLEs--Digital Libraries of Educational Resources and Services), i.e., Learning Objects (LOs) and Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs). The main research object of the work is…

  16. FODEM: Developing Digital Learning Environments in Widely Dispersed Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhonen, Jarkko; Sutinen, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    FODEM (FOrmative DEvelopment Method) is a design method for developing digital learning environments for widely dispersed learning communities. These are communities in which the geographical distribution and density of learners is low when compared to the kind of learning communities in which there is a high distribution and density of learners…

  17. Technically Speaking: Transforming Language Learning through Virtual Learning Environments (MOOs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Emde, Silke; Schneider, Jeffrey; Kotter, Markus

    2001-01-01

    Draws on experiences from a 7-week exchange between students learning German at an American college and advanced students of English at a German university. Maps out the benefits to using a MOO (multiple user domains object-oriented) for language learning: a student-centered learning environment structured by such objectives as peer teaching,…

  18. Adaptive Distributed Environment for Procedure Training (ADEPT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domeshek, Eric; Ong, James; Mohammed, John

    2013-01-01

    ADEPT (Adaptive Distributed Environment for Procedure Training) is designed to provide more effective, flexible, and portable training for NASA systems controllers. When creating a training scenario, an exercise author can specify a representative rationale structure using the graphical user interface, annotating the results with instructional texts where needed. The author's structure may distinguish between essential and optional parts of the rationale, and may also include "red herrings" - hypotheses that are essential to consider, until evidence and reasoning allow them to be ruled out. The system is built from pre-existing components, including Stottler Henke's SimVentive? instructional simulation authoring tool and runtime. To that, a capability was added to author and exploit explicit control decision rationale representations. ADEPT uses SimVentive's Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)- based interactive graphic display capability as the basis of the tool for quickly noting aspects of decision rationale in graph form. The ADEPT prototype is built in Java, and will run on any computer using Windows, MacOS, or Linux. No special peripheral equipment is required. The software enables a style of student/ tutor interaction focused on the reasoning behind systems control behavior that better mimics proven Socratic human tutoring behaviors for highly cognitive skills. It supports fast, easy, and convenient authoring of such tutoring behaviors, allowing specification of detailed scenario-specific, but content-sensitive, high-quality tutor hints and feedback. The system places relatively light data-entry demands on the student to enable its rationale-centered discussions, and provides a support mechanism for fostering coherence in the student/ tutor dialog by including focusing, sequencing, and utterance tuning mechanisms intended to better fit tutor hints and feedback into the ongoing context.

  19. Genome-environment associations in sorghum landraces predict adaptive traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving environmental adaptation in crops is essential for food security under global change, but phenotyping adaptive traits remains a major bottleneck. If associations between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles and environment of origin in crop landraces reflect adaptation, then these ...

  20. Appreciation of learning environment and development of higher-order learning skills in a problem-based learning medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Mala-Maung; Abdullah, Azman; Abas, Zoraini W

    2011-12-01

    This cross-sectional study determined the appreciation of the learning environment and development of higher-order learning skills among students attending the Medical Curriculum at the International Medical University, Malaysia which provides traditional and e-learning resources with an emphasis on problem based learning (PBL) and self-directed learning. Of the 708 participants, the majority preferred traditional to e-resources. Students who highly appreciated PBL demonstrated a higher appreciation of e-resources. Appreciation of PBL is positively and significantly correlated with higher-order learning skills, reflecting the inculcation of self-directed learning traits. Implementers must be sensitive to the progress of learners adapting to the higher education environment and innovations, and to address limitations as relevant.

  1. Clinical learning environment at Shiraz Medical School.

    PubMed

    Rezaee, Rita; Ebrahimi, Sedigheh

    2013-01-01

    Clinical learning occurs in the context of a dynamic environment. Learning environment found to be one of the most important factors in determining the success of an effective teaching program. To investigate, from the attending and resident's perspective, factors that may affect student leaning in the educational hospital setting at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS). This study combined qualitative and quantitative methods to determine factors affecting effective learning in clinical setting. Residents evaluated the perceived effectiveness of the university hospital learning environment. Fifty two faculty members and 132 residents participated in this study. Key determinants that contribute to an effective clinical teaching were autonomy, supervision, social support, workload, role clarity, learning opportunity, work diversity and physical facilities. In a good clinical setting, residents should be appreciated and given appropriate opportunities to study in order to meet their objectives. They require a supportive environment to consolidate their knowledge, skills and judgment.

  2. An evaluation report of multimedia environments as cognitive learning tools.

    PubMed

    Seel, Norbert M; Schenk, Katharina

    2003-05-01

    This article deals with the evaluation of a multimedia learning environment which has been developed and evaluated within the broader context of a research project on the learning-dependent progression of mental models in economics. To carry out formative evaluations, we have adapted a particular evaluation approach which allows and requires the implementation of specific evaluation instruments. The crucial questions of our evaluation studies were the efficacy of a multimedia-based realization of the cognitive apprenticeship (CA) approach, the diagnosis of mental model progression through the CA based instruction, and the effects of implemented metacognitive training. For the assessment of the learning-dependent progression of the mental models, we developed and used a special diagnostic instrument for causal diagrams, which are understood as reproductions of students' mental models. In order to be able to meet statements about the practicability of a multimedia based realization of CA, we measured the results of the tasks of learning during each different learning phase. Additionally, several motivational variables and persistent learning strategies were measured. In this article, we will specify the adapted evaluation instruments. Furthermore, we will report on the results of five replication studies and discuss the consequences for instructional design in connection with the design of constructive learning environments.

  3. Adaptation in a rotating artificial gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1998-01-01

    The centripetal force generated by a rotating space vehicle is a potential source of artificial gravity. Minimizing the cost of such a vehicle dictates using the smallest radius and highest rotation rate possible, but head movements made at high rotation rates generate disorienting, nauseogenic cross-coupled semicircular canal stimulation. Early studies suggested 3 or 4 rpm as the highest rate at which humans could adapt to this vestibular stimulus. These studies neglected the concomitant Coriolis force actions on the head/neck system. We assessed non-vestibular Coriolis effects by measuring arm and leg movements made in the center of a rotating room turning at 10 rpm and found that movement endpoints and trajectories are initially deviated; however, subjects readily adapt with 10-20 additional movements, even without seeing their errors. Equilibrium point theories of motor control errantly predict that Coriolis forces will not cause movement endpoint errors so that subjects will not have to adapt their reaching movements during rotation. Adaptation of movement trajectory acquired during Coriolis force perturbations of one arm transfers to the unexposed arm but there is no intermanual transfer of endpoint adaptation indicating that neuromotor representations of movement endpoint and trajectory are separable and can adapt independently, also contradictory to equilibrium point theories. Touching a surface at the end of reaching movements is required for complete endpoint adaptation in darkness but trajectory adapts completely with or without terminal contact. We have also made the first kinematic measurements of unconstrained head movements during rotation, these movements show rapid adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations. Our results point to methods for achieving full compensation for rotation up to 10 rpm. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  4. Using an improved virtual learning environment for engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourdes Martínez Cartas, Ma

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, e-learning has been used in a chemical engineering subject in the final course of a mining engineering degree, a subject concerned with fuel technology. The low results obtained by students in this subject have led the teacher to search for new strategies to increase grades. Such strategies have consisted of incorporating into the existing virtual environment a dynamics of work with conceptual maps and a consideration of the different learning styles in the classroom. In an attempt to adapt teaching to the individual methods of learning for each student, various activities aimed at strengthening different learning styles have been proposed and concept maps have been used to create meaningful learning experiences. In addition, different modalities of assessment have been proposed, which can be selected by each student according to his or her particular method of learning to avoid penalising one style preference in contrast to another. This combination of e-learning, use of concept maps and catering for different learning styles has involved the implementation of the improved virtual learning environment. This has led to an increase in participation in the subject and has improved student assessment results.

  5. Human Adaptation To Isolated And Confined Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sna Sybil

    1992-01-01

    Data from Antarctic research station analyzed. Report describes study of physiology and psychology of humans in isolated and confined environment. Suggests ways in which such environments made more acceptable to human inhabitants.

  6. ODL Education Environments Based on Adaptivity and Adaptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cristea, Alexandra; De Bra, Paul

    In the Information Society of the new millennium, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is becoming essential for the rapid dissemination of information. In this context, Open and Distance Learning (ODL) will have a growing role in effectively training people to have active roles in society. However, modern learners have a…

  7. AH-Questionnaire: An Adaptive Hierarchical Questionnaire for Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortigosa, Alvaro; Paredes, Pedro; Rodriguez, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    One of the main concerns when providing learning style adaptation in Adaptive Educational Hypermedia Systems is the number of questions the students have to answer. Most of the times, adaptive material available will discriminate among a few categories for each learning style dimension. Consequently, it is only needed to take into account the…

  8. Adaptable Learning Pathway Generation with Ant Colony Optimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2009-01-01

    One of the new major directions in research on web-based educational systems is the notion of adaptability: the educational system adapts itself to the learning profile, preferences and ability of the student. In this paper, we look into the issues of providing adaptability with respect to learning pathways. We explore the state of the art with…

  9. Role of sex and migration in adaptation to sink environments.

    PubMed

    Lagator, Mato; Morgan, Andrew; Neve, Paul; Colegrave, Nick

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the effects of sex and migration on adaptation to novel environments remains a key problem in evolutionary biology. Using a single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we investigated how sex and migration affected rates of evolutionary rescue in a sink environment, and subsequent changes in fitness following evolutionary rescue. We show that sex and migration affect both the rate of evolutionary rescue and subsequent adaptation. However, their combined effects change as the populations adapt to a sink habitat. Both sex and migration independently increased rates of evolutionary rescue, but the effect of sex on subsequent fitness improvements, following initial rescue, changed with migration, as sex was beneficial in the absence of migration but constraining adaptation when combined with migration. These results suggest that sex and migration are beneficial during the initial stages of adaptation, but can become detrimental as the population adapts to its environment.

  10. Runaway coevolution: adaptation to heritable and non-heritable environments

    PubMed Central

    Drown, Devin M.; Wade, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Populations evolve in response to the external environment, whether abiotic (e.g., climate) or biotic (e.g., other conspecifics). We investigated how adaptation to biotic, heritable environments differs from adaptation to abiotic, non-heritable environments. We found that, for the same selection coefficients, the coadaptive process between genes and heritable environments is much faster than genetic adaptation to an abiotic non-heritable environment. The increased rate of adaptation results from of the positive association generated by reciprocal selection between the heritable environment and the genes responding to it. These associations result in a runaway process of adaptive coevolution, even when the genes creating the heritable environment and genes responding to the heritable environment are unlinked. Although tightening the degree of linkage accelerates the coadaptive process, the acceleration caused by a comparable amount of inbreeding is greater, because inbreeding has a cumulative effect on reducing functional recombination over generations. Our results suggest that that adaptation to local abiotic environmental variation may result in the rapid diversification of populations and subsequent reproductive isolation not directly but rather via its effects on heritable environments and the genes responding to them. PMID:24916074

  11. Particle Swarm Based Collective Searching Model for Adaptive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E; Treadwell, Jim N

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a pilot study of an integration of particle swarm algorithm, social knowledge adaptation and multi-agent approaches for modeling the collective search behavior of self-organized groups in an adaptive environment. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of social group adaptation for the dynamic environment and to provide insight and understanding of social group knowledge discovering and strategic searching. A new adaptive environment model, which dynamically reacts to the group collective searching behaviors, is proposed in this research. The simulations in the research indicate that effective communication between groups is not the necessary requirement for whole self-organized groups to achieve the efficient collective searching behavior in the adaptive environment.

  12. Particle Swarm Based Collective Searching Model for Adaptive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Patton, Robert M; Potok, Thomas E; Treadwell, Jim N

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a pilot study of an integration of particle swarm algorithm, social knowledge adaptation and multi-agent approaches for modeling the collective search behavior of self-organized groups in an adaptive environment. The objective of this research is to apply the particle swarm metaphor as a model of social group adaptation for the dynamic environment and to provide insight and understanding of social group knowledge discovering and strategic searching. A new adaptive environment model, which dynamically reacts to the group collective searching behaviors, is proposed in this research. The simulations in the research indicate that effective communication between groups is not the necessary requirement for whole self-organized groups to achieve the efficient collective searching behavior in the adaptive environment.

  13. Development of Adaptive Kanji Learning System for Mobile Phone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Mengmeng; Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Liu, Yuqin; Uosaki, Noriko; Yano, Yoneo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive learning system based on mobile phone email to support the study of Japanese Kanji. In this study, the main emphasis is on using the adaptive learning to resolve one common problem of the mobile-based email or SMS language learning systems. To achieve this goal, the authors main efforts focus on three aspects:…

  14. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  15. Advanced Training Technologies and Learning Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the Workshop on Advanced Training Technologies and Learning Environments held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 9-10, 1999. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the University of Virginia's Center for Advanced Computational Technology and NASA. Workshop attendees were from NASA, other government agencies, industry, and universities. The objective of the workshop was to assess the status and effectiveness of different advanced training technologies and learning environments.

  16. Improvements to the Learning Environment Using Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnstein, Ray; Schulman, Morrie

    2010-03-01

    Technology has changed the learning environment of large classes with the use of hand controlled and other response devices. At the same time comprehensive software packages containing learning tools have been developed. The utility, economics and flexibility of these systems has improved markedly within the last few years. Therefore it is useful to present a review of some of the current hardware and software systems available. We discuss how the technology might evolve to produce additional advances in learning science practices and research.

  17. Invited Reaction: Influences of Formal Learning, Personal Learning Orientation, and Supportive Learning Environment on Informal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cseh, Maria; Manikoth, Nisha N.

    2011-01-01

    As the authors of the preceding article (Choi and Jacobs, 2011) have noted, the workplace learning literature shows evidence of the complementary and integrated nature of formal and informal learning in the development of employee competencies. The importance of supportive learning environments in the workplace and of employees' personal learning…

  18. Phytoplankton adapt to changing ocean environments.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Andrew J; Finkel, Zoe V; Müller-Karger, Frank E; Troccoli Ghinaglia, Luis

    2015-05-05

    Model projections indicate that climate change may dramatically restructure phytoplankton communities, with cascading consequences for marine food webs. It is currently not known whether evolutionary change is likely to be able to keep pace with the rate of climate change. For simplicity, and in the absence of evidence to the contrary, most model projections assume species have fixed environmental preferences and will not adapt to changing environmental conditions on the century scale. Using 15 y of observations from Station CARIACO (Carbon Retention in a Colored Ocean), we show that most of the dominant species from a marine phytoplankton community were able to adapt their realized niches to track average increases in water temperature and irradiance, but the majority of species exhibited a fixed niche for nitrate. We do not know the extent of this adaptive capacity, so we cannot conclude that phytoplankton will be able to adapt to the changes anticipated over the next century, but community ecosystem models can no longer assume that phytoplankton cannot adapt.

  19. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Conducting Complex Science Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Tzu-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) is an innovative approach that integrates wireless, mobile, and context-awareness technologies to detect the situation of learners in the real world and provide adaptive support or guidance accordingly. In this paper, a context-aware u-learning environment is developed for guiding inexperienced…

  20. Delivering Training Assessments in a Soldier-Centered Learning Environment: Year Two

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    training prototypes that were developed to test training concepts outlined in the Army Learning Model (ALM). The prototypes integrated training and...non-adaptive training strategies. v DELIVERING TRAINING ASSESSMENTS IN A SOLDIER-CENTERED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: YEAR TWO CONTENTS ...general concept was to sequence and integrate the training across the different training platforms and to integrate assessments to track learning

  1. Open Calculus: A Free Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korey, Jane; Rheinlander, Kim; Wallace, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    Dartmouth College mathematicians have developed a free online calculus course called "Open Calculus." Open Calculus is an exportable distance-learning/self-study environment for learning calculus including written text, nearly 4000 online homework problems and instructional videos. The paper recounts the evaluation of course elements since 2000 in…

  2. Transactional Distance in a Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dron, Jon; Seidel, Catharine; Litten, Gabrielle

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case study that describes and discusses the problems encountered during the design and implementation of a blended learning course, largely taught online through a web-based learning environment. Based on Moore's theory of transactional distance, the course was explicitly designed to have dialogue at its heart. However, the…

  3. Successful Web Learning Environments: New Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Margaret

    The Web offers the perfect technology and environment for precision learning because learners can be uniquely identified, relevant content can be specifically personalized, and subsequent response and progress can be monitored, supported, and assessed. Technologically, researchers are making rapid progress realizing the personalized learning dream…

  4. Gendered Learning Environments in Managerial Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustavsson, Maria; Eriksson, Anna Fogelberg

    2010-01-01

    The aim is to investigate female and male managers' learning environments with particular focus on their opportunities for and barriers to learning and career development in the managerial work of a male-dominated industrial company. In the case study 42 managers, 15 women and 27 men in the company were interviewed. The findings demonstrate that…

  5. Characterizing Navigation in Interactive Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Hai-Ning; Sedig, Kamran

    2009-01-01

    Interactive learning environments (ILEs) are increasingly used to support and enhance instruction and learning experiences. ILEs maintain and display information, allowing learners to interact with this information. One important method of interacting with information is navigation. Often, learners are required to navigate through the information…

  6. Evaluation in a Situated Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary

    1993-01-01

    Examines evaluation in a situated learning context. Topics discussed include a model for evaluation in a computer learning environment; portfolios, including written, electronic, and video formats; summary statistics; diagnosis; reflection and self-assessment; story construction or scenario design; learners as designers of instruction; and…

  7. PLATE: Powerful Learning and Teaching Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housand, Angela

    2009-01-01

    The environment has a profound effect on the ability of students to regulate their behavior or disposition and effectively engage in the learning processes. Active engagement is important because it increases performance. Certain types of environmental structures actually increase students' ability to be agents of their own learning. These…

  8. A Deign Framework for Online Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Sanjaya

    2002-01-01

    Discusses use of the Web for online instruction and presents a design framework for creating online learning environments. Highlights include approaches to instruction, including behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism; learning activities; content; learner support; and application of the framework for a graduate course at the Indira Gandhi…

  9. Adaptation of cells to new environments

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Aaron N.; Turkarslan, Serdar; Beer, Karlyn D.; Lo, Fang Yin; Baliga, Nitin S.

    2010-01-01

    The evolutionary success of an organism is a testament to its inherent capacity to keep pace with environmental conditions that change over short and long periods. Mechanisms underlying adaptive processes are being investigated with renewed interest and excitement. This revival is partly fueled by powerful technologies that can probe molecular phenomena at a systems scale. Such studies provide spectacular insight into the mechanisms of adaptation, including rewiring of regulatory networks via natural selection of horizontal gene transfers, gene duplication, deletion, readjustment of kinetic parameters, and myriad other genetic reorganizational events. Here, we will discuss advances in prokaryotic systems biology from the perspective of evolutionary principles that have shaped regulatory networks for dynamic adaptation to environmental change. PMID:21197660

  10. Getting Ready for Mobile Learning--Adaptation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tiong; Kinshuk

    2006-01-01

    Emerging from e-learning, mobile learning is going to be a significant next wave of learning environments. This is an evolving research area and many issues regarding mobile learning have not yet been exhaustively covered. This article focuses on implementing m-learning modules using a simple case study. Most existing typical e-learning systems…

  11. Adaptive Human Scaffolding Facilitates Adolescents' Self-Regulated Learning with Hypermedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Roger; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Winters, Fielding I.; Moos, Daniel C.; Greene, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of three scaffolding conditions on adolescents' learning about the circulatory system with a hypermedia learning environment. One hundred and eleven adolescents (n = 111) were randomly assigned to one of three scaffolding conditions (adaptive scaffolding (AS), fixed scaffolding (FS), or no scaffolding (NS))…

  12. Ontology-Based Multimedia Authoring Tool for Adaptive E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lawrence Y.; Keh, Huan-Chao; Liu, Yi-Jen

    2010-01-01

    More video streaming technologies supporting distance learning systems are becoming popular among distributed network environments. In this paper, the authors develop a multimedia authoring tool for adaptive e-learning by using characterization of extended media streaming technologies. The distributed approach is based on an ontology-based model.…

  13. Adaptive and accelerated tracking-learning-detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Pengyu; Li, Xin; Ding, Shaowen; Tian, Zunhua; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2013-08-01

    An improved online long-term visual tracking algorithm, named adaptive and accelerated TLD (AA-TLD) based on Tracking-Learning-Detection (TLD) which is a novel tracking framework has been introduced in this paper. The improvement focuses on two aspects, one is adaption, which makes the algorithm not dependent on the pre-defined scanning grids by online generating scale space, and the other is efficiency, which uses not only algorithm-level acceleration like scale prediction that employs auto-regression and moving average (ARMA) model to learn the object motion to lessen the detector's searching range and the fixed number of positive and negative samples that ensures a constant retrieving time, but also CPU and GPU parallel technology to achieve hardware acceleration. In addition, in order to obtain a better effect, some TLD's details are redesigned, which uses a weight including both normalized correlation coefficient and scale size to integrate results, and adjusts distance metric thresholds online. A contrastive experiment on success rate, center location error and execution time, is carried out to show a performance and efficiency upgrade over state-of-the-art TLD with partial TLD datasets and Shenzhou IX return capsule image sequences. The algorithm can be used in the field of video surveillance to meet the need of real-time video tracking.

  14. Designing for Change: Interoperability in a scaling and adapting environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmey, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth Science cyberinfrastructure landscape is constantly changing. Technologies advance and technical implementations are refined or replaced. Data types, volumes, packaging, and use cases evolve. Scientific requirements emerge and mature. Standards shift while systems scale and adapt. In this complex and dynamic environment, interoperability remains a critical component of successful cyberinfrastructure. Through the resource- and priority-driven iterations on systems, interfaces, and content, questions fundamental to stable and useful Earth Science cyberinfrastructure arise. For instance, how are sociotechnical changes planned, tracked, and communicated? How should operational stability balance against 'new and shiny'? How can ongoing maintenance and mitigation of technical debt be managed in an often short-term resource environment? The Arctic Data Explorer is a metadata brokering application developed to enable discovery of international, interdisciplinary Arctic data across distributed repositories. Completely dependent on interoperable third party systems, the Arctic Data Explorer publicly launched in 2013 with an original 3000+ data records from four Arctic repositories. Since then the search has scaled to 25,000+ data records from thirteen repositories at the time of writing. In the final months of original project funding, priorities shift to lean operations with a strategic eye on the future. Here we present lessons learned from four years of Arctic Data Explorer design, development, communication, and maintenance work along with remaining questions and potential directions.

  15. The Effectiveness of Blended Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    The object of this experimental study is to measure the effectiveness of a blended learning environment which is laid out on the basis of features for face to face and online environments. The study was applied to 110 students who attend to Atilim University, Ankara, Turkey and take Introduction to Computers Course. During the application,…

  16. Physical Criteria for Adult Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sally

    The development of learning environments especially for adults has been neglected and research in planning such environments is fragmented and minimal. There is general agreement that facilities for adults should have an aura of adulthood to contribute to an adult's feeling of ease, confidence, and capability; that they should be flexible in room…

  17. Toward an Alternative Learning Environment Interface for Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdous, M'hammed

    2013-01-01

    An effective learning environment interface (LEI) is a means to enable students to focus on learning and to understand content, while establishing connections and relationships among course activities. Using this fundamental premise, we propose a flexible, user-centered, and seamless LEI which is intended to remediate the fragmented interface…

  18. Vein graft adaptation and fistula maturation in the arterial environment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Daniel Y; Chen, Elizabeth Y; Wong, Daniel J; Yamamoto, Kota; Protack, Clinton D; Williams, Willis T; Assi, Roland; Hall, Michael R; Sadaghianloo, Nirvana; Dardik, Alan

    2014-05-01

    Veins are exposed to the arterial environment during two common surgical procedures, creation of vein grafts and arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). In both cases, veins adapt to the arterial environment that is characterized by different hemodynamic conditions and increased oxygen tension compared with the venous environment. Successful venous adaptation to the arterial environment is critical for long-term success of the vein graft or AVF and, in both cases, is generally characterized by venous dilation and wall thickening. However, AVF are exposed to a high flow, high shear stress, low-pressure arterial environment and adapt mainly via outward dilation with less intimal thickening. Vein grafts are exposed to a moderate flow, moderate shear stress, high-pressure arterial environment and adapt mainly via increased wall thickening with less outward dilation. We review the data that describe these differences, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate these processes. Despite extensive research, there are few differences in the molecular pathways that regulate cell proliferation and migration or matrix synthesis, secretion, or degradation currently identified between vein graft adaptation and AVF maturation that account for the different types of venous adaptation to arterial environments.

  19. Utilization of virtual learning environments in the allied health professions.

    PubMed

    Butina, Michelle; Brooks, Donna; Dominguez, Paul J; Mahon, Gwendolyn M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple technology based tools have been used to enhance skill development in allied health education, which now includes virtual learning environments. The purpose of this study was to explore whether, and how, this latest instructional technology is being adapted in allied health education. An online survey was circulated to all Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions (ASAHP) member institutions and focused on three broad areas of virtual learning environments: the uses of, the perceived pros and cons of, and the outcomes of utilizing them. Results show 40% (17 of 42) of the respondent use some form of the technology. The use of virtual learning technology in other healthcare professions (e.g., medicine) demonstrates the potential benefits to allied health education.

  20. Savings in locomotor adaptation explained by changes in learning parameters following initial adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mawase, Firas; Shmuelof, Lior; Bar-Haim, Simona; Karniel, Amir

    2014-04-01

    Faster relearning of an external perturbation, savings, offers a behavioral linkage between motor learning and memory. To explain savings effects in reaching adaptation experiments, recent models suggested the existence of multiple learning components, each shows different learning and forgetting properties that may change following initial learning. Nevertheless, the existence of these components in rhythmic movements with other effectors, such as during locomotor adaptation, has not yet been studied. Here, we study savings in locomotor adaptation in two experiments; in the first, subjects adapted to speed perturbations during walking on a split-belt treadmill, briefly adapted to a counter-perturbation and then readapted. In a second experiment, subjects readapted after a prolonged period of washout of initial adaptation. In both experiments we find clear evidence for increased learning rates (savings) during readaptation. We show that the basic error-based multiple timescales linear state space model is not sufficient to explain savings during locomotor adaptation. Instead, we show that locomotor adaptation leads to changes in learning parameters, so that learning rates are faster during readaptation. Interestingly, we find an intersubject correlation between the slow learning component in initial adaptation and the fast learning component in the readaptation phase, suggesting an underlying mechanism for savings. Together, these findings suggest that savings in locomotion and in reaching may share common computational and neuronal mechanisms; both are driven by the slow learning component and are likely to depend on cortical plasticity.

  1. How People Learn in an Asynchronous Online Learning Environment: The Relationships between Graduate Students' Learning Strategies and Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Beomkyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between learners' learning strategies and learning satisfaction in an asynchronous online learning environment. In an attempt to shed some light on how people learn in an online learning environment, one hundred and sixteen graduate students who were taking online learning courses…

  2. Development and Evaluation of an E-Learning Course for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Based on the Advanced Adapted Pedagogical Index Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debevc, Matjaž; Stjepanovic, Zoran; Holzinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Web-based and adapted e-learning materials provide alternative methods of learning to those used in a traditional classroom. Within the study described in this article, deaf and hard of hearing people used an adaptive e-learning environment to improve their computer literacy. This environment included streaming video with sign language interpreter…

  3. Adaptive and perceptual learning technologies in medical education and training.

    PubMed

    Kellman, Philip J

    2013-10-01

    Recent advances in the learning sciences offer remarkable potential to improve medical education and maximize the benefits of emerging medical technologies. This article describes 2 major innovation areas in the learning sciences that apply to simulation and other aspects of medical learning: Perceptual learning (PL) and adaptive learning technologies. PL technology offers, for the first time, systematic, computer-based methods for teaching pattern recognition, structural intuition, transfer, and fluency. Synergistic with PL are new adaptive learning technologies that optimize learning for each individual, embed objective assessment, and implement mastery criteria. The author describes the Adaptive Response-Time-based Sequencing (ARTS) system, which uses each learner's accuracy and speed in interactive learning to guide spacing, sequencing, and mastery. In recent efforts, these new technologies have been applied in medical learning contexts, including adaptive learning modules for initial medical diagnosis and perceptual/adaptive learning modules (PALMs) in dermatology, histology, and radiology. Results of all these efforts indicate the remarkable potential of perceptual and adaptive learning technologies, individually and in combination, to improve learning in a variety of medical domains.

  4. Evolving the future by creating and adapting to novel environments.

    PubMed

    LaFreniere, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Adaptation demands effective responses to both recurrent and novel environmental challenges. Developmental plasticity and domain-general mechanisms have important consequences with respect to our human capacity for imagining, creating, and adapting to novel environments. They facilitate the evolution of any cognitive mechanism, no matter how opportunistic, flexible, or domain-general, that is able to solve new problems or achieve new goals.

  5. Is the EFL Environment a Language Learning Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Maria del Pilar Garcia; Pica, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    The question of whether the English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) classroom is an environment that promotes input, feedback, and the production of output that is necessary for successful second language learning is addressed. Such questions have arisen within the context of a growing emphasis on communicative activities and student-to-student…

  6. M-Learning: Implications in Learning Domain Specificities, Adaptive Learning, Feedback, Augmented Reality, and the Future of Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the potential and effectiveness of m-learning in the field of Education and Learning domains. The purpose of this research is to illustrate how mobile technology can and is affecting novel change in instruction, from m-learning and the link to adaptive learning, to the uninitiated learner and capacities of…

  7. Saccade adaptation as a model of learning in voluntary movements.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Yoshiki; Kaku, Yuki

    2010-07-01

    Motor learning ensures the accuracy of our daily movements. However, we know relatively little about its mechanisms, particularly for voluntary movements. Saccadic eye movements serve to bring the image of a visual target precisely onto the fovea. Their accuracy is maintained not by on-line sensory feedback but by a learning mechanism, called saccade adaptation. Recent studies on saccade adaptation have provided valuable additions to our knowledge of motor learning. This review summarizes what we know about the characteristics and neural mechanisms of saccade adaptation, emphasizing recent findings and new ideas. Long-term adaptation, distinct from its short-term counterpart, seems to be present in the saccadic system. Accumulating evidence indicates the involvement of the oculomotor cerebellar vermis as a learning site. The superior colliculus is now suggested not only to generate saccade commands but also to issue driving signals for motor learning. These and other significant contributions have advanced our understanding of saccade adaptation and motor learning in general.

  8. The Abusive Environment and the Child's Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Harold P.

    The biologic and developmental problems of abused children are usually thought of etiologically in relation to the physical trauma which has been suffered. Indeed, physical trauma can cause death, brain damage, developmental delays and deviations in personality development. The environment in which the abused child grows and develops is a most…

  9. Adaptive graph construction for Isomap manifold learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Loc; Zheng, Zezhong; Zhou, Guoqing; Li, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Isomap is a classical manifold learning approach that preserves geodesic distance of nonlinear data sets. One of the main drawbacks of this method is that it is susceptible to leaking, where a shortcut appears between normally separated portions of a manifold. We propose an adaptive graph construction approach that is based upon the sparsity property of the l1 norm. The l1 enhanced graph construction method replaces k-nearest neighbors in the classical approach. The proposed algorithm is first tested on the data sets from the UCI data base repository which showed that the proposed approach performs better than the classical approach. Next, the proposed approach is applied to two image data sets and achieved improved performances over standard Isomap.

  10. Exposure to stressful environments - Strategy of adaptive responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Stresses such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure can produce strains in more than a single organ system, in turn stimulating the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups: (1) conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, (2) stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products such as CO2 and heat, and (3) environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of microenvironment, is often favored by the animal.

  11. Camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiguang; Guang, Xuanmin; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Cao, Junwei; Pan, Shengkai; Zhou, Huanmin; Zhang, Li; Abutarboush, Mohammed H; Xing, Yanping; Xie, Zhiyuan; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Zhang, Yanru; Yao, Qiulin; Al-Shomrani, Badr M; Zhang, Dong; Li, Jiang; Manee, Manee M; Yang, Zili; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Yiyi; Zhang, Jilin; Altammami, Musaad A; Wang, Shenyuan; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Wenbin; Liu, Sanyang; Ba, La; Liu, Chunxia; Yang, Xukui; Meng, Fanhua; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Lu; Li, Erli; Li, Xueqiong; Wu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yang, Huanming; Al-Swailem, Abdulaziz M; Wang, Jun

    2014-10-21

    Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. Although the Bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. Here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. Our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the Tortonian Stage of the Miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in population size and geological time boundaries. Comparative genomic analysis reveals complex features related to desert adaptations, including fat and water metabolism, stress responses to heat, aridity, intense ultraviolet radiation and choking dust. Transcriptomic analysis of Bactrian camels further reveals unique osmoregulation, osmoprotection and compensatory mechanisms for water reservation underpinned by high blood glucose levels. We hypothesize that these physiological mechanisms represent kidney evolutionary adaptations to the desert environment. This study advances our understanding of camelid evolution and the adaptation of camels to arid-desert environments.

  12. Stereopsis is adaptive for the natural environment

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, William W.; Cooper, Emily A.; Tošić, Ivana; Banks, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    Humans and many animals have forward-facing eyes providing different views of the environment. Precise depth estimates can be derived from the resulting binocular disparities, but determining which parts of the two retinal images correspond to one another is computationally challenging. To aid the computation, the visual system focuses the search on a small range of disparities. We asked whether the disparities encountered in the natural environment match that range. We did this by simultaneously measuring binocular eye position and three-dimensional scene geometry during natural tasks. The natural distribution of disparities is indeed matched to the smaller range of correspondence search. Furthermore, the distribution explains the perception of some ambiguous stereograms. Finally, disparity preferences of macaque cortical neurons are consistent with the natural distribution. PMID:26207262

  13. The Relationship among Self-Regulated Learning, Procrastination, and Learning Behaviors in Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Masanori; Goda, Yoshiko; Matsuda, Takeshi; Kato, Hiroshi; Miyagawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the relationship among the awareness of self-regulated learning (SRL), procrastination, and learning behaviors in blended learning environment. One hundred seventy nine freshmen participated in this research, conducted in the blended learning style class using learning management system. Data collection was…

  14. Exposure to Stressful Environments: Strategy of Adaptive Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhi, Leon E.

    1991-01-01

    Any new natural environment may generate a number of stresses (such as hypoxia, water lack, and heat exposure), each of which can produce strains in more than a single organ system. Every strain may in turn stimulate the body to adapt in multiple ways. Nevertheless, a general strategy of the various adaptive responses emerges when the challenges are divided into three groups. The first category includes conditions that affect the supply of essential molecules, while the second is made up by those stresses that prevent the body from regulating properly the output of waste products, such as CO2 and heat. In both classes, there is a small number of responses, similar in principle, regardless of the specific situation. The third unit is created by environments that disrupt body transport systems. Problems may arise when there is a conflict between two stresses requiring conflicting adaptive changes. An alternative to adaptation, creation of micro-environment, is often favored by the animal.

  15. Specialized hybrid learners resolve Rogers' paradox about the adaptive value of social learning.

    PubMed

    Kharratzadeh, Milad; Montrey, Marcel; Metz, Alex; Shultz, Thomas R

    2017-02-07

    Culture is considered an evolutionary adaptation that enhances reproductive fitness. A common explanation is that social learning, the learning mechanism underlying cultural transmission, enhances mean fitness by avoiding the costs of individual learning. This explanation was famously contradicted by Rogers (1988), who used a simple mathematical model to show that cheap social learning can invade a population without raising its mean fitness. He concluded that some crucial factor remained unaccounted for, which would reverse this surprising result. Here we extend this model to include a more complex environment and limited resources, where individuals cannot reliably learn everything about the environment on their own. Under such conditions, cheap social learning evolves and enhances mean fitness, via hybrid learners capable of specializing their individual learning. We then show that while spatial or social constraints hinder the evolution of hybrid learners, a novel social learning strategy, complementary copying, can mitigate these effects.

  16. Adaptive Effects on Locomotion Performance Following Exposure to a Rotating Virtual Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Richards, J. T.; Marshburn, A. M.; Bucello, R.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    During long-duration spaceflight, astronauts experience alterations in vestibular and somatosensory cues that result in adaptive disturbances in balance and coordination upon return to Earth. These changes can pose a risk to crew safety and to mission objectives if nominal or emergency vehicle egress is required immediately following long-duration spaceflight. At present, no operational countermeasure is available to mitigate the adaptive sensorimotor component underlying the locomotor disturbances that occur after spaceflight. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop an inflight training regimen that facilitates recovery of locomotor function after long-duration spaceflight. The countermeasure we are proposing is based on the concept of adaptive generalization. During this type of training the subject gains experience producing the appropriate adaptive motor behavior under a variety of sensory conditions and response constraints. As a result of this training a subject learns to solve a class of motor problems, rather than a specific motor solution to one problem, i.e., the subject learns response generalizability or the ability to "learn to learn." under a variety of environmental constraints. We are developing an inflight countermeasure built around treadmill exercise activities. By manipulating the sensory conditions of exercise by varying visual flow patterns, body load and speed we will systematically and repeatedly promote adaptive change in locomotor behavior. It has been shown that variable practice training increases adaptability to novel visuo-motor situations. While walking over ground in a stereoscopic virtual environment that oscillated in roll, subjects have shown compensatory torso rotation in the direction of scene rotation that resulted in positional variation away from a desired linear path. Thus, postural sway and locomotor stability in 1-g can be modulated by visual flow patterns and used during inflight treadmill training to promote

  17. Reinforcement Learning in a Nonstationary Environment: The El Farol Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Ann Maria

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of simple learning rules in a complex adaptive system based on a coordination problem modeled on the El Farol problem. The key features of the El Farol problem are that it typically involves a medium number of agents and that agents' pay-off functions have a discontinuous response to increased congestion. First we consider a single adaptive agent facing a stationary environment. We demonstrate that the simple learning rules proposed by Roth and Er'ev can be extremely sensitive to small changes in the initial conditions and that events early in a simulation can affect the performance of the rule over a relatively long time horizon. In contrast, a reinforcement learning rule based on standard practice in the computer science literature converges rapidly and robustly. The situation is reversed when multiple adaptive agents interact: the RE algorithms often converge rapidly to a stable average aggregate attendance despite the slow and erratic behavior of individual learners, while the CS based learners frequently over-attend in the early and intermediate terms. The symmetric mixed strategy equilibria is unstable: all three learning rules ultimately tend towards pure strategies or stabilize in the medium term at non-equilibrium probabilities of attendance. The brittleness of the algorithms in different contexts emphasize the importance of thorough and thoughtful examination of simulation-based results.

  18. MADNESS: A Multiresolution, Adaptive Numerical Environment for Scientific Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Robert J.; Beylkin, Gregory; Bischoff, Florian A.; Calvin, Justus A.; Fann, George I.; Fosso-Tande, Jacob; Galindo, Diego; Hammond, Jeff R.; Hartman-Baker, Rebecca; Hill, Judith C.; Jia, Jun; Kottmann, Jakob S.; Yvonne Ou, M-J.; Pei, Junchen; Ratcliff, Laura E.; Reuter, Matthew G.; Richie-Halford, Adam C.; Romero, Nichols A.; Sekino, Hideo; Shelton, William A.; Sundahl, Bryan E.; Thornton, W. Scott; Valeev, Edward F.; Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro; Vence, Nicholas; Yanai, Takeshi; Yokoi, Yukina

    2016-01-01

    MADNESS (multiresolution adaptive numerical environment for scientific simulation) is a high-level software environment for solving integral and differential equations in many dimensions that uses adaptive and fast harmonic analysis methods with guaranteed precision based on multiresolution analysis and separated representations. Underpinning the numerical capabilities is a powerful petascale parallel programming environment that aims to increase both programmer productivity and code scalability. This paper describes the features and capabilities of MADNESS and briefly discusses some current applications in chemistry and several areas of physics.

  19. MADNESS: A Multiresolution, Adaptive Numerical Environment for Scientific Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Robert J.; Beylkin, Gregory; Bischoff, Florian A.; Calvin, Justus A.; Fann, George I.; Fosso-Tande, Jacob; Galindo, Diego; Hammond, Jeff R.; Hartman-Baker, Rebecca; Hill, Judith C.; Jia, Jun; Kottmann, Jakob S.; Yvonne Ou, M-J.; Pei, Junchen; Ratcliff, Laura E.; Reuter, Matthew G.; Richie-Halford, Adam C.; Romero, Nichols A.; Sekino, Hideo; Shelton, William A.; Sundahl, Bryan E.; Thornton, W. Scott; Valeev, Edward F.; Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro; Vence, Nicholas; Yanai, Takeshi; Yokoi, Yukina

    2016-01-01

    We present MADNESS (multiresolution adaptive numerical environment for scientific simulation) that is a high-level software environment for solving integral and differential equations in many dimensions that uses adaptive and fast harmonic analysis methods with guaranteed precision that are based on multiresolution analysis and separated representations. Underpinning the numerical capabilities is a powerful petascale parallel programming environment that aims to increase both programmer productivity and code scalability. This paper describes the features and capabilities of MADNESS and briefly discusses some current applications in chemistry and several areas of physics.

  20. Phytomonas: Trypanosomatids Adapted to Plant Environments

    PubMed Central

    Jaskowska, Eleanor; Butler, Claire; Preston, Gail; Kelly, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Over 100 years after trypanosomatids were first discovered in plant tissues, Phytomonas parasites have now been isolated across the globe from members of 24 different plant families. Most identified species have not been associated with any plant pathology and to date only two species are definitively known to cause plant disease. These diseases (wilt of palm and coffee phloem necrosis) are problematic in areas of South America where they threaten the economies of developing countries. In contrast to their mammalian infective relatives, our knowledge of the biology of Phytomonas parasites and how they interact with their plant hosts is limited. This review draws together a century of research into plant trypanosomatids, from the first isolations and experimental infections to the recent publication of the first Phytomonas genomes. The availability of genomic data for these plant parasites opens a new avenue for comparative investigations into trypanosomatid biology and provides fresh insight into how this important group of parasites have adapted to survive in a spectrum of hosts from crocodiles to coconuts. PMID:25607944

  1. Evaluating learning environments for interprofessional care.

    PubMed

    Kvan, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Many institutions have invested considerably in the provision of student facilities--lecture halls, tutorial rooms and classrooms--spaces we call collectively learning environments. In expending resources on such facilities, we have assumed that we have needed to create this range of spaces for such activities. However, how do we know we have invested wisely in support of learning for interprofessional care? In this article I review the literature to identify evidence in a range of fields, including health care, to consider the issues and difficulties of employing established approaches from practices of evidence-based design. Central in this article is the role of evidence in the assessment of learning environments. In particular, I argue that the evidence must include qualitative dimensions of the learning experience. To address the qualitative outcomes from education, with particular attention to the concerns of interprofessional education, a model is proposed to examine different levels of outcomes. By developing an interpretation of Kirkpatrick's model, four levels are described for the effective evaluation of interprofessional learning environments.

  2. Environmental Adaptation, Phenotypic Plasticity, and Associative Learning in Insects: The Desert Locust as a Case Study.

    PubMed

    Simões, Patrício M V; Ott, Swidbert R; Niven, Jeremy E

    2016-11-01

    The ability to learn and store information should be adapted to the environment in which animals operate to confer a selective advantage. Yet the relationship between learning, memory, and the environment is poorly understood, and further complicated by phenotypic plasticity caused by the very environment in which learning and memory need to operate. Many insect species show polyphenism, an extreme form of phenotypic plasticity, allowing them to occupy distinct environments by producing two or more alternative phenotypes. Yet how the learning and memories capabilities of these alternative phenotypes are adapted to their specific environments remains unknown for most polyphenic insect species. The desert locust can exist as one of two extreme phenotypes or phases, solitarious and gregarious. Recent studies of associative food-odor learning in this locust have shown that aversive but not appetitive learning differs between phases. Furthermore, switching from the solitarious to the gregarious phase (gregarization) prevents locusts acquiring new learned aversions, enabling them to convert an aversive memory formed in the solitarious phase to an appetitive one in the gregarious phase. This conversion provides a neuroecological mechanism that matches key changes in the behavioral environments of the two phases. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding the neural mechanisms that generate ecologically relevant behaviors and the interactions between different forms of behavioral plasticity.

  3. Learning Environment and Students' Mathematics Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandecandelaere, Machteld; Speybroeck, Sara; Vanlaar, Gudrun; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between students' perception of the learning environment and three aspects of their mathematics attitude: "mathematics academic self-concept", "enjoyment of mathematics" and "perceived value of mathematics". The focus was on the association of students' mathematics attitude with…

  4. Development of the Home Learning Environment Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Robert W.; And Others

    The development and validation of the Home Learning Environment Profile (HLEP) are outlined. The HLEP instrument was designed to assess successful preschool home educational programs for Hawaiian families. The instrument covers sociodemographic, cultural, and environmental factors of Hawaiian families. After an extensive review of published…

  5. Adult Learning, Education, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clover, Darlene E.; Hill, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The environment is now a common theme in adult education. However, conversations that swirled around the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in June 2012 suggested major environmental challenges persist, demanding that education, learning, advocacy and activism be augmented to ensure the survival of the planet. In adult…

  6. Innovations in Learning: New Environments for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schauble, Leona, Ed.; Glaser, Robert, Ed.

    This collection of 13 articles describes informal learning environments that occur outside traditional school settings; covers research-supported strategies for helping both students and teachers engage with and master concepts in school subject matter; and reviews school reform, and the current knowledge about what practices and principles are…

  7. Environment for Learning: The 1970's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Alan C.

    The presentation by Alan C. Green briefly discusses the activities and concerns of EFL and elaborates on the learning environment of the 1970's. Building programming is discussed along with the need to consider--(1) time utilization, (2) architect's early involvement in the process of building programming, (3) prevention of domination over the…

  8. Parallelism in Open Learning and Working Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Min, Rik

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes shortcomings of computer monitors, including one-way communication and organization of the monitor display, when they are used with multimedia in open learning environments. Solutions are described according to the concepts and theories developed by Min, Koopal, Gritter, Struyker, Boudier, Coleman, Miltenburg, and Van Schaick Zillesen…

  9. On Mediation in Virtual Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Larry; Hassan, W. Shukry

    2001-01-01

    Discusses concepts of mediation and focuses on the importance of implementing comprehensive virtual learning environments. Topics include education and technology as they relate to cultural change, social institutions, the Internet and computer-mediated communication, software design and human-computer interaction, the use of MOOs, and language.…

  10. Home Environment and Learning: A Quantitative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Barbara K.; Walberg, Herbert J.

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an estimate of the mean correlation of home environment measures with learning measures across studies and to indicate sample and study characteristics associated with different magnitudes of correlation. University of Chicago studies of behavioral processes and British investigations of parental…

  11. Collaborative Learning Environments for Management Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seufert, Sabine; Seufert, Andreas

    Confronted with the pressure of a rapidly changing environment, organizations demand new skills and capabilities of future managers. These demands and the findings of learning theory necessitate a corresponding change in education of tomorrow's managers. Future management education requires a balance between the imparting of knowledge to the…

  12. Managed Chaos: Learning in Technology Enhanced Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Meg; Smith, Karen L.

    Learning and information management in technology rich environments is a nonlinear process that teachers cannot pretend to control. The University of Central Florida's (UCF) teaching and information management strategies build on metaphors and models borrowed from Dynamical Systems and Complexity Theories to help teachers and others understand…

  13. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  14. Role of Teacher in Personal Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaikh, Zaffar Ahmed; Khoja, Shakeel Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the changing roles and competencies of a teacher in context of prevailing developments accomplished by the vast availability of social software, which have made easy the development of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs). This has been accomplished by an in-depth review of the literature on teacher's socially situated…

  15. Semantic Annotation of Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weal, M. J.; Michaelides, D. T.; Page, K.; De Roure, D. C.; Monger, E.; Gobbi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Skills-based learning environments are used to promote the acquisition of practical skills as well as decision making, communication, and problem solving. It is important to provide feedback to the students from these sessions and observations of their actions may inform the assessment process and help researchers to better understand the learning…

  16. The Supportive Learning Environment: Effective Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Jennifer; Grant, Leslie W.; Stronge, James H.

    2010-01-01

    This entry in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice Series focuses on the characteristics of teachers who create supportive learning environments for their students. By conveying a sense of immediacy, credibility, and caring, they communicate to students in both verbal and nonverbal ways that are essential to cultivating a positive and…

  17. Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.…

  18. Transforming the Physical Environment for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narum, Jeanne L.

    2004-01-01

    Project Kaleidoscope (PKAL) is an informal national alliance working to build strong learning environments for undergraduate students in math, engineering, and fields of science. As director of PKAL, this author was invited by the editors of "Change" to identify resources for academic communities that are seeking to transform campus…

  19. Middle School Students in Virtual Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Erin Drankwalter

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study examined middle school students engaged in a virtual learning environment used in concert with face-to-face instruction in order to complete a collaborative research project. Thirty-eight students from three eighth grade classes participated in this study where data were collected through observation of student work within…

  20. Dataset of Scientific Inquiry Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Choo-Yee; Ho, Chiung Ching

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the dataset collected from student interactions with INQPRO, a computer-based scientific inquiry learning environment. The dataset contains records of 100 students and is divided into two portions. The first portion comprises (1) "raw log data", capturing the student's name, interfaces visited, the interface…

  1. Toward an Integrated Online Learning Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorescu, Raluca E.; Pawl, Andrew; Rayyan, Saif; Barrantes, Analia; Pritchard, David E.

    2010-10-01

    We are building in LON-CAPA an integrated learning environment that will enable the development, dissemination and evaluation of PER-based material. This environment features a collection of multi-level research-based homework sets organized by topic and cognitive complexity. These sets are associated with learning modules that contain very short exposition of the content supplemented by integrated open-access videos, worked examples, simulations, and tutorials (some from ANDES). To assess students' performance accurately with respect to a system-wide standard, we plan to implement Item Response Theory. Together with other PER assessments and purposeful solicitation of student feedback, this will allow us to measure and improve the efficacy of various research-based materials, while getting insights into teaching and learning.

  2. An investigation of the role of metacognitive behavior in self-regulated learning when learning a complex science topic with a hypermedia learning environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binbasaran Tuysuzoglu, Banu

    Studies have shown that learners need to use self-regulated learning (SRL) skills when learning with Hypermedia Learning Environments (HLEs) to reach a conceptual understanding of science. SRL theory suggests that metacognition plays a key role in learning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between metacognitive monitoring (e.g., judgment of learning [JOL]) and metacognitive control and their effects upon learning about the circulatory system with an HLE. I examined the frequencies of learners' use of negative JOL with and without a change in strategy use, which indicates the quality (i.e., static or adaptive) of metacognitive behavior. The results showed that adaptive metacognitive behavior positively related to learning, and static metacognitive behavior negatively related to learning, above and beyond the effect of prior knowledge. Findings provided valuable implications for the benefits of using JOL followed by control over strategy use when learning with HLEs.

  3. Introducing Adaptivity Features to a Regular Learning Management System to Support Creation of Advanced eLessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komlenov, Zivana; Budimac, Zoran; Ivanovic, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the learning process for students with different pre-knowledge, personal characteristics and preferred learning styles, a certain degree of adaptability must be introduced to online courses. In learning environments that support such kind of functionalities students can explicitly choose different paths through course contents…

  4. Adaptive Device Context Based Mobile Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pu, Haitao; Lin, Jinjiao; Song, Yanwei; Liu, Fasheng

    2011-01-01

    Mobile learning is e-learning delivered through mobile computing devices, which represents the next stage of computer-aided, multi-media based learning. Therefore, mobile learning is transforming the way of traditional education. However, as most current e-learning systems and their contents are not suitable for mobile devices, an approach for…

  5. The Influence of Learning Behaviour on Team Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Peter A.; Millett, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Multiple contexts shape team activities and how they learn, and group learning is a dynamic construct that reflects a repertoire of potential behaviour. The purpose of this developmental paper is to examine how better learning behaviours in semi-autonomous teams improves the level of team adaptability and performance. The discussion suggests that…

  6. An Adaptive E-Learning System Based on Students' Learning Styles: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drissi, Samia; Amirat, Abdelkrim

    2016-01-01

    Personalized e-learning implementation is recognized as one of the most interesting research areas in the distance web-based education. Since the learning style of each learner is different one must fit e-learning with the different needs of learners. This paper presents an approach to integrate learning styles into adaptive e-learning hypermedia.…

  7. Using Scenarios to Design Complex Technology-Enhanced Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Ton; Weinberger, Armin; Girault, Isabelle; Kluge, Anders; Lazonder, Ard W.; Pedaste, Margus; Ludvigsen, Sten; Ney, Muriel; Wasson, Barbara; Wichmann, Astrid; Geraedts, Caspar; Giemza, Adam; Hovardas, Tasos; Julien, Rachel; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; Lejeune, Anne; Manoli, Constantinos C.; Matteman, Yuri; Sarapuu, Tago; Verkade, Alex; Vold, Vibeke; Zacharia, Zacharias C.

    2012-01-01

    Science Created by You (SCY) learning environments are computer-based environments in which students learn about science topics in the context of addressing a socio-scientific problem. Along their way to a solution for this problem students produce many types of intermediate products or learning objects. SCY learning environments center the entire…

  8. A Simultaneous Mobile E-Learning Environment and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karal, Hasan; Bahcekapili, Ekrem; Yildiz, Adil

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to design a mobile learning environment that enables the use of a teleconference application used in simultaneous e-learning with mobile devices and to evaluate this mobile learning environment based on students' views. With the mobile learning environment developed in the study, the students are able to follow…

  9. Construction of a Digital Learning Environment Based on Cloud Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Jihong; Xiong, Caiping; Liu, Huazhong

    2015-01-01

    Constructing the digital learning environment for ubiquitous learning and asynchronous distributed learning has opened up immense amounts of concrete research. However, current digital learning environments do not fully fulfill the expectations on supporting interactive group learning, shared understanding and social construction of knowledge.…

  10. Personal Learning Environments: A Solution for Self-Directed Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haworth, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I discuss "personal learning environments" and their diverse benefits, uses, and implications for life-long learning. Personal Learning Environments (PLEs) are Web 2.0 and social media technologies that enable individual learners the ability to manage their own learning. Self-directed learning is explored as a foundation…

  11. State Space Composition Technique for Intelligent Wheel Chair Adapting to Environment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamagami, Tomoki; Hirata, Hironori

    This paper describes a state space composition technique for the adaptation to environment in the autonomous behavior of intelligent wheel chair (IWC).In the product like IWC with actual sensors, composing state space is difficult problem since environmental information can not be observed sufficiently from restricted sensor inputs.A lot of states observed from same environment position raise the fail of the learning and adaptation with active learning approach.In order to compensate for the effects of the sensor configuration, that is sensor position, angle and precision, a normalization processing of position detector is introduced.In sensor normalization process, IWC scans present environment via range sensors with executing spot-turn, and prepare scan-patterns of each sensor.Then the normalization process adjusts the phase and dynamic range of each pattern to the reference sensor scan-pattern, analyzing phase differences and scale factors of each pattern against reference pattern.Using phase difference and scale factors, automated state space composition is possible.From the simulation experiment with both artificial and real-worlddraft, the automated state space construction is confirmed as a practical approach for pre-processing for environment learning and adaptation.

  12. Modeling and Intervening across Time in Scientific Inquiry Exploratory Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Choo-Yee; Phon-Amnuaisuk, Somnuk; Chong, Yen-Kuan

    2008-01-01

    This article aims at discussing how Dynamic Decision Network (DDN) can be employed to tackle the challenges in modeling temporally variable scientific inquiry skills and provision of adaptive pedagogical interventions in INQPRO, a scientific inquiry exploratory learning environment for learning O'level Physics. We begin with an overview of INQPRO…

  13. Cooperative Learning in Virtual Environments: The Jigsaw Method in Statistical Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas-Vargas, Manuel; Mondejar-Jimenez, Jose; Santamaria, Maria-Letica Meseguer; Alfaro-Navarro, Jose-Luis; Fernandez-Aviles, Gema

    2011-01-01

    This document sets out a novel teaching methodology as used in subjects with statistical content, traditionally regarded by students as "difficult". In a virtual learning environment, instructional techniques little used in mathematical courses were employed, such as the Jigsaw cooperative learning method, which had to be adapted to the…

  14. Analyzing User Interaction to Design an Intelligent e-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Richa

    2011-01-01

    Building intelligent course designing systems adaptable to the learners' needs is one of the key goals of research in e-learning. This goal is all the more crucial as gaining knowledge in an e-learning environment depends solely on computer mediated interaction within the learner group and among the learners and instructors. The patterns generated…

  15. Cases on Technological Adaptability and Transnational Learning: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukerji, Siran, Ed.; Tripathi, Purnendu, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Technology holds the key for bridging the gap between access to quality education and the need for enhanced learning experiences. This book contains case studies on divergent themes of personalized learning environments, inclusive learning for social change, innovative learning and assessment techniques, technology and international partnership…

  16. A Framework for Adaptive E-Learning Based on Distributed Re-Usable Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusilovsky, Peter; Nijhavan, Hemanta

    This paper suggests that a way to the new generation of powerful E-learning systems starts on the crossroads of two emerging fields: courseware re-use and adaptive educational systems. The paper presents the KnowledgeTree, a framework for adaptive E-learning based on distributed re-usable learning activities currently under development. The goal…

  17. A Competency-Based Guided-Learning Algorithm Applied on Adaptively Guiding E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Wei-Chih; Li, Cheng-Hsiu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm called competency-based guided-learning algorithm (CBGLA), which can be applied on adaptively guiding e-learning. Computational process analysis and mathematical derivation of competency-based learning (CBL) were used to develop the CBGLA. The proposed algorithm could generate an effective adaptively guiding…

  18. Investigation of the Relationship between Learning Process and Learning Outcomes in E-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurdugül, Halil; Menzi Çetin, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Learners can access and participate in online learning environments regardless of time and geographical barriers. This brings up the umbrella concept of learner autonomy that contains self-directed learning, self-regulated learning and the studying process. Motivation and learning strategies are also part of this umbrella…

  19. Institutional Culture and Learning I: Perceptions of the Learning Environment and Musicians' Attitudes to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgi, Ioulia; Haddon, Elizabeth; Creech, Andrea; Morton, Frances; de Bezenac, Christophe; Himonides, Evangelos; Potter, John; Duffy, Celia; Whyton, Tony; Welch, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Research in higher education has established a relationship between student approaches to learning and their perceptions of the learning environment. This study aims to make a contribution to music education literature by investigating undergraduate music students' perceptions of the learning context and their attitudes towards learning and…

  20. Effectiveness of Personalised Learning Paths on Students Learning Experiences in an e-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santally, Mohammad Issack; Senteni, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Personalisation of e-learning environments is an interesting research area in which the learning experience of learners is generally believed to be improved when his or her personal learning preferences are taken into account. One such learning preference is the V-A-K instrument that classifies learners as visual, auditory or kinaesthetic. In this…

  1. Diminished Neural Adaptation during Implicit Learning in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Schipul, Sarah E.; Just, Marcel Adam

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown evidence of disrupted neural adaptation during learning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in several types of tasks, potentially stemming from frontal-posterior cortical underconnectivity (Schipul et al., 2012). The aim of the current study was to examine neural adaptations in an implicit learning task that entails participation of frontal and posterior regions. Sixteen high-functioning adults with ASD and sixteen neurotypical control participants were trained on and performed an implicit dot pattern prototype learning task in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. During the preliminary exposure to the type of implicit prototype learning task later to be used in the scanner, the ASD participants took longer than the neurotypical group to learn the task, demonstrating altered implicit learning in ASD. After equating task structure learning, the two groups’ brain activation differed during their learning of a new prototype in the subsequent scanning session. The main findings indicated that neural adaptations in a distributed task network were reduced in the ASD group, relative to the neurotypical group, and were related to ASD symptom severity. Functional connectivity was reduced and did not change as much during learning for the ASD group, and was related to ASD symptom severity. These findings suggest that individuals with ASD show altered neural adaptations during learning, as seen in both activation and functional connectivity measures. This finding suggests why many real-world implicit learning situations may pose special challenges for ASD. PMID:26484826

  2. Diminished neural adaptation during implicit learning in autism.

    PubMed

    Schipul, Sarah E; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-01-15

    Neuroimaging studies have shown evidence of disrupted neural adaptation during learning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in several types of tasks, potentially stemming from frontal-posterior cortical underconnectivity (Schipul et al., 2012). The aim of the current study was to examine neural adaptations in an implicit learning task that entails participation of frontal and posterior regions. Sixteen high-functioning adults with ASD and sixteen neurotypical control participants were trained on and performed an implicit dot pattern prototype learning task in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. During the preliminary exposure to the type of implicit prototype learning task later to be used in the scanner, the ASD participants took longer than the neurotypical group to learn the task, demonstrating altered implicit learning in ASD. After equating task structure learning, the two groups' brain activation differed during their learning of a new prototype in the subsequent scanning session. The main findings indicated that neural adaptations in a distributed task network were reduced in the ASD group, relative to the neurotypical group, and were related to ASD symptom severity. Functional connectivity was reduced and did not change as much during learning for the ASD group, and was related to ASD symptom severity. These findings suggest that individuals with ASD show altered neural adaptations during learning, as seen in both activation and functional connectivity measures. This finding suggests why many real-world implicit learning situations may pose special challenges for ASD.

  3. Learning to soar in turbulent environments

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Gautam; Celani, Antonio; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Vergassola, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Birds and gliders exploit warm, rising atmospheric currents (thermals) to reach heights comparable to low-lying clouds with a reduced expenditure of energy. This strategy of flight (thermal soaring) is frequently used by migratory birds. Soaring provides a remarkable instance of complex decision making in biology and requires a long-term strategy to effectively use the ascending thermals. Furthermore, the problem is technologically relevant to extend the flying range of autonomous gliders. Thermal soaring is commonly observed in the atmospheric convective boundary layer on warm, sunny days. The formation of thermals unavoidably generates strong turbulent fluctuations, which constitute an essential element of soaring. Here, we approach soaring flight as a problem of learning to navigate complex, highly fluctuating turbulent environments. We simulate the atmospheric boundary layer by numerical models of turbulent convective flow and combine them with model-free, experience-based, reinforcement learning algorithms to train the gliders. For the learned policies in the regimes of moderate and strong turbulence levels, the glider adopts an increasingly conservative policy as turbulence levels increase, quantifying the degree of risk affordable in turbulent environments. Reinforcement learning uncovers those sensorimotor cues that permit effective control over soaring in turbulent environments. PMID:27482099

  4. Learning to soar in turbulent environments.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gautam; Celani, Antonio; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Vergassola, Massimo

    2016-08-16

    Birds and gliders exploit warm, rising atmospheric currents (thermals) to reach heights comparable to low-lying clouds with a reduced expenditure of energy. This strategy of flight (thermal soaring) is frequently used by migratory birds. Soaring provides a remarkable instance of complex decision making in biology and requires a long-term strategy to effectively use the ascending thermals. Furthermore, the problem is technologically relevant to extend the flying range of autonomous gliders. Thermal soaring is commonly observed in the atmospheric convective boundary layer on warm, sunny days. The formation of thermals unavoidably generates strong turbulent fluctuations, which constitute an essential element of soaring. Here, we approach soaring flight as a problem of learning to navigate complex, highly fluctuating turbulent environments. We simulate the atmospheric boundary layer by numerical models of turbulent convective flow and combine them with model-free, experience-based, reinforcement learning algorithms to train the gliders. For the learned policies in the regimes of moderate and strong turbulence levels, the glider adopts an increasingly conservative policy as turbulence levels increase, quantifying the degree of risk affordable in turbulent environments. Reinforcement learning uncovers those sensorimotor cues that permit effective control over soaring in turbulent environments.

  5. Teaching and Learning with Flexible Hypermedia Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedekind, Joachim; Lechner, Martin; Tergan, Sigmar-Olaf

    This paper presents an approach for developing flexible Hypermedia Learning Environments (HMLE) and applies this theoretical framework to the creation of a layered model of a hypermedia system, called HyperDisc, developed at the German Institute for Research on Distance Education. The first section introduces HMLE and suggests that existing…

  6. Sociocultural Perspective of Science in Online Learning Environments. Communities of Practice in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    Present study reviews empirical research studies related to learning science in online learning environments as a community. Studies published between 1995 and 2015 were searched by using ERIC and EBSCOhost databases. As a result, fifteen studies were selected for review. Identified studies were analyzed with a qualitative content analysis method…

  7. A Model of Adaptive Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Lindy J.

    2006-01-01

    This study applies theorizing from educational psychology and language learning to hypothesize a model of language learning that takes into account affect, motivation, and language learning strategies. The study employed a questionnaire to assess variables of motivation, self-efficacy, anxiety, and language learning strategies. The sample…

  8. Wireless Adaptive Therapeutic TeleGaming in a Pervasive Computing Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, James F.; Szturm, Tony; Borkowski, Maciej; Lockery, Dan; Ramanna, Sheela; Shay, Barbara

    This chapter introduces a wireless, pervasive computing approach to adaptive therapeutic telegaming considered in the context of near set theory. Near set theory provides a formal basis for observation, comparison and classification of perceptual granules. A perceptual granule is defined by a collection of objects that are graspable by the senses or by the mind. In the proposed pervasive computing approach to telegaming, a handicapped person (e.g., stroke patient with limited hand, finger, arm function) plays a video game by interacting with familiar instrumented objects such as cups, cutlery, soccer balls, nozzles, screw top-lids, spoons, so that the technology that makes therapeutic exercise game-playing possible is largely invisible (Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 89:2213-2217, 2008). The basic approach to adaptive learning (AL) in the proposed telegaming environment is ethology-inspired and is quite different from the traditional approach to reinforcement learning. In biologically-inspired learning, organisms learn to achieve some goal by durable modification of behaviours in response to signals from the environment resulting from specific experiences (Animal Behavior, 1995). The term adaptive is used here in an ethological sense, where learning by an organism results from modifying behaviour in response to perceived changes in the environment. To instill adaptivity in a video game, it is assumed that learning by a video game is episodic. During an episode, the behaviour of a player is measured indirectly by tracking the occurrence of gaming events such as a hit or a miss of a target (e.g., hitting a moving ball with a game paddle). An ethogram provides a record of behaviour feature values that provide a basis a functional registry for handicapped players for gaming adaptivity. An important practical application of adaptive gaming is therapeutic rehabilitation exercise carried out in parallel with playing action video games. Enjoyable and

  9. Genetic erosion impedes adaptive responses to stressful environments

    PubMed Central

    Bijlsma, R; Loeschcke, Volker

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity is increasingly subjected to human-induced changes of the environment. To persist, populations continually have to adapt to these often stressful changes including pollution and climate change. Genetic erosion in small populations, owing to fragmentation of natural habitats, is expected to obstruct such adaptive responses: (i) genetic drift will cause a decrease in the level of adaptive genetic variation, thereby limiting evolutionary responses; (ii) inbreeding and the concomitant inbreeding depression will reduce individual fitness and, consequently, the tolerance of populations to environmental stress. Importantly, inbreeding generally increases the sensitivity of a population to stress, thereby increasing the amount of inbreeding depression. As adaptation to stress is most often accompanied by increased mortality (cost of selection), the increase in the ‘cost of inbreeding’ under stress is expected to severely hamper evolutionary adaptive processes. Inbreeding thus plays a pivotal role in this process and is expected to limit the probability of genetically eroded populations to successfully adapt to stressful environmental conditions. Consequently, the dynamics of small fragmented populations may differ considerably from large nonfragmented populations. The resilience of fragmented populations to changing and deteriorating environments is expected to be greatly decreased. Alleviating inbreeding depression, therefore, is crucial to ensure population persistence. PMID:25568035

  10. A neural learning classifier system with self-adaptive constructivism for mobile robot control.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jacob; Bull, Larry

    2006-01-01

    For artificial entities to achieve true autonomy and display complex lifelike behavior, they will need to exploit appropriate adaptable learning algorithms. In this context adaptability implies flexibility guided by the environment at any given time and an open-ended ability to learn appropriate behaviors. This article examines the use of constructivism-inspired mechanisms within a neural learning classifier system architecture that exploits parameter self-adaptation as an approach to realize such behavior. The system uses a rule structure in which each rule is represented by an artificial neural network. It is shown that appropriate internal rule complexity emerges during learning at a rate controlled by the learner and that the structure indicates underlying features of the task. Results are presented in simulated mazes before moving to a mobile robot platform.

  11. Simulated Medical Learning Environments on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Dev, Parvati; Montgomery, Kevin; Senger, Steven; Heinrichs, W. Leroy; Srivastava, Sakti; Waldron, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Learning anatomy and surgical procedures requires both a conceptual understanding of three-dimensional anatomy and a hands-on manipulation of tools and tissue. Such virtual resources are not available widely, are expensive, and may be culturally disallowed. Simulation technology, using high-performance computers and graphics, permits realistic real-time display of anatomy. Haptics technology supports the ability to probe and feel this virtual anatomy through the use of virtual tools. The Internet permits world-wide access to resources. We have brought together high-performance servers and high-bandwidth communication using the Next Generation Internet and complex bimanual haptics to simulate a tool-based learning environment for wide use. This article presents the technologic basis of this environment and some evaluation of its use in the gross anatomy course at Stanford University. PMID:12223496

  12. Learning procedural planning knowledge in complex environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Autonomous agents functioning in complex and rapidly changing environments can improve their task performance if they update and correct their world model over the life of the agent. Existing research on this problem can be divided into two classes. First, reinforcement learners that use weak inductive methods to directly modify an agent`s procedural execution knowledge. These systems are robust in dynamic and complex environments but generally do not support planning or the pursuit of multiple goals and learn slowly as a result of their weak methods. In contrast, the second category, theory revision systems, learn declarative planning knowledge through stronger methods that use explicit reasoning to identify and correct errors in the agent`s domain knowledge. However, these methods are generally only applicable to agents with instantaneous actions in fully sensed domains.

  13. Pre-Service English Teachers in Blended Learning Environment in Respect to Their Learning Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, M. Betul; Orhan, Feza

    2010-01-01

    Blended learning environment (BLE) is increasingly used in the world, especially in university degrees and it is based on integrating web-based learning and face-to-face (FTF) learning environments. Besides integrating different learning environments, BLE also addresses to students with different learning approaches. The "learning…

  14. Integrating Learning, Problem Solving, and Engagement in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Jonathan P.; Shores, Lucy R.; Mott, Bradford W.; Lester, James C.

    2011-01-01

    A key promise of narrative-centered learning environments is the ability to make learning engaging. However, there is concern that learning and engagement may be at odds in these game-based learning environments. This view suggests that, on the one hand, students interacting with a game-based learning environment may be engaged but unlikely to…

  15. Models of Cognition in Distributed Learning Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-13

    SUBTITLE Models of Cognition in Distributed Learning Environments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Institute for Defense Analyses,4850 Mark...Center Dr ,Alexandria,VA,22311 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR

  16. Foreign language learning in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Benjamin; Sheldon, Lee; Si, Mei; Hand, Anton

    2012-03-01

    Virtual reality has long been used for training simulations in fields from medicine to welding to vehicular operation, but simulations involving more complex cognitive skills present new design challenges. Foreign language learning, for example, is increasingly vital in the global economy, but computer-assisted education is still in its early stages. Immersive virtual reality is a promising avenue for language learning as a way of dynamically creating believable scenes for conversational training and role-play simulation. Visual immersion alone, however, only provides a starting point. We suggest that the addition of social interactions and motivated engagement through narrative gameplay can lead to truly effective language learning in virtual environments. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel application for teaching Mandarin using CAVE-like VR, physical props, human actors and intelligent virtual agents, all within a semester-long multiplayer mystery game. Students travel (virtually) to China on a class field trip, which soon becomes complicated with intrigue and mystery surrounding the lost manuscript of an early Chinese literary classic. Virtual reality environments such as the Forbidden City and a Beijing teahouse provide the setting for learning language, cultural traditions, and social customs, as well as the discovery of clues through conversation in Mandarin with characters in the game.

  17. Adaptations to local environments in modern human populations.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Choongwon; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2014-12-01

    After leaving sub-Saharan Africa around 50000-100000 years ago, anatomically modern humans have quickly occupied extremely diverse environments. Human populations were exposed to further environmental changes resulting from cultural innovations, such as the spread of farming, which gave rise to new selective pressures related to pathogen exposures and dietary shifts. In addition to changing the frequency of individual adaptive alleles, natural selection may also shape the overall genetic architecture of adaptive traits. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of adaptive human phenotypes based on insights from the studies of lactase persistence, skin pigmentation and high-altitude adaptation. These adaptations evolved in parallel in multiple human populations, providing a chance to investigate independent realizations of the evolutionary process. We suggest that the outcome of adaptive evolution is often highly variable even under similar selective pressures. Finally, we highlight a growing need for detecting adaptations that did not follow the classical sweep model and for incorporating new sources of genetic evidence such as information from ancient DNA.

  18. Learning Environments Designed According to Learning Styles and Its Effects on Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özerem, Aysen; Akkoyunlu, Buket

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: While designing a learning environment it is vital to think about learner characteristics (learning styles, approaches, motivation, interests… etc.) in order to promote effective learning. The learning environment and learning process should be designed not to enable students to learn in the same manner and at the same level,…

  19. A Learning Style Perspective to Investigate the Necessity of Developing Adaptive Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Sung, Han-Yu; Hung, Chun-Ming; Huang, Iwen

    2013-01-01

    Learning styles are considered to be one of the factors that need to be taken into account in developing adaptive learning systems. However, few studies have been conducted to investigate if students have the ability to choose the best-fit e-learning systems or content presentation styles for themselves in terms of learning style perspective. In…

  20. An Intelligent E-Learning System Based on Learner Profiling and Learning Resources Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tzouveli, Paraskevi; Mylonas, Phivos; Kollias, Stefanos

    2008-01-01

    Taking advantage of the continuously improving, web-based learning systems plays an important role for self-learning, especially in the case of working people. Nevertheless, learning systems do not generally adapt to learners' profiles. Learners have to spend a lot of time before reaching the learning goal that is compatible with their knowledge…

  1. Active Learning Environment with Lenses in Geometric Optics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tural, Güner

    2015-01-01

    Geometric optics is one of the difficult topics for students within physics discipline. Students learn better via student-centered active learning environments than the teacher-centered learning environments. So this study aimed to present a guide for middle school teachers to teach lenses in geometric optics via active learning environment…

  2. Perspectives on Personal Learning Environments Held by Vocational Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valtonen, Teemu; Hacklin, Stina; Dillon, Patrick; Vesisenaho, Mikko; Kukkonen, Jari; Hietanen, Aija

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on personal learning environments (PLEs). The idea with PLEs is to put students in a more central position in the learning process by allowing them to design their own learning environments and by emphasising the self-regulated nature of the learning. This study describes the structure, functions and challenges of PLEs made by…

  3. Practical Applications and Experiences in K-20 Blended Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyei-Blankson, Lydia, Ed.; Ntuli, Esther, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Learning environments continue to change considerably and is no longer confined to the face-to-face classroom setting. As learning options have evolved, educators must adopt a variety of pedagogical strategies and innovative technologies to enable learning. "Practical Applications and Experiences in K-20 Blended Learning Environments"…

  4. Virtual Learning Environment for Interactive Engagement with Advanced Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Mads Kock; Skyum, Birk; Heck, Robert; Müller, Romain; Bason, Mark; Lieberoth, Andreas; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2016-01-01

    A virtual learning environment can engage university students in the learning process in ways that the traditional lectures and lab formats cannot. We present our virtual learning environment "StudentResearcher," which incorporates simulations, multiple-choice quizzes, video lectures, and gamification into a learning path for quantum…

  5. Evaluating and Implementing Learning Environments: A United Kingdom Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Bruce; Watson, Barbara; McDowell, Liz; Brockett, Adrian; Fitzpatrick, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Reports on ongoing work at five universities in northeastern England that have been evaluating and implementing online learning environments known as virtual learning environments (VLEs) or managed learning environments (MLEs). Discusses do-it-yourself versus commercial systems; transferability; Web-based versus client-server; integration with…

  6. Hispanic Families as Learning Environments for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Lourdes Diaz

    This report reviews research related to the home learning environment and presents a study on the home learning environment of young Hispanic children. Research has progressed from concern with home learning environment variables such as ethnicity, socio-economic variables and demographic characteristics to more relevant issues concerning…

  7. Enhancing Student Motivation and Learning within Adaptive Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrow, Korinn S.

    2015-01-01

    My research is rooted in improving K-12 educational practice using motivational facets made possible through adaptive tutoring systems. In an attempt to isolate best practices within the science of learning, I conduct randomized controlled trials within ASSISTments, an online adaptive tutoring system that provides assistance and assessment to…

  8. Implementation of an Adaptive Learning System Using a Bayesian Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yasuda, Keiji; Kawashima, Hiroyuki; Hata, Yoko; Kimura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive learning system is proposed that incorporates a Bayesian network to efficiently gauge learners' understanding at the course-unit level. Also, learners receive content that is adapted to their measured level of understanding. The system works on an iPad via the Edmodo platform. A field experiment using the system in an elementary school…

  9. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  10. Lessons learned in command environment development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Daniel F.; Collie, Brad E.

    2000-11-01

    As we consider the issues associated with the development of an Integrated Command Environment (ICE), we must obviously consider the rich history in the development of control rooms, operations centers, information centers, dispatch offices, and other command and control environments. This paper considers the historical perspective of control environments from the industrial revolution through the information revolution, and examines the historical influences and the implications that that has for us today. Environments to be considered are military command and control spaces, emergency response centers, medical response centers, nuclear reactor control rooms, and operations centers. Historical 'lessons learned' from the development and evolution of these environments will be examined to determine valuable models to use, and those to be avoided. What are the pitfalls? What are the assumptions that drive the environment design? Three case histories will be presented, examining (1) the control room of the Three Mile Island power plant, (2) the redesign of the US Naval Space Command operations center, and (3) a testbed for an ICE aboard a naval surface combatant.

  11. Reinforcement Learning for the Adaptive Control of Perception and Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    This dissertation applies reinforcement learning to the adaptive control of active sensory-motor systems. Active sensory-motor systems, in addition...distinct states in the external world. This phenomenon, called perceptual aliasing, is shown to destabilize existing reinforcement learning algorithms

  12. RASCAL: A Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, John Christopher

    Both the background of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems in general and the requirements of a computer-aided learning system which would be a reasonable assistant to a teacher are discussed. RASCAL (Rudimentary Adaptive System for Computer-Aided Learning) is a first attempt at defining a CAI system which would individualize the learning…

  13. Learning to adapt: Dynamics of readaptation to geometrical distortions.

    PubMed

    Yehezkel, Oren; Sagi, Dov; Sterkin, Anna; Belkin, Michael; Polat, Uri

    2010-07-21

    The visual system can adapt to optical blur, whereby the adapted image is perceived as sharp. Here we show that adaptation reduces blur-induced biases in shape perception, with repeated adaptations (perceptual learning), leading to unbiased perception upon re-exposure to blur. Observers wore a cylindrical lens of +1.00 D on one eye, thus simulating monocular astigmatism. The other eye was either masked with a translucent blurred lens (monocular) or unmasked (dichoptic). Adaptation was tested in several repeated sessions with a proximity-grouping task, using horizontally or vertically arranged dot-arrays, without feedback, before, after, and throughout the adaptation period. A robust bias in global-orientation judgment was observed with the lens, in accordance with the blur axes. After the observer wore the lens for 2 h, there was no significant change in the bias, but after 4 h, the monocular condition, but not the dichoptic, resulted in reduced bias. The adaptation effect of the monocular 4-h adaptation was preserved, and even improved, when the lens was re-applied the next day, indicating learning. After-effects were observed under all experimental conditions except for the 4-h monocular condition, where learning took place. We suggest that, with long experience, adaptation is transferred to a long-term memory that can be instantly engaged when blur is re-applied, or disengaged when blur is removed, thus leaving no after-effects. The comparison between the monocular and dichoptic conditions indicates a binocular cortical site of plasticity.

  14. A Development of Learning Widget on M-Learning and E-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, SooHwan; Kim, HyeonCheol; Han, SeonKwan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the development of learning widget on m-learning and e-learning environments. A widget is a small, simple and useful application supporting user-oriented contents. The user may select and install widgets that are convenient as well as an auto-updating application including weather or calendar. These widgets are especially…

  15. Becoming a Coach in Developmental Adaptive Sailing: A Lifelong Learning Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Tiago; Culver, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Life-story methodology and innovative methods were used to explore the process of becoming a developmental adaptive sailing coach. Jarvis's (2009) lifelong learning theory framed the thematic analysis. The findings revealed that the coach, Jenny, was exposed from a young age to collaborative environments. Social interactions with others such as mentors, colleagues, and athletes made major contributions to her coaching knowledge. As Jenny was exposed to a mixture of challenges and learning situations, she advanced from recreational para-swimming instructor to developmental adaptive sailing coach. The conclusions inform future research in disability sport coaching, coach education, and applied sport psychology. PMID:25210408

  16. Teachers' Adaptive Instruction Supporting Students' Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Margaret; Parsons, Seth A.; Gallagher, Melissa A.; Branen, Jeneille

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive teaching is an instructional approach where differences among learners are clearly recognized. For the last decade, our research team has studied literacy teachers' instructional adaptations in numerous classrooms in different regions of the United States. In this article, we share conclusions and insights from this longitudinal research.…

  17. Context Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environments for Peer-to-Peer Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2006-01-01

    A ubiquitous learning environment provides an interoperable, pervasive, and seamless learning architecture to connect, integrate, and share three major dimensions of learning resources: learning collaborators, learning contents, and learning services. Ubiquitous learning is characterized by providing intuitive ways for identifying right learning…

  18. On Development of an Adaptive Tutoring System for Calculus Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Hisashi

    2010-06-01

    One-on-one tutoring is known to be an effective model for learning calculus. Therefore, implementing one-on-one tutoring system into calculus learning software is a natural thing to do. The purpose of this article is to describe how to diagnose a students' knowledge structure about calculus without asking many questions and to show how an adaptive tutoring system is implemented into our calculus learning software JCALC.

  19. Rural Junior Secondary School Students' Perceptions of Classroom Learning Environments and Their Attitude and Achievement in Mathematics in West China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xinrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a survey of how rural junior secondary school students in the western part of China perceive their mathematics classroom learning environments and associations of learning environment with their attitudes toward mathematics and mathematics achievement. Using adaptations of the widely-used What Is Happening In this…

  20. Distance learning in the digital environment.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, R H; Katzman, G L; Dilda, P; Harnsberger, H R; Davidson, H C

    2001-06-01

    The expansion of radiology departments and divisions often can not occur in adjacent geographic locations. This leads to a greater separation of staff and residents, as well as workers in similar divisions. This makes traditional teaching difficult in academic institutions. The economic drive forcing many departments to investigate more isolated outpatient imaging centers has further hindered the ability to continue effective academic training at many facilities. The ability to easily share a digital environment across physical distance can greatly enhance the teaching experience, as well as be a valuable tool for consultation and case discussion with referring clinicians. The transition to a filmless environment with picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) can be utilized for distance learning in addition to the clinical arena. It is possible to take advantage of the digital transformation to PACS and case-viewing browser programs to conduct improved interactions with referring clinicians as well as radiologic teaching with relatively minimal hardware and software demands. The integration of web-based teleradiology programs with business networking software can be used for effective distance learning in the digital environment, sufficiently closing the distance on our rapidly expanding departments. This same technology allows for greater interaction with referring clinicians for real-time consultation and enhanced case discussion to entrench a supportive referral base for the radiologic community.

  1. Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in primary cervical dystonia.

    PubMed

    Katschnig-Winter, Petra; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Davare, Marco; Sadnicka, Anna; Schmidt, Reinhold; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Edwards, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Motor sequence learning and motor adaptation rely on overlapping circuits predominantly involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Given the importance of these brain regions to the pathophysiology of primary dystonia, and the previous finding of abnormal motor sequence learning in DYT1 gene carriers, we explored motor sequence learning and motor adaptation in patients with primary cervical dystonia. We recruited 12 patients with cervical dystonia and 11 healthy controls matched for age. Subjects used a joystick to move a cursor from a central starting point to radial targets as fast and accurately as possible. Using this device, we recorded baseline motor performance, motor sequence learning and a visuomotor adaptation task. Patients with cervical dystonia had a significantly higher peak velocity than controls. Baseline performance with random target presentation was otherwise normal. Patients and controls had similar levels of motor sequence learning and motor adaptation. Our patients had significantly higher peak velocity compared to controls, with similar movement times, implying a different performance strategy. The preservation of motor sequence learning in cervical dystonia patients contrasts with the previously observed deficit seen in patients with DYT1 gene mutations, supporting the hypothesis of differing pathophysiology in different forms of primary dystonia. Normal motor adaptation is an interesting finding. With our paradigm we did not find evidence that the previously documented cerebellar abnormalities in cervical dystonia have a behavioral correlate, and thus could be compensatory or reflect "contamination" rather than being directly pathological.

  2. Hydrogenosomes: convergent adaptations of mitochondria to anaerobic environments.

    PubMed

    Hackstein, J H; Akhmanova, A; Voncken, F; van Hoek, A; van Alen, T; Boxma, B; Moon-van der Staay, S Y; van der Staay, G; Leunissen, J; Huynen, M; Rosenberg, J; Veenhuis, M

    2001-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are membrane-bound organelles that compartmentalise the final steps of energy metabolism in a number of anaerobic eukaryotes. They produce hydrogen and ATP. Here we will review the data, which are relevant for the questions: how did the hydrogenosomes originate, and what was their ancestor? Notably, there is strong evidence that hydrogenosomes evolved several times as adaptations to anaerobic environments. Most likely, hydrogenosomes and mitochondria share a common ancestor, but an unequivocal proof for this hypothesis is difficult because hydrogenosomes lack an organelle genome - with one remarkable exception (Nyctotherus ovalis). In particular, the diversity of extant hydrogenosomes hampers a straightforward analysis of their origins. Nevertheless, it is conceivable to postulate that the common ancestor of mitochondria and hydrogenosomes was a facultative anaerobic organelle that participated in the early radiation of unicellular eukaryotes. Consequently, it is reasonable to assume that both, hydrogenosomes and mitochondria are evolutionary adaptations to anaerobic or aerobic environments, respectively.

  3. Course Material Model in A&O Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levasma, Jarkko; Nykanen, Ossi

    One of the problematic issues in the content development for learning environments is the process of importing various types of course material into the environment. This paper describes a method for importing material into the A&O open learning environment by introducing a material model for metadata recognized by the environment. The first…

  4. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  5. Relationship between learning environment characteristics and academic engagement.

    PubMed

    Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Minnaert, Alexander

    2011-08-01

    The relationship between learning environment characteristics and academic engagement of 777 Grade 6 children located in 41 learning environments was explored. Questionnaires were used to tap learning environment perceptions of children, their academic engagement, and their ethnic-cultural background. The basis of the learning environment questionnaire was the International System for Teacher Observation and Feedback (ISTOF). Factor analysis indicated three factors: the teacher as a helpful and good instructor (having good instructional skills, clear instruction), the teacher as promoter of active learning and differentiation, and the teacher as manager and organizer of classroom activities. Multilevel analysis indicated that about 12% of the differences in engagement between children was related to the learning environment. All the mentioned learning environment characteristics mattered, but the teacher as a helpful, good instructor was most important followed by the teacher as promoter of active learning and differentiation.

  6. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account.

  7. Co-Evolution of Social Learning and Evolutionary Preparedness in Dangerous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Björn; Selbing, Ida; Olsson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Danger is a fundamental aspect of the lives of most animals. Adaptive behavior therefore requires avoiding actions, objects, and environments associated with danger. Previous research has shown that humans and non-human animals can avoid such dangers through two types of behavioral adaptions, (i) genetic preparedness to avoid certain stimuli or actions, and (ii) social learning. These adaptive mechanisms reduce the fitness costs associated with danger but still allow flexible behavior. Despite the empirical prevalence and importance of both these mechanisms, it is unclear when they evolve and how they interact. We used evolutionary agent-based simulations, incorporating empirically based learning mechanisms, to clarify if preparedness and social learning typically both evolve in dangerous environments, and if these mechanisms generally interact synergistically or antagonistically. Our simulations showed that preparedness and social learning often co-evolve because they provide complimentary benefits: genetic preparedness reduced foraging efficiency, but resulted in a higher rate of survival in dangerous environments, while social learning generally came to dominate the population, especially when the environment was stochastic. However, even in this case, genetic preparedness reliably evolved. Broadly, our results indicate that the relationship between preparedness and social learning is important as it can result in trade-offs between behavioral flexibility and safety, which can lead to seemingly suboptimal behavior if the evolutionary environment of the organism is not taken into account. PMID:27487079

  8. Vocabulary and Environment Adaptation in Vocabulary-Independent Speech Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    normalization (ISDCN) proposed by Acero et al. [2] for microphone adaptation are incorporated into the our VI system to achieve environmental...reverberation from surface reflec- tions, etc. Acero at al. [1,2] proposed a series of environment normal- ization algorithms based on joint...support. References [1] Acero , A. Acoustical and Environmental Robustness in Auto- matic Speech Recognition. Department of Electrical Engineer- ing

  9. Seeing is believing: effects of visual contextual cues on learning and transfer of locomotor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Torres-Oviedo, Gelsy; Bastian, Amy J

    2010-12-15

    Devices such as robots or treadmills are often used to drive motor learning because they can create novel physical environments. However, the learning (i.e., adaptation) acquired on these devices only partially generalizes to natural movements. What determines the specificity of motor learning, and can this be reliably made more general? Here we investigated the effect of visual cues on the specificity of split-belt walking adaptation. We systematically removed vision to eliminate the visual-proprioceptive mismatch that is a salient cue specific to treadmills: vision indicates that we are not moving while leg proprioception indicates that we are. We evaluated the adaptation of temporal and spatial features of gait (i.e., timing and location of foot landing), their transfer to walking over ground, and washout of adaptation when subjects returned to the treadmill. Removing vision during both training (i.e., on the treadmill) and testing (i.e., over ground) strongly improved the transfer of treadmill adaptation to natural walking. Removing vision only during training increased transfer of temporal adaptation, whereas removing vision only during testing increased the transfer of spatial adaptation. This dissociation reveals differences in adaptive mechanisms for temporal and spatial features of walking. Finally training without vision increased the amount that was learned and was linked to the variability in the behavior during adaptation. In conclusion, contextual cues can be manipulated to modulate the magnitude, transfer, and washout of device-induced learning in humans. These results bring us closer to our ultimate goal of developing rehabilitation strategies that improve movements beyond the clinical setting.

  10. Temporal Learning Analytics for Adaptive Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papamitsiou, Zacharoula; Economides, Anastasios A.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and early predictions of student performance could significantly affect interventions during teaching and assessment, which gradually could lead to improved learning outcomes. In our research, we seek to identify and formalize temporal parameters as predictors of performance ("temporal learning analytics" or TLA) and examine…

  11. A model for culturally adapting a learning system.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, M L

    1975-12-01

    The Cross-Cultural Adaption Model (XCAM) is designed to help identify cultural values contained in the text, narration, or visual components of a learning instrument and enables the adapter to evaluate his adapted model so that he can modify or revise it, and allows him to assess the modified version by actually measuring the amount of cultural conflict still present in it. Such a model would permit world-wide adaption of learning materials in population regulation. A random sample of the target group is selected. The adapter develops a measurin g instrument, the cross-cultural adaption scale (XCA), a number of statements about the cultural affinity of the object evaluated. The pretest portion of the sample tests the clarity and understandability of the rating scale to be used for evaluating the instructional materials; the pilot group analyzes the original version of the instructional mater ials, determines the criteria for change, and analyzes the adapted version in terms of these criteria; the control group is administered the original version of the learning materials; and the experimental group is administered the adapted version. Finally, the responses obtained from the XRA rating scale and discussions of both the experimental and control groups are studied and group differences are ev aluated according to cultural conflicts met with each version. With this data, the preferred combination of elements is constructed.

  12. Decision Flexibility in a Learning Environment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    ADOX.98 nECISIOAS AND DESISNS INC MCLEAN VA P/ B 5/to MECIS ION FLEXIBILITY IN A LEARNING ENVIRONMENT.IU) aEc 78 m v mERKIAOFER, W M SAADE N01OOI-78-C...current methods of analysis to account more accurately for the value of flexibility. 17. Sasmimas Ams~bl a& Densupon b . kdlitmsOpa𔃾aid Terms decision...flexibility, versatility, decision analysis, decision making C. COATI flhi/Onup I&. A, sguft Iaiua: N6 .I& a Class (""i bess , 21. Ow of Pea Unclassified

  13. Hypermedia in Vocational Learning: A Hypermedia Learning Environment for Training Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konradt, Udo

    2004-01-01

    A learning environment is defined as an arrangement of issues, methods, techniques, and media in a given domain. Besides temporal and spatial features a learning environment considers the social situation in which learning takes place. In (hypermedia) learning environments the concept of exploration and the active role of the learner is…

  14. Phenotype-environment correlations in a putative whitefish adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Harrod, Chris; Mallela, Jennie; Kahilainen, Kimmo K

    2010-09-01

    1. The adaptive radiation of fishes into benthic (littoral) and pelagic (lentic) morphs in post-glacial lakes has become an important model system for speciation. Although these systems are well studied, there is little evidence of the existence of morphs that have diverged to utilize resources in the remaining principal lake habitat, the profundal zone. 2. Here, we tested phenotype-environment correlations of three whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) morphs that have radiated into littoral, pelagic and profundal niches in northern Scandinavian lakes. We hypothesized that morphs in such trimorphic systems would have a morphology adapted to one of the principal lake habitats (littoral, pelagic or profundal niches). Most whitefish populations in the study area are formed by a single (monomorphic) whitefish morph, and we further hypothesized that these populations should display intermediate morphotypes and niche utilization. We used a combination of traditional (stomach content, habitat use, gill raker counts) and more recently developed (stable isotopes, geometric morphometrics) techniques to evaluate phenotype-environment correlations in two lakes with trimorphic and two lakes with monomorphic whitefish. 3. Distinct phenotype-environment correlations were evident for each principal niche in whitefish morphs inhabiting trimorphic lakes. Monomorphic whitefish exploited multiple habitats, had intermediate morphology, displayed increased variance in gillraker-counts, and relied significantly on zooplankton, most likely due to relaxed resource competition. 4. We suggest that the ecological processes acting in the trimorphic lakes are similar to each other, and are driving the adaptive evolution of whitefish morphs, possibly leading to the formation of new species.

  15. Learning in a u-Museum: Developing a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-Chen; Huang, Tien-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Context-awareness techniques can support learners in learning without time or location constraints by using mobile devices and associated learning activities in a real learning environment. Enrichment of context-aware technologies has enabled students to learn in an environment that integrates learning resources from both the real world and the…

  16. Distributing vs. Blocking Learning Questions in a Web-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapp, Felix; Proske, Antje; Narciss, Susanne; Körndle, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Effective studying in web-based learning environments (web-LEs) requires cognitive engagement and demands learners to regulate their learning activities. One way to support learners in web-LEs is to provide interactive learning questions within the learning environment. Even though research on learning questions has a long tradition, there are…

  17. Adaptive quantum computation in changing environments using projective simulation

    PubMed Central

    Tiersch, M.; Ganahl, E. J.; Briegel, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Quantum information processing devices need to be robust and stable against external noise and internal imperfections to ensure correct operation. In a setting of measurement-based quantum computation, we explore how an intelligent agent endowed with a projective simulator can act as controller to adapt measurement directions to an external stray field of unknown magnitude in a fixed direction. We assess the agent’s learning behavior in static and time-varying fields and explore composition strategies in the projective simulator to improve the agent’s performance. We demonstrate the applicability by correcting for stray fields in a measurement-based algorithm for Grover’s search. Thereby, we lay out a path for adaptive controllers based on intelligent agents for quantum information tasks. PMID:26260263

  18. Adaptive quantum computation in changing environments using projective simulation.

    PubMed

    Tiersch, M; Ganahl, E J; Briegel, H J

    2015-08-11

    Quantum information processing devices need to be robust and stable against external noise and internal imperfections to ensure correct operation. In a setting of measurement-based quantum computation, we explore how an intelligent agent endowed with a projective simulator can act as controller to adapt measurement directions to an external stray field of unknown magnitude in a fixed direction. We assess the agent's learning behavior in static and time-varying fields and explore composition strategies in the projective simulator to improve the agent's performance. We demonstrate the applicability by correcting for stray fields in a measurement-based algorithm for Grover's search. Thereby, we lay out a path for adaptive controllers based on intelligent agents for quantum information tasks.

  19. Adaptive quantum computation in changing environments using projective simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiersch, M.; Ganahl, E. J.; Briegel, H. J.

    2015-08-01

    Quantum information processing devices need to be robust and stable against external noise and internal imperfections to ensure correct operation. In a setting of measurement-based quantum computation, we explore how an intelligent agent endowed with a projective simulator can act as controller to adapt measurement directions to an external stray field of unknown magnitude in a fixed direction. We assess the agent’s learning behavior in static and time-varying fields and explore composition strategies in the projective simulator to improve the agent’s performance. We demonstrate the applicability by correcting for stray fields in a measurement-based algorithm for Grover’s search. Thereby, we lay out a path for adaptive controllers based on intelligent agents for quantum information tasks.

  20. Achieving Adaptability through Inquiry Based Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    knowledge. IBL is based on a different conception of learning, one traceable back to John Dewey (1910) and Jean Piaget (1972; von Glasersfeld, 1995) and...Dewey, 1910; Duffy 2009; Piaget , 1972; Schank, Fano, Bell, and Jona, 1993). If the learners are focused on figuring out what the instructor wants...errors or the inability to fully make sense of a situation provides the basis for learning ( Piaget , 1973; Schank, et al, 1993). Thus the errors

  1. International Students' Culture Learning and Cultural Adaptation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Ran; Chiang, Shiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    This article examines international students' cultural adaptation at a major national university in China. A survey was designed to measure international students' adaptation to the Chinese sociocultural and educational environments in terms of five dimensions: (1) cultural empathy, (2) open-mindedness, (3) emotional stability, (4) social…

  2. Distributed Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimizer in Dynamic Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Potok, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    In the real world, we have to frequently deal with searching and tracking an optimal solution in a dynamical and noisy environment. This demands that the algorithm not only find the optimal solution but also track the trajectory of the changing solution. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is a population-based stochastic optimization technique, which can find an optimal, or near optimal, solution to a numerical and qualitative problem. In PSO algorithm, the problem solution emerges from the interactions between many simple individual agents called particles, which make PSO an inherently distributed algorithm. However, the traditional PSO algorithm lacks the ability to track the optimal solution in a dynamic and noisy environment. In this paper, we present a distributed adaptive PSO (DAPSO) algorithm that can be used for tracking a non-stationary optimal solution in a dynamically changing and noisy environment.

  3. Learning in 3D Virtual Environments: Collaboration and Knowledge Spirals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Brian G.; Martin, Barbara N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine if learning occurred within a 3D virtual learning environment by determining if elements of collaboration and Nonaka and Takeuchi's (1995) knowledge spiral were present. A key portion of this research was the creation of a Virtual Learning Environment. This 3D VLE utilized the Torque Game Engine…

  4. Metacognition: Implications for Research in Hypermedia-Based Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiaodong

    In learning environments which provide little structure (e.g., hypermedia systems) students have an especially strong need to regulate and control their own learning. However, a review of the literature indicates that merely providing learners with flexible learning environments does not necessarily mean that they will effectively explore and…

  5. Research in Online Learning Environments: Priorities and Methodologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oncu, Semiral; Cakir, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Due to increasing demand for education and training in the information age, online learning and teaching is becoming a necessity in our future. However, lack of research goals to understand impact of online learning environments on students is a problem in research on online learning environments. We identified four main research goals to pursue…

  6. The Impact of Multitasking Learning Environments in the Middle Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drinkwine, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This research study considers the status of middle school students in the 21st century in terms of their tendency to multitask in their daily lives and the overall influence this multitasking has on teaching and learning environments. Student engagement in the learning environment and students' various learning styles are discussed as primary…

  7. Architecture and Children: Learning Environments and Design Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Anne, Ed.; Muhlberger, Joe, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This issue addresses (1) growing international interest in learning environments and their effects on behavior, and (2) design education, an integrated model for visual-spatial lifelong learning. It focuses on this new and emerging integrated field which integrates elements in education, new learning environment design, and the use of more two-…

  8. Preservice Teachers' Perception and Use of Personal Learning Environments (PLEs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Sami; Uluyol, Çelebi

    2016-01-01

    Personal learning environments (PLEs) are Web 2.0 tools and services by which users' access, construct, manage, and share educational contents in order to meet their learning needs. These environments enable users to manage their learning according to their own personal preferences. They further promote socialization and collaboration with their…

  9. Student-Teacher Interaction in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert D., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    As face-to-face interaction between student and instructor is not present in online learning environments, it is increasingly important to understand how to establish and maintain social presence in online learning. "Student-Teacher Interaction in Online Learning Environments" provides successful strategies and procedures for developing…

  10. Open Learning Environments and the Impact of a Pedagogical Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarebout, Geraldine; Elen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Research reveals that in highly structured learning environments pedagogical agents can act as tools to direct students' learning processes by providing content or problem solving guidance. It has not yet been addressed whether pedagogical agents have a similar impact in more open learning environments that aim at fostering students' acquisition…

  11. The Impact of Emotional Arousal on Learning in Virtual Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    positive impact on human learning. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the impact of emotional arousal on learning in virtual environments. An...reason that emotional arousal (in moderation) may also have a positive impact on human learning. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the...1 A. TRAINING IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS.................. 2 B. HUMAN MEMORY AND EMOTION ......................... 6 C

  12. Predicting Student Performance in a Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Jennifer K.; Aleven, Vincent; Rummel, Nikol

    2015-01-01

    Student models for adaptive systems may not model collaborative learning optimally. Past research has either focused on modeling individual learning or for collaboration, has focused on group dynamics or group processes without predicting learning. In the current paper, we adjust the Additive Factors Model (AFM), a standard logistic regression…

  13. Behavioral Feature Extraction to Determine Learning Styles in e-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatahi, Somayeh; Moradi, Hadi; Farmad, Elaheh

    2015-01-01

    Learning Style (LS) is an important parameter in the learning process. Therefore, learning styles should be considered in the design, development, and implementation of e-learning environments. Consequently, an important capability of an e-learning system could be the automatic determination of a student's learning style. In this paper, a set of…

  14. Factors Influencing Learning Environments in an Integrated Experiential Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koci, Peter

    The research conducted for this dissertation examined the learning environment of a specific high school program that delivered the explicit curriculum through an integrated experiential manner, which utilized field and outdoor experiences. The program ran over one semester (five months) and it integrated the grade 10 British Columbian curriculum in five subjects. A mixed methods approach was employed to identify the students' perceptions and provide richer descriptions of their experiences related to their unique learning environment. Quantitative instruments were used to assess changes in students' perspectives of their learning environment, as well as other supporting factors including students' mindfulness, and behaviours towards the environment. Qualitative data collection included observations, open-ended questions, and impromptu interviews with the teacher. The qualitative data describe the factors and processes that influenced the learning environment and give a richer, deeper interpretation which complements the quantitative findings. The research results showed positive scores on all the quantitative measures conducted, and the qualitative data provided further insight into descriptions of learning environment constructs that the students perceived as most important. A major finding was that the group cohesion measure was perceived by students as the most important attribute of their preferred learning environment. A flow chart was developed to help the researcher conceptualize how the learning environment, learning process, and outcomes relate to one another in the studied program. This research attempts to explain through the consideration of this case study: how learning environments can influence behavioural change and how an interconnectedness among several factors in the learning process is influenced by the type of learning environment facilitated. Considerably more research is needed in this area to understand fully the complexity learning

  15. Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems (CASOS) engineering environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Detry, Richard Joseph; Linebarger, John Michael; Finley, Patrick D.; Maffitt, S. Louise; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Ames, Arlo Leroy

    2012-02-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems of Systems, or CASoS, are vastly complex physical-socio-technical systems which we must understand to design a secure future for the nation. The Phoenix initiative implements CASoS Engineering principles combining the bottom up Complex Systems and Complex Adaptive Systems view with the top down Systems Engineering and System-of-Systems view. CASoS Engineering theory and practice must be conducted together to develop a discipline that is grounded in reality, extends our understanding of how CASoS behave and allows us to better control the outcomes. The pull of applications (real world problems) is critical to this effort, as is the articulation of a CASoS Engineering Framework that grounds an engineering approach in the theory of complex adaptive systems of systems. Successful application of the CASoS Engineering Framework requires modeling, simulation and analysis (MS and A) capabilities and the cultivation of a CASoS Engineering Community of Practice through knowledge sharing and facilitation. The CASoS Engineering Environment, itself a complex adaptive system of systems, constitutes the two platforms that provide these capabilities.

  16. Teacher Adaptation to Open Learning Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alterator, Scott; Deed, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The "open classroom" emerged as a reaction against the industrial-era enclosed and authoritarian classroom. Although contemporary school architecture continues to incorporate and express ideas of openness, more research is needed about how teachers adapt to new and different built contexts. Our purpose is to identify teacher reaction to…

  17. Learning to Adapt to Asymmetric Threats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    14. Gresham, Frank M., and Stephen N. Elliot , “The Relationship Between Adaptive Behavior and Social Skills: Issues in Definition and Assessment...Foundation of US Hegemony,” International Security, Vol. 28, No. 1 Summer 2003, pp 5–46. Quinn , Robert E., “Building the Bridge as you Walk on it

  18. An adaptive learning control system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mekel, R.; Nachmias, S.

    1978-01-01

    A learning control system and its utilization as a flight control system for F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) research aircraft is studied. The system has the ability to adjust a gain schedule to account for changing plant characteristics and to improve its performance and the plant's performance in the course of its own operation. Three subsystems are detailed: (1) the information acquisition subsystem which identifies the plant's parameters at a given operating condition; (2) the learning algorithm subsystem which relates the identified parameters to predetermined analytical expressions describing the behavior of the parameters over a range of operating conditions; and (3) the memory and control process subsystem which consists of the collection of updated coefficients (memory) and the derived control laws. Simulation experiments indicate that the learning control system is effective in compensating for parameter variations caused by changes in flight conditions.

  19. Students' Preferred Characteristics of Learning Environments in Vocational Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Placklé, Ingeborg; Könings, Karen D.; Jacquet, Wolfgang; Struyven, Katrien; Libotton, Arno; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Engels, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    If teachers and teacher educators are willing to support the learning of students, it is important for them to learn what motivates students to engage in learning. Students have their own preferences on design characteristics of powerful learning environments in vocational education. We developed an instrument--the Inventory Powerful Learning…

  20. Endogenous RNAi and adaptation to environment in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Grishok, Alla

    2012-01-01

    The contributions of short RNAs to the control of repetitive elements are well documented in animals and plants. Here, the role of endogenous RNAi and AF10 homolog ZFP-1 in the adaptation of C. elegans to the environment is discussed. First, modulation of insulin signaling through regulation of transcription of the PDK-1 kinase (Mansisidor et al., PLoS Genetics, 2011) is reviewed. Second, an siRNA-based natural selection model is proposed in which variation in endogenous siRNA pools between individuals is subject to natural selection similarly to DNA-based genetic variation. The value of C. elegans for the research of siRNA-based epigenetic variation and adaptation is highlighted. PMID:24058837

  1. Creating Electronic Learning Environments: Games, Flow, and the User Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marshall G.

    A difficult task in creating rich, exploratory interactive learning environments is building an environment that is truly engaging. Engagement can be defined as the nexus of intrinsic knowledge and/or interest and external stimuli that promote the initial interest in, and continued use of a computer-based learning environment. Complete and total…

  2. Human hyolaryngeal movements show adaptive motor learning during swallowing.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Ianessa A; Christopherson, Heather; Lokhande, Akshay; German, Rebecca; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Marlis; Celnik, Pablo

    2013-06-01

    The hyoid bone and larynx elevate to protect the airway during swallowing. However, it is unknown whether hyolaryngeal movements during swallowing can adjust and adapt to predict the presence of a persistent perturbation in a feed-forward manner (adaptive motor learning). We investigated adaptive motor learning in nine healthy adults. Electrical stimulation was administered to the anterior neck to reduce hyolaryngeal elevation, requiring more strength to swallow during the perturbation period of this study. We assessed peak hyoid bone and laryngeal movements using videofluoroscopy across thirty-five 5-ml water swallows. Evidence of adaptive motor learning of hyolaryngeal movements was found when (1) participants showed systematic gradual increases in elevation against the force of electrical stimulation and (2) hyolaryngeal elevation overshot the baseline (preperturbation) range of motion, showing behavioral aftereffects, when the perturbation was unexpectedly removed. Hyolaryngeal kinematics demonstrates adaptive, error-reducing movements in the presence of changing and unexpected demands. This is significant because individuals with dysphagia often aspirate due to disordered hyolaryngeal movements. Thus, if rapid motor learning is accessible during swallowing in healthy adults, patients may be taught to predict the presence of perturbations and reduce errors in swallowing before they occur.

  3. Professional Learning to Nurture Adaptive Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kar-Tin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study conducted in China to identify the potential benefits of incorporating robotics as an educational tool for 100 primary and 320 secondary school teachers of general technology. The Professional Learning Program was conducted from 2010-2013 in China. The major focus of the program was on the development…

  4. Soft systems thinking and social learning for adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Cundill, G; Cumming, G S; Biggs, D; Fabricius, C

    2012-02-01

    The success of adaptive management in conservation has been questioned and the objective-based management paradigm on which it is based has been heavily criticized. Soft systems thinking and social-learning theory expose errors in the assumption that complex systems can be dispassionately managed by objective observers and highlight the fact that conservation is a social process in which objectives are contested and learning is context dependent. We used these insights to rethink adaptive management in a way that focuses on the social processes involved in management and decision making. Our approach to adaptive management is based on the following assumptions: action toward a common goal is an emergent property of complex social relationships; the introduction of new knowledge, alternative values, and new ways of understanding the world can become a stimulating force for learning, creativity, and change; learning is contextual and is fundamentally about practice; and defining the goal to be addressed is continuous and in principle never ends. We believe five key activities are crucial to defining the goal that is to be addressed in an adaptive-management context and to determining the objectives that are desirable and feasible to the participants: situate the problem in its social and ecological context; raise awareness about alternative views of a problem and encourage enquiry and deconstruction of frames of reference; undertake collaborative actions; and reflect on learning.

  5. Auditory-perceptual learning improves speech motor adaptation in children.

    PubMed

    Shiller, Douglas M; Rochon, Marie-Lyne

    2014-08-01

    Auditory feedback plays an important role in children's speech development by providing the child with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and fine-tune speech motor plans. The use of auditory feedback in speech motor learning has been extensively studied in adults by examining oral motor responses to manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. Children are also capable of adapting speech motor patterns to perceived changes in auditory feedback; however, it is not known whether their capacity for motor learning is limited by immature auditory-perceptual abilities. Here, the link between speech perceptual ability and the capacity for motor learning was explored in two groups of 5- to 7-year-old children who underwent a period of auditory perceptual training followed by tests of speech motor adaptation to altered auditory feedback. One group received perceptual training on a speech acoustic property relevant to the motor task while a control group received perceptual training on an irrelevant speech contrast. Learned perceptual improvements led to an enhancement in speech motor adaptation (proportional to the perceptual change) only for the experimental group. The results indicate that children's ability to perceive relevant speech acoustic properties has a direct influence on their capacity for sensory-based speech motor adaptation.

  6. Modelling Adaptive Learning Behaviours for Consensus Formation in Human Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chao; Tan, Guozhen; Lv, Hongtao; Wang, Zhen; Meng, Jun; Hao, Jianye; Ren, Fenghui

    2016-06-01

    Learning is an important capability of humans and plays a vital role in human society for forming beliefs and opinions. In this paper, we investigate how learning affects the dynamics of opinion formation in social networks. A novel learning model is proposed, in which agents can dynamically adapt their learning behaviours in order to facilitate the formation of consensus among them, and thus establish a consistent social norm in the whole population more efficiently. In the model, agents adapt their opinions through trail-and-error interactions with others. By exploiting historical interaction experience, a guiding opinion, which is considered to be the most successful opinion in the neighbourhood, can be generated based on the principle of evolutionary game theory. Then, depending on the consistency between its own opinion and the guiding opinion, a focal agent can realize whether its opinion complies with the social norm (i.e., the majority opinion that has been adopted) in the population, and adapt its behaviours accordingly. The highlight of the model lies in that it captures the essential features of people’s adaptive learning behaviours during the evolution and formation of opinions. Experimental results show that the proposed model can facilitate the formation of consensus among agents, and some critical factors such as size of opinion space and network topology can have significant influences on opinion dynamics.

  7. Modelling Adaptive Learning Behaviours for Consensus Formation in Human Societies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chao; Tan, Guozhen; Lv, Hongtao; Wang, Zhen; Meng, Jun; Hao, Jianye; Ren, Fenghui

    2016-01-01

    Learning is an important capability of humans and plays a vital role in human society for forming beliefs and opinions. In this paper, we investigate how learning affects the dynamics of opinion formation in social networks. A novel learning model is proposed, in which agents can dynamically adapt their learning behaviours in order to facilitate the formation of consensus among them, and thus establish a consistent social norm in the whole population more efficiently. In the model, agents adapt their opinions through trail-and-error interactions with others. By exploiting historical interaction experience, a guiding opinion, which is considered to be the most successful opinion in the neighbourhood, can be generated based on the principle of evolutionary game theory. Then, depending on the consistency between its own opinion and the guiding opinion, a focal agent can realize whether its opinion complies with the social norm (i.e., the majority opinion that has been adopted) in the population, and adapt its behaviours accordingly. The highlight of the model lies in that it captures the essential features of people’s adaptive learning behaviours during the evolution and formation of opinions. Experimental results show that the proposed model can facilitate the formation of consensus among agents, and some critical factors such as size of opinion space and network topology can have significant influences on opinion dynamics. PMID:27282089

  8. Intellectual Property and Copyright Issues in Online Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szanto, Edit

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of intellectual property and copyright issues as they relate to online learning environments. Includes a historical perspective; laws and regulations; liability; Web-related issues; higher education; distance learning; compliance strategies; and policy recommendations. (Author/LRW)

  9. Computer Support for Learning Mathematics: A Learning Environment Based on Recreational Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez-Morteo, Gabriel; Lopez, Gilberto

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an electronic collaborative learning environment based on Interactive Instructors of Recreational Mathematics (IIRM), establishing an alternative approach for motivating students towards mathematics. The IIRM are educational software components, specializing in mathematical concepts, presented through recreational…

  10. Nursing students' perceptions of learning in practice environments: a review.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Amanda; Cooke, Marie; Creedy, Debra K; Walker, Rachel

    2012-04-01

    Effective clinical learning requires integration of nursing students into ward activities, staff engagement to address individual student learning needs, and innovative teaching approaches. Assessing characteristics of practice environments can provide useful insights for development. This study identified predominant features of clinical learning environments from nursing students' perspectives across studies using the same measure in different countries over the last decade. Six studies, from three different countries, using the Clinical Leaning Environment Inventory (CLEI) were reviewed. Studies explored consistent trends about learning environment. Students rated sense of task accomplishment high. Affiliation also rated highly though was influenced by models of care. Feedback measuring whether students' individual needs and views were accommodated consistently rated lower. Across different countries students report similar perceptions about learning environments. Clinical learning environments are most effective in promoting safe practice and are inclusive of student learners, but not readily open to innovation and challenges to routine practices.

  11. Complex Mobile Learning That Adapts to Learners' Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deegan, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning is cognitively demanding and frequently the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing means that mobile devices are used in cognitively demanding environments. This paper examines the use of mobile devices from a Learning, Usability and Cognitive Load Theory perspective. It suggests scenarios where these fields interact and presents an…

  12. Seamless Integration of Desktop and Mobile Learning Experience through an Ontology-Based Adaptation Engine: Report of a Pilot-Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Marco; Torre, Ilaria; Torsani, Simone

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes a module within the distance language learning environment of the Language Centre at the Genoa University which adapts, through an ontology, learning activities to the device in use. Adaptation means not simply resizing a page but also the ability to transform the nature of a task so that it fits the device with the smallest…

  13. Establishing Positive Learning Environments for Students of Chinese American and Latino Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong-Lo, Mickie; Cortez, Gabriel A.

    2014-01-01

    Cultivating positive learning environments for underrepresented groups such as students of Chinese American and Latino backgrounds require careful planning and consideration. As our society strives to embrace individual differences of all cultures, educators must equip themselves with effective tools to adapt to the ever-changing dynamics within…

  14. Internationalising a Learning Environment Instrument for Evaluating Transnational Online University Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Shelley; Taylor, Peter; Kulski, Martijntje

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation and validation of the Constructivist OnLine Learning Environment Survey (COLLES) for use in the transnational higher education context. As higher education becomes a more global phenomenon, "borderless" education, either online or by distance education, is becoming a reality and there is a need for…

  15. Teaching Energy Metabolism Using Scientific Articles: Implementation of a Virtual Learning Environment for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Espindola, Marina Bazzo; El-Bacha, Tatiana; Giannella, Tais Rabetti; Struchiner, Miriam; da Silva, Wagner S.; Da Poian, Andrea T.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the use of a virtual learning environment (VLE) applied to the biochemistry class for undergraduate, first-year medical students at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The course focused on the integration of energy metabolism, exploring metabolic adaptations in different physiological or pathological states such as…

  16. Dynamic Cultural Contextualisation of Educational Content in Intelligent Learning Environments Using ICON

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Phaedra; Mohan, Permanand

    2015-01-01

    Cultural awareness, when applied to Intelligent Learning Environments (ILEs), contours the overall appearance, behaviour, and content used in these systems through the use of culturally-relevant student data and information. In most cases, these adaptations are system-initiated with little to no consideration given to student-initiated control…

  17. Developing a Taxonomy of Characteristics and Features of Learning Systems and Internet Gaming Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    not fitting well with traditional classroom environment. 3 2.3 Cognitivism Piaget believed that humans desire a state of cognitive balance or...world to be and what the child is experiencing, adaptation is achieved through assimilation or accommodation. Piaget maintains that learning follows

  18. Co-Regulation of Learning in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Environments: A Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Carol K. K.

    2012-01-01

    This discussion paper for this special issue examines co-regulation of learning in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments extending research on self-regulated learning in computer-based environments. The discussion employs a socio-cognitive perspective focusing on social and collective views of learning to examine how…

  19. Neuronal plasticity: adaptation and readaptation to the environment of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Correia, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    While there have been few documented permanent neurological changes resulting from space travel, there is a growing literature which suggests that neural plasticity sometimes occurs within peripheral and central vestibular pathways during and following spaceflight. This plasticity probably has adaptive value within the context of the space environment, but it can be maladaptive upon return to the terrestrial environment. Fortunately, the maladaptive responses resulting from neuronal plasticity diminish following return to earth. However, the literature suggests that the longer the space travel, the more difficult the readaptation. With the possibility of extended space voyages and extended stays on board the international space station, it seems worthwhile to review examples of plastic vestibular responses and changes in the underlying neural substrates. Studies and facilities needed for space station investigation of plastic changes in the neural substrates are suggested. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Neuronal plasticity: adaptation and readaptation to the environment of space.

    PubMed

    Correia, M J

    1998-11-01

    While there have been few documented permanent neurological changes resulting from space travel, there is a growing literature which suggests that neural plasticity sometimes occurs within peripheral and central vestibular pathways during and following spaceflight. This plasticity probably has adaptive value within the context of the space environment, but it can be maladaptive upon return to the terrestrial environment. Fortunately, the maladaptive responses resulting from neuronal plasticity diminish following return to earth. However, the literature suggests that the longer the space travel, the more difficult the readaptation. With the possibility of extended space voyages and extended stays on board the international space station, it seems worthwhile to review examples of plastic vestibular responses and changes in the underlying neural substrates. Studies and facilities needed for space station investigation of plastic changes in the neural substrates are suggested.

  1. Motor learning cannot explain stuttering adaptation.

    PubMed

    Venkatagiri, Horabail S; Nataraja, Nuggehalli P; Deepthi, M

    2013-08-01

    When persons who stutter (PWS) read a text repeatedly, there is a progressive reduction in stutter frequency over the course of three to five readings. Recently, this phenomenon has been attributed by some researchers to motor learning-the acquisition of relatively permanent motor skills that facilitate fluency through practice in producing words. The current study tested this explanation. 23 PWS read prose passages five times in succession. The number of 'new' and 'old' stutters during repeated readings (words stuttered in the current reading but spoken fluently in the previous reading and words stuttered also in the previous reading) were analyzed. If motor learning facilitated fluency during repeated readings in PWS, words read fluently in a reading should not be stuttered in a later reading in significant numbers. Contrary to this prediction, there was no statistical difference in the number of new words stuttered across five readings. A plausible alternative explanation, which requires further study to verify, is offered.

  2. Experiential Learning and Learning Environments: The Case of Active Listening Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta-Wong, Juan Enrique; Schoech, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Social work education research frequently has suggested an interaction between teaching techniques and learning environments. However, this interaction has never been tested. This study compared virtual and face-to-face learning environments and included active listening concepts to test whether the effectiveness of learning environments depends…

  3. Framework for adaptive content delivery in heterogeneous network environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wei-Ying; Bedner, Ilja; Chang, Grace; Kuchinsky, Allan; Zhang, HongJiang

    1999-12-01

    The explosive growth of the Internet has come with increasing diversity and heterogeneity in terms of client device capability, network bandwidth, and user preferences. To date, most Web content has been designed with desktop computers in mind, and often contains rich media such as images, audio, and video. In many cases, this content is not suitable for devices like netTVs, handheld computers, personal digital assistants, and smart phones with relatively limited display capability, storage, processing power, and network access. Thus, Internet access is still constrained on these devices and there is a need to develop alternative approaches for information delivery. In this paper, we propose a framework for adaptive content delivery in heterogeneous environments. The goal is to improve content accessibility and perceived quality of service for information access under changing network and viewer conditions. The framework includes content adaptation algorithms, client capability and network bandwidth discovery methods, and a Decision Engine for determining when and how to adapt content. We describe this framework, initial system implementations based upon this framework, and the issues associated with the deployment of such systems based on different architectures.

  4. Meiosis evolves: adaptation to external and internal environments.

    PubMed

    Bomblies, Kirsten; Higgins, James D; Yant, Levi

    2015-10-01

    306 I. 306 II. 307 III. 312 IV. 317 V. 318 319 References 319 SUMMARY: Meiosis is essential for the fertility of most eukaryotes and its structures and progression are conserved across kingdoms. Yet many of its core proteins show evidence of rapid or adaptive evolution. What drives the evolution of meiosis proteins? How can constrained meiotic processes be modified in response to challenges without compromising their essential functions? In surveying the literature, we found evidence of two especially potent challenges to meiotic chromosome segregation that probably necessitate adaptive evolutionary responses: whole-genome duplication and abiotic environment, especially temperature. Evolutionary solutions to both kinds of challenge are likely to involve modification of homologous recombination and synapsis, probably via adjustments of core structural components important in meiosis I. Synthesizing these findings with broader patterns of meiosis gene evolution suggests that the structural components of meiosis coevolve as adaptive modules that may change in primary sequence and function while maintaining three-dimensional structures and protein interactions. The often sharp divergence of these genes among species probably reflects periodic modification of entire multiprotein complexes driven by genomic or environmental changes. We suggest that the pressures that cause meiosis to evolve to maintain fertility may cause pleiotropic alterations of global crossover rates. We highlight several important areas for future research.

  5. Design and optimisation of a (FA)Q-learning-based HTTP adaptive streaming client

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeys, Maxim; Latré, Steven; Famaey, Jeroen; Wu, Tingyao; Van Leekwijck, Werner; De Turck, Filip

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) adaptive streaming (HAS) has become the de facto standard for adaptive video streaming services. A HAS video consists of multiple segments, encoded at multiple quality levels. State-of-the-art HAS clients employ deterministic heuristics to dynamically adapt the requested quality level based on the perceived network conditions. Current HAS client heuristics are, however, hardwired to fit specific network configurations, making them less flexible to fit a vast range of settings. In this article, a (frequency adjusted) Q-learning HAS client is proposed. In contrast to existing heuristics, the proposed HAS client dynamically learns the optimal behaviour corresponding to the current network environment in order to optimise the quality of experience. Furthermore, the client has been optimised both in terms of global performance and convergence speed. Thorough evaluations show that the proposed client can outperform deterministic algorithms by 11-18% in terms of mean opinion score in a wide range of network configurations.

  6. Mining the Agave Microbiome for adaptions to arid environments

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman-Derr, Devin; Wojke, Tanja; North, Gretchen; Partida-Martinez, Laila; DeAngeli, Kristen; Clingenpeel, Scott; Gross, Stephen; Tringe, Susannah; Visel, Axel

    2013-03-25

    A major challenge facing the biofuels industry is the identification of high-yield plant feedstocks that can be cultivated with minimal resource inputs without competing for land and water supplies with existing food crops. Recent research has demonstrated that the Agave plant, cultivated in Mexico and Southwestern United States for the production of fiber and alcohol, meets these criteria1. Agaves grow on non-arable rocky soils in regions characterized by prolonged drought and extreme temperatures, due in part to physiological adaptions that prevent excess water-loss in arid environments2. Plant-microbial symbioses can play a role in helping plants adapt to heat and drought stress, increasing the accessibility of soil nutrients, or compete with plant pathogens3. Whether agaves have similar beneficial microbe interactions in their native environment is unknown. We aim to provide a comprehensive characterization of the Agave microbiome, with the goal of identifying specific community members that may contribute to Agave biotic and abiotic stress tolerance

  7. Training to Facilitate Adaptation to Novel Sensory Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Cohen, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    After spaceflight, the process of readapting to Earth s gravity causes locomotor dysfunction. We are developing a gait training countermeasure to facilitate adaptive responses in locomotor function. Our training system is comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene that provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to train subjects to rapidly adapt their gait patterns to changes in the sensory environment. The goal of our present study was to determine if training improved both the locomotor and dual-tasking ability responses to a novel sensory environment and to quantify the retention of training. Subjects completed three, 30-minute training sessions during which they walked on the treadmill while receiving discordant support surface and visual input. Control subjects walked on the treadmill without any support surface or visual alterations. To determine the efficacy of training, all subjects were then tested using a novel visual flow and support surface movement not previously experienced during training. This test was performed 20 minutes, 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months after the final training session. Stride frequency and auditory reaction time were collected as measures of postural stability and cognitive effort, respectively. Subjects who received training showed less alteration in stride frequency and auditory reaction time compared to controls. Trained subjects maintained their level of performance over 6 months. We conclude that, with training, individuals became more proficient at walking in novel discordant sensorimotor conditions and were able to devote more attention to competing tasks.

  8. The evolution of continuous learning of the structure of the environment.

    PubMed

    Kolodny, Oren; Edelman, Shimon; Lotem, Arnon

    2014-03-06

    Continuous, 'always on', learning of structure from a stream of data is studied mainly in the fields of machine learning or language acquisition, but its evolutionary roots may go back to the first organisms that were internally motivated to learn and represent their environment. Here, we study under what conditions such continuous learning (CL) may be more adaptive than simple reinforcement learning and examine how it could have evolved from the same basic associative elements. We use agent-based computer simulations to compare three learning strategies: simple reinforcement learning; reinforcement learning with chaining (RL-chain) and CL that applies the same associative mechanisms used by the other strategies, but also seeks statistical regularities in the relations among all items in the environment, regardless of the initial association with food. We show that a sufficiently structured environment favours the evolution of both RL-chain and CL and that CL outperforms the other strategies when food is relatively rare and the time for learning is limited. This advantage of internally motivated CL stems from its ability to capture statistical patterns in the environment even before they are associated with food, at which point they immediately become useful for planning.

  9. Adaptive Neural Network Nonparametric Identifier With Normalized Learning Laws.

    PubMed

    Chairez, Isaac

    2016-04-05

    This paper addresses the design of a normalized convergent learning law for neural networks (NNs) with continuous dynamics. The NN is used here to obtain a nonparametric model for uncertain systems described by a set of ordinary differential equations. The source of uncertainties is the presence of some external perturbations and poor knowledge of the nonlinear function describing the system dynamics. A new adaptive algorithm based on normalized algorithms was used to adjust the weights of the NN. The adaptive algorithm was derived by means of a nonstandard logarithmic Lyapunov function (LLF). Two identifiers were designed using two variations of LLFs leading to a normalized learning law for the first identifier and a variable gain normalized learning law. In the case of the second identifier, the inclusion of normalized learning laws yields to reduce the size of the convergence region obtained as solution of the practical stability analysis. On the other hand, the velocity of convergence for the learning laws depends on the norm of errors in inverse form. This fact avoids the peaking transient behavior in the time evolution of weights that accelerates the convergence of identification error. A numerical example demonstrates the improvements achieved by the algorithm introduced in this paper compared with classical schemes with no-normalized continuous learning methods. A comparison of the identification performance achieved by the no-normalized identifier and the ones developed in this paper shows the benefits of the learning law proposed in this paper.

  10. Overseas Students' Intercultural Adaptation as Intercultural Learning: A Transformative Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Scherto

    2007-01-01

    In the context of increasing recruitment of overseas students by British higher education (HE) institutions, there has been a growing need to understand the process of students' intercultural adaptation and the approaches that can be adopted by British academic institutions in order to facilitate and support these students' learning experience in…

  11. Adaptive Knowledge Management of Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an approach to Adaptive Knowledge Management (AKM) of project-based learning (PBL) is to intensify subject study through guiding, inducing, and facilitating development knowledge, accountability skills, and collaborative skills of students. Knowledge development is attained by knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge…

  12. Mispronunciation Detection for Language Learning and Speech Recognition Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Zhenhao

    2013-01-01

    The areas of "mispronunciation detection" (or "accent detection" more specifically) within the speech recognition community are receiving increased attention now. Two application areas, namely language learning and speech recognition adaptation, are largely driving this research interest and are the focal points of this work.…

  13. ELCAT: An E-Learning Content Adaptation Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Iain; Xu, Zhijie

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an e-learning content adaptation toolkit--ELCAT--that helps to achieve the objectives of the KTP project No. 3509. Design/methodology/approach: The chosen methodology is absolutely practical. The tool was put into motion and results were observed as university and the collaborating company members…

  14. Managing Adaptive Challenges: Learning with Principals in Bermuda and Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Maslin-Ostrowski, Patricia; Hoffman, Alexander M.; Barbaro, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We interviewed eight principals from Bermuda and Florida about how they identify and manage their most pressing challenges. Their challenges are composed of both adaptive and technical work, requiring leaders to learn to diagnose and manage them. Challenges focused on change and were traced to accountability contexts, yet accountability was not…

  15. Adaptive Learning in Psychology: Wayfinding in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziuban, Charles D.; Moskal, Patsy D.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Fawcett, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study investigating the use of the Realizeit adaptive learning platform to deliver a fully online General Psychology course across two semesters. Through mutual cooperation, UCF and vendor (CCKF) researchers examined students' affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions to the system. Student survey…

  16. Amygdala-prefrontal interactions in (mal)adaptive learning.

    PubMed

    Likhtik, Ekaterina; Paz, Rony

    2015-03-01

    The study of neurobiological mechanisms underlying anxiety disorders has been shaped by learning models that frame anxiety as maladaptive learning. Pavlovian conditioning and extinction are particularly influential in defining learning stages that can account for symptoms of anxiety disorders. Recently, dynamic and task related communication between the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has emerged as a crucial aspect of successful evaluation of threat and safety. Ongoing patterns of neural signaling within the mPFC-BLA circuit during encoding, expression and extinction of adaptive learning are reviewed. The mechanisms whereby deficient mPFC-BLA interactions can lead to generalized fear and anxiety are discussed in learned and innate anxiety. Findings with cross-species validity are emphasized.

  17. Amygdala-prefrontal interactions in (mal)adaptive learning

    PubMed Central

    Likhtik, Ekaterina; Paz, Rony

    2015-01-01

    The study of neurobiological mechanisms underlying anxiety disorders has been shaped by learning models that frame anxiety as maladaptive learning. Pavlovian conditioning and extinction are particularly influential in defining learning stages that can account for symptoms of anxiety disorders. Recently, dynamic and task related communication between the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has emerged as a crucial aspect of successful evaluation of threat and safety. Ongoing patterns of neural signaling within the mPFCBLA circuit during encoding, expression and extinction of adaptive learning are reviewed. The mechanisms whereby deficient mPFC-BLA interactions can lead to generalized fear are discussed in learned and innate anxiety. Findings with crossspecies validity are emphasized. PMID:25583269

  18. Individual Differences in Online Personalized Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samah, Norazrena Abu; Yahaya, Noraffandy; Ali, Mohamad Bilal

    2011-01-01

    The need has arise for the consideration of individual differences, to include their learning styles, learning orientations, preferences and needs in learning to allow learners engage and be responsible for their own learning, retain information longer, apply the knowledge more effectively, have positive attitudes towards the subject, have more…

  19. Effects of dopaminergic therapy on locomotor adaptation and adaptive learning in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Roemmich, Ryan T; Hack, Nawaz; Akbar, Umer; Hass, Chris J

    2014-07-15

    Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by multifactorial gait deficits, though the factors which influence the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store new gait patterns are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dopaminergic therapy on the abilities of persons with PD to adapt and store gait parameters during split-belt treadmill (SBT) walking. Ten participants with idiopathic PD who were being treated with stable doses of orally-administered dopaminergic therapy participated. All participants performed two randomized testing sessions on separate days: once while optimally-medicated (ON meds) and once after 12-h withdrawal from dopaminergic medication (OFF meds). During each session, locomotor adaptation was investigated as the participants walked on a SBT for 10 min while the belts moved at a 2:1 speed ratio. We assessed locomotor adaptive learning by quantifying: (1) aftereffects during de-adaptation (once the belts returned to tied speeds immediately following SBT walking) and (2) savings during re-adaptation (as the participants repeated the same SBT walking task after washout of aftereffects following the initial SBT task). The withholding of dopaminergic medication diminished step length aftereffects significantly during de-adaptation. However, both locomotor adaptation and savings were unaffected by levodopa. These findings suggest that dopaminergic pathways influence aftereffect storage but do not influence locomotor adaptation or savings within a single session of SBT walking. It appears important that persons with PD should be optimally-medicated if walking on the SBT as gait rehabilitation.

  20. Attention modulates adaptive motor learning in the 'broken escalator' paradigm.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mitesh; Kaski, Diego; Bronstein, Adolfo M

    2014-07-01

    The physical stumble caused by stepping onto a stationary (broken) escalator represents a locomotor aftereffect (LAE) that attests to a process of adaptive motor learning. Whether such learning is primarily explicit (requiring attention resources) or implicit (independent of attention) is unknown. To address this question, we diverted attention in the adaptation (MOVING) and aftereffect (AFTER) phases of the LAE by loading these phases with a secondary cognitive task (sequential naming of a vegetable, fruit and a colour). Thirty-six healthy adults were randomly assigned to 3 equally sized groups. They performed 5 trials stepping onto a stationary sled (BEFORE), 5 with the sled moving (MOVING) and 5 with the sled stationary again (AFTER). A 'Dual-Task-MOVING (DTM)' group performed the dual-task in the MOVING phase and the 'Dual-Task-AFTEREFFECT (DTAE)' group in the AFTER phase. The 'control' group performed no dual task. We recorded trunk displacement, gait velocity and gastrocnemius muscle EMG of the left (leading) leg. The DTM, but not the DTAE group, had larger trunk displacement during the MOVING phase, and a smaller trunk displacement aftereffect compared with controls. Gait velocity was unaffected by the secondary cognitive task in either group. Thus, adaptive locomotor learning involves explicit learning, whereas the expression of the aftereffect is automatic (implicit). During rehabilitation, patients should be actively encouraged to maintain maximal attention when learning new or challenging locomotor tasks.

  1. Adaptive learning by extremal dynamics and negative feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Per; Chialvo, Dante R.

    2001-03-01

    We describe a mechanism for biological learning and adaptation based on two simple principles: (i) Neuronal activity propagates only through the network's strongest synaptic connections (extremal dynamics), and (ii) the strengths of active synapses are reduced if mistakes are made, otherwise no changes occur (negative feedback). The balancing of those two tendencies typically shapes a synaptic landscape with configurations which are barely stable, and therefore highly flexible. This allows for swift adaptation to new situations. Recollection of past successes is achieved by punishing synapses which have once participated in activity associated with successful outputs much less than neurons that have never been successful. Despite its simplicity, the model can readily learn to solve complicated nonlinear tasks, even in the presence of noise. In particular, the learning time for the benchmark parity problem scales algebraically with the problem size N, with an exponent k{approx}1.4.

  2. Learning to push and learning to move: the adaptive control of contact forces

    PubMed Central

    Casadio, Maura; Pressman, Assaf; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A.

    2015-01-01

    To be successful at manipulating objects one needs to apply simultaneously well controlled movements and contact forces. We present a computational theory of how the brain may successfully generate a vast spectrum of interactive behaviors by combining two independent processes. One process is competent to control movements in free space and the other is competent to control contact forces against rigid constraints. Free space and rigid constraints are singularities at the boundaries of a continuum of mechanical impedance. Within this continuum, forces and motions occur in “compatible pairs” connected by the equations of Newtonian dynamics. The force applied to an object determines its motion. Conversely, inverse dynamics determine a unique force trajectory from a movement trajectory. In this perspective, we describe motor learning as a process leading to the discovery of compatible force/motion pairs. The learned compatible pairs constitute a local representation of the environment's mechanics. Experiments on force field adaptation have already provided us with evidence that the brain is able to predict and compensate the forces encountered when one is attempting to generate a motion. Here, we tested the theory in the dual case, i.e., when one attempts at applying a desired contact force against a simulated rigid surface. If the surface becomes unexpectedly compliant, the contact point moves as a function of the applied force and this causes the applied force to deviate from its desired value. We found that, through repeated attempts at generating the desired contact force, subjects discovered the unique compatible hand motion. When, after learning, the rigid contact was unexpectedly restored, subjects displayed after effects of learning, consistent with the concurrent operation of a motion control system and a force control system. Together, theory and experiment support a new and broader view of modularity in the coordinated control of forces and motions

  3. Learning to push and learning to move: the adaptive control of contact forces.

    PubMed

    Casadio, Maura; Pressman, Assaf; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A

    2015-01-01

    To be successful at manipulating objects one needs to apply simultaneously well controlled movements and contact forces. We present a computational theory of how the brain may successfully generate a vast spectrum of interactive behaviors by combining two independent processes. One process is competent to control movements in free space and the other is competent to control contact forces against rigid constraints. Free space and rigid constraints are singularities at the boundaries of a continuum of mechanical impedance. Within this continuum, forces and motions occur in "compatible pairs" connected by the equations of Newtonian dynamics. The force applied to an object determines its motion. Conversely, inverse dynamics determine a unique force trajectory from a movement trajectory. In this perspective, we describe motor learning as a process leading to the discovery of compatible force/motion pairs. The learned compatible pairs constitute a local representation of the environment's mechanics. Experiments on force field adaptation have already provided us with evidence that the brain is able to predict and compensate the forces encountered when one is attempting to generate a motion. Here, we tested the theory in the dual case, i.e., when one attempts at applying a desired contact force against a simulated rigid surface. If the surface becomes unexpectedly compliant, the contact point moves as a function of the applied force and this causes the applied force to deviate from its desired value. We found that, through repeated attempts at generating the desired contact force, subjects discovered the unique compatible hand motion. When, after learning, the rigid contact was unexpectedly restored, subjects displayed after effects of learning, consistent with the concurrent operation of a motion control system and a force control system. Together, theory and experiment support a new and broader view of modularity in the coordinated control of forces and motions.

  4. MARIANE: MApReduce Implementation Adapted for HPC Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Fadika, Zacharia; Dede, Elif; Govindaraju, Madhusudhan; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya

    2011-07-06

    MapReduce is increasingly becoming a popular framework, and a potent programming model. The most popular open source implementation of MapReduce, Hadoop, is based on the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). However, as HDFS is not POSIX compliant, it cannot be fully leveraged by applications running on a majority of existing HPC environments such as Teragrid and NERSC. These HPC environments typicallysupport globally shared file systems such as NFS and GPFS. On such resourceful HPC infrastructures, the use of Hadoop not only creates compatibility issues, but also affects overall performance due to the added overhead of the HDFS. This paper not only presents a MapReduce implementation directly suitable for HPC environments, but also exposes the design choices for better performance gains in those settings. By leveraging inherent distributed file systems' functions, and abstracting them away from its MapReduce framework, MARIANE (MApReduce Implementation Adapted for HPC Environments) not only allows for the use of the model in an expanding number of HPCenvironments, but also allows for better performance in such settings. This paper shows the applicability and high performance of the MapReduce paradigm through MARIANE, an implementation designed for clustered and shared-disk file systems and as such not dedicated to a specific MapReduce solution. The paper identifies the components and trade-offs necessary for this model, and quantifies the performance gains exhibited by our approach in distributed environments over Apache Hadoop in a data intensive setting, on the Magellan testbed at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  5. An Analysis of University Students' Attitudes towards Personalized Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Muhittin; Kisla, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze university students' attitudes towards personalized learning environments with respect to the independent variables of gender, age, university, year of study, knowledge about the environment, participation in the environment and being willing to participate in the environment. The correlative survey model is…

  6. Distributed adaptive simulation through standards-based integration of simulators and adaptive learning systems.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Bryan; Cline, Andrew; Shipley, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a distributed, standards-based architecture that enables simulation and simulator designers to leverage adaptive learning systems. Our approach, which incorporates an electronic competency record, open source LMS, and open source microcontroller hardware, is a low-cost, pragmatic option to integrating simulators with traditional courseware.

  7. Learning from adaptive neural dynamic surface control of strict-feedback systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Wang, Cong

    2015-06-01

    Learning plays an essential role in autonomous control systems. However, how to achieve learning in the nonstationary environment for nonlinear systems is a challenging problem. In this paper, we present learning method for a class of n th-order strict-feedback systems by adaptive dynamic surface control (DSC) technology, which achieves the human-like ability of learning by doing and doing with learned knowledge. To achieve the learning, this paper first proposes stable adaptive DSC with auxiliary first-order filters, which ensures the boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system and the convergence of tracking errors in a finite time. With the help of DSC, the derivative of the filter output variable is used as the neural network (NN) input instead of traditional intermediate variables. As a result, the proposed adaptive DSC method reduces greatly the dimension of NN inputs, especially for high-order systems. After the stable DSC design, we decompose the stable closed-loop system into a series of linear time-varying perturbed subsystems. Using a recursive design, the recurrent property of NN input variables is easily verified since the complexity is overcome using DSC. Subsequently, the partial persistent excitation condition of the radial basis function NN is satisfied. By combining a state transformation, accurate approximations of the closed-loop system dynamics are recursively achieved in a local region along recurrent orbits. Then, the learning control method using the learned knowledge is proposed to achieve the closed-loop stability and the improved control performance. Simulation studies are performed to demonstrate the proposed scheme can not only reuse the learned knowledge to achieve the better control performance with the faster tracking convergence rate and the smaller tracking error but also greatly alleviate the computational burden because of reducing the number and complexity of NN input variables.

  8. A Multiagent Approach to Adaptive Continuous Analysis of Streaming Data in Complex Uncertain Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, Igor; Alhajj, Reda

    The data mining task of online unsupervised learning of streaming data continually arriving at the system in complex dynamic environments under conditions of uncertainty is an NP-hard optimization problem for general metric spaces and is computationally intractable for real-world problems of practical interest. The primary contribution of this work is a multi-agent method for continuous agglomerative hierarchical clustering of streaming data, and a knowledge-based selforganizing competitive multi-agent system for implementing it. The reported experimental results demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of the implemented adaptive multi-agent learning system for continuous online clustering of both synthetic datasets and datasets from the following real-world domains: the RoboCup Soccer competition, and gene expression datasets from a bioinformatics test bed.

  9. Peers as Resources for Learning: A Situated Learning Approach to Adapted Physical Activity in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standal, Oyvind F.; Jespersen, Ejgil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the learning that takes place when people with disabilities interact in a rehabilitation context. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and close observations in a 2 one-half week-long rehabilitation program, where the participants learned both wheelchair skills and adapted physical…

  10. Adaptive Web-Assisted Learning System for Students with Specific Learning Disabilities: A Needs Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Elif; Adiguzel, Tufan; Akgun, Ozcan Erkan

    2012-01-01

    Because there is, currently, no education system for primary school students in grades 1-3 who have specific learning disabilities in Turkey and because such students do not receive sufficient support from face-to-face counseling, a needs analysis was conducted in order to prepare an adaptive, web-assisted learning system according to variables…

  11. Selecting Learning Tasks: Effects of Adaptation and Shared Control on Learning Efficiency and Task Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbalan, Gemma; Kester, Liesbeth; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Complex skill acquisition by performing authentic learning tasks is constrained by limited working memory capacity [Baddeley, A. D. (1992). Working memory. "Science, 255", 556-559]. To prevent cognitive overload, task difficulty and support of each newly selected learning task can be adapted to the learner's competence level and perceived task…

  12. Effects of Matching Teaching Strategy to Thinking Style on Learner's Quality of Reflection in an Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk; Wei, Chun-Wang; Liu, Chia-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Reflection plays an important role in improving learning performance. This study, therefore, attempted to explore whether learners' reflection levels can be improved if teaching strategies are adapted to fit with learners' thinking styles in an online learning environment. Three teaching strategies, namely constructive, guiding, and inductive,…

  13. Applying Behaviorological Principles in the Classroom: Creating Responsive Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulman, Jerome D.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the basic principles of behaviorology, beginning with the work of B.F. Skinner, examining how these principles can be applied in creating responsive learning environments and delineating a system of steps needed to transform an ineffective instructional situation, characterized by chronic failure, into a learning environment that is…

  14. Adding Intelligence to a Learning Environment: Learner-Centred Design?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brna, Paul; Cox, R.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of learner-centered design focuses on the development of switchEr, a specific learning environment changed to an intelligent learning environment by switching from one external representation (ER) to another. Topics include user-centered design; the role of artificial intelligence; and the development of effective educational computing…

  15. Understanding Teacher Responses to Constructivist Learning Environments: Challenges and Resolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Melodie; Rosenfeld, Sherman

    2006-01-01

    The research literature is just beginning to uncover factors involved in sustaining constructivist learning environments, such as Project-Based Learning (PBL). Our case study investigates teacher responses to the challenges of constructivist environments, since teachers can play strong roles in supporting or undermining even the best…

  16. Personality Type and Participation in Networked Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Ainslie E.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of networked learning environments and learner characteristics focuses on personality type as determined using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. Investigates the relationship between personality type and student participation within a networked learning environment using asynchronous threaded discussion for a university course run both…

  17. From Personal to Social: Learning Environments that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Mar; Guilana, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    VLE (Virtual Learning Environments) are rapidly falling short to meet the demands of a networked society. Web 2.0 and social networks are proving to offer a more personalized, open environment for students to learn formally as they are already doing informally. With the irruption of social media into society, and therefore, education, many voices…

  18. Design Characteristics of Virtual Learning Environments: State of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Daniel; Strohmeier, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Virtual learning environments constitute current information systems' category for electronically supported training and development in (higher) education(al) and vocational training settings. Frequently expected advantages of using virtual learning environments refer, for instance, to the efficiency, individuality, ubiquity, timeliness and…

  19. Digital Communication Applications in the Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambeth, Krista Jill

    2011-01-01

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of this study was for the researcher to obtain a better understanding of the online learning environment, to explore the various ways online class instructors have incorporated digital communication applications to try and provide learner-centered online learning environments, and to examine students'…

  20. Best Practices Experiences: Successful Use of Electronic Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boer, W. F.; Fisser, P. H. G.

    Two popular learning environments, TeleTOP and Blackboard, are implemented for specific educational contexts in many universities and other institutions. The goal is to increase the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in education, particularly network technology or Web-based systems. These electronic learning environments do not…

  1. Constructivist Learning Environment in ELT Methodology II Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesal, Fusun; Aksu, Meral

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent the characteristics of constructivist learning environment existed in English Language Teaching (ELT) Methodology II courses and whether students' perception of the learning environment differed according to certain variables. The subjects of the study were 410 students taking ELT…

  2. Developing Scholarly Communities as Learning Environments for Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyhalto, Kirsi; Stubb, Jenni; Lonka, Kirsti

    2009-01-01

    The quality of PhD training can be conceived of as being dependent on the learning environment provided by the scholarly community. Our paper explores PhD students' ideas about themselves as a part of this community, and their perceptions of their learning environment in the context of the University of Helsinki, Finland. The study is a part of a…

  3. E-Learning Environment for Hearing Impaired Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Hisyamuddin; Tasir, Zaidatun; Mohamad, Siti Khadijah

    2013-01-01

    The usage of technology within the educational department has become more vital by each year passing. One of the most popular technological approaches used is the e-learning environment. The usage of e-learning environment in education involves a wide range of types of students, and this includes the hearing impaired ones. Some adjustment or…

  4. EVA: Collaborative Distributed Learning Environment Based in Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheremetov, Leonid; Tellez, Rolando Quintero

    In this paper, a Web-based learning environment developed within the project called Virtual Learning Spaces (EVA, in Spanish) is presented. The environment is composed of knowledge, collaboration, consulting, experimentation, and personal spaces as a collection of agents and conventional software components working over the knowledge domains. All…

  5. Development of "Learner Roles in Constructive Learning Environment" Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay, Erdal

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to develop a scale to determine learner roles in constructive learning environment. Method: This study was conducted with 126 teacher candidates who study in Foreign Languages Department. For this study the teacher candidates were distributed into two groups. In the first group learning environments based on social…

  6. Mobile e-Learning for Next Generation Communication Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Tin-Yu; Chao, Han-Chieh

    2008-01-01

    This article develops an environment for mobile e-learning that includes an interactive course, virtual online labs, an interactive online test, and lab-exercise training platform on the fourth generation mobile communication system. The Next Generation Learning Environment (NeGL) promotes the term "knowledge economy." Inter-networking…

  7. Place and Space in the Design of New Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Peter; Fisher, Kenn; Gilding, Tony; Taylor, Peter G.; Trevitt, A. C. F.

    2000-01-01

    Describes some examples of recent developments in new information technology learning environments that have been enhanced by the contributions of educational developers at several Australian universities. Proposes pedagogically informed principles to guide the development of on-campus teaching and learning environments that may feature the use of…

  8. Temporal Issues in the Design of Virtual Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Bryan; Obeid, Jihad

    1995-01-01

    Describes design methods used to influence user perception of time in virtual learning environments. Examines the use of temporal cues in medical education and clinical competence testing. Finds that user perceptions of time affects user acceptance, ease of use, and the level of realism of a virtual learning environment. Contains 51 references.…

  9. Alternative Assessment Approaches for Online Learning Environments in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the need and prospects for alternative assessment approaches in online learning environments in higher education. Explains the difference between assessment and evaluation and discusses three approaches to integrating alternative assessment approaches into online learning environments: cognitive assessment, performance assessment, and…

  10. Theoretical Foundations for Enhancing Social Connectedness in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.; Bishop, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Group social structure provides a comfortable and predictable context for interaction in learning environments. Students in face-to-face learning environments process social information about others in order to assess traits, predict behaviors, and determine qualifications for assuming particular responsibilities within a group. In online learning…

  11. EVA: An Interactive Web-Based Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheremetov, Leonid; Arenas, Adolfo Guzman

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a Web-based learning environment developed within the project called Virtual Learning Spaces (EVA, in Spanish) is described. The environment is composed of knowledge, collaboration, consulting and experimentation spaces as a collection of agents and conventional software components working over the knowledge domains. All user…

  12. Design Milieux for Learning Environments in African Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duveskog, Marcus; Sutinen, Erkki; Cronje, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    During the years 2002 to 2009, five African settings were used as foundation for designing different learning environments. While the content and target group for each learning environment varied, all of their design settings, or milieux, shared one implicit expectation: the milieu should facilitate the production of a change-making learning…

  13. Design and Application of Learning Environments Based on Integrative Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Ivan; Neriz, Liliana; Ramis, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    This work reports on the results obtained from the application of learning environments on the basis of one integrative problem and a series of other smaller problems that limit the contents to be investigated and learned by the students. This methodology, which is a variation to traditional problem-based learning approaches, is here illustrated…

  14. Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fuhua, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Designing Distributed Learning Environments with Intelligent Software Agents" reports on the most recent advances in agent technologies for distributed learning. Chapters are devoted to the various aspects of intelligent software agents in distributed learning, including the methodological and technical issues on where and how intelligent agents…

  15. Usability Evaluation of the Student Centered e-Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junus, Inas Sofiyah; Santoso, Harry Budi; Isal, R. Yugo K.; Utomo, Andika Yudha

    2015-01-01

    Student Centered e-Learning Environment (SCeLE) has substantial roles to support learning activities at Faculty of Computer Science, Universitas Indonesia (Fasilkom UI). Although it has been utilized for about 10 years, the usability aspect of SCeLE as an e-Learning system has not been evaluated. Therefore, the usability aspects of SCeLE Fasilkom…

  16. Applying an Authentic, Dynamic Learning Environment in Real World Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lainema, Timo; Nurmi, Sami

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic computer-based business learning environment and the results from applying it in a real-world business organization. We argue for using learning tools, which not only provide realistic and complex models of reality, but are also are authentic, facilitate continuous problem solving and meaningful learning, and embed…

  17. Suitability of a Virtual Learning Environment for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskela, Marileena; Kiltti, Piia; Vilpola, Inka; Tervonen, Janne

    2005-01-01

    The number of virtual learning environments (VLEs) is increasing. Already a few case studies claim that VLEs are more effective as a learning method than traditional lecturing. Many of these case studies are in the area of information and communication technology (ICT). Therefore, the good learning results are not surprising. The aim of this paper…

  18. Help Seeking and Help Design in Interactive Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleven, Vincent; Stahl, Elmar; Schworm, Silke; Fischer, Frank; Wallace, Raven

    2003-01-01

    Many interactive learning environments (ILEs) offer on-demand help, intended to positively influence learning. Recent studies report evidence that although effective help-seeking behavior in ILEs is related to better learning outcomes, learners are not using help facilities effectively. This selective review (a) examines theoretical perspectives…

  19. Cognitive Presence and Effect of Immersion in Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katernyak, Ihor; Loboda, Viktoriya

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the approach to successful application of two knowledge management techniques--community of practice and eLearning, in order to create and manage a competence-developing virtual learning environment. It explains how "4A" model of involving practitioners in eLearning process (through attention, actualization,…

  20. Language Learning in Virtual Reality Environments: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Tsun-Ju; Lan, Yu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the research trends in language learning in a virtual reality environment by conducting a content analysis of findings published in the literature from 2004 to 2013 in four top ranked computer-assisted language learning journals: "Language Learning & Technology," "CALICO Journal," "Computer…

  1. A Framework for Creating Counterexamples in Discovery Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horiguchi, Tomoya; Hirashima, Tsukasa

    A framework for designing intelligent assistance in a discovery learning environment is proposed in this paper. The process of discovery learning is analyzed and the required functions for intelligent assistance are discussed. A flexible simulator that fits any type of discovery learning is necessary. The problem solvers that perform fundamental…

  2. An Enhanced Personal Learning Environment Using Social Semantic Web Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halimi, Khaled; Seridi-Bouchelaghem, Hassina; Faron-Zucker, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Compared with learning in classrooms, classical e-learning systems are less adaptive and once a system that supports a particular strategy has been designed and implemented, it is less likely to change according to student's interactions and preferences. Remote educational systems should be developed to ensure as much as necessary the…

  3. Constructivist Learning Environments and Defining the Online Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Loren

    2014-01-01

    The online learning community is frequently referred to, but ill defined. The constructivist philosophy and approach to teaching and learning is both an effective means of constructing an online learning community and it is a tool by which to define key elements of the learning community. In order to build a nurturing, self-sustaining online…

  4. Building Adaptive Game-Based Learning Resources: The Integration of IMS Learning Design and

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgos, Daniel; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Sierra, Jose Luis; Fernandez-Manjon, Baltasar; Specht, Marcus; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    IMS Learning Design (IMS-LD) is a specification to create units of learning (UoLs), which express a certain pedagogical model or strategy (e.g., adaptive learning with games). However, the authoring process of a UoL remains difficult because of the lack of high-level authoring tools for IMS-LD, even more so when the focus is on specific topics,…

  5. Small RNA transcriptomes of mangroves evolve adaptively in extreme environments

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ming; Lin, Xingqin; Xie, Munan; Wang, Yushuai; Shen, Xu; Liufu, Zhongqi; Wu, Chung-I; Shi, Suhua; Tang, Tian

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are key players in plant stress responses. Here, we present the sRNA transcriptomes of mangroves Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Kandelia candel. Comparative computational analyses and target predictions revealed that mangroves exhibit distinct sRNA regulatory networks that differ from those of glycophytes. A total of 32 known and three novel miRNA families were identified. Conserved and mangrove-specific miRNA targets were predicted; the latter were widely involved in stress responses. The known miRNAs showed differential expression between the mangroves and glycophytes, reminiscent of the adaptive stress-responsive changes in Arabidopsis. B. gymnorrhiza possessed highly abundant but less conserved TAS3 trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) in addition to tasiR-ARFs, with expanded potential targets. Our results indicate that the evolutionary alteration of sRNA expression levels and the rewiring of sRNA-regulatory networks are important mechanisms underlying stress adaptation. We also identified sRNAs that are involved in salt and/or drought tolerance and nutrient homeostasis as possible contributors to mangrove success in stressful environments. PMID:27278626

  6. Small RNA transcriptomes of mangroves evolve adaptively in extreme environments.

    PubMed

    Wen, Ming; Lin, Xingqin; Xie, Munan; Wang, Yushuai; Shen, Xu; Liufu, Zhongqi; Wu, Chung-I; Shi, Suhua; Tang, Tian

    2016-06-09

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are key players in plant stress responses. Here, we present the sRNA transcriptomes of mangroves Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Kandelia candel. Comparative computational analyses and target predictions revealed that mangroves exhibit distinct sRNA regulatory networks that differ from those of glycophytes. A total of 32 known and three novel miRNA families were identified. Conserved and mangrove-specific miRNA targets were predicted; the latter were widely involved in stress responses. The known miRNAs showed differential expression between the mangroves and glycophytes, reminiscent of the adaptive stress-responsive changes in Arabidopsis. B. gymnorrhiza possessed highly abundant but less conserved TAS3 trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) in addition to tasiR-ARFs, with expanded potential targets. Our results indicate that the evolutionary alteration of sRNA expression levels and the rewiring of sRNA-regulatory networks are important mechanisms underlying stress adaptation. We also identified sRNAs that are involved in salt and/or drought tolerance and nutrient homeostasis as possible contributors to mangrove success in stressful environments.

  7. Fluctuating selection: the perpetual renewal of adaptation in variable environments.

    PubMed

    Bell, Graham

    2010-01-12

    Darwin insisted that evolutionary change occurs very slowly over long periods of time, and this gradualist view was accepted by his supporters and incorporated into the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics developed by R. A. Fisher and others. It dominated the first century of evolutionary biology, but has been challenged in more recent years both by field surveys demonstrating strong selection in natural populations and by quantitative trait loci and genomic studies, indicating that adaptation is often attributable to mutations in a few genes. The prevalence of strong selection seems inconsistent, however, with the high heritability often observed in natural populations, and with the claim that the amount of morphological change in contemporary and fossil lineages is independent of elapsed time. I argue that these discrepancies are resolved by realistic accounts of environmental and evolutionary changes. First, the physical and biotic environment varies on all time-scales, leading to an indefinite increase in environmental variance over time. Secondly, the intensity and direction of natural selection are also likely to fluctuate over time, leading to an indefinite increase in phenotypic variance in any given evolving lineage. Finally, detailed long-term studies of selection in natural populations demonstrate that selection often changes in direction. I conclude that the traditional gradualist scheme of weak selection acting on polygenic variation should be supplemented by the view that adaptation is often based on oligogenic variation exposed to commonplace, strong, fluctuating natural selection.

  8. Assessing Social Ability in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, James; Lin, Guan Yu; Lin, Yimei

    2006-01-01

    Education is a social practice and the ability to interact socially is important to social cognitive learning and social learning. Online education is frequently criticized because it lacks social interaction, a sense of social engagement, and the benefits of learning with others. Social ability with computer-mediated social mechanisms is key to…

  9. Learning Principles and the Library Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahl-Jakobovits, Diane; Jakobovits, Leon A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how principles of learning theory can be applied to bibliographic instruction to increase its efficacy and broaden its scope. The discussion covers conditions of learning, including motivation, active responding, and reinforcement; learning of information seeking behaviors, including the power of reinforcement and librarian-initiated…

  10. Learning to speciate: The biased learning of mate preferences promotes adaptive radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, R. Tucker; Kozak, Genevieve M.

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of rapid repeated speciation called adaptive radiations have generated much of Earth's biodiversity and fascinated biologists since Darwin, but we still do not know why some lineages radiate and others do not. Understanding what causes assortative mating to evolve rapidly and repeatedly in the same lineage is key to understanding adaptive radiation. Many species that have undergone adaptive radiations exhibit mate preference learning, where individuals acquire mate preferences by observing the phenotypes of other members of their populations. Mate preference learning can be biased if individuals also learn phenotypes to avoid in mates, and shift their preferences away from these avoided phenotypes. We used individual‐based computational simulations to study whether biased and unbiased mate preference learning promotes ecological speciation and adaptive radiation. We found that ecological speciation can be rapid and repeated when mate preferences are biased, but is inhibited when mate preferences are learned without bias. Our results suggest that biased mate preference learning may play an important role in generating animal biodiversity through adaptive radiation. PMID:26459795

  11. Learning to speciate: The biased learning of mate preferences promotes adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Gilman, R Tucker; Kozak, Genevieve M

    2015-11-01

    Bursts of rapid repeated speciation called adaptive radiations have generated much of Earth's biodiversity and fascinated biologists since Darwin, but we still do not know why some lineages radiate and others do not. Understanding what causes assortative mating to evolve rapidly and repeatedly in the same lineage is key to understanding adaptive radiation. Many species that have undergone adaptive radiations exhibit mate preference learning, where individuals acquire mate preferences by observing the phenotypes of other members of their populations. Mate preference learning can be biased if individuals also learn phenotypes to avoid in mates, and shift their preferences away from these avoided phenotypes. We used individual-based computational simulations to study whether biased and unbiased mate preference learning promotes ecological speciation and adaptive radiation. We found that ecological speciation can be rapid and repeated when mate preferences are biased, but is inhibited when mate preferences are learned without bias. Our results suggest that biased mate preference learning may play an important role in generating animal biodiversity through adaptive radiation.

  12. Adaptive behaviour and feedback processing integrate experience and instruction in reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Siletti, Kayla; Waszak, Florian; Yeung, Nick

    2017-02-01

    In any non-deterministic environment, unexpected events can indicate true changes in the world (and require behavioural adaptation) or reflect chance occurrence (and must be discounted). Adaptive behaviour requires distinguishing these possibilities. We investigated how humans achieve this by integrating high-level information from instruction and experience. In a series of EEG experiments, instructions modulated the perceived informativeness of feedback: Participants performed a novel probabilistic reinforcement learning task, receiving instructions about reliability of feedback or volatility of the environment. Importantly, our designs de-confound informativeness from surprise, which typically co-vary. Behavioural results indicate that participants used instructions to adapt their behaviour faster to changes in the environment when instructions indicated that negative feedback was more informative, even if it was simultaneously less surprising. This study is the first to show that neural markers of feedback anticipation (stimulus-preceding negativity) and of feedback processing (feedback-related negativity; FRN) reflect informativeness of unexpected feedback. Meanwhile, changes in P3 amplitude indicated imminent adjustments in behaviour. Collectively, our findings provide new evidence that high-level information interacts with experience-driven learning in a flexible manner, enabling human learners to make informed decisions about whether to persevere or explore new options, a pivotal ability in our complex environment.

  13. An Examination through Conjoint Analysis of the Preferences of Students Concerning Online Learning Environments According to Their Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daghan, Gökhan; Akkoyunlu, Buket

    2012-01-01

    This study examines learning styles of students receiving education via online learning environments, and their preferences concerning the online learning environment. Maggie McVay Lynch Learning Style Inventory was used to determine learning styles of the students. The preferences of students concerning online learning environments were detected…

  14. A novel data-driven learning method for radar target detection in nonstationary environments

    SciTech Connect

    Akcakaya, Murat; Nehorai, Arye; Sen, Satyabrata

    2016-04-12

    Most existing radar algorithms are developed under the assumption that the environment (clutter) is stationary. However, in practice, the characteristics of the clutter can vary enormously depending on the radar-operational scenarios. If unaccounted for, these nonstationary variabilities may drastically hinder the radar performance. Therefore, to overcome such shortcomings, we develop a data-driven method for target detection in nonstationary environments. In this method, the radar dynamically detects changes in the environment and adapts to these changes by learning the new statistical characteristics of the environment and by intelligibly updating its statistical detection algorithm. Specifically, we employ drift detection algorithms to detect changes in the environment; incremental learning, particularly learning under concept drift algorithms, to learn the new statistical characteristics of the environment from the new radar data that become available in batches over a period of time. The newly learned environment characteristics are then integrated in the detection algorithm. Furthermore, we use Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that the developed method provides a significant improvement in the detection performance compared with detection techniques that are not aware of the environmental changes.

  15. A novel data-driven learning method for radar target detection in nonstationary environments

    DOE PAGES

    Akcakaya, Murat; Nehorai, Arye; Sen, Satyabrata

    2016-04-12

    Most existing radar algorithms are developed under the assumption that the environment (clutter) is stationary. However, in practice, the characteristics of the clutter can vary enormously depending on the radar-operational scenarios. If unaccounted for, these nonstationary variabilities may drastically hinder the radar performance. Therefore, to overcome such shortcomings, we develop a data-driven method for target detection in nonstationary environments. In this method, the radar dynamically detects changes in the environment and adapts to these changes by learning the new statistical characteristics of the environment and by intelligibly updating its statistical detection algorithm. Specifically, we employ drift detection algorithms to detectmore » changes in the environment; incremental learning, particularly learning under concept drift algorithms, to learn the new statistical characteristics of the environment from the new radar data that become available in batches over a period of time. The newly learned environment characteristics are then integrated in the detection algorithm. Furthermore, we use Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that the developed method provides a significant improvement in the detection performance compared with detection techniques that are not aware of the environmental changes.« less

  16. Teacher Education in a Workplace Learning Environment: Distinctive Characteristics of Powerful Workplace Learning Environments within Primary Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldens, Jeannette J. M.; Popeijus, Herman L.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on research in the Netherlands to determine the distinctive characteristics of powerful workplace learning environments within primary teacher education. Nationally and internationally, educational competence- based models and so-called workplace learning environments are widely seen as promising alternatives in professional…

  17. Applying perceptual and adaptive learning techniques for teaching introductory histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Krasne, Sally; Hillman, Joseph D.; Kellman, Philip J.; Drake, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical students are expected to master the ability to interpret histopathologic images, a difficult and time-consuming process. A major problem is the issue of transferring information learned from one example of a particular pathology to a new example. Recent advances in cognitive science have identified new approaches to address this problem. Methods: We adapted a new approach for enhancing pattern recognition of basic pathologic processes in skin histopathology images that utilizes perceptual learning techniques, allowing learners to see relevant structure in novel cases along with adaptive learning algorithms that space and sequence different categories (e.g. diagnoses) that appear during a learning session based on each learner's accuracy and response time (RT). We developed a perceptual and adaptive learning module (PALM) that utilized 261 unique images of cell injury, inflammation, neoplasia, or normal histology at low and high magnification. Accuracy and RT were tracked and integrated into a “Score” that reflected students rapid recognition of the pathologies and pre- and post-tests were given to assess the effectiveness. Results: Accuracy, RT and Scores significantly improved from the pre- to post-test with Scores showing much greater improvement than accuracy alone. Delayed post-tests with previously unseen cases, given after 6-7 weeks, showed a decline in accuracy relative to the post-test for 1st-year students, but not significantly so for 2nd-year students. However, the delayed post-test scores maintained a significant and large improvement relative to those of the pre-test for both 1st and 2nd year students suggesting good retention of pattern recognition. Student evaluations were very favorable. Conclusion: A web-based learning module based on the principles of cognitive science showed an evidence for improved recognition of histopathology patterns by medical students. PMID:24524000

  18. Perceived Satisfaction, Perceived Usefulness and Interactive Learning Environments as Predictors to Self-Regulation in e-Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Mei

    2013-01-01

    The research purpose is to investigate learner self-regulation in e-learning environments. In order to better understand learner attitudes toward e-learning, 196 university students answer a questionnaire survey after use an e-learning system few months. The statistical results showed that perceived satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and…

  19. Learning with Computer-Based Learning Environments: A Literature Review of Computer Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Although computer-based learning environments (CBLEs) are becoming more prevalent in the classroom, empirical research has demonstrated that some students have difficulty learning with these environments. The motivation construct of computer-self efficacy plays an integral role in learning with CBLEs. This literature review synthesizes research…

  20. Self-Regulated Learning in Technology Enhanced Learning Environments: An Investigation with University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenne, Dominique; Abel, Marie-Helene; Trigano, Philippe; Leblanc, Adeline

    2008-01-01

    In Technology Enhanced Learning Environments, self-regulated learning (SRL) partly relies on the features of the technological tools. The authors present two environments they designed in order to facilitate SRL: the first one (e-Dalgo) is a website dedicated to the learning of algorithms and computer programming. It is structured as a classical…

  1. Student-Centred Learning Environments: An Investigation into Student Teachers' Instructional Preferences and Approaches to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeten, Marlies; Dochy, Filip; Struyven, Katrien; Parmentier, Emmeline; Vanderbruggen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The use of student-centred learning environments in education has increased. This study investigated student teachers' instructional preferences for these learning environments and how these preferences are related to their approaches to learning. Participants were professional Bachelor students in teacher education. Instructional preferences and…

  2. Motivational Multimedia: Examining Students' Learning and Motivation as They Use a Multimedia Enriched Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; Olmanson, Justin; Horton, Lucas; Toprac, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This study examines middle school students' learning and motivation as they engaged in a multimedia enriched problem-based learning (PBL) environment for middle school science. Using a mixed-method design with both quantitative and qualitative data, we investigated the effect of a multimedia environment on sixth graders' science learning, their…

  3. Agent-Based Learning Environments as a Research Tool for Investigating Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylor, Amy L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses intelligent learning environments for computer-based learning, such as agent-based learning environments, and their advantages over human-based instruction. Considers the effects of multiple agents; agents and research design; the use of Multiple Intelligent Mentors Instructing Collaboratively (MIMIC) for instructional design for…

  4. Adaptive Distance Metric Learning for Diffusion Tensor Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Youyong; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Hui, Steve C. N.; Chu, Winnie C. W.

    2014-01-01

    High quality segmentation of diffusion tensor images (DTI) is of key interest in biomedical research and clinical application. In previous studies, most efforts have been made to construct predefined metrics for different DTI segmentation tasks. These methods require adequate prior knowledge and tuning parameters. To overcome these disadvantages, we proposed to automatically learn an adaptive distance metric by a graph based semi-supervised learning model for DTI segmentation. An original discriminative distance vector was first formulated by combining both geometry and orientation distances derived from diffusion tensors. The kernel metric over the original distance and labels of all voxels were then simultaneously optimized in a graph based semi-supervised learning approach. Finally, the optimization task was efficiently solved with an iterative gradient descent method to achieve the optimal solution. With our approach, an adaptive distance metric could be available for each specific segmentation task. Experiments on synthetic and real brain DTI datasets were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed distance metric learning approach. The performance of our approach was compared with three classical metrics in the graph based semi-supervised learning framework. PMID:24651858

  5. How Teaching Science Using Project-Based Learning Strategies Affects the Classroom Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad

    2016-01-01

    This study involved 458 ninth-grade students from two different Arab middle schools in Israel. Half of the students learned science using project-based learning strategies and the other half learned using traditional methods (non-project-based). The classes were heterogeneous regarding their achievements in the sciences. The adapted questionnaire…

  6. Learning Styles' Recognition in E-Learning Environments with Feed-Forward Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villaverde, J. E.; Godoy, D.; Amandi, A.

    2006-01-01

    People have unique ways of learning, which may greatly affect the learning process and, therefore, its outcome. In order to be effective, e-learning systems should be capable of adapting the content of courses to the individual characteristics of students. In this regard, some educational systems have proposed the use of questionnaires for…

  7. Causal Model Progressions as a Foundation for Intelligent Learning Environments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Learning Environments 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S? Barbara Y. White and John R. Frederiksen 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Year...architecture of a new type of learning environment that incorporates features of microworlds and of intelligent tutorng systems. The environment is based on...The design principles underlying the creation of one type of causal model are then given (for zero-order models of electrical circuit behavior); and

  8. Neural activity in the dorsal medial superior temporal area of monkeys represents retinal error during adaptive motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Aya; Ofuji, Tomoyo; Miura, Kenichiro; Kawano, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    To adapt to variable environments, humans regulate their behavior by modulating gains in sensory-to-motor processing. In this study, we measured a simple eye movement, the ocular following response (OFR), in monkeys to study the neuronal basis of adaptive motor learning in the visuomotor processing stream. The medial superior temporal (MST) area of the cerebral cortex is a critical site for contextual gain modulation of the OFR. However, the role of MST neurons in adaptive gain modulation of the OFR remains unknown. We adopted a velocity step-down sequence paradigm that was designed to promote adaptive gain modulation of the OFR to investigate the role of the dorsal MST (MSTd) in adaptive motor learning. In the initial learning stage, we observed a reduction in the OFR but no significant change in the “open-loop” responses for the majority of the MSTd neurons. However, in the late learning stage, some MSTd neurons exhibited significantly enhanced “closed-loop” responses in association with increases in retinal error velocity. These results indicate that the MSTd area primarily encodes visual motion, suggesting that MSTd neurons function upstream of the motor learning site to provide sensory signals to the downstream structures involved in adaptive motor learning. PMID:28102342

  9. The Costa Rica GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) Project as a Learning Science Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Rojas, María Dolores; Zuñiga, Ana Lourdes Acuña; Ugalde, Emmanuel Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    GLOBE is a global educational program for elementary and high school levels, and its main purpose in Costa Rica is to develop scientific thinking and interest for science in high school students through hydrology research projects that allow them to relate science with environmental issues in their communities. Youth between 12 and 17 years old from public schools participate in science clubs outside of their regular school schedule. A comparison study was performed between different groups, in order to assess GLOBE's applicability as a learning science atmosphere and the motivation and interest it generates in students toward science. Internationally applied scales were used as tools for measuring such indicators, adapted to the Costa Rican context. The results provide evidence statistically significant that the students perceive the GLOBE atmosphere as an enriched environment for science learning in comparison with the traditional science class. Moreover, students feel more confident, motivated and interested in science than their peers who do not participate in the project. However, the results were not statistically significant in this last respect.

  10. Virtual Learning Environment for Interactive Engagement with Advanced Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Mads Kock; Skyum, Birk; Heck, Robert; Müller, Romain; Bason, Mark; Lieberoth, Andreas; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2016-06-01

    A virtual learning environment can engage university students in the learning process in ways that the traditional lectures and lab formats cannot. We present our virtual learning environment StudentResearcher, which incorporates simulations, multiple-choice quizzes, video lectures, and gamification into a learning path for quantum mechanics at the advanced university level. StudentResearcher is built upon the experiences gathered from workshops with the citizen science game Quantum Moves at the high-school and university level, where the games were used extensively to illustrate the basic concepts of quantum mechanics. The first test of this new virtual learning environment was a 2014 course in advanced quantum mechanics at Aarhus University with 47 enrolled students. We found increased learning for the students who were more active on the platform independent of their previous performances.

  11. A Case-Study for Life-Long Learning and Adaptation in Cooperative Robot Teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1999-09-19

    While considerable progress has been made in recent years toward the development of multi-robot teams, much work remains to be done before these teams are used widely in real-world applications. Two particular needs toward this end are the development of mechanisms that enable robot teams to generate cooperative behaviors on their own, and the development of techniques that allow these teams to autonomously adapt their behavior over time as the environment or the robot team changes. This paper proposes the use of the Cooperative Multi-Robot Observation of Multiple Moving Targets (CMOMMT) application as a rich domain for studying the issues of multi-robot learning and adaptation. After discussing the need for learning and adaptation in multi-robot teams, this paper describes the CMOMMT application and its relevance to multi-robot learning. We discuss the results of the previously- developed, hand-generated algorithm for CMOMMT and the potential for learning that was discovered from the hand-generated approach. We then describe the early work that has been done (by us and others) to generate multi- robot learning techniques for the CMOMMT application, as well as our ongoing research to develop approaches that give performance as good, or better, than the hand-generated approach. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop techniques for multi-robot learning and adaptation in the CMOMMT application domain that will generalize to cooperative robot applications in other domains, thus making the practical use of multi-robot teams in a wide variety of real-world applications much closer to reality.

  12. Applying an AR Technique to Enhance Situated Heritage Learning in a Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi Hsing; Liu, Jen-ch'iang

    2013-01-01

    Since AR can display 3D materials and learner motivation is enhanced in a situated learning environment, this study explores the learning effectiveness of learners when combining AR technology and the situation learning theory. Based on the concept of embedding the characteristics of augmented reality and situated learning into a real situation to…

  13. Exploring Problem Solving Patterns and Their Impact on Learning Achievement in a Blended Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Jung-Chuan; Lee, Chun-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Blended learning, thoughtfully combining the best elements of online and face-to-face education, is likely to emerge as the predominant teaching model of the future. In this paper, we present a blended learning environment combining mobile learning, web-based learning, and classroom teaching to provide realistic, practical opportunities for…

  14. Social Learning Preferences of Adult Women Learners in a Competency-Based Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Emily

    2013-01-01

    In this study a post-assessment survey was analyzed to seek for social learning preferences among women in a competency-based online learning environment. The survey asked what learning resources students used to prepare for the assessment. Each learning resource was given a relative sociability rating. This rating acts as the weighting for a…

  15. Benefits of Informal Learning Environments: A Focused Examination of STEM-Based Program Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denson, Cameron D.; Austin Stallworth, Chandra; Hailey, Christine; Householder, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines STEM-based informal learning environments for underrepresented students and reports on the aspects of these programs that are beneficial to students. This qualitative study provides a nuanced look into informal learning environments and determines what is unique about these experiences and makes them beneficial for students. We…

  16. Interaction Forms in Successful Collaborative Learning in Virtual Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuopala, Essi; Hyvönen, Pirkko; Järvelä, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Despite the numerous studies on social interaction in collaborative learning, little is known about interaction forms in successful computer-supported collaborative learning situations. The purpose of this study was to explore and understand student interaction in successful collaborative learning during a university course which was mediated by…

  17. Interactive Learning: Creating an Environment for Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foyle, Harvey C.; And Others

    The focus of this paper is the benefits and successes accruing from using cooperative learning in the classroom. The background of small group instruction as an effective learning strategy is discussed. Descriptions are given of several cooperative learning techniques--Student Teams-Achievement Divisions, Teams-Games-Tournaments, Jigsaw, and…

  18. Designing a Semantic Bliki System to Support Different Types of Knowledge and Adaptive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shiu-Li; Yang, Chia-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Though blogs and wikis have been used to support knowledge management and e-learning, existing blogs and wikis cannot support different types of knowledge and adaptive learning. A case in point, types of knowledge vary greatly in category and viewpoints. Additionally, adaptive learning is crucial to improving one's learning performance. This study…

  19. Adaptation Criteria for the Personalised Delivery of Learning Materials: A Multi-Stage Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Personalised e-Learning represents a major step-change from the one-size-fits-all approach of traditional learning platforms to a more customised and interactive provision of learning materials. Adaptive learning can support the learning process by tailoring learning materials to individual needs. However, this requires the initial preparation of…

  20. Learning from external environments using Soar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, John E.

    1989-01-01

    Soar, like the previous PRODIGY and Theo, is a problem-solving architecture that attempts to learn from experience; unlike them, it takes a more uniform approach, using a single forward-chaining architecture for planning and execution. Its single learning mechanism, designated 'chunking', is domain-independent. Two developmental approaches have been employed with Soar: the first of these allows the architecture to attempt a problem on its own, while the second involves a degree of external guidance. This learning through guidance is integrated with general problem-solving and autonomous learning, leading to an avoidance of human interaction for simple problems that Soar can solve on its own.

  1. Teachers' experiences of teaching in a blended learning environment.

    PubMed

    Jokinen, Pirkko; Mikkonen, Irma

    2013-11-01

    This paper considers teachers' experiences of teaching undergraduate nursing students in a blended learning environment. The basic idea of the study programme was to support students to reflect on theory and practice, and provide with access to expert and professional knowledge in real-life problem-solving and decision making. Learning was organised to support learning in and about work: students worked full-time and this provided excellent opportunities for learning both in practice, online and face-to-face sessions. The aim of the study was to describe teachers' experiences of planning and implementing teaching and learning in a blended-learning-based adult nursing programme. The research method was qualitative, and the data were collected by three focus group interviews, each with four to six participants. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results show that the blended learning environment constructed by the combination of face-to-face learning and learning in practice with technology-mediated learning creates challenges that must be taken into consideration when planning and implementing blended teaching and learning. However, it provides good opportunities to enhance students' learning in and about work. This is because such programmes support student motivation through the presence of "real-life" and their relevance to the students' own places of work. Nevertheless, teachers require knowledge of different pedagogical approaches; they need professional development support in redesigning teaching and learning.

  2. Medical students’ academic emotions: the role of perceived learning environment

    PubMed Central

    KOHOULAT, NAEIMEH; HAYAT, ALI ASGHAR; DEHGHANI, MOHAMMAD REZA; KOJURI, JAVAD; AMINI, MITRA

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Research shows that there is a relationship between students’ perceptions of classroom and learning environment and their cognitive, affective, emotional and behavioral outcomes, so, in this study the relationship between medical students’ perception of learning environment and academic emotions was examined. Method: The research method used was descriptive-correlative. The statistical population consisted of medical students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Stratified sampling method was used to select 342 participants. They completed self-report questionnaires of Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM) and Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ). All descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlations and simultaneous multiple regression were performed using SPSS 14 software. Results: Simultaneous multiple regression of the students’ perceived learning environment on their academic achievement emotions showed that the perceived learning environment predicts the students’ academic emotions. Conclusion: PMID:28367464

  3. Mining Learning Social Networks for Cooperative Learning with Appropriate Learning Partners in a Problem-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chia-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have identified web-based cooperative learning as an increasingly popular educational paradigm with potential to increase learner satisfaction and interactions. However, peer-to-peer interaction often suffers barriers owing to a failure to explore useful social interaction information in web-based cooperative learning environments.…

  4. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  5. Can Teachers "Learn" in an Online Environment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee M.; Wandersee, James H.

    2009-01-01

    In June 2009, the U.S. Department of Education released a meta-analysis of online learning studies that detailed strong support for online learning. The authors of this report, however, cautioned that online students' increased interaction--as well as differences in curriculum and pedagogy--did not allow a direct comparison between online and…

  6. Culture and Motivation in Online Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clem, Frances A.

    2004-01-01

    Online learning has been hailed as a huge step forward for education. Academia is increasingly offering Internet-based distance courses because they allow "anywhere, anytime" learning and access to a wider pool of students. Firms and organizations like it for training employees because it permits consistency and repeatability in training delivery.…

  7. Comparative Blended Learning Practices and Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Eugenia M. W., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of new technologies, more convenient and effective ways of learning are being adopted. However, despite the growing advancements there remains a lack of literature in applications of using these technology teaching approaches. This book offers in-depth analysis of new technologies in blended learning that promote creativity,…

  8. The effect of type of learning environment on perceived learning among graduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Wells, Marcia I; Dellinger, Amy B

    2011-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study was conducted to examine the effect of type of learning environment (Internet only, compressed video remote-site, and compressed video host-site) on perceived learning among graduate nursing students. A convenience sample of 49 students enrolled in a graduate nursing research course was selected for the study. The findings showed no differences in perceived learning and final course grades among students enrolled in the three sections of the research course. While the effects of type of learning environment, feelings of connectedness, learner-learner, and learner-system interactions on perceived learning were not statistically significant, learner-instructor interactions had a significant effect on perceived learning. The study findings are encouraging in that students felt that they learned the course content and these perceptions were the same regardless of type of learning environment. The findings also suggest that the quality of instruction is more of an influence on learning than type of teaching modality.

  9. Adolescent Learning in the Zoo: Embedding a Non-Formal Learning Environment to Teach Formal Aspects of Vertebrate Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randler, Christoph; Kummer, Barbara; Wilhelm, Christian

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of a zoo visit in terms of learning and retention of knowledge concerning the adaptations and behavior of vertebrate species. Basis of the work was the concept of implementing zoo visits as an out-of-school setting for formal, curriculum based learning. Our theoretical framework centers on the self-determination theory, therefore, we used a group-based, hands-on learning environment. To address this questions, we used a treatment—control design (BACI) with different treatments and a control group. Pre-, post- and retention tests were applied. All treatments led to a substantial increase of learning and retention knowledge compared to the control group. Immediately after the zoo visit, the zoo-guide tour provided the highest scores, while after a delay of 6 weeks, the learner-centered environment combined with a teacher-guided summarizing scored best. We suggest incorporating the zoo as an out-of-school environment into formal school learning, and we propose different methods to improve learning in zoo settings.

  10. An adaptive online learning framework for practical breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Tianshu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Jiayu

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an adaptive online learning (OL) framework for supporting clinical breast cancer (BC) diagnosis. Unlike traditional data mining, which trains a particular model from a fixed set of medical data, our framework offers robust OL models that can be updated adaptively according to new data sequences and newly discovered features. As a result, our framework can naturally learn to perform BC diagnosis using experts' opinions on sequential patient cases with cumulative clinical measurements. The framework integrates both supervised learning (SL) models for BC risk assessment and reinforcement learning (RL) models for decision-making of clinical measurements. In other words, online SL and RL interact with one another, and under a doctor's supervision, push the patient's diagnosis further. Furthermore, our framework can quickly update relevant model parameters based on current diagnosis information during the training process. Additionally, it can build flexible fitted models by integrating different model structures and plugging in the corresponding parameters during the prediction (or decision-making) process. Even when the feature space is extended, it can initialize the corresponding parameters and extend the existing model structure without loss of the cumulative knowledge. We evaluate the OL framework on real datasets from BCSC and WBC, and demonstrate that our SL models achieve accurate BC risk assessment from sequential data and incremental features. We also verify that the well-trained RL models provide promising measurement suggestions.

  11. Distributed reinforcement learning for adaptive and robust network intrusion response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malialis, Kleanthis; Devlin, Sam; Kudenko, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks constitute a rapidly evolving threat in the current Internet. Multiagent Router Throttling is a novel approach to defend against DDoS attacks where multiple reinforcement learning agents are installed on a set of routers and learn to rate-limit or throttle traffic towards a victim server. The focus of this paper is on online learning and scalability. We propose an approach that incorporates task decomposition, team rewards and a form of reward shaping called difference rewards. One of the novel characteristics of the proposed system is that it provides a decentralised coordinated response to the DDoS problem, thus being resilient to DDoS attacks themselves. The proposed system learns remarkably fast, thus being suitable for online learning. Furthermore, its scalability is successfully demonstrated in experiments involving 1000 learning agents. We compare our approach against a baseline and a popular state-of-the-art throttling technique from the network security literature and show that the proposed approach is more effective, adaptive to sophisticated attack rate dynamics and robust to agent failures.

  12. Psychosocial and Adaptive Deficits Associated With Learning Disability Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Backenson, Erica M; Holland, Sara C; Kubas, Hanna A; Fitzer, Kim R; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A; Fraccaro, Rebecca L; Smith, Amanda D; Macoun, Sarah J; Harrison, Gina L; Hale, James B

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent comprehensive evaluations for learning and/or behavior problems in two Pacific Northwest school districts. Using concordance-discordance model (C-DM) processing strengths and weaknesses SLD identification criteria, results revealed working memory SLD (n = 20), processing speed SLD (n = 30), executive SLD (n = 32), and no disability groups (n = 41). Of the SLD subtypes, repeated measures MANOVA results revealed the processing speed SLD subtype exhibited the greatest psychosocial and adaptive impairment according to teacher behavior ratings. Findings suggest processing speed deficits may be behind the cognitive and psychosocial disturbances found in what has been termed "nonverbal" SLD. Limitations, implications, and future research needs are addressed.

  13. Performance & Emotion--A Study on Adaptive E-Learning Based on Visual/Verbal Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, Jennifer; Bertel, Sven; Zander, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive e-Learning systems are able to adjust to a user's learning needs, usually by user modeling or tracking progress. Such learner-adaptive behavior has rapidly become a hot topic for e-Learning, furthered in part by the recent rapid increase in the use of MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses). A lack of general, individual, and situational data…

  14. Development of an Adaptive Learning System with Multiple Perspectives based on Students' Learning Styles and Cognitive Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Tzu-Chi; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Stephen Jen-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an adaptive learning system is developed by taking multiple dimensions of personalized features into account. A personalized presentation module is proposed for developing adaptive learning systems based on the field dependent/independent cognitive style model and the eight dimensions of Felder-Silverman's learning style. An…

  15. Incremental learning of concept drift in nonstationary environments.

    PubMed

    Elwell, Ryan; Polikar, Robi

    2011-10-01

    We introduce an ensemble of classifiers-based approach for incremental learning of concept drift, characterized by nonstationary environments (NSEs), where the underlying data distributions change over time. The proposed algorithm, named Learn(++). NSE, learns from consecutive batches of data without making any assumptions on the nature or rate of drift; it can learn from such environments that experience constant or variable rate of drift, addition or deletion of concept classes, as well as cyclical drift. The algorithm learns incrementally, as other members of the Learn(++) family of algorithms, that is, without requiring access to previously seen data. Learn(++). NSE trains one new classifier for each batch of data it receives, and combines these classifiers using a dynamically weighted majority voting. The novelty of the approach is in determining the voting weights, based on each classifier's time-adjusted accuracy on current and past environments. This approach allows the algorithm to recognize, and act accordingly, to the changes in underlying data distributions, as well as to a possible reoccurrence of an earlier distribution. We evaluate the algorithm on several synthetic datasets designed to simulate a variety of nonstationary environments, as well as a real-world weather prediction dataset. Comparisons with several other approaches are also included. Results indicate that Learn(++). NSE can track the changing environments very closely, regardless of the type of concept drift. To allow future use, comparison and benchmarking by interested researchers, we also release our data used in this paper.

  16. RISICO: an adaptation of FWI to the Mediterranean environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Turco, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The RISICO system provides the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) with daily wildland fire risk forecast maps relevant to the whole national territory since 2003. The structure of RISICO is conceptually similar to the Canadian Fire Weather Index. This index is used almost everywhere in the world and it represents the reference model in EFFIS (European Forest Fire Information System). RISICO can be considered as an evolution and simplification of the FWI index, properly adapted for the Mediterranean environment. RISICO considers vegetation cover and topography as additional input to the system, considering different contributions to the potential fire behaviour due to different vegetation cover, slope and aspect. This allows taking into account different structure of the fuel available from the ground to the crown including important aspect related with the process of fire spread beyond the weather. The aim of this work is to describe the RISICO model and to perform a performance analysis of the overall system, also by comparing it to the Canadian FWI. The performances of the two models are evaluated on the basis of the Burned Area (BA) observed in Italy in the period 2007-2013, provided by National Civil Protection Department. The Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis is used to evaluate and compare the performances of the two models. The results of the analysis show that both the systems provide skilful forecast of the wildland fire risk distribution over the Italian territory. However, the performances of RISICO are always better than FWI concerning the capabilities of correctly identifying areas with higher or lower risk significantly reducing the number of false alert with respect to FWI, making it more reliable to the Mediterranean environment.

  17. Methods of Psychological and Pedagogical Accompaniment of First-Year Students in Process of Adapting to Learning at University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maralova, Tatyana P.; Filipenkova, Olesya G.; Galitskikh, Elena O.; Shulga, Tatiana I.; Sidyacheva, Natalya V.; Ovsyanik, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the study is conditioned by the complexity of students' adaptation to learning at University due to the change of social environment, an alarming feelings about the precise self-determination, lack of knowledge in opportunities for self-expression in art, science, sport and public life. The purpose of the paper is to identify…

  18. Solar adaptive optics: specificities, lessons learned, and open alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montilla, I.; Marino, J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Collados, M.; Montoya, L.; Tallon, M.

    2016-07-01

    the Strehl and the Point Spread Function used in night time adaptive optics but not really suitable to the solar systems, and new control strategies more complex than the ones used in nowadays solar Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems. In this paper we summarize the lessons learned with past and current solar adaptive optics systems and focus on the discussion on the new alternatives to solve present open issues limiting their performance.

  19. Adaptive optics for ultra short pulsed lasers in UHV environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneuville, Francois; Ropert, Laurent; Sauvageot, Paul; Theis, Sébastien

    2015-02-01

    ISP SYSTEM has developed an electro-mechanical deformable mirror compatible with Ultra High Vacuum environment, suitable for ultra short pulsed lasers. The design of the MD-AME deformable mirror is based on force application on numerous locations. μ-AME actuators are driven by stepper motors, and their patented special design allows controlling the force with a very high accuracy. Materials and assembly method have been adapted to UHV constraints and the performances were evaluated on a first application for a beam with a diameter of 250mm. A Strehl ratio above 0.9 was reached for this application. Optical aberrations up to Zernike order 5 can be corrected with a very low residual error as for standard MD-AME mirror. Amplitude can reach up to several hundreds of μm for low order corrections. Hysteresis is lower than 0.1% and linearity better than 99%. Contrary to piezo-electric actuators, the μ-AME actuators avoid print-through effects and they permit to keep the mirror shape stable even unpowered, providing a high resistance to electro-magnetic pulses. The deformable mirror design allows changing easily an actuator or even the membrane if needed, in order to improve the facility availability. They are designed for circular, square or elliptical aperture from 30mm up to 500mm or more, with incidence angle from 0° to 45°. They can be equipped with passive or active cooling for high power lasers with high repetition rate.

  20. Spacecraft Component Adaptive Layout Environment (SCALE): An efficient optimization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakoor, Mahdi; Ghoreishi, Seyed Mohammad Navid; Sabaghzadeh, Hossein

    2016-11-01

    For finding the optimum layout of spacecraft subsystems, important factors such as the center of gravity, moments of inertia, thermal distribution, natural frequencies, etc. should be taken into account. This large number of effective parameters makes the optimum layout process of spacecraft subsystems complex and time consuming. In this paper, an automatic tool, based on multi-objective optimization methods, is proposed for a three dimensional layout of spacecraft subsystems. In this regard, an efficient Spacecraft Component Adaptive Layout Environment (SCALE) is produced by integration of some modeling, FEM, and optimization software. SCALE automatically provides optimal solutions for a three dimensional layout of spacecraft subsystems with considering important constraints such as center of gravity, moment of inertia, thermal distribution, natural frequencies and structural strength. In order to show the superiority and efficiency of SCALE, layout of a telecommunication spacecraft and a remote sensing spacecraft are performed. The results show that, the objective functions values for obtained layouts by using SCALE are in a much better condition than traditional one i.e. Reference Baseline Solution (RBS) which is proposed by the engineering system team. This indicates the good performance and ability of SCALE for finding the optimal layout of spacecraft subsystems.

  1. Reinforcement learning in multidimensional environments relies on attention mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Niv, Yael; Daniel, Reka; Geana, Andra; Gershman, Samuel J; Leong, Yuan Chang; Radulescu, Angela; Wilson, Robert C

    2015-05-27

    In recent years, ideas from the computational field of reinforcement learning have revolutionized the study of learning in the brain, famously providing new, precise theories of how dopamine affects learning in the basal ganglia. However, reinforcement learning algorithms are notorious for not scaling well to multidimensional environments, as is required for real-world learning. We hypothesized that the brain naturally reduces the dimensionality of real-world problems to only those dimensions that are relevant to predicting reward, and conducted an experiment to assess by what algorithms and with what neural mechanisms this "representation learning" process is realized in humans. Our results suggest that a bilateral attentional control network comprising the intraparietal sulcus, precuneus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in selecting what dimensions are relevant to the task at hand, effectively updating the task representation through trial and error. In this way, cortical attention mechanisms interact with learning in the basal ganglia to solve the "curse of dimensionality" in reinforcement learning.

  2. Reduced short term adaptation to robot generated dynamic environment in children affected by Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is known that healthy adults can quickly adapt to a novel dynamic environment, generated by a robotic manipulandum as a structured disturbing force field. We suggest that it may be of clinical interest to evaluate to which extent this kind of motor learning capability is impaired in children affected by cerebal palsy. Methods We adapted the protocol already used with adults, which employs a velocity dependant viscous field, and compared the performance of a group of subjects affected by Cerebral Palsy (CP group, 7 subjects) with a Control group of unimpaired age-matched children. The protocol included a familiarization phase (FA), during which no force was applied, a force field adaptation phase (CF), and a wash-out phase (WO) in which the field was removed. During the CF phase the field was shut down in a number of randomly selected "catch" trials, which were used in order to evaluate the "learning index" for each single subject and the two groups. Lateral deviation, speed and acceleration peaks and average speed were evaluated for each trajectory; a directional analysis was performed in order to inspect the role of the limb's inertial anisotropy in the different experimental phases. Results During the FA phase the movements of the CP subjects were more curved, displaying greater and variable directional error; over the course of the CF phase both groups showed a decreasing trend in the lateral error and an after-effect at the beginning of the wash-out, but the CP group had a non significant adaptation rate and a lower learning index, suggesting that CP subjects have reduced ability to learn to compensate external force. Moreover, a directional analysis of trajectories confirms that the control group is able to better predict the force field by tuning the kinematic features of the movements along different directions in order to account for the inertial anisotropy of arm. Conclusions Spatial abnormalities in children affected by cerebral palsy may be

  3. Achieving diversity in nursing through multicontextual learning environments.

    PubMed

    Giddens, Jean Foret

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to increase diversity within the nursing profession have resulted in the admission of more ethnically diverse students into nursing education programs. However, traditional curricular and pedagogical practices seen in many nursing programs do not accommodate the learning needs of diverse learners. Nurse educators are encouraged to adopt learner-centered pedagogical approaches and embrace multicontextual learning environments. The purpose of this article is to describe the concept of multicontextuality and to introduce an exemplar of a multicontextual learning environment that has been recently developed and implemented in an undergraduate nursing program. The virtual community, known as The Neighborhood, presents nursing concepts in a rich personal and community context through stories and supplemental multimedia. The perceived benefit is enhancement of conceptual learning in a student-oriented learning environment.

  4. Perspectives of probabilistic inferences: Reinforcement learning and an adaptive network compared.

    PubMed

    Rieskamp, Jörg

    2006-11-01

    The assumption that people possess a strategy repertoire for inferences has been raised repeatedly. The strategy selection learning theory specifies how people select strategies from this repertoire. The theory assumes that individuals select strategies proportional to their subjective expectations of how well the strategies solve particular problems; such expectations are assumed to be updated by reinforcement learning. The theory is compared with an adaptive network model that assumes people make inferences by integrating information according to a connectionist network. The network's weights are modified by error correction learning. The theories were tested against each other in 2 experimental studies. Study 1 showed that people substantially improved their inferences through feedback, which was appropriately predicted by the strategy selection learning theory. Study 2 examined a dynamic environment in which the strategies' performances changed. In this situation a quick adaptation to the new situation was not observed; rather, individuals got stuck on the strategy they had successfully applied previously. This "inertia effect" was most strongly predicted by the strategy selection learning theory.

  5. Open Integrated Personal Learning Environment: Towards a New Conception of the ICT-Based Learning Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Miguel Ángel; García-Peñalvo, Francisco José; Casany, Marià José; Alier Forment, Marc

    Learning processes are changing related to technological and sociological evolution, taking this in to account, a new learning strategy must be considered. Specifically what is needed is to give an effective step towards the eLearning 2.0 environments consolidation. This must imply the fusion of the advantages of the traditional LMS (Learning Management System) - more formative program control and planning oriented - with the social learning and the flexibility of the web 2.0 educative applications.

  6. Relationships Between Knowledge and Learning Environments in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickle, Judy

    1984-01-01

    The education of teachers involves three categories of knowledge: particularistic, technical, and liberal. These knowledge areas are explored and their association with field, laboratory and scholarly/scientific learning environments is discussed. (DF)

  7. The Adult Learning Environment: Importance of Physical Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosko, R. S.; Hiemstra, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature primarily outside of educational circles on three topics--ergonomics, anthropometry, and proxemics--that affect the learning environment. It also discusses some implications in the hope that research and dialogue can be stimulated. (JOW)

  8. Challenging clinical learning environments: experiences of undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    O'Mara, Linda; McDonald, Jane; Gillespie, Mary; Brown, Helen; Miles, Lynn

    2014-03-01

    Clinical learning is an essential component of becoming a nurse. However at times, students report experiencing challenging clinical learning environments (CCLE), raising questions regarding the nature of a challenging clinical learning environment, its impact on students' learning and how students might respond within a CCLE. Using an Interpretive Descriptive study design, researchers held focus groups with 54 students from two Canadian sites, who self-identified as having experienced a CCLE. Students defined a CCLE as affected by relationships in the clinical area and by the context of their learning experiences. CCLE decreased students' learning opportunities and impacted on them as persons. As students determined which relationships were challenging, they tapped other resources and they used strategies to rebuilt, reframe, redirect and/or retreat relative to the specific challenge. Relationships also acted as buffers to unsupportive practice cultures. Implications for practice and research are addressed.

  9. A Learning Style Classification Mechanism for E-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi-Chun; Kao, Wen-Yan; Chu, Chih-Ping; Chiu, Chiung-Hui

    2009-01-01

    With the growing demand in e-learning, numerous research works have been done to enhance teaching quality in e-learning environments. Among these studies, researchers have indicated that adaptive learning is a critical requirement for promoting the learning performance of students. Adaptive learning provides adaptive learning materials, learning…

  10. Student Activity and Learning Outcomes in a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanov, Kalle; Nevgi, Anne

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between degree of participation and learning outcomes in an e-learning course on medical informatics. Overall activity in using course materials and degree of participation in the discussion forums of an online course were studied among 39 medical students. Students were able to utilise the…

  11. Learning to Cook: Production Learning Environment in Kitchens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Learning in workplaces is neither ad hoc nor informal. Such labels are a misnomer and do not do justice to the highly-structured nature and complexity of many workplaces where learning takes place. This article discusses the organisational and structural framework developed from a three-year doctoral study into how apprentice chefs construct their…

  12. Supporting Collaborative Grammar Learning via a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini-Jones, Marina; Jones, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation into the issues encountered by undergraduate language students while engaging in "the Grammar Project"--a collaborative assessment task for the module Academic and Professional Skills for Language Learning--and shows how encouraging students to take ownership of their learning process…

  13. Nigerian Physiotherapy Clinical Students' Perception of Their Learning Environment Measured by the Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odole, Adesola C.; Oyewole, Olufemi O.; Ogunmola, Oluwasolape T.

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the learning environment and the understanding of how students learn will help teacher to facilitate learning and plan a curriculum to achieve the learning outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate undergraduate physiotherapy clinical students' perception of University of Ibadan's learning environment. Using the…

  14. Design Characteristics of Virtual Learning Environments: An Expert Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Daniel; Strohmeier, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Virtual learning environments (VLE) constitute the current information systems' (IS) category for electronically supported corporate training and development. Frequently supposed advantages of using VLE refer, for instance, to the efficiency, individuality, ubiquity, timeliness and task orientation of learning. However, a crucial precondition of…

  15. Developing a Scale for Constructivist Learning Environment Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim, M. Cevat

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: The success of creating a constructivist learning environment is directly related to teachers' management abilities and therefore scales that evaluate those skills are essential to the process. Given the importance of this subject, the development of scales that address all aspects of the constructivist learning environment…

  16. School-Based Teams Help Improve School Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ann

    1993-01-01

    Educators at a Connecticut middle school are creating programs to help students develop more positive self-images within a safe, supportive learning environment. Schoolwide restructuring efforts led to teams of professionals concerned with school learning climate, team teaching, monitoring of pupil progress, staff development, at-risk students,…

  17. Avatars, Pedagogical Agents, and Virtual Environments: Social Learning Systems Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausburn, Lynna J.; Martens, Jon; Dotterer, Gary; Calhoun, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of literature that introduces major concepts and issues in using avatars and pedagogical agents in first- and second-person virtual environments (VEs) for learning online. In these VEs, avatars and pedagogical agents represent self and other learners/participants or serve as personal learning "guides". The…

  18. Results from Action Analysis in an Interactive Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheuer, Oliver; Muhlenbrock, Martin; Melis, Erica

    2007-01-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the automatic analysis of learner activity in web-based learning environments. The approach and system SIAM (System for Interaction Analysis by Machine learning) presented in this article aims at helping to establish a basis for the automatic analysis of interaction data by developing a data logging and…

  19. Designing for Learning: Online Social Networks as a Classroom Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Gail; Evans, Terry

    2011-01-01

    This paper deploys notions of emergence, connections, and designs for learning to conceptualize high school students' interactions when using online social media as a learning environment. It makes links to chaos and complexity theories and to fractal patterns as it reports on a part of the first author's action research study, conducted while she…

  20. Personality Type and Success in an Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellish, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    Online learning continues to be a growing frontier in higher education with increased demand and enrollments reported annually (Allen & Seaman, 2010, 2011). Discovering best practices and methods of instruction as well as assisting students in determining their highest possible level of success in this type of learning environment has been the…