Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive local grid

  1. An Adaptive Unstructured Grid Method by Grid Subdivision, Local Remeshing, and Grid Movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    1999-01-01

    An unstructured grid adaptation technique has been developed and successfully applied to several three dimensional inviscid flow test cases. The approach is based on a combination of grid subdivision, local remeshing, and grid movement. For solution adaptive grids, the surface triangulation is locally refined by grid subdivision, and the tetrahedral grid in the field is partially remeshed at locations of dominant flow features. A grid redistribution strategy is employed for geometric adaptation of volume grids to moving or deforming surfaces. The method is automatic and fast and is designed for modular coupling with different solvers. Several steady state test cases with different inviscid flow features were tested for grid/solution adaptation. In all cases, the dominant flow features, such as shocks and vortices, were accurately and efficiently predicted with the present approach. A new and robust method of moving tetrahedral "viscous" grids is also presented and demonstrated on a three-dimensional example.

  2. Hierarchy-Direction Selective Approach for Locally Adaptive Sparse Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyanov, Miroslav K

    2013-09-01

    We consider the problem of multidimensional adaptive hierarchical interpolation. We use sparse grids points and functions that are induced from a one dimensional hierarchical rule via tensor products. The classical locally adaptive sparse grid algorithm uses an isotropic refinement from the coarser to the denser levels of the hierarchy. However, the multidimensional hierarchy provides a more complex structure that allows for various anisotropic and hierarchy selective refinement techniques. We consider the more advanced refinement techniques and apply them to a number of simple test functions chosen to demonstrate the various advantages and disadvantages of each method. While there is no refinement scheme that is optimal for all functions, the fully adaptive family-direction-selective technique is usually more stable and requires fewer samples.

  3. Cosmos++: Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics on Unstructured Grids with Local Adaptive Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Anninos, P; Fragile, P C; Salmonson, J D

    2005-05-06

    A new code and methodology are introduced for solving the fully general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) equations using time-explicit, finite-volume discretization. The code has options for solving the GRMHD equations using traditional artificial-viscosity (AV) or non-oscillatory central difference (NOCD) methods, or a new extended AV (eAV) scheme using artificial-viscosity together with a dual energy-flux-conserving formulation. The dual energy approach allows for accurate modeling of highly relativistic flows at boost factors well beyond what has been achieved to date by standard artificial viscosity methods. it provides the benefit of Godunov methods in capturing high Lorentz boosted flows but without complicated Riemann solvers, and the advantages of traditional artificial viscosity methods in their speed and flexibility. Additionally, the GRMHD equations are solved on an unstructured grid that supports local adaptive mesh refinement using a fully threated oct-tree (in three dimensions) network to traverse the grid hierarchy across levels and immediate neighbors. A number of tests are presented to demonstrate robustness of the numerical algorithms and adaptive mesh framework over a wide spectrum of problems, boosts, and astrophysical applications, including relativistic shock tubes, shock collisions, magnetosonic shocks, Alfven wave propagation, blast waves, magnetized Bondi flow, and the magneto-rotational instability in Kerr black hole spacetimes.

  4. Locally adapted space-wise grids from GOCE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguzzoni, Mirko; Gatti, Andrea; De Gaetani, Carlo; Migliaccio, Federica; Sansò, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    GOCE data are usually translated into a spherical harmonic global model that can be used to generate various functionals of the Earth's gravitational field. An alternative representation of the information coming from GOCE is to project the observed along-track gradients onto a spherical grid at mean satellite altitude. This is the solution pursued in this work by exploiting the so called space-wise approach. In particular, once the data are filtered along the orbit in order to reduce variance and correlation of the observation noise, a gridding procedure is implemented by least-squares collocation on local data patches. Crucial points are the new way in which data are subdivided and local covariances are modeled. Basically the idea is to consider clouds of observation points around each grid knot reducing as much as possible the data undersampling in order to catch their local information. Inside the point cloud a signal covariance model based on local degree variances is used. The method has been applied on a subset of GOCE data. The resulting grid values are compared with those synthesized from a global model based on the same observation time span, showing the differences between the two representations.

  5. Adaptive Local Grid Refinement in Computational Fluid Mechanics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Adaptive mesh refinements in reservoir simulation applications (R.E. Ew- ing), Proceedings Intl. Conference on Accuracy Est. and Adaptive Refine... reservoir simulation (R.E. Ewing and .J.V. 1{oebbe), Innovati’ve Numerical Mlethods in Engineering, (R.P. Shaw, J. Pc- riaux, A. Chaudouet, J. Wu...Universities, Cheyenne, Wyoming, February 21, 1986, O 9. Finite element techniques for reservoir simulation , Fourth International Sym- posium on Numerical

  6. Adaptive local grid refinement for the compressible 3-D Euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenfeld, Thilo

    A method is presented based on a three-dimensional Euler code, using the explicit finite volume technique and a Runge-Kutta scheme, and applied in an adaptive version for the transonic flow around wings. The method allows embedded subgrids at two levels of refinement. Computations are performed with both various fixed refined grids and in an adaptive version applying a pressure or density gradient sensor. When comparing the results of embedded grid computations with calculations on only a total coarse or fine mesh, it can be stated that the local grid refinement technique is an effective framework to obtain well-resolved solutions with, at the same time, a minimum of grid points.

  7. Staggered grid lagrangian method with local structured adaptive mesh refinement for modeling shock hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R W; Pember, R B; Elliot, N S

    2000-09-26

    A new method for the solution of the unsteady Euler equations has been developed. The method combines staggered grid Lagrangian techniques with structured local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). This method is a precursor to a more general adaptive arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE-AMR) algorithm under development, which will facilitate the solution of problems currently at and beyond the boundary of soluble problems by traditional ALE methods by focusing computational resources where they are required. Many of the core issues involved in the development of the ALE-AMR method hinge upon the integration of AMR with a Lagrange step, which is the focus of the work described here. The novel components of the method are mainly driven by the need to reconcile traditional AMR techniques, which are typically employed on stationary meshes with cell-centered quantities, with the staggered grids and grid motion employed by Lagrangian methods. These new algorithmic components are first developed in one dimension and are then generalized to two dimensions. Solutions of several model problems involving shock hydrodynamics are presented and discussed.

  8. Anisotropic grid adaptation in LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toosi, Siavash; Larsson, Johan

    2016-11-01

    The modeling errors depend directly on the grid (or filter) spacing in turbulence-resolving simulations (LES, DNS, DES, etc), and are typically at least as significant as the numerical errors. This makes adaptive grid-refinement complicated, since it prevents the estimation of the local error sources through numerical analysis. The present work attempts to address this difficulty with a physics-based error-source indicator that accounts for the anisotropy in the smallest resolved scales, which can thus be used to drive an anisotropic grid-adaptation process. The proposed error indicator is assessed on a sequence of problems, including turbulent channel flow and flows in more complex geometries. The formulation is geometrically general and applicable to complex geometries.

  9. Interactive solution-adaptive grid generation procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Todd L.; Choo, Yung K.; Lee, Ki D.

    1992-01-01

    TURBO-AD is an interactive solution adaptive grid generation program under development. The program combines an interactive algebraic grid generation technique and a solution adaptive grid generation technique into a single interactive package. The control point form uses a sparse collection of control points to algebraically generate a field grid. This technique provides local grid control capability and is well suited to interactive work due to its speed and efficiency. A mapping from the physical domain to a parametric domain was used to improve difficulties encountered near outwardly concave boundaries in the control point technique. Therefore, all grid modifications are performed on the unit square in the parametric domain, and the new adapted grid is then mapped back to the physical domain. The grid adaption is achieved by adapting the control points to a numerical solution in the parametric domain using control sources obtained from the flow properties. Then a new modified grid is generated from the adapted control net. This process is efficient because the number of control points is much less than the number of grid points and the generation of the grid is an efficient algebraic process. TURBO-AD provides the user with both local and global controls.

  10. 3D Structured Grid Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, D. W.; Hafez, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Grid adaptation for structured meshes is the art of using information from an existing, but poorly resolved, solution to automatically redistribute the grid points in such a way as to improve the resolution in regions of high error, and thus the quality of the solution. This involves: (1) generate a grid vis some standard algorithm, (2) calculate a solution on this grid, (3) adapt the grid to this solution, (4) recalculate the solution on this adapted grid, and (5) repeat steps 3 and 4 to satisfaction. Steps 3 and 4 can be repeated until some 'optimal' grid is converged to but typically this is not worth the effort and just two or three repeat calculations are necessary. They also may be repeated every 5-10 time steps for unsteady calculations.

  11. Structured adaptive grid generation using algebraic methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jiann-Cherng; Soni, Bharat K.; Roger, R. P.; Chan, Stephen C.

    1993-01-01

    The accuracy of the numerical algorithm depends not only on the formal order of approximation but also on the distribution of grid points in the computational domain. Grid adaptation is a procedure which allows optimal grid redistribution as the solution progresses. It offers the prospect of accurate flow field simulations without the use of an excessively timely, computationally expensive, grid. Grid adaptive schemes are divided into two basic categories: differential and algebraic. The differential method is based on a variational approach where a function which contains a measure of grid smoothness, orthogonality and volume variation is minimized by using a variational principle. This approach provided a solid mathematical basis for the adaptive method, but the Euler-Lagrange equations must be solved in addition to the original governing equations. On the other hand, the algebraic method requires much less computational effort, but the grid may not be smooth. The algebraic techniques are based on devising an algorithm where the grid movement is governed by estimates of the local error in the numerical solution. This is achieved by requiring the points in the large error regions to attract other points and points in the low error region to repel other points. The development of a fast, efficient, and robust algebraic adaptive algorithm for structured flow simulation applications is presented. This development is accomplished in a three step process. The first step is to define an adaptive weighting mesh (distribution mesh) on the basis of the equidistribution law applied to the flow field solution. The second, and probably the most crucial step, is to redistribute grid points in the computational domain according to the aforementioned weighting mesh. The third and the last step is to reevaluate the flow property by an appropriate search/interpolate scheme at the new grid locations. The adaptive weighting mesh provides the information on the desired concentration

  12. LAPS Grid generation and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliantini, Cecilia; Delzanno, Gia Luca; Guo, Zehua; Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Tang, Xianzhu; Chacon, Luis

    2011-10-01

    LAPS uses a common-data framework in which a general purpose grid generation and adaptation package in toroidal and simply connected domains is implemented. The initial focus is on implementing the Winslow/Laplace-Beltrami method for generating non-overlapping block structured grids. This is to be followed by a grid adaptation scheme based on Monge-Kantorovich optimal transport method [Delzanno et al., J. Comput. Phys,227 (2008), 9841-9864], that equidistributes application-specified error. As an initial set of applications, we will lay out grids for an axisymmetric mirror, a field reversed configuration, and an entire poloidal cross section of a tokamak plasma reconstructed from a CMOD experimental shot. These grids will then be used for computing the plasma equilibrium and transport in accompanying presentations. A key issue for Monge-Kantorovich grid optimization is the choice of error or monitor function for equi-distribution. We will compare the Operator Recovery Error Source Detector (ORESD) [Lapenta, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng,59 (2004) 2065-2087], the Tau method and a strategy based on the grid coarsening [Zhang et al., AIAA J,39 (2001) 1706-1715] to find an ``optimal'' grid. Work supported by DOE OFES.

  13. SAGE - MULTIDIMENSIONAL SELF-ADAPTIVE GRID CODE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    SAGE, Self Adaptive Grid codE, is a flexible tool for adapting and restructuring both 2D and 3D grids. Solution-adaptive grid methods are useful tools for efficient and accurate flow predictions. In supersonic and hypersonic flows, strong gradient regions such as shocks, contact discontinuities, shear layers, etc., require careful distribution of grid points to minimize grid error and produce accurate flow-field predictions. SAGE helps the user obtain more accurate solutions by intelligently redistributing (i.e. adapting) the original grid points based on an initial or interim flow-field solution. The user then computes a new solution using the adapted grid as input to the flow solver. The adaptive-grid methodology poses the problem in an algebraic, unidirectional manner for multi-dimensional adaptations. The procedure is analogous to applying tension and torsion spring forces proportional to the local flow gradient at every grid point and finding the equilibrium position of the resulting system of grid points. The multi-dimensional problem of grid adaption is split into a series of one-dimensional problems along the computational coordinate lines. The reduced one dimensional problem then requires a tridiagonal solver to find the location of grid points along a coordinate line. Multi-directional adaption is achieved by the sequential application of the method in each coordinate direction. The tension forces direct the redistribution of points to the strong gradient region. To maintain smoothness and a measure of orthogonality of grid lines, torsional forces are introduced that relate information between the family of lines adjacent to one another. The smoothness and orthogonality constraints are direction-dependent, since they relate only the coordinate lines that are being adapted to the neighboring lines that have already been adapted. Therefore the solutions are non-unique and depend on the order and direction of adaption. Non-uniqueness of the adapted grid is

  14. Near-Body Grid Adaption for Overset Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    A solution adaption capability for curvilinear near-body grids has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid computational fluid dynamics code. The approach follows closely that used for the Cartesian off-body grids, but inserts refined grids in the computational space of original near-body grids. Refined curvilinear grids are generated using parametric cubic interpolation, with one-sided biasing based on curvature and stretching ratio of the original grid. Sensor functions, grid marking, and solution interpolation tasks are implemented in the same fashion as for off-body grids. A goal-oriented procedure, based on largest error first, is included for controlling growth rate and maximum size of the adapted grid system. The adaption process is almost entirely parallelized using MPI, resulting in a capability suitable for viscous, moving body simulations. Two- and three-dimensional examples are presented.

  15. On Accuracy of Adaptive Grid Methods for Captured Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamaleev, Nail K.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2002-01-01

    The accuracy of two grid adaptation strategies, grid redistribution and local grid refinement, is examined by solving the 2-D Euler equations for the supersonic steady flow around a cylinder. Second- and fourth-order linear finite difference shock-capturing schemes, based on the Lax-Friedrichs flux splitting, are used to discretize the governing equations. The grid refinement study shows that for the second-order scheme, neither grid adaptation strategy improves the numerical solution accuracy compared to that calculated on a uniform grid with the same number of grid points. For the fourth-order scheme, the dominant first-order error component is reduced by the grid adaptation, while the design-order error component drastically increases because of the grid nonuniformity. As a result, both grid adaptation techniques improve the numerical solution accuracy only on the coarsest mesh or on very fine grids that are seldom found in practical applications because of the computational cost involved. Similar error behavior has been obtained for the pressure integral across the shock. A simple analysis shows that both grid adaptation strategies are not without penalties in the numerical solution accuracy. Based on these results, a new grid adaptation criterion for captured shocks is proposed.

  16. Adaptive EAGLE dynamic solution adaptation and grid quality enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luong, Phu Vinh; Thompson, J. F.; Gatlin, B.; Mastin, C. W.; Kim, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    In the effort described here, the elliptic grid generation procedure in the EAGLE grid code was separated from the main code into a subroutine, and a new subroutine which evaluates several grid quality measures at each grid point was added. The elliptic grid routine can now be called, either by a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to generate a new adaptive grid based on flow variables and quality measures through multiple adaptation, or by the EAGLE main code to generate a grid based on quality measure variables through static adaptation. Arrays of flow variables can be read into the EAGLE grid code for use in static adaptation as well. These major changes in the EAGLE adaptive grid system make it easier to convert any CFD code that operates on a block-structured grid (or single-block grid) into a multiple adaptive code.

  17. Automatic adaptive grid refinement for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, M. J.; Jameson, A.

    1983-01-01

    A method of adaptive grid refinement for the solution of the steady Euler equations for transonic flow is presented. Algorithm automatically decides where the coarse grid accuracy is insufficient, and creates locally uniform refined grids in these regions. This typically occurs at the leading and trailing edges. The solution is then integrated to steady state using the same integrator (FLO52) in the interior of each grid. The boundary conditions needed on the fine grids are examined and the importance of treating the fine/coarse grid inerface conservatively is discussed. Numerical results are presented.

  18. The fundamentals of adaptive grid movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Basic grid point movement schemes are studied. The schemes are referred to as adaptive grids. Weight functions and equidistribution in one dimension are treated. The specification of coefficients in the linear weight, attraction to a given grid or a curve, and evolutionary forces are considered. Curve by curve and finite volume methods are described. The temporal coupling of partial differential equations solvers and grid generators was discussed.

  19. New multigrid approach for three-dimensional unstructured, adaptive grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, Vijayan; Kallinderis, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A new multigrid method with adaptive unstructured grids is presented. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved on tetrahedral grids that are adaptively refined or coarsened locally. The multigrid method is employed to propagate the fine grid corrections more rapidly by redistributing the changes-in-time of the solution from the fine grid to the coarser grids to accelerate convergence. A new approach is employed that uses the parent cells of the fine grid cells in an adapted mesh to generate successively coaser levels of multigrid. This obviates the need for the generation of a sequence of independent, nonoverlapping grids as well as the relatively complicated operations that need to be performed to interpolate the solution and the residuals between the independent grids. The solver is an explicit, vertex-based, finite volume scheme that employs edge-based data structures and operations. Spatial discretization is of central-differencing type combined with a special upwind-like smoothing operators. Application cases include adaptive solutions obtained with multigrid acceleration for supersonic and subsonic flow over a bump in a channel, as well as transonic flow around the ONERA M6 wing. Two levels of multigrid resulted in reduction in the number of iterations by a factor of 5.

  20. New multigrid approach for three-dimensional unstructured, adaptive grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, Vijayan; Kallinderis, Y.

    1994-05-01

    A new multigrid method with adaptive unstructured grids is presented. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved on tetrahedral grids that are adaptively refined or coarsened locally. The multigrid method is employed to propagate the fine grid corrections more rapidly by redistributing the changes-in-time of the solution from the fine grid to the coarser grids to accelerate convergence. A new approach is employed that uses the parent cells of the fine grid cells in an adapted mesh to generate successively coarser levels of multigrid. This obviates the need for the generation of a sequence of independent, nonoverlapping grids as well as the relatively complicated operations that need to be performed to interpolate the solution and the residuals between the independent grids. The solver is an explicit, vertex-based, finite volume scheme that employs edge-based data structures and operations. Spatial discretization is of central-differencing type combined with special upwind-like smoothing operators. Application cases include adaptive solutions obtained with multigrid acceleration for supersonic and subsonic flow over a bump in a channel, as well as transonic flow around the ONERA M6 wing. Two levels of multigrid resulted in reduction in the number of iterations by a factor of 5.

  1. New multigrid approach for three-dimensional unstructured, adaptive grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, Vijayan; Kallinderis, Y.

    1994-05-01

    A new multigrid method with adaptive unstructured grids is presented. The three-dimensional Euler equations are solved on tetrahedral grids that are adaptively refined or coarsened locally. The multigrid method is employed to propagate the fine grid corrections more rapidly by redistributing the changes-in-time of the solution from the fine grid to the coarser grids to accelerate convergence. A new approach is employed that uses the parent cells of the fine grid cells in an adapted mesh to generate successively coaser levels of multigrid. This obviates the need for the generation of a sequence of independent, nonoverlapping grids as well as the relatively complicated operations that need to be performed to interpolate the solution and the residuals between the independent grids. The solver is an explicit, vertex-based, finite volume scheme that employs edge-based data structures and operations. Spatial discretization is of central-differencing type combined with a special upwind-like smoothing operators. Application cases include adaptive solutions obtained with multigrid acceleration for supersonic and subsonic flow over a bump in a channel, as well as transonic flow around the ONERA M6 wing. Two levels of multigrid resulted in reduction in the number of iterations by a factor of 5.

  2. Grid adaptation and remapping for arbitrary lagrangian eulerian (ALE) methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lapenta, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Methods to include automatic grid adaptation tools within the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method are described. Two main developments will be described. First, a new grid adaptation approach is described, based on an automatic and accurate estimate of the local truncation error. Second, a new method to remap the information between two grids is presented, based on the MPDATA approach. The Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method solves hyperbolic equations by splitting the operators is two phases. First, in the Lagrangian phase, the equations under consideration are written in a Lagrangian frame and are discretized. In this phase, the grid moves with the solution, the velocity of each node being the local fluid velocity. Second, in the Eulerian phase, a new grid is generated and the information is transferred to the new grid. The advantage of considering this second step is the possibility of avoiding mesh distortion and tangling typical of pure Lagrangian methods. The second phase of the ALE method is the primary topic of the present communication. In the Eulerian phase two tasks need to be completed. First, a new grid need to be created (we will refer to this task as rezoning). Second, the information is transferred from the grid available at the end of the Lagrangian phase to the new grid (we will refer to this task as remapping). New techniques are presented for the two tasks of the Eulerian phase: rezoning and remapping.

  3. Grid adaption using Chimera composite overlapping meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite over-lapping meshes in regions of large gradient to capture the salient features accurately during computation. The Chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using tri-linear interpolation. Applications to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to a shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well resolved.

  4. Grid adaptation using chimera composite overlapping meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite overlapping meshes in regions of large gradient to accurately capture the salient features during computation. The chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using trilinear interpolation. Application to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well-resolved.

  5. Grid adaptation using Chimera composite overlapping meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Kai-Hsiung; Liou, Meng-Sing; Chow, Chuen-Yen

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to perform grid adaptation using composite over-lapping meshes in regions of large gradient to capture the salient features accurately during computation. The Chimera grid scheme, a multiple overset mesh technique, is used in combination with a Navier-Stokes solver. The numerical solution is first converged to a steady state based on an initial coarse mesh. Solution-adaptive enhancement is then performed by using a secondary fine grid system which oversets on top of the base grid in the high-gradient region, but without requiring the mesh boundaries to join in any special way. Communications through boundary interfaces between those separated grids are carried out using tri-linear interpolation. Applications to the Euler equations for shock reflections and to a shock wave/boundary layer interaction problem are tested. With the present method, the salient features are well resolved.

  6. Three-dimensional adaptive grid-embedding Euler technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Roger L.; Dannenhoffer, John F., III

    1994-06-01

    A new three-dimensional adaptive-grid Euler procedure is presented that automatically detects high-gradient regions in the flow and locally subdivides the computational grid in these regions to provide a uniform, high level of accuracy over the entire domain. A tunable, semistructured data system is utilized that provides global topological unstructured-grid flexibility along with the efficiency of a local, structured-grid system. In addition, this structure data allows for the flow solution algorithm to be executed on a wide variety of parallel/vector computing platforms. An explicit, time-marching, control volume procedure is used to integrate the Euler equations to a steady state. In addition, a multiple-grid procedure is used throughout the embedded-grid regions as well as on subgrids coarser than the initial grid to accelerate convergence and properly propagate disturbance waves through refined-grid regions. Upon convergence, high flow gradient regions, where it is assumed that large truncation errors in the solution exist, are detected using a combination of directional refinement vectors that have large components in areas of these gradients. The local computational grid is directionally subdivided in these regions and the flow solution is reinitiated. Overall convergence occurs when a prespecified level of accuracy is reached. Solutions are presented that demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the present procedure.

  7. Adaptive refinement tools for tetrahedral unstructured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, S. Paul (Inventor); Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An exemplary embodiment providing one or more improvements includes software which is robust, efficient, and has a very fast run time for user directed grid enrichment and flow solution adaptive grid refinement. All user selectable options (e.g., the choice of functions, the choice of thresholds, etc.), other than a pre-marked cell list, can be entered on the command line. The ease of application is an asset for flow physics research and preliminary design CFD analysis where fast grid modification is often needed to deal with unanticipated development of flow details.

  8. Cartesian-cell based grid generation and adaptive mesh refinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coirier, William J.; Powell, Kenneth G.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Cartesian-cell based grid generation and adaptive mesh refinement are presented. Topics covered include: grid generation; cell cutting; data structures; flow solver formulation; adaptive mesh refinement; and viscous flow.

  9. Transonic airfoil calculations using solution-adaptive grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, T. L.; Brown, D.

    1981-01-01

    A new algorithm for generating solution-adaptive grids (SAG) about airfoil configurations embedded in transonic flow is presented. The present SAG approach uses only the airfoil surface solution to recluster grid points on the airfoil surface, i.e., the reclustering problem is one dimension smaller than the flow-field calculation problem. Special controls automatically built into the elliptic grid generation procedure are then used to obtain grids with suitable interior behavior. This concept of redistributing grid points greatly simplifies the idea of solution-adaptive grids. Numerical results indicate significant improvements in accuracy for SAG grids relative to standard grids using the same number of points.

  10. Elliptic Solvers for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Quinlan, D.J.; Dendy, J.E., Jr.; Shapira, Y.

    1999-06-03

    We are developing multigrid methods that will efficiently solve elliptic problems with anisotropic and discontinuous coefficients on adaptive grids. The final product will be a library that provides for the simplified solution of such problems. This library will directly benefit the efforts of other Laboratory groups. The focus of this work is research on serial and parallel elliptic algorithms and the inclusion of our black-box multigrid techniques into this new setting. The approach applies the Los Alamos object-oriented class libraries that greatly simplify the development of serial and parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications. In the final year of this LDRD, we focused on putting the software together; in particular we completed the final AMR++ library, we wrote tutorials and manuals, and we built example applications. We implemented the Fast Adaptive Composite Grid method as the principal elliptic solver. We presented results at the Overset Grid Conference and other more AMR specific conferences. We worked on optimization of serial and parallel performance and published several papers on the details of this work. Performance remains an important issue and is the subject of continuing research work.

  11. Three-dimensional adaptive grid generation for body-fitted coordinate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, S. C.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a numerical method for generating 3-D grids for general configurations. The basic method involves the solution of a set of quasi-linear elliptic partial differential equations via pointwise relaxation with a local relaxation factor. It allows specification of the grid spacing off the boundary surfaces and the grid orthogonality at the boundary surfaces. It includes adaptive mechanisms to improve smoothness, orthogonality, and flow resolution in the grid interior.

  12. Error sensitivity to refinement: a criterion for optimal grid adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchini, Paolo; Giannnetti, Flavio; Citro, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Most indicators used for automatic grid refinement are suboptimal, in the sense that they do not really minimize the global solution error. This paper concerns with a new indicator, related to the sensitivity map of global stability problems, suitable for an optimal grid refinement that minimizes the global solution error. The new criterion is derived from the properties of the adjoint operator and provides a map of the sensitivity of the global error (or its estimate) to a local mesh refinement. Examples are presented for both a scalar partial differential equation and for the system of Navier-Stokes equations. In the last case, we also present a grid-adaptation algorithm based on the new estimator and on the FreeFem++ software that improves the accuracy of the solution of almost two order of magnitude by redistributing the nodes of the initial computational mesh.

  13. A wavelet-optimized, very high order adaptive grid and order numerical method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jameson, Leland

    1996-01-01

    Differencing operators of arbitrarily high order can be constructed by interpolating a polynomial through a set of data followed by differentiation of this polynomial and finally evaluation of the polynomial at the point where a derivative approximation is desired. Furthermore, the interpolating polynomial can be constructed from algebraic, trigonometric, or, perhaps exponential polynomials. This paper begins with a comparison of such differencing operator construction. Next, the issue of proper grids for high order polynomials is addressed. Finally, an adaptive numerical method is introduced which adapts the numerical grid and the order of the differencing operator depending on the data. The numerical grid adaptation is performed on a Chebyshev grid. That is, at each level of refinement the grid is a Chebvshev grid and this grid is refined locally based on wavelet analysis.

  14. Adaptive grid methods for RLV environment assessment and nozzle analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornburg, Hugh J.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid access to highly accurate data about complex configurations is needed for multi-disciplinary optimization and design. In order to efficiently meet these requirements a closer coupling between the analysis algorithms and the discretization process is needed. In some cases, such as free surface, temporally varying geometries, and fluid structure interaction, the need is unavoidable. In other cases the need is to rapidly generate and modify high quality grids. Techniques such as unstructured and/or solution-adaptive methods can be used to speed the grid generation process and to automatically cluster mesh points in regions of interest. Global features of the flow can be significantly affected by isolated regions of inadequately resolved flow. These regions may not exhibit high gradients and can be difficult to detect. Thus excessive resolution in certain regions does not necessarily increase the accuracy of the overall solution. Several approaches have been employed for both structured and unstructured grid adaption. The most widely used involve grid point redistribution, local grid point enrichment/derefinement or local modification of the actual flow solver. However, the success of any one of these methods ultimately depends on the feature detection algorithm used to determine solution domain regions which require a fine mesh for their accurate representation. Typically, weight functions are constructed to mimic the local truncation error and may require substantial user input. Most problems of engineering interest involve multi-block grids and widely disparate length scales. Hence, it is desirable that the adaptive grid feature detection algorithm be developed to recognize flow structures of different type as well as differing intensity, and adequately address scaling and normalization across blocks. These weight functions can then be used to construct blending functions for algebraic redistribution, interpolation functions for unstructured grid generation

  15. High order finite volume methods on wavelet-adapted grids with local time-stepping on multicore architectures for the simulation of shock-bubble interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejazialhosseini, Babak; Rossinelli, Diego; Bergdorf, Michael; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-11-01

    We present a space-time adaptive solver for single- and multi-phase compressible flows that couples average interpolating wavelets with high-order finite volume schemes. The solver introduces the concept of wavelet blocks, handles large jumps in resolution and employs local time-stepping for efficient time integration. We demonstrate that the inherently sequential wavelet-based adaptivity can be implemented efficiently in multicore computer architectures using task-based parallelism and introducing the concept of wavelet blocks. We validate our computational method on a number of benchmark problems and we present simulations of shock-bubble interaction at different Mach numbers, demonstrating the accuracy and computational performance of the method.

  16. Parallel architectures for iterative methods on adaptive, block structured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gannon, D.; Vanrosendale, J.

    1983-01-01

    A parallel computer architecture well suited to the solution of partial differential equations in complicated geometries is proposed. Algorithms for partial differential equations contain a great deal of parallelism. But this parallelism can be difficult to exploit, particularly on complex problems. One approach to extraction of this parallelism is the use of special purpose architectures tuned to a given problem class. The architecture proposed here is tuned to boundary value problems on complex domains. An adaptive elliptic algorithm which maps effectively onto the proposed architecture is considered in detail. Two levels of parallelism are exploited by the proposed architecture. First, by making use of the freedom one has in grid generation, one can construct grids which are locally regular, permitting a one to one mapping of grids to systolic style processor arrays, at least over small regions. All local parallelism can be extracted by this approach. Second, though there may be a regular global structure to the grids constructed, there will be parallelism at this level. One approach to finding and exploiting this parallelism is to use an architecture having a number of processor clusters connected by a switching network. The use of such a network creates a highly flexible architecture which automatically configures to the problem being solved.

  17. Techniques for grid manipulation and adaptation. [computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Yung K.; Eisemann, Peter R.; Lee, Ki D.

    1992-01-01

    Two approaches have been taken to provide systematic grid manipulation for improved grid quality. One is the control point form (CPF) of algebraic grid generation. It provides explicit control of the physical grid shape and grid spacing through the movement of the control points. It works well in the interactive computer graphics environment and hence can be a good candidate for integration with other emerging technologies. The other approach is grid adaptation using a numerical mapping between the physical space and a parametric space. Grid adaptation is achieved by modifying the mapping functions through the effects of grid control sources. The adaptation process can be repeated in a cyclic manner if satisfactory results are not achieved after a single application.

  18. Comparing Anisotropic Output-Based Grid Adaptation Methods by Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Loseille, Adrien; Krakos, Joshua A.; Michal, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropic grid adaptation is examined by decomposing the steps of flow solution, ad- joint solution, error estimation, metric construction, and simplex grid adaptation. Multiple implementations of each of these steps are evaluated by comparison to each other and expected analytic results when available. For example, grids are adapted to analytic metric fields and grid measures are computed to illustrate the properties of multiple independent implementations of grid adaptation mechanics. Different implementations of each step in the adaptation process can be evaluated in a system where the other components of the adaptive cycle are fixed. Detailed examination of these properties allows comparison of different methods to identify the current state of the art and where further development should be targeted.

  19. A Solution Adaptive Technique Using Tetrahedral Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirzadeh, Shahyar Z.

    2000-01-01

    An adaptive unstructured grid refinement technique has been developed and successfully applied to several three dimensional inviscid flow test cases. The method is based on a combination of surface mesh subdivision and local remeshing of the volume grid Simple functions of flow quantities are employed to detect dominant features of the flowfield The method is designed for modular coupling with various error/feature analyzers and flow solvers. Several steady-state, inviscid flow test cases are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method for solving practical three-dimensional problems. In all cases, accurate solutions featuring complex, nonlinear flow phenomena such as shock waves and vortices have been generated automatically and efficiently.

  20. Moving and adaptive grid methods for compressible flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trepanier, Jean-Yves; Camarero, Ricardo

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes adaptive grid methods developed specifically for compressible flow computations. The basic flow solver is a finite-volume implementation of Roe's flux difference splitting scheme or arbitrarily moving unstructured triangular meshes. The grid adaptation is performed according to geometric and flow requirements. Some results are included to illustrate the potential of the methodology.

  1. Conservative treatment of boundary interfaces for overlaid grids and multi-level grid adaptations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, Young J.; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1989-01-01

    Conservative algorithms for boundary interfaces of overlaid grids are presented. The basic method is zeroth order, and is extended to a higher order method using interpolation and subcell decomposition. The present method, strictly based on a conservative constraint, is tested with overlaid grids for various applications of unsteady and steady supersonic inviscid flows with strong shock waves. The algorithm is also applied to a multi-level grid adaptation in which the next level finer grid is overlaid on the coarse base grid with an arbitrary orientation.

  2. A generic efficient adaptive grid scheme for rocket propulsion modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mo, J. D.; Chow, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop an efficient, time-accurate numerical algorithm to discretize the Navier-Stokes equations for the predictions of internal one-, two-dimensional and axisymmetric flows. A generic, efficient, elliptic adaptive grid generator is implicitly coupled with the Lower-Upper factorization scheme in the development of ALUNS computer code. The calculations of one-dimensional shock tube wave propagation and two-dimensional shock wave capture, wave-wave interactions, shock wave-boundary interactions show that the developed scheme is stable, accurate and extremely robust. The adaptive grid generator produced a very favorable grid network by a grid speed technique. This generic adaptive grid generator is also applied in the PARC and FDNS codes and the computational results for solid rocket nozzle flowfield and crystal growth modeling by those codes will be presented in the conference, too. This research work is being supported by NASA/MSFC.

  3. Workshop on adaptive grid methods for fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    The author describes a general `hp` finite element method with adaptive grids. The code was based on the work of Oden, et al. The term `hp` refers to the method of spatial refinement (h), in conjunction with the order of polynomials used as a part of the finite element discretization (p). This finite element code seems to handle well the different mesh grid sizes occuring between abuted grids with different resolutions.

  4. Rapid Structured Volume Grid Smoothing and Adaption Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid, structured volume grid smoothing and adaption technique, based on signal processing methods, was developed and applied to the Shuttle Orbiter at hypervelocity flight conditions in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation. Because of the fast pace of the investigation, computational aerothermodynamicists, applying hypersonic viscous flow solving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, refined and enhanced a grid for an undamaged baseline vehicle to assess a variety of damage scenarios. Of the many methods available to modify a structured grid, most are time-consuming and require significant user interaction. By casting the grid data into different coordinate systems, specifically two computational coordinates with arclength as the third coordinate, signal processing methods are used for filtering the data [Taubin, CG v/29 1995]. Using a reverse transformation, the processed data are used to smooth the Cartesian coordinates of the structured grids. By coupling the signal processing method with existing grid operations within the Volume Grid Manipulator tool, problems related to grid smoothing are solved efficiently and with minimal user interaction. Examples of these smoothing operations are illustrated for reductions in grid stretching and volume grid adaptation. In each of these examples, other techniques existed at the time of the Columbia accident, but the incorporation of signal processing techniques reduced the time to perform the corrections by nearly 60%. This reduction in time to perform the corrections therefore enabled the assessment of approximately twice the number of damage scenarios than previously possible during the allocated investigation time.

  5. Rapid Structured Volume Grid Smoothing and Adaption Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    A rapid, structured volume grid smoothing and adaption technique, based on signal processing methods, was developed and applied to the Shuttle Orbiter at hypervelocity flight conditions in support of the Columbia Accident Investigation. Because of the fast pace of the investigation, computational aerothermodynamicists, applying hypersonic viscous flow solving computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, refined and enhanced a grid for an undamaged baseline vehicle to assess a variety of damage scenarios. Of the many methods available to modify a structured grid, most are time-consuming and require significant user interaction. By casting the grid data into different coordinate systems, specifically two computational coordinates with arclength as the third coordinate, signal processing methods are used for filtering the data [Taubin, CG v/29 1995]. Using a reverse transformation, the processed data are used to smooth the Cartesian coordinates of the structured grids. By coupling the signal processing method with existing grid operations within the Volume Grid Manipulator tool, problems related to grid smoothing are solved efficiently and with minimal user interaction. Examples of these smoothing operations are illustrated for reduction in grid stretching and volume grid adaptation. In each of these examples, other techniques existed at the time of the Columbia accident, but the incorporation of signal processing techniques reduced the time to perform the corrections by nearly 60%. This reduction in time to perform the corrections therefore enabled the assessment of approximately twice the number of damage scenarios than previously possible during the allocated investigation time.

  6. 3-D adaptive grid Navier-Stokes rocket plume calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, J. Eric

    1991-01-01

    Three-dimensional adaptive-grid full Navier-Stokes calculations performed for the base region and plume of the Minuteman first stage and a simplified version of the Titan first stage are used to demonstrate the applicability of the Navier-Stokes flow solver, EAGLE adaptive grid generator, and k-epsilon turbulence model to rocket plume flowfields. The calculations include realistic exhaust gas thermodynamic properties, with frozen chemistry.

  7. A well-balanced numerical scheme for shallow water simulation on adaptive grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. J.; Zhou, J. Z.; Bi, S.; Li, Q. Q.; Fan, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The efficiency of solving two-dimensional shallow-water equations (SWEs) is vital for simulation of large-scale flood inundation. For flood flows over real topography, local high-resolution method, which uses adaptable grids, is required in order to prevent the loss of accuracy of the flow pattern while saving computational cost. This paper introduces an adaptive grid model, which uses an adaptive criterion calculated on the basis of the water lever. The grid adaption is performed by manipulating subdivision levels of the computation grids. As the flow feature varies during the shallow wave propagation, the local grid density changes adaptively and the stored information of neighbor relationship updates correspondingly, achieving a balance between the model accuracy and running efficiency. In this work, a well-balanced (WB) scheme for solving SWEs is introduced. In reconstructions of Riemann state, the definition of the unique bottom elevation on grid interfaces is modified, and the numerical scheme is pre-balanced automatically. By the validation against two idealist test cases, the proposed model is applied to simulate flood inundation due to a dam-break of Zhanghe Reservoir, Hubei province, China. The results show that the presented model is robust and well-balanced, has nice computational efficiency and numerical stability, and thus has bright application prospects.

  8. An adaptive Cartesian grid generation method for Dirty geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. J.; Srinivasan, Kumar

    2002-07-01

    Traditional structured and unstructured grid generation methods need a water-tight boundary surface grid to start. Therefore, these methods are named boundary to interior (B2I) approaches. Although these methods have achieved great success in fluid flow simulations, the grid generation process can still be very time consuming if non-water-tight geometries are given. Significant user time can be taken to repair or clean a dirty geometry with cracks, overlaps or invalid manifolds before grid generation can take place. In this paper, we advocate a different approach in grid generation, namely the interior to boundary (I2B) approach. With an I2B approach, the computational grid is first generated inside the computational domain. Then this grid is intelligently connected to the boundary, and the boundary grid is a result of this connection. A significant advantage of the I2B approach is that dirty geometries can be handled without cleaning or repairing, dramatically reducing grid generation time. An I2B adaptive Cartesian grid generation method is developed in this paper to handle dirty geometries without geometry repair. Comparing with a B2I approach, the grid generation time with the I2B approach for a complex automotive engine can be reduced by three orders of magnitude. Copyright

  9. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-Fitted Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

    1995-01-01

    To be truly compatible with structured grids, an AMR algorithm should employ a block structure for the refined grids to allow flow solvers to take advantage of the strengths of unstructured grid systems, such as efficient solution algorithms for implicit discretizations and multigrid schemes. One such algorithm, the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella, has been applied to and adapted for use with body-fitted structured grid systems. Results are presented for a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil (AGARD-03 test case) and a reflection of a shock over a double wedge.

  10. Topology and grid adaption for high-speed flow computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1989-03-01

    This study investigates the effects of grid topology and grid adaptation on numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. In the first part of this study, a general procedure is presented for computation of high-speed flow over complex three-dimensional configurations. The flow field is simulated on the surface of a Butler wing in a uniform stream. Results are presented for Mach number 3.5 and a Reynolds number of 2,000,000. The O-type and H-type grids have been used for this study, and the results are compared together and with other theoretical and experimental results. The results demonstrate that while the H-type grid is suitable for the leading and trailing edges, a more accurate solution can be obtained for the middle part of the wing with an O-type grid. In the second part of this study, methods of grid adaption are reviewed and a method is developed with the capability of adapting to several variables. This method is based on a variational approach and is an algebraic method. Also, the method has been formulated in such a way that there is no need for any matrix inversion. This method is used in conjunction with the calculation of hypersonic flow over a blunt-nose body. A movie has been produced which shows simultaneously the transient behavior of the solution and the grid adaption.

  11. Topology and grid adaption for high-speed flow computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abolhassani, Jamshid S.; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of grid topology and grid adaptation on numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. In the first part of this study, a general procedure is presented for computation of high-speed flow over complex three-dimensional configurations. The flow field is simulated on the surface of a Butler wing in a uniform stream. Results are presented for Mach number 3.5 and a Reynolds number of 2,000,000. The O-type and H-type grids have been used for this study, and the results are compared together and with other theoretical and experimental results. The results demonstrate that while the H-type grid is suitable for the leading and trailing edges, a more accurate solution can be obtained for the middle part of the wing with an O-type grid. In the second part of this study, methods of grid adaption are reviewed and a method is developed with the capability of adapting to several variables. This method is based on a variational approach and is an algebraic method. Also, the method has been formulated in such a way that there is no need for any matrix inversion. This method is used in conjunction with the calculation of hypersonic flow over a blunt-nose body. A movie has been produced which shows simultaneously the transient behavior of the solution and the grid adaption.

  12. Adaptivity via mesh movement with three-dimensional block-structured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Catherall, D.

    1996-12-31

    The method described here is one in which grid nodes are redistributed so that they are attracted towards regions of high solution activity. The major difficulty in attempting this arises from the degree of grid smoothness and orthogonality required by the flow solver. These requirements are met by suitable choice of grid equations, to be satisfied by the adapted grid, and by the inclusion of certain source terms, for added control in regions where grid movement is limited by the local geometry. The method has been coded for multiblock grids, so that complex configurations may be treated. It is demonstrated here for inviscid supercritical flow with two test cases: an ONERA M6 wing with a rounded tip, and a forward-swept wing/fuselage configuration (M151).

  13. A 3D finite-volume scheme for the Euler equations on adaptive tetrahedral grids

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayan, P.; Kallinderis, Y. )

    1994-08-01

    The paper describes the development and application of a new Euler solver for adaptive tetrahedral grids. Spatial discretization uses a finite-volume, node-based scheme that is of central-differencing type. A second-order Taylor series expansion is employed to march the solution in time according to the Lax-Wendroff approach. Special upwind-like smoothing operators for unstructured grids are developed for shock-capturing, as well as for suppression of solution oscillations. The scheme is formulated so that all operations are edge-based, which reduces the computational effort significantly. An adaptive grid algorithm is employed in order to resolve local flow features. This is achieved by dividing the tetrahedral cells locally, guided by a flow feature detection algorithm. Application cases include transonic flow around the ONERA M6 wing and transonic flow past a transport aircraft configuration. Comparisons with experimental data evaluate accuracy of the developed adaptive solver. 31 refs., 33 figs.

  14. Methods for prismatic/tetrahedral grid generation and adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallinderis, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The present work involves generation of hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is a method for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) type of aircraft geometry is considered. The generated hybrid grid required only 170 K tetrahedra instead of an estimated two million had a tetrahedral mesh been used in the prisms region as well. A solution adaptive scheme for viscous computations on hybrid grids is also presented. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples 3-D, isotropic division of tetrahedra and 2-D, directional division of prisms.

  15. Efficient Unstructured Grid Adaptation Methods for Sonic Boom Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Richard L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Waithe, Kenrick A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of two grid adaptation methods to improve the accuracy of the near-to-mid field pressure signature prediction of supersonic aircraft computed using the USM3D unstructured grid flow solver. The first method (ADV) is an interactive adaptation process that uses grid movement rather than enrichment to more accurately resolve the expansion and compression waves. The second method (SSGRID) uses an a priori adaptation approach to stretch and shear the original unstructured grid to align the grid with the pressure waves and reduce the cell count required to achieve an accurate signature prediction at a given distance from the vehicle. Both methods initially create negative volume cells that are repaired in a module in the ADV code. While both approaches provide significant improvements in the near field signature (< 3 body lengths) relative to a baseline grid without increasing the number of grid points, only the SSGRID approach allows the details of the signature to be accurately computed at mid-field distances (3-10 body lengths) for direct use with mid-field-to-ground boom propagation codes.

  16. Methods for prismatic/tetrahedral grid generation and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallinderis, Y.

    1995-10-01

    The present work involves generation of hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is a method for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) type of aircraft geometry is considered. The generated hybrid grid required only 170 K tetrahedra instead of an estimated two million had a tetrahedral mesh been used in the prisms region as well. A solution adaptive scheme for viscous computations on hybrid grids is also presented. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples 3-D, isotropic division of tetrahedra and 2-D, directional division of prisms.

  17. Grid generation strategies for turbomachinery configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, K. D.; Henderson, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    Turbomachinery flow fields involve unique grid generation issues due to their geometrical and physical characteristics. Several strategic approaches are discussed to generate quality grids. The grid quality is further enhanced through blending and adapting. Grid blending smooths the grids locally through averaging and diffusion operators. Grid adaptation redistributes the grid points based on a grid quality assessment. These methods are demonstrated with several examples.

  18. SAGE: The Self-Adaptive Grid Code. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1999-01-01

    The multi-dimensional self-adaptive grid code, SAGE, is an important tool in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). It provides an efficient method to improve the accuracy of flow solutions while simultaneously reducing computer processing time. Briefly, SAGE enhances an initial computational grid by redistributing the mesh points into more appropriate locations. The movement of these points is driven by an equal-error-distribution algorithm that utilizes the relationship between high flow gradients and excessive solution errors. The method also provides a balance between clustering points in the high gradient regions and maintaining the smoothness and continuity of the adapted grid, The latest version, Version 3, includes the ability to change the boundaries of a given grid to more efficiently enclose flow structures and provides alternative redistribution algorithms.

  19. Adaptively-refined overlapping grids for the numerical solution of systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brislawn, Kristi D.; Brown, David L.; Chesshire, Geoffrey S.; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1995-01-01

    Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in conjunction with higher-order upwind finite-difference methods have been used effectively on a variety of problems in two and three dimensions. In this paper we introduce an approach for resolving problems that involve complex geometries in which resolution of boundary geometry is important. The complex geometry is represented by using the method of overlapping grids, while local resolution is obtained by refining each component grid with the AMR algorithm, appropriately generalized for this situation. The CMPGRD algorithm introduced by Chesshire and Henshaw is used to automatically generate the overlapping grid structure for the underlying mesh.

  20. An adaptive grid algorithm for one-dimensional nonlinear equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, William E.; Hills, Richard G.

    1990-01-01

    Richards' equation, which models the flow of liquid through unsaturated porous media, is highly nonlinear and difficult to solve. Step gradients in the field variables require the use of fine grids and small time step sizes. The numerical instabilities caused by the nonlinearities often require the use of iterative methods such as Picard or Newton interation. These difficulties result in large CPU requirements in solving Richards equation. With this in mind, adaptive and multigrid methods are investigated for use with nonlinear equations such as Richards' equation. Attention is focused on one-dimensional transient problems. To investigate the use of multigrid and adaptive grid methods, a series of problems are studied. First, a multigrid program is developed and used to solve an ordinary differential equation, demonstrating the efficiency with which low and high frequency errors are smoothed out. The multigrid algorithm and an adaptive grid algorithm is used to solve one-dimensional transient partial differential equations, such as the diffusive and convective-diffusion equations. The performance of these programs are compared to that of the Gauss-Seidel and tridiagonal methods. The adaptive and multigrid schemes outperformed the Gauss-Seidel algorithm, but were not as fast as the tridiagonal method. The adaptive grid scheme solved the problems slightly faster than the multigrid method. To solve nonlinear problems, Picard iterations are introduced into the adaptive grid and tridiagonal methods. Burgers' equation is used as a test problem for the two algorithms. Both methods obtain solutions of comparable accuracy for similar time increments. For the Burgers' equation, the adaptive grid method finds the solution approximately three times faster than the tridiagonal method. Finally, both schemes are used to solve the water content formulation of the Richards' equation. For this problem, the adaptive grid method obtains a more accurate solution in fewer work units and

  1. ICASE/LaRC Workshop on Adaptive Grid Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    South, Jerry C., Jr. (Editor); Thomas, James L. (Editor); Vanrosendale, John (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Solution-adaptive grid techniques are essential to the attainment of practical, user friendly, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications. In this three-day workshop, experts gathered together to describe state-of-the-art methods in solution-adaptive grid refinement, analysis, and implementation; to assess the current practice; and to discuss future needs and directions for research. This was accomplished through a series of invited and contributed papers. The workshop focused on a set of two-dimensional test cases designed by the organizers to aid in assessing the current state of development of adaptive grid technology. In addition, a panel of experts from universities, industry, and government research laboratories discussed their views of needs and future directions in this field.

  2. Parallel Implementation of an Adaptive Scheme for 3D Unstructured Grids on the SP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Strawn, Roger C.

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic mesh adaption on unstructured grids is a powerful tool for computing unsteady flows that require local grid modifications to efficiently resolve solution features. For this work, we consider an edge-based adaption scheme that has shown good single-processor performance on the C90. We report on our experience parallelizing this code for the SP2. Results show a 47.OX speedup on 64 processors when 10% of the mesh is randomly refined. Performance deteriorates to 7.7X when the same number of edges are refined in a highly-localized region. This is because almost all mesh adaption is confined to a single processor. However, this problem can be remedied by repartitioning the mesh immediately after targeting edges for refinement but before the actual adaption takes place. With this change, the speedup improves dramatically to 43.6X.

  3. Parallel implementation of an adaptive scheme for 3D unstructured grids on the SP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawn, Roger C.; Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic mesh adaption on unstructured grids is a powerful tool for computing unsteady flows that require local grid modifications to efficiently resolve solution features. For this work, we consider an edge-based adaption scheme that has shown good single-processor performance on the C90. We report on our experience parallelizing this code for the SP2. Results show a 47.0X speedup on 64 processors when 10 percent of the mesh is randomly refined. Performance deteriorates to 7.7X when the same number of edges are refined in a highly-localized region. This is because almost all the mesh adaption is confined to a single processor. However, this problem can be remedied by repartitioning the mesh immediately after targeting edges for refinement but before the actual adaption takes place. With this change, the speedup improves dramatically to 43.6X.

  4. A Grid Sourcing and Adaptation Study Using Unstructured Grids for Supersonic Boom Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA created the Supersonics Project as part of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program to advance technology that will make a supersonic flight over land viable. Computational flow solvers have lacked the ability to accurately predict sonic boom from the near to far field. The focus of this investigation was to establish gridding and adaptation techniques to predict near-to-mid-field (<10 body lengths below the aircraft) boom signatures at supersonic speeds using the USM3D unstructured grid flow solver. The study began by examining sources along the body the aircraft, far field sourcing and far field boundaries. The study then examined several techniques for grid adaptation. During the course of the study, volume sourcing was introduced as a new way to source grids using the grid generation code VGRID. Two different methods of using the volume sources were examined. The first method, based on manual insertion of the numerous volume sources, made great improvements in the prediction capability of USM3D for boom signatures. The second method (SSGRID), which uses an a priori adaptation approach to stretch and shear the original unstructured grid to align the grid and pressure waves, showed similar results with a more automated approach. Due to SSGRID s results and ease of use, the rest of the study focused on developing a best practice using SSGRID. The best practice created by this study for boom predictions using the CFD code USM3D involved: 1) creating a small cylindrical outer boundary either 1 or 2 body lengths in diameter (depending on how far below the aircraft the boom prediction is required), 2) using a single volume source under the aircraft, and 3) using SSGRID to stretch and shear the grid to the desired length.

  5. Adaptive hybrid prismatic-tetrahedral grids for viscous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallinderis, Yannis; Khawaja, Aly; Mcmorris, Harlan

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents generation of adaptive hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is an Automatic Receding Method (ARM) for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples division of tetrahedra, as well as 2-D directional division of prisms.

  6. Adaptive hybrid prismatic-tetrahedral grids for viscous flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallinderis, Yannis; Khawaja, Aly; McMorris, Harlan

    1995-03-01

    The paper presents generation of adaptive hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is an Automatic Receding Method (ARM) for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples division of tetrahedra, as well as 2-D directional division of prisms.

  7. A simplified self-adaptive grid method, SAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, C.; Venkatapathy, E.

    1989-01-01

    The formulation of the Self-Adaptive Grid Evolution (SAGE) code, based on the work of Nakahashi and Deiwert, is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide which explains the input and execution of the code, and provides many examples. Application of the SAGE code, by Ames Research Center and by others, in the solution of various flow problems has been an indication of the code's general utility and success. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for single, zonal, and multiple grids. Modifications to the methodology and the simplified input options make this current version a flexible and user-friendly code.

  8. A novel hyperbolic grid generation procedure with inherent adaptive dissipation

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, C.H.; Yin, S.L.; Soong, C.Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports a novel hyperbolic grid-generation with an inherent adaptive dissipation (HGAD), which is capable of improving the oscillation and overlapping of grid lines. In the present work upwinding differencing is applied to discretize the hyperbolic system and, thereby, to develop the adaptive dissipation coefficient. Complex configurations with the features of geometric discontinuity, exceptional concavity and convexity are used as the test cases for comparison of the present HGAD procedure with the conventional hyerbolic and elliptic ones. The results reveal that the HGAD method is superior in orthogonality and smoothness of the grid system. In addition, the computational efficiency of the flow solver may be improved by using the present HGAD procedure. 15 refs., 8 figs.

  9. The multidimensional Self-Adaptive Grid code, SAGE, version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1995-01-01

    This new report on Version 2 of the SAGE code includes all the information in the original publication plus all upgrades and changes to the SAGE code since that time. The two most significant upgrades are the inclusion of a finite-volume option and the ability to adapt and manipulate zonal-matching multiple-grid files. In addition, the original SAGE code has been upgraded to Version 1.1 and includes all options mentioned in this report, with the exception of the multiple grid option and its associated features. Since Version 2 is a larger and more complex code, it is suggested (but not required) that Version 1.1 be used for single-grid applications. This document contains all the information required to run both versions of SAGE. The formulation of the adaption method is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide that explains the input and execution of the code. The third section provides many examples. Successful application of the SAGE code in both two and three dimensions for the solution of various flow problems has proven the code to be robust, portable, and simple to use. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for complex grid structures. Modifications to the method and the simple but extensive input options make this a flexible and user-friendly code. The SAGE code can accommodate two-dimensional and three-dimensional, finite-difference and finite-volume, single grid, and zonal-matching multiple grid flow problems.

  10. Adaptive grids and implicit differencing applied to plasma simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Brackbill, J.U.; Forslund, D.W.; Vu, Hoanh.

    1990-01-01

    To understand the kinetic processes that determine energy confinement and impurity production in magnetic confinement experiments, we are developing methods to model kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic time scales in realistic geometries. We are using implicit methods and adaptive grids to achieve this goal. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Three-dimensional Navier-Stokes calculations using solution-adapted grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, T. L.; Huang, W.; Lee, K. D.; Choo, Y. K.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional solution-adaptive grid generation technique is presented. The adaptation technique redistributes grid points to improve the accuracy of a flow solution without increasing the number of grid points. It is applicable to structured grids with a multiblock topology. The method uses a numerical mapping and potential theory to modify the initial grid distribution based on the properties of the flow solution on the initial grid. The technique is demonstrated with two examples - a transonic finite wing and a supersonic blunt fin. The advantages are shown by comparing flow solutions on the adapted grids with those on the initial grids.

  12. Efficient Load Balancing and Data Remapping for Adaptive Grid Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak

    1997-01-01

    Mesh adaption is a powerful tool for efficient unstructured- grid computations but causes load imbalance among processors on a parallel machine. We present a novel method to dynamically balance the processor workloads with a global view. This paper presents, for the first time, the implementation and integration of all major components within our dynamic load balancing strategy for adaptive grid calculations. Mesh adaption, repartitioning, processor assignment, and remapping are critical components of the framework that must be accomplished rapidly and efficiently so as not to cause a significant overhead to the numerical simulation. Previous results indicated that mesh repartitioning and data remapping are potential bottlenecks for performing large-scale scientific calculations. We resolve these issues and demonstrate that our framework remains viable on a large number of processors.

  13. Locally adaptive document skew detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvola, Jaakko J.; Doermann, David S.; Pietikaeinen, Matti

    1997-04-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to the detection of local orientation and skew in document images. It is based on the observation that there are many documents where a single global estimate of the page skew is not sufficient. These documents require local adaptation to deal robustly with todays complex configurations of components on the page. The approach attempts to identify regions in the image which exhibit locally consistent physical properties and consistent physical properties and consistent orientation. To do this, we rapidly compute a coarse segmentation and delineate regions which differ with respect to layout and/or physical content. Each region is classified as text, graphics, mixed text/graphics, image or background using local features and additional features are extracted to estimate orientation. The local orientation decisions are propagated where appropriate to resolve ambiguity and to produce a global estimate of the skew for the page. The implementation of our algorithms is demonstrated on a set of images which have multiple regions with different orientations.

  14. Adaptive local discontinuous Galerkin approximation to Richards’ equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Farthing, M. W.; Miller, C. T.

    2007-09-01

    We propose a spatially and temporally adaptive solution to Richards' equation based upon a local discontinuous Galerkin approximation in space and a high-order, backward difference method in time. We cast our approach in terms of a general, decoupled adaption algorithm based upon operators. We define non-unique instances of all operators to result in an adaption method from within the general class of methods that is defined. We formally decouple the spatial adaption from the temporal adaption using a method of lines approach and limit the temporal truncation error so that the total error is dominated by the spatial component. We use a multiple grid approach to guide adaption and support the data structures. Spatial adaption decisions are based upon error and regularity indicators, which are economical to compute. The resultant methods are compared for two test problems. The results show that the proposed adaption methods are superior to methods that adapt only in time and that in cases in which the problem has sufficient smoothness, adapting the order of the elements in addition to the grid spacing can further improve the efficiency of this robust solution approach.

  15. Solution adaptive grids applied to low Reynolds number flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de With, G.; Holdø, A. E.; Huld, T. A.

    2003-08-01

    A numerical study has been undertaken to investigate the use of a solution adaptive grid for flow around a cylinder in the laminar flow regime. The main purpose of this work is twofold. The first aim is to investigate the suitability of a grid adaptation algorithm and the reduction in mesh size that can be obtained. Secondly, the uniform asymmetric flow structures are ideal to validate the mesh structures due to mesh refinement and consequently the selected refinement criteria. The refinement variable used in this work is a product of the rate of strain and the mesh cell size, and contains two variables Cm and Cstr which determine the order of each term. By altering the order of either one of these terms the refinement behaviour can be modified.

  16. On the dynamics of some grid adaption schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweby, Peter K.; Yee, Helen C.

    1994-01-01

    The dynamics of a one-parameter family of mesh equidistribution schemes coupled with finite difference discretisations of linear and nonlinear convection-diffusion model equations is studied numerically. It is shown that, when time marched to steady state, the grid adaption not only influences the stability and convergence rate of the overall scheme, but can also introduce spurious dynamics to the numerical solution procedure.

  17. Optimal Design of Grid-Stiffened Composite Panels Using Global and Local Buckling Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ambur, D.R.; Jaunky, N.; Knight, N.F. Jr.

    1996-04-01

    A design strategy for optimal design of composite grid-stiffened panels subjected to global and local buckling constraints is developed using a discrete optimizer. An improved smeared stiffener theory is used for the global buckling analysis. Local buckling of skin segments is assessed using a Rayleigh-Ritz method that accounts for material anisotropy and transverse shear flexibility. The local buckling of stiffener segments is also assessed. Design variables are the axial and transverse stiffener spacing, stiffener height and thickness, skin laminate, and stiffening configuration. The design optimization process is adapted to identify the lightest-weight stiffening configuration and pattern for grid stiffened composite panels given the overall panel dimensions, design in-plane loads, material properties, and boundary conditions of the grid-stiffened panel.

  18. Optimal Design of Grid-Stiffened Composite Panels Using Global and Local Buckling Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    A design strategy for optimal design of composite grid-stiffened panels subjected to global and local buckling constraints is developed using a discrete optimizer. An improved smeared stiffener theory is used for the global buckling analysis. Local buckling of skin segments is assessed using a Rayleigh-Ritz method that accounts for material anisotropy and transverse shear flexibility. The local buckling of stiffener segments is also assessed. Design variables are the axial and transverse stiffener spacing, stiffener height and thickness, skin laminate, and stiffening configuration. The design optimization process is adapted to identify the lightest-weight stiffening configuration and pattern for grid stiffened composite panels given the overall panel dimensions, design in-plane loads, material properties, and boundary conditions of the grid-stiffened panel.

  19. Unstructured Adaptive Grid Computations on an Array of SMPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Pramanick, Ira; Sohn, Andrew; Simon, Horst D.

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic load balancing is necessary for parallel adaptive methods to solve unsteady CFD problems on unstructured grids. We have presented such a dynamic load balancing framework called JOVE, in this paper. Results on a four-POWERnode POWER CHALLENGEarray demonstrated that load balancing gives significant performance improvements over no load balancing for such adaptive computations. The parallel speedup of JOVE, implemented using MPI on the POWER CHALLENCEarray, was significant, being as high as 31 for 32 processors. An implementation of JOVE that exploits 'an array of SMPS' architecture was also studied; this hybrid JOVE outperformed flat JOVE by up to 28% on the meshes and adaption models tested. With large, realistic meshes and actual flow-solver and adaption phases incorporated into JOVE, hybrid JOVE can be expected to yield significant advantage over flat JOVE, especially as the number of processors is increased, thus demonstrating the scalability of an array of SMPs architecture.

  20. A geometry-based adaptive unstructured grid generation algorithm for complex geological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrainian, Seyed Saied; Dezfuli, Alireza Daneh

    2014-07-01

    In this paper a novel unstructured grid generation algorithm is presented that considers the effect of geological features and well locations in grid resolution. The proposed grid generation algorithm presents a strategy for definition and construction of an initial grid based on the geological model, geometry adaptation of geological features, and grid resolution control. The algorithm is applied to seismotectonic map of the Masjed-i-Soleiman reservoir. Comparison of grid results with the “Triangle” program shows a more suitable permeability contrast. Immiscible two-phase flow solutions are presented for a fractured porous media test case using different grid resolutions. Adapted grid on the fracture geometry gave identical results with that of a fine grid. The adapted grid employed 88.2% less CPU time when compared to the solutions obtained by the fine grid.

  1. The multidimensional self-adaptive grid code, SAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Carol B.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the multidimensional self-adaptive grid code SAGE. A two-dimensional version of this code was described in an earlier report by the authors. The formulation of the multidimensional version is described in the first section of this document. The second section is presented in the form of a user guide that explains the input and execution of the code and provides many examples. Successful application of the SAGE code in both two and three dimensions for the solution of various flow problems has proven the code to be robust, portable, and simple to use. Although the basic formulation follows the method of Nakahashi and Deiwert, many modifications have been made to facilitate the use of the self-adaptive grid method for complex grid structures. Modifications to the method and the simplified input options make this a flexible and user-friendly code. The new SAGE code can accommodate both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flow problems.

  2. OMEGA: The operational multiscale environment model with grid adaptivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    This review talk describes the OMEGA code, used for weather simulation and the modeling of aerosol transport through the atmosphere. Omega employs a 3D mesh of wedge shaped elements (triangles when viewed from above) that adapt with time. Because wedges are laid out in layers of triangular elements, the scheme can utilize structured storage and differencing techniques along the elevation coordinate, and is thus a hybrid of structured and unstructured methods. The utility of adaptive gridding in this moded, near geographic features such as coastlines, where material properties change discontinuously, is illustrated. Temporal adaptivity was used additionally to track moving internal fronts, such as clouds of aerosol contaminants. The author also discusses limitations specific to this problem, including manipulation of huge data bases and fixed turn-around times. In practice, the latter requires a carefully tuned optimization between accuracy and computation speed.

  3. Load Balancing Unstructured Adaptive Grids for CFD Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Rupak; Oliker, Leonid

    1996-01-01

    Mesh adaption is a powerful tool for efficient unstructured-grid computations but causes load imbalance among processors on a parallel machine. A dynamic load balancing method is presented that balances the workload across all processors with a global view. After each parallel tetrahedral mesh adaption, the method first determines if the new mesh is sufficiently unbalanced to warrant a repartitioning. If so, the adapted mesh is repartitioned, with new partitions assigned to processors so that the redistribution cost is minimized. The new partitions are accepted only if the remapping cost is compensated by the improved load balance. Results indicate that this strategy is effective for large-scale scientific computations on distributed-memory multiprocessors.

  4. Numerical solution of plasma fluid equations using locally refined grids

    SciTech Connect

    Colella, P., LLNL

    1997-01-26

    This paper describes a numerical method for the solution of plasma fluid equations on block-structured, locally refined grids. The plasma under consideration is typical of those used for the processing of semiconductors. The governing equations consist of a drift-diffusion model of the electrons and an isothermal model of the ions coupled by Poisson's equation. A discretization of the equations is given for a uniform spatial grid, and a time-split integration scheme is developed. The algorithm is then extended to accommodate locally refined grids. This extension involves the advancement of the discrete system on a hierarchy of levels, each of which represents a degree of refinement, together with synchronization steps to ensure consistency across levels. A brief discussion of a software implementation is followed by a presentation of numerical results.

  5. Adaptive Unstructured Grid Generation for Modeling of Coastal Margins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    applied to the 2+1D simulations of the barotropic circulation in the Tagus estuary (Fortunato et al. 1997). The approach, denoted localized sigma...analysis. Application to the Tagus does not appear to have produced new pathologies relative to a conventional sigma-coordinate discretization, and reduced...particular, adopt and provide additional testbeds and technical feedback for our grid generation software. The Columbia River estuary and plume have provided

  6. Comparison of local grid refinement methods for MODFLOW.

    PubMed

    Mehl, Steffen; Hill, Mary C; Leake, Stanley A

    2006-01-01

    Many ground water modeling efforts use a finite-difference method to solve the ground water flow equation, and many of these models require a relatively fine-grid discretization to accurately represent the selected process in limited areas of interest. Use of a fine grid over the entire domain can be computationally prohibitive; using a variably spaced grid can lead to cells with a large aspect ratio and refinement in areas where detail is not needed. One solution is to use local-grid refinement (LGR) whereby the grid is only refined in the area of interest. This work reviews some LGR methods and identifies advantages and drawbacks in test cases using MODFLOW-2000. The first test case is two dimensional and heterogeneous; the second is three dimensional and includes interaction with a meandering river. Results include simulations using a uniform fine grid, a variably spaced grid, a traditional method of LGR without feedback, and a new shared node method with feedback. Discrepancies from the solution obtained with the uniform fine grid are investigated. For the models tested, the traditional one-way coupled approaches produced discrepancies in head up to 6.8% and discrepancies in cell-to-cell fluxes up to 7.1%, while the new method has head and cell-to-cell flux discrepancies of 0.089% and 0.14%, respectively. Additional results highlight the accuracy, flexibility, and CPU time trade-off of these methods and demonstrate how the new method can be successfully implemented to model surface water-ground water interactions.

  7. Comparison of local grid refinement methods for MODFLOW

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.; Leake, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Many ground water modeling efforts use a finite-difference method to solve the ground water flow equation, and many of these models require a relatively fine-grid discretization to accurately represent the selected process in limited areas of interest. Use of a fine grid over the entire domain can be computationally prohibitive; using a variably spaced grid can lead to cells with a large aspect ratio and refinement in areas where detail is not needed. One solution is to use local-grid refinement (LGR) whereby the grid is only refined in the area of interest. This work reviews some LGR methods and identifies advantages and drawbacks in test cases using MODFLOW-2000. The first test case is two dimensional and heterogeneous; the second is three dimensional and includes interaction with a meandering river. Results include simulations using a uniform fine grid, a variably spaced grid, a traditional method of LGR without feedback, and a new shared node method with feedback. Discrepancies from the solution obtained with the uniform fine grid are investigated. For the models tested, the traditional one-way coupled approaches produced discrepancies in head up to 6.8% and discrepancies in cell-to-cell fluxes up to 7.1%, while the new method has head and cell-to-cell flux discrepancies of 0.089% and 0.14%, respectively. Additional results highlight the accuracy, flexibility, and CPU time trade-off of these methods and demonstrate how the new method can be successfully implemented to model surface water-ground water interactions. Copyright ?? 2006 The Author(s).

  8. Climate adaptation: Cultural knowledge and local risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    A focus on African American communities on the Eastern Shore of Maryland highlights the ways that local cultural knowledge differs from place to place, developing understanding of local climate risks and resources for adaptation.

  9. Large-eddy simulation of wind turbine wake interactions on locally refined Cartesian grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelidis, Dionysios; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-11-01

    Performing high-fidelity numerical simulations of turbulent flow in wind farms remains a challenging issue mainly because of the large computational resources required to accurately simulate the turbine wakes and turbine/turbine interactions. The discretization of the governing equations on structured grids for mesoscale calculations may not be the most efficient approach for resolving the large disparity of spatial scales. A 3D Cartesian grid refinement method enabling the efficient coupling of the Actuator Line Model (ALM) with locally refined unstructured Cartesian grids adapted to accurately resolve tip vortices and multi-turbine interactions, is presented. Second order schemes are employed for the discretization of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in a hybrid staggered/non-staggered formulation coupled with a fractional step method that ensures the satisfaction of local mass conservation to machine zero. The current approach enables multi-resolution LES of turbulent flow in multi-turbine wind farms. The numerical simulations are in good agreement with experimental measurements and are able to resolve the rich dynamics of turbine wakes on grids containing only a small fraction of the grid nodes that would be required in simulations without local mesh refinement. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy under Award Number DE-EE0005482 and the National Science Foundation under Award number NSF PFI:BIC 1318201.

  10. The development and application of the self-adaptive grid code, SAGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Carol B.

    1993-01-01

    The multidimensional self-adaptive grid code, SAGE, has proven to be a flexible and useful tool in the solution of complex flow problems. Both 2- and 3-D examples given in this report show the code to be reliable and to substantially improve flowfield solutions. Since the adaptive procedure is a marching scheme the code is extremely fast and uses insignificant CPU time compared to the corresponding flow solver. The SAGE program is also machine and flow solver independent. Significant effort was made to simplify user interaction, though some parameters still need to be chosen with care. It is also difficult to tell when the adaption process has provided its best possible solution. This is particularly true if no experimental data are available or if there is a lack of theoretical understanding of the flow. Another difficulty occurs if local features are important but missing in the original grid; the adaption to this solution will not result in any improvement, and only grid refinement can result in an improved solution. These are complex issues that need to be explored within the context of each specific problem.

  11. Parallel computation of three-dimensional flows using overlapping grids with adaptive mesh refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henshaw, William D.; Schwendeman, Donald W.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes an approach for the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations in complex three-dimensional domains. The domains are represented by overlapping structured grids, and block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is employed to locally increase the grid resolution. In addition, the numerical method is implemented on parallel distributed-memory computers using a domain-decomposition approach. The implementation is flexible so that each base grid within the overlapping grid structure and its associated refinement grids can be independently partitioned over a chosen set of processors. A modified bin-packing algorithm is used to specify the partition for each grid so that the computational work is evenly distributed amongst the processors. All components of the AMR algorithm such as error estimation, regridding, and interpolation are performed in parallel. The parallel time-stepping algorithm is illustrated for initial-boundary-value problems involving a linear advection-diffusion equation and the (nonlinear) reactive Euler equations. Numerical results are presented for both equations to demonstrate the accuracy and correctness of the parallel approach. Exact solutions of the advection-diffusion equation are constructed, and these are used to check the corresponding numerical solutions for a variety of tests involving different overlapping grids, different numbers of refinement levels and refinement ratios, and different numbers of processors. The problem of planar shock diffraction by a sphere is considered as an illustration of the numerical approach for the Euler equations, and a problem involving the initiation of a detonation from a hot spot in a T-shaped pipe is considered to demonstrate the numerical approach for the reactive case. For both problems, the accuracy of the numerical solutions is assessed quantitatively through an estimation of the errors from a grid convergence study. The parallel performance of the

  12. Parallel Computation of Three-Dimensional Flows using Overlapping Grids with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W; Schwendeman, D

    2007-11-15

    This paper describes an approach for the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations in complex three-dimensional domains. The domains are represented by overlapping structured grids, and block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is employed to locally increase the grid resolution. In addition, the numerical method is implemented on parallel distributed-memory computers using a domain-decomposition approach. The implementation is flexible so that each base grid within the overlapping grid structure and its associated refinement grids can be independently partitioned over a chosen set of processors. A modified bin-packing algorithm is used to specify the partition for each grid so that the computational work is evenly distributed amongst the processors. All components of the AMR algorithm such as error estimation, regridding, and interpolation are performed in parallel. The parallel time-stepping algorithm is illustrated for initial-boundary-value problems involving a linear advection-diffusion equation and the (nonlinear) reactive Euler equations. Numerical results are presented for both equations to demonstrate the accuracy and correctness of the parallel approach. Exact solutions of the advection-diffusion equation are constructed, and these are used to check the corresponding numerical solutions for a variety of tests involving different overlapping grids, different numbers of refinement levels and refinement ratios, and different numbers of processors. The problem of planar shock diffraction by a sphere is considered as an illustration of the numerical approach for the Euler equations, and a problem involving the initiation of a detonation from a hot spot in a T-shaped pipe is considered to demonstrate the numerical approach for the reactive case. For both problems, the solutions are shown to be well resolved on the finest grid. The parallel performance of the approach is examined in detail for the shock diffraction problem.

  13. Self-Avoiding Walks over Adaptive Triangular Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heber, Gerd; Biswas, Rupak; Gao, Guang R.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach to constructing a "self-avoiding" walk through a triangular mesh. Unlike the popular approach of visiting mesh elements using space-filling curves which is based on a geometric embedding, our approach is combinatorial in the sense that it uses the mesh connectivity only. We present an algorithm for constructing a self-avoiding walk which can be applied to any unstructured triangular mesh. The complexity of the algorithm is O(n x log(n)), where n is the number of triangles in the mesh. We show that for hierarchical adaptive meshes, the algorithm can be easily parallelized by taking advantage of the regularity of the refinement rules. The proposed approach should be very useful in the run-time partitioning and load balancing of adaptive unstructured grids.

  14. Time-dependent grid adaptation for meshes of triangles and tetrahedra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rausch, Russ D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents in viewgraph form a method of optimizing grid generation for unsteady CFD flow calculations that distributes the numerical error evenly throughout the mesh. Adaptive meshing is used to locally enrich in regions of relatively large errors and to locally coarsen in regions of relatively small errors. The enrichment/coarsening procedures are robust for isotropic cells; however, enrichment of high aspect ratio cells may fail near boundary surfaces with relatively large curvature. The enrichment indicator worked well for the cases shown, but in general requires user supervision for a more efficient solution.

  15. Eggs illusion: Local shape deformation generated by a grid pattern.

    PubMed

    Qian, Kun; Mitsudo, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we report a new visual shape illusion, the eggs illusion, in which circular disks located at the midpoints between adjacent grid intersections are perceived as being deformed to ellipses. In Experiment 1, we examined the eggs illusion by using a matching method and found that grid luminance and patch size play a critical role in producing the illusory deformation. In Experiment 2, we employed several types of elliptic or circular patches to examine the conditions in which the illusory deformation was cancelled or weakened. We observed that the illusory deformation was dependent on local grid orientation. Based on these results, we found several common features between the eggs illusion and the scintillating grid illusion. This resemblance suggests a possibility that similar mechanisms underlie the two phenomena. In addition to the scintillating grid illusion, we also considered several known perceptual phenomena that might be related to the eggs illusion, i.e., the apparent size illusion, the shape-contrast effect, and the Orbison illusion. Finally, we discuss the role of orientation processing in generating the eggs illusion.

  16. Wing tip vortex calculations with an unstructured adaptive-grid Euler solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strawn, Roger C.

    1991-01-01

    A solution-adaptive grid method has been developed for computing tip-vortex flowfields around rectangular wings. This method uses subdivision in order to locally refine the grid in regions with high vorticity. Two different flow solvers are used. Each solves the three-dimensional Euler equations on unstructured grids. Computed results are compared to experimentally measured surface pressures and vortex velocities on a NACA 0015 rectangular wing. Predicted results for surface pressures and integrated lift agree well with the experimental data. The predicted size of the rotational vortex core is larger than the experimentally-measured value and the peak velocities are less. This discrepancy appears to be caused by deficiencies in the inviscid Euler-equation model. This model cannot capture the complex viscous effects at the tip that determine the detailed structure of the resulting vortex. In spite of this limitation, the present Euler unstructured adaptive-grid method demonstrates the ability to convert vortical flows with low numerical diffusion. Applications for modeling helicopter rotor wake systems are discussed.

  17. Power Prediction in Smart Grids with Evolutionary Local Kernel Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Oliver; Satzger, Benjamin; Lässig, Jörg

    Electric grids are moving from a centralized single supply chain towards a decentralized bidirectional grid of suppliers and consumers in an uncertain and dynamic scenario. Soon, the growing smart meter infrastructure will allow the collection of terabytes of detailed data about the grid condition, e.g., the state of renewable electric energy producers or the power consumption of millions of private customers, in very short time steps. For reliable prediction strong and fast regression methods are necessary that are able to cope with these challenges. In this paper we introduce a novel regression technique, i.e., evolutionary local kernel regression, a kernel regression variant based on local Nadaraya-Watson estimators with independent bandwidths distributed in data space. The model is regularized with the CMA-ES, a stochastic non-convex optimization method. We experimentally analyze the load forecast behavior on real power consumption data. The proposed method is easily parallelizable, and therefore well appropriate for large-scale scenarios in smart grids.

  18. Adaptive sparse grid expansions of the vibrational Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Strobusch, D.; Scheurer, Ch.

    2014-02-21

    The vibrational Hamiltonian involves two high dimensional operators, the kinetic energy operator (KEO), and the potential energy surface (PES). Both must be approximated for systems involving more than a few atoms. Adaptive approximation schemes are not only superior to truncated Taylor or many-body expansions (MBE), they also allow for error estimates, and thus operators of predefined precision. To this end, modified sparse grids (SG) are developed that can be combined with adaptive MBEs. This MBE/SG hybrid approach yields a unified, fully adaptive representation of the KEO and the PES. Refinement criteria, based on the vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF) and vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) methods, are presented. The combination of the adaptive MBE/SG approach and the VSCF plus VCI methods yields a black box like procedure to compute accurate vibrational spectra. This is demonstrated on a test set of molecules, comprising water, formaldehyde, methanimine, and ethylene. The test set is first employed to prove convergence for semi-empirical PM3-PESs and subsequently to compute accurate vibrational spectra from CCSD(T)-PESs that agree well with experimental values.

  19. Mesh Generation via Local Bisection Refinement of Triangulated Grids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Mesh Generation via Local Bisection Refinement of Triangulated Grids Jason R. Looker Joint and Operations Analysis Division Defence...Science and Technology Organisation DSTO–TR–3095 ABSTRACT This report provides a comprehensive implementation of an unstructured mesh generation method...relatively simple to implement, has the capacity to quickly generate a refined mesh with triangles that rapidly change size over a short distance, and does

  20. A robust adaptive load frequency control for micro-grids.

    PubMed

    Khooban, Mohammad-Hassan; Niknam, Taher; Blaabjerg, Frede; Davari, Pooya; Dragicevic, Tomislav

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this study is to introduce a novel robust load frequency control (LFC) strategy for micro-grid(s) (MG(s)) in islanded mode operation. Admittedly, power generators in MG(s) cannot supply steady electric power output and sometimes cause unbalance between supply and demand. Battery energy storage system (BESS) is one of the effective solutions to these problems. Due to the high cost of the BESS, a new idea of Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) is that a battery of Electric-Vehicle (EV) can be applied as a tantamount large-scale BESS in MG(s). As a result, a new robust control strategy for an islanded micro-grid (MG) is introduced that can consider electric vehicles׳ (EV(s)) effect. Moreover, in this paper, a new combination of the General Type II Fuzzy Logic Sets (GT2FLS) and the Modified Harmony Search Algorithm (MHSA) technique is applied for adaptive tuning of proportional-integral (PI) controller. Implementing General Type II Fuzzy Systems is computationally expensive. However, using a recently introduced α-plane representation, GT2FLS can be seen as a composition of several Interval Type II Fuzzy Logic Systems (IT2FLS) with a corresponding level of α for each. Real-data from an offshore wind farm in Sweden and solar radiation data in Aberdeen (United Kingdom) was used in order to examine the performance of the proposed novel controller. A comparison is made between the achieved results of Optimal Fuzzy-PI (OFPI) controller and those of Optimal Interval Type II Fuzzy-PI (IT2FPI) controller, which are of most recent advances in the area at hand. The Simulation results prove the successfulness and effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  1. Anisotropic Solution Adaptive Unstructured Grid Generation Using AFLR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcum, David L.

    2007-01-01

    An existing volume grid generation procedure, AFLR3, was successfully modified to generate anisotropic tetrahedral elements using a directional metric transformation defined at source nodes. The procedure can be coupled with a solver and an error estimator as part of an overall anisotropic solution adaptation methodology. It is suitable for use with an error estimator based on an adjoint, optimization, sensitivity derivative, or related approach. This offers many advantages, including more efficient point placement along with robust and efficient error estimation. It also serves as a framework for true grid optimization wherein error estimation and computational resources can be used as cost functions to determine the optimal point distribution. Within AFLR3 the metric transformation is implemented using a set of transformation vectors and associated aspect ratios. The modified overall procedure is presented along with details of the anisotropic transformation implementation. Multiple two-and three-dimensional examples are also presented that demonstrate the capability of the modified AFLR procedure to generate anisotropic elements using a set of source nodes with anisotropic transformation metrics. The example cases presented use moderate levels of anisotropy and result in usable element quality. Future testing with various flow solvers and methods for obtaining transformation metric information is needed to determine practical limits and evaluate the efficacy of the overall approach.

  2. Complex Patterns of Local Adaptation in Teosinte

    PubMed Central

    Pyhäjärvi, Tanja; Hufford, Matthew B.; Mezmouk, Sofiane; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Populations of widely distributed species encounter and must adapt to local environmental conditions. However, comprehensive characterization of the genetic basis of adaptation is demanding, requiring genome-wide genotype data, multiple sampled populations, and an understanding of population structure and potential selection pressures. Here, we used single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and data on numerous environmental variables to describe the genetic basis of local adaptation in 21 populations of teosinte, the wild ancestor of maize. We found complex hierarchical genetic structure created by altitude, dispersal events, and admixture among subspecies, which complicated identification of locally beneficial alleles. Patterns of linkage disequilibrium revealed four large putative inversion polymorphisms showing clinal patterns of frequency. Population differentiation and environmental correlations suggest that both inversions and intergenic polymorphisms are involved in local adaptation. PMID:23902747

  3. Local image registration by adaptive filtering.

    PubMed

    Caner, Gulcin; Tekalp, A Murat; Sharma, Gaurav; Heinzelman, Wendi

    2006-10-01

    We propose a new adaptive filtering framework for local image registration, which compensates for the effect of local distortions/displacements without explicitly estimating a distortion/displacement field. To this effect, we formulate local image registration as a two-dimensional (2-D) system identification problem with spatially varying system parameters. We utilize a 2-D adaptive filtering framework to identify the locally varying system parameters, where a new block adaptive filtering scheme is introduced. We discuss the conditions under which the adaptive filter coefficients conform to a local displacement vector at each pixel. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed 2-D adaptive filtering framework is very successful in modeling and compensation of both local distortions, such as Stirmark attacks, and local motion, such as in the presence of a parallax field. In particular, we show that the proposed method can provide image registration to: a) enable reliable detection of watermarks following a Stirmark attack in nonblind detection scenarios, b) compensate for lens distortions, and c) align multiview images with nonparametric local motion.

  4. The creation of local clusters in arbitrarily given grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.

    1986-01-01

    A method is presented to smoothly insert pointwise clusters into any given grid regardless of its origin, its topology, or its dimensionality. The process amounts to a local movement of the given coordinate curves or surfaces to more highly resolve an object. The object about which clustering is created can be a point, a curve, a surface, or segments of a curve or surface. The basic clustering capability is established by forming a grid operator for a single cluster. With a view toward multiple clusters being created about various objects, the basic operator is seen as an elementary operator. An algorithm is presented to execute the general elementary operation in three dimensions. In FORTRAN, this assumes the form of a subroutine which is fully operational and is presented to serve as a basic model for any such elementary clustering operation.

  5. Adaptive 3D single-block grids for the computation of viscous flows around wings

    SciTech Connect

    Hagmeijer, R.; Kok, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    A robust algorithm for the adaption of a 3D single-block structured grid suitable for the computation of viscous flows around a wing is presented and demonstrated by application to the ONERA M6 wing. The effects of grid adaption on the flow solution and accuracy improvements is analyzed. Reynolds number variations are studied.

  6. Local climatic adaptation in a widespread microorganism.

    PubMed

    Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Charron, Guillaume; Samani, Pedram; Dubé, Alexandre K; Sylvester, Kayla; James, Brielle; Almeida, Pedro; Sampaio, José Paulo; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Bell, Graham; Landry, Christian R

    2014-02-22

    Exploring the ability of organisms to locally adapt is critical for determining the outcome of rapid climate changes, yet few studies have addressed this question in microorganisms. We investigated the role of a heterogeneous climate on adaptation of North American populations of the wild yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus. We found abundant among-strain variation for fitness components across a range of temperatures, but this variation was only partially explained by climatic variation in the distribution area. Most of fitness variation was explained by the divergence of genetically distinct groups, distributed along a north-south cline, suggesting that these groups have adapted to distinct climatic conditions. Within-group fitness components were correlated with climatic conditions, illustrating that even ubiquitous microorganisms locally adapt and harbour standing genetic variation for climate-related traits. Our results suggest that global climatic changes could lead to adaptation to new conditions within groups, or changes in their geographical distributions.

  7. FUN3D Grid Refinement and Adaptation Studies for the Ares Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Vasta, Veer; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Park, Mike; Mineck, Raymond E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents grid refinement and adaptation studies performed in conjunction with computational aeroelastic analyses of the Ares crew launch vehicle (CLV). The unstructured grids used in this analysis were created with GridTool and VGRID while the adaptation was performed using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code FUN3D with a feature based adaptation software tool. GridTool was developed by ViGYAN, Inc. while the last three software suites were developed by NASA Langley Research Center. The feature based adaptation software used here operates by aligning control volumes with shock and Mach line structures and by refining/de-refining where necessary. It does not redistribute node points on the surface. This paper assesses the sensitivity of the complex flow field about a launch vehicle to grid refinement. It also assesses the potential of feature based grid adaptation to improve the accuracy of CFD analysis for a complex launch vehicle configuration. The feature based adaptation shows the potential to improve the resolution of shocks and shear layers. Further development of the capability to adapt the boundary layer and surface grids of a tetrahedral grid is required for significant improvements in modeling the flow field.

  8. A time-accurate adaptive grid method and the numerical simulation of a shock-vortex interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bockelie, Michael J.; Eiseman, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    A time accurate, general purpose, adaptive grid method is developed that is suitable for multidimensional steady and unsteady numerical simulations. The grid point movement is performed in a manner that generates smooth grids which resolve the severe solution gradients and the sharp transitions in the solution gradients. The temporal coupling of the adaptive grid and the PDE solver is performed with a grid prediction correction method that is simple to implement and ensures the time accuracy of the grid. Time accurate solutions of the 2-D Euler equations for an unsteady shock vortex interaction demonstrate the ability of the adaptive method to accurately adapt the grid to multiple solution features.

  9. Three-dimensional self-adaptive grid method for complex flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djomehri, M. Jahed; Deiwert, George S.

    1988-01-01

    A self-adaptive grid procedure for efficient computation of three-dimensional complex flow fields is described. The method is based on variational principles to minimize the energy of a spring system analogy which redistributes the grid points. Grid control parameters are determined by specifying maximum and minimum grid spacing. Multidirectional adaptation is achieved by splitting the procedure into a sequence of successive applications of a unidirectional adaptation. One-sided, two-directional constraints for orthogonality and smoothness are used to enhance the efficiency of the method. Feasibility of the scheme is demonstrated by application to a multinozzle, afterbody, plume flow field. Application of the algorithm for initial grid generation is illustrated by constructing a three-dimensional grid about a bump-like geometry.

  10. Cartesian Off-Body Grid Adaption for Viscous Time- Accurate Flow Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, Pieter G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    An improved solution adaption capability has been implemented in the OVERFLOW overset grid CFD code. Building on the Cartesian off-body approach inherent in OVERFLOW and the original adaptive refinement method developed by Meakin, the new scheme provides for automated creation of multiple levels of finer Cartesian grids. Refinement can be based on the undivided second-difference of the flow solution variables, or on a specific flow quantity such as vorticity. Coupled with load-balancing and an inmemory solution interpolation procedure, the adaption process provides very good performance for time-accurate simulations on parallel compute platforms. A method of using refined, thin body-fitted grids combined with adaption in the off-body grids is presented, which maximizes the part of the domain subject to adaption. Two- and three-dimensional examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness and performance of the adaption scheme.

  11. Improving mobile robot localization: grid-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Junchi

    2012-02-01

    Autonomous mobile robots have been widely studied not only as advanced facilities for industrial and daily life automation, but also as a testbed in robotics competitions for extending the frontier of current artificial intelligence. In many of such contests, the robot is supposed to navigate on the ground with a grid layout. Based on this observation, we present a localization error correction method by exploring the geometric feature of the tile patterns. On top of the classical inertia-based positioning, our approach employs three fiber-optic sensors that are assembled under the bottom of the robot, presenting an equilateral triangle layout. The sensor apparatus, together with the proposed supporting algorithm, are designed to detect a line's direction (vertical or horizontal) by monitoring the grid crossing events. As a result, the line coordinate information can be fused to rectify the cumulative localization deviation from inertia positioning. The proposed method is analyzed theoretically in terms of its error bound and also has been implemented and tested on a customary developed two-wheel autonomous mobile robot.

  12. Analysis of a Major Electric Grid -- Stability and Adaptive Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanzi, Sultan

    Protective systems of the electric grid are designed to detect and mitigate the effects of faults and other disturbances that may occur. Distance relays are used extensively for the detection of faults on transmission lines. Out-of-step relays are used for generator protection to detect loss of synchronism conditions that result from disturbances on the electric grid. Also, when a disturbance occurs and generators may tend to lose synchronism with each other, it is beneficial to separate the overall system into several independent systems that can remain stable. Unfortunately there have been cases, such as the 2003 Northeast blackout where the operation of protective relays, namely the zone 3 distance relay used for transmission line protection, contributed to the cascading effect of the blackout. It is the objective of this dissertation to propose adaptive relays for both distance protection of transmission lines and out-of-step protection of generators. By being adaptive, the relays are made aware of the system operating conditions and can adjust its settings accordingly. Inputs to the adaptive logic can come from system or environmental conditions. As a result of this effort, a new distance relay operating characteristic is proposed, referred to as a mushroom relay, which is a combination of a quadrilateral relay and a Mho relay. Also, a new criterion for determining if a power swing following a disturbance is stable or unstable is proposed. Distance protection of transmission lines is very important when discussing system responses to faults and disturbances. Distance relays are very common worldwide and although they offer great protection, there are limitations that need to be addressed. Parallel line operations (infeed effect) and the loadability limits are among the limitations that lead to improper response of relays. An Adaptive Distance Relays (ADR) offer great benefits to the protection scheme as their settings can be changed in accordance with prefault

  13. Emergent Adaptive Noise Reduction from Communal Cooperation of Sensor Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Jones, Michael G.; Nark, Douglas M.; Lodding, Kenneth N.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, the realization of small, inexpensive, and powerful devices with sensors, computers, and wireless communication has promised the development of massive sized sensor networks with dense deployments over large areas capable of high fidelity situational assessments. However, most management models have been based on centralized control and research has concentrated on methods for passing data from sensor devices to the central controller. Most implementations have been small but, as it is not scalable, this methodology is insufficient for massive deployments. Here, a specific application of a large sensor network for adaptive noise reduction demonstrates a new paradigm where communities of sensor/computer devices assess local conditions and make local decisions from which emerges a global behaviour. This approach obviates many of the problems of centralized control as it is not prone to single point of failure and is more scalable, efficient, robust, and fault tolerant

  14. Adaptive finite-volume WENO schemes on dynamically redistributed grids for compressible Euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Harshavardhana S.; Shukla, Ratnesh K.

    2016-08-01

    A high-order adaptive finite-volume method is presented for simulating inviscid compressible flows on time-dependent redistributed grids. The method achieves dynamic adaptation through a combination of time-dependent mesh node clustering in regions characterized by strong solution gradients and an optimal selection of the order of accuracy and the associated reconstruction stencil in a conservative finite-volume framework. This combined approach maximizes spatial resolution in discontinuous regions that require low-order approximations for oscillation-free shock capturing. Over smooth regions, high-order discretization through finite-volume WENO schemes minimizes numerical dissipation and provides excellent resolution of intricate flow features. The method including the moving mesh equations and the compressible flow solver is formulated entirely on a transformed time-independent computational domain discretized using a simple uniform Cartesian mesh. Approximations for the metric terms that enforce discrete geometric conservation law while preserving the fourth-order accuracy of the two-point Gaussian quadrature rule are developed. Spurious Cartesian grid induced shock instabilities such as carbuncles that feature in a local one-dimensional contact capturing treatment along the cell face normals are effectively eliminated through upwind flux calculation using a rotated Hartex-Lax-van Leer contact resolving (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver for the Euler equations in generalized coordinates. Numerical experiments with the fifth and ninth-order WENO reconstructions at the two-point Gaussian quadrature nodes, over a range of challenging test cases, indicate that the redistributed mesh effectively adapts to the dynamic flow gradients thereby improving the solution accuracy substantially even when the initial starting mesh is non-adaptive. The high adaptivity combined with the fifth and especially the ninth-order WENO reconstruction allows remarkably sharp capture of

  15. Automated Grid Disruption Response System: Robust Adaptive Topology Control (RATC)

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: The RATC research team is using topology control as a mechanism to improve system operations and manage disruptions within the electric grid. The grid is subject to interruption from cascading faults caused by extreme operating conditions, malicious external attacks, and intermittent electricity generation from renewable energy sources. The RATC system is capable of detecting, classifying, and responding to grid disturbances by reconfiguring the grid in order to maintain economically efficient operations while guaranteeing reliability. The RATC system would help prevent future power outages, which account for roughly $80 billion in losses for businesses and consumers each year. Minimizing the time it takes for the grid to respond to expensive interruptions will also make it easier to integrate intermittent renewable energy sources into the grid.

  16. A multigrid method for steady Euler equations on unstructured adaptive grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riemslagh, Kris; Dick, Erik

    1993-01-01

    A flux-difference splitting type algorithm is formulated for the steady Euler equations on unstructured grids. The polynomial flux-difference splitting technique is used. A vertex-centered finite volume method is employed on a triangular mesh. The multigrid method is in defect-correction form. A relaxation procedure with a first order accurate inner iteration and a second-order correction performed only on the finest grid, is used. A multi-stage Jacobi relaxation method is employed as a smoother. Since the grid is unstructured a Jacobi type is chosen. The multi-staging is necessary to provide sufficient smoothing properties. The domain is discretized using a Delaunay triangular mesh generator. Three grids with more or less uniform distribution of nodes but with different resolution are generated by successive refinement of the coarsest grid. Nodes of coarser grids appear in the finer grids. The multigrid method is started on these grids. As soon as the residual drops below a threshold value, an adaptive refinement is started. The solution on the adaptively refined grid is accelerated by a multigrid procedure. The coarser multigrid grids are generated by successive coarsening through point removement. The adaption cycle is repeated a few times. Results are given for the transonic flow over a NACA-0012 airfoil.

  17. Aeroacoustic Simulation of Nose Landing Gear on Adaptive Unstructured Grids With FUN3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Park, Michael A.; Lockhard, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed for a partially-dressed, cavity-closed nose landing gear configuration that was tested in NASA Langley s closed-wall Basic Aerodynamic Research Tunnel (BART) and in the University of Florida's open-jet acoustic facility known as the UFAFF. The unstructured-grid flow solver FUN3D, developed at NASA Langley Research center, is used to compute the unsteady flow field for this configuration. Starting with a coarse grid, a series of successively finer grids were generated using the adaptive gridding methodology available in the FUN3D code. A hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/large eddy simulation (RANS/LES) turbulence model is used for these computations. Time-averaged and instantaneous solutions obtained on these grids are compared with the measured data. In general, the correlation with the experimental data improves with grid refinement. A similar trend is observed for sound pressure levels obtained by using these CFD solutions as input to a FfowcsWilliams-Hawkings noise propagation code to compute the farfield noise levels. In general, the numerical solutions obtained on adapted grids compare well with the hand-tuned enriched fine grid solutions and experimental data. In addition, the grid adaption strategy discussed here simplifies the grid generation process, and results in improved computational efficiency of CFD simulations.

  18. Mesh saliency with adaptive local patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Anass; Charrier, Christophe; Lézoray, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    3D object shapes (represented by meshes) include both areas that attract the visual attention of human observers and others less or not attractive at all. This visual attention depends on the degree of saliency exposed by these areas. In this paper, we propose a technique for detecting salient regions in meshes. To do so, we define a local surface descriptor based on local patches of adaptive size and filled with a local height field. The saliency of mesh vertices is then defined as its degree measure with edges weights computed from adaptive patch similarities. Our approach is compared to the state-of-the-art and presents competitive results. A study evaluating the influence of the parameters establishing this approach is also carried out. The strength and the stability of our approach with respect to noise and simplification are also studied.

  19. SIMULATION OF DISPERSION OF A POWER PLANT PLUME USING AN ADAPTIVE GRID ALGORITHM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new dynamic adaptive grid algorithm has been developed for use in air quality modeling. This algorithm uses a higher order numerical scheme?the piecewise parabolic method (PPM)?for computing advective solution fields; a weight function capable of promoting grid node clustering ...

  20. Grid generation and adaptation for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method. [for complex flows past wedges and cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olynick, David P.; Hassan, H. A.; Moss, James N.

    1988-01-01

    A grid generation and adaptation procedure based on the method of transfinite interpolation is incorporated into the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method of Bird. In addition, time is advanced based on a local criterion. The resulting procedure is used to calculate steady flows past wedges and cones. Five chemical species are considered. In general, the modifications result in a reduced computational effort. Moreover, preliminary results suggest that the simulation method is time step dependent if requirements on cell sizes are not met.

  1. Adaptive Grid Generation for Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    RETURN 65 Bibliography 1. Thompson , J . F ., "A Survey of Grid Generation Tecniques in Computational Fluid Dynamics," AIAA Paper No. 83-0447, 1-36...edited by K. N. Ghia and U. Ghia. ASME FED, 5: 35-47 (1983). 3. Thompson , J . F ., Thames, F. C., and Mastin, C. W., "Automated Numerical Generation...Equations," Numerical Grid Generation, Edited by J. F. Thompson. New York: North Holland, 1982. 10. Thompson , J . F ., and Mastin, C. W., "Grid Generation

  2. Adaptive Energy Forecasting and Information Diffusion for Smart Power Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Simmhan, Yogesh; Agarwal, Vaibhav; Aman, Saim; Kumbhare, Alok; Natarajan, Sreedhar; Rajguru, Nikhil; Robinson, Ian; Stevens, Samuel; Yin, Wei; Zhou, Qunzhi; Prasanna, Viktor

    2012-05-16

    Smart Power Grids exemplify an emerging class of Cyber Physical Applications that exhibit dynamic, distributed and data intensive (D3) characteristics along with an always-on paradigm to support operational needs. Smart Grids are an outcome of instrumentation, such as Phasor Measurement Units and Smart Power Meters, that is being deployed across the transmission and distribution network of electric grids. These sensors provide utilities with improved situation awareness on near-realtime electricity usage by individual consumers, and the power quality and stability of the transmission network.

  3. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian Method with Local Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Modeling Shock Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R W; Pember, R B; Elliott, N S

    2001-10-22

    A new method that combines staggered grid Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) techniques with structured local adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) has been developed for solution of the Euler equations. This method facilitates the solution of problems currently at and beyond the boundary of soluble problems by traditional ALE methods by focusing computational resources where they are required through dynamic adaption. Many of the core issues involved in the development of the combined ALEAMR method hinge upon the integration of AMR with a staggered grid Lagrangian integration method. The novel components of the method are mainly driven by the need to reconcile traditional AMR techniques, which are typically employed on stationary meshes with cell-centered quantities, with the staggered grids and grid motion employed by Lagrangian methods. Numerical examples are presented which demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method.

  4. An adaptive remeshing scheme for vortex dominated flows using three-dimensional unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, Paresh

    1995-10-01

    An adaptive remeshing procedure for vortex dominated flows is described, which uses three-dimensional unstructured grids. Surface grid adaptation is achieved using the static pressure as an adaptation parameter, while entropy is used in the field to accurately identify high vorticity regions. An emphasis has been placed in making the scheme as automatic as possible so that a minimum user interaction is required between remeshing cycles. Adapted flow solutions are obtained on two sharp-edged configurations at low speed, high angle-of-attack flow conditions. The results thus obtained are compared with fine grid CFD solutions and experimental data, and conclusions are drawn as to the efficiency of the adaptive procedure.

  5. Adaptive Grid Techniques for Elliptic Fluid-Flow Problems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    J . F . (1984), "Grid Generation Techniques in Computational Fluid Dynamics," AIAA Jnl., Vol. 22, No. 11, pp. 1505-1523. Thompson , J . F . (1983...Procedure," Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Computer Science, Stanford University, Calif. Tang, W. P., W. Skamarock, and J. Oliger (1985). To appear. Thompson

  6. Local adaptive contrast enhancement for color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, Judith; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Schavemaker, John G. M.; Schutte, Klamer

    2007-04-01

    A camera or display usually has a smaller dynamic range than the human eye. For this reason, objects that can be detected by the naked eye may not be visible in recorded images. Lighting is here an important factor; improper local lighting impairs visibility of details or even entire objects. When a human is observing a scene with different kinds of lighting, such as shadows, he will need to see details in both the dark and light parts of the scene. For grey value images such as IR imagery, algorithms have been developed in which the local contrast of the image is enhanced using local adaptive techniques. In this paper, we present how such algorithms can be adapted so that details in color images are enhanced while color information is retained. We propose to apply the contrast enhancement on color images by applying a grey value contrast enhancement algorithm to the luminance channel of the color signal. The color coordinates of the signal will remain the same. Care is taken that the saturation change is not too high. Gamut mapping is performed so that the output can be displayed on a monitor. The proposed technique can for instance be used by operators monitoring movements of people in order to detect suspicious behavior. To do this effectively, specific individuals should both be easy to recognize and track. This requires optimal local contrast, and is sometimes much helped by color when tracking a person with colored clothes. In such applications, enhanced local contrast in color images leads to more effective monitoring.

  7. New method adaptive to geospatial information acquisition and share based on grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yingchun; Yuan, Xiuxiao

    2005-11-01

    As we all know, it is difficult and time-consuming to acquire and share multi-source geospatial information in grid computing environment, especially for the data of different geo-reference benchmark. Although middleware for data format transformation has been applied by many grid applications and GIS software systems, it remains difficult to on demand realize spatial data assembly jobs among various geo-reference benchmarks because of complex computation of rigorous coordinate transformation model. To address the problem, an efficient hierarchical quadtree structure referred as multi-level grids is designed and coded to express the multi-scale global geo-space. The geospatial objects located in a certain grid of multi-level grids may be expressed as an increment value which is relative to the grid central point and is constant in different geo-reference benchmark. A mediator responsible for geo-reference transformation function with multi-level grids has been developed and aligned with grid service. With help of the mediator, a map or query spatial data sets from individual source of different geo-references can be merged into an uniform composite result. Instead of complex data pre-processing prior to compatible spatial integration, the introduced method is adaptive to be integrated with grid-enable service.

  8. FLAG: A multi-dimensional adaptive free-Lagrange code for fully unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.E.; Miller, D.S.; Palmer, T.

    1995-07-01

    The authors describe FLAG, a 3D adaptive free-Lagrange method for unstructured grids. The grid elements were 3D polygons, which move with the flow, and are refined or reconnected as necessary to achieve uniform accuracy. The authors stressed that they were able to construct a 3D hydro version of this code in 3 months, using an object-oriented FORTRAN approach.

  9. Local tetrahedron modeling of microelectronics using the finite-volume hybrid-grid technique

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, D.J.; Turner, C.D.

    1995-12-01

    The finite-volume hybrid-grid (FVHG) technique uses both structured and unstructured grid regions in obtaining a solution to the time-domain Maxwell`s equations. The method is based on explicit time differencing and utilizes rectilinear finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and nonorthogonal finite-volume time-domain (FVTD). The technique directly couples structured FDTD grids with unstructured FVTD grids without the need for spatial interpolation across grid interfaces. In this paper, the FVHG method is applied to simple planar microelectronic devices. Local tetrahedron grids are used to model portions of the device under study, with the remainder of the problem space being modeled with cubical hexahedral cells. The accuracy of propagating microstrip-guided waves from a low-density hexahedron region through a high-density tetrahedron grid is investigated.

  10. Local adaptive tone mapping for video enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dai, Min (.

    2015-03-01

    As new technologies like High Dynamic Range cameras, AMOLED and high resolution displays emerge on consumer electronics market, it becomes very important to deliver the best picture quality for mobile devices. Tone Mapping (TM) is a popular technique to enhance visual quality. However, the traditional implementation of Tone Mapping procedure is limited by pixel's value to value mapping, and the performance is restricted in terms of local sharpness and colorfulness. To overcome the drawbacks of traditional TM, we propose a spatial-frequency based framework in this paper. In the proposed solution, intensity component of an input video/image signal is split on low pass filtered (LPF) and high pass filtered (HPF) bands. Tone Mapping (TM) function is applied to LPF band to improve the global contrast/brightness, and HPF band is added back afterwards to keep the local contrast. The HPF band may be adjusted by a coring function to avoid noise boosting and signal overshooting. Colorfulness of an original image may be preserved or enhanced by chroma components correction by means of saturation function. Localized content adaptation is further improved by dividing an image to a set of non-overlapped regions and modifying each region individually. The suggested framework allows users to implement a wide range of tone mapping applications with perceptional local sharpness and colorfulness preserved or enhanced. Corresponding hardware circuit may be integrated in camera, video or display pipeline with minimal hardware budget

  11. Application of a self-adaptive grid method to complex flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiwert, G. S.; Venkatapathy, E.; Davies, C.; Djomehri, J.; Abrahamson, K.

    1989-01-01

    A directional-split, modular, user-friendly grid point distribution code is applied to several test problems. The code is self-adaptive in the sense that grid point spacing is determined by user-specified constants denoting maximum and minimum grid spacings and constants relating the relative influence of smoothness and orthogonality. Estimates of truncation error, in terms of flow-field gradients and/or geometric features, are used to determine the point distribution. Points are redistributed along grid lines in a specified direction in an elliptic manner over a user-specified subdomain, while orthogonality and smoothness are controlled in a parabolic (marching) manner in the remaining directions. Multidirectional adaption is achieved by sequential application of the method in each coordinate direction. The flow-field solution is redistributed onto the newly distributed grid points after each unidirectional adaption by a simple one-dimensional interpolation scheme. For time-accurate schemes such interpolation is not necessary and time-dependent metrics are carried in the fluid dynamic equations to account for grid movement.

  12. Unstructured Grid Adaptation: Status, Potential Impacts, and Recommended Investments Toward CFD Vision 2030

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.; Krakos, Joshua A.; Michal, Todd; Loseille, Adrien; Alonso, Juan J.

    2016-01-01

    Unstructured grid adaptation is a powerful tool to control discretization error for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It has enabled key increases in the accuracy, automation, and capacity of some fluid simulation applications. Slotnick et al. provides a number of case studies in the CFD Vision 2030 Study: A Path to Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences to illustrate the current state of CFD capability and capacity. The authors forecast the potential impact of emerging High Performance Computing (HPC) environments forecast in the year 2030 and identify that mesh generation and adaptivity continue to be significant bottlenecks in the CFD work flow. These bottlenecks may persist because very little government investment has been targeted in these areas. To motivate investment, the impacts of improved grid adaptation technologies are identified. The CFD Vision 2030 Study roadmap and anticipated capabilities in complementary disciplines are quoted to provide context for the progress made in grid adaptation in the past fifteen years, current status, and a forecast for the next fifteen years with recommended investments. These investments are specific to mesh adaptation and impact other aspects of the CFD process. Finally, a strategy is identified to diffuse grid adaptation technology into production CFD work flows.

  13. A self-adaptive-grid method with application to airfoil flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakahashi, K.; Deiwert, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    A self-adaptive-grid method is described that is suitable for multidimensional steady and unsteady computations. Based on variational principles, a spring analogy is used to redistribute grid points in an optimal sense to reduce the overall solution error. User-specified parameters, denoting both maximum and minimum permissible grid spacings, are used to define the all-important constants, thereby minimizing the empiricism and making the method self-adaptive. Operator splitting and one-sided controls for orthogonality and smoothness are used to make the method practical, robust, and efficient. Examples are included for both steady and unsteady viscous flow computations about airfoils in two dimensions, as well as for a steady inviscid flow computation and a one-dimensional case. These examples illustrate the precise control the user has with the self-adaptive method and demonstrate a significant improvement in accuracy and quality of the solutions.

  14. A Domain-Decomposed Multilevel Method for Adaptively Refined Cartesian Grids with Embedded Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Adomavicius, G.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary verification and validation of an efficient Euler solver for adaptively refined Cartesian meshes with embedded boundaries is presented. The parallel, multilevel method makes use of a new on-the-fly parallel domain decomposition strategy based upon the use of space-filling curves, and automatically generates a sequence of coarse meshes for processing by the multigrid smoother. The coarse mesh generation algorithm produces grids which completely cover the computational domain at every level in the mesh hierarchy. A series of examples on realistically complex three-dimensional configurations demonstrate that this new coarsening algorithm reliably achieves mesh coarsening ratios in excess of 7 on adaptively refined meshes. Numerical investigations of the scheme's local truncation error demonstrate an achieved order of accuracy between 1.82 and 1.88. Convergence results for the multigrid scheme are presented for both subsonic and transonic test cases and demonstrate W-cycle multigrid convergence rates between 0.84 and 0.94. Preliminary parallel scalability tests on both simple wing and complex complete aircraft geometries shows a computational speedup of 52 on 64 processors using the run-time mesh partitioner.

  15. An object-oriented approach for parallel self adaptive mesh refinement on block structured grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Max; Witsch, Kristian; Quinlan, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Self-adaptive mesh refinement dynamically matches the computational demands of a solver for partial differential equations to the activity in the application's domain. In this paper we present two C++ class libraries, P++ and AMR++, which significantly simplify the development of sophisticated adaptive mesh refinement codes on (massively) parallel distributed memory architectures. The development is based on our previous research in this area. The C++ class libraries provide abstractions to separate the issues of developing parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications into those of parallelism, abstracted by P++, and adaptive mesh refinement, abstracted by AMR++. P++ is a parallel array class library to permit efficient development of architecture independent codes for structured grid applications, and AMR++ provides support for self-adaptive mesh refinement on block-structured grids of rectangular non-overlapping blocks. Using these libraries, the application programmers' work is greatly simplified to primarily specifying the serial single grid application and obtaining the parallel and self-adaptive mesh refinement code with minimal effort. Initial results for simple singular perturbation problems solved by self-adaptive multilevel techniques (FAC, AFAC), being implemented on the basis of prototypes of the P++/AMR++ environment, are presented. Singular perturbation problems frequently arise in large applications, e.g. in the area of computational fluid dynamics. They usually have solutions with layers which require adaptive mesh refinement and fast basic solvers in order to be resolved efficiently.

  16. Adaptive grid finite element model of the tokamak scrapeoff layer

    SciTech Connect

    Kuprat, A.P.; Glasser, A.H.

    1995-07-01

    The authors discuss unstructured grids for application to transport in the tokamak edge SOL. They have developed a new metric with which to judge element elongation and resolution requirements. Using this method, the authors apply a standard moving finite element technique to advance the SOL equations while inserting/deleting dynamically nodes that violate an elongation criterion. In a tokamak plasma, this method achieves a more uniform accuracy, and results in highly stretched triangular finite elements, except near separatrix X-point where transport is more isotropic.

  17. Local adaptation in transgenerational responses to predators

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Matthew R.; Castoe, Todd; Holmes, Julian; Packer, Michelle; Biles, Kelsey; Walsh, Melissa; Munch, Stephan B.; Post, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental signals can induce phenotypic changes that span multiple generations. Along with phenotypic responses that occur during development (i.e. ‘within-generation’ plasticity), such ‘transgenerational plasticity’ (TGP) has been documented in a diverse array of taxa spanning many environmental perturbations. New theory predicts that temporal stability is a key driver of the evolution of TGP. We tested this prediction using natural populations of zooplankton from lakes in Connecticut that span a large gradient in the temporal dynamics of predator-induced mortality. We reared more than 120 clones of Daphnia ambigua from nine lakes for multiple generations in the presence/absence of predator cues. We found that temporal variation in mortality selects for within-generation plasticity while consistently strong (or weak) mortality selects for increased TGP. Such results provide us the first evidence for local adaptation in TGP and argue that divergent ecological conditions select for phenotypic responses within and across generations. PMID:26817775

  18. An assessment of the adaptive unstructured tetrahedral grid, Euler Flow Solver Code FELISA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djomehri, M. Jahed; Erickson, Larry L.

    1994-01-01

    A three-dimensional solution-adaptive Euler flow solver for unstructured tetrahedral meshes is assessed, and the accuracy and efficiency of the method for predicting sonic boom pressure signatures about simple generic models are demonstrated. Comparison of computational and wind tunnel data and enhancement of numerical solutions by means of grid adaptivity are discussed. The mesh generation is based on the advancing front technique. The FELISA code consists of two solvers, the Taylor-Galerkin and the Runge-Kutta-Galerkin schemes, both of which are spacially discretized by the usual Galerkin weighted residual finite-element methods but with different explicit time-marching schemes to steady state. The solution-adaptive grid procedure is based on either remeshing or mesh refinement techniques. An alternative geometry adaptive procedure is also incorporated.

  19. Grid-Adapted FUN3D Computations for the Second High Lift Prediction Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, E. M.; Rumsey, C. L.; Park, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Contributions of the unstructured Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes code FUN3D to the 2nd AIAA CFD High Lift Prediction Workshop are described, and detailed comparisons are made with experimental data. Using workshop-supplied grids, results for the clean wing configuration are compared with results from the structured code CFL3D Using the same turbulence model, both codes compare reasonably well in terms of total forces and moments, and the maximum lift is similarly over-predicted for both codes compared to experiment. By including more representative geometry features such as slat and flap brackets and slat pressure tube bundles, FUN3D captures the general effects of the Reynolds number variation, but under-predicts maximum lift on workshop-supplied grids in comparison with the experimental data, due to excessive separation. However, when output-based, off-body grid adaptation in FUN3D is employed, results improve considerably. In particular, when the geometry includes both brackets and the pressure tube bundles, grid adaptation results in a more accurate prediction of lift near stall in comparison with the wind-tunnel data. Furthermore, a rotation-corrected turbulence model shows improved pressure predictions on the outboard span when using adapted grids.

  20. Composite-Grid Techniques and Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    the equations govern- ing the flow. The patched adaptive mesh refinement technique, devised at Stanford by Oliger, et al ., copes with these sources of...patched adaptive mesh refinement technique, devised at Stanford by Oliger et al . [OL184], copes with these sources of error efficiently by refining...differential equation, as in the numerical grid generation methods proposed by Thompson et al . [THO85], or simply a list of pairs of points in

  1. Generalized Monge-Kantorovich optimization for grid generation and adaptation in LP

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, G L; Finn, J M

    2009-01-01

    The Monge-Kantorovich grid generation and adaptation scheme of is generalized from a variational principle based on L{sub 2} to a variational principle based on L{sub p}. A generalized Monge-Ampere (MA) equation is derived and its properties are discussed. Results for p > 1 are obtained and compared in terms of the quality of the resulting grid. We conclude that for the grid generation application, the formulation based on L{sub p} for p close to unity leads to serious problems associated with the boundary. Results for 1.5 {approx}< p {approx}< 2.5 are quite good, but there is a fairly narrow range around p = 2 where the results are close to optimal with respect to grid distortion. Furthermore, the Newton-Krylov methods used to solve the generalized MA equation perform best for p = 2.

  2. Stability of a modified Peaceman-Rachford method for the paraxial Helmholtz equation on adaptive grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Qin; Sun, Hai-wei

    2016-11-01

    This study concerns the asymptotic stability of an eikonal, or ray, transformation based Peaceman-Rachford splitting method for solving the paraxial Helmholtz equation with high wave numbers. Arbitrary nonuniform grids are considered in transverse and beam propagation directions. The differential equation targeted has been used for modeling propagations of high intensity laser pulses over a long distance without diffractions. Self-focusing of high intensity beams may be balanced with the de-focusing effect of created ionized plasma channel in the situation, and applications of grid adaptations are frequently essential. It is shown rigorously that the fully discretized oscillation-free decomposition method on arbitrary adaptive grids is asymptotically stable with a stability index one. Simulation experiments are carried out to illustrate our concern and conclusions.

  3. A Hyperspherical Adaptive Sparse-Grid Method for High-Dimensional Discontinuity Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guannan; Webster, Clayton G.; Gunzburger, Max D.; Burkardt, John V.

    2015-06-24

    This study proposes and analyzes a hyperspherical adaptive hierarchical sparse-grid method for detecting jump discontinuities of functions in high-dimensional spaces. The method is motivated by the theoretical and computational inefficiencies of well-known adaptive sparse-grid methods for discontinuity detection. Our novel approach constructs a function representation of the discontinuity hypersurface of an N-dimensional discontinuous quantity of interest, by virtue of a hyperspherical transformation. Then, a sparse-grid approximation of the transformed function is built in the hyperspherical coordinate system, whose value at each point is estimated by solving a one-dimensional discontinuity detection problem. Due to the smoothness of the hypersurface, the new technique can identify jump discontinuities with significantly reduced computational cost, compared to existing methods. In addition, hierarchical acceleration techniques are also incorporated to further reduce the overall complexity. Rigorous complexity analyses of the new method are provided as are several numerical examples that illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  4. A chimera grid scheme. [multiple overset body-conforming mesh system for finite difference adaptation to complex aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steger, J. L.; Dougherty, F. C.; Benek, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    A mesh system composed of multiple overset body-conforming grids is described for adapting finite-difference procedures to complex aircraft configurations. In this so-called 'chimera mesh,' a major grid is generated about a main component of the configuration and overset minor grids are used to resolve all other features. Methods for connecting overset multiple grids and modifications of flow-simulation algorithms are discussed. Computational tests in two dimensions indicate that the use of multiple overset grids can simplify the task of grid generation without an adverse effect on flow-field algorithms and computer code complexity.

  5. SIMULATION OF DISPERSION OF A POWER PLANT PLUME USING AN ADAPTIVE GRID ALGORITHM. (R827028)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new dynamic adaptive grid algorithm has been developed for use in air quality modeling. This algorithm uses a higher order numerical scheme––the piecewise parabolic method (PPM)––for computing advective solution fields; a weight function capable o...

  6. Algebraic grid adaptation method using non-uniform rational B-spline surface modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jiann-Cherng; Soni, B. K.

    1992-01-01

    An algebraic adaptive grid system based on equidistribution law and utilized by the Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) surface for redistribution is presented. A weight function, utilizing a properly weighted boolean sum of various flow field characteristics is developed. Computational examples are presented to demonstrate the success of this technique.

  7. Integration of hp-Adaptivity and a Two Grid Solver. II. Electromagnetic Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    for lower order FE spaces. More precisely, let T be a grid,M the associated lowest order Nedelec subspaces ofHD(curl; Ω) of the first kind [24], and W... Nedelec , Mixed finite elements in IR3., Numer. Math., 35 (1980), pp. 315–341. [25] D. Pardo and L. Demkowicz, Integration of hp-adaptivity with a two

  8. White Light Schlieren Optics Using Bacteriorhodopsin as an Adaptive Image Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peale, Robert; Ruffin, Boh; Donahue, Jeff; Barrett, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    A Schlieren apparatus using a bacteriorhodopsin film as an adaptive image grid with white light illumination is demonstrated for the first time. The time dependent spectral properties of the film are characterized. Potential applications include a single-ended Schlieren system for leak detection.

  9. Re-architecting flow-control adaptation for grid environments

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhart, A.; Gardner, M. K.; Feng, W. C.

    2004-01-01

    The performance of TCP in wide-area networks (WANs) is becoming increasingly important with the deployment of computational and data grids. At WAN speeds, TCP does not provide good performance for data-intensive applications without the tuning of flow-control buffer sizes. Manual adjustment of buffer sizes is tedious even for network experts. For scientists, tuning is often an impediment to getting work done. Thus, buffer tuning should be automated. Existing techniques for automatic buffer tuning only measure the bandwidth-delay product (BDP) during connection establishment. This ignores the (large) fluctuation of the BDP over the lifetime of the connection. In contrast, the Dynamic Right-Sizing algorithm dynamically changes buffer sizes in response to changing network conditions. In this paper, we describe a new user-space implementation of Dynamic Right-Sizing in FTP (drsFTP) that supports third-party data transfers, a mainstay of scientific computing. In addition to comparing the performance of the new implementation with the old, we give performance results over a live WAN. The new implementation gives transfer rates of up to five times higher than untuned FTP.

  10. Adaptive Grid Based Localized Learning for Multidimensional Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saini, Sheetal

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in data-rich domains of science, technology, and business has amplified the computational challenges of "Big Data" synthesis necessary to slow the widening gap between the rate at which the data is being collected and analyzed for knowledge. This has led to the renewed need for efficient and accurate algorithms, framework,…

  11. Dynamics of local grid manipulations for internal flow problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Snyder, Aaron; Choo, Yung K.

    1991-01-01

    The control point method of algebraic grid generation is briefly reviewed. The review proceeds from the general statement of the method in 2-D unencumbered by detailed mathematical formulation. The method is supported by an introspective discussion which provides the basis for confidence in the approach. The more complex 3-D formulation is then presented as a natural generalization. Application of the method is carried out through 2-D examples which demonstrate the technique.

  12. An adaptive discretization of compressible flow using a multitude of moving Cartesian grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Linhai; Lu, Wenlong; Fedkiw, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for simulating compressible flow on a multitude of Cartesian grids that can rotate and translate. Following previous work, we split the time integration into an explicit step for advection followed by an implicit solve for the pressure. A second order accurate flux based scheme is devised to handle advection on each moving Cartesian grid using an effective characteristic velocity that accounts for the grid motion. In order to avoid the stringent time step restriction imposed by very fine grids, we propose strategies that allow for a fluid velocity CFL number larger than 1. The stringent time step restriction related to the sound speed is alleviated by formulating an implicit linear system in order to find a pressure consistent with the equation of state. This implicit linear system crosses overlapping Cartesian grid boundaries by utilizing local Voronoi meshes to connect the various degrees of freedom obtaining a symmetric positive-definite system. Since a straightforward application of this technique contains an inherent central differencing which can result in spurious oscillations, we introduce a new high order diffusion term similar in spirit to ENO-LLF but solved for implicitly in order to avoid any associated time step restrictions. The method is conservative on each grid, as well as globally conservative on the background grid that contains all other grids. Moreover, a conservative interpolation operator is devised for conservatively remapping values in order to keep them consistent across different overlapping grids. Additionally, the method is extended to handle two-way solid fluid coupling in a monolithic fashion including cases (in the appendix) where solids in close proximity do not properly allow for grid based degrees of freedom in between them.

  13. GWM-2005 - A Groundwater-Management Process for MODFLOW-2005 with Local Grid Refinement (LGR) Capability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlfeld, David P.; Baker, Kristine M.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the Groundwater-Management (GWM) Process for MODFLOW-2005, the 2005 version of the U.S. Geological Survey modular three-dimensional groundwater model. GWM can solve a broad range of groundwater-management problems by combined use of simulation- and optimization-modeling techniques. These problems include limiting groundwater-level declines or streamflow depletions, managing groundwater withdrawals, and conjunctively using groundwater and surface-water resources. GWM was initially released for the 2000 version of MODFLOW. Several modifications and enhancements have been made to GWM since its initial release to increase the scope of the program's capabilities and to improve its operation and reporting of results. The new code, which is called GWM-2005, also was designed to support the local grid refinement capability of MODFLOW-2005. Local grid refinement allows for the simulation of one or more higher resolution local grids (referred to as child models) within a coarser grid parent model. Local grid refinement is often needed to improve simulation accuracy in regions where hydraulic gradients change substantially over short distances or in areas requiring detailed representation of aquifer heterogeneity. GWM-2005 can be used to formulate and solve groundwater-management problems that include components in both parent and child models. Although local grid refinement increases simulation accuracy, it can also substantially increase simulation run times.

  14. A SUNTANS-based unstructured grid local exact particle tracking model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangliang; Chua, Vivien P.

    2016-07-01

    A parallel particle tracking model, which employs the local exact integration method to achieve high accuracy, has been developed and embedded in an unstructured-grid coastal ocean model, Stanford Unstructured Nonhydrostatic Terrain-following Adaptive Navier-Stokes Simulator (SUNTANS). The particle tracking model is verified and compared with traditional numerical integration methods, such as Runge-Kutta fourth-order methods using several test cases. In two-dimensional linear steady rotating flow, the local exact particle tracking model is able to track particles along the circular streamline accurately, while Runge-Kutta fourth-order methods produce trajectories that deviate from the streamlines. In periodically varying double-gyre flow, the trajectories produced by local exact particle tracking model with time step of 1.0 × 10- 2 s are similar to those trajectories obtained from the numerical integration methods with reduced time steps of 1.0 × 10- 4 s. In three-dimensional steady Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) flow, the trajectories integrated with the local exact particle tracking model compares well with the approximated true path. The trajectories spiral upward and their projection on the x- y plane is a periodic ellipse. The trajectories derived with the Runge-Kutta fourth-order method deviate from the approximated true path, and their projections on the x- y plane are unclosed ellipses with growing long and short axes. The spatial temporal resolution needs to be carefully chosen before particle tracking models are applied. Our results show that the developed local exact particle tracking model is accurate and suitable for marine Lagrangian (trajectory-based)-related research.

  15. Hybrid Adaptive Ray-Moment Method (HARM2): A highly parallel method for radiation hydrodynamics on adaptive grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, A. L.; Krumholz, M. R.; Oishi, J. S.; Lee, A. T.; Klein, R. I.

    2017-02-01

    We present a highly-parallel multi-frequency hybrid radiation hydrodynamics algorithm that combines a spatially-adaptive long characteristics method for the radiation field from point sources with a moment method that handles the diffuse radiation field produced by a volume-filling fluid. Our Hybrid Adaptive Ray-Moment Method (HARM2) operates on patch-based adaptive grids, is compatible with asynchronous time stepping, and works with any moment method. In comparison to previous long characteristics methods, we have greatly improved the parallel performance of the adaptive long-characteristics method by developing a new completely asynchronous and non-blocking communication algorithm. As a result of this improvement, our implementation achieves near-perfect scaling up to O (103) processors on distributed memory machines. We present a series of tests to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the method.

  16. Operational adaptability evaluation index system of pumped storage in UHV receiving-end grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bo; Zong, Jin; Feng, Junshu

    2017-01-01

    Pumped storage is an effective solution to deal with the emergency reserve shortage, renewable energy accommodating and peak-shaving problems in ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission receiving-end grids. However, governments and public opinion in China tend to evaluate the operational effectiveness of pumped storage using annual utilization hour, which may result in unreasonable and unnecessary dispatch of pumped storage. This paper built an operational adaptability evaluation index system for pumped storage in UHV-receiving end grids from three aspects: security insurance, peak-shaving and renewable energy accommodating, which can provide a comprehensive and objective way to evaluate the operational performance of a pumped storage station.

  17. Exploiting a geometrically sampled grid in the steered response power algorithm for localization improvement.

    PubMed

    Salvati, D; Drioli, C; Foresti, G L

    2017-01-01

    The steered response power phase transform (SRP-PHAT) is a beamformer method very attractive in acoustic localization applications due to its robustness in reverberant environments. This paper presents a spatial grid design procedure, called the geometrically sampled grid (GSG), which aims at computing the spatial grid by taking into account the discrete sampling of time difference of arrival (TDOA) functions and the desired spatial resolution. A SRP-PHAT localization algorithm based on the GSG method is also introduced. The proposed method exploits the intersections of the discrete hyperboloids representing the TDOA information domain of the sensor array, and projects the whole TDOA information on the space search grid. The GSG method thus allows one to design the sampled spatial grid which represents the best search grid for a given sensor array, it allows one to perform a sensitivity analysis of the array and to characterize its spatial localization accuracy, and it may assist the system designer in the reconfiguration of the array. Experimental results using both simulated data and real recordings show that the localization accuracy is substantially improved both for high and for low spatial resolution, and that it is closely related to the proposed power response sensitivity measure.

  18. An adaptive grid/Navier-Stokes methodology for the calculation of nozzle afterbody base flows with a supersonic freestream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Morgan; Lim, Dennis; Ungewitter, Ronald

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes an adaptive grid method for base flows in a supersonic freestream. The method is based on the direct finite-difference statement of the equidistribution principle. The weighting factor is a combination of the Mach number, density, and velocity first-derivative gradients in the radial direction. Two key ideas of the method are to smooth the weighting factor by using a type of implicit smoothing and to allow boundary points to move in the grid adaptation process. An AGARD nozzle afterbody base flow configuration is used to demonstrate the performance of the adaptive grid methodology. Computed base pressures are compared to experimental data. The adapted grid solutions offer a dramatic improvement in base pressure prediction compared to solutions computed on a nonadapted grid. A total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Navier-Stokes scheme is used to solve the governing flow equations.

  19. An adaptive grid for graph-based segmentation in retinal OCT

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Andrew; Carass, Aaron; Calabresi, Peter A.; Ying, Howard S.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Graph-based methods for retinal layer segmentation have proven to be popular due to their efficiency and accuracy. These methods build a graph with nodes at each voxel location and use edges connecting nodes to encode the hard constraints of each layer’s thickness and smoothness. In this work, we explore deforming the regular voxel grid to allow adjacent vertices in the graph to more closely follow the natural curvature of the retina. This deformed grid is constructed by fixing node locations based on a regression model of each layer’s thickness relative to the overall retina thickness, thus we generate a subject specific grid. Graph vertices are not at voxel locations, which allows for control over the resolution that the graph represents. By incorporating soft constraints between adjacent nodes, segmentation on this grid will favor smoothly varying surfaces consistent with the shape of the retina. Our final segmentation method then follows our previous work. Boundary probabilities are estimated using a random forest classifier followed by an optimal graph search algorithm on the new adaptive grid to produce a final segmentation. Our method is shown to produce a more consistent segmentation with an overall accuracy of 3.38 μm across all boundaries. PMID:27773959

  20. Three-dimensional unstructured grid generation via incremental insertion and local optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy J.; Wiltberger, N. Lyn; Gandhi, Amar S.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms for the generation of 3D unstructured surface and volume grids are discussed. These algorithms are based on incremental insertion and local optimization. The present algorithms are very general and permit local grid optimization based on various measures of grid quality. This is very important; unlike the 2D Delaunay triangulation, the 3D Delaunay triangulation appears not to have a lexicographic characterization of angularity. (The Delaunay triangulation is known to minimize that maximum containment sphere, but unfortunately this is not true lexicographically). Consequently, Delaunay triangulations in three-space can result in poorly shaped tetrahedral elements. Using the present algorithms, 3D meshes can be constructed which optimize a certain angle measure, albeit locally. We also discuss the combinatorial aspects of the algorithm as well as implementational details.

  1. Adjoint-Based, Three-Dimensional Error Prediction and Grid Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    Engineering computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and design applications focus on output functions (e.g., lift, drag). Errors in these output functions are generally unknown and conservatively accurate solutions may be computed. Computable error estimates can offer the possibility to minimize computational work for a prescribed error tolerance. Such an estimate can be computed by solving the flow equations and the linear adjoint problem for the functional of interest. The computational mesh can be modified to minimize the uncertainty of a computed error estimate. This robust mesh-adaptation procedure automatically terminates when the simulation is within a user specified error tolerance. This procedure for estimating and adapting to error in a functional is demonstrated for three-dimensional Euler problems. An adaptive mesh procedure that links to a Computer Aided Design (CAD) surface representation is demonstrated for wing, wing-body, and extruded high lift airfoil configurations. The error estimation and adaptation procedure yielded corrected functions that are as accurate as functions calculated on uniformly refined grids with ten times as many grid points.

  2. Robust local search for spacecraft operations using adaptive noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukunaga, Alex S.; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Randomization is a standard technique for improving the performance of local search algorithms for constraint satisfaction. However, it is well-known that local search algorithms are constraints satisfaction. However, it is well-known that local search algorithms are to the noise values selected. We investigate the use of an adaptive noise mechanism in an iterative repair-based planner/scheduler for spacecraft operations. Preliminary results indicate that adaptive noise makes the use of randomized repair moves safe and robust; that is, using adaptive noise makes it possible to consistently achieve, performance comparable with the best tuned noise setting without the need for manually tuning the noise parameter.

  3. A Numerical Analysis on the Local Deformation of a Spacer Grid Structure for Nuclear Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Myung-Geun; Na, Geum Ju; Shin, Hyunho; Kim, Jong-Bong

    2016-08-01

    The result of a preliminary numerical investigation on local deformation characteristics of a multi-layered spacer-grid structure with five guide tubes is reported based on implicit finite element analysis. For the numerical analysis, displacements of top and bottom cross sections of each guide tube in a single-layer model were constrained while a lateral displacement was imposed on the single layer. Unlike the impact hammer test that is generally employed to characterize the deformation characteristics of the space-grid structure, the buckling phenomenon occurs locally in this study; it takes place at the inner grids around each tube and the degree of bucking is more apparent for tubes near the lateral surface where the lateral displacement was imposed.

  4. A Hyperspherical Adaptive Sparse-Grid Method for High-Dimensional Discontinuity Detection

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Guannan; Webster, Clayton G.; Gunzburger, Max D.; ...

    2015-06-24

    This study proposes and analyzes a hyperspherical adaptive hierarchical sparse-grid method for detecting jump discontinuities of functions in high-dimensional spaces. The method is motivated by the theoretical and computational inefficiencies of well-known adaptive sparse-grid methods for discontinuity detection. Our novel approach constructs a function representation of the discontinuity hypersurface of an N-dimensional discontinuous quantity of interest, by virtue of a hyperspherical transformation. Then, a sparse-grid approximation of the transformed function is built in the hyperspherical coordinate system, whose value at each point is estimated by solving a one-dimensional discontinuity detection problem. Due to the smoothness of the hypersurface, the newmore » technique can identify jump discontinuities with significantly reduced computational cost, compared to existing methods. In addition, hierarchical acceleration techniques are also incorporated to further reduce the overall complexity. Rigorous complexity analyses of the new method are provided as are several numerical examples that illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.« less

  5. A hyper-spherical adaptive sparse-grid method for high-dimensional discontinuity detection

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guannan; Webster, Clayton G; Gunzburger, Max D; Burkardt, John V

    2014-03-01

    This work proposes and analyzes a hyper-spherical adaptive hi- erarchical sparse-grid method for detecting jump discontinuities of functions in high-dimensional spaces is proposed. The method is motivated by the the- oretical and computational inefficiencies of well-known adaptive sparse-grid methods for discontinuity detection. Our novel approach constructs a func- tion representation of the discontinuity hyper-surface of an N-dimensional dis- continuous quantity of interest, by virtue of a hyper-spherical transformation. Then, a sparse-grid approximation of the transformed function is built in the hyper-spherical coordinate system, whose value at each point is estimated by solving a one-dimensional discontinuity detection problem. Due to the smooth- ness of the hyper-surface, the new technique can identify jump discontinuities with significantly reduced computational cost, compared to existing methods. Moreover, hierarchical acceleration techniques are also incorporated to further reduce the overall complexity. Rigorous error estimates and complexity anal- yses of the new method are provided as are several numerical examples that illustrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  6. Object localization using adaptive feature selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, S. Youngkyoo; Kim, Jungbae; Lee, Seongdeok

    2009-01-01

    'Fast and robust' are the most beautiful keywords in computer vision. Unfortunately they are in trade-off relationship. We present a method to have one's cake and eat it using adaptive feature selections. Our chief insight is that it compares reference patterns to query patterns, so that it selects smartly more important and useful features to find target. The probabilities of pixels in the query to belong to the target are calculated from importancy of features. Our framework has three distinct advantages: 1 - It saves computational cost dramatically to the conventional approach. This framework makes it possible to find location of an object in real-time. 2 - It can smartly select robust features of a reference pattern as adapting to a query pattern. 3- It has high flexibility on any feature. It doesn't matter which feature you may use. Lots of color space, texture, motion features and other features can fit perfectly only if the features meet histogram criteria.

  7. Local adaptation within a hybrid species.

    PubMed

    Eroukhmanoff, F; Hermansen, J S; Bailey, R I; Sæther, S A; Sætre, G-P

    2013-10-01

    Ecological divergence among populations may be strongly influenced by their genetic background. For instance, genetic admixture through introgressive hybridization or hybrid speciation is likely to affect the genetic variation and evolvability of phenotypic traits. We studied geographic variation in two beak dimensions and three other phenotypic traits of the Italian sparrow (Passer italiae), a young hybrid species formed through interbreeding between house sparrows (P. domesticus) and Spanish sparrows (P. hispaniolensis). We found that beak morphology was strongly influenced by precipitation regimes and that it appeared to be the target of divergent selection within Italian sparrows. Interestingly, however, the degree of parental genetic contribution in the hybrid species had no effect on phenotypic beak variation. Moreover, beak height divergence may mediate genetic differentiation between populations, consistent with isolation-by-adaptation within this hybrid species. The study illustrates how hybrid species may be relatively unconstrained by their admixed genetic background, allowing them to adapt rapidly to environmental variation.

  8. Introducing Enabling Computational Tools to the Climate Sciences: Multi-Resolution Climate Modeling with Adaptive Cubed-Sphere Grids

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-07-14

    The research investigates and advances strategies how to bridge the scale discrepancies between local, regional and global phenomena in climate models without the prohibitive computational costs of global cloud-resolving simulations. In particular, the research explores new frontiers in computational geoscience by introducing high-order Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) techniques into climate research. AMR and statically-adapted variable-resolution approaches represent an emerging trend for atmospheric models and are likely to become the new norm in future-generation weather and climate models. The research advances the understanding of multi-scale interactions in the climate system and showcases a pathway how to model these interactions effectively with advanced computational tools, like the Chombo AMR library developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The research is interdisciplinary and combines applied mathematics, scientific computing and the atmospheric sciences. In this research project, a hierarchy of high-order atmospheric models on cubed-sphere computational grids have been developed that serve as an algorithmic prototype for the finite-volume solution-adaptive Chombo-AMR approach. The foci of the investigations have lied on the characteristics of both static mesh adaptations and dynamically-adaptive grids that can capture flow fields of interest like tropical cyclones. Six research themes have been chosen. These are (1) the introduction of adaptive mesh refinement techniques into the climate sciences, (2) advanced algorithms for nonhydrostatic atmospheric dynamical cores, (3) an assessment of the interplay between resolved-scale dynamical motions and subgrid-scale physical parameterizations, (4) evaluation techniques for atmospheric model hierarchies, (5) the comparison of AMR refinement strategies and (6) tropical cyclone studies with a focus on multi-scale interactions and variable-resolution modeling. The results of this research project

  9. Local adaptation and the evolution of chromosome fusions.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Rafael F; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2014-10-01

    We use forward and coalescent models of population genetics to study chromosome fusions that reduce the recombination between two locally adapted loci. Under a continent-island model, a fusion spreads and reaches a polymorphic equilibrium when it causes recombination between locally adapted alleles to be less than their selective advantage. In contrast, fusions in a two-deme model always spread; whether it reaches a polymorphic equilibrium or becomes fixed depends on the relative recombination rates of fused homozygotes and heterozygotes. Neutral divergence around fusion polymorphisms is markedly increased, showing peaks at the point of fusion and at the locally adapted loci. Local adaptation could explain the evolution of many of chromosome fusions, which are some of the most common chromosome rearrangements in nature.

  10. Damping of spurious numerical reflections off of coarse-fine adaptive mesh refinement grid boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilton, Sven; Colella, Phillip

    2010-11-01

    Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is an efficient technique for solving systems of partial differential equations numerically. The underlying algorithm determines where and when a base spatial and temporal grid must be resolved further in order to achieve the desired precision and accuracy in the numerical solution. However, propagating wave solutions prove problematic for AMR. In systems with low degrees of dissipation (e.g. the Maxwell-Vlasov system) a wave traveling from a finely resolved region into a coarsely resolved region encounters a numerical impedance mismatch, resulting in spurious reflections off of the coarse-fine grid boundary. These reflected waves then become trapped inside the fine region. Here, we present a scheme for damping these spurious reflections. We demonstrate its application to the scalar wave equation and an implementation for Maxwell's Equations. We also discuss a possible extension to the Maxwell-Vlasov system.

  11. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

    DOE PAGES

    Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this papermore » we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.« less

  12. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Jakeman, J. D.; Wildey, T.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity. We show that utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this paper we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation.

  13. Grid and basis adaptive polynomial chaos techniques for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Perkó, Zoltán Gilli, Luca Lathouwers, Danny Kloosterman, Jan Leen

    2014-03-01

    The demand for accurate and computationally affordable sensitivity and uncertainty techniques is constantly on the rise and has become especially pressing in the nuclear field with the shift to Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty methodologies in the licensing of nuclear installations. Besides traditional, already well developed methods – such as first order perturbation theory or Monte Carlo sampling – Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) has been given a growing emphasis in recent years due to its simple application and good performance. This paper presents new developments of the research done at TU Delft on such Polynomial Chaos (PC) techniques. Our work is focused on the Non-Intrusive Spectral Projection (NISP) approach and adaptive methods for building the PCE of responses of interest. Recent efforts resulted in a new adaptive sparse grid algorithm designed for estimating the PC coefficients. The algorithm is based on Gerstner's procedure for calculating multi-dimensional integrals but proves to be computationally significantly cheaper, while at the same it retains a similar accuracy as the original method. More importantly the issue of basis adaptivity has been investigated and two techniques have been implemented for constructing the sparse PCE of quantities of interest. Not using the traditional full PC basis set leads to further reduction in computational time since the high order grids necessary for accurately estimating the near zero expansion coefficients of polynomial basis vectors not needed in the PCE can be excluded from the calculation. Moreover the sparse PC representation of the response is easier to handle when used for sensitivity analysis or uncertainty propagation due to the smaller number of basis vectors. The developed grid and basis adaptive methods have been implemented in Matlab as the Fully Adaptive Non-Intrusive Spectral Projection (FANISP) algorithm and were tested on four analytical problems. These show consistent good performance both

  14. The magnitude of local adaptation under genotype-dependent dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Bolnick, Daniel I; Otto, Sarah P

    2013-01-01

    Dispersal moves individuals from patches where their immediate ancestors were successful to sites where their genotypes are untested. As a result, dispersal generally reduces fitness, a phenomenon known as “migration load.” The strength of migration load depends on the pattern of dispersal and can be dramatically lessened or reversed when individuals move preferentially toward patches conferring higher fitness. Evolutionary ecologists have long modeled nonrandom dispersal, focusing primarily on its effects on population density over space, the maintenance of genetic variation, and reproductive isolation. Here, we build upon previous work by calculating how the extent of local adaptation and the migration load are affected when individuals differ in their dispersal rate in a genotype-dependent manner that alters their match to their environment. Examining a one-locus, two-patch model, we show that local adaptation occurs through a combination of natural selection and adaptive dispersal. For a substantial portion of parameter space, adaptive dispersal can be the predominant force generating local adaptation. Furthermore, genetic load may be largely averted with adaptive dispersal whenever individuals move before selective deaths occur. Thus, to understand the mechanisms driving local adaptation, biologists must account for the extent and nature of nonrandom, genotype-dependent dispersal, and the potential for adaptation via spatial sorting of genotypes. PMID:24363900

  15. Parallel level-set methods on adaptive tree-based grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzadeh, Mohammad; Guittet, Arthur; Burstedde, Carsten; Gibou, Frederic

    2016-10-01

    We present scalable algorithms for the level-set method on dynamic, adaptive Quadtree and Octree Cartesian grids. The algorithms are fully parallelized and implemented using the MPI standard and the open-source p4est library. We solve the level set equation with a semi-Lagrangian method which, similar to its serial implementation, is free of any time-step restrictions. This is achieved by introducing a scalable global interpolation scheme on adaptive tree-based grids. Moreover, we present a simple parallel reinitialization scheme using the pseudo-time transient formulation. Both parallel algorithms scale on the Stampede supercomputer, where we are currently using up to 4096 CPU cores, the limit of our current account. Finally, a relevant application of the algorithms is presented in modeling a crystallization phenomenon by solving a Stefan problem, illustrating a level of detail that would be impossible to achieve without a parallel adaptive strategy. We believe that the algorithms presented in this article will be of interest and useful to researchers working with the level-set framework and modeling multi-scale physics in general.

  16. Adaptive Hierarchical Voltage Control of a DFIG-Based Wind Power Plant for a Grid Fault

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jinho; Muljadi, Eduard; Park, Jung-Wook; Kang, Yong Cheol

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive hierarchical voltage control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind power plant (WPP) that can secure more reserve of reactive power (Q) in the WPP against a grid fault. To achieve this, each DFIG controller employs an adaptive reactive power to voltage (Q-V) characteristic. The proposed adaptive Q-V characteristic is temporally modified depending on the available Q capability of a DFIG; it is dependent on the distance from a DFIG to the point of common coupling (PCC). The proposed characteristic secures more Q reserve in the WPP than the fixed one. Furthermore, it allows DFIGs to promptly inject up to the Q limit, thereby improving the PCC voltage support. To avert an overvoltage after the fault clearance, washout filters are implemented in the WPP and DFIG controllers; they can prevent a surplus Q injection after the fault clearance by eliminating the accumulated values in the proportional-integral controllers of both controllers during the fault. Test results demonstrate that the scheme can improve the voltage support capability during the fault and suppress transient overvoltage after the fault clearance under scenarios of various system and fault conditions; therefore, it helps ensure grid resilience by supporting the voltage stability.

  17. Staggered-grid PSTD on local Fourier basis and its applications to surface tissue modeling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming; Chen, Kun

    2010-04-26

    We introduce a high performance parallelization to the PSTD solution of Maxwell equations by employing the fast Fourier transform on local Fourier basis. Meanwhile a reformatted derivative operator allows the adoption of a staggered-grid such as the Yee lattice in PSTD, which can overcome the numerical errors in a collocated-grid when spatial discontinuities are present. The accuracy and capability of our method are confirmed by two analytical models. In two applications to surface tissue optics, an ultra wide coherent backscattering cone from the surface layer is found, and the penetration depth of polarization gating identified. Our development prepares a tool for investigating the optical properties of surface tissue structures.

  18. Evaluating two sparse grid surrogates and two adaptation criteria for groundwater Bayesian uncertainty quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Ye, Ming; Burkardt, John; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-04-01

    Sparse grid (SG) stochastic collocation methods have been recently used to build accurate but cheap-to-run surrogates for groundwater models to reduce the computational burden of Bayesian uncertainty analysis. The surrogates can be built for either a log-likelihood function or state variables such as hydraulic head and solute concentration. Using a synthetic groundwater flow model, this study evaluates the log-likelihood and head surrogates in terms of the computational cost of building them, the accuracy of the surrogates, and the accuracy of the distributions of model parameters and predictions obtained using the surrogates. The head surrogates outperform the log-likelihood surrogates for the following four reasons: (1) the shape of the head response surface is smoother than that of the log-likelihood response surface in parameter space, (2) the head variation is smaller than the log-likelihood variation in parameter space, (3) the interpolation error of the head surrogates does not accumulate to be larger than the interpolation error of the log-likelihood surrogates, and (4) the model simulations needed for building one head surrogate can be recycled for building others. For both log-likelihood and head surrogates, adaptive sparse grids are built using two indicators: absolute error and relative error. The adaptive head surrogates are insensitive to the error indicators, because the ratio between the two indicators is hydraulic head, which has small variation in the parameter space. The adaptive log-likelihood surrogates based on the relative error indicators outperform those based on the absolute error indicators, because adaptation based on the relative error indicator puts more sparse-grid nodes in the areas in the parameter space where the log-likelihood is high. While our numerical study suggests building state-variable surrogates and using the relative error indicator for building log-likelihood surrogates, selecting appropriate type of surrogates and

  19. The response of local power grid at low-latitude to geomagnetic storm: An application of the Hilbert Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Wang, Chuan-Bing; Liu, Lu; Sun, Wei-Huai

    2016-04-01

    The Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is an adaptive data analysis method that can accommodate the variety of data generated by nonlinear and nonstationary processes in nature. In this paper, we focus on the small geomagnetically induced current (GIC) at the local substations in low-latitude power grid of China, responding to a moderate storm on 14-18 July 2012. The HHT is applied to analyze the neutral point currents (NPCs) of transformers measured at different substations, and the GIC indices converted from local geomagnetic field measurements. The original data are decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition. After removal of the quasi-diurnal components related with the solar quiet variation, the IMFs representing storm disturbances are transformed into Hilbert energy spectra. The results show that some transformers have more or less responses to the moderate storm in the form of Hilbert energy spectra with the frequency around 2-3 mHz. A comparison on the amplitude changes of the spectra total energy of NPCs' perturbation during storm time intervals at different sites suggests that a shell type of three-phase single transformer group seems to be more vulnerable in the storm. Although the low-latitude power grids usually show very small GIC, these can be used to investigate the potential risk of space weather to the system.

  20. The Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative: Climate Resilient Local Governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Local governments, the first responders to public health, safety and environmental hazards, must act now to lessen vulnerabilities to climate change. They must plan for and invest in "adapting" to inevitable impacts such as flood, fire, and draught that will occur notwithstanding best efforts to mitigate climate change. CCAP's Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative is developing a framework for informed decision making on climate adaptation. Looking ahead to projected climate impacts and 'back casting' can identify what is needed now to both reduce greenhouse gas emissions and build local resiliency to climate change. CCAP's partnership with King County (WA), Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami-Dade County (FL), Milwaukee, Nassau County (NY), Phoenix, San Francisco, and Toronto is advancing policy discussions to ensure that state and local governments consider climate change when making decisions about infrastructure, transportation, land use, and resource management. Through the Initiative, local leaders will incorporate climate change into daily urban management and planning activities, proactively engage city and county managers and the public in developing solutions, and build community resilience. One goal is to change both institutional and public attitudes and behaviors. Determining appropriate adaptation strategies for each jurisdiction requires Asking the Climate Question: "How does what we are doing increase our resilience to climate change?" Over the next three years, the Initiative will design and implement specific adaptation plans, policies and 'catalytic' projects, collect and disseminate "best practices," and participate in framing national climate policy discussions. In the coming years, policy-makers will have to consider climate change in major infrastructure development decisions. If they are to be successful and have the resources they need, national climate change policy and emerging legislation will have to support these communities. The Urban Leaders

  1. Fair Energy Scheduling for Vehicle-to-Grid Networks Using Adaptive Dynamic Programming.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shengli; Zhong, Weifeng; Xie, Kan; Yu, Rong; Zhang, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Research on the smart grid is being given enormous supports worldwide due to its great significance in solving environmental and energy crises. Electric vehicles (EVs), which are powered by clean energy, are adopted increasingly year by year. It is predictable that the huge charge load caused by high EV penetration will have a considerable impact on the reliability of the smart grid. Therefore, fair energy scheduling for EV charge and discharge is proposed in this paper. By using the vehicle-to-grid technology, the scheduler controls the electricity loads of EVs considering fairness in the residential distribution network. We propose contribution-based fairness, in which EVs with high contributions have high priorities to obtain charge energy. The contribution value is defined by both the charge/discharge energy and the timing of the action. EVs can achieve higher contribution values when discharging during the load peak hours. However, charging during this time will decrease the contribution values seriously. We formulate the fair energy scheduling problem as an infinite-horizon Markov decision process. The methodology of adaptive dynamic programming is employed to maximize the long-term fairness by processing online network training. The numerical results illustrate that the proposed EV energy scheduling is able to mitigate and flatten the peak load in the distribution network. Furthermore, contribution-based fairness achieves a fast recovery of EV batteries that have deeply discharged and guarantee fairness in the full charge time of all EVs.

  2. A numerical study of 2D detonation waves with adaptive finite volume methods on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guanghui

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a framework of adaptive finite volume solutions for the reactive Euler equations on unstructured grids is proposed. The main ingredients of the algorithm include a second order total variation diminishing Runge-Kutta method for temporal discretization, and the finite volume method with piecewise linear solution reconstruction of the conservative variables for the spatial discretization in which the least square method is employed for the reconstruction, and weighted essentially nonoscillatory strategy is used to restrain the potential numerical oscillation. To resolve the high demanding on the computational resources due to the stiffness of the system caused by the reaction term and the shock structure in the solutions, the h-adaptive method is introduced. OpenMP parallelization of the algorithm is also adopted to further improve the efficiency of the implementation. Several one and two dimensional benchmark tests on the ZND model are studied in detail, and numerical results successfully show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Parallel grid library with adaptive mesh refinement for development of highly scalable simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkonen, I.; von Alfthan, S.; Sandroos, A.; Janhunen, P.; Palmroth, M.

    2012-04-01

    As the single CPU core performance is saturating while the number of cores in the fastest supercomputers increases exponentially, the parallel performance of simulations on distributed memory machines is crucial. At the same time, utilizing efficiently the large number of available cores presents a challenge, especially in simulations with run-time adaptive mesh refinement. We have developed a generic grid library (dccrg) aimed at finite volume simulations that is easy to use and scales well up to tens of thousands of cores. The grid has several attractive features: It 1) allows an arbitrary C++ class or structure to be used as cell data; 2) provides a simple interface for adaptive mesh refinement during a simulation; 3) encapsulates the details of MPI communication when updating the data of neighboring cells between processes; and 4) provides a simple interface to run-time load balancing, e.g. domain decomposition, through the Zoltan library. Dccrg is freely available for anyone to use, study and modify under the GNU Lesser General Public License v3. We will present the implementation of dccrg, simple and advanced usage examples and scalability results on various supercomputers and problems.

  4. An Adaptive Integration Model of Vector Polyline to DEM Data Based on Spherical Degeneration Quadtree Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. S.; Wang, J. J.; Yuan, Z. Y.; Gao, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Traditional geometry-based approach can maintain the characteristics of vector data. However, complex interpolation calculations limit its applications in high resolution and multi-source spatial data integration at spherical scale in digital earth systems. To overcome this deficiency, an adaptive integration model of vector polyline and spherical DEM is presented. Firstly, Degenerate Quadtree Grid (DQG) which is one of the partition models for global discrete grids, is selected as a basic framework for the adaptive integration model. Secondly, a novel shift algorithm is put forward based on DQG proximity search. The main idea of shift algorithm is that the vector node in a DQG cell moves to the cell corner-point when the displayed area of the cell is smaller or equal to a pixel of screen in order to find a new vector polyline approximate to the original one, which avoids lots of interpolation calculations and achieves seamless integration. Detailed operation steps are elaborated and the complexity of algorithm is analyzed. Thirdly, a prototype system has been developed by using VC++ language and OpenGL 3D API. ASTER GDEM data and DCW roads data sets of Jiangxi province in China are selected to evaluate the performance. The result shows that time consumption of shift algorithm decreased about 76% than that of geometry-based approach. Analysis on the mean shift error from different dimensions has been implemented. In the end, the conclusions and future works in the integration of vector data and DEM based on discrete global grids are also given.

  5. Convergent Evolution During Local Adaptation to Patchy Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Species often encounter, and adapt to, many patches of similar environmental conditions across their range. Such adaptation can occur through convergent evolution if different alleles arise in different patches, or through the spread of shared alleles by migration acting to synchronize adaptation across the species. The tension between the two reflects the constraint imposed on evolution by the underlying genetic architecture versus how effectively selection and geographic isolation act to inhibit the geographic spread of locally adapted alleles. This paper studies the balance between these two routes to adaptation in a model of continuous environments with patchy selection pressures. We address the following questions: How long does it take for a novel allele to appear in a patch where it is locally adapted through mutation? Or, through migration from another, already adapted patch? Which is more likely to occur, as a function of distance between the patches? What population genetic signal is left by the spread of migrant alleles? To answer these questions we examine the family structure underlying migration–selection equilibrium surrounding an already adapted patch, treating those rare families that reach new patches as spatial branching processes. A main result is that patches further apart than a critical distance will likely evolve independent locally adapted alleles; this distance is proportional to the spatial scale of selection (σ/sm, where σ is the dispersal distance and s m is the selective disadvantage of these alleles between patches), and depends linearly on log(s m/μ), where μ is the mutation rate. This provides a way to understand the role of geographic separation between patches in promoting convergent adaptation and the genomic signals it leaves behind. We illustrate these ideas using the convergent evolution of cryptic coloration in the rock pocket mouse, Chaetodipus intermedius, as an empirical example. PMID:26571125

  6. An adaptive sparse-grid high-order stochastic collocation method for Bayesian inference in groundwater reactive transport modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Guannan; Webster, Clayton G; Gunzburger, Max D

    2012-09-01

    Although Bayesian analysis has become vital to the quantification of prediction uncertainty in groundwater modeling, its application has been hindered due to the computational cost associated with numerous model executions needed for exploring the posterior probability density function (PPDF) of model parameters. This is particularly the case when the PPDF is estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. In this study, we develop a new approach that improves computational efficiency of Bayesian inference by constructing a surrogate system based on an adaptive sparse-grid high-order stochastic collocation (aSG-hSC) method. Unlike previous works using first-order hierarchical basis, we utilize a compactly supported higher-order hierar- chical basis to construct the surrogate system, resulting in a significant reduction in the number of computational simulations required. In addition, we use hierarchical surplus as an error indi- cator to determine adaptive sparse grids. This allows local refinement in the uncertain domain and/or anisotropic detection with respect to the random model parameters, which further improves computational efficiency. Finally, we incorporate a global optimization technique and propose an iterative algorithm for building the surrogate system for the PPDF with multiple significant modes. Once the surrogate system is determined, the PPDF can be evaluated by sampling the surrogate system directly with very little computational cost. The developed method is evaluated first using a simple analytical density function with multiple modes and then using two synthetic groundwater reactive transport models. The groundwater models represent different levels of complexity; the first example involves coupled linear reactions and the second example simulates nonlinear ura- nium surface complexation. The results show that the aSG-hSC is an effective and efficient tool for Bayesian inference in groundwater modeling in comparison with conventional

  7. Rapid Solution of Finite Element Equations on Locally Refined Grids by Multi-Level Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    oscillatory eigenfunctions. For practical purposes many possible smoothing iterations would be acceptable. Jacobi, Gauss -Seidel, and symmetric SOR are...considerable work with rectangular tensor product elements on locally refined grids, Cannon (1980). 55 Figure 10. Support of a Basis Function Figure 11...uses a symmetric Gauss -Seidel -4 - im 66 smoothing iteration rather than the simultaneous displacement iteration used here. While comparisons for quasi

  8. Convergent local adaptation to climate in distantly related conifers.

    PubMed

    Yeaman, Sam; Hodgins, Kathryn A; Lotterhos, Katie E; Suren, Haktan; Nadeau, Simon; Degner, Jon C; Nurkowski, Kristin A; Smets, Pia; Wang, Tongli; Gray, Laura K; Liepe, Katharina J; Hamann, Andreas; Holliday, Jason A; Whitlock, Michael C; Rieseberg, Loren H; Aitken, Sally N

    2016-09-23

    When confronted with an adaptive challenge, such as extreme temperature, closely related species frequently evolve similar phenotypes using the same genes. Although such repeated evolution is thought to be less likely in highly polygenic traits and distantly related species, this has not been tested at the genome scale. We performed a population genomic study of convergent local adaptation among two distantly related species, lodgepole pine and interior spruce. We identified a suite of 47 genes, enriched for duplicated genes, with variants associated with spatial variation in temperature or cold hardiness in both species, providing evidence of convergent local adaptation despite 140 million years of separate evolution. These results show that adaptation to climate can be genetically constrained, with certain key genes playing nonredundant roles.

  9. Climate Change Adaptation Among Tibetan Pastoralists: Challenges in Enhancing Local Adaptation Through Policy Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yao; Grumbine, R. Edward; Wilkes, Andreas; Wang, Yun; Xu, Jian-Chu; Yang, Yong-Ping

    2012-10-01

    While researchers are aware that a mix of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK), community-based resource management institutions, and higher-level institutions and policies can facilitate pastoralists' adaptation to climate change, policy makers have been slow to understand these linkages. Two critical issues are to what extent these factors play a role, and how to enhance local adaptation through government support. We investigated these issues through a case study of two pastoral communities on the Tibetan Plateau in China employing an analytical framework to understand local climate adaptation processes. We concluded that LEK and community-based institutions improve adaptation outcomes for Tibetan pastoralists through shaping and mobilizing resource availability to reduce risks. Higher-level institutions and policies contribute by providing resources from outside communities. There are dynamic interrelationships among these factors that can lead to support, conflict, and fragmentation. Government policy could enhance local adaptation through improvement of supportive relationships among these factors. While central government policies allow only limited room for overt integration of local knowledge/institutions, local governments often have some flexibility to buffer conflicts. In addition, government policies to support market-based economic development have greatly benefited adaptation outcomes for pastoralists. Overall, in China, there are still questions over how to create innovative institutions that blend LEK and community-based institutions with government policy making.

  10. Climate change adaptation among Tibetan pastoralists: challenges in enhancing local adaptation through policy support.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Grumbine, R Edward; Wilkes, Andreas; Wang, Yun; Xu, Jian-Chu; Yang, Yong-Ping

    2012-10-01

    While researchers are aware that a mix of Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK), community-based resource management institutions, and higher-level institutions and policies can facilitate pastoralists' adaptation to climate change, policy makers have been slow to understand these linkages. Two critical issues are to what extent these factors play a role, and how to enhance local adaptation through government support. We investigated these issues through a case study of two pastoral communities on the Tibetan Plateau in China employing an analytical framework to understand local climate adaptation processes. We concluded that LEK and community-based institutions improve adaptation outcomes for Tibetan pastoralists through shaping and mobilizing resource availability to reduce risks. Higher-level institutions and policies contribute by providing resources from outside communities. There are dynamic interrelationships among these factors that can lead to support, conflict, and fragmentation. Government policy could enhance local adaptation through improvement of supportive relationships among these factors. While central government policies allow only limited room for overt integration of local knowledge/institutions, local governments often have some flexibility to buffer conflicts. In addition, government policies to support market-based economic development have greatly benefited adaptation outcomes for pastoralists. Overall, in China, there are still questions over how to create innovative institutions that blend LEK and community-based institutions with government policy making.

  11. Testing for local adaptation in brown trout using reciprocal transplants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Local adaptation can drive the divergence of populations but identification of the traits under selection remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology. Reciprocal transplant experiments are ideal tests of local adaptation, yet rarely used for higher vertebrates because of the mobility and potential invasiveness of non-native organisms. Here, we reciprocally transplanted 2500 brown trout (Salmo trutta) embryos from five populations to investigate local adaptation in early life history traits. Embryos were bred in a full-factorial design and raised in natural riverbeds until emergence. Customized egg capsules were used to simulate the natural redd environment and allowed tracking the fate of every individual until retrieval. We predicted that 1) within sites, native populations would outperform non-natives, and 2) across sites, populations would show higher performance at ‘home’ compared to ‘away’ sites. Results There was no evidence for local adaptation but we found large differences in survival and hatching rates between sites, indicative of considerable variation in habitat quality. Survival was generally high across all populations (55% ± 3%), but ranged from 4% to 89% between sites. Average hatching rate was 25% ± 3% across populations ranging from 0% to 62% between sites. Conclusion This study provides rare empirical data on variation in early life history traits in a population network of a salmonid, and large-scale breeding and transplantation experiments like ours provide powerful tests for local adaptation. Despite the recently reported genetic and morphological differences between the populations in our study area, local adaptation at the embryo level is small, non-existent, or confined to ecological conditions that our experiment could not capture. PMID:23249365

  12. Vertical Scan (V-SCAN) for 3-D Grid Adaptive Mesh Refinement for an atmospheric Model Dynamical Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronova, N. G.; Vandenberg, D.; Oehmke, R.; Stout, Q. F.; Penner, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    One of the major building blocks of a rigorous representation of cloud evolution in global atmospheric models is a parallel adaptive grid MPI-based communication library (an Adaptive Blocks for Locally Cartesian Topologies library -- ABLCarT), which manages the block-structured data layout, handles ghost cell updates among neighboring blocks and splits a block as refinements occur. The library has several modules that provide a layer of abstraction for adaptive refinement: blocks, which contain individual cells of user data; shells - the global geometry for the problem, including a sphere, reduced sphere, and now a 3D sphere; a load balancer for placement of blocks onto processors; and a communication support layer which encapsulates all data movement. A major performance concern with adaptive mesh refinement is how to represent calculations that have need to be sequenced in a particular order in a direction, such as calculating integrals along a specific path (e.g. atmospheric pressure or geopotential in the vertical dimension). This concern is compounded if the blocks have varying levels of refinement, or are scattered across different processors, as can be the case in parallel computing. In this paper we describe an implementation in ABLCarT of a vertical scan operation, which allows computing along vertical paths in the correct order across blocks transparent to their resolution and processor location. We test this functionality on a 2D and a 3D advection problem, which tests the performance of the model’s dynamics (transport) and physics (sources and sinks) for different model resolutions needed for inclusion of cloud formation.

  13. Time-splitting finite difference method with the wavelet-adaptive grids for semiclassical Gross-Pitaevskii equation in supercritical case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xueyang; Xiao, Aiguo

    2014-06-01

    The Gross-Pitaevskii equation is the model equation of the single-particle wave function in a Bose-Einstein condensation. A computation difficulty of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation comes from the semiclassical problem in supercritical case. In this paper, we apply a diffeomorphism to transform the original one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation into a modified equation. The adaptive grids are constructed through the interpolating wavelet method. Then, we use the time-splitting finite difference method with the wavelet-adaptive grids to solve the modified Gross-Pitaevskii equation, where the approximation to the second-order derivative is given by the Lagrange interpolation method. At last, the numerical results are given. It is shown that the obtained time-splitting finite difference method with the wavelet-adaptive grids is very efficient for solving the one-dimensional semiclassical Gross-Pitaevskii equation in supercritical case and it is suitable to deal with the local high oscillation of the solution.

  14. A solution-adaptive mesh algorithm for dynamic/static refinement of two and three dimensional grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Rusty A.; Mcrae, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    An adaptive grid algorithm has been developed in two and three dimensions that can be used dynamically with a solver or as part of a grid refinement process. The algorithm employs a transformation from the Cartesian coordinate system to a general coordinate space, which is defined as a parallelepiped in three dimensions. A weighting function, independent for each coordinate direction, is developed that will provide the desired refinement criteria in regions of high solution gradient. The adaptation is performed in the general coordinate space and the new grid locations are returned to the Cartesian space via a simple, one-step inverse mapping. The algorithm for relocation of the mesh points in the parametric space is based on the center of mass for distributed weights. Dynamic solution-adaptive results are presented for laminar flows in two and three dimensions.

  15. Numerical approximations to nonlinear conservation laws with locally varying time and space grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osher, S.; Sanders, R.

    1983-01-01

    Numerical approximations to the initial value problem for nonlinear systems of conservation laws are considered. The considered system is said to be hyperbolic when all eigenvalues of every real linear combination of the Jacobian matrices are real. Solutions may develop discontinuities in finite time, even when the initial data are smooth. In the investigation, explicit finite difference methods which use locally varying time grids are considered. The global CFL restriction is replaced by a local restriction. The numerical flux function is studied from a finite volume viewpoint, and a differencing technique is developed at interface points between regions of distinct time increments.

  16. A Freestream-Preserving High-Order Finite-Volume Method for Mapped Grids with Adaptive-Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, S; McCorquodale, P; Colella, P

    2011-12-16

    A fourth-order accurate finite-volume method is presented for solving time-dependent hyperbolic systems of conservation laws on mapped grids that are adaptively refined in space and time. Novel considerations for formulating the semi-discrete system of equations in computational space combined with detailed mechanisms for accommodating the adapting grids ensure that conservation is maintained and that the divergence of a constant vector field is always zero (freestream-preservation property). Advancement in time is achieved with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method.

  17. Adaptive windowed range-constrained Otsu method using local information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jia; Zhang, Dinghua; Huang, Kuidong; Sun, Yuanxi; Tang, Shaojie

    2016-01-01

    An adaptive windowed range-constrained Otsu method using local information is proposed for improving the performance of image segmentation. First, the reason why traditional thresholding methods do not perform well in the segmentation of complicated images is analyzed. Therein, the influences of global and local thresholdings on the image segmentation are compared. Second, two methods that can adaptively change the size of the local window according to local information are proposed by us. The characteristics of the proposed methods are analyzed. Thereby, the information on the number of edge pixels in the local window of the binarized variance image is employed to adaptively change the local window size. Finally, the superiority of the proposed method over other methods such as the range-constrained Otsu, the active contour model, the double Otsu, the Bradley's, and the distance-regularized level set evolution is demonstrated. It is validated by the experiments that the proposed method can keep more details and acquire much more satisfying area overlap measure as compared with the other conventional methods.

  18. The use of the spectral method within the fast adaptive composite grid method

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The use of efficient algorithms for the solution of partial differential equations has been sought for many years. The fast adaptive composite grid (FAC) method combines an efficient algorithm with high accuracy to obtain low cost solutions to partial differential equations. The FAC method achieves fast solution by combining solutions on different grids with varying discretizations and using multigrid like techniques to find fast solution. Recently, the continuous FAC (CFAC) method has been developed which utilizes an analytic solution within a subdomain to iterate to a solution of the problem. This has been shown to achieve excellent results when the analytic solution can be found. The CFAC method will be extended to allow solvers which construct a function for the solution, e.g., spectral and finite element methods. In this discussion, the spectral methods will be used to provide a fast, accurate solution to the partial differential equation. As spectral methods are more accurate than finite difference methods, the ensuing accuracy from this hybrid method outside of the subdomain will be investigated.

  19. An Adaptive Reputation-Based Algorithm for Grid Virtual Organization Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yongrui; Li, Mingchu; Ren, Yizhi; Sakurai, Kouichi

    A novel adaptive reputation-based virtual organization formation is proposed. It restrains the bad performers effectively based on the consideration of the global experience of the evaluator and evaluates the direct trust relation between two grid nodes accurately by consulting the previous trust value rationally. It also consults and improves the reputation evaluation process in PathTrust model by taking account of the inter-organizational trust relationship and combines it with direct and recommended trust in a weighted way, which makes the algorithm more robust against collusion attacks. Additionally, the proposed algorithm considers the perspective of the VO creator and takes required VO services as one of the most important fine-grained evaluation criterion, which makes the algorithm more suitable for constructing VOs in grid environments that include autonomous organizations. Simulation results show that our algorithm restrains the bad performers and resists against fake transaction attacks and badmouth attacks effectively. It provides a clear advantage in the design of a VO infrastructure.

  20. GPU accelerated cell-based adaptive mesh refinement on unstructured quadrilateral grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xisheng; Wang, Luying; Ran, Wei; Qin, Fenghua

    2016-10-01

    A GPU accelerated inviscid flow solver is developed on an unstructured quadrilateral grid in the present work. For the first time, the cell-based adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is fully implemented on GPU for the unstructured quadrilateral grid, which greatly reduces the frequency of data exchange between GPU and CPU. Specifically, the AMR is processed with atomic operations to parallelize list operations, and null memory recycling is realized to improve the efficiency of memory utilization. It is found that results obtained by GPUs agree very well with the exact or experimental results in literature. An acceleration ratio of 4 is obtained between the parallel code running on the old GPU GT9800 and the serial code running on E3-1230 V2. With the optimization of configuring a larger L1 cache and adopting Shared Memory based atomic operations on the newer GPU C2050, an acceleration ratio of 20 is achieved. The parallelized cell-based AMR processes have achieved 2x speedup on GT9800 and 18x on Tesla C2050, which demonstrates that parallel running of the cell-based AMR method on GPU is feasible and efficient. Our results also indicate that the new development of GPU architecture benefits the fluid dynamics computing significantly.

  1. Adaptive-Grid Methods for Phase Field Models of Microstructure Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provatas, Nikolas; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Dantzig, Jonathan A.

    1999-01-01

    In this work the authors show how the phase field model can be solved in a computationally efficient manner that opens a new large-scale simulational window on solidification physics. Our method uses a finite element, adaptive-grid formulation, and exploits the fact that the phase and temperature fields vary significantly only near the interface. We illustrate how our method allows efficient simulation of phase-field models in very large systems, and verify the predictions of solvability theory at intermediate undercooling. We then present new results at low undercoolings that suggest that solvability theory may not give the correct tip speed in that regime. We model solidification using the phase-field model used by Karma and Rappel.

  2. Functional genomics of physiological plasticity and local adaptation in killifish.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Andrew; Galvez, Fernando; Zhang, Shujun; Williams, Larissa M; Oleksiak, Marjorie F

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary solutions to the physiological challenges of life in highly variable habitats can span the continuum from evolution of a cosmopolitan plastic phenotype to the evolution of locally adapted phenotypes. Killifish (Fundulus sp.) have evolved both highly plastic and locally adapted phenotypes within different selective contexts, providing a comparative system in which to explore the genomic underpinnings of physiological plasticity and adaptive variation. Importantly, extensive variation exists among populations and species for tolerance to a variety of stressors, and we exploit this variation in comparative studies to yield insights into the genomic basis of evolved phenotypic variation. Notably, species of Fundulus occupy the continuum of osmotic habitats from freshwater to marine and populations within Fundulus heteroclitus span far greater variation in pollution tolerance than across all species of fish. Here, we explore how transcriptome regulation underpins extreme physiological plasticity on osmotic shock and how genomic and transcriptomic variation is associated with locally evolved pollution tolerance. We show that F. heteroclitus quickly acclimate to extreme osmotic shock by mounting a dramatic rapid transcriptomic response including an early crisis control phase followed by a tissue remodeling phase involving many regulatory pathways. We also show that convergent evolution of locally adapted pollution tolerance involves complex patterns of gene expression and genome sequence variation, which is confounded with body-weight dependence for some genes. Similarly, exploiting the natural phenotypic variation associated with other established and emerging model organisms is likely to greatly accelerate the pace of discovery of the genomic basis of phenotypic variation.

  3. Preliminary Benchmarking of Plinian Eruption Simulations Using an Adaptive Grid Eulerian Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, A. H.; Ogden, D. E.; Wohletz, K. H.; Gisler, G.; Glatzmaier, G. A.

    2005-12-01

    The SAGE (SAIC Adaptive Grid Eulerian) code is an Eulerian hydrodynamics numerical technique employing adaptive mesh refinement at each cycle for every cell in 1-, 2-, and 3-D grids. It is primarily designed to solve high deformation flow of multiple materials and thus provides important capabilities for simulating volcanic eruption phenomena. Its multimaterial equation of state libraries includes a comprehensive coverage of water from solid ice through two-phase liquid and vapor to supercritical states approaching the Hugoniot, and extremely important aspect for simulating volcanic gases in general. In development are strength and failure rules that model non-Newtonian fluid/solid deformation. Because of the low effective sound speeds of eruptive mixtures, the facts that SAGE uses a piecewise, linear, multi-material, Gudonov numerical method to resolve shocks with second-order precision and exactly conserves mass, momentum, and energy, are a highly desirable attributes. Although this code has been previously used to simulate a volcanic eruption (i.e., eruption through a crater lake at Ruapehu volcano by Morrissey and Gisler), we are embarking in an effort to benchmark the code with CFDLib, a well-validated arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Through this effort we expect to better understand the strengths and weaknesses, the limitations, and provide direction for important enhancement of SAGE, and potentially provide the volcanological community with a powerful alternative to numerical codes currently available. At this point in our benchmarking, we demonstrate some results for fluid convection within a chamber and fluid jetting through a conduit.

  4. Floral adaptation to local pollinator guilds in a terrestrial orchid

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mimi; Gross, Karin; Schiestl, Florian P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Studies of local floral adaptation in response to geographically divergent pollinators are essential for understanding floral evolution. This study investigated local pollinator adaptation and variation in floral traits in the rewarding orchid Gymnadenia odoratissima, which spans a large altitudinal gradient and thus may depend on different pollinator guilds along this gradient. Methods Pollinator communities were assessed and reciprocal transfer experiments were performed between lowland and mountain populations. Differences in floral traits were characterized by measuring floral morphology traits, scent composition, colour and nectar sugar content in lowland and mountain populations. Key Results The composition of pollinator communities differed considerably between lowland and mountain populations; flies were only found as pollinators in mountain populations. The reciprocal transfer experiments showed that when lowland plants were transferred to mountain habitats, their reproductive success did not change significantly. However, when mountain plants were moved to the lowlands, their reproductive success decreased significantly. Transfers between populations of the same altitude did not lead to significant changes in reproductive success, disproving the potential for population-specific adaptations. Flower size of lowland plants was greater than for mountain flowers. Lowland plants also had significantly higher relative amounts of aromatic floral volatiles, while the mountain plants had higher relative amounts of other floral volatiles. The floral colour of mountain flowers was significantly lighter compared with the lowland flowers. Conclusions Local pollinator adaptation through pollinator attraction was shown in the mountain populations, possibly due to adaptation to pollinating flies. The mountain plants were also observed to receive pollination from a greater diversity of pollinators than the lowland plants. The different floral

  5. Rapid local adaptation mediates zooplankton community assembly in experimental mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Pantel, Jelena H; Duvivier, Cathy; Meester, Luc De

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive evolution can occur over similar timescales as ecological processes such as community assembly, but its particular effects on community assembly and structure and their magnitude are poorly understood. In experimental evolution trials, Daphnia magna were exposed to varying environments (presence and absence of fish and artificial macrophytes) for 2 months. Then, in a common gardening experiment, we compared zooplankton community composition when either experimentally adapted or D. magna from the original population were present. Local adaptation of D. magna significantly altered zooplankton community composition, leading to a suppression of abundances for some zooplankton taxa and facilitation for others. The effect size of D. magna adaptation was similar to that of adding fish or macrophytes to mesocosms, two important drivers of zooplankton community structure. Our results suggest that substantial amounts of variation in community composition in natural systems may be unexplained if evolutionary dynamics are ignored.

  6. Bayesian strong gravitational-lens modelling on adaptive grids: objective detection of mass substructure in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vegetti, S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new adaptive and fully Bayesian grid-based method to model strong gravitational lenses with extended images. The primary goal of this method is to quantify the level of luminous and dark mass substructure in massive galaxies, through their effect on highly magnified arcs and Einstein rings. The method is adaptive on the source plane, where a Delaunay tessellation is defined according to the lens mapping of a regular grid on to the source plane. The Bayesian penalty function allows us to recover the best non-linear potential-model parameters and/or a grid-based potential correction and to objectively quantify the level of regularization for both the source and potential. In addition, we implement a Nested-Sampling technique to quantify the errors on all non-linear mass model parameters - marginalized over all source and regularization parameters - and allow an objective ranking of different potential models in terms of the marginalized evidence. In particular, we are interested in comparing very smooth lens mass models with ones that contain mass substructures. The algorithm has been tested on a range of simulated data sets, created from a model of a realistic lens system. One of the lens systems is characterized by a smooth potential with a power-law density profile, 12 include a Navarro, Frenk and White (NFW) dark matter substructure of different masses and at different positions and one contains two NFW dark substructures with the same mass but with different positions. Reconstruction of the source and lens potential for all of these systems shows the method is able, in a realistic scenario, to identify perturbations with masses >~107Msolar when located on the Einstein ring. For positions both inside and outside of the ring, masses of at least 109Msolar are required (i.e. roughly the Einstein ring of the perturber needs to overlap with that of the main lens). Our method provides a fully novel and objective test of mass substructure in massive

  7. A conservative finite volume method for incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on locally refined nested Cartesian grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sifounakis, Adamandios; Lee, Sangseung; You, Donghyun

    2016-12-01

    A second-order-accurate finite-volume method is developed for the solution of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on locally refined nested Cartesian grids. Numerical accuracy and stability on locally refined nested Cartesian grids are achieved using a finite-volume discretization of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations based on higher-order conservation principles - i.e., in addition to mass and momentum conservation, kinetic energy conservation in the inviscid limit is used to guide the selection of the discrete operators and solution algorithms. Hanging nodes at the interface are virtually slanted to improve the pressure-velocity projection, while the other parts of the grid maintain an orthogonal Cartesian grid topology. The present method is straight-forward to implement and shows superior conservation of mass, momentum, and kinetic energy compared to the conventional methods employing interpolation at the interface between coarse and fine grids.

  8. MODFLOW-LGR-Modifications to the streamflow-routing package (SFR2) to route streamflow through locally refined grids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents modifications to the Streamflow-Routing Package (SFR2) to route streamflow through grids constructed using the multiple-refined-areas capability of shared node Local Grid Refinement (LGR) of MODFLOW-2005. MODFLOW-2005 is the U.S. Geological Survey modular, three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater-flow model. LGR provides the capability to simulate groundwater flow by using one or more block-shaped, higher resolution local grids (child model) within a coarser grid (parent model). LGR accomplishes this by iteratively coupling separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the shared interfacing boundaries. Compatibility with SFR2 allows for streamflow routing across grids. LGR can be used in two- and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined groundwater systems.

  9. iElectrodes: A Comprehensive Open-Source Toolbox for Depth and Subdural Grid Electrode Localization.

    PubMed

    Blenkmann, Alejandro O; Phillips, Holly N; Princich, Juan P; Rowe, James B; Bekinschtein, Tristan A; Muravchik, Carlos H; Kochen, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    The localization of intracranial electrodes is a fundamental step in the analysis of invasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in research and clinical practice. The conclusions reached from the analysis of these recordings rely on the accuracy of electrode localization in relationship to brain anatomy. However, currently available techniques for localizing electrodes from magnetic resonance (MR) and/or computerized tomography (CT) images are time consuming and/or limited to particular electrode types or shapes. Here we present iElectrodes, an open-source toolbox that provides robust and accurate semi-automatic localization of both subdural grids and depth electrodes. Using pre- and post-implantation images, the method takes 2-3 min to localize the coordinates in each electrode array and automatically number the electrodes. The proposed pre-processing pipeline allows one to work in a normalized space and to automatically obtain anatomical labels of the localized electrodes without neuroimaging experts. We validated the method with data from 22 patients implanted with a total of 1,242 electrodes. We show that localization distances were within 0.56 mm of those achieved by experienced manual evaluators. iElectrodes provided additional advantages in terms of robustness (even with severe perioperative cerebral distortions), speed (less than half the operator time compared to expert manual localization), simplicity, utility across multiple electrode types (surface and depth electrodes) and all brain regions.

  10. iElectrodes: A Comprehensive Open-Source Toolbox for Depth and Subdural Grid Electrode Localization

    PubMed Central

    Blenkmann, Alejandro O.; Phillips, Holly N.; Princich, Juan P.; Rowe, James B.; Bekinschtein, Tristan A.; Muravchik, Carlos H.; Kochen, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    The localization of intracranial electrodes is a fundamental step in the analysis of invasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in research and clinical practice. The conclusions reached from the analysis of these recordings rely on the accuracy of electrode localization in relationship to brain anatomy. However, currently available techniques for localizing electrodes from magnetic resonance (MR) and/or computerized tomography (CT) images are time consuming and/or limited to particular electrode types or shapes. Here we present iElectrodes, an open-source toolbox that provides robust and accurate semi-automatic localization of both subdural grids and depth electrodes. Using pre- and post-implantation images, the method takes 2–3 min to localize the coordinates in each electrode array and automatically number the electrodes. The proposed pre-processing pipeline allows one to work in a normalized space and to automatically obtain anatomical labels of the localized electrodes without neuroimaging experts. We validated the method with data from 22 patients implanted with a total of 1,242 electrodes. We show that localization distances were within 0.56 mm of those achieved by experienced manual evaluators. iElectrodes provided additional advantages in terms of robustness (even with severe perioperative cerebral distortions), speed (less than half the operator time compared to expert manual localization), simplicity, utility across multiple electrode types (surface and depth electrodes) and all brain regions. PMID:28303098

  11. Moving Overlapping Grids with Adaptive Mesh Refinement for High-Speed Reactive and Non-reactive Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Henshaw, W D; Schwendeman, D W

    2005-08-30

    We consider the solution of the reactive and non-reactive Euler equations on two-dimensional domains that evolve in time. The domains are discretized using moving overlapping grids. In a typical grid construction, boundary-fitted grids are used to represent moving boundaries, and these grids overlap with stationary background Cartesian grids. Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used to resolve fine-scale features in the flow such as shocks and detonations. Refinement grids are added to base-level grids according to an estimate of the error, and these refinement grids move with their corresponding base-level grids. The numerical approximation of the governing equations takes place in the parameter space of each component grid which is defined by a mapping from (fixed) parameter space to (moving) physical space. The mapped equations are solved numerically using a second-order extension of Godunov's method. The stiff source term in the reactive case is handled using a Runge-Kutta error-control scheme. We consider cases when the boundaries move according to a prescribed function of time and when the boundaries of embedded bodies move according to the surface stress exerted by the fluid. In the latter case, the Newton-Euler equations describe the motion of the center of mass of the each body and the rotation about it, and these equations are integrated numerically using a second-order predictor-corrector scheme. Numerical boundary conditions at slip walls are described, and numerical results are presented for both reactive and non-reactive flows in order to demonstrate the use and accuracy of the numerical approach.

  12. Locally adaptive bilateral clustering for universal image denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, K. K. V.; Mat Isa, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a novel and efficient locally adaptive denoising method based on clustering of pixels into regions of similar geometric and radiometric structures. Clustering is performed by adaptively segmenting pixels in the local kernel based on their augmented variational series. Then, noise pixels are restored by selectively considering the radiometric and spatial properties of every pixel in the formed clusters. The proposed method is exceedingly robust in conveying reliable local structural information even in the presence of noise. As a result, the proposed method substantially outperforms other state-of-the-art methods in terms of image restoration and computational cost. We support our claims with ample simulated and real data experiments. The relatively fast runtime from extensive simulations also suggests that the proposed method is suitable for a variety of image-based products — either embedded in image capturing devices or applied as image enhancement software.

  13. Implementation of local grid refinement (LGR) for the Lake Michigan Basin regional groundwater-flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoard, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is evaluating water availability and use within the Great Lakes Basin. This is a pilot effort to develop new techniques and methods to aid in the assessment of water availability. As part of the pilot program, a regional groundwater-flow model for the Lake Michigan Basin was developed using SEAWAT-2000. The regional model was used as a framework for assessing local-scale water availability through grid-refinement techniques. Two grid-refinement techniques, telescopic mesh refinement and local grid refinement, were used to illustrate the capability of the regional model to evaluate local-scale problems. An intermediate model was developed in central Michigan spanning an area of 454 square miles (mi2) using telescopic mesh refinement. Within the intermediate model, a smaller local model covering an area of 21.7 mi2 was developed and simulated using local grid refinement. Recharge was distributed in space and time using a daily output from a modified Thornthwaite-Mather soil-water-balance method. The soil-water-balance method derived recharge estimates from temperature and precipitation data output from an atmosphere-ocean coupled general-circulation model. The particular atmosphere-ocean coupled general-circulation model used, simulated climate change caused by high global greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere. The surface-water network simulated in the regional model was refined and simulated using a streamflow-routing package for MODFLOW. The refined models were used to demonstrate streamflow depletion and potential climate change using five scenarios. The streamflow-depletion scenarios include (1) natural conditions (no pumping), (2) a pumping well near a stream; the well is screened in surficial glacial deposits, (3) a pumping well near a stream; the well is screened in deeper glacial deposits, and (4) a pumping well near a stream; the well is open to a deep bedrock aquifer. Results indicated that a range of 59 to 50 percent of the

  14. QoS Differential Scheduling in Cognitive-Radio-Based Smart Grid Networks: An Adaptive Dynamic Programming Approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rong; Zhong, Weifeng; Xie, Shengli; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yun

    2016-02-01

    As the next-generation power grid, smart grid will be integrated with a variety of novel communication technologies to support the explosive data traffic and the diverse requirements of quality of service (QoS). Cognitive radio (CR), which has the favorable ability to improve the spectrum utilization, provides an efficient and reliable solution for smart grid communications networks. In this paper, we study the QoS differential scheduling problem in the CR-based smart grid communications networks. The scheduler is responsible for managing the spectrum resources and arranging the data transmissions of smart grid users (SGUs). To guarantee the differential QoS, the SGUs are assigned to have different priorities according to their roles and their current situations in the smart grid. Based on the QoS-aware priority policy, the scheduler adjusts the channels allocation to minimize the transmission delay of SGUs. The entire transmission scheduling problem is formulated as a semi-Markov decision process and solved by the methodology of adaptive dynamic programming. A heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) architecture is established for the scheduling problem. By the online network training, the HDP can learn from the activities of primary users and SGUs, and adjust the scheduling decision to achieve the purpose of transmission delay minimization. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed priority policy ensures the low transmission delay of high priority SGUs. In addition, the emergency data transmission delay is also reduced to a significantly low level, guaranteeing the differential QoS in smart grid.

  15. A two-stage adaptive stochastic collocation method on nested sparse grids for multiphase flow in randomly heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Qinzhuo; Zhang, Dongxiao; Tchelepi, Hamdi

    2017-02-01

    A new computational method is proposed for efficient uncertainty quantification of multiphase flow in porous media with stochastic permeability. For pressure estimation, it combines the dimension-adaptive stochastic collocation method on Smolyak sparse grids and the Kronrod-Patterson-Hermite nested quadrature formulas. For saturation estimation, an additional stage is developed, in which the pressure and velocity samples are first generated by the sparse grid interpolation and then substituted into the transport equation to solve for the saturation samples, to address the low regularity problem of the saturation. Numerical examples are presented for multiphase flow with stochastic permeability fields to demonstrate accuracy and efficiency of the proposed two-stage adaptive stochastic collocation method on nested sparse grids.

  16. Climate adaptation at the local level: case study Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, H.; Garzon, C.

    2011-12-01

    The numerous and complex effects of climate change, already beginning to be felt globally, will grow significantly in the coming decades. From rising seas to increases in unpredictable weather events, increased air pollution and wildfires, and changes in water supply, climate change will significantly reshape our natural and economic environment. Local, state, and federal governments are beginning to take action through the development of "action plans" and initiatives to prevent climate change from exacting its worst toll, as well as to prepare for its inevitable impacts. As communities become aware of distinct vulnerabilities to environmental risks, they need information about the types of policies and plans to put into place. This research project provides a detailed analysis of climate impacts, vulnerabilities, and adaptation options in Oakland, California. The goal of this effort is inform the development of a comprehensive and equitable climate adaptation plan for the City of Oakland. This research project engages community-based organizations and resident leaders in analyzing both the impacts of and vulnerabilities to climate change. Further, it enumerates policies for adaptation that can be implemented at the local level and discusses their advantages and disadvantages. The study provides a detailed picture of the challenges faced by local government in the coming years due to a changing climate and provides a model for other communities to use in developing adaptation strategies.

  17. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation for temperature tolerance in freshwater zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Yampolsky, Lev Y; Schaer, Tobias M M; Ebert, Dieter

    2014-02-07

    Many organisms have geographical distributions extending from the tropics to near polar regions or can experience up to 30°C temperature variation within the lifespan of an individual. Two forms of evolutionary adaptation to such wide ranges in ambient temperatures are frequently discussed: local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. The freshwater planktonic crustacean Daphnia magna, whose range extends from South Africa to near arctic sites, shows strong phenotypic and genotypic variation in response to temperature. In this study, we use D. magna clones from 22 populations (one clone per population) ranging from latitude 0° (Kenya) to 66° North (White Sea) to explore the contributions of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation to high temperature tolerance. Temperature tolerance was studied as knockout time (time until immobilization, T(imm)) at 37°C in clones acclimatized to either 20°C or 28°C. Acclimatization to 28°C strongly increased T(imm), testifying to adaptive phenotypic plasticity. At the same time, Timm significantly correlated with average high temperature at the clones' sites of origin, suggesting local adaptation. As earlier studies have found that haemoglobin expression contributes to temperature tolerance, we also quantified haemoglobin concentration in experimental animals and found that both acclimatization temperature (AccT) and temperature at the site of origin are positively correlated with haemoglobin concentration. Furthermore, Daphnia from warmer climates upregulate haemoglobin much more strongly in response to AccT, suggesting local adaptation for plasticity in haemoglobin expression. Our results show that both local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity contribute to temperature tolerance, and elucidate a possible role of haemoglobin in mediating these effects that differs along a cold-warm gradient.

  18. TranAir: A full-potential, solution-adaptive, rectangular grid code for predicting subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flows about arbitrary configurations. Theory document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, F. T.; Samant, S. S.; Bieterman, M. B.; Melvin, R. G.; Young, D. P.; Bussoletti, J. E.; Hilmes, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    A new computer program, called TranAir, for analyzing complex configurations in transonic flow (with subsonic or supersonic freestream) was developed. This program provides accurate and efficient simulations of nonlinear aerodynamic flows about arbitrary geometries with the ease and flexibility of a typical panel method program. The numerical method implemented in TranAir is described. The method solves the full potential equation subject to a set of general boundary conditions and can handle regions with differing total pressure and temperature. The boundary value problem is discretized using the finite element method on a locally refined rectangular grid. The grid is automatically constructed by the code and is superimposed on the boundary described by networks of panels; thus no surface fitted grid generation is required. The nonlinear discrete system arising from the finite element method is solved using a preconditioned Krylov subspace method embedded in an inexact Newton method. The solution is obtained on a sequence of successively refined grids which are either constructed adaptively based on estimated solution errors or are predetermined based on user inputs. Many results obtained by using TranAir to analyze aerodynamic configurations are presented.

  19. Axisymmetric modeling of cometary mass loading on an adaptively refined grid: MHD results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gombosi, Tamas I.; Powell, Kenneth G.; De Zeeuw, Darren L.

    1994-01-01

    The first results of an axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of the interaction of an expanding cometary atmosphere with the solar wind are presented. The model assumes that far upstream the plasma flow lines are parallel to the magnetic field vector. The effects of mass loading and ion-neutral friction are taken into account by the governing equations, whcih are solved on an adaptively refined unstructured grid using a Monotone Upstream Centered Schemes for Conservative Laws (MUSCL)-type numerical technique. The combination of the adaptive refinement with the MUSCL-scheme allows the entire cometary atmosphere to be modeled, while still resolving both the shock and the near nucleus of the comet. The main findingsare the following: (1) A shock is formed approximately = 0.45 Mkm upstream of the comet (its location is controlled by the sonic and Alfvenic Mach numbers of the ambient solar wind flow and by the cometary mass addition rate). (2) A contact surface is formed approximately = 5,600 km upstream of the nucleus separating an outward expanding cometary ionosphere from the nearly stagnating solar wind flow. The location of the contact surface is controlled by the upstream flow conditions, the mass loading rate and the ion-neutral drag. The contact surface is also the boundary of the diamagnetic cavity. (3) A closed inner shock terminates the supersonic expansion of the cometary ionosphere. This inner shock is closer to the nucleus on dayside than on the nightside.

  20. Application of adaptive hierarchical sparse grid collocation to the uncertainty quantification of nuclear reactor simulators

    SciTech Connect

    Yankov, A.; Downar, T.

    2013-07-01

    Recent efforts in the application of uncertainty quantification to nuclear systems have utilized methods based on generalized perturbation theory and stochastic sampling. While these methods have proven to be effective they both have major drawbacks that may impede further progress. A relatively new approach based on spectral elements for uncertainty quantification is applied in this paper to several problems in reactor simulation. Spectral methods based on collocation attempt to couple the approximation free nature of stochastic sampling methods with the determinism of generalized perturbation theory. The specific spectral method used in this paper employs both the Smolyak algorithm and adaptivity by using Newton-Cotes collocation points along with linear hat basis functions. Using this approach, a surrogate model for the outputs of a computer code is constructed hierarchically by adaptively refining the collocation grid until the interpolant is converged to a user-defined threshold. The method inherently fits into the framework of parallel computing and allows for the extraction of meaningful statistics and data that are not within reach of stochastic sampling and generalized perturbation theory. This paper aims to demonstrate the advantages of spectral methods-especially when compared to current methods used in reactor physics for uncertainty quantification-and to illustrate their full potential. (authors)

  1. Strong Discrepancies between Local Temperature Mapping and Interpolated Climatic Grids in Tropical Mountainous Agricultural Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario; Bellomo, Lucio; Silvain, Jean-François; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Bridging the gap between the predictions of coarse-scale climate models and the fine-scale climatic reality of species is a key issue of climate change biology research. While it is now well known that most organisms do not experience the climatic conditions recorded at weather stations, there is little information on the discrepancies between microclimates and global interpolated temperatures used in species distribution models, and their consequences for organisms’ performance. To address this issue, we examined the fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity in air, crop canopy and soil temperatures of agricultural landscapes in the Ecuadorian Andes and compared them to predictions of global interpolated climatic grids. Temperature time-series were measured in air, canopy and soil for 108 localities at three altitudes and analysed using Fourier transform. Discrepancies between local temperatures vs. global interpolated grids and their implications for pest performance were then mapped and analysed using GIS statistical toolbox. Our results showed that global interpolated predictions over-estimate by 77.5±10% and under-estimate by 82.1±12% local minimum and maximum air temperatures recorded in the studied grid. Additional modifications of local air temperatures were due to the thermal buffering of plant canopies (from −2.7°K during daytime to 1.3°K during night-time) and soils (from −4.9°K during daytime to 6.7°K during night-time) with a significant effect of crop phenology on the buffer effect. This discrepancies between interpolated and local temperatures strongly affected predictions of the performance of an ectothermic crop pest as interpolated temperatures predicted pest growth rates 2.3–4.3 times lower than those predicted by local temperatures. This study provides quantitative information on the limitation of coarse-scale climate data to capture the reality of the climatic environment experienced by living organisms. In highly heterogeneous

  2. Strong discrepancies between local temperature mapping and interpolated climatic grids in tropical mountainous agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario; Bellomo, Lucio; Silvain, Jean-François; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Bridging the gap between the predictions of coarse-scale climate models and the fine-scale climatic reality of species is a key issue of climate change biology research. While it is now well known that most organisms do not experience the climatic conditions recorded at weather stations, there is little information on the discrepancies between microclimates and global interpolated temperatures used in species distribution models, and their consequences for organisms' performance. To address this issue, we examined the fine-scale spatiotemporal heterogeneity in air, crop canopy and soil temperatures of agricultural landscapes in the Ecuadorian Andes and compared them to predictions of global interpolated climatic grids. Temperature time-series were measured in air, canopy and soil for 108 localities at three altitudes and analysed using Fourier transform. Discrepancies between local temperatures vs. global interpolated grids and their implications for pest performance were then mapped and analysed using GIS statistical toolbox. Our results showed that global interpolated predictions over-estimate by 77.5 ± 10% and under-estimate by 82.1 ± 12% local minimum and maximum air temperatures recorded in the studied grid. Additional modifications of local air temperatures were due to the thermal buffering of plant canopies (from -2.7 °K during daytime to 1.3 °K during night-time) and soils (from -4.9 °K during daytime to 6.7 °K during night-time) with a significant effect of crop phenology on the buffer effect. This discrepancies between interpolated and local temperatures strongly affected predictions of the performance of an ectothermic crop pest as interpolated temperatures predicted pest growth rates 2.3-4.3 times lower than those predicted by local temperatures. This study provides quantitative information on the limitation of coarse-scale climate data to capture the reality of the climatic environment experienced by living organisms. In highly heterogeneous

  3. A locally refined rectangular grid finite element method - Application to computational fluid dynamics and computational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, David P.; Melvin, Robin G.; Bieterman, Michael B.; Johnson, Forrester T.; Samant, Satish S.

    1991-01-01

    The present FEM technique addresses both linear and nonlinear boundary value problems encountered in computational physics by handling general three-dimensional regions, boundary conditions, and material properties. The box finite elements used are defined by a Cartesian grid independent of the boundary definition, and local refinements proceed by dividing a given box element into eight subelements. Discretization employs trilinear approximations on the box elements; special element stiffness matrices are included for boxes cut by any boundary surface. Illustrative results are presented for representative aerodynamics problems involving up to 400,000 elements.

  4. A first experiment on local combination of EGM2008 data and GOCE grids at satellite altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, A.; Pavlis, N. K.; Reguzzoni, M.; Sanso, F.

    2012-12-01

    The GOCE satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), thanks to a low orbit and a very sophisticated gradiometer, is observing the Earth gravitational field with the highest level of accuracy and resolution ever reached by any geodetic missions. Although lower than other satellites, the GOCE orbit altitude of about 250 km inevitably limits the maximum achievable resolution of the estimated gravitational field; to overcome this limitations a combination with other sources of data is then necessary. One of the most informative and accurate spherical harmonic global models of the Earth gravitational field is EGM2008. It has been developed by a least squares combination between of the ITG-GRACE03S model (with its associated error covariance matrix) and a 5'x5' grid of free-air gravity anomalies. Therefore this model seems to be suitable for a combination with the newer GOCE data. The classical approach to merge these two types of information is a direct combination of the spherical harmonic coefficients coming from the satellite-only model and EGM2008. The possible drawbacks of this approach are the following: 1. Every GOCE-only spherical harmonic global model need a certain level of regularization (e.g. to deal with polar gaps) acting on a subset of coefficients but more or less affecting the estimated field all over the world. 2. The EGM2008 error description is based on publicly available coefficient variances or, at most, on a block diagonal covariance matrix when coefficients are sorted order by order; this implies that the corresponding geographical error is latitude dependent, which is an approximation far from reality. The main goal of this work is to try to overcome these limitations by computing local grids at ground level from GOCE data and EGM2008 grids. With this approach the GOCE information used is not yet regularized to produce a global model and EGM2008 could be weighted taking into account the actual geographic distribution of the error (e.g. the

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Local Climate Change Adaptation Actions ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Local governments are beginning to take steps to address the consequences of climate change, such as sea level rise and heat events. However, we do not have a clear understanding of what local governments are doing -- the extent to which they expect climate change to affect their community, the types of actions they have in place to address climate change, and the resources at their disposal for implementation. Several studies have been conducted by academics, non-governmental organizations, and public agencies to assess the status of local climate change adaptation. This project collates the findings from dozens of such studies to conduct a meta-analysis of local climate change adaptation actions. The studies will be characterized along several dimensions, including (a) methods used, (b) timing and geographic scope, (c) topics covered, (d) types of adaptation actions identified, (e) implementation status, and (f) public engagement and environmental justice dimensions considered. The poster presents the project's rationale and approach and some illustrative findings from early analyses. [Note: The document being reviewed is an abstract in which a poster is being proposed. The poster will enter clearance if the abstract is accepted] The purpose of this poster is to present the research framework and approaches I am developing for my ORISE postdoctoral project, and to get feedback on early analyses.

  6. Adaptive local linear regression with application to printer color management.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maya R; Garcia, Eric K; Chin, Erika

    2008-06-01

    Local learning methods, such as local linear regression and nearest neighbor classifiers, base estimates on nearby training samples, neighbors. Usually, the number of neighbors used in estimation is fixed to be a global "optimal" value, chosen by cross validation. This paper proposes adapting the number of neighbors used for estimation to the local geometry of the data, without need for cross validation. The term enclosing neighborhood is introduced to describe a set of neighbors whose convex hull contains the test point when possible. It is proven that enclosing neighborhoods yield bounded estimation variance under some assumptions. Three such enclosing neighborhood definitions are presented: natural neighbors, natural neighbors inclusive, and enclosing k-NN. The effectiveness of these neighborhood definitions with local linear regression is tested for estimating lookup tables for color management. Significant improvements in error metrics are shown, indicating that enclosing neighborhoods may be a promising adaptive neighborhood definition for other local learning tasks as well, depending on the density of training samples.

  7. Evidence of local adaptation in westslope cutthroat trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drinan, Daniel P.; Zale, Alexander V.; Webb, Molly A.H.; Taper, Mark L.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the process of local adaptation would allow managers to better protect and conserve species. Many salmonids are in need of such efforts, and because they often persist in differing, isolated environments, they are useful organisms for studying local adaptation. In addition, the temperature sensitivity of salmonids provides a likely target for natural selection. We studied thermal adaptation in four wild populations and one hatchery stock of westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi . The mean summer temperatures of source streams ranged from 6.7°C to 11.2°C. Embryos were collected from the wild, and embryonic development, embryonic survival, and juvenile growth were determined. A significant relationship between median embryonic survival and source stream temperature was detected. Based on a rank test, populations from colder streams had a greater decline in median embryonic survival at warm temperatures than populations from warmer streams. Embryonic development and juvenile growth did not appear to be influenced by source. These findings suggest that populations are thermally adapted to their source streams and this should be considered by managers. However, further study is necessary to sort out the potential confounding factors, whether genetic or epigenetic.

  8. Asymmetrical local adaptation of maize landraces along an altitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Kristin; Martínez-Vásquez, Ángel; Perales, Hugo R

    2008-08-01

    Crop landraces are managed populations that evolve in response to gene flow and selection. Cross-pollination among fields, seed sharing by farmers, and selection by management and environmental conditions play roles in shaping crop characteristics. We used common gardens to explore the local adaptation of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) landrace populations from Chiapas, Mexico to altitude. We sowed seeds of 21 populations from three altitudinal ranges in two common gardens and measured two characteristics that estimate fitness: likelihood of producing good quality seed and the total mass of good quality seed per plant. The probability of lowland plants producing good quality seed was invariably high regardless of garden, while highland landraces were especially sensitive to altitude. Their likelihood of producing good seed quadrupled in the highland site. The mass of good quality seed showed a different pattern, with lowland landraces producing 25% less seed mass than the other types at high elevations. Combining these two measures of fitness revealed that the highland landraces were clearly adapted to highland sites, while lowland and midland landraces appear more adapted to the midland site. We discuss this asymmetry in local adaptation in light of climate change and in situ conservation of crop genetic resources.

  9. Asymmetrical local adaptation of maize landraces along an altitudinal gradient

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kristin; Martínez-Vásquez, Ángel; Perales, Hugo R

    2008-01-01

    Crop landraces are managed populations that evolve in response to gene flow and selection. Cross-pollination among fields, seed sharing by farmers, and selection by management and environmental conditions play roles in shaping crop characteristics. We used common gardens to explore the local adaptation of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) landrace populations from Chiapas, Mexico to altitude. We sowed seeds of 21 populations from three altitudinal ranges in two common gardens and measured two characteristics that estimate fitness: likelihood of producing good quality seed and the total mass of good quality seed per plant. The probability of lowland plants producing good quality seed was invariably high regardless of garden, while highland landraces were especially sensitive to altitude. Their likelihood of producing good seed quadrupled in the highland site. The mass of good quality seed showed a different pattern, with lowland landraces producing 25% less seed mass than the other types at high elevations. Combining these two measures of fitness revealed that the highland landraces were clearly adapted to highland sites, while lowland and midland landraces appear more adapted to the midland site. We discuss this asymmetry in local adaptation in light of climate change and in situ conservation of crop genetic resources. PMID:25567730

  10. Mediterranean blue tits as a case study of local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Charmantier, Anne; Doutrelant, Claire; Dubuc-Messier, Gabrielle; Fargevieille, Amélie; Szulkin, Marta

    2016-01-01

    While the study of the origins of biological diversity across species has provided numerous examples of adaptive divergence, the realization that it can occur at microgeographic scales despite gene flow is recent, and scarcely illustrated. We review here evidence suggesting that the striking phenotypic differentiation in ecologically relevant traits exhibited by blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus in their southern range-edge putatively reflects adaptation to the heterogeneity of the Mediterranean habitats. We first summarize the phenotypic divergence for a series of life history, morphological, behavioural, acoustic and colour ornament traits in blue tit populations of evergreen and deciduous forests. For each divergent trait, we review the evidence obtained from common garden experiments regarding a possible genetic origin of the observed phenotypic differentiation as well as evidence for heterogeneous selection. Second, we argue that most phenotypically differentiated traits display heritable variation, a fundamental requirement for evolution to occur. Third, we discuss nonrandom dispersal, selective barriers and assortative mating as processes that could reinforce local adaptation. Finally, we show how population genomics supports isolation - by - environment across landscapes. Overall, the combination of approaches converges to the conclusion that the strong phenotypic differentiation observed in Mediterranean blue tits is a fascinating case of local adaptation.

  11. MRAG-I2D: Multi-resolution adapted grids for remeshed vortex methods on multicore architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossinelli, Diego; Hejazialhosseini, Babak; van Rees, Wim; Gazzola, Mattia; Bergdorf, Michael; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2015-05-01

    We present MRAG-I2D, an open source software framework, for multiresolution simulations of two-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flows on multicore architectures. The spatiotemporal scales of the flow field are captured by remeshed vortex methods enhanced by high order average-interpolating wavelets and local time-stepping. The multiresolution solver of the Poisson equation relies on the development of a novel, tree-based multipole method. MRAG-I2D implements a number of HPC strategies to map efficiently the irregular computational workload of wavelet-adapted grids on multicore nodes. The capabilities of the present software are compared to the current state-of-the-art in terms of accuracy, compression rates and time-to-solution. Benchmarks include the inviscid evolution of an elliptical vortex, flow past an impulsively started cylinder at Re = 40- 40 000 and simulations of self-propelled anguilliform swimmers. The results indicate that the present software has the same or better accuracy than state-of-the-art solvers while it exhibits unprecedented performance in terms of time-to-solution.

  12. Locally adaptive Nakagami-based ultrasound similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Wachinger, Christian; Klein, Tassilo; Navab, Nassir

    2012-04-01

    The derivation of statistically optimal similarity measures for intensity-based registration is possible by modeling the underlying image noise distribution. The parameters of these distributions are, however, commonly set heuristically across all images. In this article, we show that the estimation of the parameters on the present images largely improves the registration, which is a consequence of the more accurate characterization of the image noise. More precisely, instead of having constant parameters over the entire image domain, we estimate them on patches, leading to a local adaptation of the similarity measure. While this basic idea of creating locally adaptive metrics is interesting for various fields of application, we present the derivation for ultrasound imaging. The domain of ultrasound is particularly appealing for this approach, due to the inherent contamination with speckle noise. Furthermore, there exist detailed analyses of suitable noise distributions in the literature. We present experiments for applying a bivariate Nakagami distribution that facilitates modeling of several scattering scenarios prominent in medical ultrasound. Depending on the number of scatterers per resolution cell and the presence of coherent structures, different Nakagami parameters are required to obtain a valid approximation of the intensity statistics and to account for distributional locality. Our registration results on radio-frequency ultrasound data confirm the theoretical necessity for a spatial adaptation of similarity metrics.

  13. Adaptive grid embedding for the two-dimensional flux-split Euler equations. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Gary Patrick

    1990-01-01

    A numerical algorithm is presented for solving the 2-D flux-split Euler equations using a multigrid method with adaptive grid embedding. The method uses an unstructured data set along with a system of pointers for communication on the irregularly shaped grid topologies. An explicit two-stage time advancement scheme is implemented. A multigrid algorithm is used to provide grid level communication and to accelerate the convergence of the solution to steady state. Results are presented for a subcritical airfoil and a transonic airfoil with 3 levels of adaptation. Comparisons are made with a structured upwind Euler code which uses the same flux integration techniques of the present algorithm. Good agreement is obtained with converged surface pressure coefficients. The lift coefficients of the adaptive code are within 2 1/2 percent of the structured code for the sub-critical case and within 4 1/2 percent of the structured code for the transonic case using approximately one-third the number of grid points.

  14. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Gutowski, William J.; Prusa, Joseph M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.

    2012-05-08

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the "physics" of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited. 3a. EULAG Advances EULAG is a non-hydrostatic, parallel computational model for all-scale geophysical flows. EULAG's name derives from its two computational options: EULerian (flux form) or semi-LAGrangian (advective form). The model combines nonoscillatory forward-in-time (NFT) numerical algorithms with a robust elliptic Krylov solver. A signature feature of EULAG is that it is formulated in generalized time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. In particular, this enables grid adaptivity. In total, these features give EULAG novel advantages over many existing dynamical cores. For EULAG itself, numerical advances included refining boundary conditions and filters for optimizing model performance in polar regions. We also added flexibility to the model's underlying formulation, allowing it to work with the pseudo-compressible equation set of Durran in addition to EULAG's standard anelastic formulation. Work in collaboration with others also extended the demonstrated range of

  15. Local adaptation of plant viruses: lessons from experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Elena, Santiago F

    2016-09-09

    For multihost pathogens, adaptation to multiple hosts has important implications for both applied and basic research. At the applied level, it is one of the main factors determining the probability and severity of emerging disease outbreaks. At the basic level, it is thought to be a key mechanism for the maintenance of genetic diversity both in host and pathogen species. In recent years, a number of evolution experiments have assessed the fate of plant virus populations replicating within and adapting to one single or to multiple hosts species. A first group of these experiments tackled the existence of trade-offs in fitness and virulence for viruses evolving either within a single hosts species or alternating between two different host species. A second set of experiments explored the role of genetic variability in susceptibility and resistance to infection among individuals from the same host species in the extent of virus local adaptation and of virulence. In general, when a single host species or genotype is available, these experiments show that local adaptation takes place, often but not always associated with a fitness trade-off. However, alternating between different host species or infecting resistant host genotypes may select for generalist viruses that experience no fitness cost. Therefore, the expected cost of generalism, arising from antagonistic pleiotropy and other genetic mechanisms generating fitness trade-offs between hosts, could not be generalized and strongly depend on the characteristics of each particular pathosystem. At the genomic level, these studies show pervasive convergent molecular evolution, suggesting that the number of accessible molecular pathways leading to adaptation to novel hosts is limited.

  16. Local biotic adaptation of trees and shrubs to plant neighbors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grady, Kevin C.; Wood, Troy E.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Hersch-Green, Erika; Shuster, Stephen M.; Gehring, Catherine A.; Hart, Stephen C.; Allan, Gerard J.; Whitham, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Natural selection as a result of plant–plant interactions can lead to local biotic adaptation. This may occur where species frequently interact and compete intensely for resources limiting growth, survival, and reproduction. Selection is demonstrated by comparing a genotype interacting with con- or hetero-specific sympatric neighbor genotypes with a shared site-level history (derived from the same source location), to the same genotype interacting with foreign neighbor genotypes (from different sources). Better genotype performance in sympatric than allopatric neighborhoods provides evidence of local biotic adaptation. This pattern might be explained by selection to avoid competition by shifting resource niches (differentiation) or by interactions benefitting one or more members (facilitation). We tested for local biotic adaptation among two riparian trees, Populus fremontii and Salix gooddingii, and the shrub Salix exigua by transplanting replicated genotypes from multiple source locations to a 17 000 tree common garden with sympatric and allopatric treatments along the Colorado River in California. Three major patterns were observed: 1) across species, 62 of 88 genotypes grew faster with sympatric neighbors than allopatric neighbors; 2) these growth rates, on an individual tree basis, were 44, 15 and 33% higher in sympatric than allopatric treatments for P. fremontii, S. exigua and S. gooddingii, respectively, and; 3) survivorship was higher in sympatric treatments for P. fremontiiand S. exigua. These results support the view that fitness of foundation species supporting diverse communities and dominating ecosystem processes is determined by adaptive interactions among multiple plant species with the outcome that performance depends on the genetic identity of plant neighbors. The occurrence of evolution in a plant-community context for trees and shrubs builds on ecological evolutionary research that has demonstrated co-evolution among herbaceous taxa, and

  17. Adaptively Combining Local with Global Information for Natural Scenes Categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuoyan; Xu, De; Yang, Xu

    This paper proposes the Extended Bag-of-Visterms (EBOV) to represent semantic scenes. In previous methods, most representations are bag-of-visterms (BOV), where visterms referred to the quantized local texture information. Our new representation is built by introducing global texture information to extend standard bag-of-visterms. In particular we apply the adaptive weight to fuse the local and global information together in order to provide a better visterm representation. Given these representations, scene classification can be performed by pLSA (probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis) model. The experiment results show that the appropriate use of global information improves the performance of scene classification, as compared with BOV representation that only takes the local information into account.

  18. Validation of elastic registration algorithms based on adaptive irregular grids for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, Astrid; Carlsen, Ingwer C.; Renisch, Steffen; Wischmann, Hans-Aloys

    2006-03-01

    Elastic registration of medical images is an active field of current research. Registration algorithms have to be validated in order to show that they fulfill the requirements of a particular clinical application. Furthermore, validation strategies compare the performance of different registration algorithms and can hence judge which algorithm is best suited for a target application. In the literature, validation strategies for rigid registration algorithms have been analyzed. For a known ground truth they assess the displacement error at a few landmarks, which is not sufficient for elastic transformations described by a huge number of parameters. Hence we consider the displacement error averaged over all pixels in the whole image or in a region-of-interest of clinical relevance. Using artificially, but realistically deformed images of the application domain, we use this quality measure to analyze an elastic registration based on transformations defined on adaptive irregular grids for the following clinical applications: Magnetic Resonance (MR) images of freely moving joints for orthopedic investigations, thoracic Computed Tomography (CT) images for the detection of pulmonary embolisms, and transmission images as used for the attenuation correction and registration of independently acquired Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and CT images. The definition of a region-of-interest allows to restrict the analysis of the registration accuracy to clinically relevant image areas. The behaviour of the displacement error as a function of the number of transformation control points and their placement can be used for identifying the best strategy for the initial placement of the control points.

  19. A general hybrid radiation transport scheme for star formation simulations on an adaptive grid

    SciTech Connect

    Klassen, Mikhail; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Kuiper, Rolf; Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars

    2014-12-10

    Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodyanmics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calculating gas and dust temperatures in the presence of multiple stellar sources. Our method enables radiation-hydrodynamic studies of young stellar objects, protostellar disks, and clustered star formation in magnetized, filamentary environments.

  20. A Domain-Decomposed Multi-Level Method for Adaptively Refined Cartesian Grids with Embedded Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aftosmis, M. J.; Berger, M. J.; Adomavicius, G.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The work presents a new method for on-the-fly domain decomposition technique for mapping grids and solution algorithms to parallel machines, and is applicable to both shared-memory and message-passing architectures. It will be demonstrated on the Cray T3E, HP Exemplar, and SGI Origin 2000. Computing time has been secured on all these platforms. The decomposition technique is an outgrowth of techniques used in computational physics for simulations of N-body problems and the event horizons of black holes, and has not been previously used by the CFD community. Since the technique offers on-the-fly partitioning, it offers a substantial increase in flexibility for computing in heterogeneous environments, where the number of available processors may not be known at the time of job submission. In addition, since it is dynamic it permits the job to be repartitioned without global communication in cases where additional processors become available after the simulation has begun, or in cases where dynamic mesh adaptation changes the mesh size during the course of a simulation. The platform for this partitioning strategy is a completely new Cartesian Euler solver tarcreted at parallel machines which may be used in conjunction with Ames' "Cart3D" arbitrary geometry simulation package.

  1. A General Hybrid Radiation Transport Scheme for Star Formation Simulations on an Adaptive Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klassen, Mikhail; Kuiper, Rolf; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Peters, Thomas; Banerjee, Robi; Buntemeyer, Lars

    2014-12-01

    Radiation feedback plays a crucial role in the process of star formation. In order to simulate the thermodynamic evolution of disks, filaments, and the molecular gas surrounding clusters of young stars, we require an efficient and accurate method for solving the radiation transfer problem. We describe the implementation of a hybrid radiation transport scheme in the adaptive grid-based FLASH general magnetohydrodyanmics code. The hybrid scheme splits the radiative transport problem into a raytracing step and a diffusion step. The raytracer captures the first absorption event, as stars irradiate their environments, while the evolution of the diffuse component of the radiation field is handled by a flux-limited diffusion solver. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method through a variety of benchmark tests including the irradiation of a static disk, subcritical and supercritical radiative shocks, and thermal energy equilibration. We also demonstrate the capability of our method for casting shadows and calculating gas and dust temperatures in the presence of multiple stellar sources. Our method enables radiation-hydrodynamic studies of young stellar objects, protostellar disks, and clustered star formation in magnetized, filamentary environments.

  2. Estimation of Model's Marginal likelihood Using Adaptive Sparse Grid Surrogates in Bayesian Model Averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.

    2015-12-01

    A large number of model executions are required to obtain alternative conceptual models' predictions and their posterior probabilities in Bayesian model averaging (BMA). The posterior model probability is estimated through models' marginal likelihood and prior probability. The heavy computation burden hinders the implementation of BMA prediction, especially for the elaborated marginal likelihood estimator. For overcoming the computation burden of BMA, an adaptive sparse grid (SG) stochastic collocation method is used to build surrogates for alternative conceptual models through the numerical experiment of a synthetical groundwater model. BMA predictions depend on model posterior weights (or marginal likelihoods), and this study also evaluated four marginal likelihood estimators, including arithmetic mean estimator (AME), harmonic mean estimator (HME), stabilized harmonic mean estimator (SHME), and thermodynamic integration estimator (TIE). The results demonstrate that TIE is accurate in estimating conceptual models' marginal likelihoods. The BMA-TIE has better predictive performance than other BMA predictions. TIE has high stability for estimating conceptual model's marginal likelihood. The repeated estimated conceptual model's marginal likelihoods by TIE have significant less variability than that estimated by other estimators. In addition, the SG surrogates are efficient to facilitate BMA predictions, especially for BMA-TIE. The number of model executions needed for building surrogates is 4.13%, 6.89%, 3.44%, and 0.43% of the required model executions of BMA-AME, BMA-HME, BMA-SHME, and BMA-TIE, respectively.

  3. Features of CPB: a Poisson-Boltzmann solver that uses an adaptive Cartesian grid.

    PubMed

    Fenley, Marcia O; Harris, Robert C; Mackoy, Travis; Boschitsch, Alexander H

    2015-02-05

    The capabilities of an adaptive Cartesian grid (ACG)-based Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) solver (CPB) are demonstrated. CPB solves various PB equations with an ACG, built from a hierarchical octree decomposition of the computational domain. This procedure decreases the number of points required, thereby reducing computational demands. Inside the molecule, CPB solves for the reaction-field component (ϕrf ) of the electrostatic potential (ϕ), eliminating the charge-induced singularities in ϕ. CPB can also use a least-squares reconstruction method to improve estimates of ϕ at the molecular surface. All surfaces, which include solvent excluded, Gaussians, and others, are created analytically, eliminating errors associated with triangulated surfaces. These features allow CPB to produce detailed surface maps of ϕ and compute polar solvation and binding free energies for large biomolecular assemblies, such as ribosomes and viruses, with reduced computational demands compared to other Poisson-Boltzmann equation solvers. The reader is referred to http://www.continuum-dynamics.com/solution-mm.html for how to obtain the CPB software.

  4. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Laiq

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm. PMID:28329015

  5. Adaptive control paradigm for photovoltaic and solid oxide fuel cell in a grid-integrated hybrid renewable energy system.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq

    2017-01-01

    The hybrid power system (HPS) is an emerging power generation scheme due to the plentiful availability of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy sources are characterized as highly intermittent in nature due to meteorological conditions, while the domestic load also behaves in a quite uncertain manner. In this scenario, to maintain the balance between generation and load, the development of an intelligent and adaptive control algorithm has preoccupied power engineers and researchers. This paper proposes a Hermite wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control of photovoltaic (PV) systems to extract maximum power and a Hermite wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive control of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to obtain a swift response in a grid-connected hybrid power system. A comprehensive simulation testbed for a grid-connected hybrid power system (wind turbine, PV cells, SOFC, electrolyzer, battery storage system, supercapacitor (SC), micro-turbine (MT) and domestic load) is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness and superiority of the proposed indirect adaptive control paradigm are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system testbed by comparison with a conventional PI (proportional and integral) control system. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigm.

  6. Going global by adapting local: A review of recent human adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shaohua; Hansen, Matthew E. B.; Lo, Yancy; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    The spread of modern humans across the globe has led to genetic adaptations to diverse local environments. Recent developments in genomic technologies, statistical analyses, and expanded sampled populations have led to improved identification and fine-mapping of genetic variants associated with adaptations to regional living conditions and dietary practices. Ongoing efforts in sequencing genomes of indigenous populations, accompanied by the growing availability of “-omics” and ancient DNA data, promises a new era in our understanding of recent human evolution and the origins of variable traits and disease risks. PMID:27846491

  7. Locally adaptive vector quantization: Data compression with feature preservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K. M.; Sayano, M.

    1992-01-01

    A study of a locally adaptive vector quantization (LAVQ) algorithm for data compression is presented. This algorithm provides high-speed one-pass compression and is fully adaptable to any data source and does not require a priori knowledge of the source statistics. Therefore, LAVQ is a universal data compression algorithm. The basic algorithm and several modifications to improve performance are discussed. These modifications are nonlinear quantization, coarse quantization of the codebook, and lossless compression of the output. Performance of LAVQ on various images using irreversible (lossy) coding is comparable to that of the Linde-Buzo-Gray algorithm, but LAVQ has a much higher speed; thus this algorithm has potential for real-time video compression. Unlike most other image compression algorithms, LAVQ preserves fine detail in images. LAVQ's performance as a lossless data compression algorithm is comparable to that of Lempel-Ziv-based algorithms, but LAVQ uses far less memory during the coding process.

  8. Fast HDR image upscaling using locally adapted linear filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebi, Hossein; Su, Guan-Ming; Yin, Peng

    2015-02-01

    A new method for upscaling high dynamic range (HDR) images is introduced in this paper. Overshooting artifact is the common problem when using linear filters such as bicubic interpolation. This problem is visually more noticeable while working on HDR images where there exist more transitions from dark to bright. Our proposed method is capable of handling these artifacts by computing a simple gradient map which enables the filter to be locally adapted to the image content. This adaptation consists of first, clustering pixels into regions with similar edge structures and second, learning the shape and length of our symmetric linear filter for each of these pixel groups. This new filter can be implemented in a separable fashion which perfectly fits hardware implementations. Our experimental results show that training our filter with HDR images can effectively reduce the overshooting artifacts and improve upon the visual quality of the existing linear upscaling approaches.

  9. Local adaptation of reproductive performance during thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, D; Gaston, K J; Butlin, R K; Snook, R R

    2017-02-01

    Considerable evidence exists for local adaptation of critical thermal limits in ectotherms following adult temperature stress, but fewer studies have tested for local adaptation of sublethal heat stress effects across life-history stages. In organisms with complex life cycles, such as holometabolous insects, heat stress during juvenile stages may severely impact gametogenesis, having downstream consequences on reproductive performance that may be mediated by local adaptation, although this is rarely studied. Here, we tested how exposure to either benign or heat stress temperature during juvenile and adult stages, either independently or combined, influences egg-to-adult viability, adult sperm motility and fertility in high- and low-latitude populations of Drosophila subobscura. We found both population- and temperature-specific effects on survival and sperm motility; juvenile heat stress decreased survival and subsequent sperm motility and each trait was lower in the northern population. We found an interaction between population and temperature on fertility following application of juvenile heat stress; although fertility was negatively impacted in both populations, the southern population was less affected. When the adult stage was also subject to heat stress, the southern population exhibited positive carry-over effects whereas the northern population's fertility remained low. Thus, the northern population is more susceptible to sublethal reproductive consequences following exposure to juvenile heat stress. This may be common in other organisms with complex life cycles and current models predicting population responses to climate change, which do not take into account the impact of juvenile heat stress on reproductive performance, may be too conservative.

  10. Preparing for Local Adaptation: Understanding Flood Risk Perceptions in Pittsburgh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klima, K.; Wong-Parodi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Pittsburgh experiences numerous floods every year. Aging and insufficient infrastructure contribute to flash floods and to over 20 billion gallons of combined sewer overflows annually, contaminating Pittsburgh's streets, basements, and waterways. Climate change is expected to further exacerbate this problem by causing more intense and more frequent extreme precipitation events in Western Pennsylvania. For a stormwater adaptation plan to be implemented effectively, the City will need informed public support. One way to achieve public understanding and support is through effective communication of the risks, benefits, and uncertainties of local flooding hazards and adaptation methods. In order to develop these communications effectively, the city and its partners will need to know what knowledge and attitudes the residents of Pittsburgh already hold about flood risks. Here we seek to (1) identify Pittsburgh residents' knowledge level, risk perception and attitudes towards flooding and storm water management, and (2) pre-test communications meant to inform and empower Pittsburghers about flood risks and adaptation strategies. We conduct a city-wide survey of 10,000 Pittsburgh renters and homeowners from four life situations: high risk, above poverty; high-risk, below poverty; low risk, above poverty; and low-risk, below poverty. Mixed media recruitment strategies (online and paper-based solicitations guided/organized by community organizations) assist in reaching all subpopulations. Preliminary results suggest participants know what stormwater runoff is, but have a weak understanding of how stormwater interacts with natural and built systems. Furthermore, although participants have a good understanding of the difference between green and gray infrastructure, this does not translate into a change in their willingness to pay for green infrastructure adaptation. This suggests additional communications about flood risks and adaptation strategies.

  11. Sound Source Localization for HRI Using FOC-Based Time Difference Feature and Spatial Grid Matching.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Liu, Hong

    2013-08-01

    In human-robot interaction (HRI), speech sound source localization (SSL) is a convenient and efficient way to obtain the relative position between a speaker and a robot. However, implementing a SSL system based on TDOA method encounters many problems, such as noise of real environments, the solution of nonlinear equations, switch between far field and near field. In this paper, fourth-order cumulant spectrum is derived, based on which a time delay estimation (TDE) algorithm that is available for speech signal and immune to spatially correlated Gaussian noise is proposed. Furthermore, time difference feature of sound source and its spatial distribution are analyzed, and a spatial grid matching (SGM) algorithm is proposed for localization step, which handles some problems that geometric positioning method faces effectively. Valid feature detection algorithm and a decision tree method are also suggested to improve localization performance and reduce computational complexity. Experiments are carried out in real environments on a mobile robot platform, in which thousands of sets of speech data with noise collected by four microphones are tested in 3D space. The effectiveness of our TDE method and SGM algorithm is verified.

  12. Adaptive Sound Localization with a Silicon Cochlea Pair

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Vincent Yue-Sek; Jin, Craig T.; van Schaik, André

    2010-01-01

    A neuromorphic sound localization system is presented. It employs two microphones and a pair of silicon cochleae with address event interface for front-end processing. The system is based the extraction of interaural time difference from a far-field source. At each frequency channel, a soft-winner-takes-all network is used to preserve timing information before it is processed by a simple neural network to estimate auditory activity at all bearing positions. The estimates are then combined across channels to produce the final estimate. The proposed algorithm is adaptive and supports online learning, enabling the system to compensate for circuit mismatch and environmental changes. Its localization capability was tested with white noise and pure tone stimuli, with an average error of around 3° in the −45° to 45° range. PMID:21152257

  13. MAGNETIC GRID

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1960-08-01

    An electronic grid is designed employing magnetic forces for controlling the passage of charged particles. The grid is particularly applicable to use in gas-filled tubes such as ignitrons. thyratrons, etc., since the magnetic grid action is impartial to the polarity of the charged particles and, accordingly. the sheath effects encountered with electrostatic grids are not present. The grid comprises a conductor having sections spaced apart and extending in substantially opposite directions in the same plane, the ends of the conductor being adapted for connection to a current source.

  14. Adapting a commercial power system simulator for smart grid based system study and vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaratne, Uditha Sudheera

    The smart grid is the future of the power grid. Smart meters and the associated network play a major role in the distributed system of the smart grid. Advance Metering Infrastructure (AMI) can enhance the reliability of the grid, generate efficient energy management opportunities and many innovations around the future smart grid. These innovations involve intense research not only on the AMI network itself but as also on the influence an AMI network can have upon the rest of the power grid. This research describes a smart meter testbed with hardware in loop that can facilitate future research in an AMI network. The smart meters in the testbed were developed such that their functionality can be customized to simulate any given scenario such as integrating new hardware components into a smart meter or developing new encryption algorithms in firmware. These smart meters were integrated into the power system simulator to simulate the power flow variation in the power grid on different AMI activities. Each smart meter in the network also provides a communication interface to the home area network. This research delivers a testbed for emulating the AMI activities and monitoring their effect on the smart grid.

  15. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling of particle uptake by an occupational air sampler using manually-scaled and adaptive grids.

    PubMed

    Landázuri, Andrea C; Sáez, A Eduardo; Anthony, T Renée

    2016-05-01

    This work presents fluid flow and particle trajectory simulation studies to determine the aspiration efficiency of a horizontally oriented occupational air sampler using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Grid adaption and manual scaling of the grids were applied to two sampler prototypes based on a 37-mm cassette. The standard k-ε model was used to simulate the turbulent air flow and a second order streamline-upwind discretization scheme was used to stabilize convective terms of the Navier-Stokes equations. Successively scaled grids for each configuration were created manually and by means of grid adaption using the velocity gradient in the main flow direction. Solutions were verified to assess iterative convergence, grid independence and monotonic convergence. Particle aspiration efficiencies determined for both prototype samplers were undistinguishable, indicating that the porous filter does not play a noticeable role in particle aspiration. Results conclude that grid adaption is a powerful tool that allows to refine specific regions that require lots of detail and therefore better resolve flow detail. It was verified that adaptive grids provided a higher number of locations with monotonic convergence than the manual grids and required the least computational effort.

  16. Vasodilator factors in the systemic and local adaptations to pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Valdes, Gloria; Kaufmann, Peter; Corthorn, Jenny; Erices, Rafaela; Brosnihan, K Bridget; Joyner-Grantham, JaNae

    2009-01-01

    We postulate that an orchestrated network composed of various vasodilatory systems participates in the systemic and local hemodynamic adaptations in pregnancy. The temporal patterns of increase in the circulating and urinary levels of five vasodilator factors/systems, prostacyclin, nitric oxide, kallikrein, angiotensin-(1–7) and VEGF, in normal pregnant women and animals, as well as the changes observed in preeclamptic pregnancies support their functional role in maintaining normotension by opposing the vasoconstrictor systems. In addition, the expression of these vasodilators in the different trophoblastic subtypes in various species supports their role in the transformation of the uterine arteries. Moreover, their expression in the fetal endothelium and in the syncytiotrophoblast in humans, rats and guinea-pigs, favour their participation in maintaining the uteroplacental circulation. The findings that sustain the functional associations of the various vasodilators, and their participation by endocrine, paracrine and autocrine regulation of the systemic and local vasoactive changes of pregnancy are abundant and compelling. However, further elucidation of the role of the various players is hampered by methodological problems. Among these difficulties is the complexity of the interactions between the different factors, the likelihood that experimental alterations induced in one system may be compensated by the other players of the network, and the possibility that data obtained by manipulating single factors in vitro or in animal studies may be difficult to translate to the human. In addition, the impossibility of sampling the uteroplacental interface along normal pregnancy precludes obtaining longitudinal profiles of the various players. Nevertheless, the possibility of improving maternal blood pressure regulation, trophoblast invasion and uteroplacental flow by enhancing vasodilation (e.g. L-arginine, NO donors, VEGF transfection) deserves unravelling the

  17. An optimized locally adaptive non-local means denoising filter for cryo-electron microscopy data.

    PubMed

    Wei, Dai-Yu; Yin, Chang-Cheng

    2010-12-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) now plays an important role in structural analysis of macromolecular complexes, organelles and cells. However, the cryo-EM images obtained close to focus and under low dose conditions have a very high level of noise and a very low contrast, which hinders high-resolution structural analysis. Here, an optimized locally adaptive non-local (LANL) means filter, which can preserve signal details and simultaneously significantly suppress noise for cryo-EM data, is presented. This filter takes advantage of a wide range of pixels to estimate the denoised pixel values instead of the traditional filter that only uses pixels in the local neighborhood. The filter performed well on simulated data and showed promising results on raw cryo-EM images and tomograms. The predominant advantage of this optimized LANL-means filter is the structural signal and the background are clearly distinguishable. This locally adaptive non-local means filter may become a useful tool in the analysis of cryo-EM data, such as automatic particle picking, extracting structural features and segmentation of tomograms.

  18. Current Grid operation and future role of the Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, O.

    2012-12-01

    Grid-like technologies and approaches became an integral part of HEP experiments. Some other scientific communities also use similar technologies for data-intensive computations. The distinct feature of Grid computing is the ability to federate heterogeneous resources of different ownership into a seamless infrastructure, accessible via a single log-on. Like other infrastructures of similar nature, Grid functioning requires not only technologically sound basis, but also reliable operation procedures, monitoring and accounting. The two aspects, technological and operational, are closely related: weaker is the technology, more burden is on operations, and other way around. As of today, Grid technologies are still evolving: at CERN alone, every LHC experiment uses an own Grid-like system. This inevitably creates a heavy load on operations. Infrastructure maintenance, monitoring and incident response are done on several levels, from local system administrators to large international organisations, involving massive human effort worldwide. The necessity to commit substantial resources is one of the obstacles faced by smaller research communities when moving computing to the Grid. Moreover, most current Grid solutions were developed under significant influence of HEP use cases, and thus need additional effort to adapt them to other applications. Reluctance of many non-HEP researchers to use Grid negatively affects the outlook for national Grid organisations, which strive to provide multi-science services. We started from the situation where Grid organisations were fused with HEP laboratories and national HEP research programmes; we hope to move towards the world where Grid will ultimately reach the status of generic public computing and storage service provider and permanent national and international Grid infrastructures will be established. How far will we be able to advance along this path, depends on us. If no standardisation and convergence efforts will take place

  19. Adaptive Local Information Transfer in Random Boolean Networks.

    PubMed

    Haruna, Taichi

    2017-01-01

    Living systems such as gene regulatory networks and neuronal networks have been supposed to work close to dynamical criticality, where their information-processing ability is optimal at the whole-system level. We investigate how this global information-processing optimality is related to the local information transfer at each individual-unit level. In particular, we introduce an internal adjustment process of the local information transfer and examine whether the former can emerge from the latter. We propose an adaptive random Boolean network model in which each unit rewires its incoming arcs from other units to balance stability of its information processing based on the measurement of the local information transfer pattern. First, we show numerically that random Boolean networks can self-organize toward near dynamical criticality in our model. Second, the proposed model is analyzed by a mean-field theory. We recognize that the rewiring rule has a bootstrapping feature. The stationary indegree distribution is calculated semi-analytically and is shown to be close to dynamical criticality in a broad range of model parameter values.

  20. Adaptively Reevaluated Bayesian Localization (ARBL): A novel technique for radiological source localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Erin A.; Robinson, Sean M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; McCall, Jonathon D.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Webster, Jennifer B.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2015-06-01

    We present a novel technique for the localization of radiological sources in urban or rural environments from an aerial platform. The technique is based on a Bayesian approach to localization, in which measured count rates in a time series are compared with predicted count rates from a series of pre-calculated test sources to define likelihood. This technique is expanded by using a localized treatment with a limited field of view (FOV), coupled with a likelihood ratio reevaluation, allowing for real-time computation on commodity hardware for arbitrarily complex detector models and terrain. In particular, detectors with inherent asymmetry of response (such as those employing internal collimation or self-shielding for enhanced directional awareness) are leveraged by this approach to provide improved localization. Results from the localization technique are shown for simulated flight data using monolithic as well as directionally-aware detector models, and the capability of the methodology to locate radioisotopes is estimated for several test cases. This localization technique is shown to facilitate urban search by allowing quick and adaptive estimates of source location, in many cases from a single flyover near a source. In particular, this method represents a significant advancement from earlier methods like full-field Bayesian likelihood, which is not generally fast enough to allow for broad-field search in real time, and highest-net-counts estimation, which has a localization error that depends strongly on flight path and cannot generally operate without exhaustive search.

  1. Adaptively Reevaluated Bayesian Localization (ARBL). A Novel Technique for Radiological Source Localization

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Erin A.; Robinson, Sean M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; McCall, Jonathon D.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Webster, Jennifer B.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2015-01-19

    Here we present a novel technique for the localization of radiological sources in urban or rural environments from an aerial platform. The technique is based on a Bayesian approach to localization, in which measured count rates in a time series are compared with predicted count rates from a series of pre-calculated test sources to define likelihood. Furthermore, this technique is expanded by using a localized treatment with a limited field of view (FOV), coupled with a likelihood ratio reevaluation, allowing for real-time computation on commodity hardware for arbitrarily complex detector models and terrain. In particular, detectors with inherent asymmetry of response (such as those employing internal collimation or self-shielding for enhanced directional awareness) are leveraged by this approach to provide improved localization. Our results from the localization technique are shown for simulated flight data using monolithic as well as directionally-aware detector models, and the capability of the methodology to locate radioisotopes is estimated for several test cases. This localization technique is shown to facilitate urban search by allowing quick and adaptive estimates of source location, in many cases from a single flyover near a source. In particular, this method represents a significant advancement from earlier methods like full-field Bayesian likelihood, which is not generally fast enough to allow for broad-field search in real time, and highest-net-counts estimation, which has a localization error that depends strongly on flight path and cannot generally operate without exhaustive search

  2. 3-D grid refinement using the University of Michigan adaptive mesh library for a pure advective test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehmke, R.; Vandenberg, D.; Andronova, N.; Penner, J.; Stout, Q.; Zubov, V.; Jablonowski, C.

    2008-05-01

    The numerical representation of the partial differential equations (PDE) for high resolution atmospheric dynamical and physical features requires division of the atmospheric volume into a set of 3D grids, each of which has a not quite rectangular form. Each location on the grid contains multiple data that together represent the state of Earth's atmosphere. For successful numerical integration of the PDEs the size of each grid box is used to define the Courant-Friedrichs-Levi criterion in setting the time step. 3D adaptive representations of a sphere are needed to represent the evolution of clouds. In this paper we present the University of Michigan adaptive mesh library - a library that supports the production of parallel codes with use of adaptation on a sphere. The library manages the block-structured data layout, handles ghost cell updates among neighboring blocks and splits blocks as refinements occur. The library has several modules that provide a layer of abstraction for adaptive refinement: blocks, which contain individual cells of user data; shells — the global geometry for the problem, including a sphere, reduced sphere, and now a 3D sphere; a load balancer for placement of blocks onto processors; and a communication support layer which encapsulates all data movement. Users provide data manipulation functions for performing interpolation of user data when refining blocks. We rigorously test the library using refinement of the modeled vertical transport of a tracer with prescribed atmospheric sources and sinks. It is both a 2 and a 3D test, and bridges the performance of the model's dynamics and physics needed for inclusion of cloud formation.

  3. Symmetry-adapted Wannier functions in the maximal localization procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, R.

    2013-06-01

    A procedure to construct symmetry-adapted Wannier functions in the framework of the maximally localized Wannier function approach [Marzari and Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.56.12847 56, 12847 (1997); Souza, Marzari, and Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.65.035109 65, 035109 (2001)] is presented. In this scheme, the minimization of the spread functional of the Wannier functions is performed with constraints that are derived from symmetry properties of the specified set of the Wannier functions and the Bloch functions used to construct them, therefore one can obtain a solution that does not necessarily yield the global minimum of the spread functional. As a test of this approach, results of atom-centered Wannier functions for GaAs and Cu are presented.

  4. Researching a local heroin market as a complex adaptive system.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Lee D; Bobashev, Georgiy; Morris, Robert J

    2009-12-01

    This project applies agent-based modeling (ABM) techniques to better understand the operation, organization, and structure of a local heroin market. The simulation detailed was developed using data from an 18-month ethnographic case study. The original research, collected in Denver, CO during the 1990s, represents the historic account of users and dealers who operated in the Larimer area heroin market. Working together, the authors studied the behaviors of customers, private dealers, street-sellers, brokers, and the police, reflecting the core elements pertaining to how the market operated. After evaluating the logical consistency between the data and agent behaviors, simulations scaled-up interactions to observe their aggregated outcomes. While the concept and findings from this study remain experimental, these methods represent a novel way in which to understand illicit drug markets and the dynamic adaptations and outcomes they generate. Extensions of this research perspective, as well as its strengths and limitations, are discussed.

  5. Local adaptation for body color in Drosophila americana

    PubMed Central

    Wittkopp, P J; Smith-Winberry, G; Arnold, L L; Thompson, E M; Cooley, A M; Yuan, D C; Song, Q; McAllister, B F

    2011-01-01

    Pigmentation is one of the most variable traits within and between Drosophila species. Much of this diversity appears to be adaptive, with environmental factors often invoked as selective forces. Here, we describe the geographic structure of pigmentation in Drosophila americana and evaluate the hypothesis that it is a locally adapted trait. Body pigmentation was quantified using digital images and spectrometry in up to 10 flies from each of 93 isofemale lines collected from 17 locations across the United States and found to correlate most strongly with longitude. Sequence variation at putatively neutral loci showed no evidence of population structure and was inconsistent with an isolation-by-distance model, suggesting that the pigmentation cline exists despite extensive gene flow throughout the species range, and is most likely the product of natural selection. In all other Drosophila species examined to date, dark pigmentation is associated with arid habitats; however, in D. americana, the darkest flies were collected from the most humid regions. To investigate this relationship further, we examined desiccation resistance attributable to an allele that darkens pigmentation in D. americana. We found no significant effect of pigmentation on desiccation resistance in this experiment, suggesting that pigmentation and desiccation resistance are not unequivocally linked in all Drosophila species. PMID:20606690

  6. Expanding the understanding of local community assembly in adaptive radiations

    PubMed Central

    Wollenberg, Katharina C; Veith, Michael; Lötters, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Communities are thought to be assembled by two types of filters: by the environment relating to the fundamental niche and by biotic interactions relating to the realized niche. Both filters include parameters related to functional traits and their variation along environmental gradients. Here, we infer the general importance of environmental filtering of a functional trait determining local community assembly within insular adaptive radiations on the example of Caribbean Anolis lizards. We constructed maps for the probability of presence of Anolis ecomorphs (ecology-morphology-behavior specialists) on the Greater Antilles and overlaid these to estimate ecomorph community completeness (ECC) over the landscape. We then tested for differences in environmental parameter spaces among islands for real and cross-fitted ECC values to see whether the underlying assembly filters are deterministic (i.e., similar among islands). We then compared information-theoretic models of climatic and landscape parameters among Greater Antillean islands and inferred whether body mass as functional trait determines ECC. We found areas with high ECC to be strongly correlated with environmental filters, partly related to elevation. The environmental parameters influencing high ECC differed among islands. With the exception of the Jamaican twig ecomorph (which we suspect to be misclassified), smaller ecomorphs were more restricted to higher elevations than larger ones which might reflect filtering on the basis of differential physiological restrictions of ecomorphs. Our results in Anolis show that local community assembly within adaptive island radiations of animals can be determined by environmental filtering of functional traits, independently from species composition and realized environmental niche space. PMID:24558573

  7. Computations of Unsteady Viscous Compressible Flows Using Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Curvilinear Body-fitted Grid Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinthorsson, E.; Modiano, David; Colella, Phillip

    1994-01-01

    A methodology for accurate and efficient simulation of unsteady, compressible flows is presented. The cornerstones of the methodology are a special discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations on structured body-fitted grid systems and an efficient solution-adaptive mesh refinement technique for structured grids. The discretization employs an explicit multidimensional upwind scheme for the inviscid fluxes and an implicit treatment of the viscous terms. The mesh refinement technique is based on the AMR algorithm of Berger and Colella. In this approach, cells on each level of refinement are organized into a small number of topologically rectangular blocks, each containing several thousand cells. The small number of blocks leads to small overhead in managing data, while their size and regular topology means that a high degree of optimization can be achieved on computers with vector processors.

  8. Dynamic response of shock waves in transonic diffuser and supersonic inlet - An analysis with the Navier-Stokes equations and adaptive grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, N.-S.; Shamroth, S. J.; Mcdonald, H.

    1984-01-01

    An existing method which solves the multi-dimensional ensemble-averaged compressible time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with mixing length turbulence model and shock capturing technique has been extended to include the shock-tracking adaptive grid systems. The numerical scheme for solving the governing equations is based on a linearized block implicit approach. The effects of grid-motion and grid-distribution on the calculated flow solutions have been studied in relative detail and this is carried out in the context of physically steady, shocked flows computed with non-stationary grids. Subsequently, the unsteady dynamics of the flows occurring in a supercritically operated transonic diffuser and a mixed compression supersonic inlet have been investigated with the adaptive grid systems by solving the Navier-Stokes equations.

  9. Adaptive Generation of Multimaterial Grids from imaging data for Biomedical Lagrangian Fluid-Structure Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jiao, Xiangmin; Dyedov, Volodymyr; del Pin, Facundo; Guccione, Julius M.; Ratcliffe, Mark B.; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2010-04-01

    Spatial discretization of complex imaging-derived fluid-solid geometries, such as the cardiac environment, is a critical but often overlooked challenge in biomechanical computations. This is particularly true in problems with Lagrangian interfaces, where, the fluid and solid phases must match geometrically. For simplicity and better accuracy, it is also highly desirable for the two phases to share the same surface mesh at the interface between them. We outline a method for solving this problem, and illustrate the approach with a 3D fluid-solid mesh of the mouse heart. An MRI perfusion-fixed dataset of a mouse heart with 50μm isotropic resolution was semi-automatically segmented using a customized multimaterial connected-threshold approach that divided the volume into non-overlapping regions of blood, tissue and background. Subsequently, a multimaterial marching cubes algorithm was applied to the segmented data to produce two detailed, compatible isosurfaces, one for blood and one for tissue. Both isosurfaces were simultaneously smoothed with a multimaterial smoothing algorithm that exactly conserves the volume for each phase. Using these two isosurfaces, we developed and applied novel automated meshing algorithms to generate anisotropic hybrid meshes on arbitrary biological geometries with the number of layers and the desired element anisotropy for each phase as the only input parameters. Since our meshes adapt to the local feature sizes and include boundary layer prisms, they are more efficient and accurate than non-adaptive, isotropic meshes, and the fluid-structure interaction computations will tend to have relative error equilibrated over the whole mesh.

  10. Fluid-structure interaction of complex bodies in two-phase flows on locally refined grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelidis, Dionysios; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-11-01

    Many real-life flow problems in engineering applications involve fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of arbitrarily complex geometries interacting with free surface flows. Despite the recent significant computational advances, conventional numerical methods are inefficient to resolve the prevailing complex dynamics due to the inherent large disparity of spatial and temporal scales that emerge in the air/water phases of the flow and around rigid bodies. To this end, the new generation 3D, unsteady, unstructured Cartesian incompressible flow solver, developed at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), is integrated with a FSI immersed boundary method and is coupled with the level-set formulation. The predictive capabilities of our method to simulate non-linear free surface phenomena, with low computational cost, are significantly improved by locally refining the computational grid in the vicinity of solid boundaries and around the free surface interface. We simulate three-dimensional complex flows involving complex rigid bodies interacting with a free surface both with prescribed body motion and coupled FSI and we investigate breaking wave events. In all the cases, very good agreement with benchmark data is found. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1509071).

  11. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection from Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, C A; Rodi, W; Myers, S C

    2003-07-24

    The objective of this project is to develop improved seismic event location techniques that can be used to generate more and better quality reference events using data from local and regional seismic networks. Their approach is to extend existing methods of multiple-event location with more general models of the errors affecting seismic arrival time data, including picking errors and errors in model-based travel-times (path corrections). Toward this end, they are integrating a grid-search based algorithm for multiple-event location (GMEL) with a new parameterization of travel-time corrections and new kriging method for estimating the correction parameters from observed travel-time residuals. Like several other multiple-event location algorithms, GMEL currently assumes event-independent path corrections and is thus restricted to small event clusters. The new parameterization assumes that travel-time corrections are a function of both the event and station location, and builds in source-receiver reciprocity and correlation between the corrections from proximate paths as constraints. The new kriging method simultaneously interpolates travel-time residuals from multiple stations and events to estimate the correction parameters as functions of position. They are currently developing the algorithmic extensions to GMEL needed to combine the new parameterization and kriging method with the simultaneous location of events. The result will be a multiple-event location method which is applicable to non-clustered, spatially well-distributed events. They are applying the existing components of the new multiple-event location method to a data set of regional and local arrival times from Nevada Test Site (NTS) explosions with known origin parameters. Preliminary results show the feasibility and potential benefits of combining the location and kriging techniques. They also show some preliminary work on generalizing of the error model used in GMEL with the use of mixture

  12. A locally adaptive kernel regression method for facies delineation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernàndez-Garcia, D.; Barahona-Palomo, M.; Henri, C. V.; Sanchez-Vila, X.

    2015-12-01

    Facies delineation is defined as the separation of geological units with distinct intrinsic characteristics (grain size, hydraulic conductivity, mineralogical composition). A major challenge in this area stems from the fact that only a few scattered pieces of hydrogeological information are available to delineate geological facies. Several methods to delineate facies are available in the literature, ranging from those based only on existing hard data, to those including secondary data or external knowledge about sedimentological patterns. This paper describes a methodology to use kernel regression methods as an effective tool for facies delineation. The method uses both the spatial and the actual sampled values to produce, for each individual hard data point, a locally adaptive steering kernel function, self-adjusting the principal directions of the local anisotropic kernels to the direction of highest local spatial correlation. The method is shown to outperform the nearest neighbor classification method in a number of synthetic aquifers whenever the available number of hard data is small and randomly distributed in space. In the case of exhaustive sampling, the steering kernel regression method converges to the true solution. Simulations ran in a suite of synthetic examples are used to explore the selection of kernel parameters in typical field settings. It is shown that, in practice, a rule of thumb can be used to obtain suboptimal results. The performance of the method is demonstrated to significantly improve when external information regarding facies proportions is incorporated. Remarkably, the method allows for a reasonable reconstruction of the facies connectivity patterns, shown in terms of breakthrough curves performance.

  13. Adaptive analog-SSOR iterative method for solving grid equations with nonselfadjoint operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, Elena; Sukhinov, Alexander; Chistyakov, Alexander; Shishenya, Alexander; Roux, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    Motion models of wave processes in the coastal zone are highly demanded in the projection and construction of coastal surface structures and breakwaters, and also as a component of other models. The most common of the grid approaches is currently vof-method. A significant drawback of this method is in the necessity to solve the convection equation to find fullness of cells. The numerical solution of this equation leads to a strong grid viscosity and "smearing" of the interface. In this paper, we propose a method, which is based on the idea of using a fill, as in vof method, but its conversion is not required to solve the equation of convection. Thus in this work, a mathematical model for the wave hydrodynamics problem, describing wash ashore and taking into account such physical parameters as turbulent exchange, complexity of domain and coastal line geometry, and bottom friction is developed. For the given mathematical model a discrete model is constructed, taking into account dynamical changing of the calculation domain. Discretization of the model is performed on the structured rectangular grid with a new developed finite-volume technique that takes into account fullness of the grid cells that allows describing geometry more accurate. Proposed technique allows improving the real accuracy of a solution in case of complex domain geometry, by improving approximation of the boundary. A software implementation and numerical experiments of the posed problem of the wave hydrodynamics is performed. The results of numerical experiments show the feasibility of using discrete mathematical models of processes that take into account fullness of grid cells, for the simulation of systems with complex geometry of the border. Numerical experiments show that the use of this technique sufficiently smooth solutions are obtained even on coarse grids.

  14. Control Dynamics of Adaptive and Scalable Power and Energy Systems for Military Micro Grids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    quality at the levels required for Army installations ( Fairley 2004; Apt et al. 2004; Sheblé 2006; Weaver 2004; EPRI 2003; Silberman 2001; Blum 2004; Behr...Challenges of the 21st Century: 2003 Summary and Synthesis. Report # 1010929. Fairley , P. 2004. The unruly power grid. IEEE Spectrum 41(8): 16-21

  15. A Load Frequency Control in an Off-Grid Sustainable Power System Based on a Parameter Adaptive PID-Type Fuzzy Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronilaya, Ferdian; Miyauchi, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a new implementation of a parameter adaptive PID-type fuzzy controller (PAPIDfc) for a grid-supporting inverter of battery to alleviate frequency fluctuations in a wind-diesel power system. A variable speed wind turbine that drives a permanent magnet synchronous generator is assumed for demonstrations. The PAPIDfc controller is built from a set of control rules that adopts the droop method and uses only locally measurable frequency signal. The output control signal is determined from the knowledge base and the fuzzy inference. The input-derivative gain and the output-integral gain of the PAPIDfc are tuned online. To ensure safe battery operating limits, we also propose a protection scheme called intelligent battery protection (IBP). Several simulation experiments are performed by using MATLAB®/SimPowersystems™. Next, to verify the scheme's effectiveness, the simulation results are compared with the results of conventional controllers. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the PAPIDfc scheme to control a grid-supporting inverter of the battery in the reduction of frequency fluctuations.

  16. Grid-Search Location Methods for Ground-Truth Collection From Local and Regional Seismic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    William Rodi; Craig A. Schultz; Gardar Johannesson; Stephen C. Myers

    2005-05-13

    This project investigated new techniques for improving seismic event locations derived from regional and local networks. The technqiues include a new approach to empirical travel-time calibration that simultaneously fits data from multiple stations and events, using a generalization of the kriging method, and predicts travel-time corrections for arbitrary event-station paths. We combined this calibration approach with grid-search event location to produce a prototype new multiple-event location method that allows the use of spatially well-distributed events and takes into account correlations between the travel-time corrections from proximate event-station paths. Preliminary tests with a high quality data set from Nevada Test Site explosions indicated that our new calibration/location method offers improvement over the conventional multiple-event location methods now in common use, and is applicable to more general event-station geometries than the conventional methods. The tests were limited, however, and further research is needed to fully evaluate, and improve, the approach. Our project also demonstrated the importance of using a realistic model for observational errors in an event location procedure. We took the initial steps in developing a new error model based on mixture-of-Gaussians probability distributions, which possess the properties necessary to characterize the complex arrival time error processes that can occur when picking low signal-to-noise arrivals. We investigated various inference methods for fitting these distributions to observed travel-time residuals, including a Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique for computing Bayesian estimates of the distribution parameters.

  17. Site-specific group selection drives locally adapted group compositions.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Goodnight, Charles J

    2014-10-16

    Group selection may be defined as selection caused by the differential extinction or proliferation of groups. The socially polymorphic spider Anelosimus studiosus exhibits a behavioural polymorphism in which females exhibit either a 'docile' or 'aggressive' behavioural phenotype. Natural colonies are composed of a mixture of related docile and aggressive individuals, and populations differ in colonies' characteristic docile:aggressive ratios. Using experimentally constructed colonies of known composition, here we demonstrate that population-level divergence in docile:aggressive ratios is driven by site-specific selection at the group level--certain ratios yield high survivorship at some sites but not others. Our data also indicate that colonies responded to the risk of extinction: perturbed colonies tended to adjust their composition over two generations to match the ratio characteristic of their native site, thus promoting their long-term survival in their natal habitat. However, colonies of displaced individuals continued to shift their compositions towards mixtures that would have promoted their survival had they remained at their home sites, regardless of their contemporary environment. Thus, the regulatory mechanisms that colonies use to adjust their composition appear to be locally adapted. Our data provide experimental evidence of group selection driving collective traits in wild populations.

  18. Using Environmental Correlations to Identify Loci Underlying Local Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Coop, Graham; Witonsky, David; Di Rienzo, Anna; Pritchard, Jonathan K.

    2010-01-01

    Loci involved in local adaptation can potentially be identified by an unusual correlation between allele frequencies and important ecological variables or by extreme allele frequency differences between geographic regions. However, such comparisons are complicated by differences in sample sizes and the neutral correlation of allele frequencies across populations due to shared history and gene flow. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed a Bayesian method that estimates the empirical pattern of covariance in allele frequencies between populations from a set of markers and then uses this as a null model for a test at individual SNPs. In our model the sample frequencies of an allele across populations are drawn from a set of underlying population frequencies; a transform of these population frequencies is assumed to follow a multivariate normal distribution. We first estimate the covariance matrix of this multivariate normal across loci using a Monte Carlo Markov chain. At each SNP, we then provide a measure of the support, a Bayes factor, for a model where an environmental variable has a linear effect on the transformed allele frequencies compared to a model given by the covariance matrix alone. This test is shown through power simulations to outperform existing correlation tests. We also demonstrate that our method can be used to identify SNPs with unusually large allele frequency differentiation and offers a powerful alternative to tests based on pairwise or global FST. Software is available at http://www.eve.ucdavis.edu/gmcoop/. PMID:20516501

  19. Local adaptation with high gene flow: temperature parameters drive adaptation to altitude in the common frog (Rana temporaria)

    PubMed Central

    Muir, A P; Biek, R; Thomas, R; Mable, B K

    2014-01-01

    Both environmental and genetic influences can result in phenotypic variation. Quantifying the relative contributions of local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity to phenotypes is key to understanding the effect of environmental variation on populations. Identifying the selective pressures that drive divergence is an important, but often lacking, next step. High gene flow between high- and low-altitude common frog (Rana temporaria) breeding sites has previously been demonstrated in Scotland. The aim of this study was to assess whether local adaptation occurs in the face of high gene flow and to identify potential environmental selection pressures that drive adaptation. Phenotypic variation in larval traits was quantified in R. temporaria from paired high- and low-altitude sites using three common temperature treatments. Local adaptation was assessed using QST–FST analyses, and quantitative phenotypic divergence was related to environmental parameters using Mantel tests. Although evidence of local adaptation was found for all traits measured, only variation in larval period and growth rate was consistent with adaptation to altitude. Moreover, this was only evident in the three mountains with the highest high-altitude sites. This variation was correlated with mean summer and winter temperatures, suggesting that temperature parameters are potentially strong selective pressures maintaining local adaptation, despite high gene flow. PMID:24330274

  20. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Prusa, Joseph

    2012-05-08

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the physics of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer- reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  1. Parallel Domain Connectivity Algorithm for Unsteady Flow Computations using Overlapping and Adaptive Grids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    ARC3DC code employs third-order temporal discretizations using a multi-stage Runge – Kutta time-stepping framework and is capable of up to fifth-order...lean cache-friendly data structure and flow solution procedures for isotropic Carte- sian grids and (2) explicit time stepping (using 3-stage Runge ...fringes and holes (termed hole-cutting) can be done in one of two ways, explicitly or implicitly. Explicit hole cutting means the hole boundaries are

  2. Parallel Unsteady Overset Mesh Methodology for Adaptive and Moving Grids with Multiple Solvers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Runge - Kutta time-stepping framework and is capable of up to fifth-order accurate spatial discretizations. Further, the Cartesian grids in the off-body are...no user intervention or explicit hole-map specification is necessary. The capabilities and performance of the package are presented for several test...connectivity approaches have been investigated in the past by various research groups . The prominent among them are PEGASUS5 [5], OVERFLOW-DCF [6, 7], SUGGAR

  3. Parallel Unsteady Overset Mesh Methodology for a Multi-Solver Paradigm with Adaptive Cartesian Grids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-21

    a multi-stage Runge - Kutta time-stepping framework and is capable of up to fifth-order accurate spatial discretizations. Further, the Cartesian grids...cutting methodology such that no user inter- vention or explicit hole-map specification is necessary. The capabilities and performance of the package are...application to rotorcraft aerodynamics. Several Domain-Connectivity approaches have been investigated in the past by various research groups . The

  4. 3D Composite Grids Using Bezier Curves and Surfaces in Component Adaptive Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    bounding curves, an algebraic grid generation method, such as transfinite interpolation of these curves, results in a definition of the interior of...dependent variables is assembled and solved iteratively. The interior generated by the transfinite interpolation technique is used as the initial guess...The boundaries of the face are first parameterized in this fashion Transfinite interpolation is then employed first to obtain a parameterization of

  5. The geography of sex-specific selection, local adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Connallon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism are iconic evolutionary scenarios of intraspecific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow. Although theory has traditionally considered local adaptation and sexual dimorphism as conceptually distinct processes, emerging data suggest that they often act concurrently during evolutionary diversification. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space and sex-specific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several new predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease with distance from the species' range center and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should inevitably accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions can break down under clinally varying selection. First, the geography of local adaptation can be sexually dimorphic, with locations of relatively high local adaptation differing profoundly between the sexes. Second, the intensity of sexual antagonism varies across the species' range, with subpopulations near the range center representing hotspots for antagonistic selection. The results highlight the context-dependent roles of migration versus sexual conflict as primary constraints to adaptive diversification.

  6. Adaptive local backlight dimming algorithm based on local histogram and image characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadernejad, Ehsan; Burini, Nino; Korhonen, Jari; Forchhammer, Søren; Mantel, Claire

    2013-02-01

    Liquid Crystal Display (LCDs) with Light Emitting Diode (LED) backlight is a very popular display technology, used for instance in television sets, monitors and mobile phones. This paper presents a new backlight dimming algorithm that exploits the characteristics of the target image, such as the local histograms and the average pixel intensity of each backlight segment, to reduce the power consumption of the backlight and enhance image quality. The local histogram of the pixels within each backlight segment is calculated and, based on this average, an adaptive quantile value is extracted. A classification into three classes based on the average luminance value is performed and, depending on the image luminance class, the extracted information on the local histogram determines the corresponding backlight value. The proposed method has been applied on two modeled screens: one with a high resolution direct-lit backlight, and the other screen with 16 edge-lit backlight segments placed in two columns and eight rows. We have compared the proposed algorithm against several known backlight dimming algorithms by simulations; and the results show that the proposed algorithm provides better trade-off between power consumption and image quality preservation than the other algorithms representing the state of the art among feature based backlight algorithms.

  7. Robust identification of local adaptation from allele frequencies.

    PubMed

    Günther, Torsten; Coop, Graham

    2013-09-01

    Comparing allele frequencies among populations that differ in environment has long been a tool for detecting loci involved in local adaptation. However, such analyses are complicated by an imperfect knowledge of population allele frequencies and neutral correlations of allele frequencies among populations due to shared population history and gene flow. Here we develop a set of methods to robustly test for unusual allele frequency patterns and correlations between environmental variables and allele frequencies while accounting for these complications based on a Bayesian model previously implemented in the software Bayenv. Using this model, we calculate a set of "standardized allele frequencies" that allows investigators to apply tests of their choice to multiple populations while accounting for sampling and covariance due to population history. We illustrate this first by showing that these standardized frequencies can be used to detect nonparametric correlations with environmental variables; these correlations are also less prone to spurious results due to outlier populations. We then demonstrate how these standardized allele frequencies can be used to construct a test to detect SNPs that deviate strongly from neutral population structure. This test is conceptually related to FST and is shown to be more powerful, as we account for population history. We also extend the model to next-generation sequencing of population pools-a cost-efficient way to estimate population allele frequencies, but one that introduces an additional level of sampling noise. The utility of these methods is demonstrated in simulations and by reanalyzing human SNP data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel populations and pooled next-generation sequencing data from Atlantic herring. An implementation of our method is available from http://gcbias.org.

  8. Adaptive Transmission Planning: Implementing a New Paradigm for Managing Economic Risks in Grid Expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Xu, Qingyu; Ho, Jonathan; Donohoo, Pearl; Kasina, Saamrat; Ouyang, Jasmine; Park, Sang Woo; Eto, Joseph; Satyal, Vijay

    2016-07-01

    The problem of whether, where, when, and what types of transmission facilities to build in terms of minimizing costs and maximizing net economic benefits has been a challenge for the power industry from the beginning-ever since Thomas Edison debated whether to create longer dc distribution lines (with their high losses) or build new power stations in expanding his urban markets. Today's planning decisions are far more complex, as grids cover the continent and new transmission, generation, and demand-side technologies emerge.

  9. Adaptations to local environments in modern human populations.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Choongwon; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2014-12-01

    After leaving sub-Saharan Africa around 50000-100000 years ago, anatomically modern humans have quickly occupied extremely diverse environments. Human populations were exposed to further environmental changes resulting from cultural innovations, such as the spread of farming, which gave rise to new selective pressures related to pathogen exposures and dietary shifts. In addition to changing the frequency of individual adaptive alleles, natural selection may also shape the overall genetic architecture of adaptive traits. Here, we review recent advances in understanding the genetic architecture of adaptive human phenotypes based on insights from the studies of lactase persistence, skin pigmentation and high-altitude adaptation. These adaptations evolved in parallel in multiple human populations, providing a chance to investigate independent realizations of the evolutionary process. We suggest that the outcome of adaptive evolution is often highly variable even under similar selective pressures. Finally, we highlight a growing need for detecting adaptations that did not follow the classical sweep model and for incorporating new sources of genetic evidence such as information from ancient DNA.

  10. Fast 3-D large-scale gravity and magnetic modeling using unstructured grids and an adaptive multilevel fast multipole method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhengyong; Tang, Jingtian; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2017-01-01

    A novel fast and accurate algorithm is developed for large-scale 3-D gravity and magnetic modeling problems. An unstructured grid discretization is used to approximate sources with arbitrary mass and magnetization distributions. A novel adaptive multilevel fast multipole (AMFM) method is developed to reduce the modeling time. An observation octree is constructed on a set of arbitrarily distributed observation sites, while a source octree is constructed on a source tetrahedral grid. A novel characteristic is the independence between the observation octree and the source octree, which simplifies the implementation of different survey configurations such as airborne and ground surveys. Two synthetic models, a cubic model and a half-space model with mountain-valley topography, are tested. As compared to analytical solutions of gravity and magnetic signals, excellent agreements of the solutions verify the accuracy of our AMFM algorithm. Finally, our AMFM method is used to calculate the terrain effect on an airborne gravity data set for a realistic topography model represented by a triangular surface retrieved from a digital elevation model. Using 16 threads, more than 5800 billion interactions between 1,002,001 observation points and 5,839,830 tetrahedral elements are computed in 453.6 s. A traditional first-order Gaussian quadrature approach requires 3.77 days. Hence, our new AMFM algorithm not only can quickly compute the gravity and magnetic signals for complicated problems but also can substantially accelerate the solution of 3-D inversion problems.

  11. Impact of Load Balancing on Unstructured Adaptive Grid Computations for Distributed-Memory Multiprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Andrew; Biswas, Rupak; Simon, Horst D.

    1996-01-01

    The computational requirements for an adaptive solution of unsteady problems change as the simulation progresses. This causes workload imbalance among processors on a parallel machine which, in turn, requires significant data movement at runtime. We present a new dynamic load-balancing framework, called JOVE, that balances the workload across all processors with a global view. Whenever the computational mesh is adapted, JOVE is activated to eliminate the load imbalance. JOVE has been implemented on an IBM SP2 distributed-memory machine in MPI for portability. Experimental results for two model meshes demonstrate that mesh adaption with load balancing gives more than a sixfold improvement over one without load balancing. We also show that JOVE gives a 24-fold speedup on 64 processors compared to sequential execution.

  12. Threshold Region Performance Prediction for Adaptive Matched Field Processing Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    significant non-local estimation errors at low signal-to-noise ratios ( SNRs )-errors not modeled by traditional localization measures such as the Cramer...as a function of SNR , for apertures and environments of interest. Particular attention will be given to the "threshold SNR " (below which localization...performance degrades rapidly due to global estimation errors) and to the minimum SNR required to achieve acceptable range/depth localization. Initial

  13. Climate vs. soil factors in local adaptation of two common plant species.

    PubMed

    Macel, Mirka; Lawson, Clare S; Mortimer, Simon R; Smilauerova, Marie; Bischoff, Armin; Crémieux, Lisèle; Dolezal, Jirí; Edwards, Andrew R; Lanta, Vojtĕch; Bezemer, T Martijn; Van der Putten, Wim H; Igual, José M; Rodriguez-Barrueco, Claudino; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; Steinger, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    Evolutionary theory suggests that divergent natural selection in heterogeneous environments can result in locally adapted plant genotypes. To understand local adaptation it is important to study the ecological factors responsible for divergent selection. At a continental scale, variation in climate can be important while at a local scale soil properties could also play a role. We designed an experiment aimed to disentangle the role of climate and (abiotic and biotic) soil properties in local adaptation of two common plant species. A grass (Holcus lanatus) and a legume (Lotus corniculatus), as well as their local soils, were reciprocally transplanted between three sites across an Atlantic-Continental gradient in Europe and grown in common gardens in either their home soil or foreign soils. Growth and reproductive traits were measured over two growing seasons. In both species, we found significant environmental and genetic effects on most of the growth and reproductive traits and a significant interaction between the two environmental effects of soil and climate. The grass species showed significant home site advantage in most of the fitness components, which indicated adaptation to climate. We found no indication that the grass was adapted to local soil conditions. The legume showed a significant home soil advantage for number of fruits only and thus a weak indication of adaptation to soil and no adaptation to climate. Our results show that the importance of climate and soil factors as drivers of local adaptation is species-dependent. This could be related to differences in interactions between plant species and soil biota.

  14. A User's Guide to AMR1D: An Instructional Adaptive Mesh Refinement Code for Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deFainchtein, Rosalinda

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the code AMR1D, which is currently posted on the World Wide Web (http://sdcd.gsfc.nasa.gov/ESS/exchange/contrib/de-fainchtein/adaptive _mesh_refinement.html). AMR1D is a one-dimensional finite element fluid-dynamics solver, capable of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). It was written as an instructional tool for AMR on unstructured mesh codes. It is meant to illustrate the minimum requirements for AMR on more than one dimension. For that purpose, it uses the same type of data structure that would be necessary on a two-dimensional AMR code (loosely following the algorithm described by Lohner).

  15. Development and evaluation of a local grid refinement method for block-centered finite-difference groundwater models using shared nodes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    A new method of local grid refinement for two-dimensional block-centered finite-difference meshes is presented in the context of steady-state groundwater-flow modeling. The method uses an iteration-based feedback with shared nodes to couple two separate grids. The new method is evaluated by comparison with results using a uniform fine mesh, a variably spaced mesh, and a traditional method of local grid refinement without a feedback. Results indicate: (1) The new method exhibits quadratic convergence for homogeneous systems and convergence equivalent to uniform-grid refinement for heterogeneous systems. (2) Coupling the coarse grid with the refined grid in a numerically rigorous way allowed for improvement in the coarse-grid results. (3) For heterogeneous systems, commonly used linear interpolation of heads from the large model onto the boundary of the refined model produced heads that are inconsistent with the physics of the flow field. (4) The traditional method works well in situations where the better resolution of the locally refined grid has little influence on the overall flow-system dynamics, but if this is not true, lack of a feedback mechanism produced errors in head up to 3.6% and errors in cell-to-cell flows up to 25%. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The common cuckoo Cuculus canorus is not locally adapted to its reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus host.

    PubMed

    Avilés, J M; Vikan, J R; Fossøy, F; Antonov, A; Moksnes, A; Røskaft, E; Shykoff, J A; Møller, A P; Jensen, H; Procházka, P; Stokke, B G

    2011-02-01

    The obligate avian brood parasitic common cuckoo Cuculus canorus comprises different strains of females that specialize on particular host species by laying eggs of a constant type that often mimics those of the host. Whether cuckoos are locally adapted for mimicking populations of the hosts on which they are specialized has never been investigated. In this study, we first explored the possibility of local adaptation in cuckoo egg mimicry over a geographical mosaic of selection exerted by one of its main European hosts, the reed warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus. Secondly, we investigated whether cuckoos inhabiting reed warbler populations with a broad number of alternative suitable hosts at hand were less locally adapted. Cuckoo eggs showed different degrees of mimicry to different reed warbler populations. However, cuckoo eggs did not match the egg phenotypes of their local host population better than eggs of other host populations, indicating that cuckoos were not locally adapted for mimicry on reed warblers. Interestingly, cuckoos exploiting reed warblers in populations with a relatively larger number of co-occurring cuckoo gentes showed lower than average levels of local adaptation in egg volume. Our results suggest that cuckoo local adaptation might be prevented when different cuckoo populations exploit more or fewer different host species, with gene flow or frequent host switches breaking down local adaptation where many host races co-occur.

  17. Predicting local adaptation in fragmented plant populations: implications for restoration genetics

    PubMed Central

    Pickup, Melinda; Field, David L; Rowell, David M; Young, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    Understanding patterns and correlates of local adaptation in heterogeneous landscapes can provide important information in the selection of appropriate seed sources for restoration. We assessed the extent of local adaptation of fitness components in 12 population pairs of the perennial herb Rutidosis leptorrhynchoides (Asteraceae) and examined whether spatial scale (0.7–600 km), environmental distance, quantitative (QST) and neutral (FST) genetic differentiation, and size of the local and foreign populations could predict patterns of adaptive differentiation. Local adaptation varied among populations and fitness components. Including all population pairs, local adaptation was observed for seedling survival, but not for biomass, while foreign genotype advantage was observed for reproduction (number of inflorescences). Among population pairs, local adaptation increased with QST and local population size for biomass. QST was associated with environmental distance, suggesting ecological selection for phenotypic divergence. However, low FST and variation in population structure in small populations demonstrates the interaction of gene flow and drift in constraining local adaptation in R. leptorrhynchoides. Our study indicates that for species in heterogeneous landscapes, collecting seed from large populations from similar environments to candidate sites is likely to provide the most appropriate seed sources for restoration. PMID:23346235

  18. ADAPTIVE-GRID SIMULATION OF GROUNDWATER FLOW IN HETEROGENEOUS AQUIFERS. (R825689C068)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The prediction of contaminant transport in porous media requires the computation of the flow velocity. This work presents a methodology for high-accuracy computation of flow in a heterogeneous isotropic formation, employing a dual-flow formulation and adaptive...

  19. Population resequencing reveals local adaptation of Arabidopsis lyrata to serpentine soils.

    PubMed

    Turner, Thomas L; Bourne, Elizabeth C; Von Wettberg, Eric J; Hu, Tina T; Nuzhdin, Sergey V

    2010-03-01

    A powerful way to map functional genomic variation and reveal the genetic basis of local adaptation is to associate allele frequency across the genome with environmental conditions. Serpentine soils, characterized by high heavy-metal content and low calcium-to-magnesium ratios, are a classic context for studying adaptation of plants to local soil conditions. To investigate whether Arabidopsis lyrata is locally adapted to serpentine soil, and to map the polymorphisms responsible for such adaptation, we pooled DNA from individuals from serpentine and nonserpentine soils and sequenced each 'gene pool' with the Illumina Genome Analyzer. The polymorphisms that are most strongly associated with soil type are enriched at heavy-metal detoxification and calcium and magnesium transport loci, providing numerous candidate mutations for serpentine adaptation. Sequencing of three candidate loci in the European subspecies of A. lyrata indicates parallel differentiation of the same polymorphism at one locus, confirming ecological adaptation, and different polymorphisms at two other loci, which may indicate convergent evolution.

  20. Salinity Is an Agent of Divergent Selection Driving Local Adaptation of Arabidopsis to Coastal Habitats.

    PubMed

    Busoms, Silvia; Teres, Joana; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Bomblies, Kirsten; Danku, John; Douglas, Alex; Weigel, Detlef; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Salt, David E

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution in plants provides insights into the selective forces driving adaptation and the genetic basis of adaptive traits with agricultural value. The genomic resources available for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) make it well suited to the rapid molecular dissection of adaptive processes. Although numerous potentially adaptive loci have been identified in Arabidopsis, the consequences of divergent selection and migration (both important aspects of the process of local adaptation) for Arabidopsis are not well understood. Here, we use a multiyear field-based reciprocal transplant experiment to detect local populations of Arabidopsis composed of multiple small stands of plants (demes) that are locally adapted to the coast and adjacent inland habitats in northeastern Spain. We identify fitness tradeoffs between plants from these different habitats when grown together in inland and coastal common gardens and also, under controlled conditions in soil excavated from coastal and inland sites. Plants from the coastal habitat also outperform those from inland when grown under high salinity, indicating local adaptation to soil salinity. Sodium can be toxic to plants, and we find its concentration to be elevated in soil and plants sampled at the coast. We conclude that the local adaptation that we observe between adjacent coastal and inland populations is caused by ongoing divergent selection driven by the differential salinity between coastal and inland soils.

  1. Adaptive Environmental Source Localization and Tracking with Unknown Permittivity and Path Loss Coefficients †

    PubMed Central

    Fidan, Barış; Umay, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Accurate signal-source and signal-reflector target localization tasks via mobile sensory units and wireless sensor networks (WSNs), including those for environmental monitoring via sensory UAVs, require precise knowledge of specific signal propagation properties of the environment, which are permittivity and path loss coefficients for the electromagnetic signal case. Thus, accurate estimation of these coefficients has significant importance for the accuracy of location estimates. In this paper, we propose a geometric cooperative technique to instantaneously estimate such coefficients, with details provided for received signal strength (RSS) and time-of-flight (TOF)-based range sensors. The proposed technique is integrated to a recursive least squares (RLS)-based adaptive localization scheme and an adaptive motion control law, to construct adaptive target localization and adaptive target tracking algorithms, respectively, that are robust to uncertainties in aforementioned environmental signal propagation coefficients. The efficiency of the proposed adaptive localization and tracking techniques are both mathematically analysed and verified via simulation experiments. PMID:26690441

  2. Local adaptation and maladaptation to pollinators in a generalist geographic mosaic.

    PubMed

    Gómez, José M; Abdelaziz, M; Camacho, J P M; Muñoz-Pajares, A J; Perfectti, F

    2009-07-01

    The Geographic Mosaic Theory of Coevolution predicts the occurrence of mosaics of interaction-mediated local adaptations and maladaptations. Empirical support to this prediction has come mostly from specialist interactions. In contrast, local adaptation is considered highly unlikely in generalist interactions. In this study, we experimentally test local adaptation in a generalist plant-pollinator geographic mosaic, by means of a transplant experiment in which plants coming from two evolutionary hotspots and two coldspots were offered to pollinators at the same four localities. Plants produced in the hotspots attracted more pollinators in all populations, whereas coldspot plants attracted fewer pollinators in all populations. Differences in adaptation were not related to genetic similarity between populations, suggesting that it was mainly due to spatial variation in previous selective regimes. Our experiment provides the first strong support for a spatially structured pattern of adaptation and maladaptation generated by a generalist free-living mutualism.

  3. Adjoint-Based Algorithms for Adaptation and Design Optimizations on Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    Schemes based on discrete adjoint algorithms present several exciting opportunities for significantly advancing the current state of the art in computational fluid dynamics. Such methods provide an extremely efficient means for obtaining discretely consistent sensitivity information for hundreds of design variables, opening the door to rigorous, automated design optimization of complex aerospace configuration using the Navier-Stokes equation. Moreover, the discrete adjoint formulation provides a mathematically rigorous foundation for mesh adaptation and systematic reduction of spatial discretization error. Error estimates are also an inherent by-product of an adjoint-based approach, valuable information that is virtually non-existent in today's large-scale CFD simulations. An overview of the adjoint-based algorithm work at NASA Langley Research Center is presented, with examples demonstrating the potential impact on complex computational problems related to design optimization as well as mesh adaptation.

  4. Adaptation to leftward-shifting prisms enhances local processing in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Reed, Scott A; Dassonville, Paul

    2014-04-01

    In healthy individuals, adaptation to left-shifting prisms has been shown to simulate the symptoms of hemispatial neglect, including a reduction in global processing that approximates the local bias observed in neglect patients. The current study tested whether leftward prism adaptation can more specifically enhance local processing abilities. In three experiments, the impact of local and global processing was assessed through tasks that measure susceptibility to illusions that are known to be driven by local or global contextual effects. Susceptibility to the rod-and-frame illusion - an illusion disproportionately driven by both local and global effects depending on frame size - was measured before and after adaptation to left- and right-shifting prisms. A significant increase in rod-and-frame susceptibility was found for the left-shifting prism group, suggesting that adaptation caused an increase in local processing effects. The results of a second experiment confirmed that leftward prism adaptation enhances local processing, as assessed with susceptibility to the simultaneous-tilt illusion. A final experiment employed a more specific measure of the global effect typically associated with the rod-and-frame illusion, and found that although the global effect was somewhat diminished after leftward prism adaptation, the trend failed to reach significance (p=.078). Rightward prism adaptation had no significant effects on performance in any of the experiments. Combined, these findings indicate that leftward prism adaptation in healthy individuals can simulate the local processing bias of neglect patients primarily through an increased sensitivity to local visual cues, and confirm that prism adaptation not only modulates lateral shifts of attention, but also prompts shifts from one level of processing to another.

  5. Adaptation to Leftward-shifting Prisms Enhances Local Processing in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Scott A.; Dassonville, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, adaptation to left-shifting prisms has been shown to simulate the symptoms of hemispatial neglect, including a reduction in global processing that approximates the local bias observed in neglect patients. The current study tested whether leftward prism adaptation can more specifically enhance local processing abilities. In three experiments, the impact of local and global processing was assessed through tasks that measure susceptibility to illusions that are known to be driven by local or global contextual effects. Susceptibility to the rod-and-frame illusion – an illusion disproportionately driven by both local and global effects depending on frame size – was measured before and after adaptation to left- and right-shifting prisms. A significant increase in rod-and-frame susceptibility was found for the left-shifting prism group, suggesting that adaptation caused an increase in local processing effects. The results of a second experiment confirmed that leftward prism adaptation enhances local processing, as assessed with susceptibility to the simultaneous-tilt illusion. A final experiment employed a more specific measure of the global effect typically associated with the rod-andframe illusion, and found that although the global effect was somewhat diminished after leftward prism adaptation, the trend failed to reach significance (p = .078). Rightward prism adaptation had no significant effects on performance in any of the experiments. Combined, these findings indicate that leftward prism adaptation in healthy individuals can simulate the local processing bias of neglect patients primarily through an increased sensitivity to local visual cues, and confirm that prism adaptation not only modulates lateral shifts of attention, but also prompts shifts from one level of processing to another. PMID:24560913

  6. A Meta-Analysis of Local Climate Change Adaptation Actions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Local governments are beginning to take steps to address the consequences of climate change, such as sea level rise and heat events. However, we do not have a clear understanding of what local governments are doing -- the extent to which they expect climate change to affect their...

  7. Adaptation to local ultraviolet radiation conditions among neighbouring Daphnia populations.

    PubMed

    Miner, Brooks E; Kerr, Benjamin

    2011-05-07

    Understanding the historical processes that generated current patterns of phenotypic diversity in nature is particularly challenging in subdivided populations. Populations often exhibit heritable genetic differences that correlate with environmental variables, but the non-independence among neighbouring populations complicates statistical inference of adaptation. To understand the relative influence of adaptive and non-adaptive processes in generating phenotypes requires joint evaluation of genetic and phenotypic divergence in an integrated and statistically appropriate analysis. We investigated phenotypic divergence, population-genetic structure and potential fitness trade-offs in populations of Daphnia melanica inhabiting neighbouring subalpine ponds of widely differing transparency to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Using a combination of experimental, population-genetic and statistical techniques, we separated the effects of shared population ancestry and environmental variables in predicting phenotypic divergence among populations. We found that native water transparency significantly predicted divergence in phenotypes among populations even after accounting for significant population structure. This result demonstrates that environmental factors such as UVR can at least partially account for phenotypic divergence. However, a lack of evidence for a hypothesized trade-off between UVR tolerance and growth rates in the absence of UVR prevents us from ruling out the possibility that non-adaptive processes are partially responsible for phenotypic differentiation in this system.

  8. Detecting Local Item Dependence in Polytomous Adaptive Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Jessica L.; Rupp, Andre A.; Harring, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    A rapidly expanding arena for item response theory (IRT) is in attitudinal and health-outcomes survey applications, often with polytomous items. In particular, there is interest in computer adaptive testing (CAT). Meeting model assumptions is necessary to realize the benefits of IRT in this setting, however. Although initial investigations of…

  9. The fluid dynamic approach to equidistribution methods for grid generation and adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    Delzanno, Gian Luca; Finn, John M

    2009-01-01

    The equidistribution methods based on L{sub p} Monge-Kantorovich optimization [Finn and Delzanno, submitted to SISC, 2009] and on the deformation [Moser, 1965; Dacorogna and Moser, 1990, Liao and Anderson, 1992] method are analyzed primarily in the context of grid generation. It is shown that the first class of methods can be obtained from a fluid dynamic formulation based on time-dependent equations for the mass density and the momentum density, arising from a variational principle. In this context, deformation methods arise from a fluid formulation by making a specific assumption on the time evolution of the density (but with some degree of freedom for the momentum density). In general, deformation methods do not arise from a variational principle. However, it is possible to prescribe an optimal deformation method, related to L{sub 1} Monge-Kantorovich optimization, by making a further assumption on the momentum density. Some applications of the L{sub p} fluid dynamic formulation to imaging are also explored.

  10. Genomic rearrangements and the evolution of clusters of locally adaptive loci

    PubMed Central

    Yeaman, Sam

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies of ecological genetics have found that alleles contributing to local adaptation sometimes cluster together, forming “genomic islands of divergence.” Divergence hitchhiking theory posits that these clusters evolve by the preferential establishment of tightly linked locally adapted mutations, because such linkage reduces the rate that recombination breaks up locally favorable combinations of alleles. Here, I use calculations based on previously developed analytical models of divergence hitchhiking to show that very few clustered mutations should be expected in a single bout of adaptation, relative to the number of unlinked mutations, suggesting that divergence hitchhiking theory alone may often be insufficient to explain empirical observations. Using individual-based simulations that allow for the transposition of a single genetic locus from one position on a chromosome to another, I then show that tight clustering of the loci involved in local adaptation tends to evolve on biologically realistic time scales. These results suggest that genomic rearrangements may often be an important component of local adaptation and the evolution of genomic islands of divergence. More generally, these results suggest that genomic architecture and functional neighborhoods of genes may be actively shaped by natural selection in heterogeneous environments. Because small-scale changes in gene order are relatively common in some taxa, comparative genomic studies could be coupled with studies of adaptation to explore how commonly such rearrangements are involved in local adaptation. PMID:23610436

  11. Local adaptation, patterns of selection, and gene flow in the Californian serpentine sunflower (Helianthus exilis).

    PubMed

    Sambatti, Julianno B M; Rice, Kevin J

    2006-04-01

    The traditional view of the species as the fundamental unit of evolution has been challenged by observations that in heterogeneous environments, gene flow may be too restricted to overcome the effects of local selection. Whether a species evolves as a cohesive unit depends critically on the dynamic balance between homogenizing gene flow among populations and potentially disruptive local adaptation. To examine this evolutionary balance between "global" gene flow and local selection, we studied northern Californian populations of Helianthus exilis, the serpentine sunflower, within a mosaic of contrasting serpentine and nonserpentine areas that differ considerably in soil chemistry and water availability. Local adaptation to riparian and serpentine habitats was studied in Helianthus exilis along with an analysis of gene flow patterns among populations within these habitats. Local adaptation was assessed in H. exilis during 2002 and 2003 using reciprocal transplant experiments at multiple locations within serpentine and riparian habitats. Effects of competition and germination date on the expression of local adaptation were also examined within the reciprocal transplant experiments. Local adaptation was detected in both years at the local site level and at the level of habitat. The analysis of the transplanted populations indicated that the patterns of selection differed considerably between riparian and serpentine sites. Differential survivorship occurred in serpentine habitats, whereas selection on reproductive output predominated in riparian habitats. Local adaptation was expressed only in the absence of competition. Local adaptation in terms of survivorship was most strongly expressed in treatments with delayed seed germination. Microsatellite markers were used to quantify population genetic parameters and examine the patterns of gene flow among sampled populations. Analysis of molecular markers revealed a system of population patches that freely exchange genes

  12. Local adaptation (mostly) remains local: reassessing environmental associations of climate-related candidate SNPs in Arabidopsis halleri.

    PubMed

    Rellstab, C; Fischer, M C; Zoller, S; Graf, R; Tedder, A; Shimizu, K K; Widmer, A; Holderegger, R; Gugerli, F

    2017-02-01

    Numerous landscape genomic studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes potentially involved in local adaptation. Rarely, it has been explicitly evaluated whether these environmental associations also hold true beyond the populations studied. We tested whether putatively adaptive SNPs in Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae), characterized in a previous study investigating local adaptation to a highly heterogeneous environment, show the same environmental associations in an independent, geographically enlarged set of 18 populations. We analysed new SNP data of 444 plants with the same methodology (partial Mantel tests, PMTs) as in the original study and additionally with a latent factor mixed model (LFMM) approach. Of the 74 candidate SNPs, 41% (PMTs) and 51% (LFMM) were associated with environmental factors in the independent data set. However, only 5% (PMTs) and 15% (LFMM) of the associations showed the same environment-allele relationships as in the original study. In total, we found 11 genes (31%) containing the same association in the original and independent data set. These can be considered prime candidate genes for environmental adaptation at a broader geographical scale. Our results suggest that selection pressures in highly heterogeneous alpine environments vary locally and signatures of selection are likely to be population-specific. Thus, genotype-by-environment interactions underlying adaptation are more heterogeneous and complex than is often assumed, which might represent a problem when testing for adaptation at specific loci.

  13. Impacts of local adaptation of forest trees on associations with herbivorous insects: implications for adaptive forest management

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Frazer H; Stone, Graham N; Nicholls, James A; Cavers, Stephen; Gibbs, Melanie; Butterill, Philip; Wagner, Stefanie; Ducousso, Alexis; Gerber, Sophie; Petit, Rémy J; Kremer, Antoine; Schönrogge, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Disruption of species interactions is a key issue in climate change biology. Interactions involving forest trees may be particularly vulnerable due to evolutionary rate limitations imposed by long generation times. One mitigation strategy for such impacts is Climate matching – the augmentation of local native tree populations by input from nonlocal populations currently experiencing predicted future climates. This strategy is controversial because of potential cascading impacts on locally adapted animal communities. We explored these impacts using abundance data for local native gallwasp herbivores sampled from 20 provenances of sessile oak (Quercus petraea) planted in a common garden trial. We hypothesized that non-native provenances would show (i) declining growth performance with increasing distance between provenance origin and trial site, and (ii) phenological differences to local oaks that increased with latitudinal differences between origin and trial site. Under a local adaptation hypothesis, we predicted declining gallwasp abundance with increasing phenological mismatch between native and climate-matched trees. Both hypotheses for oaks were supported. Provenance explained significant variation in gallwasp abundance, but no gall type showed the relationship between abundance and phenological mismatch predicted by a local adaptation hypothesis. Our results show that climate matching would have complex and variable impacts on oak gall communities. PMID:26640522

  14. Mountain chickadees from different elevations sing different songs: acoustic adaptation, temporal drift or signal of local adaptation?

    PubMed

    Branch, Carrie L; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2015-04-01

    Song in songbirds is widely thought to function in mate choice and male-male competition. Song is also phenotypically plastic and typically learned from local adults; therefore, it varies across geographical space and can serve as a cue for an individual's location of origin, with females commonly preferring males from their respective location. Geographical variation in song dialect may reflect acoustic adaptation to different environments and/or serve as a signal of local adaptation. In montane environments, environmental differences can occur over an elevation gradient, favouring local adaptations across small spatial scales. We tested whether food caching mountain chickadees, known to exhibit elevation-related differences in food caching intensity, spatial memory and the hippocampus, also sing different dialects despite continuous distribution and close proximity. Male songs were collected from high and low elevations at two different mountains (separated by 35 km) to test whether song differs between elevations and/or between adjacent populations at each mountain. Song structure varied significantly between high and low elevation adjacent populations from the same mountain and between populations from different mountains at the same elevations, despite a continuous distribution across each mountain slope. These results suggest that elevation-related differences in song structure in chickadees might serve as a signal for local adaptation.

  15. Mountain chickadees from different elevations sing different songs: acoustic adaptation, temporal drift or signal of local adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Carrie L.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

    2015-01-01

    Song in songbirds is widely thought to function in mate choice and male–male competition. Song is also phenotypically plastic and typically learned from local adults; therefore, it varies across geographical space and can serve as a cue for an individual's location of origin, with females commonly preferring males from their respective location. Geographical variation in song dialect may reflect acoustic adaptation to different environments and/or serve as a signal of local adaptation. In montane environments, environmental differences can occur over an elevation gradient, favouring local adaptations across small spatial scales. We tested whether food caching mountain chickadees, known to exhibit elevation-related differences in food caching intensity, spatial memory and the hippocampus, also sing different dialects despite continuous distribution and close proximity. Male songs were collected from high and low elevations at two different mountains (separated by 35 km) to test whether song differs between elevations and/or between adjacent populations at each mountain. Song structure varied significantly between high and low elevation adjacent populations from the same mountain and between populations from different mountains at the same elevations, despite a continuous distribution across each mountain slope. These results suggest that elevation-related differences in song structure in chickadees might serve as a signal for local adaptation. PMID:26064641

  16. Simulation of plasma based semiconductor processing using block structured locally refined grids

    SciTech Connect

    Wake, D.D.

    1998-01-01

    We have described a new numerical method for plasma simulation. Calculations have been presented which show that the method is accurate and suggest the regimes in which the method provides savings in CPU time and memory requirements. A steady state simulation of a four centimeter domain was modeled with sheath scale (150 microns) resolution using only 40 grid points. Simulations of semiconductor processing equipment have been performed which imply the usefulness of the method for engineering applications. It is the author`s opinion that these accomplishments represent a significant contribution to plasma simulation and the efficient numerical solution of certain systems of non-linear partial differential equations. More work needs to be done, however, for the algorithm to be of practical use in an engineering environment. Despite our success at avoiding the dielectric relaxation timestep restrictions the algorithm is still conditionally stable and requires timesteps which are relatively small. This represents a prohibitive runtime for steady state solutions on high resolution grids. Current research suggests that these limitations may be overcome and the use of much larger timesteps will be possible.

  17. Gauging climate preparedness to inform adaptation needs: local level adaptation in drinking water quality in CA, USA.

    PubMed

    Ekstrom, Julia A; Bedsworth, Louise; Fencl, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Understanding resource managers' perceptions of climate change, analytic capacity, and current adaptation activities can provide insight into what can help support adaptation processes at the local level. In California, where a major drought currently demonstrates some of the hardships that could be regularly encountered under a changing climate, we present results from a survey of drinking water utilities about the perceived threat, analytic capacity, and adaptation actions related to maintaining water quality in the face of climate change. Among surveyed utilities (n = 259), awareness is high in regard to climate change occurring and its potential impacts on water quality globally, but perceived risk is lower with regard to climate impacts on local drinking water quality. Just over half of surveyed utilities report at least some adaptation activity to date. The top three variables that most strongly correlated with reported adaptation action were (1) perceived risk on global and local water quality, (2) surface water reliance, and (3) provision of other services beyond drinking water. Other tested variables significantly correlated with reported adaptation action were (4) degree of impact from the current drought and (5) communication with climate change experts. Findings highlight that smaller groundwater-reliant utilities may need the most assistance to initiate climate adaptation processes. Trusted information sources most frequently used across respondents were state government agencies, followed by colleagues in the same utilities. The finding that frequently used sources of information are similar across utilities presents a promising opportunity for training and disseminating climate information to assist those systems needing the most support.

  18. An Extension Education Program to Help Local Governments with Flood Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Gretchen; Allred, Shorna; LoGiudice, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Education is an important tool to increase the capacity of local government officials for community flood adaptation. To address flood adaptation and post-flood stream management in municipalities, Cornell Cooperative Extension and collaborators developed an educational program to increase municipal officials' knowledge about how to work…

  19. Effects of local adaptation and interspecific competition on species' responses to climate change.

    PubMed

    Bocedi, Greta; Atkins, Katherine E; Liao, Jishan; Henry, Roslyn C; Travis, Justin M J; Hellmann, Jessica J

    2013-09-01

    Local adaptation and species interactions have been shown to affect geographic ranges; therefore, we need models of climate impact that include both factors. To identify possible dynamics of species when including these factors, we ran simulations of two competing species using an individual-based, coupled map-lattice model using a linear climatic gradient that varies across latitude and is warmed over time. Reproductive success is governed by an individual's adaptation to local climate as well as its location relative to global constraints. In exploratory experiments varying the strength of adaptation and competition, competition reduces genetic diversity and slows range change, although the two species can coexist in the absence of climate change and shift in the absence of competitors. We also found that one species can drive the other to extinction, sometimes long after climate change ends. Weak selection on local adaptation and poor dispersal ability also caused surfing of cooler-adapted phenotypes from the expanding margin backwards, causing loss of warmer-adapted phenotypes. Finally, geographic ranges can become disjointed, losing centrally-adapted genotypes. These initial results suggest that the interplay between local adaptation and interspecific competition can significantly influence species' responses to climate change, in a way that demands future research.

  20. An Adaptive Localization System for Outdoor/Indoor Navigation for Autonomous Robots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    An Adaptive Localization System for Outdoor/Indoor Navigation for Autonomous Robots E.B. Pacis, B. Sights, G. Ahuja, G. Kogut, H.R. Everett...TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Adaptive Localization System for Outdoor/Indoor Navigation for Autonomous Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...demonstrated a series of collaborative behaviors of multiple autonomous robots in a force-protection scenario. Stand- alone sensors detected intruder

  1. A Framework for Spatial Assessment of Local Level Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity to Extreme Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmi, O.; Hayden, M.; Harlan, S.; Ruddell, D.; Komatsu, K.; England, B.; Uejio, C.

    2008-12-01

    Changing climate is predicted to increase the intensity and impacts of heat waves prompting the need to develop preparedness and adaptation strategies that reduce societal vulnerability. Central to understanding societal vulnerability, is adaptive capacity, the potential of a system or population to modify its features/behaviors so as to better cope with existing and anticipated stresses and fluctuations. Adaptive capacity influences adaptation, the actual adjustments made to cope with the impacts from current and future hazardous heat events. Understanding societal risks, vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity to extreme heat events and climate change requires an interdisciplinary approach that includes information about weather and climate, the natural and built environment, social processes and characteristics, interactions with the stakeholders, and an assessment of community vulnerability. This project presents a framework for an interdisciplinary approach and a case study that explore linkages between quantitative and qualitative data for a more comprehensive understanding of local level vulnerability and adaptive capacity to extreme heat events in Phoenix, Arizona. In this talk, we will present a methodological framework for conducting collaborative research on societal vulnerability and adaptive capacity on a local level that includes integration of household surveys into a quantitative spatial assessment of societal vulnerability. We highlight a collaborative partnership among researchers, community leaders and public health officials. Linkages between assessment of local adaptive capacity and development of regional climate change adaptation strategies will be discussed.

  2. Can local adaptation research in plants inform selection of native plant materials? An analysis of experimental methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Local adaptation research in plants: limitations to synthetic understanding Local adaptation is used as a criterion to select plant materials that will display high fitness in new environments. A large body of research has explored local adaptation in plants, however, to what extent findings can inf...

  3. Rapid ecosystem change challenges the adaptive capacity of Local Environmental Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Luz, Ana C.; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    The use of Local Environmental Knowledge has been considered as an important strategy for adaptive management in the face of Global Environmental Change. However, the unprecedented rates at which global change occurs may pose a challenge to the adaptive capacity of local knowledge systems. In this paper, we use the concept of the shifting baseline syndrome to examine the limits in the adaptive capacity of the local knowledge of an indigenous society facing rapid ecosystem change. We conducted semi-structured interviews regarding perceptions of change in wildlife populations and in intergenerational transmission of knowledge amongst the Tsimane’, a group of hunter-gatherers of Bolivian Amazonia (n = 300 adults in 13 villages). We found that the natural baseline against which the Tsimane’ measure ecosystem changes might be shifting with every generation as a result of (a) age-related differences in the perception of change and (b) a decrease in the intergenerational sharing of environmental knowledge. Such findings suggest that local knowledge systems might not change at a rate quick enough to adapt to conditions of rapid ecosystem change, hence potentially compromising the adaptive success of the entire social-ecological system. With the current pace of Global Environmental Change, widening the gap between the temporal rates of on-going ecosystem change and the timescale needed for local knowledge systems to adjust to change, efforts to tackle the shifting baseline syndrome are urgent and critical for those who aim to use Local Environmental Knowledge as a tool for adaptive management. PMID:26097291

  4. Prism adaptation reverses the local processing bias in patients with right temporo-parietal junction lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rafal, Robert D.; List, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Lesions to the right temporo-parietal cortex commonly result in hemispatial neglect. Lesions to the same area are also associated with hyperattention to local details of a scene and difficulty perceiving the global structure. This local processing bias is an important factor contributing to neglect and may contribute to the higher prevalence of the disorder following right compared with left hemisphere strokes. In recent years, visuomotor adaptation to rightward-shifting prisms has been introduced as a promising treatment for hemispatial neglect. Explanations for these improvements have generally described a leftward realignment of attention, however, the present investigation provides evidence that prism adaptation reduces the local processing bias. Five patients with right temporal-parietal junction lesions were asked to identify the global or local levels of hierarchical figures before and after visuomotor adaptation to rightward-shifting prisms. Prior to prism adaptation the patients had difficulty ignoring the local elements when identifying the global component. Following prism adaptation, however, this pattern was reversed, with greater global interference during local level identification. The results suggest that prism adaptation may improve non-spatially lateralized deficits that contribute to the neglect syndrome. PMID:19416951

  5. Going Glocal: Adaptive Education for Local and Global Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harth, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Technological advances in communications, transportation, and information processing have deepened and broadened connections on multiple levels, local through global, thickening the webs of interactivity that bind us to each other economically, politically, militarily, socially, culturally, environmentally, and ethically. As with most complex…

  6. AMPHIBIAN DECLINE, ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION AND LOCAL POPULATION ADAPTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibian population declines have been noted on both local and global scales. Causes for these declines are unknown although many hypotheses have been offered. In areas adjacent to human development, loss of habitat is a fairly well accepted cause. However in isolated, seemingl...

  7. Local adaptation of Gymnocypris przewalskii (Cyprinidae) on the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renyi; Ludwig, Arne; Zhang, Cunfang; Tong, Chao; Li, Guogang; Tang, Yongtao; Peng, Zuogang; Zhao, Kai

    2015-05-06

    Divergent selection among environments affects species distributions and can lead to speciation. In this article, we investigated the transcriptomes of two ecotypes of scaleless carp (Gymnocypris przewalskii przewalskii and G. p. ganzihonensis) from the Tibetan Plateau. We used a transcriptome sequencing approach to screen approximately 250,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the gill and kidney tissues of twelve individuals from the Ganzi River and Lake Qinghai to understand how this freshwater fish has adapted to an ecological niche shift from saline to freshwater. We identified 9,429 loci in the gill transcriptome and 12,034 loci in the kidney transcriptome with significant differences in their expression, of which 242 protein-coding genes exhibited strong positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1). Many of the genes are involved in ion channel functions (e.g., Ca(2+)-binding proteins), immune responses (e.g., nephrosin) or cellular water absorption functions (e.g., aquaporins). These results have potentially broad importance in understanding shifts from saline to freshwater habitats. Furthermore, this study provides the first transcriptome of G. przewalskii, which will facilitate future ecological genomics studies and aid in the identification of genes underlying adaptation and incipient ecological speciation.

  8. The New England Climate Adaptation Project: Enhancing Local Readiness to Adapt to Climate Change through Role-Play Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumore, D.; Kirshen, P. H.; Susskind, L.

    2014-12-01

    Despite scientific consensus that the climate is changing, local efforts to prepare for and manage climate change risks remain limited. How we can raise concern about climate change risks and enhance local readiness to adapt to climate change's effects? In this presentation, we will share the lessons learned from the New England Climate Adaptation Project (NECAP), a participatory action research project that tested science-based role-play simulations as a tool for educating the public about climate change risks and simulating collective risk management efforts. NECAP was a 2-year effort involving the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Consensus Building Institute, the National Estuarine Research Reserve System, and four coastal New England municipalities. During 2012-2013, the NECAP team produced downscaled climate change projections, a summary risk assessment, and a stakeholder assessment for each partner community. Working with local partners, we used these assessments to create a tailored, science-based role-play simulation for each site. Through a series of workshops in 2013, NECAP engaged between 115-170 diverse stakeholders and members of the public in each partner municipality in playing the simulation and a follow up conversation about local climate change risks and possible adaptation strategies. Data were collected through before-and-after surveys administered to all workshop participants, follow-up interviews with 25 percent of workshop participants, public opinion polls conducted before and after our intervention, and meetings with public officials. This presentation will report our research findings and explain how science-based role-play simulations can be used to help communicate local climate change risks and enhance local readiness to adapt.

  9. Performance and scaling of locally-structured grid methods forpartial differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Colella, Phillip; Bell, John; Keen, Noel; Ligocki, Terry; Lijewski, Michael; Van Straalen, Brian

    2007-07-19

    In this paper, we discuss some of the issues in obtaining high performance for block-structured adaptive mesh refinement software for partial differential equations. We show examples in which AMR scales to thousands of processors. We also discuss a number of metrics for performance and scalability that can provide a basis for understanding the advantages and disadvantages of this approach.

  10. Can Perceptions of Environmental and Climate Change in Island Communities Assist in Adaptation Planning Locally?

    PubMed

    Aswani, Shankar; Vaccaro, Ismael; Abernethy, Kirsten; Albert, Simon; de Pablo, Javier Fernández-López

    2015-12-01

    Local perceptions of environmental and climate change, as well as associated adaptations made by local populations, are fundamental for designing comprehensive and inclusive mitigation and adaptation plans both locally and nationally. In this paper, we analyze people's perceptions of environmental and climate-related transformations in communities across the Western Solomon Islands through ethnographic and geospatial methods. Specifically, we documented people's observed changes over the past decades across various environmental domains, and for each change, we asked respondents to identify the causes, timing, and people's adaptive responses. We also incorporated this information into a geographical information system database to produce broad-scale base maps of local perceptions of environmental change. Results suggest that people detected changes that tended to be acute (e.g., water clarity, logging intensity, and agricultural diseases). We inferred from these results that most local observations of and adaptations to change were related to parts of environment/ecosystem that are most directly or indirectly related to harvesting strategies. On the other hand, people were less aware of slower insidious/chronic changes identified by scientific studies. For the Solomon Islands and similar contexts in the insular tropics, a broader anticipatory adaptation planning strategy to climate change should include a mix of local scientific studies and local observations of ongoing ecological changes.

  11. Descending and Local Network Interactions Control Adaptive Locomotion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    sensilla act through local reflexes to increase motor activity, thereby providing the added force needed to push the insect up and over the object...developed, in our previous AFOSR grant, a hardware model based upon neural circuitry that had been documented in stick insects (Ekeberg et al., 2004; Rutter...control network for every joint of every leg of the model insect . This simulation based upon all known and implied thoracic connections was developed

  12. Two general methods for population pharmacokinetic modeling: non-parametric adaptive grid and non-parametric Bayesian.

    PubMed

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Neely, Michael; Bartroff, Jay; van Guilder, Michael; Yamada, Walter; Bayard, David; Jelliffe, Roger; Leary, Robert; Chubatiuk, Alyona; Schumitzky, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling methods can be statistically classified as either parametric or nonparametric (NP). Each classification can be divided into maximum likelihood (ML) or Bayesian (B) approaches. In this paper we discuss the nonparametric case using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. We present two nonparametric methods for estimating the unknown joint population distribution of model parameter values in a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) dataset. The first method is the NP Adaptive Grid (NPAG). The second is the NP Bayesian (NPB) algorithm with a stick-breaking process to construct a Dirichlet prior. Our objective is to compare the performance of these two methods using a simulated PK/PD dataset. Our results showed excellent performance of NPAG and NPB in a realistically simulated PK study. This simulation allowed us to have benchmarks in the form of the true population parameters to compare with the estimates produced by the two methods, while incorporating challenges like unbalanced sample times and sample numbers as well as the ability to include the covariate of patient weight. We conclude that both NPML and NPB can be used in realistic PK/PD population analysis problems. The advantages of one versus the other are discussed in the paper. NPAG and NPB are implemented in R and freely available for download within the Pmetrics package from www.lapk.org.

  13. Two general methods for population pharmacokinetic modeling: non-parametric adaptive grid and non-parametric Bayesian

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Michael; Bartroff, Jay; van Guilder, Michael; Yamada, Walter; Bayard, David; Jelliffe, Roger; Leary, Robert; Chubatiuk, Alyona; Schumitzky, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Population pharmacokinetic (PK) modeling methods can be statistically classified as either parametric or nonparametric (NP). Each classification can be divided into maximum likelihood (ML) or Bayesian (B) approazches. In this paper we discuss the nonparametric case using both maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. We present two nonparametric methods for estimating the unknown joint population distribution of model parameter values in a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) dataset. The first method is the NP Adaptive Grid (NPAG). The second is the NP Bayesian (NPB) algorithm with a stick-breaking process to construct a Dirichlet prior. Our objective is to compare the performance of these two methods using a simulated PK/PD dataset. Our results showed excellent performance of NPAG and NPB in a realistically simulated PK study. This simulation allowed us to have benchmarks in the form of the true population parameters to compare with the estimates produced by the two methods, while incorporating challenges like unbalanced sample times and sample numbers as well as the ability to include the covariate of patient weight. We conclude that both NPML and NPB can be used in realistic PK/PD population analysis problems. The advantages of one versus the other are discussed in the paper. NPAG and NPB are implemented in R and freely available for download within the Pmetrics package from www.lapk.org. PMID:23404393

  14. Adapting to climate change through local municipal planning: barriers and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    Municipal planning represents a key avenue for local adaptation, but is subject to recognised constraints. To date, these constraints have focused on simplistic factors such as limited resources and lack of information. In this paper we argue that this focus has obscured a wider set of constraints which need to be acknowledged and addressed if adaptation is likely to advance through municipal planning. Although these recognised constraints are relevant, we argue that what underpins these issues are more fundamental challenges affecting local, placed-based planning by drawing on the related field of community-based environmental planning (CBEP). In considering a wider set of constraints to practical attempts towards adaptation, the paper considers planning based on a case study of three municipalities in Sydney, Australia in 2008. The results demonstrate that climate adaptation was widely accepted as an important issue for planning conducted by local governments. However, it was yet to be embedded in planning practice which retained a strong mitigation bias in relation to climate change. In considering the case study, we draw attention to factors thus far under-acknowledged in the climate adaptation literature. These include leadership, institutional context and competing planning agendas. These factors can serve as constraints or enabling mechanisms for achieving climate adaptation depending upon how they are exploited in any given situation. The paper concludes that, through addressing these issues, local, place-based planning can play a greater role in achieving climate adaptation.

  15. Effects of adaptation of vestibulo-ocular reflex function on manual target localization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Merkle, L. A.; Barry, S. R.; Huebner, W. P.; Cohen, H. S.; Mueller, S. A.; Fordice, J.

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine if adaptive modulation of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) function is associated with commensurate alterations in manual target localization. To measure the effects of adapted VOR on manual responses we developed the Vestibular-Contingent Pointing Test (VCP). In the VCP test, subjects pointed to a remembered target following passive whole body rotation in the dark. In the first experiment, subjects performed VCP before and after wearing 0.5X minifying lenses that adaptively attenuate horizontal VOR gain. Results showed that adaptive reduction in horizontal VOR gain was accompanied by a commensurate change in VCP performance. In the second experiment, bilaterally labyrinthine deficient (LD) subjects were tested to confirm that vestibular cues were central to the spatial coding of both eye and hand movements during VCP. LD subjects performed significantly worse than normal subjects. These results demonstrate that adaptive change in VOR can lead to alterations in manual target localization.

  16. Experimental Evidence for an Eco-Evolutionary Coupling between Local Adaptation and Intraspecific Competition.

    PubMed

    Siepielski, Adam M; Nemirov, Alex; Cattivera, Matthew; Nickerson, Avery

    2016-04-01

    Determining how adaptive evolution can be coupled to ecological processes is key for developing a more integrative understanding of the demographic factors that regulate populations. Intraspecific competition is an especially important ecological process because it generates negative density dependence in demographic rates. Although ecological factors are most often investigated to determine the strength of density dependence, evolutionary processes such as local adaptation could also feed back to shape variation in the strength of density dependence among populations. Using an experimental approach with damselflies, a predaceous aquatic insect, we find evidence that both density-dependent intraspecific competition and local adaptation can reduce per capita growth rates. In some cases, the effects of local adaptation on reducing per capita growth rates exceeded the ecological competitive effects of a doubling of density. However, we also found that these ecological and evolutionary properties of populations are coupled, and we offer two interpretations of the causes underlying this pattern: (1) the strength of density-dependent competition depends on the extent of local adaptation, or (2) the extent of local adaptation is shaped by the strength of density-dependent competition. Regardless of the underlying causal pathway, these results show how eco-evolutionary dynamics can affect a key demographic process regulating populations.

  17. The emergence of performance trade-offs during local adaptation: insights from experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Bono, Lisa M; Smith, Leno B; Pfennig, David W; Burch, Christina L

    2016-12-28

    Environmental heterogeneity is considered a general explanation for phenotypic diversification, particularly when heterogeneity causes populations to diverge via local adaptation. Performance trade-offs, such as those stemming from antagonistic pleiotropy, are thought to contribute to the maintenance of diversity in this scenario. Specifically, alleles that promote adaptation in one environment are expected to promote maladaptation in alternative environments. Contrary to this expectation, however, alleles that underlie locally adaptive traits often fail to exhibit fitness costs in alternative environments. Here, we attempt to explain this paradox by reviewing the results of experimental evolution studies, including a new one of our own, that examined the evolution of trade-offs during adaptation to homogeneous versus heterogeneous environments. We propose that when pleiotropic effects vary, whether or not trade-offs emerge among diverging populations will depend critically on ecology. For example, adaptation to a locally homogeneous environment is more likely to occur by alleles that are antagonistically pleiotropic than adaptation to a locally heterogeneous environment, simply because selection is blind to costs associated with environments that are not experienced locally. Our literature review confirmed the resulting prediction that performance trade-offs were more likely to evolve during selection in homogeneous than heterogeneous environments. The nature of the environmental heterogeneity (spatial versus temporal) and the length of the experiment also contributed in predictable ways to the likelihood that performance trade-offs evolved.

  18. Numerous strategies but limited implementation guidance in US local adaptation plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Sierra C.; Stults, Missy

    2016-08-01

    Adaptation planning offers a promising approach for identifying and devising solutions to address local climate change impacts. Yet there is little empirical understanding of the content and quality of these plans. We use content analysis to evaluate 44 local adaptation plans in the United States and multivariate regression to examine how plan quality varies across communities. We find that plans draw on multiple data sources to analyse future climate impacts and include a breadth of strategies. Most plans, however, fail to prioritize impacts and strategies or provide detailed implementation processes, raising concerns about whether adaptation plans will translate into on-the-ground reductions in vulnerability. Our analysis also finds that plans authored by the planning department and those that engaged elected officials in the planning process were of higher quality. The results provide important insights for practitioners, policymakers and scientists wanting to improve local climate adaptation planning and action.

  19. Three-dimensional local grid refinement for block-centered finite-difference groundwater models using iteratively coupled shared nodes: A new method of interpolation and analysis of errors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, S.; Hill, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes work that extends to three dimensions the two-dimensional local-grid refinement method for block-centered finite-difference groundwater models of Mehl and Hill [Development and evaluation of a local grid refinement method for block-centered finite-difference groundwater models using shared nodes. Adv Water Resour 2002;25(5):497-511]. In this approach, the (parent) finite-difference grid is discretized more finely within a (child) sub-region. The grid refinement method sequentially solves each grid and uses specified flux (parent) and specified head (child) boundary conditions to couple the grids. Iteration achieves convergence between heads and fluxes of both grids. Of most concern is how to interpolate heads onto the boundary of the child grid such that the physics of the parent-grid flow is retained in three dimensions. We develop a new two-step, "cage-shell" interpolation method based on the solution of the flow equation on the boundary of the child between nodes shared with the parent grid. Error analysis using a test case indicates that the shared-node local grid refinement method with cage-shell boundary head interpolation is accurate and robust, and the resulting code is used to investigate three-dimensional local grid refinement of stream-aquifer interactions. Results reveal that (1) the parent and child grids interact to shift the true head and flux solution to a different solution where the heads and fluxes of both grids are in equilibrium, (2) the locally refined model provided a solution for both heads and fluxes in the region of the refinement that was more accurate than a model without refinement only if iterations are performed so that both heads and fluxes are in equilibrium, and (3) the accuracy of the coupling is limited by the parent-grid size - A coarse parent grid limits correct representation of the hydraulics in the feedback from the child grid.

  20. A comparison of locally adaptive multigrid methods: LDC, FAC and FIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khadra, Khodor; Angot, Philippe; Caltagirone, Jean-Paul

    1993-01-01

    This study is devoted to a comparative analysis of three 'Adaptive ZOOM' (ZOom Overlapping Multi-level) methods based on similar concepts of hierarchical multigrid local refinement: LDC (Local Defect Correction), FAC (Fast Adaptive Composite), and FIC (Flux Interface Correction)--which we proposed recently. These methods are tested on two examples of a bidimensional elliptic problem. We compare, for V-cycle procedures, the asymptotic evolution of the global error evaluated by discrete norms, the corresponding local errors, and the convergence rates of these algorithms.

  1. Population admixture, biological invasions and the balance between local adaptation and inbreeding depression.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Koen J F; Macel, Mirka; Wolfe, Lorne M; Biere, Arjen

    2011-01-07

    When previously isolated populations meet and mix, the resulting admixed population can benefit from several genetic advantages, including increased genetic variation, the creation of novel genotypes and the masking of deleterious mutations. These admixture benefits are thought to play an important role in biological invasions. In contrast, populations in their native range often remain differentiated and frequently suffer from inbreeding depression owing to isolation. While the advantages of admixture are evident for introduced populations that experienced recent bottlenecks or that face novel selection pressures, it is less obvious why native range populations do not similarly benefit from admixture. Here we argue that a temporary loss of local adaptation in recent invaders fundamentally alters the fitness consequences of admixture. In native populations, selection against dilution of the locally adapted gene pool inhibits unconstrained admixture and reinforces population isolation, with some level of inbreeding depression as an expected consequence. We show that admixture is selected against despite significant inbreeding depression because the benefits of local adaptation are greater than the cost of inbreeding. In contrast, introduced populations that have not yet established a pattern of local adaptation can freely reap the benefits of admixture. There can be strong selection for admixture because it instantly lifts the inbreeding depression that had built up in isolated parental populations. Recent work in Silene suggests that reduced inbreeding depression associated with post-introduction admixture may contribute to enhanced fitness of invasive populations. We hypothesize that in locally adapted populations, the benefits of local adaptation are balanced against an inbreeding cost that could develop in part owing to the isolating effect of local adaptation itself. The inbreeding cost can be revealed in admixing populations during recent invasions.

  2. Sun/shade conditions affect recruitment and local adaptation of a columnar cactus in dry forests

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Jácome, Antonio; Montaña, Carlos; Fornoni, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Facilitation among plants in water-limited environments (i.e. where evapotranspiration overcomes the availability of water during the growing season) has been considered a local adaptation to water and light conditions. Among cacti, early life-history stages can benefit from the facilitative effects of nurse plants that reduce solar radiation and water stress. However, whether light condition itself acts as an agent of selection through facilitation remains untested. The aim of this study was to determine (1) whether light conditions affect seedling recruitment, (2) whether the positive effect of shade on seedling recruitment is more intense under more stressful conditions and (3) whether shade condition (facilitation) reduces the magnitude of local adaptation on seedling recruitment relative to full sunlight conditions. Methods A reciprocal transplant experiment, coupled with the artificial manipulation of sun/shade conditions, was performed to test for the effects of local adaptation on germination, seedling survival and growth, using two demes of the columnar cactus Pilosocereus leucocephalus, representing different intensities of stressful conditions. Key Results Full sunlight conditions reduced recruitment success and supported the expectation of lower recruitment in more stressful environments. Significant local adaptation was mainly detected under full sunlight conditions, indicating that this environmental factor acts as an agent of selection at both sites. Conclusions The results supported the expectation that the magnitude of local adaptation, driven by the effects of facilitative nurse plants, is less intense under reduced stressful conditions. This study is the first to demonstrate that sun/shade conditions act as a selective agent accounting for local adaptation in water-limited environments, and that facilitation provided by nurse plants in these environments can attenuate the patterns of local adaptation among plants benefiting

  3. Hybridization can facilitate species invasions, even without enhancing local adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Mesgaran, Mohsen B.; Lewis, Mark A.; Ades, Peter K.; Donohue, Kathleen; Ohadi, Sara; Li, Chengjun

    2016-01-01

    The founding population in most new species introductions, or at the leading edge of an ongoing invasion, is likely to be small. Severe Allee effects—reductions in individual fitness at low population density—may then result in a failure of the species to colonize, even if the habitat could support a much larger population. Using a simulation model for plant populations that incorporates demography, mating systems, quantitative genetics, and pollinators, we show that Allee effects can potentially be overcome by transient hybridization with a resident species or an earlier colonizer. This mechanism does not require the invocation of adaptive changes usually attributed to invasions following hybridization. We verify our result in a case study of sequential invasions by two plant species where the outcrosser Cakile maritima has replaced an earlier, inbreeding, colonizer Cakile edentula (Brassicaceae). Observed historical rates of replacement are consistent with model predictions from hybrid-alleviated Allee effects in outcrossers, although other causes cannot be ruled out. PMID:27601582

  4. Adaptation of Mesoscale Weather Models to Local Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John T.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Case, Jonathan L.; Dianic, Allan V.; Wheeler, Mark W.; Zack, John W.; Nutter, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed for (1) configuring mesoscale numerical weather-prediction models for execution on high-performance computer workstations to make short-range weather forecasts for the vicinity of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and (2) evaluating the performances of the models as configured. These methodologies have been implemented as part of a continuing effort to improve weather forecasting in support of operations of the U.S. space program. The models, methodologies, and results of the evaluations also have potential value for commercial users who could benefit from tailoring their operations and/or marketing strategies based on accurate predictions of local weather. More specifically, the purpose of developing the methodologies for configuring the models to run on computers at KSC and CCAFS is to provide accurate forecasts of winds, temperature, and such specific thunderstorm-related phenomena as lightning and precipitation. The purpose of developing the evaluation methodologies is to maximize the utility of the models by providing users with assessments of the capabilities and limitations of the models. The models used in this effort thus far include the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS), the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Eta Model ( Eta for short). The configuration of the MASS and RAMS is designed to run the models at very high spatial resolution and incorporate local data to resolve fine-scale weather features. Model preprocessors were modified to incorporate surface, ship, buoy, and rawinsonde data as well as data from local wind towers, wind profilers, and conventional or Doppler radars. The overall evaluation of the MASS, Eta, and RAMS was designed to assess the utility of these mesoscale models for satisfying the weather-forecasting needs of the U.S. space program. The evaluation methodology includes

  5. Local adaptation and the evolution of species' ranges under climate change.

    PubMed

    Atkins, K E; Travis, J M J

    2010-10-07

    The potential impact of climate change on biodiversity is well documented. A well developed range of statistical methods currently exists that projects the possible future habitat of a species directly from the current climate and a species distribution. However, studies incorporating ecological and evolutionary processes remain limited. Here, we focus on the potential role that local adaptation to climate may play in driving the range dynamics of sessile organisms. Incorporating environmental adaptation into a stochastic simulation yields several new insights. Counter-intuitively, our simulation results suggest that species with broader ranges are not necessarily more robust to climate change. Instead, species with broader ranges can be more susceptible to extinction as locally adapted genotypes are often blocked from range shifting by the presence of cooler adapted genotypes that persist even when their optimum climate has left them behind. Interestingly, our results also suggest that it will not always be the cold-adapted phenotypes that drive polewards range expansion. Instead, range shifts may be driven by phenotypes conferring adaptation to conditions prevalent towards the centre of a species' equilibrium distribution. This may have important consequences for the conservation method termed predictive provenancing. These initial results highlight the potential importance of local adaptation in determining how species will respond to climate change and we argue that this is an area requiring urgent theoretical and empirical attention.

  6. On the importance of interpolation schemes for albedo data from local to global grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuschmann, Swantje; Jacob, Daniela; Löw, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Surface albedo has a key role in Earth's radiation balance. As vegetation cover is influencing the albedo of solid surfaces, it is clear that land cover changes are leading to changes in the radiation balance and further are influencing the whole Earth's energy budget. It is obvious, that a forested area reflects sunlight differently compared to a sparsely vegetated area of shrubs. Different studies have shown, that certain land cover types (even compounds) have a characteristic annual cycle of the albedo (Moody et al. 2005 and Preuschmann, 2012). An annual cycle for one land cover type might vary in a year about 2%. The difference of the surface albedo of a forested area in summer to an agricultural area at the same time is only about 0.5%. A major question in climate modelling under future conditions is to analyse the impact of land cover changes onto climate. Nevertheless for different reasons it is not easy to describe surface albedo changes due to land cover changes within a climate model. One reason is that differences in the albedo of different surfaces are comparatively small. Another reason is based in the spatial resolution of a climate model. Climate models are operating on grids with horizontal resolutions of 10x10 km² for regional models up to about 200x200 km² for global models with a spectral resolution of T63. This means, that spatial (and also temporal) mean values of surface albedo are taken into account. Therefore one grid box of a climate model is representing a composition of different surface albedos. For model validation, it is of interest to compare the modelled albedo data with observed albedo data, but a comparison is not as trivial as it looks in the first sight. One problematic is the necessity of comparing different data types in the same horizontal and temporal resolution. Commonly used satellite based albedo data are available in 0.05° horizontal resolution, which is about 5 km at the equator, for several-day means and monthly

  7. Using Local Stories as a Call to Action on Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Generation: A Will Steger Legacy and the University of Minnesota's Regional Sustainability Development Partnerships (RSDP) have developed a novel approach to engaging rural Minnesotans on climate change issues. Through the use of personal, local stories about individuals' paths to action to mitigate and or adapt to climate change, Climate Generation and RSDP aim to spur others to action. Minnesota's Changing Climate project includes 12 Climate Convenings throughout rural Minnesota in a range of communities (tourism-based, agrarian, natural resources-based, university towns) to engage local populations in highly local conversations about climate change, its local impacts, and local solutions currently occurring. Climate Generation and RSDP have partnered with Molly Phipps Consulting to evaluate the efficacy of this approach in rural Minnesota. Data include pre and post convening surveys examining participants' current action around climate change, attitudes toward climate change (using questions from Maibach, Roser-Renouf, and Leiserowitz, 2009), and the strength of their social network to support their current and ongoing work toward mitigating and adapting to climate change. Although the Climate Convenings are tailored to each community, all include a resource fair of local organizations already engaging in climate change mitigation and adaptation activities which participants can participate in, a welcome from a trusted local official, a presentation on the science of climate change, sharing of local climate stories, and break-out groups where participants can learn how to get involved in a particular mitigation or adaptation strategy. Preliminary results have been positive: participants feel motivated to work toward mitigating and adapting to climate change, and more local stories have emerged that can be shared in follow-up webinars and on a project website to continue to inspire others to act.

  8. Local Adaptation Enhances Seedling Recruitment Along an Altitudinal Gradient in a High Mountain Mediterranean Plant

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Benavides, Luis; Escudero, Adrián; Iriondo, José M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Germination and seedling establishment, which are critical stages in the regeneration process of plant populations, may be subjected to natural selection and adaptive evolution. The aims of this work were to assess the main limitations on offspring performance of Silene ciliata, a high mountain Mediterranean plant, and to test whether local adaptation at small spatial scales has a significant effect on the success of establishment. Methods Reciprocal sowing experiments were carried out among three populations of the species to test for evidence of local adaptation on seedling emergence, survival and size. Studied populations were located at the southernmost margin of the species' range, along the local elevation gradient that leads to a drought stress gradient. Key Results Drought stress in summer was the main cause of seedling mortality even though germination mainly occurred immediately after snowmelt to make the best use of soil moisture. The results support the hypothesis that species perform better at the centre of their altitudinal range than at the boundaries. Evidence was also found of local adaptation in seedling survival and growth along the whole gradient. Conclusions The local adaptation acting on seedling emergence and survival favours the persistence of remnant populations on the altitudinal and latitudinal margins of mountain species. In a global warming context, such processes may help to counteract the contraction of this species' ranges and the consequent loss of habitat area. PMID:17307775

  9. Local adaptation along an environmental cline in a species with an inversion polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Wellenreuther, Maren; Rosenquist, Hanna; Jaksons, Peter; Larson W, Keith

    2017-03-10

    Polymorphic inversions are ubiquitous across the animal kingdom and are frequently associated with clines in inversion frequencies across environmental gradients. Such clines are thought to result from selection favouring local adaptation, however, empirical tests are scarce. The seaweed fly Coelopa frigida has an α/β inversion polymorphism and previous work demonstrated that the α inversion frequency declines from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea, and is correlated with changes in tidal range, salinity, algal composition and wrackbed stability. Here we explicitly test the hypothesis that populations of C. frigida along this cline are locally adapted by conducting a reciprocal transplant experiment of four populations along this cline to quantify survival. We found that survival varied significantly across treatments and detected a significant Location x Substrate interaction, indicating local adaptation. Survival models showed that flies from locations at both extremes had highest survival on their native substrates, demonstrating that local adaptation is present at the extremes of the cline. Survival at the two intermediate locations was, however, not elevated at the native substrates, suggesting that gene flow in intermediate habitats may override selection. Together, our results support the notion that population extremes of species with polymorphic inversions are often locally adapted, even when spatially close, consistent with the growing view that inversions can have direct and strong effects on the fitness of species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of an Internal Model Control strategy for single-phase grid-connected PWM inverters and its performance analysis with a non-linear local load and weak grid.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Eric N; Coelho, Ernane A A; Carvalho, Henrique T M; Freitas, Luiz C G; Júnior, João B V; Freitas, Luiz C

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the design of a controller based on Internal Model Control (IMC) applied to a grid-connected single-phase PWM inverter. The mathematical modeling of the inverter and the LCL output filter, used to project the 1-DOF IMC controller, is presented and the decoupling of grid voltage by a Feedforward strategy is analyzed. A Proportional - Resonant Controller (P+Res) was used for the control of the same plant in the running of experimental results, thus moving towards the discussion of differences regarding IMC and P+Res performances, which arrived at the evaluation of the proposed control strategy. The results are presented for typical conditions, for weak-grid and for non-linear local load, in order to verify the behavior of the controller against such situations.

  11. LoAd: A locally adaptive cortical segmentation algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, M. Jorge; Clarkson, Matthew J.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Modat, Marc; Fox, Nick C.; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Thickness measurements of the cerebral cortex can aid diagnosis and provide valuable information about the temporal evolution of diseases such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and schizophrenia. Methods that measure the thickness of the cerebral cortex from in-vivo magnetic resonance (MR) images rely on an accurate segmentation of the MR data. However, segmenting the cortex in a robust and accurate way still poses a challenge due to the presence of noise, intensity non-uniformity, partial volume effects, the limited resolution of MRI and the highly convoluted shape of the cortical folds. Beginning with a well-established probabilistic segmentation model with anatomical tissue priors, we propose three post-processing refinements: a novel modification of the prior information to reduce segmentation bias; introduction of explicit partial volume classes; and a locally varying MRF-based model for enhancement of sulci and gyri. Experiments performed on a new digital phantom, on BrainWeb data and on data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) show statistically significant improvements in Dice scores and PV estimation (p<10−3) and also increased thickness estimation accuracy when compared to three well established techniques. PMID:21316470

  12. Unstructured grids on SIMD torus machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorstad, Petter E.; Schreiber, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Unstructured grids lead to unstructured communication on distributed memory parallel computers, a problem that has been considered difficult. Here, we consider adaptive, offline communication routing for a SIMD processor grid. Our approach is empirical. We use large data sets drawn from supercomputing applications instead of an analytic model of communication load. The chief contribution of this paper is an experimental demonstration of the effectiveness of certain routing heuristics. Our routing algorithm is adaptive, nonminimal, and is generally designed to exploit locality. We have a parallel implementation of the router, and we report on its performance.

  13. A new algorithm for high-dimensional uncertainty quantification based on dimension-adaptive sparse grid approximation and reduced basis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Quarteroni, Alfio

    2015-10-01

    In this work we develop an adaptive and reduced computational algorithm based on dimension-adaptive sparse grid approximation and reduced basis methods for solving high-dimensional uncertainty quantification (UQ) problems. In order to tackle the computational challenge of "curse of dimensionality" commonly faced by these problems, we employ a dimension-adaptive tensor-product algorithm [16] and propose a verified version to enable effective removal of the stagnation phenomenon besides automatically detecting the importance and interaction of different dimensions. To reduce the heavy computational cost of UQ problems modelled by partial differential equations (PDE), we adopt a weighted reduced basis method [7] and develop an adaptive greedy algorithm in combination with the previous verified algorithm for efficient construction of an accurate reduced basis approximation. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated by several numerical experiments.

  14. Adaptive behaviors in multi-agent source localization using passive sensing

    PubMed Central

    Shaukat, Mansoor; Chitre, Mandar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the role of adaptive group cohesion in a cooperative multi-agent source localization problem is investigated. A distributed source localization algorithm is presented for a homogeneous team of simple agents. An agent uses a single sensor to sense the gradient and two sensors to sense its neighbors. The algorithm is a set of individualistic and social behaviors where the individualistic behavior is as simple as an agent keeping its previous heading and is not self-sufficient in localizing the source. Source localization is achieved as an emergent property through agent’s adaptive interactions with the neighbors and the environment. Given a single agent is incapable of localizing the source, maintaining team connectivity at all times is crucial. Two simple temporal sampling behaviors, intensity-based-adaptation and connectivity-based-adaptation, ensure an efficient localization strategy with minimal agent breakaways. The agent behaviors are simultaneously optimized using a two phase evolutionary optimization process. The optimized behaviors are estimated with analytical models and the resulting collective behavior is validated against the agent’s sensor and actuator noise, strong multi-path interference due to environment variability, initialization distance sensitivity and loss of source signal. PMID:28018121

  15. Adaptive behaviors in multi-agent source localization using passive sensing.

    PubMed

    Shaukat, Mansoor; Chitre, Mandar

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the role of adaptive group cohesion in a cooperative multi-agent source localization problem is investigated. A distributed source localization algorithm is presented for a homogeneous team of simple agents. An agent uses a single sensor to sense the gradient and two sensors to sense its neighbors. The algorithm is a set of individualistic and social behaviors where the individualistic behavior is as simple as an agent keeping its previous heading and is not self-sufficient in localizing the source. Source localization is achieved as an emergent property through agent's adaptive interactions with the neighbors and the environment. Given a single agent is incapable of localizing the source, maintaining team connectivity at all times is crucial. Two simple temporal sampling behaviors, intensity-based-adaptation and connectivity-based-adaptation, ensure an efficient localization strategy with minimal agent breakaways. The agent behaviors are simultaneously optimized using a two phase evolutionary optimization process. The optimized behaviors are estimated with analytical models and the resulting collective behavior is validated against the agent's sensor and actuator noise, strong multi-path interference due to environment variability, initialization distance sensitivity and loss of source signal.

  16. Computational Aerothermodynamic Simulation Issues on Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; White, Jeffery A.

    2004-01-01

    The synthesis of physical models for gas chemistry and turbulence from the structured grid codes LAURA and VULCAN into the unstructured grid code FUN3D is described. A directionally Symmetric, Total Variation Diminishing (STVD) algorithm and an entropy fix (eigenvalue limiter) keyed to local cell Reynolds number are introduced to improve solution quality for hypersonic aeroheating applications. A simple grid-adaptation procedure is incorporated within the flow solver. Simulations of flow over an ellipsoid (perfect gas, inviscid), Shuttle Orbiter (viscous, chemical nonequilibrium) and comparisons to the structured grid solvers LAURA (cylinder, Shuttle Orbiter) and VULCAN (flat plate) are presented to show current capabilities. The quality of heating in 3D stagnation regions is very sensitive to algorithm options in general, high aspect ratio tetrahedral elements complicate the simulation of high Reynolds number, viscous flow as compared to locally structured meshes aligned with the flow.

  17. North-South Colonization Associated with Local Adaptation of the Wild Tomato Species Solanum chilense.

    PubMed

    Böndel, Katharina B; Lainer, Hilde; Nosenko, Tetyana; Mboup, Mamadou; Tellier, Aurélien; Stephan, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    After colonization population sizes may vary across the species range depending on environmental conditions and following colonizations. An interesting question is whether local adaptation occurs more frequently in large ancestral populations or in small derived populations. A higher number of new mutations and a lower effect of genetic drift should favor selection in large populations, whereas small derived populations may require an initial local adaptation event to facilitate the colonization of new habitats. Wild tomatoes are native to a broad range of different habitats characterized by variable abiotic conditions in South America, and represent an ideal system to study this interplay between demography and natural selection. Population genetic analyses and statistical inference of past demography were conducted on pooled-sequencing data from 30 genes (8,080 single nucleotide polymorphisms) from an extensive sampling of 23 Solanum chilense populations over Chile and Peru. We reveal first a north-south colonization associated with relaxed purifying selection in the south as shown by a decrease of genetic variation and an increasing proportion of nonsynonymous polymorphism from north to south, and population substructure with at least four genetic groups. Second, we uncover a dual picture of adaptation consisting of 1) a decreasing proportion of adaptive amino acid substitutions from north to south suggesting that adaptation is favored in large populations, whereas 2) signatures of local adaptation predominantly occur in the smaller populations from the marginal ranges in the south.

  18. Population genomics of local adaptation versus speciation in coral reef fishes (Hypoplectrus spp, Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Picq, Sophie; McMillan, W Owen; Puebla, Oscar

    2016-04-01

    Are the population genomic patterns underlying local adaptation and the early stages of speciation similar? Addressing this question requires a system in which (i) local adaptation and the early stages of speciation can be clearly identified and distinguished, (ii) the amount of genetic divergence driven by the two processes is similar, and (iii) comparisons can be repeated both taxonomically (for local adaptation) and geographically (for speciation). Here, we report just such a situation in the hamlets (Hypoplectrus spp), brightly colored reef fishes from the wider Caribbean. Close to 100,000 SNPs genotyped in 126 individuals from three sympatric species sampled in three repeated populations provide genome-wide levels of divergence that are comparable among allopatric populations (F st estimate = 0.0042) and sympatric species (F st estimate = 0.0038). Population genetic, clustering, and phylogenetic analyses reveal very similar patterns for local adaptation and speciation, with a large fraction of the genome undifferentiated (F st estimate ≈ 0), a very small proportion of F st outlier loci (0.05-0.07%), and remarkably few repeated outliers (1-3). Nevertheless, different loci appear to be involved in the two processes in Hypoplectrus, with only 7% of the most differentiated SNPs and outliers shared between populations and species comparisons. In particular, a tropomyosin (Tpm4) and a previously identified hox (HoxCa) locus emerge as candidate loci (repeated outliers) for local adaptation and speciation, respectively. We conclude that marine populations may be locally adapted notwithstanding shallow levels of genetic divergence, and that from a population genomic perspective, this process does not appear to differ fundamentally from the early stages of speciation.

  19. Local adaptation in the flowering-time gene network of balsam poplar, Populus balsamifera L.

    PubMed

    Keller, Stephen R; Levsen, Nicholas; Olson, Matthew S; Tiffin, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Identifying the signature and targets of local adaptation is an increasingly important goal in empirical population genetics. Using data from 443 balsam poplar Populus balsamifera trees sampled from 31 populations, we tested for evidence of geographically variable selection shaping diversity at 27 homologues of the Arabidopsis flowering-time network. These genes are implicated in the control of seasonal phenology, an important determinant of fitness. Using 335 candidate and 412 reference single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we tested for evidence of local adaptation by searching for elevated population differentiation using F(ST)-based outlier analyses implemented in BayeScan or a Hierarchical Model in Arelquin and by testing for significant associations between allele frequency and environmental variables using BAYENV. A total of 46 SNPs from 14 candidate genes had signatures of local adaptation-either significantly greater population differentiation or significant covariance with one or more environmental variable relative to reference SNP distributions. Only 11 SNPs from two genes exhibited both elevated population differentiation and covariance with one or more environmental variables. Several genes including the abscisic acid gene ABI1B and the circadian clock genes ELF3 and GI5 harbored a large number of SNPs with signatures of local adaptation-with SNPs in GI5 strongly covarying with both latitude and precipitation and SNPs in ABI1B strongly covarying with temperature. In contrast to several other systems, we find little evidence that photoreceptors, including phytochromes, play an important role in local adaptation. Our results additionally show that detecting local adaptation is sensitive to the analytical approaches used and that model-based significance thresholds should be viewed with caution.

  20. Patterns and dynamics of rapid local adaptation and sex in varying habitat types in rotifers.

    PubMed

    Scheuerl, Thomas; Stelzer, Claus-Peter

    2013-10-01

    Local adaptation is an important principle in a world of environmental change and might be critical for species persistence. We tested the hypothesis that replicated populations can attain rapid local adaptation under two varying laboratory environments. Clonal subpopulations of the cyclically parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were allowed to adapt to two varying harsh and a benign environment: a high-salt, a food-limited environment and untreated culture medium (no salt addition, high food). In contrast to most previous studies, we re-adjusted rotifer density to a fixed value (two individuals per ml) every 3-4 days of unrestricted population growth, instead of exchanging a fixed proportion of the culture medium. Thus our dilution regime specifically selected for high population growth during the entire experiment and it allowed us to continuously track changes in fitness (i.e., maximum population growth under the prevailing conditions) in each population. After 56 days (43 asexual and eight sexual generations) of selection, the populations in the harsh environments showed a significant increase in fitness over time relative to the beginning compared to the population in untreated culture medium. Furthermore, the high-salt population exhibited a significantly elevated ratio of sexual offspring from the start of the experiment, which suggested that this environment either triggered higher rates of sex or that the untreated medium and the food-limited environment suppressed sex. In a following assay of local adaptation we measured population fitness under "local" versus "foreign" conditions (populations adapted to this environment compared to those of the other environment) for both harsh habitats. We found significantly higher fitness values for the local populations (on average, a 38% higher fitness) compared to the foreign populations. Overall, local adaptation was formed rapidly and it seemed to be more pronounced in the high-salt treatment.

  1. A conservative finite volume scheme with time-accurate local time stepping for scalar transport on unstructured grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, José Rafael; Dumbser, Michael; Motta-Marques, David da; Fragoso Junior, Carlos Ruberto

    2015-12-01

    In this article we propose a new conservative high resolution TVD (total variation diminishing) finite volume scheme with time-accurate local time stepping (LTS) on unstructured grids for the solution of scalar transport problems, which are typical in the context of water quality simulations. To keep the presentation of the new method as simple as possible, the algorithm is only derived in two space dimensions and for purely convective transport problems, hence neglecting diffusion and reaction terms. The new numerical method for the solution of the scalar transport is directly coupled to the hydrodynamic model of Casulli and Walters (2000) that provides the dynamics of the free surface and the velocity vector field based on a semi-implicit discretization of the shallow water equations. Wetting and drying is handled rigorously by the nonlinear algorithm proposed by Casulli (2009). The new time-accurate LTS algorithm allows a different time step size for each element of the unstructured grid, based on an element-local Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) stability condition. The proposed method does not need any synchronization between different time steps of different elements and is by construction locally and globally conservative. The LTS scheme is based on a piecewise linear polynomial reconstruction in space-time using the MUSCL-Hancock method, to obtain second order of accuracy in both space and time. The new algorithm is first validated on some classical test cases for pure advection problems, for which exact solutions are known. In all cases we obtain a very good level of accuracy, showing also numerical convergence results; we furthermore confirm mass conservation up to machine precision and observe an improved computational efficiency compared to a standard second order TVD scheme for scalar transport with global time stepping (GTS). Then, the new LTS method is applied to some more complex problems, where the new scalar transport scheme has also been coupled to

  2. Evidence of concurrent local adaptation and high phenotypic plasticity in a polar microeukaryote.

    PubMed

    Rengefors, Karin; Logares, Ramiro; Laybourn-Parry, Johanna; Gast, Rebecca J

    2015-05-01

    Here we investigated whether there is evidence of local adaptation in strains of an ancestrally marine dinoflagellate to the lacustrine environment they now inhabit (optimal genotypes) and/or if they have evolved phenotypic plasticity (a range of phenotypes). Eleven strains of Polarella glacialis were isolated and cultured from three different environments: the polar seas, a hyposaline and a hypersaline Antarctic lake. Local adaptation was tested by comparing growth rates of lacustrine and marine strains at their own and reciprocal site conditions. To determine phenotypic plasticity, we measured the reaction norm for salinity. We found evidence of both, limited local adaptation and higher phenotypic plasticity in lacustrine strains when compared with marine ancestors. At extreme high salinities, local lake strains outperformed other strains, and at extreme low salinities, strains from the hyposaline lake outperformed all other strains. The data suggest that lake populations may have evolved higher phenotypic plasticity in the lake habitats compared with the sea, presumably due to the high temporal variability in salinity in the lacustrine systems. Moreover, the interval of salinity tolerance differed between strains from the hyposaline and hypersaline lakes, indicating local adaptation promoted by different salinity.

  3. Global Optimization, Local Adaptation, and the Role of Growth in Distribution Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Katifori, Eleni

    2016-09-01

    Highly optimized complex transport networks serve crucial functions in many man-made and natural systems such as power grids and plant or animal vasculature. Often, the relevant optimization functional is nonconvex and characterized by many local extrema. In general, finding the global, or nearly global optimum is difficult. In biological systems, it is believed that such an optimal state is slowly achieved through natural selection. However, general coarse grained models for flow networks with local positive feedback rules for the vessel conductivity typically get trapped in low efficiency, local minima. In this work we show how the growth of the underlying tissue, coupled to the dynamical equations for network development, can drive the system to a dramatically improved optimal state. This general model provides a surprisingly simple explanation for the appearance of highly optimized transport networks in biology such as leaf and animal vasculature.

  4. Local Adaptation in European Firs Assessed through Extensive Sampling across Altitudinal Gradients in Southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Postolache, Dragos; Lascoux, Martin; Drouzas, Andreas D.; Källman, Thomas; Leonarduzzi, Cristina; Liepelt, Sascha; Piotti, Andrea; Popescu, Flaviu; Roschanski, Anna M.; Zhelev, Peter; Fady, Bruno; Vendramin, Giovanni Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background Local adaptation is a key driver of phenotypic and genetic divergence at loci responsible for adaptive traits variations in forest tree populations. Its experimental assessment requires rigorous sampling strategies such as those involving population pairs replicated across broad spatial scales. Methods A hierarchical Bayesian model of selection (HBM) that explicitly considers both the replication of the environmental contrast and the hierarchical genetic structure among replicated study sites is introduced. Its power was assessed through simulations and compared to classical ‘within-site’ approaches (FDIST, BAYESCAN) and a simplified, within-site, version of the model introduced here (SBM). Results HBM demonstrates that hierarchical approaches are very powerful to detect replicated patterns of adaptive divergence with low false-discovery (FDR) and false-non-discovery (FNR) rates compared to the analysis of different sites separately through within-site approaches. The hypothesis of local adaptation to altitude was further addressed by analyzing replicated Abies alba population pairs (low and high elevations) across the species’ southern distribution range, where the effects of climatic selection are expected to be the strongest. For comparison, a single population pair from the closely related species A. cephalonica was also analyzed. The hierarchical model did not detect any pattern of adaptive divergence to altitude replicated in the different study sites. Instead, idiosyncratic patterns of local adaptation among sites were detected by within-site approaches. Conclusion Hierarchical approaches may miss idiosyncratic patterns of adaptation among sites, and we strongly recommend the use of both hierarchical (multi-site) and classical (within-site) approaches when addressing the question of adaptation across broad spatial scales. PMID:27392065

  5. Patterns and dynamics of rapid local adaptation and sex in varying habitat types in rotifers

    PubMed Central

    Scheuerl, Thomas; Stelzer, Claus-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Local adaptation is an important principle in a world of environmental change and might be critical for species persistence. We tested the hypothesis that replicated populations can attain rapid local adaptation under two varying laboratory environments. Clonal subpopulations of the cyclically parthenogenetic rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus were allowed to adapt to two varying harsh and a benign environment: a high-salt, a food-limited environment and untreated culture medium (no salt addition, high food). In contrast to most previous studies, we re-adjusted rotifer density to a fixed value (two individuals per ml) every 3–4 days of unrestricted population growth, instead of exchanging a fixed proportion of the culture medium. Thus our dilution regime specifically selected for high population growth during the entire experiment and it allowed us to continuously track changes in fitness (i.e., maximum population growth under the prevailing conditions) in each population. After 56 days (43 asexual and eight sexual generations) of selection, the populations in the harsh environments showed a significant increase in fitness over time relative to the beginning compared to the population in untreated culture medium. Furthermore, the high-salt population exhibited a significantly elevated ratio of sexual offspring from the start of the experiment, which suggested that this environment either triggered higher rates of sex or that the untreated medium and the food-limited environment suppressed sex. In a following assay of local adaptation we measured population fitness under “local” versus “foreign” conditions (populations adapted to this environment compared to those of the other environment) for both harsh habitats. We found significantly higher fitness values for the local populations (on average, a 38% higher fitness) compared to the foreign populations. Overall, local adaptation was formed rapidly and it seemed to be more pronounced in the high

  6. Testing the role of phenotypic plasticity for local adaptation: growth and development in time-constrained Rana temporaria populations.

    PubMed

    Lind, M I; Johansson, F

    2011-12-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can be important for local adaptation, because it enables individuals to survive in a novel environment until genetic changes have been accumulated by genetic accommodation. By analysing the relationship between development rate and growth rate, it can be determined whether plasticity in life-history traits is caused by changed physiology or behaviour. We extended this to examine whether plasticity had been aiding local adaptation, by investigating whether the plastic response had been fixed in locally adapted populations. Tadpoles from island populations of Rana temporaria, locally adapted to different pool-drying regimes, were monitored in a common garden. Individual differences in development rate were caused by different foraging efficiency. However, developmental plasticity was physiologically mediated by trading off growth against development rate. Surprisingly, plasticity has not aided local adaptation to time-stressed environments, because local adaptation was not caused by genetic assimilation but on selection on the standing genetic variation in development time.

  7. Prevailing Negative Soil Biota Effect and No Evidence for Local Adaptation in a Widespread Eurasian Grass

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Viktoria; Antunes, Pedro M.; Ristow, Michael; Lechner, Ute; Hensen, Isabell

    2011-01-01

    Background Soil biota effects are increasingly accepted as an important driver of the abundance and distribution of plants. While biogeographical studies on alien invasive plant species have indicated coevolution with soil biota in their native distribution range, it is unknown whether adaptation to soil biota varies among populations within the native distribution range. The question of local adaptation between plants and their soil biota has important implications for conservation of biodiversity and may justify the use of seed material from local provenances in restoration campaigns. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied soil biota effects in ten populations of the steppe grass Stipa capillata from two distinct regions, Europe and Asia. We tested for local adaptation at two different scales, both within (ca. 10–80 km) and between (ca. 3300 km) regions, using a reciprocal inoculation experiment in the greenhouse for nine months. Generally, negative soil biota effects were consistent. However, we did not find evidence for local adaptation: both within and between regions, growth of plants in their ‘home soil’ was not significantly larger relative to that in soil from other, more distant, populations. Conclusions/Significance Our study suggests that negative soil biota effects can prevail in different parts of a plant species' range. Absence of local adaptation points to the possibility of similar rhizosphere biota composition across populations and regions, sufficient gene flow to prevent coevolution, selection in favor of plasticity, or functional redundancy among different soil biota. From the point of view of plant - soil biota interactions, our findings indicate that the current practice of using seeds exclusively from local provenances in ecosystem restoration campaigns may not be justified. PMID:21479262

  8. Adaptive Decomposition of Highly Resolved Time Series into Local and Non‐local Components

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly time-resolved air monitoring data are widely being collected over long time horizons in order to characterizeambient and near-source air quality trends. In many applications, it is desirable to split the time-resolved data into two ormore components (e.g., local and region...

  9. An h-adaptive local discontinuous Galerkin method for the Navier-Stokes-Korteweg equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lulu; Xu, Yan; Kuerten, J. G. M.; van der Vegt, J. J. W.

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we develop a mesh adaptation algorithm for a local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) discretization of the (non)-isothermal Navier-Stokes-Korteweg (NSK) equations modeling liquid-vapor flows with phase change. This work is a continuation of our previous research, where we proposed LDG discretizations for the (non)-isothermal NSK equations with a time-implicit Runge-Kutta method. To save computing time and to capture the thin interfaces more accurately, we extend the LDG discretization with a mesh adaptation method. Given the current adapted mesh, a criterion for selecting candidate elements for refinement and coarsening is adopted based on the locally largest value of the density gradient. A strategy to refine and coarsen the candidate elements is then provided. We emphasize that the adaptive LDG discretization is relatively simple and does not require additional stabilization. The use of a locally refined mesh in combination with an implicit Runge-Kutta time method is, however, non-trivial, but results in an efficient time integration method for the NSK equations. Computations, including cases with solid wall boundaries, are provided to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and capabilities of the adaptive LDG discretizations.

  10. Health Aspects of Climate Change in Cities with Mediterranean Climate, and Local Adaptation Plans

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Shlomit; Negev, Maya; Clermont, Alexandra; Green, Manfred S.

    2016-01-01

    Cities with a Mediterranean-type climate (Med-cities) are particularly susceptible to health risks from climate change since they are located in biogeographical hot-spots that experience some of the strongest effects of the changing climate. The study aims to highlight health impacts of climate change in Med-cities, analyze local climate adaptation plans and make adaptation policy recommendations for the Med-city level. We identified five Med-cities with a climate change adaptation plan: Adelaide, Barcelona, Cape Town, Los Angeles and Santiago. Beyond their similar Med-climate features (although Santiago’s are slightly different), the cities have different socio-economic characteristics in various aspects. We analyzed each plan according to how it addresses climate change-related drivers of health impacts among city dwellers. For each driver, we identified the types of policy adaptation tools that address it in the urban climate adaptation plans. The surveyed cities address most of the fundamental climate change-related drivers of risks to human health, including rising temperatures, flooding and drought, but the policy measures to reduce negative impacts vary across cities. We suggest recommendations for Med-cities in various aspects, depending on their local needs and vulnerability challenges: assessment of health risks, extreme events management and long-term adaptation, among others. PMID:27110801

  11. Health Aspects of Climate Change in Cities with Mediterranean Climate, and Local Adaptation Plans.

    PubMed

    Paz, Shlomit; Negev, Maya; Clermont, Alexandra; Green, Manfred S

    2016-04-21

    Cities with a Mediterranean-type climate (Med-cities) are particularly susceptible to health risks from climate change since they are located in biogeographical hot-spots that experience some of the strongest effects of the changing climate. The study aims to highlight health impacts of climate change in Med-cities, analyze local climate adaptation plans and make adaptation policy recommendations for the Med-city level. We identified five Med-cities with a climate change adaptation plan: Adelaide, Barcelona, Cape Town, Los Angeles and Santiago. Beyond their similar Med-climate features (although Santiago's are slightly different), the cities have different socio-economic characteristics in various aspects. We analyzed each plan according to how it addresses climate change-related drivers of health impacts among city dwellers. For each driver, we identified the types of policy adaptation tools that address it in the urban climate adaptation plans. The surveyed cities address most of the fundamental climate change-related drivers of risks to human health, including rising temperatures, flooding and drought, but the policy measures to reduce negative impacts vary across cities. We suggest recommendations for Med-cities in various aspects, depending on their local needs and vulnerability challenges: assessment of health risks, extreme events management and long-term adaptation, among others.

  12. Using archaeogenomic and computational approaches to unravel the history of local adaptation in crops

    PubMed Central

    Allaby, Robin G.; Gutaker, Rafal; Clarke, Andrew C.; Pearson, Neil; Ware, Roselyn; Palmer, Sarah A.; Kitchen, James L.; Smith, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of domestication has changed radically in the past 10 years, from a relatively simplistic rapid origin scenario to a protracted complex process in which plants adapted to the human environment. The adaptation of plants continued as the human environment changed with the expansion of agriculture from its centres of origin. Using archaeogenomics and computational models, we can observe genome evolution directly and understand how plants adapted to the human environment and the regional conditions to which agriculture expanded. We have applied various archaeogenomics approaches as exemplars to study local adaptation of barley to drought resistance at Qasr Ibrim, Egypt. We show the utility of DNA capture, ancient RNA, methylation patterns and DNA from charred remains of archaeobotanical samples from low latitudes where preservation conditions restrict ancient DNA research to within a Holocene timescale. The genomic level of analyses that is now possible, and the complexity of the evolutionary process of local adaptation means that plant studies are set to move to the genome level, and account for the interaction of genes under selection in systems-level approaches. This way we can understand how plants adapted during the expansion of agriculture across many latitudes with rapidity. PMID:25487329

  13. AFLPs and Mitochondrial Haplotypes Reveal Local Adaptation to Extreme Thermal Environments in a Freshwater Gastropod

    PubMed Central

    Quintela, María; Johansson, Magnus P.; Kristjánsson, Bjarni K.; Barreiro, Rodolfo; Laurila, Anssi

    2014-01-01

    The way environmental variation shapes neutral and adaptive genetic variation in natural populations is a key issue in evolutionary biology. Genome scans allow the identification of the genetic basis of local adaptation without previous knowledge of genetic variation or traits under selection. Candidate loci for divergent adaptation are expected to show higher FST than neutral loci influenced solely by random genetic drift, migration and mutation. The comparison of spatial patterns of neutral markers and loci under selection may help disentangle the effects of gene flow, genetic drift and selection among populations living in contrasting environments. Using the gastropod Radix balthica as a system, we analyzed 376 AFLP markers and 25 mtDNA COI haplotypes for candidate loci and associations with local adaptation among contrasting thermal environments in Lake Mývatn, a volcanic lake in northern Iceland. We found that 2% of the analysed AFLP markers were under directional selection and 12% of the mitochondrial haplotypes correlated with differing thermal habitats. The genetic networks were concordant for AFLP markers and mitochondrial haplotypes, depicting distinct topologies at neutral and candidate loci. Neutral topologies were characterized by intense gene flow revealed by dense nets with edges connecting contrasting thermal habitats, whereas the connections at candidate loci were mostly restricted to populations within each thermal habitat and the number of edges decreased with temperature. Our results suggest microgeographic adaptation within Lake Mývatn and highlight the utility of genome scans in detecting adaptive divergence. PMID:25007329

  14. Addressing potential local adaptation in species distribution models: implications for conservation under climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hällfors, Maria Helena; Liao, Jishan; Dzurisin, Jason D. K.; Grundel, Ralph; Hyvärinen, Marko; Towle, Kevin; Wu, Grace C.; Hellmann, Jessica J.

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have been criticized for involving assumptions that ignore or categorize many ecologically relevant factors such as dispersal ability and biotic interactions. Another potential source of model error is the assumption that species are ecologically uniform in their climatic tolerances across their range. Typically, SDMs to treat a species as a single entity, although populations of many species differ due to local adaptation or other genetic differentiation. Not taking local adaptation into account, may lead to incorrect range prediction and therefore misplaced conservation efforts. A constraint is that we often do not know the degree to which populations are locally adapted, however. Lacking experimental evidence, we still can evaluate niche differentiation within a species' range to promote better conservation decisions. We explore possible conservation implications of making type I or type II errors in this context. For each of two species, we construct three separate MaxEnt models, one considering the species as a single population and two of disjunct populations. PCA analyses and response curves indicate different climate characteristics in the current environments of the populations. Model projections into future climates indicate minimal overlap between areas predicted to be climatically suitable by the whole species versus population-based models. We present a workflow for addressing uncertainty surrounding local adaptation in SDM application and illustrate the value of conducting population-based models to compare with whole-species models. These comparisons might result in more cautious management actions when alternative range outcomes are considered.

  15. Gene expression clines reveal local adaptation and associated trade-offs at a continental scale

    PubMed Central

    Porcelli, Damiano; Westram, Anja M.; Pascual, Marta; Gaston, Kevin J.; Butlin, Roger K.; Snook, Rhonda R.

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation, where fitness in one environment comes at a cost in another, should lead to spatial variation in trade-offs between life history traits and may be critical for population persistence. Recent studies have sought genomic signals of local adaptation, but often have been limited to laboratory populations representing two environmentally different locations of a species’ distribution. We measured gene expression, as a proxy for fitness, in males of Drosophila subobscura, occupying a 20° latitudinal and 11 °C thermal range. Uniquely, we sampled six populations and studied both common garden and semi-natural responses to identify signals of local adaptation. We found contrasting patterns of investment: transcripts with expression positively correlated to latitude were enriched for metabolic processes, expressed across all tissues whereas negatively correlated transcripts were enriched for reproductive processes, expressed primarily in testes. When using only the end populations, to compare our results to previous studies, we found that locally adaptive patterns were obscured. While phenotypic trade-offs between metabolic and reproductive functions across widespread species are well-known, our results identify underlying genetic and tissue responses at a continental scale that may be responsible for this. This may contribute to understanding population persistence under environmental change. PMID:27599812

  16. Invasion strategies in clonal aquatic plants: are phenotypic differences caused by phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation?

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Tenna; Lambertini, Carla; Olesen, Birgit; Clayton, John S.; Brix, Hans; Sorrell, Brian K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims The successful spread of invasive plants in new environments is often linked to multiple introductions and a diverse gene pool that facilitates local adaptation to variable environmental conditions. For clonal plants, however, phenotypic plasticity may be equally important. Here the primary adaptive strategy in three non-native, clonally reproducing macrophytes (Egeria densa, Elodea canadensis and Lagarosiphon major) in New Zealand freshwaters were examined and an attempt was made to link observed differences in plant morphology to local variation in habitat conditions. Methods Field populations with a large phenotypic variety were sampled in a range of lakes and streams with different chemical and physical properties. The phenotypic plasticity of the species before and after cultivation was studied in a common garden growth experiment, and the genetic diversity of these same populations was also quantified. Key Results For all three species, greater variation in plant characteristics was found before they were grown in standardized conditions. Moreover, field populations displayed remarkably little genetic variation and there was little interaction between habitat conditions and plant morphological characteristics. Conclusions The results indicate that at the current stage of spread into New Zealand, the primary adaptive strategy of these three invasive macrophytes is phenotypic plasticity. However, while limited, the possibility that genetic diversity between populations may facilitate ecotypic differentiation in the future cannot be excluded. These results thus indicate that invasive clonal aquatic plants adapt to new introduced areas by phenotypic plasticity. Inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous were important in controlling plant size of E. canadensis and L. major, but no other relationships between plant characteristics and habitat conditions were apparent. This implies that within-species differences in plant size can be explained

  17. Self-adaptive differential evolution algorithm incorporating local search for protein-ligand docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hwan Won; Cho, Seung Joo; Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; Lee, Kyu-Hwan

    2013-02-01

    Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is powerful in optimization problems over several real parameters. DE depends on strategies to generate new trial solutions and the associated parameter values for searching performance. In self-adaptive DE, the automatic learning about previous evolution was used to determine the best mutation strategy and its parameter settings. By combining the self-adaptive DE and Hooke Jeeves local search, we developed a new docking method named SADock (Strategy Adaptation Dock) with the help of AutoDock4 scoring function. As the accuracy and performance of SADock was evaluated in self-docking using the Astex diverse set, the introduced SADock showed better success ratio (89%) than the success ratio (60%) of the Lamarckian genetic algorithm (LGA) of AutoDock4. The self-adapting scheme enabled our new docking method to converge fast and to be robust through the various docking problems.

  18. An Adaptive Likelihood Distribution Algorithm for the Localization of Passive RFID Tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yuuki; Hori, Toshihiro; Onishi, Taiki; Wada, Tomotaka; Mutsuura, Kouichi; Okada, Hiromi

    The RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) tag technology is expected as a tool of localization. By the localization of RFID tags, a mobile robot which installs in RFID readers can recognize surrounding environments. In addition, RFID tags can be applied to a navigation system for walkers. In this paper, we propose an adaptive likelihood distribution scheme for the localization of RFID tags. This method adjusts the likelihood distribution depending on the signal intensity from RFID tags. We carry out the performance evaluation of estimated position error by both computer simulations and implemental experiments. We show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional system.

  19. Ecological genomics of local adaptation in Cornus florida L. by genotyping by sequencing.

    PubMed

    Pais, Andrew L; Whetten, Ross W; Xiang, Qiu-Yun Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Discovering local adaptation, its genetic underpinnings, and environmental drivers is important for conserving forest species. Ecological genomic approaches coupled with next-generation sequencing are useful means to detect local adaptation and uncover its underlying genetic basis in nonmodel species. We report results from a study on flowering dogwood trees (Cornus florida L.) using genotyping by sequencing (GBS). This species is ecologically important to eastern US forests but is severely threatened by fungal diseases. We analyzed subpopulations in divergent ecological habitats within North Carolina to uncover loci under local selection and associated with environmental-functional traits or disease infection. At this scale, we tested the effect of incorporating additional sequencing before scaling for a broader examination of the entire range. To test for biases of GBS, we sequenced two similarly sampled libraries independently from six populations of three ecological habitats. We obtained environmental-functional traits for each subpopulation to identify associations with genotypes via latent factor mixed modeling (LFMM) and gradient forests analysis. To test whether heterogeneity of abiotic pressures resulted in genetic differentiation indicative of local adaptation, we evaluated Fst per locus while accounting for genetic differentiation between coastal subpopulations and Piedmont-Mountain subpopulations. Of the 54 candidate loci with sufficient evidence of being under selection among both libraries, 28-39 were Arlequin-BayeScan Fst outliers. For LFMM, 45 candidates were associated with climate (of 54), 30 were associated with soil properties, and four were associated with plant health. Reanalysis of combined libraries showed that 42 candidate loci still showed evidence of being under selection. We conclude environment-driven selection on specific loci has resulted in local adaptation in response to potassium deficiencies, temperature, precipitation, and (to a

  20. Understanding the wide geographic range of a clonal perennial grass: plasticity versus local adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Zhang, Lirong; Xu, Xingliang; Niu, Haishan

    2016-01-01

    Both phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation may allow widely distributed plant species to either acclimate or adapt to environmental heterogeneity. Given the typically low genetic variation of clonal plants across their habitats, phenotypic plasticity may be the primary adaptive strategy allowing them to thrive across a wide range of habitats. In this study, the mechanism supporting the widespread distribution of the clonal plant Leymus chinensis was determined, i.e. phenotypic plasticity or local specialization in water use efficiency (WUE; reflected by foliar δ13C). To test whether plasticity is required for the species to thrive in different habitats, samples were collected across its distribution in the Mongolian steppe, and a controlled watering experiment was conducted with two populations at two different sites. Five populations were also transplanted from different sites into a control environment, and the foliar δ13C was compared between the control and original habitats, to test for local specialization in WUE. Results demonstrated decreased foliar δ13C with increasing precipitation during controlled watering experiments, with divergent responses between the two populations assessed. Change in foliar δ13C (−3.69 ‰) due to water addition was comparable to fluctuations of foliar δ13C observed in situ (−4.83 ‰). Foliar δ13C differed by −0.91 ‰ between two transplanted populations; however, this difference was not apparent between the two populations when growing in their original habitats. Findings provide evidence that local adaptation affects foliar δ13C much less than phenotypic plasticity. Thus, plasticity in WUE is more important than local adaptation in allowing the clonal plant L. chinensis to occupy a wide range of habitats in the Mongolian steppe. PMID:26644341

  1. Local host adaptation and use of a novel host in the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus.

    PubMed

    Stotz, Gisela C; Suárez, Lorena H; Gonzáles, Wilfredo L; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó) and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo). In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó), and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations.

  2. Local Host Adaptation and Use of a Novel Host in the Seed Beetle Megacerus eulophus

    PubMed Central

    Stotz, Gisela C.; Suárez, Lorena H.; Gonzáles, Wilfredo L.; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Spatial variation in host plant availability may lead to specialization in host use and local host adaptation in herbivorous insects, which may involve a cost in performance on other hosts. We studied two geographically separated populations of the seed beetle Megacerus eulophus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in central Chile: a population from the host Convolvulus chilensis (in Aucó) and a population from C. bonariensis (in Algarrobo). In Aucó C. chilensis is the only host plant, while in Algarrobo both C. bonariensis and C. chilensis are available. We tested local adaptation to these native host plants and its influence on the use of another, exotic host plant. We hypothesized that local adaptation would be verified, particularly for the one-host population (Aucó), and that the Aucó population would be less able to use an alternative, high-quality host. We found evidence of local adaptation in the population from C. chilensis. Thus, when reared on C. chilensis, adults from the C. chilensis population were larger and lived longer than individuals from the C. bonariensis population, while bruchids from the two populations had the same body size and longevity when reared on C. bonariensis. Overall, bruchids from the C. chilensis population showed greater performance traits than those from the C. bonariensis population. There were no differences between the bruchid populations in their ability to use the alternative, exotic host Calystegia sepium, as shown by body size and longevity patterns. Results suggest that differences in local adaptation might be explained by differential host availability in the study populations. PMID:23326528

  3. Gene expression in closely related species mirrors local adaptation: consequences for responses to a warming world.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Shawn T; Dzurisin, Jason D K; Williams, Caroline M; Lobo, Neil F; Higgins, Jessica K; Deines, Jillian M; Carmichael, Rory D; Zeng, Erliang; Tan, John C; Wu, Grace C; Emrich, Scott J; Hellmann, Jessica J

    2014-06-01

    Local adaptation of populations could preclude or slow range expansions in response to changing climate, particularly when dispersal is limited. To investigate the differential responses of populations to changing climatic conditions, we exposed poleward peripheral and central populations of two Lepidoptera to reciprocal, common-garden climatic conditions and compared their whole-transcriptome expression. We found evidence of simple population differentiation in both species, and in the species with previously identified population structure and phenotypic local adaptation, we found several hundred genes that responded in a synchronized and localized fashion. These genes were primarily involved in energy metabolism and oxidative stress, and expression levels were most divergent between populations in the same environment in which we previously detected divergence for metabolism. We found no localized genes in the species with less population structure and for which no local adaptation was previously detected. These results challenge the assumption that species are functionally similar across their ranges and poleward peripheral populations are preadapted to warmer conditions. Rather, some taxa deserve population-level consideration when predicting the effects of climate change because they respond in genetically based, distinctive ways to changing conditions.

  4. Local Adaptation and Vector-Mediated Population Structure in Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Ceron, Lilia; Carlton, Jane M.; Gueye, Amy; Fay, Michael; McCutchan, Thomas F.; Su, Xin-zhuan

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax in southern Mexico exhibits different infectivities to 2 local mosquito vectors, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis and Anopheles albimanus. Previous work has tied these differences in mosquito infectivity to variation in the central repeat motif of the malaria parasite's circumsporozoite (csp) gene, but subsequent studies have questioned this view. Here we present evidence that P. vivax in southern Mexico comprised 3 genetic populations whose distributions largely mirror those of the 2 mosquito vectors. Additionally, laboratory colony feeding experiments indicate that parasite populations are most compatible with sympatric mosquito species. Our results suggest that reciprocal selection between malaria parasites and mosquito vectors has led to local adaptation of the parasite. Adaptation to local vectors may play an important role in generating population structure in Plasmodium. A better understanding of coevolutionary dynamics between sympatric mosquitoes and parasites will facilitate the identification of molecular mechanisms relevant to disease transmission in nature and provide crucial information for malaria control. PMID:18385220

  5. Road to evolution? Local adaptation to road adjacency in an amphibian (Ambystoma maculatum).

    PubMed

    Brady, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    The network of roads on the landscape is vast, and contributes a suite of negative ecological effects on adjacent habitats, ranging from fragmentation to contamination by runoff. In addition to the immediate consequences faced by biota living in roaded landscapes, road effects may further function as novel agents of selection, setting the stage for contemporary evolutionary changes in local populations. Though the ecological consequences of roads are well described, evolutionary outcomes remain largely unevaluated. To address these potential responses in tandem, I conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment on early life history stages of a pool-breeding salamander. My data show that despite a strong, negative effect of roadside pools on salamander performance, populations adjacent to roads are locally adapted. This suggests that the response of species to human-altered environments varies across local populations, and that adaptive processes may mediate this response.

  6. Road to evolution? Local adaptation to road adjacency in an amphibian (Ambystoma maculatum)

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    The network of roads on the landscape is vast, and contributes a suite of negative ecological effects on adjacent habitats, ranging from fragmentation to contamination by runoff. In addition to the immediate consequences faced by biota living in roaded landscapes, road effects may further function as novel agents of selection, setting the stage for contemporary evolutionary changes in local populations. Though the ecological consequences of roads are well described, evolutionary outcomes remain largely unevaluated. To address these potential responses in tandem, I conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment on early life history stages of a pool-breeding salamander. My data show that despite a strong, negative effect of roadside pools on salamander performance, populations adjacent to roads are locally adapted. This suggests that the response of species to human-altered environments varies across local populations, and that adaptive processes may mediate this response. PMID:22355748

  7. Accurate and efficient representation of intramolecular energy in ab initio generation of crystal structures. I. Adaptive local approximate models.

    PubMed

    Sugden, Isaac; Adjiman, Claire S; Pantelides, Constantinos C

    2016-12-01

    The global search stage of crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods requires a fine balance between accuracy and computational cost, particularly for the study of large flexible molecules. A major improvement in the accuracy and cost of the intramolecular energy function used in the CrystalPredictor II [Habgood et al. (2015). J. Chem. Theory Comput. 11, 1957-1969] program is presented, where the most efficient use of computational effort is ensured via the use of adaptive local approximate model (LAM) placement. The entire search space of the relevant molecule's conformations is initially evaluated using a coarse, low accuracy grid. Additional LAM points are then placed at appropriate points determined via an automated process, aiming to minimize the computational effort expended in high-energy regions whilst maximizing the accuracy in low-energy regions. As the size, complexity and flexibility of molecules increase, the reduction in computational cost becomes marked. This improvement is illustrated with energy calculations for benzoic acid and the ROY molecule, and a CSP study of molecule (XXVI) from the sixth blind test [Reilly et al. (2016). Acta Cryst. B72, 439-459], which is challenging due to its size and flexibility. Its known experimental form is successfully predicted as the global minimum. The computational cost of the study is tractable without the need to make unphysical simplifying assumptions.

  8. MODFLOW–LGR—Documentation of ghost node local grid refinement (LGR2) for multiple areas and the boundary flow and head (BFH2) package

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the addition of ghost node Local Grid Refinement (LGR2) to MODFLOW-2005, the U.S. Geological Survey modular, transient, three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater flow model. LGR2 provides the capability to simulate groundwater flow using multiple block-shaped higher-resolution local grids (a child model) within a coarser-grid parent model. LGR2 accomplishes this by iteratively coupling separate MODFLOW-2005 models such that heads and fluxes are balanced across the grid-refinement interface boundary. LGR2 can be used in two-and three-dimensional, steady-state and transient simulations and for simulations of confined and unconfined groundwater systems. Traditional one-way coupled telescopic mesh refinement methods can have large, often undetected, inconsistencies in heads and fluxes across the interface between two model grids. The iteratively coupled ghost-node method of LGR2 provides a more rigorous coupling in which the solution accuracy is controlled by convergence criteria defined by the user. In realistic problems, this can result in substantially more accurate solutions and require an increase in computer processing time. The rigorous coupling enables sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation, and uncertainty analysis that reflects conditions in both model grids. This report describes the method used by LGR2, evaluates accuracy and performance for two-and three-dimensional test cases, provides input instructions, and lists selected input and output files for an example problem. It also presents the Boundary Flow and Head (BFH2) Package, which allows the child and parent models to be simulated independently using the boundary conditions obtained through the iterative process of LGR2.

  9. Local adaptation and matching habitat choice in female barn owls with respect to melanic coloration.

    PubMed

    Dreiss, A N; Antoniazza, S; Burri, R; Fumagalli, L; Sonnay, C; Frey, C; Goudet, J; Roulin, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Local adaptation is a major mechanism underlying the maintenance of phenotypic variation in spatially heterogeneous environments. In the barn owl (Tyto alba), dark and pale reddish-pheomelanic individuals are adapted to conditions prevailing in northern and southern Europe, respectively. Using a long-term dataset from Central Europe, we report results consistent with the hypothesis that the different pheomelanic phenotypes are adapted to specific local conditions in females, but not in males. Compared to whitish females, reddish females bred in sites surrounded by more arable fields and less forests. Colour-dependent habitat choice was apparently beneficial. First, whitish females produced more fledglings when breeding in wooded areas, whereas reddish females when breeding in sites with more arable fields. Second, cross-fostering experiments showed that female nestlings grew wings more rapidly when both their foster and biological mothers were of similar colour. The latter result suggests that mothers should particularly produce daughters in environments that best match their own coloration. Accordingly, whiter females produced fewer daughters in territories with more arable fields. In conclusion, females displaying alternative melanic phenotypes bred in habitats providing them with the highest fitness benefits. Although small in magnitude, matching habitat selection and local adaptation may help maintain variation in pheomelanin coloration in the barn owl.

  10. Complementary effect of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintains differentiation between locally adapted fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plath, Martin; Riesch, Rüdiger; Oranth, Alexandra; Dzienko, Justina; Karau, Nora; Schießl, Angela; Stadler, Stefan; Wigh, Adriana; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Schlupp, Ingo; Tobler, Michael

    2010-08-01

    Adaptation to ecologically heterogeneous environments can drive speciation. But what mechanisms maintain reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations? Using poeciliid fishes in a system with naturally occurring toxic hydrogen sulfide, we show that (a) fish from non-sulfidic sites ( Poecilia mexicana) show high mortality (95 %) after 24 h when exposed to the toxicant, while locally adapted fish from sulfidic sites ( Poecilia sulphuraria) experience low mortality (13 %) when transferred to non-sulfidic water. (b) Mate choice tests revealed that P. mexicana females exhibit a preference for conspecific males in non-sulfidic water, but not in sulfidic water, whereas P. sulphuraria females never showed a preference. Increased costs of mate choice in sulfidic, hypoxic water, and the lack of selection for reinforcement due to the low survival of P. mexicana may explain the absence of a preference in P. sulphuraria females. Taken together, our study may be the first to demonstrate independent—but complementary—effects of natural and sexual selection against immigrants maintaining differentiation between locally adapted fish populations.

  11. Development of a protocol to quantify local bone adaptation over space and time: Quantification of reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongtao; Boudiffa, Maya; Dall'Ara, Enrico; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Viceconti, Marco

    2016-07-05

    In vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) scanning of small rodents is a powerful method for longitudinal monitoring of bone adaptation. However, the life-time bone growth in small rodents makes it a challenge to quantify local bone adaptation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol, which can take into account large bone growth, to quantify local bone adaptations over space and time. The entire right tibiae of eight 14-week-old C57BL/6J female mice were consecutively scanned four times in an in vivo µCT scanner using a nominal isotropic image voxel size of 10.4µm. The repeated scan image datasets were aligned to the corresponding baseline (first) scan image dataset using rigid registration. 80% of tibia length (starting from the endpoint of the proximal growth plate) was selected as the volume of interest and partitioned into 40 regions along the tibial long axis (10 divisions) and in the cross-section (4 sectors). The bone mineral content (BMC) was used to quantify bone adaptation and was calculated in each region. All local BMCs have precision errors (PE%CV) of less than 3.5% (24 out of 40 regions have PE%CV of less than 2%), least significant changes (LSCs) of less than 3.8%, and 38 out of 40 regions have intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of over 0.8. The proposed protocol allows to quantify local bone adaptations over an entire tibia in longitudinal studies, with a high reproducibility, an essential requirement to reduce the number of animals to achieve the necessary statistical power.

  12. Using specific and adaptive arrangement of grid-type pilot in channel estimation for white-lightLED-based OFDM visible light communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wan-Feng; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yeh, Chien-Hung

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising candidate for light emitting diode (LED)-based optical wireless communication (OWC); however, precise channel estimation is required for synchronization and equalization. In this work, we study and discover that the channel response of the white-lightLED-based OWC was smooth and stable. Hence we propose and demonstrate using a specific and adaptive arrangement of grid-type pilot scheme to estimate the LED OWC channel response. Experimental results show that our scheme can achieve better transmission performance and with some transmission capacity enhancement when compared with the method using training-symbol scheme (also called block-type pilot scheme).

  13. Testing Local Adaptation in Five Populations of Hyalella azteca in Northern Alberta's Oil Sands Region.

    PubMed

    Beery, Steven R; Gauthier, Patrick T; Pyle, Gregory G

    2017-02-01

    Canada's oil sands hold the third largest petroleum reserves worldwide and have experienced rapid economic growth. The oil sands region provides an ideal location for studying local adaptations through reciprocal transplant (RT) because populations within the region have been historically exposed to naturally occurring bitumen. Our objectives were to (1) determine if Hyalella azteca from habitats within the oil sands region exhibited increased tolerance to constituents associated with industrial bitumen extraction compared with H. azteca from habitats outside the region; and (2) determine if any observed tolerance was attributable to local adaptation. Five populations of H. azteca were reciprocally transplanted from reclaimed and reference wetlands: four from local wetlands plus one naïve laboratory population. Survival, toxicity, and behaviour were measured before and after the RT period. Survival varied by population and site. These results show that the differences in responses among populations are likely not attributable to local adaptation and that laboratory populations of H. azteca provide ecologically relevant results when tested in the field.

  14. Adaptive Transition of Aquaporin 5 Expression and Localization during Preimplantation Embryo Development by In Vitro Culture.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Won; Shin, Yun Kyung; Choen, Yong-Pil

    2014-09-01

    Adaptive development of early stage embryo is well established and recently it is explored that the mammalian embryos also have adaptive ability to the stressful environment. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, to evaluate the possible role of aquaporin in early embryo developmental adaptation, the expression of aquaporin (AQP) 5 gene which is detected during early development were examined by the environmental condition. To compare expression patterns between in vivo and in vitro, we conducted quantitative RT-PCR and analyzed localization of the AQP5 by whole mount immunofluorescence. At in vivo condition, Aqp5 expressed in oocyte and in all the stages of preimplantation embryo. It showed peak at 2-cell stage and decreased continuously until morula stage. At in vitro condition, Aqp5 expression pattern was similar with in vivo embryos. It expressed both at embryonic genome activation phase and second midpreimplantation gene activation phase, but the fold changes were modified between in vivo embryos and in vitro embryos. During in vivo development, AQP5 was mainly localized in apical membrane of blastomeres of 4-cell and 8-cell stage embryos, and then it was localized in cytoplasm. However, the main localization area of AQP5 was dramatically shifted after 8-cell stage from cytoplasm to nucleus by in vitro development. Those results explore the modification of Aqp5 expression levels and location of its final products by in vitro culture. It suggests that expression of Aqp5 and the roles of AQP5 in homeostasis can be modulated by in vitro culture, and that early stage embryos can develop successfully by themselves adapting to their condition through modulation of the specific gene expression and localization.

  15. Adaptive Transition of Aquaporin 5 Expression and Localization during Preimplantation Embryo Development by In Vitro Culture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Won; Shin, Yun Kyung; Choen, Yong-Pil

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive development of early stage embryo is well established and recently it is explored that the mammalian embryos also have adaptive ability to the stressful environment. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, to evaluate the possible role of aquaporin in early embryo developmental adaptation, the expression of aquaporin (AQP) 5 gene which is detected during early development were examined by the environmental condition. To compare expression patterns between in vivo and in vitro, we conducted quantitative RT-PCR and analyzed localization of the AQP5 by whole mount immunofluorescence. At in vivo condition, Aqp5 expressed in oocyte and in all the stages of preimplantation embryo. It showed peak at 2-cell stage and decreased continuously until morula stage. At in vitro condition, Aqp5 expression pattern was similar with in vivo embryos. It expressed both at embryonic genome activation phase and second midpreimplantation gene activation phase, but the fold changes were modified between in vivo embryos and in vitro embryos. During in vivo development, AQP5 was mainly localized in apical membrane of blastomeres of 4-cell and 8-cell stage embryos, and then it was localized in cytoplasm. However, the main localization area of AQP5 was dramatically shifted after 8-cell stage from cytoplasm to nucleus by in vitro development. Those results explore the modification of Aqp5 expression levels and location of its final products by in vitro culture. It suggests that expression of Aqp5 and the roles of AQP5 in homeostasis can be modulated by in vitro culture, and that early stage embryos can develop successfully by themselves adapting to their condition through modulation of the specific gene expression and localization. PMID:25949184

  16. Adaptive nonlocal means filtering based on local noise level for CT denoising

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhoubo; Trzasko, Joshua D.; Lake, David S.; Blezek, Daniel J.; Manduca, Armando; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate an image-domain noise reduction method based on a modified nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm that is adaptive to local noise level of CT images and to implement this method in a time frame consistent with clinical workflow. Methods: A computationally efficient technique for local noise estimation directly from CT images was developed. A forward projection, based on a 2D fan-beam approximation, was used to generate the projection data, with a noise model incorporating the effects of the bowtie filter and automatic exposure control. The noise propagation from projection data to images was analytically derived. The analytical noise map was validated using repeated scans of a phantom. A 3D NLM denoising algorithm was modified to adapt its denoising strength locally based on this noise map. The performance of this adaptive NLM filter was evaluated in phantom studies in terms of in-plane and cross-plane high-contrast spatial resolution, noise power spectrum (NPS), subjective low-contrast spatial resolution using the American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation phantom, and objective low-contrast spatial resolution using a channelized Hotelling model observer (CHO). Graphical processing units (GPU) implementation of this noise map calculation and the adaptive NLM filtering were developed to meet demands of clinical workflow. Adaptive NLM was piloted on lower dose scans in clinical practice. Results: The local noise level estimation matches the noise distribution determined from multiple repetitive scans of a phantom, demonstrated by small variations in the ratio map between the analytical noise map and the one calculated from repeated scans. The phantom studies demonstrated that the adaptive NLM filter can reduce noise substantially without degrading the high-contrast spatial resolution, as illustrated by modulation transfer function and slice sensitivity profile results. The NPS results show that adaptive NLM denoising preserves the

  17. Mycorrhizal symbiosis and local adaptation in Aster amellus: a field transplant experiment.

    PubMed

    Pánková, Hana; Raabová, Jana; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Many plant populations have adapted to local soil conditions. However, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is often overlooked in this context. Only a few studies have used reciprocal transplant experiments to study the relationships between soil conditions, mycorrhizal colonisation and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the studies were conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions. However, long-term field experiments can provide more realistic insights into this issue. We conducted a five-year field reciprocal transplant experiment to study the relationships between soil conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth in the obligate mycotrophic herb Aster amellus. We conducted this study in two regions in the Czech Republic that differ significantly in their soil nutrient content, namely Czech Karst (region K) and Ceske Stredohori (region S). Plants that originated from region S had significantly higher mycorrhizal colonisation than plants from region K, indicating that the percentage of mycorrhizal colonisation has a genetic basis. We found no evidence of local adaptation in Aster amellus. Instead, plants from region S outperformed the plants from region K in both target regions. Similarly, plants from region S showed more mycorrhizal colonisation in all cases, which was likely driven by the lower nutrient content in the soil from that region. Thus, plant aboveground biomass and mycorrhizal colonisation exhibited corresponding differences between the two target regions and regions of origin. Higher mycorrhizal colonisation in the plants from region with lower soil nutrient content (region S) in both target regions indicates that mycorrhizal colonisation is an adaptive trait. However, lower aboveground biomass in the plants with lower mycorrhizal colonisation suggests that the plants from region K are in fact maladapted by their low inherent mycorrhizal colonization. We conclude that including mycorrhizal symbiosis in local adaptation studies

  18. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Local Adaptation in Aster amellus: A Field Transplant Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Pánková, Hana; Raabová, Jana; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2014-01-01

    Many plant populations have adapted to local soil conditions. However, the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is often overlooked in this context. Only a few studies have used reciprocal transplant experiments to study the relationships between soil conditions, mycorrhizal colonisation and plant growth. Furthermore, most of the studies were conducted under controlled greenhouse conditions. However, long-term field experiments can provide more realistic insights into this issue. We conducted a five-year field reciprocal transplant experiment to study the relationships between soil conditions, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth in the obligate mycotrophic herb Aster amellus. We conducted this study in two regions in the Czech Republic that differ significantly in their soil nutrient content, namely Czech Karst (region K) and Ceske Stredohori (region S). Plants that originated from region S had significantly higher mycorrhizal colonisation than plants from region K, indicating that the percentage of mycorrhizal colonisation has a genetic basis. We found no evidence of local adaptation in Aster amellus. Instead, plants from region S outperformed the plants from region K in both target regions. Similarly, plants from region S showed more mycorrhizal colonisation in all cases, which was likely driven by the lower nutrient content in the soil from that region. Thus, plant aboveground biomass and mycorrhizal colonisation exhibited corresponding differences between the two target regions and regions of origin. Higher mycorrhizal colonisation in the plants from region with lower soil nutrient content (region S) in both target regions indicates that mycorrhizal colonisation is an adaptive trait. However, lower aboveground biomass in the plants with lower mycorrhizal colonisation suggests that the plants from region K are in fact maladapted by their low inherent mycorrhizal colonization. We conclude that including mycorrhizal symbiosis in local adaptation studies

  19. FALCON: A method for flexible adaptation of local coordinates of nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Carolin; Hansen, Mads Bøttger; Godtliebsen, Ian H.; Christiansen, Ove

    2016-02-01

    We present a flexible scheme for calculating vibrational rectilinear coordinates with well-defined strict locality on a certain set of atoms. Introducing a method for Flexible Adaption of Local COordinates of Nuclei (FALCON) we show how vibrational subspaces can be "grown" in an adaptive manner. Subspace Hessian matrices are set up and used to calculate and analyze vibrational modes and frequencies. FALCON coordinates can more generally be used to construct vibrational coordinates for describing local and (semi-local) interacting modes with desired features. For instance, spatially local vibrations can be approximately described as internal motion within only a group of atoms and delocalized modes can be approximately expressed as relative motions of rigid groups of atoms. The FALCON method can support efficiency in the calculation and analysis of vibrational coordinates and energies in the context of harmonic and anharmonic calculations. The features of this method are demonstrated on a few small molecules, i.e., formylglycine, coumarin, and dimethylether as well as for the amide-I band and low-frequency modes of alanine oligomers and alpha conotoxin.

  20. Similarities in butterfly emergence dates among populations suggest local adaptation to climate.

    PubMed

    Roy, David B; Oliver, Tom H; Botham, Marc S; Beckmann, Bjorn; Brereton, Tom; Dennis, Roger L H; Harrower, Colin; Phillimore, Albert B; Thomas, Jeremy A

    2015-09-01

    Phenology shifts are the most widely cited examples of the biological impact of climate change, yet there are few assessments of potential effects on the fitness of individual organisms or the persistence of populations. Despite extensive evidence of climate-driven advances in phenological events over recent decades, comparable patterns across species' geographic ranges have seldom been described. Even fewer studies have quantified concurrent spatial gradients and temporal trends between phenology and climate. Here we analyse a large data set (~129 000 phenology measures) over 37 years across the UK to provide the first phylogenetic comparative analysis of the relative roles of plasticity and local adaptation in generating spatial and temporal patterns in butterfly mean flight dates. Although populations of all species exhibit a plastic response to temperature, with adult emergence dates earlier in warmer years by an average of 6.4 days per °C, among-population differences are significantly lower on average, at 4.3 days per °C. Emergence dates of most species are more synchronised over their geographic range than is predicted by their relationship between mean flight date and temperature over time, suggesting local adaptation. Biological traits of species only weakly explained the variation in differences between space-temperature and time-temperature phenological responses, suggesting that multiple mechanisms may operate to maintain local adaptation. As niche models assume constant relationships between occurrence and environmental conditions across a species' entire range, an important implication of the temperature-mediated local adaptation detected here is that populations of insects are much more sensitive to future climate changes than current projections suggest.

  1. Local genetic adaptation generates latitude-specific effects of warming on predator-prey interactions.

    PubMed

    De Block, Marjan; Pauwels, Kevin; Van Den Broeck, Maarten; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby

    2013-03-01

    Temperature effects on predator-prey interactions are fundamental to better understand the effects of global warming. Previous studies never considered local adaptation of both predators and prey at different latitudes, and ignored the novel population combinations of the same predator-prey species system that may arise because of northward dispersal. We set up a common garden warming experiment to study predator-prey interactions between Ischnura elegans damselfly predators and Daphnia magna zooplankton prey from three source latitudes spanning >1500 km. Damselfly foraging rates showed thermal plasticity and strong latitudinal differences consistent with adaptation to local time constraints. Relative survival was higher at 24 °C than at 20 °C in southern Daphnia and higher at 20 °C than at 24 °C, in northern Daphnia indicating local thermal adaptation of the Daphnia prey. Yet, this thermal advantage disappeared when they were confronted with the damselfly predators of the same latitude, reflecting also a signal of local thermal adaptation in the damselfly predators. Our results further suggest the invasion success of northward moving predators as well as prey to be latitude-specific. We advocate the novel common garden experimental approach using predators and prey obtained from natural temperature gradients spanning the predicted temperature increase in the northern populations as a powerful approach to gain mechanistic insights into how community modules will be affected by global warming. It can be used as a space-for-time substitution to inform how predator-prey interaction may gradually evolve to long-term warming.

  2. Local adaptation despite high gene flow in the waterfall-climbing Hawaiian goby, Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    PubMed

    Moody, K N; Hunter, S N; Childress, M J; Blob, R W; Schoenfuss, H L; Blum, M J; Ptacek, M B

    2015-02-01

    Environmental heterogeneity can promote the emergence of locally adapted phenotypes among subpopulations of a species, whereas gene flow can result in phenotypic and genotypic homogenization. For organisms like amphidromous fishes that change habitats during their life history, the balance between selection and migration can shift through ontogeny, making the likelihood of local adaptation difficult to predict. In Hawaiian waterfall-climbing gobies, it has been hypothesized that larval mixing during oceanic dispersal counters local adaptation to contrasting topographic features of streams, like slope gradient, that can select for predator avoidance or climbing ability in juvenile recruits. To test this hypothesis, we used morphological traits and neutral genetic markers to compare phenotypic and genotypic distributions in recruiting juveniles and adult subpopulations of the waterfall-climbing amphidromous goby, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, from the islands of Hawai'i and Kaua'i. We found that body shape is significantly different between adult subpopulations from streams with contrasting slopes and that trait divergence in recruiting juveniles tracked stream topography more so than morphological measures of adult subpopulation differentiation. Although no evidence of population genetic differentiation was observed among adult subpopulations, we observed low but significant levels of spatially and temporally variable genetic differentiation among juvenile cohorts, which correlated with morphological divergence. Such a pattern of genetic differentiation is consistent with chaotic genetic patchiness arising from variable sources of recruits to different streams. Thus, at least in S. stimpsoni, the combination of variation in settlement cohorts in space and time coupled with strong postsettlement selection on juveniles as they migrate upstream to adult habitats provides the opportunity for morphological adaptation to local stream environments despite high gene flow.

  3. On Bi-Grid Local Mode Analysis of Solution Techniques for 3-D Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ibraheem, S. O.; Demuren, A. O.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure is presented for utilizing a bi-grid stability analysis as a practical tool for predicting multigrid performance in a range of numerical methods for solving Euler and Navier-Stokes equations. Model problems based on the convection, diffusion and Burger's equation are used to illustrate the superiority of the bi-grid analysis as a predictive tool for multigrid performance in comparison to the smoothing factor derived from conventional von Neumann analysis. For the Euler equations, bi-grid analysis is presented for three upwind difference based factorizations, namely Spatial, Eigenvalue and Combination splits, and two central difference based factorizations, namely LU and ADI methods. In the former, both the Steger-Warming and van Leer flux-vector splitting methods are considered. For the Navier-Stokes equations, only the Beam-Warming (ADI) central difference scheme is considered. In each case, estimates of multigrid convergence rates from the bi-grid analysis are compared to smoothing factors obtained from single-grid stability analysis. Effects of grid aspect ratio and flow skewness are examined. Both predictions are compared with practical multigrid convergence rates for 2-D Euler and Navier-Stokes solutions based on the Beam-Warming central scheme.

  4. Genome Scans for Detecting Footprints of Local Adaptation Using a Bayesian Factor Model

    PubMed Central

    Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Bazin, Eric; Blum, Michael G.B.

    2014-01-01

    There is a considerable impetus in population genomics to pinpoint loci involved in local adaptation. A powerful approach to find genomic regions subject to local adaptation is to genotype numerous molecular markers and look for outlier loci. One of the most common approaches for selection scans is based on statistics that measure population differentiation such as FST. However, there are important caveats with approaches related to FST because they require grouping individuals into populations and they additionally assume a particular model of population structure. Here, we implement a more flexible individual-based approach based on Bayesian factor models. Factor models capture population structure with latent variables called factors, which can describe clustering of individuals into populations or isolation-by-distance patterns. Using hierarchical Bayesian modeling, we both infer population structure and identify outlier loci that are candidates for local adaptation. In order to identify outlier loci, the hierarchical factor model searches for loci that are atypically related to population structure as measured by the latent factors. In a model of population divergence, we show that it can achieve a 2-fold or more reduction of false discovery rate compared with the software BayeScan or with an FST approach. We show that our software can handle large data sets by analyzing the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Human Genome Diversity Project. The Bayesian factor model is implemented in the open-source PCAdapt software. PMID:24899666

  5. Local adaptive approach toward segmentation of microscopic images of activated sludge flocs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Muhammad Burhan; Nisar, Humaira; Ng, Choon Aun; Lo, Po Kim; Yap, Vooi Voon

    2015-11-01

    Activated sludge process is a widely used method to treat domestic and industrial effluents. The conditions of activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (AS-WWTP) are related to the morphological properties of flocs (microbial aggregates) and filaments, and are required to be monitored for normal operation of the plant. Image processing and analysis is a potential time-efficient monitoring tool for AS-WWTPs. Local adaptive segmentation algorithms are proposed for bright-field microscopic images of activated sludge flocs. Two basic modules are suggested for Otsu thresholding-based local adaptive algorithms with irregular illumination compensation. The performance of the algorithms has been compared with state-of-the-art local adaptive algorithms of Sauvola, Bradley, Feng, and c-mean. The comparisons are done using a number of region- and nonregion-based metrics at different microscopic magnifications and quantification of flocs. The performance metrics show that the proposed algorithms performed better and, in some cases, were comparable to the state-of the-art algorithms. The performance metrics were also assessed subjectively for their suitability for segmentations of activated sludge images. The region-based metrics such as false negative ratio, sensitivity, and negative predictive value gave inconsistent results as compared to other segmentation assessment metrics.

  6. Testing Local Adaptation in a Natural Great Tit-Malaria System: An Experimental Approach

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Tania; Delhaye, Jessica; Christe, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Finding out whether Plasmodium spp. are coevolving with their vertebrate hosts is of both theoretical and applied interest and can influence our understanding of the effects and dynamics of malaria infection. In this study, we tested for local adaptation as a signature of coevolution between malaria blood parasites, Plasmodium spp. and its host, the great tit, Parus major. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment of birds in the field, where we exposed birds from two populations to Plasmodium parasites. This experimental set-up also provided a unique opportunity to study the natural history of malaria infection in the wild and to assess the effects of primary malaria infection on juvenile birds. We present three main findings: i) there was no support for local adaptation; ii) there was a male-biased infection rate; iii) infection occurred towards the end of the summer and differed between sites. There were also site-specific effects of malaria infection on the hosts. Taken together, we present one of the few experimental studies of parasite-host local adaptation in a natural malaria system, and our results shed light on the effects of avian malaria infection in the wild. PMID:26555892

  7. Scientific Final Report: COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: CONTINUOUS DYNAMIC GRID ADAPTATION IN A GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC MODEL: APPLICATION AND REFINEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    William J. Gutowski; Joseph M. Prusa, Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz

    2012-04-09

    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the 'physics' of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  8. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A

    2005-03-04

    As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the

  9. Medical image classification using spatial adjacent histogram based on adaptive local binary patterns.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Shengsheng; Huang, Dezhi; Deng, Gang; Zeng, Fantao; Chen, Huiling

    2016-05-01

    Medical image recognition is an important task in both computer vision and computational biology. In the field of medical image classification, representing an image based on local binary patterns (LBP) descriptor has become popular. However, most existing LBP-based methods encode the binary patterns in a fixed neighborhood radius and ignore the spatial relationships among local patterns. The ignoring of the spatial relationships in the LBP will cause a poor performance in the process of capturing discriminative features for complex samples, such as medical images obtained by microscope. To address this problem, in this paper we propose a novel method to improve local binary patterns by assigning an adaptive neighborhood radius for each pixel. Based on these adaptive local binary patterns, we further propose a spatial adjacent histogram strategy to encode the micro-structures for image representation. An extensive set of evaluations are performed on four medical datasets which show that the proposed method significantly improves standard LBP and compares favorably with several other prevailing approaches.

  10. Multihost experimental evolution of a plant RNA virus reveals local adaptation and host-specific mutations.

    PubMed

    Bedhomme, Stéphanie; Lafforgue, Guillaume; Elena, Santiago F

    2012-05-01

    For multihost pathogens, adaptation to multiple hosts has important implications for both applied and basic research. At the applied level, it is one of the main factors determining the probability and the severity of emerging disease outbreaks. At the basic level, it is thought to be a key mechanism for the maintenance of genetic diversity both in host and pathogen species. Using Tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) and four natural hosts, we have designed an evolution experiment whose strength and novelty are the use of complex multicellular host organism as hosts and a high level of replication of different evolutionary histories and lineages. A pattern of local adaptation, characterized by a higher infectivity and virulence on host(s) encountered during the experimental evolution was found. Local adaptation only had a cost in terms of performance on other hosts in some cases. We could not verify the existence of a cost for generalists, as expected to arise from antagonistic pleiotropy and other genetic mechanisms generating a fitness trade-off between hosts. This observation confirms that this classical theoretical prediction lacks empirical support. We discuss the reasons for this discrepancy between theory and experiment in the light of our results. The analysis of full genome consensus sequences of the evolved lineages established that all mutations shared between lineages were host specific. A low degree of parallel evolution was observed, possibly reflecting the various adaptive pathways available for TEV in each host. Altogether, these results reveal a strong adaptive potential of TEV to new hosts without severe evolutionary constraints.

  11. Genetic by environmental variation but no local adaptation in oysters (Crassostrea virginica).

    PubMed

    Hughes, A Randall; Hanley, Torrance C; Byers, James E; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Malek, Jennafer C; Piehler, Michael F; Kimbro, David L

    2017-01-01

    Functional trait variation within and across populations can strongly influence population, community, and ecosystem processes, but the relative contributions of genetic vs. environmental factors to this variation are often not clear, potentially complicating conservation and restoration efforts. For example, local adaptation, a particular type of genetic by environmental (G*E) interaction in which the fitness of a population in its own habitat is greater than in other habitats, is often invoked in management practices, even in the absence of supporting evidence. Despite increasing attention to the potential for G*E interactions, few studies have tested multiple populations and environments simultaneously, limiting our understanding of the spatial consistency in patterns of adaptive genetic variation. In addition, few studies explicitly differentiate adaptation in response to predation from other biological and environmental factors. We conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment of first-generation eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) juveniles from six populations across three field sites spanning 1000 km in the southeastern Atlantic Bight in both the presence and absence of predation to test for G*E variation in this economically valuable and ecologically important species. We documented significant G*E variation in survival and growth, yet there was no evidence for local adaptation. Condition varied across oyster cohorts: Offspring of northern populations had better condition than offspring from the center of our region. Oyster populations in the southeastern Atlantic Bight differ in juvenile survival, growth, and condition, yet offspring from local broodstock do not have higher survival or growth than those from farther away. In the absence of population-specific performance information, oyster restoration and aquaculture may benefit from incorporating multiple populations into their practices.

  12. Local adaptation to altitude underlies divergent thermal physiology in tropical killifishes of the genus Aphyosemion.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, David J; Estivales, Guillan; Svendsen, Jon C; Steffensen, John F; Agnèse, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    In watersheds of equatorial West Africa, monophyletic groups of killifish species (genus Aphyosemion) occur in discrete altitudinal ranges, low altitude species (LA, sea level to ∼350 m) or high altitude species (HA, 350 to 900 m). We investigated the hypothesis that local adaptation to altitude by the LA and HA species would be revealed as divergent effects of temperature on their physiological energetics. Two species from each group (mass ∼350 mg) were acclimated to 19, 25 and 28°C, with 19 and 28°C estimated to be outside the thermal envelope for LA or HA, respectively, in the wild. Wild-caught animals (F0 generation) were compared with animals raised in captivity at 25°C (F1 generation) to investigate the contribution of adaptation versus plasticity. Temperature significantly increased routine metabolic rate in all groups and generations. However, LA and HA species differed in the effects of temperature on their ability to process a meal. At 25°C, the specific dynamic action (SDA) response was completed within 8 h in all groups, but acclimation to temperatures beyond the thermal envelope caused profound declines in SDA performance. At 19°C, the LA required ∼14 h to complete the SDA, whereas the HA required only ∼7 h. The opposite effect was observed at 28°C. This effect was evident in both F0 and F1. Reaction norms for effects of temperature on SDA therefore revealed a trade-off, with superior performance at warmer temperatures by LA being associated with inferior performance at cooler temperatures, and vice-versa in HA. The data indicate that divergent physiological responses to temperature in the LA and HA species reflect local adaptation to the thermal regime in their habitat, and that local adaptation to one thermal environment trades off against performance in another.

  13. Local Adaptation to Altitude Underlies Divergent Thermal Physiology in Tropical Killifishes of the Genus Aphyosemion

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, David J.; Estivales, Guillan; Svendsen, Jon C.; Steffensen, John F.; Agnèse, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    In watersheds of equatorial West Africa, monophyletic groups of killifish species (genus Aphyosemion) occur in discrete altitudinal ranges, low altitude species (LA, sea level to ∼350 m) or high altitude species (HA, 350 to 900 m). We investigated the hypothesis that local adaptation to altitude by the LA and HA species would be revealed as divergent effects of temperature on their physiological energetics. Two species from each group (mass ∼350 mg) were acclimated to 19, 25 and 28°C, with 19 and 28°C estimated to be outside the thermal envelope for LA or HA, respectively, in the wild. Wild-caught animals (F0 generation) were compared with animals raised in captivity at 25°C (F1 generation) to investigate the contribution of adaptation versus plasticity. Temperature significantly increased routine metabolic rate in all groups and generations. However, LA and HA species differed in the effects of temperature on their ability to process a meal. At 25°C, the specific dynamic action (SDA) response was completed within 8 h in all groups, but acclimation to temperatures beyond the thermal envelope caused profound declines in SDA performance. At 19°C, the LA required ∼14 h to complete the SDA, whereas the HA required only ∼7 h. The opposite effect was observed at 28°C. This effect was evident in both F0 and F1. Reaction norms for effects of temperature on SDA therefore revealed a trade-off, with superior performance at warmer temperatures by LA being associated with inferior performance at cooler temperatures, and vice-versa in HA. The data indicate that divergent physiological responses to temperature in the LA and HA species reflect local adaptation to the thermal regime in their habitat, and that local adaptation to one thermal environment trades off against performance in another. PMID:23349857

  14. Adaptation of Medicago truncatula to nitrogen limitation is modulated via local and systemic nodule developmental responses.

    PubMed

    Jeudy, Christian; Ruffel, Sandrine; Freixes, Sandra; Tillard, Pascal; Santoni, Anne Lise; Morel, Sylvain; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Duc, Gérard; Gojon, Alain; Lepetit, Marc; Salon, Christophe

    2010-02-01

    Adaptation of Medicago truncatula to local nitrogen (N) limitation was investigated to provide new insights into local and systemic N signaling. The split-root technique allowed a characterization of the local and systemic responses of NO(3)(-) or N(2)-fed plants to localized N limitation. (15)N and (13)C labeling were used to monitor plant nutrition. Plants expressing pMtENOD11-GUS and the sunn-2 hypernodulating mutant were used to unravel mechanisms involved in these responses. Unlike NO(3)(-)-fed plants, N(2)-fixing plants lacked the ability to compensate rapidly for a localized N limitation by up-regulating the N(2)-fixation activity of roots supplied elsewhere with N. However they displayed a long-term response via a growth stimulation of pre-existing nodules, and the generation of new nodules, likely through a decreased abortion rate of early nodulation events. Both these responses involve systemic signaling. The latter response is abolished in the sunn mutant, but the mutation does not prevent the first response. Local but also systemic regulatory mechanisms related to plant N status regulate de novo nodule development in Mt, and SUNN is required for this systemic regulation. By contrast, the stimulation of nodule growth triggered by systemic N signaling does not involve SUNN, indicating SUNN-independent signaling.

  15. Adaptive Local Spatiotemporal Features from RGB-D Data for One-Shot Learning Gesture Recognition.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jia; Ruan, Xiaogang; Yu, Naigong; Yang, Yee-Hong

    2016-12-17

    Noise and constant empirical motion constraints affect the extraction of distinctive spatiotemporal features from one or a few samples per gesture class. To tackle these problems, an adaptive local spatiotemporal feature (ALSTF) using fused RGB-D data is proposed. First, motion regions of interest (MRoIs) are adaptively extracted using grayscale and depth velocity variance information to greatly reduce the impact of noise. Then, corners are used as keypoints if their depth, and velocities of grayscale and of depth meet several adaptive local constraints in each MRoI. With further filtering of noise, an accurate and sufficient number of keypoints is obtained within the desired moving body parts (MBPs). Finally, four kinds of multiple descriptors are calculated and combined in extended gradient and motion spaces to represent the appearance and motion features of gestures. The experimental results on the ChaLearn gesture, CAD-60 and MSRDailyActivity3D datasets demonstrate that the proposed feature achieves higher performance compared with published state-of-the-art approaches under the one-shot learning setting and comparable accuracy under the leave-one-out cross validation.

  16. Testing for local host-parasite adaptation: an experiment with Gyrodactylus ectoparasites and guppy hosts.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jvostov, Felipe; Hendry, Andrew P; Fussmann, Gregor F; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-05-01

    Hosts and parasites are in a perpetual co-evolutionary "arms race". Due to their short generation time and large reproductive output, parasites are commonly believed to be ahead in this race, although increasing evidence exists that parasites are not always ahead in the arms race - in part owing to evolutionary lineage and recent ecological history. We assess local adaptation of hosts and parasites, and determine whether adaptation was influenced by ecological or evolutionary history, using full reciprocal cross-infections of four Gyrodactylus ectoparasite populations and their four guppy (Poecilia reticulata) host populations in Trinidad. To consider effects of evolutionary lineage and recent ecology, these four populations were collected from two different river drainages (Marianne and Aripo) and two different predation environments (high and low). The highest infection levels were obtained when parasites from the Aripo lineage infected guppies from the Marianne lineage, indicating a higher infectivity, virulence and/or reproductive success of the Aripo parasites. Aripo lineage guppies were also better able to limit Gyrodactylus population growth than guppies from the Marianne River, indicating their strong "resistance" to Gyrodactylus regardless of the source of the parasite. Predation environment had no detectable influence on host-parasite population dynamics of sympatric or allopatric combinations. The much stronger effect of evolutionary lineage (i.e., river) than recent ecological history (i.e., predation) emphasises its importance in driving co-evolutionary dynamics, and should be explored further in future studies on local host-parasite adaptation.

  17. An adaptive locally linear embedding manifold learning approach for hyperspectral target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemann, Amanda K.; Messinger, David W.

    2015-05-01

    Algorithms for spectral analysis commonly use parametric or linear models of the data. Research has shown, however, that hyperspectral data -- particularly in materially cluttered scenes -- are not always well-modeled by statistical or linear methods. Here, we propose an approach to hyperspectral target detection that is based on a graph theory model of the data and a manifold learning transformation. An adaptive nearest neighbor (ANN) graph is built on the data, and then used to implement an adaptive version of locally linear embedding (LLE). We artificially induce a target manifold and incorporate it into the adaptive LLE transformation. The artificial target manifold helps to guide the separation of the target data from the background data in the new, transformed manifold coordinates. Then, target detection is performed in the manifold space using Spectral Angle Mapper. This methodology is an improvement over previous iterations of this approach due to the incorporation of ANN, the artificial target manifold, and the choice of detector in the transformed space. We implement our approach in a spatially local way: the image is delineated into square tiles, and the detection maps are normalized across the entire image. Target detection results will be shown using laboratory-measured and scene-derived target data from the SHARE 2012 collect.

  18. Plant regeneration from seeds responds to phylogenetic relatedness and local adaptation in Mediterranean Romulea (Iridaceae) species.

    PubMed

    Carta, Angelino; Hanson, Sarah; Müller, Jonas V

    2016-06-01

    Seed germination is the most important transitional event between early stages in the life cycle of spermatophytes and understanding it is crucial to understand plant adaptation and evolution. However, so far seed germination of phylogenetically closely related species has been poorly investigated. To test the hypothises that phylogenetically related plant species have similar seed ecophysiological traits thereby reflecting certain habitat conditions as a result of local adaptation, we studied seed dormancy and germination in seven Mediterranean species in the genus Romulea (Iridaceae). Both the across-species model and the model accounting for shared evolutionary history showed that cool temperatures (≤ 15°C) were the main factor that promoted seed germination. The absence of embryo growth before radicle emergence is consistent with a prompt germination response at cool temperatures. The range of temperature conditions for germination became wider after a period of warm stratification, denoting a weak primary dormancy. Altogether these results indicate that the studied species exhibit a Mediterranean germination syndrome, but with species-specific germination requirements clustered in a way that follows the phylogenetic relatedness among those species. In addition, species with heavier seeds from humid habitats showed a wider range of conditions for germination at dispersal time than species from dry habitats possessing lighter seeds. We conclude that while phylogenetically related species showed very similar germination requirements, there are subtle ecologically meaningful differences, confirming the onset of adaptation to local ecological factors mediated by species relatedness.

  19. Natural variation in abiotic stress responsive gene expression and local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Lasky, Jesse R; Des Marais, David L; Lowry, David B; Povolotskaya, Inna; McKay, John K; Richards, James H; Keitt, Timothy H; Juenger, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    Gene expression varies widely in natural populations, yet the proximate and ultimate causes of this variation are poorly known. Understanding how variation in gene expression affects abiotic stress tolerance, fitness, and adaptation is central to the field of evolutionary genetics. We tested the hypothesis that genes with natural genetic variation in their expression responses to abiotic stress are likely to be involved in local adaptation to climate in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, we compared genes with consistent expression responses to environmental stress (expression stress responsive, "eSR") to genes with genetically variable responses to abiotic stress (expression genotype-by-environment interaction, "eGEI"). We found that on average genes that exhibited eGEI in response to drought or cold had greater polymorphism in promoter regions and stronger associations with climate than those of eSR genes or genomic controls. We also found that transcription factor binding sites known to respond to environmental stressors, especially abscisic acid responsive elements, showed significantly higher polymorphism in drought eGEI genes in comparison to eSR genes. By contrast, eSR genes tended to exhibit relatively greater pairwise haplotype sharing, lower promoter diversity, and fewer nonsynonymous polymorphisms, suggesting purifying selection or selective sweeps. Our results indicate that cis-regulatory evolution and genetic variation in stress responsive gene expression may be important mechanisms of local adaptation to climatic selective gradients.

  20. Adaptive Local Spatiotemporal Features from RGB-D Data for One-Shot Learning Gesture Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jia; Ruan, Xiaogang; Yu, Naigong; Yang, Yee-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Noise and constant empirical motion constraints affect the extraction of distinctive spatiotemporal features from one or a few samples per gesture class. To tackle these problems, an adaptive local spatiotemporal feature (ALSTF) using fused RGB-D data is proposed. First, motion regions of interest (MRoIs) are adaptively extracted using grayscale and depth velocity variance information to greatly reduce the impact of noise. Then, corners are used as keypoints if their depth, and velocities of grayscale and of depth meet several adaptive local constraints in each MRoI. With further filtering of noise, an accurate and sufficient number of keypoints is obtained within the desired moving body parts (MBPs). Finally, four kinds of multiple descriptors are calculated and combined in extended gradient and motion spaces to represent the appearance and motion features of gestures. The experimental results on the ChaLearn gesture, CAD-60 and MSRDailyActivity3D datasets demonstrate that the proposed feature achieves higher performance compared with published state-of-the-art approaches under the one-shot learning setting and comparable accuracy under the leave-one-out cross validation. PMID:27999337

  1. Mineral Nutritional Yield and Nutrient Density of Locally Adapted Wheat Genotypes under Organic Production

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Ascarrunz, Sergio Daniel; Larsson, Hans; Prieto-Linde, Maria Luisa; Johansson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to investigate the nutritional yield, nutrient density, stability, and adaptability of organically produced wheat for sustainable and nutritional high value food production. This study evaluated the nutritional yield of four minerals (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mg) in 19 wheat genotypes, selected as being locally adapted under organic agriculture conditions. The new metric of nutritional yield was calculated for each genotype and they were evaluated for stability using the Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) stability analysis and for genotypic value, stability, and adaptability using the Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP procedure). The results indicated that there were genotypes suitable for production under organic agriculture conditions with satisfactory yields (>4000 kg·ha−1). Furthermore, these genotypes showed high nutritional yield and nutrient density for the four minerals studied. Additionally, since these genotypes were stable and adaptable over three environmentally different years, they were designated “balanced genotypes” for the four minerals and for the aforementioned characteristics. Selection and breeding of such “balanced genotypes” may offer an alternative to producing nutritious food under low-input agriculture conditions. Furthermore, the type of evaluation presented here may also be of interest for implementation in research conducted in developing countries, following the objectives of producing enough nutrients for a growing population. PMID:28231184

  2. Application of Parallel Adjoint-Based Error Estimation and Anisotropic Grid Adaptation for Three-Dimensional Aerospace Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Rausch, E. M.; Park, M. A.; Jones, W. T.; Hammond, D. P.; Nielsen, E. J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the extension of error estimation and adaptation methods to parallel computations enabling larger, more realistic aerospace applications and the quantification of discretization errors for complex 3-D solutions. Results were shown for an inviscid sonic-boom prediction about a double-cone configuration and a wing/body segmented leading edge (SLE) configuration where the output function of the adjoint was pressure integrated over a part of the cylinder in the near field. After multiple cycles of error estimation and surface/field adaptation, a significant improvement in the inviscid solution for the sonic boom signature of the double cone was observed. Although the double-cone adaptation was initiated from a very coarse mesh, the near-field pressure signature from the final adapted mesh compared very well with the wind-tunnel data which illustrates that the adjoint-based error estimation and adaptation process requires no a priori refinement of the mesh. Similarly, the near-field pressure signature for the SLE wing/body sonic boom configuration showed a significant improvement from the initial coarse mesh to the final adapted mesh in comparison with the wind tunnel results. Error estimation and field adaptation results were also presented for the viscous transonic drag prediction of the DLR-F6 wing/body configuration, and results were compared to a series of globally refined meshes. Two of these globally refined meshes were used as a starting point for the error estimation and field-adaptation process where the output function for the adjoint was the total drag. The field-adapted results showed an improvement in the prediction of the drag in comparison with the finest globally refined mesh and a reduction in the estimate of the remaining drag error. The adjoint-based adaptation parameter showed a need for increased resolution in the surface of the wing/body as well as a need for wake resolution downstream of the fuselage and wing trailing edge

  3. Neutrophilia in locally advanced cervical cancer: A novel biomarker for image-guided adaptive brachytherapy?

    PubMed Central

    Escande, Alexandre; Haie-Meder, Christine; Maroun, Pierre; Gouy, Sébastien; Mazeron, Renaud; Leroy, Thomas; Bentivegna, Enrica; Morice, Philippe; Deutsch, Eric; Chargari, Cyrus

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the prognostic value of leucocyte disorders in a prospective cohort of cervical cancer patients receiving definitive chemoradiation plus image—guided adaptive brachytherapy (IGABT). Results 113 patients were identified. All patients received a pelvic irradiation concomitant with chemotherapy, extended to the para-aortic area in 13 patients with IVB disease. Neutrophilia and leukocytosis were significant univariate prognostic factors for poorer local failure-free survival (p = 0.000 and p = 0.002, respectively), associated with tumor size, high-risk clinical target volume (HR-CTV) and anemia. No effect was shown for distant metastases but leukocytosis and neutrophila were both poor prognostic factors for in-field relapses (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, HR-CTV volume (p = 0.026) and neutrophils count > 7,500/μl (p = 0.018) were independent factors for poorer survival without local failure, with hazard ratio (HR) of 3.1. Materials and methods We examined patients treated in our Institution between April 2009 and July 2015 by concurrent chemoradiation (45 Gy in 25 fractions +/− lymph node boosts) followed by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided adaptive pulse-dose rate brachytherapy (15 Gy to the intermediate-risk clinical target volume). The prognostic value of pretreatment leucocyte disorders was examined. Leukocytosis and neutrophilia were defined as a leukocyte count or a neutrophils count exceeding 10,000 and 7,500/μl, respectively. Conclusions Neutrophilia is a significant prognostic factor for local relapse in locally advanced cervical cancer treated with MRI-based IGABT. This biomarker could help identifying patients with higher risk of local relapse and requiring dose escalation. PMID:27713124

  4. Local stimulus disambiguation with global motion filters predicts adaptive surround modulation.

    PubMed

    Dellen, Babette; Torras, Carme

    2013-10-01

    Humans have no problem segmenting different motion stimuli despite the ambiguity of local motion signals. Adaptive surround modulation, i.e., the apparent switching between integrative and antagonistic modes, is assumed to play a crucial role in this process. However, so far motion processing models based on local integration have not been able to provide a unifying explanation for this phenomenon. This motivated us to investigate the problem of local stimulus disambiguation in an alternative and fundamentally distinct motion-processing model which uses global motion filters for velocity computation. Local information is reconstructed at the end of the processing stream through the constructive interference of global signals, i.e., inverse transformations. We show that in this model local stimulus disambiguation can be achieved by means of a novel filter embedded in this architecture. This gives rise to both integrative and antagonistic effects which are in agreement with those observed in psychophysical experiments with humans, providing a functional explanation for effects of motion repulsion.

  5. The local enhancement conundrum: in search of the adaptive value of a social learning mechanism.

    PubMed

    Arbilly, Michal; Laland, Kevin N

    2014-02-01

    Social learning mechanisms are widely thought to vary in their degree of complexity as well as in their prevalence in the natural world. While learning the properties of a stimulus that generalize to similar stimuli at other locations (stimulus enhancement) prima facie appears more useful to an animal than learning about a specific stimulus at a specific location (local enhancement), empirical evidence suggests that the latter is much more widespread in nature. Simulating populations engaged in a producer-scrounger game, we sought to deploy mathematical models to identify the adaptive benefits of reliance on local enhancement and/or stimulus enhancement, and the alternative conditions favoring their evolution. Surprisingly, we found that while stimulus enhancement readily evolves, local enhancement is advantageous only under highly restricted conditions: when generalization of information was made unreliable or when error in social learning was high. Our results generate a conundrum over how seemingly conflicting empirical and theoretical findings can be reconciled. Perhaps the prevalence of local enhancement in nature is due to stimulus enhancement costs independent of the learning task itself (e.g. predation risk), perhaps natural habitats are often characterized by unreliable yet highly rewarding payoffs, or perhaps local enhancement occurs less frequently, and stimulus enhancement more frequently, than widely believed.

  6. Complex Volume Grid Generation Through the Use of Grid Reusability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, Stephen J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a set of surface and volume grid generation techniques which reuse existing surface and volume grids. These methods use combinations of data manipulations to reduce grid generation time, improve grid characteristics, and increase the capabilities of existing domain discretization software. The manipulation techniques utilize physical and computational domains to produce basis function on which to operate and modify grid character and smooth grids using Trans-Finite Interpolation, a vector interpolation method and parametric re-mapping technique. With these new techniques, inviscid grids can be converted to viscous grids, multiple zone grid adaption can be performed to improve CFD solver efficiency, and topological changes to improve modeling of flow fields can be done simply and quickly. Examples of these capabilities are illustrated as applied to various configurations.

  7. A widespread chromosomal inversion polymorphism contributes to a major life-history transition, local adaptation, and reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Lowry, David B; Willis, John H

    2010-09-28

    The role of chromosomal inversions in adaptation and speciation is controversial. Historically, inversions were thought to contribute to these processes either by directly causing hybrid sterility or by facilitating the maintenance of co-adapted gene complexes. Because inversions suppress recombination when heterozygous, a recently proposed local adaptation mechanism predicts that they will spread if they capture alleles at multiple loci involved in divergent adaptation to contrasting environments. Many empirical studies have found inversion polymorphisms linked to putatively adaptive phenotypes or distributed along environmental clines. However, direct involvement of an inversion in local adaptation and consequent ecological reproductive isolation has not to our knowledge been demonstrated in nature. In this study, we discovered that a chromosomal inversion polymorphism is geographically widespread, and we test the extent to which it contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation under natural field conditions. Replicated crosses between the prezygotically reproductively isolated annual and perennial ecotypes of the yellow monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus, revealed that alternative chromosomal inversion arrangements are associated with life-history divergence over thousands of kilometers across North America. The inversion polymorphism affected adaptive flowering time divergence and other morphological traits in all replicated crosses between four pairs of annual and perennial populations. To determine if the inversion contributes to adaptation and reproductive isolation in natural populations, we conducted a novel reciprocal transplant experiment involving outbred lines, where alternative arrangements of the inversion were reciprocally introgressed into the genetic backgrounds of each ecotype. Our results demonstrate for the first time in nature the contribution of an inversion to adaptation, an annual/perennial life-history shift, and multiple reproductive

  8. Exploring Hypersonic, Unstructured-Grid Issues through Structured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Ali R.; Kleb, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Pure-tetrahedral unstructured grids have been shown to produce asymmetric heat transfer rates for symmetric problems. Meanwhile, two-dimensional structured grids produce symmetric solutions and as documented here, introducing a spanwise degree of freedom to these structured grids also yields symmetric solutions. The effects of grid skewness and other perturbations of structured-grids are investigated to uncover possible mechanisms behind the unstructured-grid solution asymmetries. By using controlled experiments around a known, good solution, the effects of particular grid pathologies are uncovered. These structured-grid experiments reveal that similar solution degradation occurs as for unstructured grids, especially for heat transfer rates. Non-smooth grids within the boundary layer is also shown to produce large local errors in heat flux but do not affect surface pressures.

  9. Using a "time machine" to test for local adaptation of aquatic microbes to temporal and spatial environmental variation.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jeremy W; Harder, Lawrence D

    2015-01-01

    Local adaptation occurs when different environments are dominated by different specialist genotypes, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions and relatively unfit under other conditions. Analogously, ecological species sorting occurs when different environments are dominated by different competing species, each of which is relatively fit in its local conditions. The simplest theory predicts that spatial, but not temporal, environmental variation selects for local adaptation (or generates species sorting), but this prediction is difficult to test. Although organisms can be reciprocally transplanted among sites, doing so among times seems implausible. Here, we describe a reciprocal transplant experiment testing for local adaptation or species sorting of lake bacteria in response to both temporal and spatial variation in water chemistry. The experiment used a -80°C freezer as a "time machine." Bacterial isolates and water samples were frozen for later use, allowing transplantation of older isolates "forward in time" and newer isolates "backward in time." Surprisingly, local maladaptation predominated over local adaptation in both space and time. Such local maladaptation may indicate that adaptation, or the analogous species sorting process, fails to keep pace with temporal fluctuations in water chemistry. This hypothesis could be tested with more finely resolved temporal data.

  10. Adaptive Kalman filter for indoor localization using Bluetooth Low Energy and inertial measurement unit.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Paul K; Zihajehzadeh, Shaghayegh; Bong-Soo Kang; Park, Edward J

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel indoor localization method using the Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) and an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The multipath and non-line-of-sight errors from low-power wireless localization systems commonly result in outliers, affecting the positioning accuracy. We address this problem by adaptively weighting the estimates from the IMU and BLE in our proposed cascaded Kalman filter (KF). The positioning accuracy is further improved with the Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared against that of the standard KF experimentally. The results show that the proposed algorithm can maintain high accuracy for position tracking the sensor in the presence of the outliers.

  11. Sex-specific local life-history adaptation in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana)

    PubMed Central

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Reznick, David N.; Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Cavefishes have long been used as model organisms showcasing adaptive diversification, but does adaptation to caves also facilitate the evolution of reproductive isolation from surface ancestors? We raised offspring of wild-caught surface- and cave-dwelling ecotypes of the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana to sexual maturity in a 12-month common garden experiment. Fish were raised under one of two food regimes (high vs. low), and this was crossed with differences in lighting conditions (permanent darkness vs. 12:12 h light:dark cycle) in a 2 × 2 factorial design, allowing us to elucidate potential patterns of local adaptation in life histories. Our results reveal a pattern of sex-specific local life-history adaptation: Surface molly females had the highest fitness in the treatment best resembling their habitat of origin (high food and a light:dark cycle), and suffered from almost complete reproductive failure in darkness, while cave molly females were not similarly affected in any treatment. Males of both ecotypes, on the other hand, showed only weak evidence for local adaptation. Nonetheless, local life-history adaptation in females likely contributes to ecological diversification in this system and other cave animals, further supporting the role of local adaptation due to strong divergent selection as a major force in ecological speciation. PMID:26960566

  12. Sex-specific local life-history adaptation in surface- and cave-dwelling Atlantic mollies (Poecilia mexicana).

    PubMed

    Riesch, Rüdiger; Reznick, David N; Plath, Martin; Schlupp, Ingo

    2016-03-10

    Cavefishes have long been used as model organisms showcasing adaptive diversification, but does adaptation to caves also facilitate the evolution of reproductive isolation from surface ancestors? We raised offspring of wild-caught surface- and cave-dwelling ecotypes of the neotropical fish Poecilia mexicana to sexual maturity in a 12-month common garden experiment. Fish were raised under one of two food regimes (high vs. low), and this was crossed with differences in lighting conditions (permanent darkness vs. 12:12 h light:dark cycle) in a 2 × 2 factorial design, allowing us to elucidate potential patterns of local adaptation in life histories. Our results reveal a pattern of sex-specific local life-history adaptation: Surface molly females had the highest fitness in the treatment best resembling their habitat of origin (high food and a light:dark cycle), and suffered from almost complete reproductive failure in darkness, while cave molly females were not similarly affected in any treatment. Males of both ecotypes, on the other hand, showed only weak evidence for local adaptation. Nonetheless, local life-history adaptation in females likely contributes to ecological diversification in this system and other cave animals, further supporting the role of local adaptation due to strong divergent selection as a major force in ecological speciation.

  13. Safe Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Edward T.; Stewart, Helen; Korsmeyer, David (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The biggest users of GRID technologies came from the science and technology communities. These consist of government, industry and academia (national and international). The NASA GRID is moving into a higher technology readiness level (TRL) today; and as a joint effort among these leaders within government, academia, and industry, the NASA GRID plans to extend availability to enable scientists and engineers across these geographical boundaries collaborate to solve important problems facing the world in the 21 st century. In order to enable NASA programs and missions to use IPG resources for program and mission design, the IPG capabilities needs to be accessible from inside the NASA center networks. However, because different NASA centers maintain different security domains, the GRID penetration across different firewalls is a concern for center security people. This is the reason why some IPG resources are been separated from the NASA center network. Also, because of the center network security and ITAR concerns, the NASA IPG resource owner may not have full control over who can access remotely from outside the NASA center. In order to obtain organizational approval for secured remote access, the IPG infrastructure needs to be adapted to work with the NASA business process. Improvements need to be made before the IPG can be used for NASA program and mission development. The Secured Advanced Federated Environment (SAFE) technology is designed to provide federated security across NASA center and NASA partner's security domains. Instead of one giant center firewall which can be difficult to modify for different GRID applications, the SAFE "micro security domain" provide large number of professionally managed "micro firewalls" that can allow NASA centers to accept remote IPG access without the worry of damaging other center resources. The SAFE policy-driven capability-based federated security mechanism can enable joint organizational and resource owner approved remote

  14. Sex, horizontal transmission, and multiple hosts prevent local adaptation of Crithidia bombi, a parasite of bumblebees (Bombus spp.).

    PubMed

    Erler, Silvio; Popp, Mario; Wolf, Stephan; Lattorff, H Michael G

    2012-05-01

    Local adaptation within host-parasite systems can evolve by several non-exclusive drivers (e.g., host species-genetic adaptation; ecological conditions-ecological adaptation, and time-temporal adaptation). Social insects, especially bumblebees, with an annual colony life history not only provide an ideal system to test parasite transmission within and between different host colonies, but also parasite adaptation to specific host species and environments. Here, we study local adaptation in a multiple-host parasite characterized by high levels of horizontal transmission. Crithidia bombi occurs as a gut parasite in several bumblebee species. Parasites were sampled from five different host species in two subsequent years. Population genetic tools were used to test for the several types of adaptation. Although we found no evidence for local adaptation of the parasite toward host species, there was a slight temporal differentiation of the parasite populations, which might have resulted from severe bottlenecks during queen hibernation. Parasite populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and showed no signs of linkage disequilibrium suggesting that sexual reproduction is an alternative strategy in this otherwise clonal parasite. Moreover, high levels of multiple infections were found, which might facilitate sexual genetic exchange. The detection of identical clones in different host species suggested that horizontal transmission occurs between host species and underpins the lack of host-specific adaptation.

  15. Prediction and Control of Network Cascade: Example of Power Grid or Networking Adaptability from WMD Disruption and Cascading Failures

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael

    2012-07-24

    The goal of the DTRA project is to develop a mathematical framework that will provide the fundamental understanding of network survivability, algorithms for detecting/inferring pre-cursors of abnormal network behaviors, and methods for network adaptability and self-healing from cascading failures.

  16. Elliptic Solvers with Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Complex Geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip, B.

    2000-07-24

    Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) is a numerical technique for locally tailoring the resolution computational grids. Multilevel algorithms for solving elliptic problems on adaptive grids include the Fast Adaptive Composite grid method (FAC) and its parallel variants (AFAC and AFACx). Theory that confirms the independence of the convergence rates of FAC and AFAC on the number of refinement levels exists under certain ellipticity and approximation property conditions. Similar theory needs to be developed for AFACx. The effectiveness of multigrid-based elliptic solvers such as FAC, AFAC, and AFACx on adaptively refined overlapping grids is not clearly understood. Finally, a non-trivial eye model problem will be solved by combining the power of using overlapping grids for complex moving geometries, AMR, and multilevel elliptic solvers.

  17. Local error estimates for adaptive simulation of the Reaction-Diffusion Master Equation via operator splitting.

    PubMed

    Hellander, Andreas; Lawson, Michael J; Drawert, Brian; Petzold, Linda

    2014-06-01

    The efficiency of exact simulation methods for the reaction-diffusion master equation (RDME) is severely limited by the large number of diffusion events if the mesh is fine or if diffusion constants are large. Furthermore, inherent properties of exact kinetic-Monte Carlo simulation methods limit the efficiency of parallel implementations. Several approximate and hybrid methods have appeared that enable more efficient simulation of the RDME. A common feature to most of them is that they rely on splitting the system into its reaction and diffusion parts and updating them sequentially over a discrete timestep. This use of operator splitting enables more efficient simulation but it comes at the price of a temporal discretization error that depends on the size of the timestep. So far, existing methods have not attempted to estimate or control this error in a systematic manner. This makes the solvers hard to use for practitioners since they must guess an appropriate timestep. It also makes the solvers potentially less efficient than if the timesteps are adapted to control the error. Here, we derive estimates of the local error and propose a strategy to adaptively select the timestep when the RDME is simulated via a first order operator splitting. While the strategy is general and applicable to a wide range of approximate and hybrid methods, we exemplify it here by extending a previously published approximate method, the Diffusive Finite-State Projection (DFSP) method, to incorporate temporal adaptivity.

  18. Tailoring the visual communication of climate projections for local adaptation practitioners in Germany and the UK

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Susanne; Dessai, Suraje; Forster, Piers M.; Paavola, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    Visualizations are widely used in the communication of climate projections. However, their effectiveness has rarely been assessed among their target audience. Given recent calls to increase the usability of climate information through the tailoring of climate projections, it is imperative to assess the effectiveness of different visualizations. This paper explores the complexities of tailoring through an online survey conducted with 162 local adaptation practitioners in Germany and the UK. The survey examined respondents’ assessed and perceived comprehension (PC) of visual representations of climate projections as well as preferences for using different visualizations in communicating and planning for a changing climate. Comprehension and use are tested using four different graph formats, which are split into two pairs. Within each pair the information content is the same but is visualized differently. We show that even within a fairly homogeneous user group, such as local adaptation practitioners, there are clear differences in respondents’ comprehension of and preference for visualizations. We do not find a consistent association between assessed comprehension and PC or use within the two pairs of visualizations that we analysed. There is, however, a clear link between PC and use of graph format. This suggests that respondents use what they think they understand the best, rather than what they actually understand the best. These findings highlight that audience-specific targeted communication may be more complex and challenging than previously recognized. PMID:26460109

  19. Adaptation to enemy shifts: rapid resistance evolution to local Vibrio spp. in invasive Pacific oysters

    PubMed Central

    Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2015-01-01

    One hypothesis for the success of invasive species is reduced pathogen burden, resulting from a release from infections or high immunological fitness of invaders. Despite strong selection exerted on the host, the evolutionary response of invaders to newly acquired pathogens has rarely been considered. The two independent and genetically distinct invasions of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas into the North Sea represent an ideal model system to study fast evolutionary responses of invasive populations. By exposing both invasion sources to ubiquitous and phylogenetically diverse pathogens (Vibrio spp.), we demonstrate that within a few generations hosts adapted to newly encountered pathogen communities. However, local adaptation only became apparent in selective environments, i.e. at elevated temperatures reflecting patterns of disease outbreaks in natural populations. Resistance against sympatric and allopatric Vibrio spp. strains was dominantly inherited in crosses between both invasion sources, resulting in an overall higher resistance of admixed individuals than pure lines. Therefore, we suggest that a simple genetic resistance mechanism of the host is matched to a common virulence mechanism shared by local Vibrio strains. This combination might have facilitated a fast evolutionary response that can explain another dimension of why invasive species can be so successful in newly invaded ranges. PMID:25716784

  20. Locally adaptive MR intensity models and MRF-based segmentation of multiple sclerosis lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galimzianova, Alfiia; Lesjak, Žiga; Likar, Boštjan; Pernuš, Franjo; Špiclin, Žiga

    2015-03-01

    Neuroimaging biomarkers are an important paraclinical tool used to characterize a number of neurological diseases, however, their extraction requires accurate and reliable segmentation of normal and pathological brain structures. For MR images of healthy brains the intensity models of normal-appearing brain tissue (NABT) in combination with Markov random field (MRF) models are known to give reliable and smooth NABT segmentation. However, the presence of pathology, MR intensity bias and natural tissue-dependent intensity variability altogether represent difficult challenges for a reliable estimation of NABT intensity model based on MR images. In this paper, we propose a novel method for segmentation of normal and pathological structures in brain MR images of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients that is based on locally-adaptive NABT model, a robust method for the estimation of model parameters and a MRF-based segmentation framework. Experiments on multi-sequence brain MR images of 27 MS patients show that, compared to whole-brain model and compared to the widely used Expectation-Maximization Segmentation (EMS) method, the locally-adaptive NABT model increases the accuracy of MS lesion segmentation.

  1. Tailoring the visual communication of climate projections for local adaptation practitioners in Germany and the UK.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Susanne; Dessai, Suraje; Forster, Piers M; Paavola, Jouni

    2015-11-28

    Visualizations are widely used in the communication of climate projections. However, their effectiveness has rarely been assessed among their target audience. Given recent calls to increase the usability of climate information through the tailoring of climate projections, it is imperative to assess the effectiveness of different visualizations. This paper explores the complexities of tailoring through an online survey conducted with 162 local adaptation practitioners in Germany and the UK. The survey examined respondents' assessed and perceived comprehension (PC) of visual representations of climate projections as well as preferences for using different visualizations in communicating and planning for a changing climate. Comprehension and use are tested using four different graph formats, which are split into two pairs. Within each pair the information content is the same but is visualized differently. We show that even within a fairly homogeneous user group, such as local adaptation practitioners, there are clear differences in respondents' comprehension of and preference for visualizations. We do not find a consistent association between assessed comprehension and PC or use within the two pairs of visualizations that we analysed. There is, however, a clear link between PC and use of graph format. This suggests that respondents use what they think they understand the best, rather than what they actually understand the best. These findings highlight that audience-specific targeted communication may be more complex and challenging than previously recognized.

  2. Reproductive isolation and local adaptation quantified for a chromosome inversion in a malaria mosquito.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Diego; Guerrero, Rafael F; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Chromosome inversions have long been thought to be involved in speciation and local adaptation. We have little quantitative information, however, about the effects that inversion polymorphisms have on reproductive isolation and viability. Here we provide the first estimates from any organism for the total amount of reproductive isolation associated with an inversion segregating in natural populations. We sampled chromosomes from 751 mosquitoes of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus along a 1421 km transect in Cameroon that traverses savannah, highland, and rainforest ecological zones. We then developed a series of population genetic models that account for selection, migration, and assortative mating, and fit the models to the data using likelihood. Results from the best-fit models suggest there is strong local adaptation, with relative viabilities of homozygotes ranging from 25% to 130% compared to heterozygotes. Viabilities vary qualitatively between regions: the inversion is underdominant in the savannah, whereas in the highlands it is overdominant. The inversion is also implicated in strong assortative mating. In the savannah, the two homozygote forms show 92% reproductive isolation, suggesting that this one inversion can generate most of the genetic barriers needed for speciation.

  3. Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Local Adaptive Techniques in Training Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aik, Lim Eng; Zainuddin, Zarita; Joseph, Annie

    2008-01-01

    One of the most significant problems in computer molecular biology today is how to predict a protein's three-dimensional structure from its one-dimensional amino acid sequence or generally call the protein folding problem and difficult to determine the corresponding protein functions. Thus, this paper involves protein secondary structure prediction using neural network in order to solve the protein folding problem. The neural network used for protein secondary structure prediction is multilayer perceptron (MLP) of the feed-forward variety. The training set are taken from the protein data bank which are 120 proteins while 60 testing set is the proteins which were chosen randomly from the protein data bank. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is used to get the protein similar sequence and Position Specific Scoring matrix (PSSM) is used for network input. The training process of the neural network involves local adaptive techniques. Local adaptive techniques used in this paper comprises Learning rate by sign changes, SuperSAB, Quickprop and RPROP. From the simulation, the performance for learning rate by Rprop and Quickprop are superior to all other algorithms with respect to the convergence time. However, the best result was obtained using Rprop algorithm.

  4. Adaptation in sound localization: from GABA(B) receptor-mediated synaptic modulation to perception.

    PubMed

    Stange, Annette; Myoga, Michael H; Lingner, Andrea; Ford, Marc C; Alexandrova, Olga; Felmy, Felix; Pecka, Michael; Siveke, Ida; Grothe, Benedikt

    2013-12-01

    Across all sensory modalities, the effect of context-dependent neural adaptation can be observed at every level, from receptors to perception. Nonetheless, it has long been assumed that the processing of interaural time differences, which is the primary cue for sound localization, is nonadaptive, as its outputs are mapped directly onto a hard-wired representation of space. Here we present evidence derived from in vitro and in vivo experiments in gerbils indicating that the coincidence-detector neurons in the medial superior olive modulate their sensitivity to interaural time differences through a rapid, GABA(B) receptor-mediated feedback mechanism. We show that this mechanism provides a gain control in the form of output normalization, which influences the neuronal population code of auditory space. Furthermore, psychophysical tests showed that the paradigm used to evoke neuronal GABA(B) receptor-mediated adaptation causes the perceptual shift in sound localization in humans that was expected on the basis of our physiological results in gerbils.

  5. Plant quality and local adaptation undermine relocation in a bog specialist butterfly.

    PubMed

    Turlure, Camille; Radchuk, Viktoriia; Baguette, Michel; Meijrink, Mark; den Burg, Arnold; Vries, Michiel Wallis; Duinen, Gert-Jan

    2013-02-01

    The butterfly Boloria aquilonaris is a specialist of oligotrophic ecosystems. Population viability analysis predicted the species to be stable in Belgium and to collapse in the Netherlands with reduced host plant quality expected to drive species decline in the latter. We tested this hypothesis by rearing B. aquilonaris caterpillars from Belgian and Dutch sites on host plants (the cranberry, Vaccinium oxycoccos). Dutch plant quality was lower than Belgian one conferring lower caterpillar growth rate and survival. Reintroduction and/or supplementation may be necessary to ensure the viability of the species in the Netherlands, but some traits may have been selected solely in Dutch caterpillars to cope with gradual changes in host plant quality. To test this hypothesis, the performance of Belgian and Dutch caterpillars fed with plants from both countries were compared. Dutch caterpillars performed well on both plant qualities, whereas Belgian caterpillars could not switch to lower quality plants. This can be considered as an environmentally induced plastic response of caterpillars and/or a local adaptation to plant quality, which precludes the use of Belgian individuals as a unique solution for strengthening Dutch populations. More generally, these results stress that the relevance of local adaptation in selecting source populations for relocation may be as important as restoring habitat quality.

  6. Adaptive Reweighting of Auditory Localization Cues in Response to Chronic Unilateral Ear-plugging in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kumpik, Daniel P.; Kacelnik, Oliver; King, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Localizing a sound source involves the detection and integration of various spatial cues present in the sound waves at each ear. Previous studies indicate that the brain circuits underlying sound localization are calibrated by experience of the cues available to each individual. Plasticity in spatial hearing is most pronounced during development, but can also be demonstrated during adulthood under certain circumstances. Investigations into whether adult humans can adjust to reduced input in one ear and learn a new correspondence between interaural differences cues and directions in space have produced conflicting results. Here we show that humans of both sexes can relearn to localize broadband sounds with a “flat” spectrum in the horizontal plane after altering the spatial cues available by plugging one ear. In subjects who received daily training, localization accuracy progressively shifted back toward their pre-plug performance after one week of ear-plugging, whereas no improvement was seen if all trials were carried out on the same day. However, localization performance did not improve on a task that employed stimuli in which the source spectrum was randomized from trial to trial, indicating that monaural spectral cues are needed for plasticity. We also characterized the effects of the earplug on sensitivity to interaural time and level differences, and found no clear evidence for adaptation to these cues as the free-field localization performance improved. These findings suggest that the mature auditory system can accommodate abnormal inputs and maintain a stable spatial percept by reweighting different cues according to how informative they are. PMID:20371808

  7. Evaluation of the Operational Multi-scale Environment model with Grid Adaptivity (OMEGA) for use in Wind Energy Applications in the Great Basin of Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Kristien C.

    In order to further assess the wind energy potential for Nevada, the accuracy of a computational meteorological model, the Operational Multi-scale Environment model with Grid Adaptivity (OMEGA), was evaluated by comparing simulation results with data collected from a wind monitoring tower near Tonopah, NV. The state of Nevada is characterized by high mountains and low-lying valleys, therefore, in order to determine the wind potential for the state, meteorological models that predict the wind must be able to accurately represent and account for terrain features and simulate topographic forcing with accuracy. Topographic forcing has a dominant role in the development and modification of mesoscale flows in regions of complex terrain, like Tonopah, especially at the level of wind turbine blade heights (~80 m). Additionally, model factors such as horizontal resolution, terrain database resolution, model physics, time of model initialization, stability regime, and source of initial conditions may each affect the ability of a mesoscale model to forecast winds correctly. The observational tower used for comparison was located at Stone Cabin, Nevada. The tower had both sonic anemometers and cup anemometers installed at heights of 40 m, 60 m, and 80 m above the surface. During a previous experiment, tower data were collected for the period February 9 through March 10, 2007 and compared to model simulations using the MM5 and WRF models at a number of varying horizontal resolutions. In this previous research, neither the MM5 nor the WRF showed a significant improvement in ability to forecast wind speed with increasing horizontal grid resolution. The present research evaluated the ability of OMEGA to reproduce point winds as compared to the observational data from the Stone Cabin Tower at heights of 40 m, 60 m, and 80 m. Unlike other mesoscale atmospheric models, OMEGA incorporates an unstructured triangular adaptive grid which allows for increased flexibility and accuracy in

  8. L1-norm locally linear representation regularization multi-source adaptation learning.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianwen; Wen, Shiting; Hu, Wenjun

    2015-09-01

    In most supervised domain adaptation learning (DAL) tasks, one has access only to a small number of labeled examples from target domain. Therefore the success of supervised DAL in this "small sample" regime needs the effective utilization of the large amounts of unlabeled data to extract information that is useful for generalization. Toward this end, we here use the geometric intuition of manifold assumption to extend the established frameworks in existing model-based DAL methods for function learning by incorporating additional information about the target geometric structure of the marginal distribution. We would like to ensure that the solution is smooth with respect to both the ambient space and the target marginal distribution. In doing this, we propose a novel L1-norm locally linear representation regularization multi-source adaptation learning framework which exploits the geometry of the probability distribution, which has two techniques. Firstly, an L1-norm locally linear representation method is presented for robust graph construction by replacing the L2-norm reconstruction measure in LLE with L1-norm one, which is termed as L1-LLR for short. Secondly, considering the robust graph regularization, we replace traditional graph Laplacian regularization with our new L1-LLR graph Laplacian regularization and therefore construct new graph-based semi-supervised learning framework with multi-source adaptation constraint, which is coined as L1-MSAL method. Moreover, to deal with the nonlinear learning problem, we also generalize the L1-MSAL method by mapping the input data points from the input space to a high-dimensional reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) via a nonlinear mapping. Promising experimental results have been obtained on several real-world datasets such as face, visual video and object.

  9. Local adaptations and climate change: converging sensitivity of bud break in black spruce provenances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    Species with transcontinental distribution or spread over wide geographical regions develop populations with growth traits genetically adapted to the local climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecotypic sensitivity of bud break, a strong adaptive trait, to a changing environment. Six phenological phases of bud break were monitored daily on black spruce [ Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings submitted to different temperatures (12, 16 and 20 °C) and photoperiods (14, 18 and 22 h). Six provenances were tested in growth chambers, produced from seeds collected along the whole latitudinal range of the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 13.3 days on average and occurred earlier in seedlings from colder sites. The annual temperature of the sites suitably tracked the clinal variation among ecotypes, providing a clear biological explanation for the environmental signal driving the adaptive divergence of populations to the local climate. Increasing temperature induced an earlier bud break according to a non-linear pattern with greater advancements observed between 12 and 16 °C. Photoperiod was significant, but sensitivity analysis indicated that its effect on bud break was marginal with respect to temperature. No interaction of provenance × treatment was observed, demonstrating an ecotypic convergence of the responses to both factors. Changes in the growing conditions could substantially modify the synchronization between bud phenology and climate, thus exposing the developing meristems of black spruce to frost damage. However, similar advancements of bud break could be expected in the different ecotypes subjected to warmer temperatures or longer day lengths.

  10. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  11. Generating relevant climate adaptation science tools in concert with local natural resource agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, L.; Flint, L. E.; Veloz, S.; Heller, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    To create a framework for adapting to climate change, decision makers operating at the urban-wildland interface need to define climate vulnerabilities in the context of site-specific opportunities and constraints relative to water supply, land use suitability, wildfire risks, ecosystem services and quality of life. Pepperwood's TBC3.org is crafting customized climate vulnerability assessments with selected water and natural resource agencies of California's Sonoma, Marin, Napa and Mendocino counties under the auspices of Climate Ready North Bay, a public-private partnership funded by the California Coastal Conservancy. Working directly with managers from the very start of the process to define resource-specific information needs, we are developing high-resolution, spatially-explicit data products to help local governments and agency staff implement informed and effective climate adaptation strategies. Key preliminary findings for the region using the USGS' Basin Characterization Model (at a 270 m spatial resolution) include a unidirectional trend, independent of greater or lesser precipitation, towards increasing climatic water deficits across model scenarios. Therefore a key message is that managers will be facing an increasingly arid environment. Companion models translate the impacts of shifting climate and hydrology on vegetation composition and fire risks. The combination of drought stress on water supplies and native vegetation with an approximate doubling of fire risks may demand new approaches to watershed planning. Working with agencies we are exploring how to build capacity for protection and enhancement of key watershed functions with a focus on groundwater recharge, facilitating greater drought tolerance in forest and rangeland systems, and considering more aggressive approaches to management of fuel loads. Lessons learned about effective engagement include the need for extended in-depth dialog, translation of key climate adaptation questions into

  12. An adaptive nonlinear solution scheme for reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lett, G.S.

    1996-12-31

    Numerical reservoir simulation involves solving large, nonlinear systems of PDE with strongly discontinuous coefficients. Because of the large demands on computer memory and CPU, most users must perform simulations on very coarse grids. The average properties of the fluids and rocks must be estimated on these grids. These coarse grid {open_quotes}effective{close_quotes} properties are costly to determine, and risky to use, since their optimal values depend on the fluid flow being simulated. Thus, they must be found by trial-and-error techniques, and the more coarse the grid, the poorer the results. This paper describes a numerical reservoir simulator which accepts fine scale properties and automatically generates multiple levels of coarse grid rock and fluid properties. The fine grid properties and the coarse grid simulation results are used to estimate discretization errors with multilevel error expansions. These expansions are local, and identify areas requiring local grid refinement. These refinements are added adoptively by the simulator, and the resulting composite grid equations are solved by a nonlinear Fast Adaptive Composite (FAC) Grid method, with a damped Newton algorithm being used on each local grid. The nonsymmetric linear system of equations resulting from Newton`s method are in turn solved by a preconditioned Conjugate Gradients-like algorithm. The scheme is demonstrated by performing fine and coarse grid simulations of several multiphase reservoirs from around the world.

  13. A High Order, Locally-Adaptive Method for the Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Daniel

    1998-11-01

    I have extended the FOSLS method of Cai, Manteuffel and McCormick (1997) and implemented it within the framework of a spectral element formulation using the Legendre polynomial basis function. The FOSLS method solves the Navier-Stokes equations as a system of coupled first-order equations and provides the ellipticity that is needed for fast iterative matrix solvers like multigrid to operate efficiently. Each element is treated as an object and its properties are self-contained. Only C^0 continuity is imposed across element interfaces; this design allows local grid refinement and coarsening without the burden of having an elaborate data structure, since only information along element boundaries is needed. With the FORTRAN 90 programming environment, I can maintain a high computational efficiency by employing a hybrid parallel processing model. The OpenMP directives provides parallelism in the loop level which is executed in a shared-memory SMP and the MPI protocol allows the distribution of elements to a cluster of SMP's connected via a commodity network. This talk will provide timing results and a comparison with a second order finite difference method.

  14. A Self-Adaptive Model-Based Wi-Fi Indoor Localization Method

    PubMed Central

    Tuta, Jure; Juric, Matjaz B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for indoor localization, developed with the main aim of making it useful for real-world deployments. Many indoor localization methods exist, yet they have several disadvantages in real-world deployments—some are static, which is not suitable for long-term usage; some require costly human recalibration procedures; and others require special hardware such as Wi-Fi anchors and transponders. Our method is self-calibrating and self-adaptive thus maintenance free and based on Wi-Fi only. We have employed two well-known propagation models—free space path loss and ITU models—which we have extended with additional parameters for better propagation simulation. Our self-calibrating procedure utilizes one propagation model to infer parameters of the space and the other to simulate the propagation of the signal without requiring any additional hardware beside Wi-Fi access points, which is suitable for real-world usage. Our method is also one of the few model-based Wi-Fi only self-adaptive approaches that do not require the mobile terminal to be in the access-point mode. The only input requirements of the method are Wi-Fi access point positions, and positions and properties of the walls. Our method has been evaluated in single- and multi-room environments, with measured mean error of 2–3 and 3–4 m, respectively, which is similar to existing methods. The evaluation has proven that usable localization accuracy can be achieved in real-world environments solely by the proposed Wi-Fi method that relies on simple hardware and software requirements. PMID:27929453

  15. A Self-Adaptive Model-Based Wi-Fi Indoor Localization Method.

    PubMed

    Tuta, Jure; Juric, Matjaz B

    2016-12-06

    This paper presents a novel method for indoor localization, developed with the main aim of making it useful for real-world deployments. Many indoor localization methods exist, yet they have several disadvantages in real-world deployments-some are static, which is not suitable for long-term usage; some require costly human recalibration procedures; and others require special hardware such as Wi-Fi anchors and transponders. Our method is self-calibrating and self-adaptive thus maintenance free and based on Wi-Fi only. We have employed two well-known propagation models-free space path loss and ITU models-which we have extended with additional parameters for better propagation simulation. Our self-calibrating procedure utilizes one propagation model to infer parameters of the space and the other to simulate the propagation of the signal without requiring any additional hardware beside Wi-Fi access points, which is suitable for real-world usage. Our method is also one of the few model-based Wi-Fi only self-adaptive approaches that do not require the mobile terminal to be in the access-point mode. The only input requirements of the method are Wi-Fi access point positions, and positions and properties of the walls. Our method has been evaluated in single- and multi-room environments, with measured mean error of 2-3 and 3-4 m, respectively, which is similar to existing methods. The evaluation has proven that usable localization accuracy can be achieved in real-world environments solely by the proposed Wi-Fi method that relies on simple hardware and software requirements.

  16. Increased sedentariness in European Blackbirds following urbanization: a consequence of local adaptation?

    PubMed

    Partecke, Jesko; Gwinner, Eberhard

    2007-04-01

    Urbanization changes local environmental conditions and may lead to altered selection regimes for life history traits of organisms thriving in cities. Previous studies have reported changes in breeding phenology and even trends toward increased sedentariness in migratory bird species colonizing urban areas. However, does the change in migratory propensity simply represent a phenotypic adjustment to local urban environment, or is it genetically based and hence the result of local adaptation? To test this, we hand-raised European Blackbirds (Turdus merula) from urban and forest populations, quantified their nocturnal activity and fat deposition covering two complete migratory cycles and examined the consequences of a reduced migratory propensity for the timing of gonadal development (a physiological measure of the seasonal timing of reproduction). Although nocturnal activities differed strikingly between fall and spring seasons, with low activities during the fall and high activities during the spring seasons, our data confirm, even in birds kept from early life under common-garden conditions, a change toward reduced migratoriness in urban blackbirds. The first score of a principal component analysis including amount of nocturnal activity and fat deposition, defined as migratory disposition, was lower in urban than in forest males particularly during their first year, whereas females did not differ. The results suggest that the intrinsic but male-biased difference is genetically determined, although early developmental effects cannot be excluded. Moreover, individuals with low migratory disposition developed their gonads earlier, resulting in longer reproductive seasons. Since urban conditions facilitate earlier breeding, intrinsic shifts to sedentariness thus seem to be adaptive in urban habitats. These results corroborate the idea that urbanization has evolutionary consequences for life history traits such as migratory behavior.

  17. High genetic variation in resting-stage production in a metapopulation: Is there evidence for local adaptation?

    PubMed

    Roulin, Anne C; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Hall, Matthew D; Walser, Jean-Claude; Haag, Christoph; Ebert, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Local adaptation is a key process for the maintenance of genetic diversity and population diversification. A better understanding of the mechanisms that allow (or prevent) local adaptation constitutes a key in apprehending how and at what spatial scale it occurs. The production of resting stages is found in many taxa and reflects an adaptation to outlast adverse environmental conditions. Daphnia magna (Crustacea) can alternate between asexual and sexual reproduction, the latter being linked to dormancy, as resting stages can only be produced sexually. In this species, on a continental scale, resting-stage production is locally adapted--that is, it is induced when the photoperiod indicates the imminence of habitat deterioration. Here, we aimed to explore whether selection is strong enough to maintain local adaptation at a scale of a few kilometers. We assessed life-history traits of 64 D. magna clones originating from 11 populations of a metapopulation with permanent and intermittent pool habitats. We found large within- and between-population variation for all dormancy-related traits, but no evidence for the hypothesized higher resting-stage production in animals from intermittent habitats. We discuss how gene flow, founder events, or other forms of selection might interfere with the process of local adaptation.

  18. Local adaptation of a bacterium is as important as its presence in structuring a natural microbial community

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Pedro; Paterson, Steve; De Meester, Luc; Liu, Xuan; Lenzi, Luca; Sharma, M. D.; McElroy, Kerensa; Buckling, Angus

    2016-01-01

    Local adaptation of a species can affect community composition, yet the importance of local adaptation compared with species presence per se is unknown. Here we determine how a compost bacterial community exposed to elevated temperature changes over 2 months as a result of the presence of a focal bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, that had been pre-adapted or not to the compost for 48 days. The effect of local adaptation on community composition is as great as the effect of species presence per se, with these results robust to the presence of an additional strong selection pressure: an SBW25-specific virus. These findings suggest that evolution occurring over ecological time scales can be a key driver of the structure of natural microbial communities, particularly in situations where some species have an evolutionary head start following large perturbations, such as exposure to antibiotics or crop planting and harvesting. PMID:27501868

  19. Local Adaptation of Central Policies: The Policymaking and Implementation of Compulsory Education for Migrant Children in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the central and local governments' policymaking and implementation of compulsory education for migrant children in China. Three distinct models of policy implementation were identified through a case study approach. They indicated a selective adaptation of central policy objective and principles by the local governments and…

  20. 3-D inversion of airborne electromagnetic data parallelized and accelerated by local mesh and adaptive soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dikun; Oldenburg, Douglas W.; Haber, Eldad

    2014-03-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) methods are highly efficient tools for assessing the Earth's conductivity structures in a large area at low cost. However, the configuration of AEM measurements, which typically have widely distributed transmitter-receiver pairs, makes the rigorous modelling and interpretation extremely time-consuming in 3-D. Excessive overcomputing can occur when working on a large mesh covering the entire survey area and inverting all soundings in the data set. We propose two improvements. The first is to use a locally optimized mesh for each AEM sounding for the forward modelling and calculation of sensitivity. This dedicated local mesh is small with fine cells near the sounding location and coarse cells far away in accordance with EM diffusion and the geometric decay of the signals. Once the forward problem is solved on the local meshes, the sensitivity for the inversion on the global mesh is available through quick interpolation. Using local meshes for AEM forward modelling avoids unnecessary computing on fine cells on a global mesh that are far away from the sounding location. Since local meshes are highly independent, the forward modelling can be efficiently parallelized over an array of processors. The second improvement is random and dynamic down-sampling of the soundings. Each inversion iteration only uses a random subset of the soundings, and the subset is reselected for every iteration. The number of soundings in the random subset, determined by an adaptive algorithm, is tied to the degree of model regularization. This minimizes the overcomputing caused by working with redundant soundings. Our methods are compared against conventional methods and tested with a synthetic example. We also invert a field data set that was previously considered to be too large to be practically inverted in 3-D. These examples show that our methodology can dramatically reduce the processing time of 3-D inversion to a practical level without losing resolution

  1. No evidence for local adaptation in an invasive alien plant: field and greenhouse experiments tracing a colonization sequence

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Anna T.; Kollmann, Johannes; Mayer, Andreas; Haider, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Local adaptation enables plant species to persist under different environmental conditions. Evolutionary change can occur rapidly in invasive annual species and has been shown to lead to local adaptation. However, the patterns and mechanisms of local adaptation in invasive species along colonization sequences are not yet understood. Thus, in this study the alien annual Impatiens glandulifera was used to investigate local adaptation to distinct habitats that have been consecutively invaded in central Europe. Methods A reciprocal transplant experiment was performed using 15 populations from alluvial deciduous forests, fallow meadows and coniferous upland forests, and a greenhouse experiment was performed in which plants from these habitats were grown under treatments reflecting the main habitat differentiators (shade, soil acidity, competition). Key Results Biomass production, specific leaf area, plant height and relative growth rate differed between habitats in the field experiment and between treatments in the greenhouse, but not between seed origins. Overall, there was no indication of local adaptation in either experiment. Conclusions Since I. glandulifera is a successful invader in many habitats without showing local adaptation, it is suggested that the species is coping with environmental variation by means of high phenotypic plasticity. The species seems to follow a ‘jack-and-master’ strategy, i.e. it is able to maintain high fitness under a wide range of environmental conditions, but performs particularly well in favourable habitats. Therefore, the proposed colonization sequence is likely to be based primarily on changes in propagule pressure. It is concluded that invasive alien plants can become dominant in distinct habitats without local adaptation. PMID:24214934

  2. Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: unravelling local adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Descheemaeker, K.; Giller, K. E.; Huising, J.; Merckx, R.; Nziguheba, G.; Wendt, J.; Zingore, S.

    2014-12-01

    Intensification of smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is necessary to address rural poverty and natural resource degradation. Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) is a means to enhance crop productivity while maximizing the agronomic efficiency (AE) of applied inputs, and can thus contribute to sustainable intensification. ISFM consists of a set of best practices, preferably used in combination, including the use of appropriate germplasm, the appropriate use of fertilizer and of organic resources, and good agronomic practices. The large variability in soil fertility conditions within smallholder farms is also recognised within ISFM, including soils with constraints beyond those addressed by fertilizer and organic inputs. The variable biophysical environments that characterize smallholder farming systems have profound effects on crop productivity and AE and targeted application of limited agro-inputs and management practices is necessary to enhance AE. Further, management decisions depend on the farmer's resource endowments and production objectives. In this paper we discuss the "local adaptation" component of ISFM and how this can be conceptualized within an ISFM framework, backstopped by analysis of AE at plot and farm level. At plot level, a set of four constraints to maximum AE is discussed in relation to "local adaptation": soil acidity, secondary nutrient and micro-nutrient (SMN) deficiencies, physical constraints, and drought stress. In each of these cases, examples are presented whereby amendments and/or practices addressing these have a significantly positive impact on fertilizer AE, including mechanistic principles underlying these effects. While the impact of such amendments and/or practices is easily understood for some practices (e.g., the application of SMNs where these are limiting), for others, more complex interactions with fertilizer AE can be identified (e.g., water harvesting under varying rainfall conditions). At farm scale

  3. Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: unravelling local adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Descheemaeker, K.; Giller, K. E.; Huising, J.; Merckx, R.; Nziguheba, G.; Wendt, J.; Zingore, S.

    2015-06-01

    Intensification of smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is necessary to address rural poverty and natural resource degradation. Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) is a means to enhance crop productivity while maximizing the agronomic efficiency (AE) of applied inputs, and can thus contribute to sustainable intensification. ISFM consists of a set of best practices, preferably used in combination, including the use of appropriate germplasm, the appropriate use of fertilizer and of organic resources, and good agronomic practices. The large variability in soil fertility conditions within smallholder farms is also recognized within ISFM, including soils with constraints beyond those addressed by fertilizer and organic inputs. The variable biophysical environments that characterize smallholder farming systems have profound effects on crop productivity and AE, and targeted application of agro-inputs and management practices is necessary to enhance AE. Further, management decisions depend on the farmer's resource endowments and production objectives. In this paper we discuss the "local adaptation" component of ISFM and how this can be conceptualized within an ISFM framework, backstopped by analysis of AE at plot and farm level. At plot level, a set of four constraints to maximum AE is discussed in relation to "local adaptation": soil acidity, secondary nutrient and micronutrient (SMN) deficiencies, physical constraints, and drought stress. In each of these cases, examples are presented whereby amendments and/or practices addressing these have a significantly positive impact on fertilizer AE, including mechanistic principles underlying these effects. While the impact of such amendments and/or practices is easily understood for some practices (e.g. the application of SMNs where these are limiting), for others, more complex processes influence AE (e.g. water harvesting under varying rainfall conditions). At farm scale, adjusting fertilizer applications to

  4. MODPATH-LGR; documentation of a computer program for particle tracking in shared-node locally refined grids by using MODFLOW-LGR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Jesse E.; Hanson, R.T.; Mehl, Steffen W.; Hill, Mary C.

    2011-01-01

    The computer program described in this report, MODPATH-LGR, is designed to allow simulation of particle tracking in locally refined grids. The locally refined grids are simulated by using MODFLOW-LGR, which is based on MODFLOW-2005, the three-dimensional groundwater-flow model published by the U.S. Geological Survey. The documentation includes brief descriptions of the methods used and detailed descriptions of the required input files and how the output files are typically used. The code for this model is available for downloading from the World Wide Web from a U.S. Geological Survey software repository. The repository is accessible from the U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Information Web page at http://water.usgs.gov/software/ground_water.html. The performance of the MODPATH-LGR program has been tested in a variety of applications. Future applications, however, might reveal errors that were not detected in the test simulations. Users are requested to notify the U.S. Geological Survey of any errors found in this document or the computer program by using the email address available on the Web site. Updates might occasionally be made to this document and to the MODPATH-LGR program, and users should check the Web site periodically.

  5. Validation of a microsatellite panel for parentage testing of locally adapted and commercial goats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Elizabete Cristina; McManus, Concepta Margaret; de Paiva Guimarães, Maria Pia Souza Lima Mattos; Gouveia, Aurora M G; Facó, Olivardo; Pimentel, Daniel M; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues; Paiva, Samuel Rezende

    2014-03-01

    Brazilian goats are generally kept in small herds and extensive rearing systems, mainly in the northeastern region of the country. Despite production improvement in recent years, the lack of pedigree control has affected genetic progress. This study aimed to validate a panel of 16 microsatellites for parentage testing in locally adapted and commercial goats breeds raised in Brazil, as well as to compare its efficiency with the panel recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supplies (MAPA) in 2004. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity (He) per marker ranged from four to 18, and from 0.051 to 0.831, respectively. Using all markers, 100% of parentage cases of the validation dataset were resolved with a strict confidence level of 95%. The 16 microsatellites panel showed adequate exclusion power (99.99%) and identity accuracy (99.99%). Suggestions for improvement of the marker panel endorsed by MAPA are provided.

  6. Validation of a microsatellite panel for parentage testing of locally adapted and commercial goats in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Elizabete Cristina; McManus, Concepta Margaret; de Paiva Guimarães, Maria Pia Souza Lima Mattos; Gouveia, Aurora M.G.; Facó, Olivardo; Pimentel, Daniel M.; Caetano, Alexandre Rodrigues; Paiva, Samuel Rezende

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian goats are generally kept in small herds and extensive rearing systems, mainly in the northeastern region of the country. Despite production improvement in recent years, the lack of pedigree control has affected genetic progress. This study aimed to validate a panel of 16 microsatellites for parentage testing in locally adapted and commercial goats breeds raised in Brazil, as well as to compare its efficiency with the panel recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supplies (MAPA) in 2004. The number of alleles and expected heterozygosity (He) per marker ranged from four to 18, and from 0.051 to 0.831, respectively. Using all markers, 100% of parentage cases of the validation dataset were resolved with a strict confidence level of 95%. The 16 microsatellites panel showed adequate exclusion power (99.99%) and identity accuracy (99.99%). Suggestions for improvement of the marker panel endorsed by MAPA are provided. PMID:24688291

  7. An adaptive way for improving noise reduction using local geometric projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontitsis, Alexandros; Bountis, Tassos; Pagge, Jenny

    2004-03-01

    We propose an adaptive way to improve noise reduction by local geometric projection. From the neighborhood of each candidate point in phase space, we identify the best subspace that the point will be orthogonally projected to. The signal subspace is formed by the most significant eigendirections of the neighborhood, while the less significant ones define the noise subspace. We provide a simple criterion to separate the most significant eigendirections from the less significant ones. This criterion is based on the maximum logarithmic difference between the neighborhood eigendirection lengths, and the assumption that there is at least one eigendirection that corresponds to the noise subspace. In this way, we take into account the special characteristics of each neighborhood and introduce a more successful noise reduction technique. Results are presented for a chaotic time series of the Hénon map and Ikeda map, as well as on the Nasdaq Composite index.

  8. Impact of Rician adapted Non-Local Means filtering on HARDI.

    PubMed

    Descoteaux, Maxime; Wiest-Daesslé, Nicolas; Prima, Sylvain; Barillot, Christian; Deriche, Rachid

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of denoising the raw high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) data with the Non-Local Means filter adapted to Rician noise (NLMr). We first show that NLMr filtering improves robustness of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and orientation distribution function (ODF) reconstructions from synthetic HARDI datasets. Our results suggest that the NLMr filtering improve the quality of anisotropy maps computed from ADC and ODF and improve the coherence of q-ball ODFs with the underlying anatomy while not degrading angular resolution. These results are shown on a biological phantom with known ground truth and on a real human brain dataset. Most importantly, we show that multiple measurements of diffusion-weighted (DW) images and averaging these images along each direction can be avoided because NLMr filtering of the individual DW images produces better quality generalized fractional anisotropy maps and more accurate ODF fields than when computed from the averaged DW datasets.

  9. Evaluating the Impact of Localized GCM Grid Refinement on Regional Tropical Cyclone Climatology and Synoptic Variability using Variable-Resolution CAM-SE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarzycki, C.; Jablonowski, C.

    2013-12-01

    Using General Circulation Models (GCMs) to resolve sub-synoptic features in climate simulations has traditionally been difficult due to a multitude of atmospheric processes operating at subgrid scales requiring significant parameterization. For example, at traditional GCM horizontal grid resolutions of 50-300 km, tropical cyclones are generally under-resolved. This paper explores a novel variable-resolution global modeling approach that allows for high spatial resolutions in areas of interest, such as low-latitude ocean basins where tropical cyclogenesis occurs. Such multi-resolution GCM designs allow for targeted use of computing resources at the regional level while maintaining a globally-continuous model domain and may serve to bridge the gap between GCMs with uniform grids and boundary-forced limited area models. A statically-nested, variable-resolution option has recently been introduced into the Community Atmosphere Model's (CAM) Spectral Element (SE) dynamical core. A 110 km CAM-SE grid with a 28 km nest over the Atlantic Ocean has been coupled to land, ocean, and ice components within the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We present the results of a multi-decadal climate simulation using Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) protocols, which force the model with historical sea surface temperatures and airborne chemical species. To investigate whether refinement improves the representation of tropical cyclones, we compare Atlantic storm statistics to observations with specific focus paid to intensity profiles and track densities. The resolution dependance of both cyclone structure and objective detection between refined and unrefined basins is explored. In addition, we discuss the potential impact of using variable-resolution grids on the large-scale synoptic interannual variability by comparing refined grid simulations to reanalysis data as well as an unrefined, globally-uniform CAM-SE simulation with identical forcing. We also evaluate the

  10. Local Adaptation of Sun-Exposure-Dependent Gene Expression Regulation in Human Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kita, Ryosuke; Fraser, Hunter B.

    2016-01-01

    Sun-exposure is a key environmental variable in the study of human evolution. Several skin-pigmentation genes serve as classical examples of positive selection, suggesting that sun-exposure has significantly shaped worldwide genomic variation. Here we investigate the interaction between genetic variation and sun-exposure, and how this impacts gene expression regulation. Using RNA-Seq data from 607 human skin samples, we identified thousands of transcripts that are differentially expressed between sun-exposed skin and non-sun-exposed skin. We then tested whether genetic variants may influence each individual’s gene expression response to sun-exposure. Our analysis revealed 10 sun-exposure-dependent gene expression quantitative trait loci (se-eQTLs), including genes involved in skin pigmentation (SLC45A2) and epidermal differentiation (RASSF9). The allele frequencies of the RASSF9 se-eQTL across diverse populations correlate with the magnitude of solar radiation experienced by these populations, suggesting local adaptation to varying levels of sunlight. These results provide the first examples of sun-exposure-dependent regulatory variation and suggest that this variation has contributed to recent human adaptation. PMID:27760139

  11. DNA methylation in Arabidopsis has a genetic basis and shows evidence of local adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Dubin, Manu J; Zhang, Pei; Meng, Dazhe; Remigereau, Marie-Stanislas; Osborne, Edward J; Paolo Casale, Francesco; Drewe, Philipp; Kahles, André; Jean, Geraldine; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni; Jagoda, Joanna; Irez, Selen; Voronin, Viktor; Song, Qiang; Long, Quan; Rätsch, Gunnar; Stegle, Oliver; Clark, Richard M; Nordborg, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Epigenome modulation potentially provides a mechanism for organisms to adapt, within and between generations. However, neither the extent to which this occurs, nor the mechanisms involved are known. Here we investigate DNA methylation variation in Swedish Arabidopsis thaliana accessions grown at two different temperatures. Environmental effects were limited to transposons, where CHH methylation was found to increase with temperature. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed that the extensive CHH methylation variation was strongly associated with genetic variants in both cis and trans, including a major trans-association close to the DNA methyltransferase CMT2. Unlike CHH methylation, CpG gene body methylation (GBM) was not affected by growth temperature, but was instead correlated with the latitude of origin. Accessions from colder regions had higher levels of GBM for a significant fraction of the genome, and this was associated with increased transcription for the genes affected. GWAS revealed that this effect was largely due to trans-acting loci, many of which showed evidence of local adaptation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05255.001 PMID:25939354

  12. DNA methylation in Arabidopsis has a genetic basis and shows evidence of local adaptation.

    PubMed

    Dubin, Manu J; Zhang, Pei; Meng, Dazhe; Remigereau, Marie-Stanislas; Osborne, Edward J; Paolo Casale, Francesco; Drewe, Philipp; Kahles, André; Jean, Geraldine; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni; Jagoda, Joanna; Irez, Selen; Voronin, Viktor; Song, Qiang; Long, Quan; Rätsch, Gunnar; Stegle, Oliver; Clark, Richard M; Nordborg, Magnus

    2015-05-05

    Epigenome modulation potentially provides a mechanism for organisms to adapt, within and between generations. However, neither the extent to which this occurs, nor the mechanisms involved are known. Here we investigate DNA methylation variation in Swedish Arabidopsis thaliana accessions grown at two different temperatures. Environmental effects were limited to transposons, where CHH methylation was found to increase with temperature. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed that the extensive CHH methylation variation was strongly associated with genetic variants in both cis and trans, including a major trans-association close to the DNA methyltransferase CMT2. Unlike CHH methylation, CpG gene body methylation (GBM) was not affected by growth temperature, but was instead correlated with the latitude of origin. Accessions from colder regions had higher levels of GBM for a significant fraction of the genome, and this was associated with increased transcription for the genes affected. GWAS revealed that this effect was largely due to trans-acting loci, many of which showed evidence of local adaptation.

  13. Local adaptation and evolutionary potential along a temperature gradient in the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune

    PubMed Central

    Stefansson, Tryggvi S; McDonald, Bruce A; Willi, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    To predict the response of plant pathogens to climate warming, data are needed on current thermal adaptation, the pathogen's evolutionary potential, and the link between them. We conducted a common garden experiment using isolates of the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune from nine barley populations representing climatically diverse locations. Clonal replicates of 126 genetically distinct isolates were assessed for their growth rate at 12°C, 18°C, and 22°C. Populations originating from climates with higher monthly temperature variation had higher growth rate at all three temperatures compared with populations from climates with less temperature fluctuation. Population differentiation in growth rate (QST) was significantly higher at 22°C than population differentiation for neutral microsatellite loci (GST), consistent with local adaptation for growth at higher temperatures. At 18°C, we found evidence for stabilizing selection for growth rate as QST was significantly lower than GST. Heritability of growth rate under the three temperatures was substantial in all populations (0.58–0.76). Genetic variation was lower in populations with higher growth rate at the three temperatures and evolvability increased under heat stress in seven of nine populations. Our findings imply that the distribution of this pathogen is unlikely to be genetically limited under climate warming, due to its high genetic variation and plasticity for thermal tolerance. PMID:23745143

  14. Strong genetic differentiation but not local adaptation toward the range limit of a coastal dune plant.

    PubMed

    Samis, Karen E; López-Villalobos, Adriana; Eckert, Christopher G

    2016-11-01

    All species have limited geographic distributions; but the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms causing range limits are largely unknown. That many species' geographic range limits are coincident with niche limits suggests limited evolutionary potential of marginal populations to adapt to conditions experienced beyond the range. We provide a test of range limit theory by combining population genetic analysis of microsatellite polymorphisms with a transplant experiment within, at the edge of, and 60 km beyond the northern range of a coastal dune plant. Contrary to expectations, lifetime fitness increased toward the range limit with highest fitness achieved by most populations at and beyond the range edge. Genetic differentiation among populations was strong, with very low, nondirectional gene flow suggesting range limitation via constraints to dispersal. In contrast, however, local adaptation was negligible, and a distance-dependent decline in fitness only occurred for those populations furthest from home when planted beyond the range limit. These results challenge a commonly held assumption that stable range limits match niche limits, but also raise questions about the unique value of peripheral populations in expanding species' geographical ranges.

  15. Simulating local adaptation to clim