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Sample records for adaptive mac protocol

  1. Cooperative Energy Harvesting-Adaptive MAC Protocol for WBANs

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Volker; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Kartsakli, Elli; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Miribel-Català, Pere; Verikoukis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a cooperative medium access control (MAC) protocol, named cooperative energy harvesting (CEH)-MAC, that adapts its operation to the energy harvesting (EH) conditions in wireless body area networks (WBANs). In particular, the proposed protocol exploits the EH information in order to set an idle time that allows the relay nodes to charge their batteries and complete the cooperation phase successfully. Extensive simulations have shown that CEH-MAC significantly improves the network performance in terms of throughput, delay and energy efficiency compared to the cooperative operation of the baseline IEEE 802.15.6 standard. PMID:26029950

  2. Cooperative energy harvesting-adaptive MAC protocol for WBANs.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Volker; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Kartsakli, Elli; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Miribel-Català, Pere; Verikoukis, Christos

    2015-05-28

    In this paper, we introduce a cooperative medium access control (MAC) protocol, named cooperative energy harvesting (CEH)-MAC, that adapts its operation to the energy harvesting (EH) conditions in wireless body area networks (WBANs). In particular, the proposed protocol exploits the EH information in order to set an idle time that allows the relay nodes to charge their batteries and complete the cooperation phase successfully. Extensive simulations have shown that CEH-MAC significantly improves the network performance in terms of throughput, delay and energy efficiency compared to the cooperative operation of the baseline IEEE 802.15.6 standard.

  3. APC-MAC/TA: Adaptive Power Controlled MAC Protocol with Traffic Awareness for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Seok; Kim, Kiseon

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive power controlled MAC protocol with a traffic-aware scheme specifically designed to reduce both energy and latency in wireless sensor networks. Typically, existing MAC protocols for sensor networks sacrifice latency performance for node energy efficiency. However, some sensor applications for emergencies require rather fast transmissions of sensed data, where we need to consider both energy and latency together. The proposed MAC protocol includes two novel ideas: one is a transmission power control scheme for improving latency in high traffic loads, and the other is a traffic-aware scheme to save more energy in low traffic loads. The transmission power control scheme increases channel utilization by mitigating interference between nodes, and the traffic-aware scheme allows nodes to sleep to reduce idle energy consumption when there are no traffic loads in a network. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol significantly reduces the latency as well as the energy consumption compared to the S-MAC protocol specifically for a large transmission power of nodes and low network traffic.

  4. Adaptive low-power listening MAC protocol based on transmission rates.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kwang-il; Yi, Gangman

    2014-01-01

    Even though existing low-power listening (LPL) protocols have enabled ultra-low-power operation in wireless sensor networks (WSN), they do not address trade-off between energy and delay, since they focused only on energy aspect. However, in recent years, a growing interest in various WSN applications is requiring new design factors, such as minimum delay and higher reliability, as well as energy efficiency. Therefore, in this paper we propose a novel sensor multiple access control (MAC) protocol, transmission rate based adaptive low-power listening MAC protocol (TRA-MAC), which is a kind of preamble-based LPL but is capable of controlling preamble sensing cycle adaptively to transmission rates. Through experiments, it is demonstrated that TRA-MAC enables LPL cycle (LC) and preamble transmission length to adapt dynamically to varying transmission rates, compensating trade-off between energy and response time.

  5. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio. PMID:26999162

  6. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-03-18

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  7. Energy adaptive MAC protocol for IEEE 802.15.7 with energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-qiao; Chi, Xue-fen; Zhao, Lin-lin

    2016-09-01

    The medium access control (MAC) protocol for indoor visible light communication (VLC) with energy harvesting is explored in this paper. The unfairness of throughput exists among devices due to the significant difference of their energy harvesting rates which changes with distance, acceptance angle and the obstruction probability. We propose an energy harvesting model, a new obstruction probability model and an energy adaptive contention algorithm to overcome the unfairness problem. This device can adjust its contention window according to the energy harvesting rate. As a result, the device with lower energy harvesting rate can get shorter contention window to improve its transmission opportunity. Simulation results show that our MAC protocol can achieve a higher degree of fairness.

  8. An Adaptive OFDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Issa M.; Gadallah, Yasser; Hayajneh, Mohammad; Khreishah, Abdallah

    2012-01-01

    Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks (UAWSNs) have many applications across various civilian and military domains. However, they suffer from the limited available bandwidth of acoustic signals and harsh underwater conditions. In this work, we present an Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)-based Media Access Control (MAC) protocol that is configurable to suit the operating requirements of the underwater sensor network. The protocol has three modes of operation, namely random, equal opportunity and energy-conscious modes of operation. Our MAC design approach exploits the multi-path characteristics of a fading acoustic channel to convert it into parallel independent acoustic sub-channels that undergo flat fading. Communication between node pairs within the network is done using subsets of these sub-channels, depending on the configurations of the active mode of operation. Thus, the available limited bandwidth gets fully utilized while completely avoiding interference. We derive the mathematical model for optimal power loading and subcarrier selection, which is used as basis for all modes of operation of the protocol. We also conduct many simulation experiments to evaluate and compare our protocol with other Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)-based MAC protocols. PMID:23012517

  9. An Energy-efficient Rate Adaptive Media Access Protocol (RA-MAC) for Long-lived Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen; Chen, Quanjun; Corke, Peter; O’Rourke, Damien

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an energy-efficient Rate Adaptive Media Access Control (RA-MAC) algorithm for long-lived Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Previous research shows that the dynamic and lossy nature of wireless communications is one of the major challenges to reliable data delivery in WSNs. RA-MAC achieves high link reliability in such situations by dynamically trading off data rate for channel gain. The extra gain that can be achieved reduces the packet loss rate which contributes to reduced energy expenditure through a reduced numbers of retransmissions. We achieve this at the expense of raw bit rate which generally far exceeds the application’s link requirement. To minimize communication energy consumption, RA-MAC selects the optimal data rate based on the estimated link quality at each data rate and an analytical model of the energy consumption. Our model shows how the selected data rate depends on different channel conditions in order to minimize energy consumption. We have implemented RA-MAC in TinyOS for an off-the-shelf sensor platform (the TinyNode) on top of a state-of-the-art WSN Media Access Control Protocol, SCP-MAC, and evaluated its performance by comparing our implementation with the original SCP-MAC using both simulation and experiment. PMID:22219675

  10. An energy-efficient rate adaptive media access protocol (RA-MAC) for long-lived sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Chen, Quanjun; Corke, Peter; O'Rourke, Damien

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an energy-efficient Rate Adaptive Media Access Control (RA-MAC) algorithm for long-lived Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Previous research shows that the dynamic and lossy nature of wireless communications is one of the major challenges to reliable data delivery in WSNs. RA-MAC achieves high link reliability in such situations by dynamically trading off data rate for channel gain. The extra gain that can be achieved reduces the packet loss rate which contributes to reduced energy expenditure through a reduced numbers of retransmissions. We achieve this at the expense of raw bit rate which generally far exceeds the application's link requirement. To minimize communication energy consumption, RA-MAC selects the optimal data rate based on the estimated link quality at each data rate and an analytical model of the energy consumption. Our model shows how the selected data rate depends on different channel conditions in order to minimize energy consumption. We have implemented RA-MAC in TinyOS for an off-the-shelf sensor platform (the TinyNode) on top of a state-of-the-art WSN Media Access Control Protocol, SCP-MAC, and evaluated its performance by comparing our implementation with the original SCP-MAC using both simulation and experiment.

  11. A Flexible CSMA based MAC Protocol for Software Defined Radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, André; Kalil, Mohamed A.; Mitschele-Thiel, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we propose a flexible CSMA based MAC protocol which facilitates research and experimentation using software define radios. The modular architecture allows to employ the protocol on platforms with heterogeneous hardware capabilities and provides the freedom to exchange or adapt the spectrum sensing mechanism without modifying the MAC protocol internals. We discuss the architecture of the protocol and provide structural details of its main components. Furthermore, we present throughput measurements that have been obtained on an example system using host-based spectrum sensing.

  12. An Energy-Efficient Mobility-Supporting MAC Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sung-Chan; Lee, Jang-Won

    In this paper, we design an adaptive mobility-supporting MAC (AM-MAC) protocol for mobile sensor networks. In our protocol, as in S-MAC [1], each virtual cluster that consists of a subset of sensor nodes has its own listen-sleep schedule. Hence, when a mobile sensor node moves into a new virtual cluster, it needs to adapt to the listen-sleep schedule of the corresponding virtual cluster in a timely and energy efficient manner. To this end, in our protocol, we utilize schedule information on border nodes between virtual clusters. This allows us to implement fast and energy efficient listen-sleep schedule adaptation for mobile nodes, which consists of two main functions: energy efficient secondary listen period and smart scheduling adaptation. Simulation results show that our protocol can provide fast schedule adaptation while achieving energy efficiency.

  13. Synthesizing Existing CSMA and TDMA Based MAC Protocols for VANETs

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiawei; Li, Qi; Zhong, Shaohua; Liu, Lianhai; Zhong, Ping; Wang, Jianxin; Ye, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Many Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based medium access control (MAC) protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have been proposed recently. Contrary to the common perception that they are competitors, we argue that the underlying strategies used in these MAC protocols are complementary. Based on this insight, we design CTMAC, a MAC protocol that synthesizes existing strategies; namely, random accessing channel (used in CSMA-style protocols) and arbitral reserving channel (used in TDMA-based protocols). CTMAC swiftly changes its strategy according to the vehicle density, and its performance is better than the state-of-the-art protocols. We evaluate CTMAC using at-scale simulations. Our results show that CTMAC reduces the channel completion time and increases the network goodput by 45% for a wide range of application workloads and network settings. PMID:28208590

  14. Synthesizing Existing CSMA and TDMA Based MAC Protocols for VANETs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiawei; Li, Qi; Zhong, Shaohua; Liu, Lianhai; Zhong, Ping; Wang, Jianxin; Ye, Jin

    2017-02-10

    Many Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based medium access control (MAC) protocols for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) have been proposed recently. Contrary to the common perception that they are competitors, we argue that the underlying strategies used in these MAC protocols are complementary. Based on this insight, we design CTMAC, a MAC protocol that synthesizes existing strategies; namely, random accessing channel (used in CSMA-style protocols) and arbitral reserving channel (used in TDMA-based protocols). CTMAC swiftly changes its strategy according to the vehicle density, and its performance is better than the state-of-the-art protocols. We evaluate CTMAC using at-scale simulations. Our results show that CTMAC reduces the channel completion time and increases the network goodput by 45% for a wide range of application workloads and network settings.

  15. Industrial WSN Based on IR-UWB and a Low-Latency MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, Rafael; Underberg, Lisa; Wulf, Armin; Kays, Ruediger

    2016-07-01

    Wireless sensor networks for industrial communication require high reliability and low latency. As current wireless sensor networks do not entirely meet these requirements, novel system approaches need to be developed. Since ultra wideband communication systems seem to be a promising approach, this paper evaluates the performance of the IEEE 802.15.4 impulse-radio ultra-wideband physical layer and the IEEE 802.15.4 Low Latency Deterministic Network (LLDN) MAC for industrial applications. Novel approaches and system adaptions are proposed to meet the application requirements. In this regard, a synchronization approach based on circular average magnitude difference functions (CAMDF) and on a clean template (CT) is presented for the correlation receiver. An adapted MAC protocol titled aggregated low latency (ALL) MAC is proposed to significantly reduce the resulting latency. Based on the system proposals, a hardware prototype has been developed, which proves the feasibility of the system and visualizes the real-time performance of the MAC protocol.

  16. Simulation and Analysis of a Wireless Mac Protocol: MACAW.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    MACAW (Medium Access Collision Avoidance Wireless) is a new MAC protocol for wireless LANs proposed by Bharghavan et al. Ref. 2 based on Karn’s MACA...performance of the MACAW protocol occurs at approximately 50% channel load. We have also shown the importance of the backoff algorithm, and finally, we have

  17. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and each frame into slots. A parent node determines the children's frame assignment based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. First, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (including itself). Second, the packet scheduling with TreeMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Third, the data throughput to the gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24-node testbed show that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput, fairness, and energy efficiency compared to TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC. Partial results of this paper were published in Song, Huang, Shirazi and Lahusen [W.-Z. Song, R. Huang, B. Shirazi, and R. Lahusen, TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for high-throughput and fairness in sensor networks, in: The 7th Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom, March 2009]. Our new contributions include analyses of the performance of TreeMAC from various aspects. We also present more implementation detail and evaluate TreeMAC from other aspects. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Modelling of Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Slot IP Internet Protocol LAN Local Area Network MAC Medium Access Control MACAW Medium Access Protocol for Wireless LANs MANET Mobile Ad-hoc...Unforced state – It waits after entering the state until it is invoked by another process or an interrupt. It is in dark grey on this report, and red ... green in OPNET. A MAC process model is built for general initialisations of the MAC module, and to invoke the selected MAC protocol process model

  19. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; Husent, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and frame into slots. Parent determines children's frame assigmnent based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. Firstly, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (includ ing itself). Secondly, the packet scheduling with TreelMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Thirdly, the data throughput to gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24 node test bed demonstrate that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput and energy efficiency, by comparing to the TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC[8]. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  20. IDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Satellite Networks with Consideration on Channel Quality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In order to overcome the shortcomings of existing medium access control (MAC) protocols based on TDMA or CDMA in satellite networks, interleave division multiple access (IDMA) technique is introduced into satellite communication networks. Therefore, a novel wide-band IDMA MAC protocol based on channel quality is proposed in this paper, consisting of a dynamic power allocation algorithm, a rate adaptation algorithm, and a call admission control (CAC) scheme. Firstly, the power allocation algorithm combining the technique of IDMA SINR-evolution and channel quality prediction is developed to guarantee high power efficiency even in terrible channel conditions. Secondly, the effective rate adaptation algorithm, based on accurate channel information per timeslot and by the means of rate degradation, can be realized. What is more, based on channel quality prediction, the CAC scheme, combining the new power allocation algorithm, rate scheduling, and buffering strategies together, is proposed for the emerging IDMA systems, which can support a variety of traffic types, and offering quality of service (QoS) requirements corresponding to different priority levels. Simulation results show that the new wide-band IDMA MAC protocol can make accurate estimation of available resource considering the effect of multiuser detection (MUD) and QoS requirements of multimedia traffic, leading to low outage probability as well as high overall system throughput. PMID:25126592

  1. IDMA-based MAC protocol for satellite networks with consideration on channel quality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gongliang; Fang, Xinrui; Kang, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    In order to overcome the shortcomings of existing medium access control (MAC) protocols based on TDMA or CDMA in satellite networks, interleave division multiple access (IDMA) technique is introduced into satellite communication networks. Therefore, a novel wide-band IDMA MAC protocol based on channel quality is proposed in this paper, consisting of a dynamic power allocation algorithm, a rate adaptation algorithm, and a call admission control (CAC) scheme. Firstly, the power allocation algorithm combining the technique of IDMA SINR-evolution and channel quality prediction is developed to guarantee high power efficiency even in terrible channel conditions. Secondly, the effective rate adaptation algorithm, based on accurate channel information per timeslot and by the means of rate degradation, can be realized. What is more, based on channel quality prediction, the CAC scheme, combining the new power allocation algorithm, rate scheduling, and buffering strategies together, is proposed for the emerging IDMA systems, which can support a variety of traffic types, and offering quality of service (QoS) requirements corresponding to different priority levels. Simulation results show that the new wide-band IDMA MAC protocol can make accurate estimation of available resource considering the effect of multiuser detection (MUD) and QoS requirements of multimedia traffic, leading to low outage probability as well as high overall system throughput.

  2. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Elizarraras, Omar; Panduro, Marco; Méndez, Aldo L.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput. PMID:25140339

  3. MAC protocol for an ATM-based SuperPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelopoulos, John D.; Koulouris, John; Fragoulopoulos, Stratos K.

    1996-11-01

    Developments in optical amplifiers and the tendency towards fewer and larger switching stages made feasible and desirable the concept of SuperPONs with a range of 100km. Up to 15000 residential customers can share the SuperPON on a TDMA basis lowering the cost of access to B-ISDN services. Tree PONs require a MAC protocol to arbitrate the access to upstream slots among the competing customer ATM cells in a dynamic and efficient way. The protocol presented in this work combines different access mechanisms according to service quality requirements. All bursty traffic is manipulated transparently using a reservation approach with closed loop control so as to handle the unpredictability of arrivals. In contrast, voice, N-ISDN and other delay sensitive services are provided with unsolicited access permits. In addition, composite cells offered quasi- synchronous permits are used to support STM legacy traffic without echo-cancellers. So, ABR traffic which is delay tolerant and more cost sensitive, can and should be concentrated with full exploitation of multiplexing gain prospects. The permit distribution algorithm focuses on cell spacing, control of CDV, almost jitter free access for synchronous traffic and efficiency for ABR traffic.

  4. A MAC Protocol to Support Monitoring of Underwater Spaces.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rodrigo; Orozco, Javier; Ochoa, Sergio F; Meseguer, Roc; Eggly, Gabriel; Pistonesi, Marcelo F

    2016-06-27

    Underwater sensor networks are becoming an important field of research, because of their everyday increasing application scope. Examples of their application areas are environmental and pollution monitoring (mainly oil spills), oceanographic data collection, support for submarine geolocalization, ocean sampling and early tsunamis alert. The challenge of performing underwater communications is well known, provided that radio signals are useless in this medium, and a wired solution is too expensive. Therefore, the sensors in these networks transmit their information using acoustic signals that propagate well under water. This data transmission type not only brings an opportunity, but also several challenges to the implementation of these networks, e.g., in terms of energy consumption, data transmission and signal interference. In order to help advance the knowledge in the design and implementation of these networks for monitoring underwater spaces, this paper proposes a MAC protocol for acoustic communications between the nodes, based on a self-organized time division multiple access mechanism. The proposal was evaluated using simulations of a real monitoring scenario, and the obtained results are highly encouraging.

  5. A MAC Protocol to Support Monitoring of Underwater Spaces †

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Rodrigo; Orozco, Javier; Ochoa, Sergio F.; Meseguer, Roc; Eggly, Gabriel; Pistonesi, Marcelo F.

    2016-01-01

    Underwater sensor networks are becoming an important field of research, because of their everyday increasing application scope. Examples of their application areas are environmental and pollution monitoring (mainly oil spills), oceanographic data collection, support for submarine geolocalization, ocean sampling and early tsunamis alert. The challenge of performing underwater communications is well known, provided that radio signals are useless in this medium, and a wired solution is too expensive. Therefore, the sensors in these networks transmit their information using acoustic signals that propagate well under water. This data transmission type not only brings an opportunity, but also several challenges to the implementation of these networks, e.g., in terms of energy consumption, data transmission and signal interference. In order to help advance the knowledge in the design and implementation of these networks for monitoring underwater spaces, this paper proposes a MAC protocol for acoustic communications between the nodes, based on a self-organized time division multiple access mechanism. The proposal was evaluated using simulations of a real monitoring scenario, and the obtained results are highly encouraging. PMID:27355950

  6. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-03-31

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid.

  7. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid. PMID:27043573

  8. Evaluation of video transmission of MAC protocols in wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulidin, Mahmuddin, M.; Kamaruddin, L. M.; Elsaikh, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a wireless network which consists of sensor nodes scattered in a particular area which are used to monitor physical or environment condition. Each node in WSN is also scattered in sensor field, so an appropriate scheme of MAC protocol should have to develop communication link for data transferring. Video transmission is one of the important applications for the future that can be transmitted with low aspect in side of cost and also power consumption. In this paper, comparison of five different MAC WSN protocol for video transmission namely IEEE 802.11 standard, IEEE 802.15.4 standard, CSMA/CA, Berkeley-MAC, and Lightweight-MAC protocol are studied. Simulation experiment has been conducted in OMNeT++ with INET network simulator software to evaluate the performance. Obtained results indicate that IEEE 802.11 works better than other protocol in term of packet delivery, throughput, and latency.

  9. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-05-09

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes.

  10. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-01-01

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes. PMID:27171085

  11. A cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol supporting a pipeline feature for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fei; Xie, Rong; Shu, Lei; Kim, Young-Chon

    2011-01-01

    Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC) for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency.

  12. A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fei; Xie, Rong; Shu, Lei; Kim, Young-Chon

    2011-01-01

    Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC) for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency. PMID:22163895

  13. Characterizing the Interaction Between Routing and MAC Protocols in Ad-Hoc Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless ad-hoc networks. An important objective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols is measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packets received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC and routing layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols are used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols are used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. Our main contribution is simulation based experiments coupled with rigorous statistical analysis to characterize the interaction of MAC layer protocols with routing layer protocols in ad-hoc networks. From the results, we can conclude the following: e No single MAC or Routing protocol dominated the other protocols in their class. Probably more interestingly, no MAURouting protocol combination was better than other combinations over all scenarios and response variables. 0 In general, it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Presence of interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. The results raise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. Thus in order to improve the performanceof a communication network, it is important to study the entire protocol stack as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the seven layer OS1 stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point. A methodological contribution of this paper is the use of statistical methods such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), to characterize the interaction between the protocols

  14. A Power-Optimized Cooperative MAC Protocol for Lifetime Extension in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Wu, Shan; Huang, Bo; Liu, Feng; Xu, Zhen

    2016-10-01

    In wireless sensor networks, in order to satisfy the requirement of long working time of energy-limited nodes, we need to design an energy-efficient and lifetime-extended medium access control (MAC) protocol. In this paper, a node cooperation mechanism that one or multiple nodes with higher channel gain and sufficient residual energy help a sender relay its data packets to its recipient is employed to achieve this objective. We first propose a transmission power optimization algorithm to prolong network lifetime by optimizing the transmission powers of the sender and its cooperative nodes to maximize their minimum residual energy after their data packet transmissions. Based on it, we propose a corresponding power-optimized cooperative MAC protocol. A cooperative node contention mechanism is designed to ensure that the sender can effectively select a group of cooperative nodes with the lowest energy consumption and the best channel quality for cooperative transmissions, thus further improving the energy efficiency. Simulation results show that compared to typical MAC protocol with direct transmissions and energy-efficient cooperative MAC protocol, the proposed cooperative MAC protocol can efficiently improve the energy efficiency and extend the network lifetime.

  15. A Study on Energy Efficient MAC Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network for Ubiquitous Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Chul; Lee, Ji-Woong; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Yoe, Hyun

    Various technologies are used in the agricultural sites now. Especially, the recent application of sensor network related technology is quite notable. Considering the efficiency of MAC protocol of WSN is being researched in various aspects, it is believed that a research on how to apply the MAC protocol to agriculture would be also required. This research is based on the sensor node developed by Sunchon University ITRC. Once the sensor nodes are effectively located in the farm, they operate for a long time and they are rarely relocated once installed. The concentration of multiple sensor nodes in a narrow area is another characteristic the sensor node. The purpose of this research is to select a sensor network MAC protocol, which would be most proper to agricultural site with good energy efficiency and excellent transmission delay performance. The applicable protocols such as S-MAC and X-MAC were set up for the installation environment. They were compared and a methodology to select the most optimum protocol to agricultural site is suggested.

  16. A Survey of MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2015-01-01

    The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN) can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN) is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC) layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research. PMID:25903551

  17. A cooperative MAC protocol with error-aware relay selection for wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shanzhi; Liu, Kai; Wang, Rui; Fang, Ruochen; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    To solve performance degradation caused by channel fading, we propose a cooperative MAC protocol with error-aware relay selection for wireless ad hoc networks in this paper. In the protocol, the transmission error of data packet caused by channel fading are considered in order to achieve the best cooperative gain in the poor quality channel. In the relay selection process, potential relay nodes satisfying corresponding requirement can compete to sever as final relay node by means of priority selection and collision resolution process. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed protocol outperforms other protocol in terms of packet error rate and the saturation throughput.

  18. An energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management for delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Li, Qiyue; Qu, Yugui; Zhao, Baohua

    2011-01-01

    Conventional MAC protocols for wireless sensor network perform poorly when faced with a delay-tolerant mobile network environment. Characterized by a highly dynamic and sparse topology, poor network connectivity as well as data delay-tolerance, delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks exacerbate the severe power constraints and memory limitations of nodes. This paper proposes an energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management (EQ-MAC) for power saving and data queue management. Via data transfers initiated by the target sink and the use of a dynamic queue management strategy based on priority, EQ-MAC effectively avoids untargeted transfers, increases the chance of successful data transmission, and makes useful data reach the target terminal in a timely manner. Experimental results show that EQ-MAC has high energy efficiency in comparison with a conventional MAC protocol. It also achieves a 46% decrease in packet drop probability, 79% increase in system throughput, and 25% decrease in mean packet delay.

  19. Pliable Cognitive MAC for Heterogeneous Adaptive Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Borhanuddin Mohd; Sali, Aduwati

    2016-01-01

    The rapid expansion of wireless monitoring and surveillance applications in several domains reinforces the trend of exploiting emerging technologies such as the cognitive radio. However, these technologies have to adjust their working concepts to consider the common characteristics of conventional wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The cognitive radio sensor network (CRSN), still an immature technology, has to deal with new networks that might have different types of data, traffic patterns, or quality of service (QoS) requirements. In this paper, we design and model a new cognitive radio-based medium access control (MAC) algorithm dealing with the heterogeneous nature of the developed networks in terms of either the traffic pattern or the required QoS for the node applications. The proposed algorithm decreases the consumed power on several fronts, provides satisfactory levels of latency and spectrum utilization with efficient scheduling, and manages the radio resources for various traffic conditions. An intensive performance evaluation is conducted to study the impact of key parameters such as the channel idle time length, node density, and the number of available channels. The performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm shows a better performance than the comparable protocols. Moreover, the results manifest that the proposed algorithm is suitable for real time monitoring applications. PMID:27257964

  20. An enhanced reservation-based MAC protocol for IEEE 802.15.4 networks.

    PubMed

    Afonso, José A; Silva, Helder D; Macedo, Pedro; Rocha, Luis A

    2011-01-01

    The IEEE 802.15.4 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is an enabling standard for wireless sensor networks. In order to support applications requiring dedicated bandwidth or bounded delay, it provides a reservation-based scheme named Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS). However, the GTS scheme presents some drawbacks, such as inefficient bandwidth utilization and support to a maximum of only seven devices. This paper presents eLPRT (enhanced Low Power Real Time), a new reservation-based MAC protocol that introduces several performance enhancing features in comparison to the GTS scheme. This MAC protocol builds on top of LPRT (Low Power Real Time) and includes various mechanisms designed to increase data transmission reliability against channel errors, improve bandwidth utilization and increase the number of supported devices. A motion capture system based on inertial and magnetic sensors has been used to validate the protocol. The effectiveness of the performance enhancements introduced by each of the new features is demonstrated through the provision of both simulation and experimental results.

  1. Enhancing MAC performance of DCF protocol for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2017-01-01

    The DCF (Distributed Coordination Function) is the basic MAC (Medium Access Control) protocol of IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs and compatible with various IEEE 802.11 PHY extensions. The performance of the DCF degrades exponentially as the number of nodes participating in the DCF transmission procedure increases. To deal with this problem, we propose a simple, however efficient modification of the DCF by which the performance of the DCF is greatly enhanced.

  2. Intelligent Local Avoided Collision (iLAC) MAC Protocol for Very High Speed Wireless Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieu, Dinh Chi; Masuda, Akeo; Rabarijaona, Verotiana Hanitriniala; Shimamoto, Shigeru

    Future wireless communication systems aim at very high data rates. As the medium access control (MAC) protocol plays the central role in determining the overall performance of the wireless system, designing a suitable MAC protocol is critical to fully exploit the benefit of high speed transmission that the physical layer (PHY) offers. In the latest 802.11n standard [2], the problem of long overhead has been addressed adequately but the issue of excessive colliding transmissions, especially in congested situation, remains untouched. The procedure of setting the backoff value is the heart of the 802.11 distributed coordination function (DCF) to avoid collision in which each station makes its own decision on how to avoid collision in the next transmission. However, collision avoidance is a problem that can not be solved by a single station. In this paper, we introduce a new MAC protocol called Intelligent Local Avoided Collision (iLAC) that redefines individual rationality in choosing the backoff counter value to avoid a colliding transmission. The distinguishing feature of iLAC is that it fundamentally changes this decision making process from collision avoidance to collaborative collision prevention. As a result, stations can avoid colliding transmissions with much greater precision. Analytical solution confirms the validity of this proposal and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the conventional algorithms by a large margin.

  3. An energy efficient MAC protocol for multi-hop swallowable body sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chengfeng; Wong, Kai Juan; Yan, Hao; Shen, Junwen; Phee, Soo Jay

    2014-10-17

    Swallowable body sensor networks (BSNs) are composed of sensors which are swallowed by patients and send the collected data to the outside coordinator. These sensors are energy constraint and the batteries are difficult to be replaced. The medium access control (MAC) protocol plays an important role in energy management. This paper investigates an energy efficient MAC protocol design for swallowable BSNs. Multi-hop communication is analyzed and proved more energy efficient than single-hop communication within the human body when the circuitry power is low. Based on this result, a centrally controlled time slotting schedule is proposed. The major workload is shifted from the sensors to the coordinator. The coordinator collects the path-loss map and calculates the schedules, including routing, slot assignment and transmission power. Sensor nodes follow the schedules to send data in a multi-hop way. The proposed protocol is compared with the IEEE 802.15.6 protocol in terms of energy consumption. The results show that it is more energy efficient than IEEE 802.15.6 for swallowable BSN scenarios.

  4. Design and performance evaluation of a distributed OFDMA-based MAC protocol for MANETs.

    PubMed

    Park, Jaesung; Chung, Jiyoung; Lee, Hyungyu; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed MAC protocol for OFDMA-based wireless mobile ad hoc multihop networks, in which the resource reservation and data transmission procedures are operated in a distributed manner. A frame format is designed considering the characteristics of OFDMA that each node can transmit or receive data to or from multiple nodes simultaneously. Under this frame structure, we propose a distributed resource management method including network state estimation and resource reservation processes. We categorize five types of logical errors according to their root causes and show that two of the logical errors are inevitable while three of them are avoided under the proposed distributed MAC protocol. In addition, we provide a systematic method to determine the advertisement period of each node by presenting a clear relation between the accuracy of estimated network states and the signaling overhead. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in respect of the reservation success rate and the success rate of data transmission. Since our method focuses on avoiding logical errors, it could be easily placed on top of the other resource allocation methods focusing on the physical layer issues of the resource management problem and interworked with them.

  5. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Distributed OFDMA-Based MAC Protocol for MANETs

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jiyoung; Lee, Hyungyu; Lee, Jung-Ryun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed MAC protocol for OFDMA-based wireless mobile ad hoc multihop networks, in which the resource reservation and data transmission procedures are operated in a distributed manner. A frame format is designed considering the characteristics of OFDMA that each node can transmit or receive data to or from multiple nodes simultaneously. Under this frame structure, we propose a distributed resource management method including network state estimation and resource reservation processes. We categorize five types of logical errors according to their root causes and show that two of the logical errors are inevitable while three of them are avoided under the proposed distributed MAC protocol. In addition, we provide a systematic method to determine the advertisement period of each node by presenting a clear relation between the accuracy of estimated network states and the signaling overhead. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol in respect of the reservation success rate and the success rate of data transmission. Since our method focuses on avoiding logical errors, it could be easily placed on top of the other resource allocation methods focusing on the physical layer issues of the resource management problem and interworked with them. PMID:25133254

  6. A schedule-based multi-channel MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Md Abdul; Abdullah-Al-Wadud, M; Chong, Ilyoung

    2010-01-01

    Due to the half-duplex property of the sensor radio and the broadcast nature of wireless medium, limited bandwidth remains a pressing issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The design of multi-channel MAC protocols has attracted the interest of many researchers as a cost effective solution to meet the higher bandwidth demand for the limited bandwidth in WSN. In this paper, we present a scheduled-based multi-channel MAC protocol to improve network performance. In our protocol, each receiving node selects (schedules) some timeslot(s), in which it may receive data from the intending sender(s). The timeslot selection is done in a conflict free manner, where a node avoids the slots that are already selected by others in its interference range. To minimize the conflicts during timeslot selection, we propose a unique solution by splitting the neighboring nodes into different groups, where nodes of a group may select the slots allocated to that group only. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach thorough simulations in terms of performance parameters such as aggregate throughput, packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, and energy consumption.

  7. An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Medical Emergency Monitoring Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chongqing; Wang, Yinglong; Liang, Yongquan; Shu, Minglei; Chen, Changfang

    2016-01-01

    Medical emergency monitoring body sensor networks (BSNs) monitor the occurrence of medical emergencies and are helpful for the daily care of the elderly and chronically ill people. Such BSNs are characterized by rare traffic when there is no emergency occurring, high real-time and reliable requirements of emergency data and demand for a fast wake-up mechanism for waking up all nodes when an emergency happens. A beacon-enabled MAC protocol is specially designed to meet the demands of medical emergency monitoring BSNs. The rarity of traffic is exploited to improve energy efficiency. By adopting a long superframe structure to avoid unnecessary beacons and allocating most of the superframe to be inactive periods, the duty cycle is reduced to an extremely low level to save energy. Short active time slots are interposed into the superframe and shared by all of the nodes to deliver the emergency data in a low-delay and reliable way to meet the real-time and reliable requirements. The interposition slots can also be used by the coordinator to broadcast network demands to wake-up all nodes in a low-delay and energy-efficient way. Experiments display that the proposed MAC protocol works well in BSNs with low emergency data traffic. PMID:26999145

  8. An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Medical Emergency Monitoring Body Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongqing; Wang, Yinglong; Liang, Yongquan; Shu, Minglei; Chen, Changfang

    2016-03-17

    Medical emergency monitoring body sensor networks (BSNs) monitor the occurrence of medical emergencies and are helpful for the daily care of the elderly and chronically ill people. Such BSNs are characterized by rare traffic when there is no emergency occurring, high real-time and reliable requirements of emergency data and demand for a fast wake-up mechanism for waking up all nodes when an emergency happens. A beacon-enabled MAC protocol is specially designed to meet the demands of medical emergency monitoring BSNs. The rarity of traffic is exploited to improve energy efficiency. By adopting a long superframe structure to avoid unnecessary beacons and allocating most of the superframe to be inactive periods, the duty cycle is reduced to an extremely low level to save energy. Short active time slots are interposed into the superframe and shared by all of the nodes to deliver the emergency data in a low-delay and reliable way to meet the real-time and reliable requirements. The interposition slots can also be used by the coordinator to broadcast network demands to wake-up all nodes in a low-delay and energy-efficient way. Experiments display that the proposed MAC protocol works well in BSNs with low emergency data traffic.

  9. Potential of Wake-Up Radio-Based MAC Protocols for Implantable Body Sensor Networks (IBSN)—A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Karuppiah Ramachandran, Vignesh Raja; Ayele, Eyuel D.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J. M.

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of nano-technology, medical sensors and devices are becoming highly miniaturized. Consequently, the number of sensors and medical devices being implanted to accurately monitor and diagnose a disease is increasing. By measuring the symptoms and controlling a medical device as close as possible to the source, these implantable devices are able to save lives. A wireless link between medical sensors and implantable medical devices is essential in the case of closed-loop medical devices, in which symptoms of the diseases are monitored by sensors that are not placed in close proximity of the therapeutic device. Medium Access Control (MAC) is crucial to make it possible for several medical devices to communicate using a shared wireless medium in such a way that minimum delay, maximum throughput, and increased network life-time are guaranteed. To guarantee this Quality of Service (QoS), the MAC protocols control the main sources of limited resource wastage, namely the idle-listening, packet collisions, over-hearing, and packet loss. Traditional MAC protocols designed for body sensor networks are not directly applicable to Implantable Body Sensor Networks (IBSN) because of the dynamic nature of the radio channel within the human body and the strict QoS requirements of IBSN applications. Although numerous MAC protocols are available in the literature, the majority of them are designed for Body Sensor Network (BSN) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). To the best of our knowledge, there is so far no research paper that explores the impact of these MAC protocols specifically for IBSN. MAC protocols designed for implantable devices are still in their infancy and one of their most challenging objectives is to be ultra-low-power. One of the technological solutions to achieve this objective so is to integrate the concept of Wake-up radio (WuR) into the MAC design. In this survey, we present a taxonomy of MAC protocols based on their use of WuR technology and identify

  10. Low Latency MAC Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Timing Offset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Sik

    This paper proposes a low latency MAC protocol that can be used in sensor networks. To extend the lifetime of sensor nodes, the conventional solution is to synchronize active/sleep periods of all sensor nodes. However, due to these synchronized sensor nodes, packets in the intermediate nodes must wait until the next node wakes up before it can forward a packet. This induces a large delay in sensor nodes. To solve this latency problem, a clustered sensor network which uses two types of sensor nodes and layered architecture is considered. Clustered heads in each cluster are synchronized with different timing offsets to reduce the sleep delay. Using this concept, the latency problem can be solved and more efficient power usage can be obtained.

  11. A hybrid MAC protocol design for energy-efficient very-high-throughput millimeter wave, wireless sensor communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Wei; Estevez, Claudio; Chowdhury, Arshad; Jia, Zhensheng; Wang, Jianxin; Yu, Jianguo; Chang, Gee-Kung

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for very-high-throughput millimeter-wave (mm-wave) wireless sensor communication networks (VHT-MSCNs) based on hybrid multiple access techniques of frequency division multiplexing access (FDMA) and time division multiplexing access (TDMA). An energy-efficient Superframe for wireless sensor communication network employing directional mm-wave wireless access technologies is proposed for systems that require very high throughput, such as high definition video signals, for sensing, processing, transmitting, and actuating functions. Energy consumption modeling for each network element and comparisons among various multi-access technologies in term of power and MAC layer operations are investigated for evaluating the energy-efficient improvement of proposed MAC protocol.

  12. Energy Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks with Adaptive Cross-Layer Scheduling

    PubMed Central

    Sefuba, Maria; Walingo, Tom; Takawira, Fambirai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an Energy Efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for clustered wireless sensor networks that aims to improve energy efficiency and delay performance. The proposed protocol employs an adaptive cross-layer intra-cluster scheduling and an inter-cluster relay selection diversity. The scheduling is based on available data packets and remaining energy level of the source node (SN). This helps to minimize idle listening on nodes without data to transmit as well as reducing control packet overhead. The relay selection diversity is carried out between clusters, by the cluster head (CH), and the base station (BS). The diversity helps to improve network reliability and prolong the network lifetime. Relay selection is determined based on the communication distance, the remaining energy and the channel quality indicator (CQI) for the relay cluster head (RCH). An analytical framework for energy consumption and transmission delay for the proposed MAC protocol is presented in this work. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated based on transmission delay, energy consumption, and network lifetime. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MAC protocol provides improved performance than traditional cluster based MAC protocols. PMID:26393608

  13. Energy Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks with Adaptive Cross-Layer Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Sefuba, Maria; Walingo, Tom; Takawira, Fambirai

    2015-09-18

    This paper presents an Energy Efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for clustered wireless sensor networks that aims to improve energy efficiency and delay performance. The proposed protocol employs an adaptive cross-layer intra-cluster scheduling and an inter-cluster relay selection diversity. The scheduling is based on available data packets and remaining energy level of the source node (SN). This helps to minimize idle listening on nodes without data to transmit as well as reducing control packet overhead. The relay selection diversity is carried out between clusters, by the cluster head (CH), and the base station (BS). The diversity helps to improve network reliability and prolong the network lifetime. Relay selection is determined based on the communication distance, the remaining energy and the channel quality indicator (CQI) for the relay cluster head (RCH). An analytical framework for energy consumption and transmission delay for the proposed MAC protocol is presented in this work. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated based on transmission delay, energy consumption, and network lifetime. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MAC protocol provides improved performance than traditional cluster based MAC protocols.

  14. An ultra low-power and traffic-adaptive medium access control protocol for wireless body area network.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of low-power, miniaturized, and autonomous wireless sensor nodes that enable physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real-time feedback with medical diagnosis and consultations. It is the most reliable and cheaper way to take care of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most important attributes of WBAN is low-power consumption and delay. This can be achieved by introducing flexible duty cycling techniques on the energy constraint sensor nodes. Stated otherwise, low duty cycle nodes should not receive frequent synchronization and control packets if they have no data to send/receive. In this paper, we introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) by taking into account the traffic information of the sensor nodes. The protocol dynamically adjusts the duty cycle of the sensor nodes according to their traffic-patterns, thus solving the idle listening and overhearing problems. The traffic-patterns of all sensor nodes are organized and maintained by the coordinator. The TaMAC protocol is supported by a wakeup radio that is used to accommodate emergency and on-demand events in a reliable manner. The wakeup radio uses a separate control channel along with the data channel and therefore it has considerably low power consumption requirements. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze and compare the performance of the TaMAC protocol with the well-known beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WiseMAC, and SMAC protocols. The analytical derivations are further validated by simulation results. It is shown that the TaMAC protocol outperforms all other protocols in terms of power consumption and delay.

  15. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route.

  16. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Asim; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  17. On the MAC/Network/Energy Performance Evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks: Contrasting MPH, AODV, DSR and ZTR Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Del-Valle-Soto, Carolina; Mex-Perera, Carlos; Orozco-Lugo, Aldo; Lara, Mauricio; Galván-Tejada, Giselle M.; Olmedo, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks deliver valuable information for long periods, then it is desirable to have optimum performance, reduced delays, low overhead, and reliable delivery of information. In this work, proposed metrics that influence energy consumption are used for a performance comparison among our proposed routing protocol, called Multi-Parent Hierarchical (MPH), the well-known protocols for sensor networks, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), and Zigbee Tree Routing (ZTR), all of them working with the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer. Results show how some communication metrics affect performance, throughput, reliability and energy consumption. It can be concluded that MPH is an efficient protocol since it reaches the best performance against the other three protocols under evaluation, such as 19.3% reduction of packet retransmissions, 26.9% decrease of overhead, and 41.2% improvement on the capacity of the protocol for recovering the topology from failures with respect to AODV protocol. We implemented and tested MPH in a real network of 99 nodes during ten days and analyzed parameters as number of hops, connectivity and delay, in order to validate our simulator and obtain reliable results. Moreover, an energy model of CC2530 chip is proposed and used for simulations of the four aforementioned protocols, showing that MPH has 15.9% reduction of energy consumption with respect to AODV, 13.7% versus DSR, and 5% against ZTR. PMID:25474377

  18. On the MAC/network/energy performance evaluation of Wireless Sensor Networks: Contrasting MPH, AODV, DSR and ZTR routing protocols.

    PubMed

    Del-Valle-Soto, Carolina; Mex-Perera, Carlos; Orozco-Lugo, Aldo; Lara, Mauricio; Galván-Tejada, Giselle M; Olmedo, Oscar

    2014-12-02

    Wireless Sensor Networks deliver valuable information for long periods, then it is desirable to have optimum performance, reduced delays, low overhead, and reliable delivery of information. In this work, proposed metrics that influence energy consumption are used for a performance comparison among our proposed routing protocol, called Multi-Parent Hierarchical (MPH), the well-known protocols for sensor networks, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), and Zigbee Tree Routing (ZTR), all of them working with the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer. Results show how some communication metrics affect performance, throughput, reliability and energy consumption. It can be concluded that MPH is an efficient protocol since it reaches the best performance against the other three protocols under evaluation, such as 19.3% reduction of packet retransmissions, 26.9% decrease of overhead, and 41.2% improvement on the capacity of the protocol for recovering the topology from failures with respect to AODV protocol. We implemented and tested MPH in a real network of 99 nodes during ten days and analyzed parameters as number of hops, connectivity and delay, in order to validate our Sensors 2014, 14 22812 simulator and obtain reliable results. Moreover, an energy model of CC2530 chip is proposed and used for simulations of the four aforementioned protocols, showing that MPH has 15.9% reduction of energy consumption with respect to AODV, 13.7% versus DSR, and 5% against ZTR.

  19. A Formal Model of the Mac Layer of an Improved FDDI Protocol

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    24 11000 J First symbol of JK pair 17 10001 K Second symbol of JK pair 13 01101 T Ending Delimiter symbol (b) Control Indicators: 07 00111 R Reset...transmission sequence (i.e., a MAC PDU). Control symbols are named J, K , and T. Control indicators are named R and S. The Encode function of PHY uses the...significant bit. Figure 4 depicts the frame format. SFS FCS coverage EFS PA SD FC IDAISA INFO FCS ED FS CEIZZZZn8 EA I C ."Im’M J I K n r n 4nor12 4nor12 . T

  20. Energy-efficient low duty cycle MAC protocol for wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Marinković, Stevan Jovica; Popovici, Emanuel Mihai; Spagnol, Christian; Faul, Stephen; Marnane, William Peter

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient medium access control protocol suitable for communication in a wireless body area network for remote monitoring of physiological signals such as EEG and ECG. The protocol takes advantage of the static nature of the body area network to implement the effective time-division multiple access (TDMA) strategy with very little amount of overhead and almost no idle listening (by static, we refer to the fixed topology of the network investigated). The main goal is to develop energy-efficient and reliable communication protocol to support streaming of large amount of data. TDMA synchronization problems are discussed and solutions are presented. Equations for duty cycle calculation are also derived for power consumption and battery life predictions. The power consumption model was also validated through measurements. Our results show that the protocol is energy efficient for streaming communication as well as sending short bursts of data, and thus can be used for different types of physiological signals with different sample rates. The protocol is implemented on the analog devices ADF7020 RF transceivers.

  1. Low-power low-latency MAC protocol for aeronautical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabater, Jordi; Kluge, Martin; Bovelli, Sergio; Schalk, Josef

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes asynchronous MAC (Medium Access Control) strategies based on the IEEE 802.15.4 physical layer for wireless aeronautical applications where low power and low latency are important requirements as well as security and data integrity. Sensor data is acquired and collected on request, by means of a mobile device, and later stored in a centralized database. In order to have the smallest power consumption the wireless sensor has to remain in deep sleep mode as long as possible and wake up and listen periodically for RF activity. If its unique ID is mentioned in the destination address field, the complete frame is received, processed and replied if necessary. If the detected packet is addressed to another sensor the reception will stop immediately and the wireless sensor will go into deep sleep mode again. Listening instead of sending actively does not 'pollute' the already crowded 2.45GHz spectrum, reduces collisions and increases security. The mobile data concentrator can not be synchronized with all the sensors installed in a distributed environment, therefore smart asynchronous data transmission strategies are needed to reduce latencies and increase throughput. For the considered application, sensors are independent of each other, simply share the medium and together with the data concentrator are organized in a star network topology. The centre of the star is the concentrator which is rarely in range. It coordinates and activates the wireless sensor nodes to collect the measured data.

  2. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  3. A Conflict-Free Low-Jitter Guaranteed-Rate MAC Protocol for Base-Station Communications in Wireless Mesh Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymanski, T. H.

    A scheduling algorithm and MAC protocol which provides low-jitter guaranteed-rate (GR) communications between base-stations (BS) in a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is proposed. The protocol can provision long-term multimedia services such as VOIP, IPTV, or Video-on-Demand. The time-axis is partitioned into scheduling frames with F time-slots each. A directional antennae scheme is used to provide each directed link with a fixed transmission rate. A protocol such as IntServ is used to provision resources along an end-to-end path of BSs for GR sessions. The Guaranteed Rates between the BSs are then specified in a doubly stochastic traffic rate matrix, which is recursively decomposed to yield a low-jitter GR frame transmission schedule. In the resulting schedule, the end-to-end delay and jitter are small and bounded, and the cell loss rate due to primary scheduling conflicts is zero. For dual-channel WMNs, the MAC protocol can achieve 100% utilization, as well as near-minimal queueing delays and near minimal delay jitter. The scheduling time complexity is O(NFlogNF), where N is the number of BSs. Extensive simulation results are presented.

  4. An Item Response Theory-Based, Computerized Adaptive Testing Version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI:WS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip S.; Havmose, Philip; Bleses, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the feasibility and potential validity of an item response theory (IRT)-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI:WS; Fenson et al., 2007) vocabulary checklist, with the objective of reducing length while maintaining…

  5. A Study of the IEEE 802.16 MAC Layer and its Utility in Augmenting the ADNS Architecture to Provide Adaptable Intra-Strike Group High-Speed Packet Switched Data, Imagery, and Voice Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    MAC) of the IEEE 802.16 Wireless standard and its utility in augmenting the IP (Internet Protocol) router based Automated Digital Network System (ADNS...evaluates the Medium Access Control Layer (MAC) of the IEEE 802.16 wireless standard and its utility in augmenting the IP (Internet Protocol) router based ...ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode BE Best Effort BR Bandwidth Request BS Base Station BW Bandwidth C2 Command and Control CDMA Code

  6. Fault-Tolerant Consensus of Multi-Agent System With Distributed Adaptive Protocol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun; Ho, Daniel W C; Li, Lulu; Liu, Ming

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, fault-tolerant consensus in multi-agent system using distributed adaptive protocol is investigated. Firstly, distributed adaptive online updating strategies for some parameters are proposed based on local information of the network structure. Then, under the online updating parameters, a distributed adaptive protocol is developed to compensate the fault effects and the uncertainty effects in the leaderless multi-agent system. Based on the local state information of neighboring agents, a distributed updating protocol gain is developed which leads to a fully distributed continuous adaptive fault-tolerant consensus protocol design for the leaderless multi-agent system. Furthermore, a distributed fault-tolerant leader-follower consensus protocol for multi-agent system is constructed by the proposed adaptive method. Finally, a simulation example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical analysis.

  7. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  8. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  9. Adaptive Code Division Multiple Access Protocol for Wireless Network-on-Chip Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumaran, Vineeth

    Massive levels of integration following Moore's Law ushered in a paradigm shift in the way on-chip interconnections were designed. With higher and higher number of cores on the same die traditional bus based interconnections are no longer a scalable communication infrastructure. On-chip networks were proposed enabled a scalable plug-and-play mechanism for interconnecting hundreds of cores on the same chip. Wired interconnects between the cores in a traditional Network-on-Chip (NoC) system, becomes a bottleneck with increase in the number of cores thereby increasing the latency and energy to transmit signals over them. Hence, there has been many alternative emerging interconnect technologies proposed, namely, 3D, photonic and multi-band RF interconnects. Although they provide better connectivity, higher speed and higher bandwidth compared to wired interconnects; they also face challenges with heat dissipation and manufacturing difficulties. On-chip wireless interconnects is one other alternative proposed which doesn't need physical interconnection layout as data travels over the wireless medium. They are integrated into a hybrid NOC architecture consisting of both wired and wireless links, which provides higher bandwidth, lower latency, lesser area overhead and reduced energy dissipation in communication. However, as the bandwidth of the wireless channels is limited, an efficient media access control (MAC) scheme is required to enhance the utilization of the available bandwidth. This thesis proposes using a multiple access mechanism such as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) to enable multiple transmitter-receiver pairs to send data over the wireless channel simultaneously. It will be shown that such a hybrid wireless NoC with an efficient CDMA based MAC protocol can significantly increase the performance of the system while lowering the energy dissipation in data transfer. In this work it is shown that the wireless NoC with the proposed CDMA based MAC protocol

  10. The research of a new adaptive on-demand routing protocol in WSN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dongjie; Cui, Gang; Huang, Junheng; Zhang, Zhaoxing

    2013-03-01

    As an important part of the Internet of Things, WSN also has routing strategies which plays a critical role as well as it does in Ad hoc. After the introduction of some distinct traits of WSN, a detailed analysis is performed for a typical ondemand routing protocol in Ad hoc AODV, which then is transplanted into WSN. Furthermore, a transition method of adaptive clustering routing is proposed, based on which, a new adaptive hierarchical routing transition protocol (BCRP) is put forward. Finally, simulations and comparisons of BCRP are performed which lead to a conclusion that BCRP has been greatly improved concerning adaptability and extensibility.

  11. Yoga-teaching protocol adapted for children with visual impairment

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Soubhagyalaxmi; Hankey, Alex; Pradhan, Balaram; Ranjita, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    Context: Childhood visual deficiency impairs children's neuro-psychomotor development, considerably affecting physical, mental, social, and emotional health. Yoga's multifaceted approach may help children with visual impairment (VI) to cope with their challenges. Aim: This study aimed to develop a special protocol for teaching yoga to children with VI, and to evaluate their preferred method of learning. Methods: The study was carried out at Ramana Maharishi Academy for the Blind, Bengaluru, South India. Forty-one students volunteered to learn yoga practices, and classes were held weekly 5 days, 1 hr per session for 16 weeks. The study introduced a new method using a sequence of five teaching steps: verbal instructions, tactile modeling, step-by-step teaching, learning in a group, and physical guidance. A questionnaire concerning the preferred steps of learning was then given to each student, and verbal answers were obtained. Results: A total of 33 (out of 41), aged 11.97 ± 1.94, 15 girls and 18 boys responded. Twenty-six (78.79%) chose physical guidance as their most favored learning mode. Conclusions: Specially designed protocol may pave the way to impart yoga in an exciting and comfortable way to children with VI. More studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness of this new yoga protocol in similar settings. PMID:27512318

  12. Protocol and practice in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, F.; Williams, K.

    1999-01-01

    Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in setting hunting

  13. Distance-Based and Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Abdullah; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Ab Hamid, Siti Hafizah; Akhunzada, Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2016-01-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) comprises small sensor nodes with limited energy capabilities. The power constraints of WSNs necessitate efficient energy utilization to extend the overall network lifetime of these networks. We propose a distance-based and low-energy adaptive clustering (DISCPLN) protocol to streamline the green issue of efficient energy utilization in WSNs. We also enhance our proposed protocol into the multi-hop-DISCPLN protocol to increase the lifetime of the network in terms of high throughput with minimum delay time and packet loss. We also propose the mobile-DISCPLN protocol to maintain the stability of the network. The modelling and comparison of these protocols with their corresponding benchmarks exhibit promising results. PMID:27658194

  14. Gemini Frontier Fields: Wide-field Adaptive Optics Ks-band Imaging of the Galaxy Clusters MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Carrasco, E. R.; Pessev, P.; Garrel, V.; Winge, C.; Neichel, B.; Vidal, F.

    2015-04-01

    We have observed two of the six Frontier Fields galaxy clusters, MACS J0416.1-2403 and Abell 2744, using the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) and the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI). With 0.″ 08-0.″ 10 FWHM our data are nearly diffraction-limited over a 100\\prime\\prime × 100\\prime\\prime wide area. GeMS/GSAOI complements the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) redwards of 1.6 μm with twice the angular resolution. We reach a 5σ depth of {{K}s}˜ 25.6 mag (AB) for compact sources. In this paper, we describe the observations, data processing, and initial public data release. We provide fully calibrated, co-added images matching the native GSAOI pixel scale as well as the larger plate scales of the HST release, adding to the legacy value of the Frontier Fields. Our work demonstrates that even for fields at high galactic latitude where natural guide stars are rare, current multi-conjugated adaptive optics technology at 8 m telescopes has opened a new window on the distant universe. Observations of a third Frontier Field, Abell 370, are planned. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina). Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla and Paranal Observatories, Chile.

  15. McGRATH MAC videolaryngoscope versus Macintosh laryngoscope for orotracheal intubation in intensive care patients: the randomised multicentre MACMAN trial study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bailly, Arthur; Le Thuaut, Aurelie; Boisrame-Helms, Julie; Kamel, Toufik; Mercier, Emmanuelle; Ricard, Jean Damien; Lemiale, Virginie; Champigneulle, Benoit; Reignier, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Critically ill patients with acute respiratory, neurological or cardiovascular failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation are at high risk of difficult intubation and have organ dysfunctions associated with complications of intubation and anaesthesia such as hypotension and hypoxaemia. The complication rate increases with the number of intubation attempts. Videolaryngoscopy improves elective endotracheal intubation. McGRATH MAC is the lightest videolaryngoscope and the most similar to the Macintosh laryngoscope. The primary goal of this trial was to determine whether videolaryngoscopy increased the frequency of successful first-pass intubation in critically ill patients, compared to direct view Macintosh laryngoscopy. Methods and analysis MACMAN is a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled superiority trial. Consecutive patients requiring intubation are randomly allocated to either the McGRATH MAC videolaryngoscope or the Macintosh laryngoscope, with stratification by centre and operator experience. The expected frequency of successful first-pass intubation is 65% in the Macintosh group and 80% in the videolaryngoscope group. With α set at 5%, to achieve 90% power for detecting this difference, 185 patients are needed in each group (370 in all). The primary outcome is the proportion of patients with successful first-pass orotracheal intubation, compared between the two groups using a generalised mixed model to take the stratification factors into account. Ethics and dissemination The study project has been approved by the appropriate ethics committee (CPP Ouest 2, # 2014-A00674-43). Informed consent is not required, as both laryngoscopy methods are considered standard care in France; information is provided before study inclusion. If videolaryngoscopy proves superior to Macintosh laryngoscopy, its use will become standard practice, thereby decreasing first-pass intubation failure rates and, potentially, the frequency of intubation

  16. The Traffic Adaptive Data Dissemination (TrAD) Protocol for both Urban and Highway Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bin; Hou, Kun Mean; Zhou, Haiying

    2016-06-21

    The worldwide economic cost of road crashes and injuries is estimated to be US$518 billion per year and the annual congestion cost in France is estimated to be €5.9 billion. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are one solution to improve transport features such as traffic safety, traffic jam and infotainment on wheels, where a great number of event-driven messages need to be disseminated in a timely way in a region of interest. In comparison with traditional wireless networks, VANETs have to consider the highly dynamic network topology and lossy links due to node mobility. Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) protocols are the keystone of VANETs. According to our survey, most of the proposed IVC protocols focus on either highway or urban scenarios, but not on both. Furthermore, too few protocols, considering both scenarios, can achieve high performance. In this paper, an infrastructure-less Traffic Adaptive data Dissemination (TrAD) protocol which takes into account road traffic and network traffic status for both highway and urban scenarios will be presented. TrAD has double broadcast suppression techniques and is designed to adapt efficiently to the irregular road topology. The performance of the TrAD protocol was evaluated quantitatively by means of realistic simulations taking into account different real road maps, traffic routes and vehicular densities. The obtained simulation results show that TrAD is more efficient in terms of packet delivery ratio, number of transmissions and delay in comparison with the performance of three well-known reference protocols. Moreover, TrAD can also tolerate a reasonable degree of GPS drift and still achieve efficient data dissemination.

  17. The Traffic Adaptive Data Dissemination (TrAD) Protocol for both Urban and Highway Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Bin; Hou, Kun Mean; Zhou, Haiying

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide economic cost of road crashes and injuries is estimated to be US$518 billion per year and the annual congestion cost in France is estimated to be €5.9 billion. Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) are one solution to improve transport features such as traffic safety, traffic jam and infotainment on wheels, where a great number of event-driven messages need to be disseminated in a timely way in a region of interest. In comparison with traditional wireless networks, VANETs have to consider the highly dynamic network topology and lossy links due to node mobility. Inter-Vehicle Communication (IVC) protocols are the keystone of VANETs. According to our survey, most of the proposed IVC protocols focus on either highway or urban scenarios, but not on both. Furthermore, too few protocols, considering both scenarios, can achieve high performance. In this paper, an infrastructure-less Traffic Adaptive data Dissemination (TrAD) protocol which takes into account road traffic and network traffic status for both highway and urban scenarios will be presented. TrAD has double broadcast suppression techniques and is designed to adapt efficiently to the irregular road topology. The performance of the TrAD protocol was evaluated quantitatively by means of realistic simulations taking into account different real road maps, traffic routes and vehicular densities. The obtained simulation results show that TrAD is more efficient in terms of packet delivery ratio, number of transmissions and delay in comparison with the performance of three well-known reference protocols. Moreover, TrAD can also tolerate a reasonable degree of GPS drift and still achieve efficient data dissemination. PMID:27338393

  18. Adaptation of mobile ad-hoc network protocols for sensor networks to vehicle control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kenya; Matsui, Yosuke; Koita, Takahiro

    2005-12-01

    As sensor network applications to monitor and control the physical environment from remote locations, a mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) has been the focus of many recent research and development efforts. A MANET, autonomous system of mobile hosts, is characterized by multi-hop wireless links, absence of any cellular infrastructure, and frequent host mobility. Many kinds of routing protocols for ad-hoc network have been proposed and still actively updated, because each application has different characteristics and requirements. Since the current studies show it is almost impossible to design an efficient routing protocol to be adapted for all kinds of applications. We, therefore, have focused a certain application, inter-vehicle communication for ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems), to evaluate the routing protocols. In our experiment, we defined several traffic flow models for inter-vehicle communication applications. By using simulation, we evaluated end-to-end delay and throughput performance of data transmission for inter-vehicle communications with the existing routing protocols. The result confirms the feasibility of using some routing protocols for inter-vehicle communication services.

  19. Adaptation of the contrast injection protocol to tube potential for cardiovascular computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajuan; Halliburton, Sandra S; Kemper, Corey; Kottha, Anjali; Kalafut, John

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the adaptation of the contrast injection protocol for lower tube potential at cardiovascular computed tomography (CT) angiography, this study analyzed 83 patients (56 100kV vs. 27 120kV) imaged with a prospectively ECG-triggered axial technique for evaluation of aortic disease on a 256-slice CT scanner from 4/10/12 to 5/23/12. A custom algorithm was used to select tube potential and tube current based on patient size. The same contrast injection protocol (contrast concentration 370 mgI/mL, flow rate = 3.5 mL/s, volume = 90 mL) was applied to both cohorts. A Bae-Heiken-Brink pharmacokinetic model was utilized to simulate attenuation in the aorta for the applied contrast protocol in both cohorts and for 3 reduced volumes in the 100kV cohort (A: 72mL, -20%; B: 60mL, -33%; C: 50mL, -44%). Quantitative analysis revealed that 100kV cohort had significantly higher contrast attenuation and signal-to-noise ratio than the 120kV cohort but similar image noise. Simulation of protocol A and B in the 100kV cohort yielded significantly higher attenuation than that measured from the 120kV cohort (p<0.05); attenuation with protocol C showed no significant difference. Simulation results demonstrated that the amount of contrast material can be reduced by as much as 44% for 100 compared to 120 kV imaging but still yielded similar aortic attenuation. A prospective, randomized study should be conducted to validate the performance of the proposed contrast injection protocol at 100kV.

  20. A Distance-Aware Replica Adaptive Data Gathering Protocol for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yong; Gong, Haigang; Fan, Mingyu; Liu, Ming; Wang, Xiaomin

    2011-01-01

    In Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs) that have the inherent features of intermitted connectivity and frequently changing network topology it is reasonable to utilize multi-replica schemes to improve the data gathering performance. However, most existing multi-replica approaches inject a large amount of message copies into the network to increase the probability of message delivery, which may drain each mobile node’s limited battery supply faster and result in too much contention for the restricted resources of the DTMSN, so a proper data gathering scheme needs a trade off between the number of replica messages and network performance. In this paper, we propose a new data gathering protocol called DRADG (for Distance-aware Replica Adaptive Data Gathering protocol), which economizes network resource consumption through making use of a self-adapting algorithm to cut down the number of redundant replicas of messages, and achieves a good network performance by leveraging the delivery probabilities of the mobile sensors as main routing metrics. Simulation results have shown that the proposed DRADG protocol achieves comparable or higher message delivery ratios at the cost of the much lower transmission overhead than several current DTMSN data gathering schemes. PMID:22163839

  1. Development of a protocol to quantify local bone adaptation over space and time: Quantification of reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongtao; Boudiffa, Maya; Dall'Ara, Enrico; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Viceconti, Marco

    2016-07-05

    In vivo micro-computed tomography (µCT) scanning of small rodents is a powerful method for longitudinal monitoring of bone adaptation. However, the life-time bone growth in small rodents makes it a challenge to quantify local bone adaptation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol, which can take into account large bone growth, to quantify local bone adaptations over space and time. The entire right tibiae of eight 14-week-old C57BL/6J female mice were consecutively scanned four times in an in vivo µCT scanner using a nominal isotropic image voxel size of 10.4µm. The repeated scan image datasets were aligned to the corresponding baseline (first) scan image dataset using rigid registration. 80% of tibia length (starting from the endpoint of the proximal growth plate) was selected as the volume of interest and partitioned into 40 regions along the tibial long axis (10 divisions) and in the cross-section (4 sectors). The bone mineral content (BMC) was used to quantify bone adaptation and was calculated in each region. All local BMCs have precision errors (PE%CV) of less than 3.5% (24 out of 40 regions have PE%CV of less than 2%), least significant changes (LSCs) of less than 3.8%, and 38 out of 40 regions have intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of over 0.8. The proposed protocol allows to quantify local bone adaptations over an entire tibia in longitudinal studies, with a high reproducibility, an essential requirement to reduce the number of animals to achieve the necessary statistical power.

  2. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    The MACS/ACRS (Managed Access by Controlled Sensing/Access by Controlled Remote Sensing) system is a collection of communication devices, video capability, and distance-measuring equipment which can effectively substitute for the physical presence of a challenge inspector within a facility. The MACS design allows growth of the prototype, developed in response to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), into a versatile device for inspection of sensitive nuclear facilities under other international arrangements, for example the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Convention. A MACS/ACRS-type system in a standard, international-recognized configuration could resolve sensitive information and safety concerns through providing a means of achieving the goals of an inspection while excluding the inspector. We believe the technology used to develop MACS for the Defense Nuclear Agency, followed by ACRS for the Department of Energy, is universally adaptable for minimally-intrusive managed-access international inspections of sensitive sites.

  3. Introduction to MAC CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald D.

    1987-01-01

    The author introduces the Military Airlift Command (MAC) and its mission. A brief history of Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) as it relates to MAC is given. He also states why MAC is currently interested in CRM.

  4. Self-Adaptive Trust Based ABR Protocol for MANETs Using Q-Learning

    PubMed Central

    Jeyapal, Akilandeswari

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a collection of mobile nodes with a dynamic topology. MANETs work under scalable conditions for many applications and pose different security challenges. Due to the nomadic nature of nodes, detecting misbehaviour is a complex problem. Nodes also share routing information among the neighbours in order to find the route to the destination. This requires nodes to trust each other. Thus we can state that trust is a key concept in secure routing mechanisms. A number of cryptographic protection techniques based on trust have been proposed. Q-learning is a recently used technique, to achieve adaptive trust in MANETs. In comparison to other machine learning computational intelligence techniques, Q-learning achieves optimal results. Our work focuses on computing a score using Q-learning to weigh the trust of a particular node over associativity based routing (ABR) protocol. Thus secure and stable route is calculated as a weighted average of the trust value of the nodes in the route and associativity ticks ensure the stability of the route. Simulation results show that Q-learning based trust ABR protocol improves packet delivery ratio by 27% and reduces the route selection time by 40% over ABR protocol without trust calculation. PMID:25254243

  5. Self-adaptive trust based ABR protocol for MANETs using Q-learning.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anitha Vijaya; Jeyapal, Akilandeswari

    2014-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a collection of mobile nodes with a dynamic topology. MANETs work under scalable conditions for many applications and pose different security challenges. Due to the nomadic nature of nodes, detecting misbehaviour is a complex problem. Nodes also share routing information among the neighbours in order to find the route to the destination. This requires nodes to trust each other. Thus we can state that trust is a key concept in secure routing mechanisms. A number of cryptographic protection techniques based on trust have been proposed. Q-learning is a recently used technique, to achieve adaptive trust in MANETs. In comparison to other machine learning computational intelligence techniques, Q-learning achieves optimal results. Our work focuses on computing a score using Q-learning to weigh the trust of a particular node over associativity based routing (ABR) protocol. Thus secure and stable route is calculated as a weighted average of the trust value of the nodes in the route and associativity ticks ensure the stability of the route. Simulation results show that Q-learning based trust ABR protocol improves packet delivery ratio by 27% and reduces the route selection time by 40% over ABR protocol without trust calculation.

  6. ATLAS: a traffic load aware sensor MAC design for collaborative body area sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Obaidur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon; Bang, Young-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks (WBANs), each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor the health status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamic traffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation) data and high-rate traffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control (MAC) protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the primary concern during low-traffic periods, whereas a balance between satisfying high-throughput demand and efficient energy usage is necessary during high-traffic times. In this paper, we design a traffic load-aware innovative MAC solution for WBANs, called ATLAS. The design exploits the superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and it adaptively uses the contention access period (CAP), contention free period (CFP) and inactive period (IP) of the superframe based on estimated traffic load, by applying a dynamic "wh" (whenever which is required) approach. Unlike earlier work, the proposed MAC design includes load estimation for network load-status awareness and a multi-hop communication pattern in order to prevent energy loss associated with long range transmission. Finally, ATLAS is evaluated through extensive simulations in ns-2 and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol.

  7. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    One of the main challenges that prevents the large-scale deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is providing the applications with the required quality of service (QoS) given the sensor nodes' limited energy supplies. WSNs are an important tool in supporting applications ranging from environmental and industrial monitoring, to battlefield surveillance and traffic control, among others. Most of these applications require sensors to function for long periods of time without human intervention and without battery replacement. Therefore, energy conservation is one of the main goals for protocols for WSNs. Energy conservation can be performed in different layers of the protocol stack. In particular, as the medium access control (MAC) layer can access and control the radio directly, large energy savings is possible through intelligent MAC protocol design. To maximize the network lifetime, MAC protocols for WSNs aim to minimize idle listening of the sensor nodes, packet collisions, and overhearing. Several approaches such as duty cycling and low power listening have been proposed at the MAC layer to achieve energy efficiency. In this thesis, I explore the possibility of further energy savings through the advertisement of data packets in the MAC layer. In the first part of my research, I propose Advertisement-MAC or ADV-MAC, a new MAC protocol for WSNs that utilizes the concept of advertising for data contention. This technique lets nodes listen dynamically to any desired transmission and sleep during transmissions not of interest. This minimizes the energy lost in idle listening and overhearing while maintaining an adaptive duty cycle to handle variable loads. Additionally, ADV-MAC enables energy efficient MAC-level multicasting. An analytical model for the packet delivery ratio and the energy consumption of the protocol is also proposed. The analytical model is verified with simulations and is used to choose an optimal value of the advertisement period

  8. Analysis of steps adapted protocol in cardiac rehabilitation in the hospital phase

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmann, Eliane Roseli; Dallazen, Fernanda; Bronzatti, Angela Beerbaum Steinke; Lorenzoni, Juliara Cristina Werner; Windmöller, Pollyana

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze a cardiac rehabilitation adapted protocol in physical therapy during the postoperative hospital phase of cardiac surgery in a service of high complexity, in aspects regarded to complications and mortality prevalence and hospitalization days. Methods This is an observational cross-sectional, retrospective and analytical study performed by investigating 99 patients who underwent cardiac surgery for coronary artery bypass graft, heart valve replacement or a combination of both. Step program adapted for rehabilitation after cardiac surgery was analyzed under the command of the physiotherapy professional team. Results In average, a patient stays for two days in the Intensive Care Unit and three to four days in the hospital room, totalizing six days of hospitalization. Fatalities occurred in a higher percentage during hospitalization (5.1%) and up to two years period (8.6%) when compared to 30 days after hospital discharge (1.1%). Among the postoperative complications, the hemodynamic (63.4%) and respiratory (42.6%) were the most prevalent. 36-42% of complications occurred between the immediate postoperative period and the second postoperative day. The hospital discharge started from the fifth postoperative day. We can observe that in each following day, the patients are evolving in achieving the Steps, where Step 3 was the most used during the rehabilitation phase I. Conclusion This evolution program by steps can to guide the physical rehabilitation at the hospital in patients after cardiac surgery. PMID:25859866

  9. Adaptation of an Interview-Based Protocol to Examine Close Relationships between Children with Developmental Disabilities and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Amanda A.; Carter, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an interview protocol, based on the Friendship Quality Questionnaire, could be adapted to examine the close relationships of children with developmental disabilities in an inclusive school setting. Twenty-five children with developmental disabilities aged between approximately 5 and 12 years…

  10. Handling Deafness Problem of Scheduled Multi-Channel Polling MACs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fulong; Liu, Hao; Shi, Longxing

    Combining scheduled channel polling with channel diversity is a promising way for a MAC protocol to achieve high energy efficiency and performance under both light and heavy traffic conditions. However, the deafness problem may cancel out the benefit of channel diversity. In this paper, we first investigate the deafness problem of scheduled multi-channel polling MACs with experiments. Then we propose and evaluate two schemes to handle the deafness problem. Our experiment shows that deafness is a significant reason for performance degradation in scheduled multi-channel polling MACs. A proper scheme should be chosen depending on the traffic pattern and the design objective.

  11. MAC of xenon and halothane in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Whitehurst, S L; Nemoto, E M; Yao, L; Yonas, H

    1994-10-01

    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) maps produced by 33% xenon-enhanced computed tomographic scanning (Xe/CT LCBF) are useful in the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular disorders. However, observations in humans that 25-35% xenon (Xe) inhalation increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) have raised concerns that Xe/CT LCBF measurements may be inaccurate and that Xe inhalation may be hazardous in patients with decreased intracranial compliance. In contrast, 33% Xe does not increase CBF in rhesus monkeys. To determine whether this interspecies difference in the effect of Xe on CBF correlates with an interspecies difference in the anesthetic potency of Xe, we measured the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of Xe preventing movement to a tail-clamp stimulus in rhesus monkeys. Using a standard protocol for the determination of MAC in animals, we first measured the MAC of halothane (n = 5), and then used a combination of halothane and Xe to measure the MAC of Xe (n = 7). The halothane MAC was 0.99 +/- 0.12% (M +/- SD), and the Xe MAC was 98 +/- 15%. These results suggest that the MAC of Xe in rhesus monkeys is higher than the reported human Xe MAC value of 71%. Thus the absence of an effect of 33% Xe on CBF in the rhesus monkey may be related to its lower anesthetic potency.

  12. MAC calorimeters and applications

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-03-01

    The MAC detector at PEP features a large solid-angle electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter system, augmented by magnetic charged-particle tracking, muon analysis and scintillator triggering. Its implementation in the context of electron-positron annihilation physics is described, with emphasis on the utilization of calorimetry.

  13. Recent results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-05-01

    Some preliminary results from the MAC detector at PEP are presented. These include measurements of the angular distribution of ..gamma gamma.., ..mu mu.. and tau tau final states, a determination of the tau lifetime, a measurement of R, and a presentation of the inclusive muon p/sub perpendicular/ distribution for hadronic events.

  14. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    PubMed Central

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Smith, Sarah L.; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D.; King, John W.; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  15. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    PubMed

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment.

  16. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  17. Monolithic MACS micro resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann-Horn, J. A.; Jacquinot, J.-F.; Ginefri, J. C.; Bonhomme, C.; Sakellariou, D.

    2016-10-01

    Magic Angle Coil Spinning (MACS) aids improving the intrinsically low NMR sensitivity of heterogeneous microscopic samples. We report on the design and testing of a new type of monolithic 2D MACS resonators to overcome known limitations of conventional micro coils. The resonators' conductors were printed on dielectric substrate and tuned without utilizing lumped element capacitors. Self-resonance conditions have been computed by a hybrid FEM-MoM technique. Preliminary results reported here indicate robust mechanical stability, reduced eddy currents heating and negligible susceptibility effects. The gain in B1 /√{ P } is in agreement with the NMR sensitivity enhancement according to the principle of reciprocity. A sensitivity enhancement larger than 3 has been achieved in a monolithic micro resonator inside a standard 4 mm rotor at 500 MHz. These 2D resonators could offer higher performance micro-detection and ease of use of heterogeneous microscopic substances such as biomedical samples, microscopic specimens and thin film materials.

  18. PAD-MAC: Primary User Activity-Aware Distributed MAC for Multi-Channel Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Piran, Md. Jalil; Kim, Hansoo; Yun, Jihyeok; Suh, Doug Young

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) has emerged as a promising technology to solve problems related to spectrum scarcity and provides a ubiquitous wireless access environment. CR-enabled secondary users (SUs) exploit spectrum white spaces opportunistically and immediately vacate the acquired licensed channels as primary users (PUs) arrive. Accessing the licensed channels without the prior knowledge of PU traffic patterns causes severe throughput degradation due to excessive channel switching and PU-to-SU collisions. Therefore, it is significantly important to design a PU activity-aware medium access control (MAC) protocol for cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, we first propose a licensed channel usage pattern identification scheme, based on a two-state Markov model, and then estimate the future idle slots using previous observations of the channels. Furthermore, based on these past observations, we compute the rank of each available licensed channel that gives SU transmission success assessment during the estimated idle slot. Secondly, we propose a PU activity-aware distributed MAC (PAD-MAC) protocol for heterogeneous multi-channel CRNs that selects the best channel for each SU to enhance its throughput. PAD-MAC controls SU activities by allowing them to exploit the licensed channels only for the duration of estimated idle slots and enables predictive and fast channel switching. To evaluate the performance of the proposed PAD-MAC, we compare it with the distributed QoS-aware MAC (QC-MAC) and listen-before-talk MAC schemes. Extensive numerical results show the significant improvements of the PAD-MAC in terms of the SU throughput, SU channel switching rate and PU-to-SU collision rate. PMID:25831084

  19. Results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, G.B.

    1983-05-01

    The MAC detector has been exposed at PEP to 40 pb/sup -1/ luminosity of e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions. The detector is described and recent results of a continuing analysis of hadronic cross section, lepton pair charge asymmetry, Bhabha process, two photon final state and radiative ..mu.. pairs are given. New results on flavor tagging of hadronic events with an inclusive ..mu.., and some searches for new particles are presented.

  20. Development of a Protocol to Test Proprioceptive Utilization as a Predictor for Sensorimotor Adaptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, R.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Caldwell, E. E.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oddsson, L. I. E.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight show significant inter-subject variations in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment because of their innate sensory weighting. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which each individual astronaut will be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. We hypothesize participant's ability to utilize individual sensory information (vision, proprioception and vestibular) influences adaptation in sensorimotor performance after space flight. The goal of this study is to develop a reliable protocol to test proprioceptive utilization in a functional postural control task. Subjects "stand" in a supine position while strapped to a backpack frame holding a friction-free device using air-bearings that allow the subject to move freely in the frontal plane, similar to when in upright standing. The frame is attached to a pneumatic cylinder, which can provide different levels of a gravity-like force that the subject must balance against to remain "upright". The supine posture with eyes closed ensures reduced vestibular and visual contribution to postural control suggesting somatosensory and/or non-otolith vestibular inputs will provide relevant information for maintaining balance control in this task. This setup is called the gravity bed. Fourteen healthy subjects carried out three trials each with eyes open alternated with eyes closed, "standing" on their dominant leg in the gravity bed environment while loaded with 60 percent of their body weight. Subjects were instructed to: "use your sense of sway about the ankle and pressure changes under the foot to maintain balance." Maximum length of a trial was 45 seconds. A force plate underneath the foot recorded forces and moments during the trial and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) attached on the backpack's frame near the center of mass of the subject recorded upper body postural

  1. Non-Uniform Per-Packet Priority Marker for Use with Adaptive Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-07

    penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 07 JAN...CHARGING ADDITIONAL FEES FOR EXCESS USE; PERFORMING TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP) FLOW CONTROL ; PROPAGATING CUTOFF VALUES FOR A PLURALITY OF...IP) OPTION OR A TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL (TCP) OPTION / ____________________ J____________________ TRANSMITTING THE PACKET HAVING THE DROP

  2. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Teranovi Technologies, Inc., has developed innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms for both lunar surface and orbit access networks. A key component of the overall architecture is a medium access control (MAC) protocol that includes a novel mechanism of overlaying time division multiple access (TDMA) and carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), ensuring scalable throughput and quality of service. The new MAC protocol is compatible with legacy Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 networks. Advanced features include efficiency power management, adaptive channel width adjustment, and error control capability. A hybrid routing protocol combines the advantages of ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing and disruption/delay-tolerant network (DTN) routing. Performance is significantly better than AODV or DTN and will be particularly effective for wireless networks with intermittent links, such as lunar and planetary surface networks and orbit access networks.

  3. Optimal Throughput and Self-adaptability of Robust Real-Time IEEE 802.15.4 MAC for AMI Mesh Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, Hikma; Mohamud Ahmed, Musse; Khan, Sheroz; Hameed, Shahab Ahmed; Hadi Habaebi, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    A smart grid refers to a modernization of the electricity system that brings intelligence, reliability, efficiency and optimality to the power grid. To provide an automated and widely distributed energy delivery, the smart grid will be branded by a two-way flow of electricity and information system between energy suppliers and their customers. Thus, the smart grid is a power grid that integrates data communication networks which provide the collected and analysed data at all levels in real time. Therefore, the performance of communication systems is so vital for the success of smart grid. Merit to the ZigBee/IEEE802.15.4std low cost, low power, low data rate, short range, simplicity and free licensed spectrum that makes wireless sensor networks (WSNs) the most suitable wireless technology for smart grid applications. Unfortunately, almost all ZigBee channels overlap with wireless local area network (WLAN) channels, resulting in severe performance degradation due to interference. In order to improve the performance of communication systems, this paper proposes an optimal throughput and self-adaptability of ZigBee/IEEE802.15.4std for smart grid.

  4. Adaptive mobile access protocol (AMAP) for the message service of a land mobile satellite experiment (MSAT-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, V. O. K.; Yan, T.-Y.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a feasibility study of the adaptive mobile access protocol (AMAP) for MSATA-X, a proposed experimental mobile satellite communication network. The mobiles are dispersed over a wide geographical area and the channel data rate is limited due to the size and cost limitations of mobile antennas. AMAP is a reservation based multiple-access scheme. The available bandwidth is divided into subchannels, which are divided into reservation and message channels. The ALOHA multiple-access scheme is employed in the reservation channels, while the message channels are demand assigned. AMAP adaptively reallocates the reservation and message channels to optimize system performance. It has been shown that if messages are generated at a rate of one message per hour, AMAP can support approximately 2000 active users per 2400 bit/s channel with an average delay of 1.4 s.

  5. Adaptive Probabilistic Protocols for Advanced Networks/Assuring the Integrity of Highly Decentralized Communications Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    on work done in our effort, and the IPTO Situation-Aware Protocols In Edge Network Technologies ( SAPIENT ) program, under Jonathan Smith, seeks to...of our work: The IPTO SRS program, under Lee Badger, builds 3 on work done in our effort, and the IPTO SAPIENT program, under Jonathan Smith, seeks...Jonathan Smith’s SAPIENT program reflects some of the ideas and successes of our compositional networking approach. SAPIENT will apply similar 11

  6. Mission-Adaptable Chemical Sensor (MACS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-27

    ICH7M Real Time Clock Chipset integrated RTC with onboard lithium battery Watchdog Timer Generates a system reset with internal timer for 1min/s...49 50 122 41 100 100 29 Cyanogen Chloride 25 50...0 Methylene Chloride 25 65 10 9 11 8 88 73 50 63 10 1 11 6 86 11 0 100 52 99 11

  7. MQ-MAC: a multi-constrained QoS-aware duty cycle MAC for heterogeneous traffic in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Rahman, Md Obaidur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2010-01-01

    Energy conservation is one of the striking research issues now-a-days for power constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and hence, several duty-cycle based MAC protocols have been devised for WSNs in the last few years. However, assimilation of diverse applications with different QoS requirements (i.e., delay and reliability) within the same network also necessitates in devising a generic duty-cycle based MAC protocol that can achieve both the delay and reliability guarantee, termed as multi-constrained QoS, while preserving the energy efficiency. To address this, in this paper, we propose a Multi-constrained QoS-aware duty-cycle MAC for heterogeneous traffic in WSNs (MQ-MAC). MQ-MAC classifies the traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands. Through extensive simulation using ns-2 we evaluate the performance of MQ-MAC. MQ-MAC provides the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the nature of the traffic classes as well as achieves energy efficiency.

  8. MQ-MAC: A Multi-Constrained QoS-Aware Duty Cycle MAC for Heterogeneous Traffic in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Rahman, Md. Obaidur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

    2010-01-01

    Energy conservation is one of the striking research issues now-a-days for power constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and hence, several duty-cycle based MAC protocols have been devised for WSNs in the last few years. However, assimilation of diverse applications with different QoS requirements (i.e., delay and reliability) within the same network also necessitates in devising a generic duty-cycle based MAC protocol that can achieve both the delay and reliability guarantee, termed as multi-constrained QoS, while preserving the energy efficiency. To address this, in this paper, we propose a Multi-constrained QoS-aware duty-cycle MAC for heterogeneous traffic in WSNs (MQ-MAC). MQ-MAC classifies the traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands. Through extensive simulation using ns-2 we evaluate the performance of MQ-MAC. MQ-MAC provides the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the nature of the traffic classes as well as achieves energy efficiency. PMID:22163439

  9. Fiverr MacGyver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Larson, Martha

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing has become popular over the past years, also for scientific endeavors. There are many Citizen Science projects and crowdfunding platforms, such as Kickstarter, that are make helpful contributions to moving environmental science forward. An interesting underused source of useful crowd-derived contributions to research is the website Fiverr.com. On this platform, thousands of people, acting as small-scale freelance contractors, offer their skills in the form of services. The platform offers a chance for people to take a hobby, skill, or pastime and make it something more by reaching out to a wider audience and by receiving a payment in return for services. As is typical of other crowdsourcing platforms, the tasks are small and usually self contained. As the name Fiverr suggests, offers start at US5 to provide a particular service. Services offered range from graphic design, to messages sung or spoken with various styles or accents, to complete apps for Android or iPhone. Skill providers on the platform can accept a range of variation of definition in the tasks, some can be described in general terms, for others it is more appropriate to provide examples. Fiverr provides a central location for those offering skills and those needing services to find each other, it makes it possible to communicate and exchange files, to make payments, and it provides support for resolving disputes. In all cases, it is important to keep expectations aligned with the nature of the platform: quality can and will vary. Ultimately, the critical contribution of Fiverr is not to replace professional services or otherwise save money, but rather to provide access to a large group of people with specialized skills who are able to make a contribution on short notice. In the context of this session, it can be considered a pool of people with MacGyver skills lying in wait of a MacGyyer task to attack. There are many ways in which Fiverr tasks, which are called 'gigs', can be useful in

  10. Harnessing Protocolized Adaptation in Dissemination: Successful Implementation and Sustainment of the Veterans Affairs Coordinated-Transitional Care (C-TraC) Program in a Non- Veterans Affairs Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kind, Amy J.H.; Brenny-Fitzpatrick, Maria; Leahy-Gross, Kris; Mirr, Jacquelyn; Chapman, Elizabeth; Frey, Brooke; Houlahan, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The low-cost, primarily phone-based Coordinated-Transitional Care (C-TraC) program reduced 30-day rehospitalizations by 1/3, leading to significant cost savings at one VA hospital. Non-VA hospitals have expressed interest in launching C-TraC, but non-VA hospitals differ in important ways from VA hospitals, particularly in terms of context, culture and resources. The objective of this project was to successfully adapt C-TraC to the specific context of one non-VA setting using a modified Replicating Effective Programs (REP) implementation theory model, and to test the feasibility of this protocolized implementation approach. The modified-REP model 1) uses a mentored phased-based implementation with intensive pre-implementation activities, and 2) harnesses local key stakeholders to adapt processes and goals to local context. Using this protocolized implementation approach, an adapted C-TraC protocol was created and launched at the non-VA hospital in July 2013. In its first 16 months, C-TraC successfully enrolled 1,247 patients with 3.2 full-time nurse case managers, achieving good fidelity for core protocol steps. C-TraC patients experienced a 30-day rehospitalization rate of 10.8%, as compared to 16.6% for a contemporary comparison group of similar patients for whom C-TraC was not available (n=1,307) [p-value < 0.001]. The new C-TraC program continues in operation to this day. In conclusion, use of a modified REP model to guide protocolized adaptation to local context resulted in a C-TraC program that was feasible and sustained in a real-world non-VA setting. A modified-REP implementation framework may be an appropriate foundational step for other clinical programs seeking to harness protocolized adaptation in mentored dissemination activities. PMID:26804896

  11. Comparative study of MacCormack and TVD MacCormack schemes for three-dimensional separation at wing/body junctions in supersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshmanan, Balakrishnan; Tiwari, Surendra N.

    1992-01-01

    A robust, discontinuity-resolving TVD MacCormack scheme containing no dependent parameters requiring adjustment is presently used to investigate the 3D separation of wing/body junction flows at supersonic speeds. Many production codes employing MacCormack schemes can be adapted to use this method. A numerical simulation of laminar supersonic junction flow is found to yield improved separation location predictions, as well as the axial velocity profiles in the separated flow region.

  12. Mac OS X for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

    Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

  13. Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS): utility in assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh K

    2008-07-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have now been extensively incorporated in the management of infertile couples. But even after rapid methodological and technological advances the success rates of these procedures have been below expectations. This has led to development of many sperm preparation protocols to obtain an ideal semen sample for artificial reproduction. Sperm apoptosis has been heavily linked to failures in reproductive techniques. One of the earliest changes shown by apoptotic spermatozoa is externalization of phosphatidyl serine. Magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) is a novel sperm preparation technique that separates apoptotic and non-apoptotic spermatozoa based on the expression of phosphatidylserine. This has led to the incorporation of MACS as a sperm preparation technique. The review highlights the principle and mechanism of this novel technique and enumerates its advantages as a sperm preparation technique. Its utility in ART as an efficient tool for sperm recovery and its application in cryopreservation of semen samples is also explained.

  14. Vehicle density based forwarding protocol for safety message broadcast in VANET.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiawei; Huang, Yi; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is of great importance to provide time-critical safety applications. Contemporary multihop broadcast protocols in VANETs usually choose the farthest node in broadcast range as the forwarder to reduce the number of forwarding hops. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the farthest forwarder may experience large contention delay in case of high vehicle density. We propose an IEEE 802.11-based multihop broadcast protocol VDF to address the issue of emergency message dissemination. To achieve the tradeoff between contention delay and forwarding hops, VDF adaptably chooses the forwarder according to the vehicle density. Simulation results show that, due to its ability to decrease the transmission collisions, the proposed protocol can provide significantly lower broadcast delay.

  15. Vehicle Density Based Forwarding Protocol for Safety Message Broadcast in VANET

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiawei; Wang, Jianxin

    2014-01-01

    In vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is of great importance to provide time-critical safety applications. Contemporary multihop broadcast protocols in VANETs usually choose the farthest node in broadcast range as the forwarder to reduce the number of forwarding hops. However, in this paper, we demonstrate that the farthest forwarder may experience large contention delay in case of high vehicle density. We propose an IEEE 802.11-based multihop broadcast protocol VDF to address the issue of emergency message dissemination. To achieve the tradeoff between contention delay and forwarding hops, VDF adaptably chooses the forwarder according to the vehicle density. Simulation results show that, due to its ability to decrease the transmission collisions, the proposed protocol can provide significantly lower broadcast delay. PMID:25121125

  16. George MacDonald's Estimate of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2007-01-01

    The nineteenth-century fantasy writer George MacDonald believed that "it is better to be a child in a green field than a knight of many orders." In this paper, I shall explore the bearing of this high estimate of childhood on spiritual education. MacDonald explores the spirituality of the child in his essay "A Sketch of Individual Development" and…

  17. MacIntyre, Rival Traditions and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper critically discusses MacIntyre's thesis that education is essentially a contested concept. In order to contextualise my discussion, I discuss both whether rival educational traditions of education found in MacIntyre's work--which I refer to as instrumental and non-instrumental justifications of education--can be rationally resolved…

  18. On the Improvement of Free-Energy Calculation from Steered Molecular Dynamics Simulations Using Adaptive Stochastic Perturbation Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Perišić, Ognjen; Lu, Hui

    2014-01-01

    The potential of mean force (PMF) calculation in single molecule manipulation experiments performed via the steered molecular dynamics (SMD) technique is a computationally very demanding task because the analyzed system has to be perturbed very slowly to be kept close to equilibrium. Faster perturbations, far from equilibrium, increase dissipation and move the average work away from the underlying free energy profile, and thus introduce a bias into the PMF estimate. The Jarzynski equality offers a way to overcome the bias problem by being able to produce an exact estimate of the free energy difference, regardless of the perturbation regime. However, with a limited number of samples and high dissipation the Jarzynski equality also introduces a bias. In our previous work, based on the Brownian motion formalism, we introduced three stochastic perturbation protocols aimed at improving the PMF calculation with the Jarzynski equality in single molecule manipulation experiments and analogous computer simulations. This paper describes the PMF reconstruction results based on full-atom molecular dynamics simulations, obtained with those three protocols. We also want to show that the protocols are applicable with the second-order cumulant expansion formula. Our protocols offer a very noticeable improvement over the simple constant velocity pulling. They are able to produce an acceptable estimate of PMF with a significantly reduced bias, even with very fast perturbation regimes. Therefore, the protocols can be adopted as practical and efficient tools for the analysis of mechanical properties of biological molecules. PMID:25232859

  19. Throughput and packet delay analysis for the H-network - CSMA/CD with adaptive and nonadaptive backoff protocols. [Carrier Sense Multiple-Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimopoulos, Nikitas J.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of a high-data-rate (about 7 Mbytes/sec) local area network named the H-Network is described which is used to provide point to point analysis and broadcast communication in a multiprocessor environment, the Homogeneous Multiprocessor (Dimopoulos, 1983). The throughput and packet delay characteristics for the H-Network operating under CSMA/CD are presented, using adaptive and nonadaptive backoff protocols. The network is found to perform quite well, with an average utilization factor of over 60 percent and a maximum packet delay of less than 500 microsec for the case of 10 competing stations.

  20. Muscular strength adaptations and hormonal responses after two different multiple-set protocols of resistance training in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paulo Ricardo P; Barcelos, Larissa C; Oliveira, Anselmo A; Júnior, Roberto Furlanetto; Martins, Fernanda M; Resende, Elizabete Ap M R; Orsatti, Fábio L

    2017-01-20

    We studied the effects of two different resistance training (RT) multiple-set protocols (three and six sets) on muscle strength and basal hormones concentrations in postmenopausal women (PW). Thirty-four PW were randomly allocated into three groups: control (CT, n=12), low RT volume (LV = three sets for each exercise, n=10) and high RT volume (HV = six sets for each exercise, n=12). The LV and HV groups performed eight exercises of a total body RT protocol three times a week, at 70 % of one repetition maximum (1RM) for 16 weeks. The muscle strength and basal hormones concentration were measured before and after the RT. Our findings show that three sets or six sets at 70% of 1RM protocol increased muscular strength similarly after 16 weeks (sum of all exercises, LV: 37.7% and HV: 34.1% vs. CT: 2.1%, p < 0.001). Moreover, the RT volume does not affect basal levels of testosterone (TT) (LV: 0.02%, HV: -0.12% and CT: 0.006%, p = 0.233), cortisol (C) (LV: 72.4%, HV: 36.8% and CT: 16.8%, p = 0.892), insulin-like growth factor-1 (LV: 6.7%, HV: 7.3% and CT: 4.1%, p = 0.802), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (LV: 0.1%, HV: -4.5% and CT: -6.7%, p = 0.885) and TT:C ratio (LV: -0.9%, HV: -1.6% and CT: -0.4%, p = 0.429). Our results suggest that three sets and six sets at 70% of 1RM seem to promote similar muscle strength gain. Thus, three set RT is a time efficient protocol for strength gain after 16 weeks in PW.

  1. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  2. A Comparative experimental study of media access protocols for wireless radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.

    2001-05-24

    We conduct a comparative experimental analysis of three well known media access protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA for wireless radio networks. Both fixed and ad-hoc networks are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of experiments was to study how (i) the size of the network, (ii) number of open connections, (iii) the spatial location of individual connections, (iv) speed with which individual nodes move and (v) protocols higher up in the protocol stack (e,g. routing layer) affect the performance of the media access sublayer protocols. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. three important parameters: (1) number of received packets, (2) average latency of each packet, and (3) throughput. The following general qualitative conclusions were obtained; some of the conclusions reinforce the earlier claims by other researchers. (1) Although 802.11 performs better than the other two protocols with respect to fairness of transmission, packets dropped, and latency, its performance is found to (i) show a lot of variance with changing input parameters and (ii) the overall performance still leaves a lot of room for improvement. (2) CSMA does not perform too well under the fairness criteria, however, was the best in terms of the latency criteria. (3) MACA also shows fairness problems and has poor performance at high packet injection rates. (4) Protocols in the higher level of the protocol stack affect the MAC layer performance. The main general implications of our work is two folds: (1) No single protocol dominated the other protocols across various measures of efficiency. This motivates the design of a new class of parameterized protocols that adapt to changes in the network connectivity and loads. We refer to these class of protocols as parameterized dynamically adaptive efficient protocols and as a first step suggest key design requirements for such a class of protocols. (2

  3. Cleanup MAC and MBA code ATP

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system had some minor code cleanup performed to its code. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  4. User's manual for MacPASCO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, S. H.; Davis, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    A user's manual is presented for MacPASCO, which is an interactive, graphic, preprocessor for panel design. MacPASCO creates input for PASCO, an existing computer code for structural analysis and sizing of longitudinally stiffened composite panels. MacPASCO provides a graphical user interface which simplifies the specification of panel geometry and reduces user input errors. The user draws the initial structural geometry and reduces user input errors. The user draws the initial structural geometry on the computer screen, then uses a combination of graphic and text inputs to: refine the structural geometry; specify information required for analysis such as panel load and boundary conditions; and define design variables and constraints for minimum mass optimization. Only the use of MacPASCO is described, since the use of PASCO has been documented elsewhere.

  5. AeroMACS system characterization and demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerczewski, R. J.; Apaza, R. D.; Dimond, R. P.

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  6. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past 3 years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  7. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  8. On Proper Selection of Multihop Relays for Future Enhancement of AeroMACS Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2015-01-01

    As the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has evolved from a technology concept to a deployed communications network over major US airports, it is now time to contemplate whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS is sufficient to meet the demands set forth by all fixed and mobile applications over the airport surface given the AeroMACS constraints regarding bandwidth and transmit power. The underlying idea in this article is to present IEEE 802.16j-based WiMAX as a technology that can address future capacity enhancements and therefore is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. The principal argument in favor IEEE 802.16j technology is the flexible and cost effective extension of radio coverage that is afforded by relay fortified networks, with virtually no increase in the power requirements and virtually no rise in interference levels to co-allocated applications. The IEEE 802.16j-based multihop relay systems are briefly described. The focus is on key features of this technology, frame structure, and its architecture. Next, AeroMACS is described as a WiMAX-based wireless network. The two major relay modes supported by IEEE 802.16j amendment, i.e., transparent and non-transparent are described. The benefits of employing multihop relays are listed. Some key challenges related to incorporating relays into AeroMACS networks are discussed. The selection of relay type in a broadband wireless network affects a number of network parameters such as latency, signal overhead, PHY (Scalable Physical Layer) and MAC (Media Access Layer) layer protocols, consequently it can alter key network quantities of throughput and QoS (Quality of Service).

  9. Fast protocol for extraction of DNA from Prosopis spp leaves (plant adapted to arid environment) without liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Michel-López, C Y; González-Mendoza, D; Grimaldo-Juarez, O

    2013-09-27

    The extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from Prosopis spp for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification is complicated, owing to the presence of a high percentage of secondary metabolites that bind to or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. In the present study, we report a modified sodium dodecyl sulfate/phenol protocol that eliminates the use of liquid nitrogen in the maceration process, β-mercaptoethanol in the buffer extraction, and the ethanol precipitation step. The A₂₆₀/A₂₈₀ absorbance ratios of the isolated DNA were approximately 2.0 to 1.9, suggesting that the DNA fraction was pure and can be used for further PCR analysis. The DNA isolated by this protocol is of sufficient quality for molecular applications; this technique could be applied to other organisms that have similar substances that hinder DNA extraction. Finally, this proposal represents an alternative fast, cheap, and effective method for the isolation of genomic DNA from fresh leaves of Prosopis spp, even in low-technology laboratories.

  10. Assessing Early Communicative Ability: A Cross-Reporter Cumulative Score for the MacArthur CDI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Houwer, Annick; Bornstein, Marc H.; Leach, Diane B.

    2005-01-01

    Thirty middle- to upper middle-class monolingual Dutch speaking families consisting of at least a mother and a father completed the Infant Form "Words and Gestures" of the Dutch adaptation of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for the same child at 1;1. Considerable inter- and intrafamily variation emerged in how two (or three)…

  11. Role of institutional entrepreneurship in building adaptive capacity in community-based healthcare organisations: realist review protocol

    PubMed Central

    Iyengar, Sweatha; Katz, Aaron; Durham, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 3 decades, there has been a substantial shift to the marketisation of government-funded health services. For organisations traditionally buffered from the competitive pressures of for-profit enterprises, such as community-based organisations, this means developing the capacity to adapt to competitive tendering processes, shifting client expectations, and increasing demands for greater accountability. Drawing on ideas of institutional entrepreneurship, we believe that attempts to build adaptive capacity require the transformation of existing institutional arrangements. Key in this may be identifying and fostering institutional entrepreneurs—actors who take the lead in being the impetus for, and giving direction to, structural change. This study focuses on the strategies used by institutional entrepreneurs to build adaptive capacity in the community-based healthcare sector. Methods and analysis The research will use an adapted rapid realist review. The review will find underlying theories that explain the circumstances surrounding the implementation of capacity-building strategies that shape organisational response and generate outcomes by activating causal mechanisms. An early scoping of the literature, and consultations with key stakeholders, will be undertaken to identify an initial programme theory. We will search for relevant journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted based on contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes, and their configurations. The analysis will seek patterns and regularities in these configurations and will focus on confirming, refuting or refining our programme theory. Ethics and dissemination The study does not involve primary research and, therefore, does not require formal ethical approval. However, ethical standards of utility, usefulness, feasibility, propriety, accuracy and accountability will be followed. The results will be written up according to the Realist and Meta-Review Evidence

  12. Effects of Short-Interval and Long-Interval Swimming Protocols on Performance, Aerobic Adaptations, and Technical Parameters: A Training Study.

    PubMed

    Dalamitros, Athanasios A; Zafeiridis, Andreas S; Toubekis, Argyris G; Tsalis, George A; Pelarigo, Jailton G; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spiridon

    2016-10-01

    Dalamitros, AA, Zafeiridis, AS, Toubekis, AG, Tsalis, GA, Pelarigo, JG, Manou, V, and Kellis, S. Effects of short-interval and long-interval swimming protocols on performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters: A training study. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2871-2879, 2016-This study compared 2-interval swimming training programs of different work interval durations, matched for total distance and exercise intensity, on swimming performance, aerobic adaptations, and technical parameters. Twenty-four former swimmers were equally divided to short-interval training group (INT50, 12-16 × 50 m with 15 seconds rest), long-interval training group (INT100, 6-8 × 100 m with 30 seconds rest), and a control group (CON). The 2 experimental groups followed the specified swimming training program for 8 weeks. Before and after training, swimming performance, technical parameters, and indices of aerobic adaptations were assessed. ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 improved swimming performance in 100 and 400-m tests and the maximal aerobic speed (p ≤ 0.05); the performance in the 50-m swim did not change. Posttraining V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values were higher compared with pretraining values in both training groups (p ≤ 0.05), whereas peak aerobic power output increased only in INT100 (p ≤ 0.05). The 1-minute heart rate and blood lactate recovery values decreased after training in both groups (p < 0.01). Stroke length increased in 100 and 400-m swimming tests after training in both groups (p ≤ 0.05); no changes were observed in stroke rate after training. Comparisons between groups on posttraining mean values, after adjusting for pretraining values, revealed no significant differences between ΙΝΤ50 and ΙΝΤ100 for all variables; however, all measures were improved vs. the respective values in the CON (p < 0.001-0.05). In conclusion, when matched for distance and exercise intensity, the short-interval (50 m) and long-interval (100 m) protocols confer analogous

  13. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  14. HFGMC Enhancement of MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2006-01-01

    Additional information about a mathematical model denoted the high-fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC) and implementation of the HFGMC within version 4.0 of the MAC/GMC software has become available. MAC/GMC (Micromechanics Analysis Code With Generalized Method of Cells) was a topic of several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, version 4.0 having been described in "Comprehensive Micromechanics-Analysis Code - Version 4.0" (LEW-17495-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 9 (September 2005), page 54. MAC/GMC predicts elastic and inelastic thermomechanical responses of composite materials. MAC/GMC utilizes the generalized method of cells (GMC) - a model of micromechanics that predicts macroscopic responses of a composite material as functions of the properties, sizes, shapes, and responses of its constituents (e.g., matrix and fibers). The accuracy of the GMC is limited by neglect of coupling between normal and shear stresses. The HFGMC was developed by combining elements of the GMC and a related model, denoted the higher-order theory for functionally graded materials (HOTFGM), that can account for this coupling. Hence, the HFGMC enables simulation of stress and strain with greater accuracy. Some alterations of the MAC/GMC data structure were necessitated by the greater computational complexity of the HFGMC.

  15. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  16. "Research protocol: a synthesis of qualitative studies on the process of adaptation to dependency in elderly persons and their families"

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dealing with dependency in the elderly and their families leads us to explore the life experience of those involved together with the processes of adaptation to this condition. A number of original studies have been published which, following a qualitative methodology, have dealt with both dimensions. Methods/Design Objectives: 1) To present a synthesis of the qualitative evidence available on the process of adaptation to dependency in elderly persons and their families; 2) to conduct an in-depth study into the experiences and strategies developed by both to optimise their living conditions; 3) to enable standards of action/intervention to be developed in the caregiving environment. A synthesis of qualitative studies is projected with an extensive and inclusive bibliography search strategy. The primary search will focus on the major databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, PSICODOC, Cochrane Library, JBI, EMBASE, LILACS, CUIDEN, CUIDEN qualitative, CUIDATGE, British Nursing Index, SSCI). The secondary search will be conducted in articles taken from the references to studies identified in the articles and reports and the manual search in congresses and foundation papers. Article quality will be assessed by the guide proposed by Sandelowski & Barroso and data extraction done using the QARI data extraction form proposed by the Joanna Briggs Institute for Evidence-Based Practice. The synthesis of the findings will be based on the principles and procedures of grounded theory: coding, identification and relationship between categories, and synthesis using constant comparison as a strategy. Discussion This synthesis of qualitative evidence will enable us to detect health needs as perceived by the receivers in their own interaction contexts. PMID:20738846

  17. Hardness, polymerization depth, and internal adaptation of Class II silorane composite restorations as a function of polymerization protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, Janaina; dos Santos, Priscila Jaques; Anido-Anido, Andrea; Di Hipólito, Vinícius; Alonso, Roberta Caroline Bruschi; D’Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the influence of various photoactivation techniques on the internal gap, Knoop-hardness, and polymerization depth of silorane- and methacrylate-based composites in Class II restorations. Methods: Preparations were made in third molars (n = 10), according to composites (Filtek P60: methacrylate; Filtek P90: silorane) and photoactivation techniques (OC: occlusal photoactivation (control); OBL: occlusal+buccal+lingual photoactivation; and BLO: buccal+lingual+occlusal photoactivation (transdental)). Composites were inserted in two increments, both individually photoactivated for 20s. After 24h, specimens were sectioned and the ratio of internal gaps to interface length (%) recorded. Hardness was tested across the transversal section of restorations (1–4 mm below the surface). Results: Silorane restorations showed significantly lower gaps compared with methacrylate, regardless of polymerization technique (P<.05). Supplementary energy dose in OBL and BLO protocols caused significant increase in gaps in silorane restorations (P<.05). For methacrylate restorations, OBL activation caused significantly higher gap formation (P<.05). Significantly lower hardness values were seen for silorane than for methacrylate composites (P<.05), regardless of depth and photoactivation. Significantly higher hardness values were seen in BLO activation for methacrylate restorations compared with control (P<.05); for silorane, no differences were observed. Significantly higher hardness values were observed at 1 and 3 mm compared to 2 and 4 mm for both composites. Conclusions: Internal gaps and hardness are affected by composite type and photoactivation. Despite the reduced values, hardness of silorane is not influenced by photoactivation or by depth. Internal gaps are dependent on the energy dose for both composites, with silorane showing lower internal gaps. PMID:22509115

  18. Strategies for Optimal MAC Parameters Tuning in IEEE 802.15.6 Wearable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2015-09-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) has penetrated immensely in revolutionizing the classical heath-care system. Recently, number of WBAN applications has emerged which introduce potential limits to existing solutions. In particular, IEEE 802.15.6 standard has provided great flexibility, provisions and capabilities to deal emerging applications. In this paper, we investigate the application-specific throughput analysis by fine-tuning the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) parameters of the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. Based on PHY characterizations in narrow band, at the MAC layer, carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and scheduled access protocols are extensively analyzed. It is concluded that, IEEE 802.15.6 standard can satisfy most of the WBANs applications throughput requirements by maximum achieving 680 Kbps. However, those emerging applications which require high quality audio or video transmissions, standard is not able to meet their constraints. Moreover, delay, energy efficiency and successful packet reception are considered as key performance metrics for comparing the MAC protocols. CSMA/CA protocol provides the best results to meet the delay constraints of medical and non-medical WBAN applications. Whereas, the scheduled access approach, performs very well both in energy efficiency and packet reception ratio.

  19. Ovum pick up and in vitro embryo production in cows superstimulated with an individually adapted superstimulation protocol.

    PubMed

    De Roover, R; Genicot, G; Leonard, S; Bols, P; Dessy, F

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this experiment was to apply an ovarian superstimulation protocol prior to ovum pick up (OPU), tailored to the individual donor response, to evaluate its advantages and disadvantages in terms of follicle numbers and diameters, the numbers of retrieved oocytes and day 7 cultured blastocysts. Ten adult non-lactating dairy cows were superstimulated with pFSH and subjected to ovum pick up-in vitro fertilisation (OPU-IVF) 6 times at 2-week intervals. On day 0 of each 2-week period, all follicles >8mm were ablated and an ear implant (Crestar, Intervet, Belgium) was inserted. On day 2, 48 h after follicle ablation the animals were administered six equal doses of pFSH, divided into morning and evening doses for 3 days. On day 7, 48 h following the last pFSH injection, follicle diameters were measured by ultrasound and all follicles were subjected to OPU. All cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC), regardless of their quality, were subjected to in vitro maturation-in vitro fertilisation-in vitro culture (IVM-IVF-IVC). The total dose of pFSH prior to the first OPU session was 300 microg per animal. During the following OPU sessions, the total pFSH dose was either kept unchanged, increased or reduced (+/-50 microg), according to the percentage of follicles of more than 11 mm in diameter, present in the previous session of that particular donor. The mean number of punctured follicles per session was 11.9 +/- 7.7 (mean +/- S.D.), with 16% of follicles exceeding 11 mm. These follicles yielded a mean of 5.6 +/- 4.1 cumulus oocyte complexes (COC), 32% of which had >/=3 layers of cumulus cells (quality 1 and 2). The recovery rate was 47%. Finally, all COC were subjected to IVM-IVF-IVC, which resulted in a mean of 2.0 +/- 2.3 blastocysts on day 7 postinsemination. The subtle changes in pFSH dose influenced the sizes but not the numbers of follicles, the latter parameter was influenced by the individual donor and the OPU session.

  20. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the 'Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire' to the Spanish population: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Calvente, M; Medina-Porqueres, I; Fontalba-Navas, A; Pena-Andreu, J M; de Vos-Martin, C

    2015-09-01

    There are few high-quality instruments to evaluate the participation and social functioning of fibromyalgia patients. The Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire (FPQ) is a questionnaire that evaluates these aspects with high reliability and validity in its German original version. The aim of this work was to describe the translation and cross-cultural adaptation process of the FPQ into Spanish and its validation to ensure the equivalence against the original version. The questionnaire will be translated according to the FACIT methodology, and it will be tested in the Clinical Management Unit of North Almeria Health Area. This methodology includes several stages: double forward translation, reconciled version, back-translation, review of the previous versions and development of the prefinal version for the pretest. Once the pretest ends, the final version of the questionnaire will be developed, which will be subjected to a validation process to study its psychometric properties. Reliability will be studied by internal consistency and test-retest reliability through Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficient, respectively. External and construct validity will be analysed using correlation coefficients, content validity with an empirical analysis, and a differential item functioning analysis will be employed to measure discriminative validity. The presence of ceiling and floor effects will be calculated too. The validation of the FPQ into different languages will allow better evaluation and treatment based on the observed limitations fibromyalgia patients suffer from, as well as bringing the possibility to compare between other countries and generalize its use in the scientific community.

  1. SU-E-J-249: Characterization of Gynecological Tumor Heterogeneity Using Texture Analysis in the Context of An 18F-FDG PET Adaptive Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, J; Chino, J; Craciunescu, O; Das, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We propose a method to examine gynecological tumor heterogeneity using texture analysis in the context of an adaptive PET protocol in order to establish if texture metrics from baseline PET-CT predict tumor response better than SUV metrics alone as well as determine texture features correlating with tumor response during radiation therapy. Methods: This IRB approved protocol included 29 women with node positive gynecological cancers visible on FDG-PET treated with EBRT to the PET positive nodes. A baseline and intra-treatment PET-CT was obtained. Tumor outcome was determined based on RECIST on posttreatment PET-CT. Primary GTVs were segmented using 40% threshold and a semi-automatic gradient-based contouring tool, PET Edge (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH). SUV histogram features, Metabolic Volume (MV), and Total Lesion Glycolysis (TLG) were calculated. Four 3D texture matrices describing local and regional relationships between voxel intensities in the GTV were generated: co-occurrence, run length, size zone, and neighborhood difference. From these, 39 texture features were calculated. Prognostic power of baseline features derived from gradientbased and threshold GTVs were determined using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Receiver Operating Characteristics and logistic regression was performed using JMP (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to find probabilities of predicting response. Changes in features during treatment were determined using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Of the 29 patients, there were 16 complete responders, 7 partial responders, and 6 non-responders. Comparing CR/PR vs. NR for gradient-based GTVs, 7 texture values, TLG, and SUV kurtosis had a p < 0.05. Threshold GTVs yielded 4 texture features and TLG with p < 0.05. From baseline to intra-treatment, 14 texture features, SUVmean, SUVmax, MV, and TLG changed with p < 0.05. Conclusion: Texture analysis of PET imaged gynecological tumors is an effective method for early prognosis and should

  2. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, H.N.

    1986-07-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. Thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes were used for detector elements. A study of radiation hardness was conducted under the conditions of the proposed design using different gases and different operating conditions. (LEW)

  3. Managed Access by Controlled Sensing (MACS)

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    During chemical weapons challenge inspections, the CWC treaty allows ``alternate means`` of access to be proposed by the nation challenged. BNL`s Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division is funded by the Defense Nuclear Agency to develop a system to provide the challenge inspection team with a ``virtual presence`` within the facility while denying personal access. A general purpose configuration of a mobile station manned by site personnel and a base station manned by the challenge inspector, supported by a flexible communication system, will allow facility personnel to tailor the basic model to their site. Design of the MACS system is based on maximum use of commercial equipment that is available on the international market. Design requirements for the MACS system include methods of establishing geographical position, distance measuring equipment for use in verifying dimensions on floor plans, video and two-way audio links between the mobile unit and the base station, and portability and versatility of the equipment. The MACS platform will also support deployment of selected instrumentation which the site may offer to the challenge inspection team. This paper describes the design and construction of the prototype MACS system.

  4. MacIntyre, Managerialism and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    MacIntyre's earlier work and concern with social science enquiry not only exposes its limits, but also provides an insight into how its knowledge claims have been put to ideological use. He maintains that the institutional embodiment of these ideological ideas is the bureaucratic manager who has had a negative role to play in social structures…

  5. Exposure histories of lunar meteorites - ALHA81005, MAC88104, MAC88105, and Y791197

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J. R.; Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R.; Kubik, P. W.; Sharma, P.; Elmore, D.; Reedy, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides Ca-41, Cl-36, Al-26, and Be-10 in the Allan Hills 81005, MacAlpine Hills 88104, MacAlpine Hills 88105, and Yamato 791197 meteorites were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry. Mn-53 in Allan Hills 81005 and Yamato 791197 was measured by neutron activation. These four lunar meteorites experienced similar histories. They were ejected from near the surface of the moon ranging in depth down to 400 g/sq cm and had very short transition times (less than 0.1 Ma) from the moon to the earth. A comparison of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in MacAlpine Hills 88104 and MacAlpine Hills 88105 clearly indicates that they are a pair from the same fall.

  6. SU-E-J-124: FDG PET Metrics Analysis in the Context of An Adaptive PET Protocol for Node Positive Gynecologic Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, J; Chino, J; Light, K; Vergalasova, I; Craciunescu, O

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To compare PET extracted metrics and investigate the role of a gradient-based PET segmentation tool, PET Edge (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH), in the context of an adaptive PET protocol for node positive gynecologic cancer patients. Methods: An IRB approved protocol enrolled women with gynecological, PET visible malignancies. A PET-CT was obtained for treatment planning prescribed to 45–50.4Gy with a 55– 70Gy boost to the PET positive nodes. An intra-treatment PET-CT was obtained between 30–36Gy, and all volumes re-contoured. Standard uptake values (SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVmedian) and GTV volumes were extracted from the clinician contoured GTVs on the pre- and intra-treament PET-CT for primaries and nodes and compared with a two tailed Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences between primary and node GTV volumes contoured in the treatment planning system and those volumes generated using PET Edge were also investigated. Bland-Altman plots were used to describe significant differences between the two contouring methods. Results: Thirteen women were enrolled in this study. The median baseline/intra-treatment primary (SUVmax, mean, median) were (30.5, 9.09, 7.83)/( 16.6, 4.35, 3.74), and nodes were (20.1, 4.64, 3.93)/( 6.78, 3.13, 3.26). The p values were all < 0.001. The clinical contours were all larger than the PET Edge generated ones, with mean difference of +20.6 ml for primary, and +23.5 ml for nodes. The Bland-Altman revealed changes between clinician/PET Edge contours to be mostly within the margins of the coefficient of variability. However, there was a proportional trend, i.e. the larger the GTV, the larger the clinical contours as compared to PET Edge contours. Conclusion: Primary and node SUV values taken from the intratreament PET-CT can be used to assess the disease response and to design an adaptive plan. The PET Edge tool can streamline the contouring process and lead to smaller, less user-dependent contours.

  7. Clinical Implementation of an Online Adaptive Plan-of-the-Day Protocol for Nonrigid Motion Management in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Heijkoop, Sabrina T. Langerak, Thomas R.; Quint, Sandra; Bondar, Luiza; Mens, Jan Willem M.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical implementation of an online adaptive plan-of-the-day protocol for nonrigid target motion management in locally advanced cervical cancer intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Each of the 64 patients had four markers implanted in the vaginal fornix to verify the position of the cervix during treatment. Full and empty bladder computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired prior to treatment to build a bladder volume-dependent cervix-uterus motion model for establishment of the plan library. In the first phase of clinical implementation, the library consisted of one IMRT plan based on a single model-predicted internal target volume (mpITV), covering the target for the whole pretreatment observed bladder volume range, and a 3D conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) motion-robust backup plan based on the same mpITV. The planning target volume (PTV) combined the ITV and nodal clinical target volume (CTV), expanded with a 1-cm margin. In the second phase, for patients showing >2.5-cm bladder-induced cervix-uterus motion during planning, two IMRT plans were constructed, based on mpITVs for empty-to-half-full and half-full-to-full bladder. In both phases, a daily cone beam CT (CBCT) scan was acquired to first position the patient based on bony anatomy and nodal targets and then select the appropriate plan. Daily post-treatment CBCT was used to verify plan selection. Results: Twenty-four and 40 patients were included in the first and second phase, respectively. In the second phase, 11 patients had two IMRT plans. Overall, an IMRT plan was used in 82.4% of fractions. The main reasons for selecting the motion-robust backup plan were uterus outside the PTV (27.5%) and markers outside their margin (21.3%). In patients with two IMRT plans, the half-full-to-full bladder plan was selected on average in 45% of the first 12 fractions, which was reduced to 35% in the last treatment fractions. Conclusions: The implemented

  8. Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed Central

    Neumeister, B; Schöniger, S; Faigle, M; Eichner, M; Dietz, K

    1997-01-01

    serogroup 2, and a fresh clinical isolate of L. pneumophila serogroup 6. Members of the seventh cluster are a strain of agar-adapted L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Bellingham and a strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Bellingham which was passaged fewer than three times on BCYE alpha agar after inoculation and intraperitoneal growth in guinea pigs. In comparison to members of the sixth cluster, both strains showed a slightly enhanced multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells but a reduced multiplication in amoebae. From our investigations, we could demonstrate a correlation between prevalence of a given Legionella species and their intracellular multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells. Multiplication of members of the genus Legionella in A. castellanii seems to be dependent on mechanisms different from those in monocytes. PMID:9097418

  9. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    General acceptance of the challenge provision in the Chemical Weapons Convention has the potential for influence in other arms control areas. While most applications of the challenge inspection may be straightforward, there may be instances where access to the site by inspectors may be problematic. The MACS system described in this paper was developed to respond to these situations. Inspection and verification may be difficult when a host is unwilling,for valid reasons, to permit physical access to a site. We proposed a system of remote sensors which may be used to demonstrate compliance with Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections even ff the inspector is physically excluded from a sensitive site. The system is based upon alternative-means-of-access provisions of the CWC. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) funded design and construction of a system prototype, designated as MACS for Managed Access by Controlled Sensing. Features of the MACS design allow growth of the prototype into a versatile device for international monitoring of production facilities and other sites. MACS consists of instrumentation and communication equipment allowing site personnel to conduct a facility tour and perform acceptable measurements, while physically excluding the inspector from the facility. MACS consists of a base station used by the inspector, and a mobile unit used within the facility and manipulated by the facility staff. The base station and the mobile unit are @ed by a communication system, currently realized as a fiber optic cable. The mobile unit is equipped with television cameras and remote-reading distance-measuring equipment (DME) for use in verifying locations and dimensions. Global Positioning System receivers on the mobile unit provide both precise location and dead reckoning, suitable for tracking the mobile unit`s position while within a building when satellite signals are not available.

  10. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter.

    PubMed

    Modali, Sita D; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2011-08-01

    Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tripartite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation of MacB ATPase activity. Binding of MacA to MacB stabilizes the ATP-bound conformation of MacB, whereas interactions with both MacB and TolC affect the conformation of MacA. A single G353A substitution in the C-terminus of MacA inactivates MacAB-TolC function by changing the conformation of the membrane proximal domain of MacA and disrupting the proper assembly of the MacA-MacB complex. We propose that MacA acts in transport by promoting MacB transition into the closed ATP-bound conformation and in this respect, is similar to the periplasmic solute-binding proteins.

  11. Clinical outcome of protocol based image (MRI) guided adaptive brachytherapy combined with 3D conformal radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pötter, Richard; Georg, Petra; Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Grimm, Magdalena; Berger, Daniel; Nesvacil, Nicole; Georg, Dietmar; Schmid, Maximilian P.; Reinthaller, Alexander; Sturdza, Alina; Kirisits, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background To analyse the overall clinical outcome and benefits by applying protocol based image guided adaptive brachytherapy combined with 3D conformal external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) ± chemotherapy (ChT). Methods Treatment schedule was EBRT with 45–50.4 Gy ± concomitant cisplatin chemotherapy plus 4 × 7 Gy High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Patients were treated in the “protocol period” (2001–2008) with the prospective application of the High Risk CTV concept (D90) and dose volume constraints for organs at risk including biological modelling. Dose volume adaptation was performed with the aim of dose escalation in large tumours (prescribed D90 > 85 Gy), often with inserting additional interstitial needles. Dose volume constraints (D2cc) were 70–75 Gy for rectum and sigmoid and 90 Gy for bladder. Late morbidity was prospectively scored, using LENT/SOMA Score. Disease outcome and treatment related late morbidity were evaluated and compared using actuarial analysis. Findings One hundred and fifty-six consecutive patients (median age 58 years) with cervix cancer FIGO stages IB–IVA were treated with definitive radiotherapy in curative intent. Histology was squamous cell cancer in 134 patients (86%), tumour size was >5 cm in 103 patients (66%), lymph node involvement in 75 patients (48%). Median follow-up was 42 months for all patients. Interstitial techniques were used in addition to intracavitary brachytherapy in 69/156 (44%) patients. Total prescribed mean dose (D90) was 93 ± 13 Gy, D2cc 86 ± 17 Gy for bladder, 65 ± 9 Gy for rectum and 64 ± 9 Gy for sigmoid. Complete remission was achieved in 151/156 patients (97%). Overall local control at 3 years was 95%; 98% for tumours 2–5 cm, and 92% for tumours >5 cm (p = 0.04), 100% for IB, 96% for IIB, 86% for IIIB. Cancer specific survival at 3 years was overall 74%, 83% for tumours 2–5 cm, 70% for tumours >5 cm, 83% for IB, 84% for IIB, 52% for IIIB. Overall

  12. Millisecond timing on PCs and Macs.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, W J; Taylor, T L

    2001-05-01

    A real-time, object-oriented solution for displaying stimuli on Windows 95/98, MacOS and Linux platforms is presented. The program, written in C++, utilizes a special-purpose window class (GLWindow), OpenGL, and 32-bit graphics acceleration; it avoids display timing uncertainty by substituting the new window class for the default window code for each system. We report the outcome of tests for real-time capability across PC and Mac platforms running a variety of operating systems. The test program, which can be used as a shell for programming real-time experiments and testing specific processors, is available at http://www.cs.dal.ca/~macinnwj. We propose to provide researchers with a sense of the usefulness of our program, highlight the ability of many multitasking environments to achieve real time, as well as caution users about systems that may not achieve real time, even under optimal conditions.

  13. MAC, material accounting database user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-09-22

    The K Basins Material Accounting (MAC) database system user guide describes the user features and functions, and the document is structured like the database menus. This document presents the MAC database system user instructions which explain how to record the movements and configuration of canisters and materials within the K Basins on the computer, the mechanics of handling encapsulation tracking, and administrative functions associated with the system. This document includes the user instructions, which also serve as the software requirements specification for the system implemented on the microcomputer. This includes suggested user keystrokes, examples of screens displayed by the system, and reports generated by the system. It shows how the system is organized, via menus and screens. It does not explain system design nor provide programmer instructions.

  14. Visualization of integrin Mac-1 in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kihong; Hyun, Young-Min; Lambert-Emo, Kris; Topham, David J; Kim, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    β2 integrins play critical roles in migration of immune cells and in the interaction with other cells, pathogens, and the extracellular matrix. Among the β2 integrins, Mac-1 (Macrophage antigen-1), composed of CD11b and CD18, is mainly expressed in innate immune cells and plays a major role in cell migration and trafficking. In order to image Mac-1-expressing cells both in live cells and mouse, we generated a knock-in (KI) mouse strain expressing CD11b conjugated with monomeric yellow fluorescent protein (mYFP). Expression of CD11b-mYFP protein was confirmed by Western blot and silver staining of CD11b-immunoprecipitates and total cell lysates from the mouse splenocytes. Mac-1-mediated functions of the KI neutrophils were comparable with those in WT cells. The fluorescence intensity of CD11b-mYFP was sufficient to image CD11b expressing cells in live mice using intravital two-photon microscopy. In vitro, dynamic changes in the intracellular localization of CD11b molecules could be measured by epifluorescent microscopy. Finally, CD11b-expressing immune cells from tissue were easily detected by flow cytometry without anti-CD11b antibody staining. PMID:26342259

  15. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105: A new FAN of lunar petrology

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, C.R. Univ. of Notre Dame, IN ); Taylor, L.A. ); Lui, Yungang; Schmitt, R.A. )

    1991-11-01

    New lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 represents an exciting new opportunity to study a potentially unsampled region of the Moon. The authors have analyzed six thin sections by electron microprobe and three bulk samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation (INA) in order to determine the chemical characteristics of this new lunar sample. Lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts which appear to be of basaltic origin. One of these basaltic clasts (clast E in MAC88105,84) is probably mesostasis material, whereas the second larger clast (clast G) may be similar to the Very Low-Ti (VLT) or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105,69 and ,72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite. There is little evidence of any LKFM (Low-K Fra Mauro or low-K KREEP) contribution to this meteorite, as MAC88104/5 and other brecciated lunar meteorites are Fe-rich and poor in the incompatible elements relative to Apollo 16 regolith and feldspathic breccias. While the exact site of origin for the lunar meteorites cannot be pinpointed, it is evident that they were divided from a relatively KREEP-free ferroan anorthosite terrain.

  16. Formally Generating Adaptive Security Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    being used and controls the network, as in a data center, then that attacker can launch an undefeatable denial of service attack [18]. In this...plishments and limitations. In DARPA Information Survivability Conference and Exposition (DISCEX 2000), pages 149–161, Hilton Head, SC, 2000. IEEE

  17. A comprehensive survey of Wireless Body Area Networks : on PHY, MAC, and Network layers solutions.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Higgins, Henry; Braem, Bart; Latre, Benoit; Blondia, Chris; Moerman, Ingrid; Saleem, Shahnaz; Rahman, Ziaur; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and integrated circuits, system-on-chip design, wireless communication and intelligent low-power sensors have allowed the realization of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN is a collection of low-power, miniaturized, invasive/non-invasive lightweight wireless sensor nodes that monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. In addition, it supports a number of innovative and interesting applications such as ubiquitous healthcare, entertainment, interactive gaming, and military applications. In this paper, the fundamental mechanisms of WBAN including architecture and topology, wireless implant communication, low-power Medium Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols are reviewed. A comprehensive study of the proposed technologies for WBAN at Physical (PHY), MAC, and Network layers is presented and many useful solutions are discussed for each layer. Finally, numerous WBAN applications are highlighted.

  18. A Protocol for Topology-Dependent Transmission Scheduling in Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    problems of CSMA, many collision-avoidance MAC protocols have been proposed, which include MACA [4], MACAW [5], IEEE802.11 [6] and FAMA [7]. These protocols...traffic makes it much more attractive than such collision-avoidance MAC protocols as IEEE802.11, MACA, MACAW , and FAMA. REFERENCES [1] B. M. Leiner, D. L...Amateur Radio 9th Comput. Networking Conf., 1990. [5] V. Bharghavan et al., “ MACAW : A media access protocol for wireless LAN’s,” in Proc. ACM SIGCOMM

  19. Introduction to MacDraft. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traxler, Gene

    This training module on MacDraft is part of a computer drafting skills unit on communications technology for grades 9-12. The objective is for each student to complete a drawing on the MacIntosh computer using the MacDraft software program. This drawing is to be dimensioned with a dual system and is to include a border and title block. This module…

  20. Protocols for multisatellite military networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolavennu, V. R.; Aronson, M. H.; Sites, M. J.

    The performance of a number of network control protocols applicable to multisatellite networks using single and multiple antenna beams is evaluated. The protocols analyzed include: token passing, polled TDMA, adaptive TDMA, and a reservation assignment with TDMA orderwire. The effects of varying the number of network terminals in the system, message arrival rates and length, propagation delay, and interleaver span-times on the performance of the protocols are investigated. The capabilities of a reservation assignment protocol with slotted-Aloha orderwire and an in-band network control protocol with congestion control and multiple user priorities are examined. It is observed that the token passing protocol is most applicable to an EHF tactical network; the reservation assignment protocol is suited to networks with many terminals requiring short, bursty data communication capability; and the in-band network control protocol is useful for tactical networks that require interoperability.

  1. SU-E-J-262: Variability in Texture Analysis of Gynecological Tumors in the Context of An 18F-FDG PET Adaptive Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, J; Chino, J; Das, S; Craciunescu, O

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This study examines the effect on texture analysis due to variable reconstruction of PET images in the context of an adaptive FDG PET protocol for node positive gynecologic cancer patients. By measuring variability in texture features from baseline and intra-treatment PET-CT, we can isolate unreliable texture features due to large variation. Methods: A subset of seven patients with node positive gynecological cancers visible on PET was selected for this study. Prescribed dose varied between 45–50.4Gy, with a 55–70Gy boost to the PET positive nodes. A baseline and intratreatment (between 30–36Gy) PET-CT were obtained on a Siemens Biograph mCT. Each clinical PET image set was reconstructed 6 times using a TrueX+TOF algorithm with varying iterations and Gaussian filter. Baseline and intra-treatment primary GTVs were segmented using PET Edge (MIM Software Inc., Cleveland, OH), a semi-automatic gradient-based algorithm, on the clinical PET and transferred to the other reconstructed sets. Using an in-house MATLAB program, four 3D texture matrices describing relationships between voxel intensities in the GTV were generated: co-occurrence, run length, size zone, and neighborhood difference. From these, 39 textural features characterizing texture were calculated in addition to SUV histogram features. The percent variability among parameters was first calculated. Each reconstructed texture feature from baseline and intra-treatment per patient was normalized to the clinical baseline scan and compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test in order to isolate variations due to reconstruction parameters. Results: For the baseline scans, 13 texture features showed a mean range greater than 10%. For the intra scans, 28 texture features showed a mean range greater than 10%. Comparing baseline to intra scans, 25 texture features showed p <0.05. Conclusion: Variability due to different reconstruction parameters increased with treatment, however, the majority of texture

  2. Developmentally adapted cognitive processing therapy for adolescents and young adults with PTSD symptoms after physical and sexual abuse: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA/CPA) is known to have severe psychopathological consequences, there is little evidence on psychotherapeutic interventions for adolescents and young adults suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Equally sparse are data on moderators of treatment response on PTSD-related epigenetic changes, health care costs and loss of productivity, alterations in cognitive processing, and on how successful interventions affect all of these factors. Early treatment may prevent later (co)morbidity. In this paper, we present a study protocol for the evaluation of a newly developed psychotherapeutic manual for PTSD after CSA/CPA in adolescents and young adults – the Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT). Methods/design In a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) D-CPT is compared to treatment as usual (TAU). A sample of 90 adolescent outpatients aged 14 to 21 years will be randomized to one of these conditions. Four assessments will be carried out at baseline, at end of treatment, and 3 and 6 months after end of therapy. Each time, patients will be assessed via clinical interviews and a wide range of questionnaires. In addition to PTSD symptoms and comorbidities, we will evaluate moderators of treatment response, epigenetic profiles, direct and indirect costs of this disorder, and neurophysiological processing of threat cues in PTSD and their respective changes in the course of these two treatments (D-CPT and TAU). Discussion The study will provide new insights in the understudied field of PTSD in adolescents and young adults. A newly developed intervention will be evaluated in this therapeutically underserved population. Results will provide data on treatment efficacy, direct and indirect treatment costs, as well as on associations of treatment outcome and PTSD intensity both to epigenetic profiles and to the neurobiological processing of threat cues. Besides, they will

  3. MacCready awarded Outstanding Student Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker MacCready was selected by the Ocean Sciences Section to receive their Outstanding Student Paper Award from the 1989 Fall Meeting in San Francisco for his paper entitled “Stratified Spin-up Over a Slope.” Following receipt of his Bachelor's degree in architecture from Yale in 1982, MacCready went to China for 5 months to study the language. On his return to Pasadena he worked for 3 years for Aerovironment, Inc., concentrating on building and flying a human-powered aircraft and a giant wing-flapping replica of a pterosaur. Having become interested in the aerodynamics of flappingwing propulsion, he continued his studies at Caltech, where he received his Master's degree in 1986. His informal thesis project was a human-powered hydrofoil boat with flapping-wing propulsion. He is currently working on his doctorate in physical oceanography at the University of Washington, where he is studying the dynamics of stratified, rotating boundary layers over topography. His switch to oceanography was motivated by his feeling that environmental fluid mechanics would become an increasingly relevant subject in light of increasing world pollution. In the future he hopes to go into environmental politics, perhaps in a scientific advisory role.

  4. Application of the implicit MacCormack scheme to the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, J. L.; Tannehill, J. C.; Chaussee, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    MacCormack's implicit finite-difference scheme was used to solve the two-dimensional parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) equations. This method for solving the PNS equations does not require the inversion of block tridiagonal systems of algebraic equations and permits the original explicit MacCormack scheme to be employed in those regions where implicit treatment is not needed. The advantages and disadvantages of the present adaptation are discussed in relation to those of the conventional Beam-Warming scheme for a flat plate boundary layer test case. Comparisons are made for accuracy, stability, computer time, computer storage, and ease of implementation. The present method was also applied to a second test case of hypersonic laminar flow over a 15% compression corner. The computed results compare favorably with experiment and a numerical solution of the complete Navier-Stokes equations.

  5. Semi-automated protocol for purification of Mycobacterium leprae from tissues using the gentleMACS™ Octo Dissociator

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Diana L.; Adams, Linda B.; Lahiri, Ramanuj

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae, etiologic agent of leprosy, is propagated in athymic nude mouse footpads (FPs). The current purification protocol is tedious and physically demanding. A simpler, semi-automated protocol was developed using gentleMACS™ Octo Dissociator. The gentleMACS protocol provided a very effective means for purification of highly viable M. leprae from tissue. PMID:25019518

  6. Semi-automated protocol for purification of Mycobacterium leprae from tissues using the gentleMACS™ Octo Dissociator.

    PubMed

    Williams, Diana L; Adams, Linda B; Lahiri, Ramanuj

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium leprae, etiologic agent of leprosy, is propagated in athymic nude mouse footpads (FPs). The current purification protocol is tedious and physically demanding. A simpler, semi-automated protocol was developed using gentleMACS™ Octo Dissociator. The gentleMACS protocol provided a very effective means for purification of highly viable M. leprae from tissue.

  7. SuperMacLang: Development of an Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frommer, Judith; Foelsche, Otmar K. E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development of "SuperMacLang, the 1990s version of the MacLang authoring system. An analysis of various features of the program explains the ways in which certain aspects of collaboration and funding affected developer and programming decisions. (Author/VWL)

  8. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  9. MacBurn's cylinder test problem

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, Aleksei I.

    2016-02-29

    This note describes test problem for MacBurn which illustrates its performance. The source is centered inside a cylinder with axial-extent-to-radius ratio s.t. each end receives 1/4 of the thermal energy. The source (fireball) is modeled as either a point or as disk of finite radius, as described by Marrs et al. For the latter, the disk is divided into 13 equal area segments, each approximated as a point source and models a partially occluded fireball. If the source is modeled as a single point, one obtains very nearly the expected deposition, e.g., 1/4 of the flux on each end and energy is conserved. If the source is modeled as a disk, both conservation and energy fraction degrade. However, errors decrease if the source radius to domain size ratio decreases. Modeling the source as a disk increases run-times.

  10. GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

  11. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 - A new 'FAN' of lunar petrology. [ferroan anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Lui, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the chemical characteristics of the MAC88104/5 meteorite six thin sections and three bulk samples were analyzed by electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation. It is concluded that this meteorite is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts of basaltic origin. It is suggested that one of these basaltic clasts, clast E, is mesostasis material, and clast G is similar to the very low-Ti or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105, 69, and 72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite.

  12. Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe (MAC/SINE) and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrane, E. V.

    1989-01-01

    Two major international campaigns dedicated to the study of middle atmosphere dynamics in high latitudes were successfully completed in 1987. MAC/SINE (Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe) was carried out during the period 7 June to 19 July, whereas MAC/Epsilon took place in the period 12 October to 15 November. In both campaigns a large number of ground based and rocket techniques were used in a concerted effort to map the dynamical structure of the middle atmosphere over Northern Europe. Although the analysis of the observations has only just started, it is clear that a large and unique data set was obtained, which is believed will provide new insight into the dynamical processes in this interesting region of the atmosphere. A brief overview of the campaigns, their scientific aims, organization and structure is presented.

  13. A ferroan region of the lunar highlands as recorded in meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L.; Korotev, R.L.; Haskin, L.A. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 (MAC88104/5) are paired meteorites of noritic anorthosite composition from the lunar highlands. MAC88105 is a breccia composed mainly of melt-breccia clasts in a fine-grained, fragmental, and partly glassy matrix. The most abundant melt lithologies are feldspathic and are similar in composition to the bulk meteorite. Other melt lithologies include feldspathic melt rocks, mafic melt breccias, and a rare melt breccia relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Subordinate lithic clasts are granulitic breccias and ferroan (relatively low Mg/(Mg + Fe)) igneous lithologies, including troctolitic anorthosite, anorthositic norite, gabbronorite, and anorthosite. Igneous clasts having mafic mineral compositions more magnesian than Fo{sub 55} and En{sub 60} were not observed. Rare fragments of glass spheres and shards as well as glass clasts indicate that the meteorite was derived from an immature regolith. The bulk composition of MAC88105 is characterized by a molar Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio of 0.62, at the extreme low end of the range for meteorites from the lunar highlands. Its low concentrations of incompatible trace elements and feldspathic bulk composition (29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), suggests that it, like the other lunar meteorites, formed at a site far removed from the areas sampled by the Apollo missions. Similarities in mineral compositions among the different lithologies of the breccia and the distribution of mineral fragments suggest that most components of the meteorite were derived from a crustal section dominated by material with a noritic anorthosite composition and an affinity of the ferroan suite of plutonic rocks.

  14. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  15. Reconstitution of the Escherichia coli macrolide transporter: the periplasmic membrane fusion protein MacA stimulates the ATPase activity of MacB.

    PubMed

    Tikhonova, Elena B; Devroy, Vishakha K; Lau, Sze Yi; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2007-02-01

    Periplasmic membrane fusion proteins (MFPs) are essential components of the type I protein secretion systems and drug efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. Previous studies suggested that MFPs connect the inner and outer membrane components of the transport systems and by this means co-ordinate the transfer of substrates across the two membranes. In this study, we purified and reconstituted the macrolide transporter MacAB from Escherichia coli. Here, MacA is a periplasmic MFP and MacB is an ABC-type transporter. Similar to other MFP-dependent transporters from E. coli, the in vivo function of MacAB requires the outer membrane channel TolC. The purified MacB displayed a basal ATPase activity in detergent micelles. This activity conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but was unresponsive to substrates or accessory proteins. Upon reconstitution into proteoliposomes, the ATPase activity of MacB was strictly dependent on MacA. The catalytic efficiency of MacAB ATPase was more than 45-fold higher than the activity of MacB alone. Both the N- and C-terminal regions of MacA were essential for this activity. MacA stimulated MacB ATPase only in phospholipid bilayers and did not need the presence of macrolides. Our results suggest that MacA is a functional subunit of the MacB transporter.

  16. Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

  17. MAC mini acceptance test procedure, software Version 3.0

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) programs had some major improvements made to it to organize the main-tables by Location, Canister, and Material. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  18. MacSPOC: Orbital trajectory calculations on a laptop computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamo, Dan

    1991-01-01

    Orbital trajectory calculations on a laptop computer are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: laptop computing in the Space Shuttle program; current laptop prototyping with MacSPOC; future laptop applications; and summary.

  19. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  20. MAC layer security issues in wireless mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. Ganesh; Thilagam, P. Santhi

    2016-03-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have emerged as a promising technology for a broad range of applications due to their self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing capability, in addition to their low cost and easy maintenance. Securing WMNs is more challenging and complex issue due to their inherent characteristics such as shared wireless medium, multi-hop and inter-network communication, highly dynamic network topology and decentralized architecture. These vulnerable features expose the WMNs to several types of attacks in MAC layer. The existing MAC layer standards and implementations are inadequate to secure these features and fail to provide comprehensive security solutions to protect both backbone and client mesh. Hence, there is a need for developing efficient, scalable and integrated security solutions for WMNs. In this paper, we classify the MAC layer attacks and analyze the existing countermeasures. Based on attacks classification and countermeasures analysis, we derive the research directions to enhance the MAC layer security for WMNs.

  1. 5. Photocopy of drawing of Mac Dougall furnace in roaster ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of drawing of Mac Dougall furnace in roaster building from John L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy Ginn & Co., New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Roaster Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  2. Operational effectiveness of a Multiple Aquila Control System (MACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.; Flynn, J. D.; Frey, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    The operational effectiveness of a multiple aquila control system (MACS) was examined under a variety of remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) mission configurations. The set of assumptions and inputs used to form the rules under which a computerized simulation of MACS was run is given. The characteristics that are to govern MACS operations include: the battlefield environment that generates the requests for RPV missions, operating time-lines of the RPV-peculiar equipment, maintenance requirements, and vulnerability to enemy fire. The number of RPV missions and the number of operation days are discussed. Command, control, and communication data rates are estimated by determining how many messages are passed and what information is necessary in them to support ground coordination between MACS sections.

  3. Conformal holonomy in MacDowell-Mansouri gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, James A.; Wang, Charles H.-T.

    2014-03-15

    The MacDowell-Mansouri formulation of general relativity is based on a gauge theory whose gauge algebra depends on the sign of the cosmological constant. In this article, we show that the gauge algebra is uniquely determined by the conformal structure of spacetime itself. Specifically, we show that in vacuum: the spacetime conformal holonomy algebra coincides with the MacDowell-Mansouri gauge algebra for both signs of the cosmological constant, in both Lorentzian and Euclidean metric signatures.

  4. A tribute to Lloyd D. MacLean

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Roger G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dr. Lloyd D. MacLean, long-time co-editor of the Canadian Journal of Surgery passed away earlier this year at the age of 90. In order to appreciate the contributions of Dr. MacLean to the journal, this commentary recognizes him as a humble surgeon–scientist who was one of — if not the — most outstanding Canadian ambassadors to academic surgery in North America. PMID:26204372

  5. Adaptive SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Harrison H.; Furenlid, Lars R.; Freed, Melanie; Hesterman, Jacob Y.; Kupinski, Matthew A.; Clarkson, Eric; Whitaker, Meredith K.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive imaging systems alter their data-acquisition configuration or protocol in response to the image information received. An adaptive pinhole single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) system might acquire an initial scout image to obtain preliminary information about the radiotracer distribution and then adjust the configuration or sizes of the pinholes, the magnifications, or the projection angles in order to improve performance. This paper briefly describes two small-animal SPECT systems that allow this flexibility and then presents a framework for evaluating adaptive systems in general, and adaptive SPECT systems in particular. The evaluation is in terms of the performance of linear observers on detection or estimation tasks. Expressions are derived for the ideal linear (Hotelling) observer and the ideal linear (Wiener) estimator with adaptive imaging. Detailed expressions for the performance figures of merit are given, and possible adaptation rules are discussed. PMID:18541485

  6. The TurboLAN project. Phase 1: Protocol choices for high speed local area networks. Phase 2: TurboLAN Intelligent Network Adapter Card, (TINAC) architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkhatib, Hasan S.

    1991-01-01

    The hardware and the software architecture of the TurboLAN Intelligent Network Adapter Card (TINAC) are described. A high level as well as detailed treatment of the workings of various components of the TINAC are presented. The TINAC is divided into the following four major functional units: (1) the network access unit (NAU); (2) the buffer management unit; (3) the host interface unit; and (4) the node processor unit.

  7. Comprehensive Small Animal Imaging Strategies on a Clinical 3 T Dedicated Head MR-Scanner; Adapted Methods and Sequence Protocols in CNS Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Deepu R.; Heidemann, Robin M.; Lanz, Titus; Dittmar, Michael S.; Sandner, Beatrice; Beier, Christoph P.; Weidner, Norbert; Greenlee, Mark W.; Schuierer, Gerhard; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Schlachetzki, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Background Small animal models of human diseases are an indispensable aspect of pre-clinical research. Being dynamic, most pathologies demand extensive longitudinal monitoring to understand disease mechanisms, drug efficacy and side effects. These considerations often demand the concomitant development of monitoring systems with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution. Methodology and Results This study attempts to configure and optimize a clinical 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner to facilitate imaging of small animal central nervous system pathologies. The hardware of the scanner was complemented by a custom-built, 4-channel phased array coil system. Extensive modification of standard sequence protocols was carried out based on tissue relaxometric calculations. Proton density differences between the gray and white matter of the rodent spinal cord along with transverse relaxation due to magnetic susceptibility differences at the cortex and striatum of both rats and mice demonstrated statistically significant differences. The employed parallel imaging reconstruction algorithms had distinct properties dependent on the sequence type and in the presence of the contrast agent. The attempt to morphologically phenotype a normal healthy rat brain in multiple planes delineated a number of anatomical regions, and all the clinically relevant sequels following acute cerebral ischemia could be adequately characterized. Changes in blood-brain-barrier permeability following ischemia-reperfusion were also apparent at a later time. Typical characteristics of intra-cerebral haemorrhage at acute and chronic stages were also visualized up to one month. Two models of rodent spinal cord injury were adequately characterized and closely mimicked the results of histological studies. In the employed rodent animal handling system a mouse model of glioblastoma was also studied with unequivocal results. Conclusions The implemented customizations including extensive sequence protocol

  8. A New MAC Address Spoofing Detection Technique Based on Random Forests

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Bandar; Elleithy, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Media access control (MAC) addresses in wireless networks can be trivially spoofed using off-the-shelf devices. The aim of this research is to detect MAC address spoofing in wireless networks using a hard-to-spoof measurement that is correlated to the location of the wireless device, namely the received signal strength (RSS). We developed a passive solution that does not require modification for standards or protocols. The solution was tested in a live test-bed (i.e., a wireless local area network with the aid of two air monitors acting as sensors) and achieved 99.77%, 93.16% and 88.38% accuracy when the attacker is 8–13 m, 4–8 m and less than 4 m away from the victim device, respectively. We implemented three previous methods on the same test-bed and found that our solution outperforms existing solutions. Our solution is based on an ensemble method known as random forests. PMID:26927103

  9. Directional MAC Approach for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Md. Asdaque; Alam, Md. Nasre; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) designed for medical, sports, and entertainment applications, have drawn the attention of academia and industry alike. A WBAN is a special purpose network, designed to operate autonomously to connect various medical sensors and appliances, located inside and/or outside of a human body. This network enables physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real time feedback for medical diagnosis and consultations. The WBAN system can offer two significant advantages: patient mobility due to their use of portable monitoring devices and a location independent monitoring facility. With its appealing dimensions, it brings about a new set of challenges, which we do not normally consider in such small sensor networks. It requires a scalable network in terms of heterogeneous data traffic, low power consumption of sensor nodes, integration in and around the body networking and coexistence. This work presents a medium access control protocol for WBAN which tries to overcome the aforementioned challenges. We consider the use of multiple beam adaptive arrays (MBAA) at BAN Coordinator (BAN_C) node. When used as a BAN_C, an MBAA can successfully receive two or more overlapping packets at the same time. Each beam captures a different packet by automatically pointing its pattern toward one packet while annulling other contending packets. This paper describes how an MBAA can be integrated into a single hope star topology as a BAN_C. Simulation results show the performance of our proposed protocol. PMID:22346602

  10. Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2012-01-01

    As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

  11. EFFECT OF MOBILITY ON PERFORMANCE OF WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK PROTOCOLS.

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, M. V.; Marathe, A.

    2001-01-01

    We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless adhoc networks. An important ohjective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols was measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packels received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols were used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols were used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. The inair1 conclusion of our study include the following: 1. 'I'he performance of the: network varies widely with varying mobility models, packet injection rates and speeds; and can ba in fact characterized as fair to poor depending on the specific situation. Nevertheless, in general, it appears that the combination of AODV and 802.1 I is far better than other combination of routing and MAC protocols. 2. MAC layer protocols interact with routing layer protocols. This concept which is formalized using statistics implies that in general it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Such an interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. More interestingly, the results wise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. 3. Routing prolocols with distributed knowledge about routes are more suitable for networks with mobility. This is seen by comparing the performance of AODV with DSR or LAR scheme 1. In DSli and IAR scheme 1, information about a computed path is being stored in the route query control packct. 4. MAC layer protocols have varying performance with varying mobility models. It is

  12. Low incidence of clonality in cold water corals revealed through the novel use of standardized protocol adapted to deep sea sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becheler, Ronan; Cassone, Anne-Laure; Noel, Philippe; Mouchel, Olivier; Morrison, Cheryl; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Sampling in the deep sea is a technical challenge, which has hindered the acquisition of robust datasets that are necessary to determine the fine-grained biological patterns and processes that may shape genetic diversity. Estimates of the extent of clonality in deep-sea species, despite the importance of clonality in shaping the local dynamics and evolutionary trajectories, have been largely obscured by such limitations. Cold-water coral reefs along European margins are formed mainly by two reef-building species, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata. Here we present a fine-grained analysis of the genotypic and genetic composition of reefs occurring in the Bay of Biscay, based on an innovative deep-sea sampling protocol. This strategy was designed to be standardized, random, and allowed the georeferencing of all sampled colonies. Clonal lineages discriminated through their Multi-Locus Genotypes (MLG) at 6–7 microsatellite markers could thus be mapped to assess the level of clonality and the spatial spread of clonal lineages. High values of clonal richness were observed for both species across all sites suggesting a limited occurrence of clonality, which likely originated through fragmentation. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation analysis underlined the possible occurrence of fine-grained genetic structure in several populations of both L. pertusa and M. oculata. The two cold-water coral species examined had contrasting patterns of connectivity among canyons, with among-canyon genetic structuring detected in M. oculata, whereas L. pertusa was panmictic at the canyon scale. This study exemplifies that a standardized, random and georeferenced sampling strategy, while challenging, can be applied in the deep sea, and associated benefits outlined here include improved estimates of fine grained patterns of clonality and dispersal that are comparable across sites and among species.

  13. The Walking Interventions Through Texting (WalkIT) Trial: Rationale, Design, and Protocol for a Factorial Randomized Controlled Trial of Adaptive Interventions for Overweight and Obese, Inactive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Jane C; Hollingshead, Kevin E; Todd, Michael; Jarrett, Catherine L; Tucker, Wesley J; Angadi, Siddhartha S

    2015-01-01

    Background Walking is a widely accepted and frequently targeted health promotion approach to increase physical activity (PA). Interventions to increase PA have produced only small improvements. Stronger and more potent behavioral intervention components are needed to increase time spent in PA, improve cardiometabolic risk markers, and optimize health. Objective Our aim is to present the rationale and methods from the WalkIT Trial, a 4-month factorial randomized controlled trial (RCT) in inactive, overweight/obese adults. The main purpose of the study was to evaluate whether intensive adaptive components result in greater improvements to adults’ PA compared to the static intervention components. Methods Participants enrolled in a 2x2 factorial RCT and were assigned to one of four semi-automated, text message–based walking interventions. Experimental components included adaptive versus static steps/day goals, and immediate versus delayed reinforcement. Principles of percentile shaping and behavioral economics were used to operationalize experimental components. A Fitbit Zip measured the main outcome: participants’ daily physical activity (steps and cadence) over the 4-month duration of the study. Secondary outcomes included self-reported PA, psychosocial outcomes, aerobic fitness, and cardiorespiratory risk factors assessed pre/post in a laboratory setting. Participants were recruited through email listservs and websites affiliated with the university campus, community businesses and local government, social groups, and social media advertising. Results This study has completed data collection as of December 2014, but data cleaning and preliminary analyses are still in progress. We expect to complete analysis of the main outcomes in late 2015 to early 2016. Conclusions The Walking Interventions through Texting (WalkIT) Trial will further the understanding of theory-based intervention components to increase the PA of men and women who are healthy, insufficiently

  14. The skin notation in the MAC list and classification of dangerous chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2006-01-01

    The European Union has published a list of dangerous chemicals, along with classification and labeling; in 1997 the list was adapted to the requirements of Polish regulations and has been continuously updated since then. We have decided to adopt data on dangerous chemicals classification in the list referring to their dermal absorption to assess whether the skin notation is required in the maximum admissible concentration (MAC) list. In Poland, the Group of Experts for Chemical Agents (GECA) decides on assigning the skin absorption notation (symbol Sk) when analyzing the literature data collected in order to prepare occupational exposure limits documentation. The LD50s value serves as the main criterion for assigning the notation. The limit value of 1000 mg/kg has been set as the criterion for applying the skin notation. Documented results of animal and human research, which point to systemic effects resulting from dermal exposure and physicochemical characteristics enabling calculation of the dermal absorption rate may also be used as the basis for assigning the skin notation. Chemicals for which GECA recommended using the skin notation in the 2004 MAC list have been analyzed. It was concluded that information on the classification of chemicals in the list of dangerous chemicals is useful for assessing the skin absorption, but quantitative assessment of absorption rate compared to "safe" levels, using the available theoretical models, should also be attempted.

  15. 42 CFR 405.1130 - Effect of the MAC's decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of the MAC's decision. 405.1130 Section 405.1130 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Determinations, Redeterminations, Reconsiderations, and Appeals Under...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... managing credit and interest rate risks, and furthering your mission to finance agriculture. The total... internal controls are in place to prevent loss, in accordance with § 615.5133(e). Management must submit... securities. (2) Credit risk parameters including: (i) The quantities and types of Farmer Mac...

  17. MAC/FAC: A Model of Similarity-Based Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbus, Kenneth D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents MAC/FAC, a model of similarity-based retrieval that attempts to capture psychological phenomena; discusses its limitations and extensions, its relationship with other retrieval models, and its placement in the context of other work on the nature of similarity. Examines the utility of the model through psychological experiments and…

  18. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Market risk limits based on the effects that the Farmer Mac securities have on your capital and earnings. (d) Stress Test. You must perform stress tests on mortgage securities that are issued or guaranteed... fails a stress test, you must divest it as required by § 615.5143. Effective Date Note: At 77 FR...

  19. MAC mini acceptance test procedures, software Version 3.3

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) programs had some improvements made to it to to change slightly the access authorized users had to the modification of critical data. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  20. God, Sport Philosophy, Kinesiology: A MacIntyrean Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Sport philosophy is in crisis. This subdiscipline of kinesiology garners little to no respect and few tenure track lines in kinesiology departments. Why is this the case? Why isn't philosophy held in greater esteem? Is it possible that philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's (2009) diagnosis found in "God, Philosophy, Universities" could…

  1. The MacArthur Foundation in Nigeria: Report on Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Nigeria passed an important milestone: one elected government passed power to another for the first time in the nation's history. Though imperfect, the poll demonstrated powerfully that Nigeria's representative democracy was not a transient phase between periods of military repression but a growing reality. For 20 years, the MacArthur…

  2. What if MacGyver Taught Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Rip; Leech, Trey

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising childhood obesity rates, many physical educators find themselves with declining financial resources. Similar to how MacGyver had to do when he was in a bind on his self-titled television show, physical educators need to think creatively when providing equipment for use by their students. The problem that has been identified is:…

  3. Modeling Woven Polymer Matrix Composites with MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) is used to predict the elastic properties of plain weave polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The traditional one step three-dimensional homogertization procedure that has been used in conjunction with MAC/GMC for modeling woven composites in the past is inaccurate due to the lack of shear coupling inherent to the model. However, by performing a two step homogenization procedure in which the woven composite repeating unit cell is homogenized independently in the through-thickness direction prior to homogenization in the plane of the weave, MAC/GMC can now accurately model woven PMCs. This two step procedure is outlined and implemented, and predictions are compared with results from the traditional one step approach and other models and experiments from the literature. Full coupling of this two step technique with MAC/ GMC will result in a widely applicable, efficient, and accurate tool for the design and analysis of woven composite materials and structures.

  4. Proposal and Rationale for the Development of a Mac Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordner, Marsha

    At Clark State Community College (CSCC), in Ohio, faculty in the Commercial Art and English departments have investigated and debated the best uses for a Mac Lab. Computer needs for the Commercial Art Program were determined through visits to local businesses that produce art on a commercial level; to local secondary school commercial art…

  5. Integrated, Kerberized Login on MacOS X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotz, Henry B.

    2006-01-01

    Context for this information. MacOS X login process and available hooks. Authorization Services configuration. Authorization Services plug-in s. Kerberos plug-in s. Other bugs and recommendations. Authorization Services Called by loginwindow, screen saver and fast user switching. It calls Directory Services, Login Hook, and Login Items (System Preferences).

  6. Adapting iron dose supplementation in pregnancy for greater effectiveness on mother and child health: protocol of the ECLIPSES randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, there is no consensus regarding iron supplementation dose that is most beneficial for maternal and offspring health during gestation. Recommended iron supplementation dose does not preempt anemia in around 20% of the pregnancies, nor the risk of hemoconcentration in 15%. This deficit, or excess, of iron prejudices the mother-child wellbeing. Therefore the aims of the study are to determine the highest level of effectiveness of iron supplementation adapted to hemoglobin (Hb) levels in early pregnancy, which would be optimum for mother-child health. Methods/Design Design: Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT) triple-blinded Setting: 10 Primary Care Centers from Catalunya (Spain) Study subjects: 878 non-anemic pregnant women at early gestation stage, and their subsequent newborns Methods: The study is structured as a RCT with 2 strata, depending on the Hb levels before week 12 of gestation. Stratum #1: If Hb from 110 to 130 g/L, randomly assigned at week 12 to receive iron supplement of 40 or 80 mg/d. Stratum #2: If Hb >130 g/L, randomly assigned at week 12 to receive iron supplement of 40 or 20 mg/d. Measurements: In the mother: socio-economic data, clinical history, food item frequency, lifestyle and emotional state, and adherence to iron supplement prescription. Biochemical measurements include: Hb, serum ferritin, C reactive protein, cortisol, and alterations in the HFE gene (C282Y, H63D). In children: ultrasound fetal biometry, anthropometric measurements, and temperament development. Statistical analyses, using the SPSS program for Windows, will include bivariate and multivariate analyses adjusted for variables associated with the relationship under study. Discussion Should conclusive outcomes be reached, the study would indicate the optimal iron supplementation dose required to promote maternal and infant health. These results would contribute towards developing guidelines for good clinical practice. Trial registration This clinical trial is

  7. Generation of MAC waves by convection in Earth's core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, Etienne; Buffett, Bruce

    2017-03-01

    Convection in Earth's core is a viable mechanism for generating MAC waves when the top of the core is stably stratified. We quantify the generation mechanism by extending the physical description of MAC waves to include a source term due to buoyancy forces in the convecting part of the core. Solutions for the forced motion are obtained using a Green's function, which is constructed from the eigenfunctions for the unforced motion. When the source term is evaluated using the output of a numerical geodynamo model, the largest excitation occurs at even spherical harmonic degrees, corresponding to waves with symmetric azimuthal flow about the equator. We also find that the magnitude of the source term decreases at periods shorter than about 60 years. As a result most of the wave generation is confined to waves with periods of 60 years or longer. Quantitative predictions for the wave amplitudes depend on the projection of the source term into the eigenfunction of the waves. Strong stratification limits the penetration of density anomalies into the stratified layer, which means that the source term is confined to the lowermost part of the layer. Overtones of MAC waves with large amplitudes in the lower part of the stratified layer are more effectively generated by convection, even though these waves are heavily damped by magnetic diffusion. Generation of MAC waves by convection establishes a physical link between observable wave motion and deeper convective processes. Detection of changes in the amplitude and phase of MAC waves would constrain the generation processes and offer insights into the nature of the convection.

  8. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of MacDill Field in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of MacDill Field in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1952 architectural drawings by Strategic Air Command, MacDill Air Force Base) BASE LAYOUT, 1952 - MacDill Air Force Base, Bounded by City of Tampa North, Tampa Bay South, Old Tampa Bay West, & Hillsborough Bay East, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  9. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; MacDill Air Force....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  10. SMAC: A soft MAC to reduce control overhead and latency in CDMA-based AMI networks

    DOE PAGES

    Garlapati, Shravan; Kuruganti, Teja; Buehrer, Michael R.; ...

    2015-10-26

    The utilization of state-of-the-art 3G cellular CDMA technologies in a utility owned AMI network results in a large amount of control traffic relative to data traffic, increases the average packet delay and hence are not an appropriate choice for smart grid distribution applications. Like the CDG, we consider a utility owned cellular like CDMA network for smart grid distribution applications and classify the distribution smart grid data as scheduled data and random data. Also, we propose SMAC protocol, which changes its mode of operation based on the type of the data being collected to reduce the data collection latency andmore » control overhead when compared to 3G cellular CDMA2000 MAC. The reduction in the data collection latency and control overhead aids in increasing the number of smart meters served by a base station within the periodic data collection interval, which further reduces the number of base stations needed by a utility or reduces the bandwidth needed to collect data from all the smart meters. The reduction in the number of base stations and/or the reduction in the data transmission bandwidth reduces the CAPital EXpenditure (CAPEX) and OPerational EXpenditure (OPEX) of the AMI network. Finally, the proposed SMAC protocol is analyzed using markov chain, analytical expressions for average throughput and average packet delay are derived, and simulation results are also provided to verify the analysis.« less

  11. SMAC: A soft MAC to reduce control overhead and latency in CDMA-based AMI networks

    SciTech Connect

    Garlapati, Shravan; Kuruganti, Teja; Buehrer, Michael R.; Reed, Jeffrey H.

    2015-10-26

    The utilization of state-of-the-art 3G cellular CDMA technologies in a utility owned AMI network results in a large amount of control traffic relative to data traffic, increases the average packet delay and hence are not an appropriate choice for smart grid distribution applications. Like the CDG, we consider a utility owned cellular like CDMA network for smart grid distribution applications and classify the distribution smart grid data as scheduled data and random data. Also, we propose SMAC protocol, which changes its mode of operation based on the type of the data being collected to reduce the data collection latency and control overhead when compared to 3G cellular CDMA2000 MAC. The reduction in the data collection latency and control overhead aids in increasing the number of smart meters served by a base station within the periodic data collection interval, which further reduces the number of base stations needed by a utility or reduces the bandwidth needed to collect data from all the smart meters. The reduction in the number of base stations and/or the reduction in the data transmission bandwidth reduces the CAPital EXpenditure (CAPEX) and OPerational EXpenditure (OPEX) of the AMI network. Finally, the proposed SMAC protocol is analyzed using markov chain, analytical expressions for average throughput and average packet delay are derived, and simulation results are also provided to verify the analysis.

  12. MacB ABC transporter is a dimer whose ATPase activity and macrolide-binding capacity are regulated by the membrane fusion protein MacA.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong Ting; Bavro, Vassiliy N; Barrera, Nelson P; Frankish, Helen M; Velamakanni, Saroj; van Veen, Hendrik W; Robinson, Carol V; Borges-Walmsley, M Inês; Walmsley, Adrian R

    2009-01-09

    Gram-negative bacteria utilize specialized machinery to translocate drugs and protein toxins across the inner and outer membranes, consisting of a tripartite complex composed of an inner membrane secondary or primary active transporter (IMP), a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, and an outer membrane channel. We have investigated the assembly and function of the MacAB/TolC system that confers resistance to macrolides in Escherichia coli. The membrane fusion protein MacA not only stabilizes the tripartite assembly by interacting with both the inner membrane protein MacB and the outer membrane protein TolC, but also has a role in regulating the function of MacB, apparently increasing its affinity for both erythromycin and ATP. Analysis of the kinetic behavior of ATP hydrolysis indicated that MacA promotes and stabilizes the ATP-binding form of the MacB transporter. For the first time, we have established unambiguously the dimeric nature of a noncanonic ABC transporter, MacB that has an N-terminal nucleotide binding domain, by means of nondissociating mass spectrometry, analytical ultracentrifugation, and atomic force microscopy. Structural studies of ABC transporters indicate that ATP is bound between a pair of nucleotide binding domains to stabilize a conformation in which the substrate-binding site is outward-facing. Consequently, our data suggest that in the presence of ATP the same conformation of MacB is promoted and stabilized by MacA. Thus, MacA would facilitate the delivery of drugs by MacB to TolC by enhancing the binding of drugs to it and inducing a conformation of MacB that is primed and competent for binding TolC. Our structural studies are an important first step in understanding how the tripartite complex is assembled.

  13. Etude et simulation du protocole TTEthernet sur un sous-systeme de gestion de vols et adaptation de la planification des tâches a des fins de simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidi, Dhafer

    TTEthernet is a deterministic network technology that makes enhancements to Layer 2 Quality-of-Service (QoS) for Ethernet. The components that implement its services enrich the Ethernet functionality with distributed fault-tolerant synchronization, robust temporal partitioning bandwidth and synchronous communication with fixed latency and low jitter. TTEthernet services can facilitate the design of scalable, robust, less complex distributed systems and architectures tolerant to faults. Simulation is nowadays an essential step in critical systems design process and represents a valuable support for validation and performance evaluation. CoRE4INET is a project bringing together all TTEthernet simulation models currently available. It is based on the extension of models of OMNeT ++ INET framework. Our objective is to study and simulate the TTEthernet protocol on a flight management subsystem (FMS). The idea is to use CoRE4INET to design the simulation model of the target system. The problem is that CoRE4INET does not offer a task scheduling tool for TTEthernet network. To overcome this problem we propose an adaptation for simulation purposes of a task scheduling approach based on formal specification of network constraints. The use of Yices solver allowed the translation of the formal specification into an executable program to generate the desired transmission plan. A case study allowed us at the end to assess the impact of the arrangement of Time-Triggered frames offsets on the performance of each type of the system traffic.

  14. Adaptive RTS threshold for maximum network throughput in IEEE 802.11 DCF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shaohu; Zhuo, Yongning; Wu, Shiqi; Guo, Wei

    2004-04-01

    The IEEE 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol provides shared access to wireless channel. Its primary MAC technique is called distributed coordination function (DCF) that includes two packet transmission schemes, namely, basic access and RTS/CTS access mechanisms. In a "hybrid" network combining the two schemes, packets with payload longer than a given threshold (RTS Threshold) are transmitted according to the RTS/CTS mechanism. Based on delicate mathematical model, the average time in a successful and unsuccessful transmission is analyzed in the assumption of idea channel. Then the relation of network saturation throughput and RTS threshold was found and expressed in theoretical formula. We present the numerical techniques to find out the optimum RTS threshold that can maximize the network capacity. An adaptive RTS threshold adjust algorithm (ARTA), with which a station can automatically adjust its RTS threshold to the current optimum value, is also presented in detail. A special procedure is also developed to help ARTA in determination of station numbers. All theoretical analysis and algorithm are validated through computer simulation.

  15. Preliminary results on B-anti B mixing from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, R.

    1987-05-01

    An excess of like-charge dimuons has been observed with the MAC detector in multihadron events produced in e e annihilation at s = 29 GeV. If this excess is attributed to B - anti B mixing, the corresponding value of the mixing parameter chi = GAMMA(B X)/GAMMA(B X) is chi = 0.21/sub -0.15//sup +0.25/ and chi > 0.02 at 90% C.L.

  16. Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC). User Guide: Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, T. E.; Arnold, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code's (MAC) who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells (GMC), micromechanics model is described. MAC is a versatile form of research software that 'drives' the double or triply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein (1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control) and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed, (2) different integration algorithms may be selected, (3) a variety of constituent constitutive models may be utilized and/or implemented, and (4) a variety of fiber and laminate architectures may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements.

  17. Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC) User Guide: Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, T. E.; Arnold, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code, MAC, who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells, GMC, micromechanics model is described. MAC is a versatile form of research software that 'drives' the double or triple ply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein (1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control), and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed; (2) different integration algorithms may be selected; (3) a variety of constituent constitutive models may be utilized and/or implemented; and (4) a variety of fiber architectures may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements.

  18. Traffic-Adaptive, Flow-Specific Medium Access for Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    free medium access and proposes a flow-specific medium access scheme for networked satellite systems that is based on traffic-adaptive CWS-MAC and...layer; Medium access control; Wireless; Energy-efficiency; Preamble sampling; Networked satellite systems 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY... systems that is based on traffic-adaptive CWS- MAC and is shown to outperform both CSMA- and TDMA-based solutions. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT

  19. Sounding of the Plasmasphere by McMAC Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, P. J.; McMAC Team

    2012-04-01

    Properly positioned ground magnetometers can be used to detect resonance of magnetospheric field lines as a way to make unique observations of the plasma mass density of the magnetosphere. In this paper we describe the field line resonance (FLR) frequencies systematically observed by the Mid-continent MAgnetoseismic Chain (McMAC), which consists of 10 stations in the United States and Mexico along 300° magnetic longitude. With an average separation by 272 km between adjacent stations McMAC is well suited to remotely sensing the plasma density at L-values between 1.6 and 3.3 through the gradient method of FLR measurements. We analyzed a full year of McMAC observations spanning between July 2006 and June 2007, and FLR frequencies were automatically identified in cross-phase and cross-power spectrograms by a computer routine. In all of the FLR observations by pairs of McMAC stations, the occurrence rate of FLR can reach as high as 55% around local noon at L = 2.7. The occurrence rate drops at lower latitudes due to weaker FLR signals. At L = 3.3 the FLR occurrence is clearly reduced in afternoon hours, possibly because of occasional presence of the plasmapause that can obstruct FLR generation and/or detection. By examining the results from all possible pairs of McMAC stations, we find that, at L ≤ 2.5, FLR signatures can still be found even when the separation between two stations exceeds 1000 km. The fundamental mode FLR frequencies, in addition to the inferred equatorial plasma mass densities of the magnetosphere, are tabulated with respect to L-value and time. The most probable fundamental mode frequency is found to be approximately 75 mHz at L = 1.6 and decreases with increasing L-value. The distribution of the fundamental mode frequency at L = 3.3, however, exhibits two distinct groups: The lower frequencies centered at 10 mHz representing the measurements inside the plasmasphere whereas the higher frequencies centered at 39 mHz indicating the faster field

  20. Adaptive Protocols for Mobile Wireless Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-22

    frequency-hop wireless networks," International Journal of Wireless Information Networks , vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 147-159, July 2004. [PRW04c] M. B. Pursley...efficient routing of multimedia traffic in frequency-hop packet radio networks," submitted for publication in the International Journal of Wireless Information Networks , August

  1. MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein of the macrolide transporter MacAB-TolC, binds lipopolysaccharide core specifically and with high affinity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2013-11-01

    The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC.

  2. Energy-efficiency analysis of a distributed queuing medium access control protocol for biomedical wireless sensor networks in saturation conditions.

    PubMed

    Otal, Begonya; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for biomedical wireless sensor networks or wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs). The hereby presented schemes always have in mind the efficient management of channel resources and the overall minimization of sensors' energy consumption in order to prolong sensors' battery life. The fact that the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC does not fully satisfy BSN requirements highlights the need for the design of new scalable MAC solutions, which guarantee low-power consumption to the maximum number of body sensors in high density areas (i.e., in saturation conditions). In order to emphasize IEEE 802.15.4 MAC limitations, this article presents a detailed overview of this de facto standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which serves as a link for the introduction and initial description of our here proposed Distributed Queuing (DQ) MAC protocol for BSN scenarios. Within this framework, an extensive DQ MAC energy-consumption analysis in saturation conditions is presented to be able to evaluate its performance in relation to IEEE 802.5.4 MAC in highly dense BSNs. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in average energy consumption per information bit, thus providing a better overall performance that scales appropriately to BSNs under high traffic conditions. These benefits are obtained by eliminating back-off periods and collisions in data packet transmissions, while minimizing the control overhead.

  3. Energy-Efficiency Analysis of a Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Biomedical Wireless Sensor Networks in Saturation Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Otal, Begonya; Alonso, Luis; Verikoukis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The aging population and the high quality of life expectations in our society lead to the need of more efficient and affordable healthcare solutions. For this reason, this paper aims for the optimization of Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for biomedical wireless sensor networks or wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs). The hereby presented schemes always have in mind the efficient management of channel resources and the overall minimization of sensors’ energy consumption in order to prolong sensors’ battery life. The fact that the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC does not fully satisfy BSN requirements highlights the need for the design of new scalable MAC solutions, which guarantee low-power consumption to the maximum number of body sensors in high density areas (i.e., in saturation conditions). In order to emphasize IEEE 802.15.4 MAC limitations, this article presents a detailed overview of this de facto standard for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which serves as a link for the introduction and initial description of our here proposed Distributed Queuing (DQ) MAC protocol for BSN scenarios. Within this framework, an extensive DQ MAC energy-consumption analysis in saturation conditions is presented to be able to evaluate its performance in relation to IEEE 802.5.4 MAC in highly dense BSNs. The obtained results show that the proposed scheme outperforms IEEE 802.15.4 MAC in average energy consumption per information bit, thus providing a better overall performance that scales appropriately to BSNs under high traffic conditions. These benefits are obtained by eliminating back-off periods and collisions in data packet transmissions, while minimizing the control overhead. PMID:22319351

  4. Development and validation of an ELISA kit (YF MAC-HD) to detect IgM to yellow fever virus

    PubMed Central

    Basile, Alison Jane; Goodman, Christin; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Laven, Janeen; Panella, Amanda J; Kosoy, Olga; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Johnson, Barbara W.

    2015-01-01

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) is endemic in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, with around 180,000 human infections a year occurring in Africa. Serologic testing is the chief laboratory diagnostic means of identifying an outbreak and to inform the decision to commence a vaccination campaign. The World Health Organization disseminates the reagents for YFV testing to African reference laboratories, and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is charged with producing and providing these reagents. The CDC M-antibody capture ELISA is a 2-day test, requiring titration of reagents when new lots are received, which leads to inconsistency in testing and wastage of material. Here we describe the development of a kit-based assay (YF MAC-HD) based upon the CDC method, that is completed in approximately 3.5 h, with equivocal samples being reflexed to an overnight protocol. The kit exhibits >90% accuracy when compared to the 2-day test. The kits were designed for use with a minimum of equipment and are stored at 4 °C, removing the need for freezing capacity. This kit is capable of tolerating temporary sub-optimal storage conditions which will ease shipping or power outage concerns, and a shelf life of >6 months was demonstrated with no deterioration in accuracy. All reagents necessary to run the YF MAC-HD are included in the kit and are single-use, with 8 or 24 sample options per kit. Field trials are envisioned for the near future, which will enable refinement of the method. The use of the YF MAC-HD is anticipated to reduce materials wastage, and improve the quality and consistency of YFV serologic testing in endemic areas. PMID:26342907

  5. OTRA-THS MAC to reduce Power Outage Data Collection Latency in a smart meter network

    SciTech Connect

    Garlapati, Shravan K; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Buehrer, Richard M; Reed, Jeffrey H

    2014-01-01

    The deployment of advanced metering infrastructure by the electric utilities poses unique communication challenges, particularly as the number of meters per aggregator increases. During a power outage, a smart meter tries to report it instantaneously to the electric utility. In a densely populated residential/industrial locality, it is possible that a large number of smart meters simultaneously try to get access to the communication network to report the power outage. If the number of smart meters is very high of the order of tens of thousands (metropolitan areas), the power outage data flooding can lead to Random Access CHannel (RACH) congestion. Several utilities are considering the use of cellular network for smart meter communications. In 3G/4G cellular networks, RACH congestion not only leads to collisions, retransmissions and increased RACH delays, but also has the potential to disrupt the dedicated traffic flow by increasing the interference levels (3G CDMA). In order to overcome this problem, in this paper we propose a Time Hierarchical Scheme (THS) that reduces the intensity of power outage data flooding and power outage reporting delay by 6/7th, and 17/18th when compared to their respective values without THS. Also, we propose an Optimum Transmission Rate Adaptive (OTRA) MAC to optimize the latency in power outage data collection. The analysis and simulation results presented in this paper show that both the OTRA and THS features of the proposed MAC results in a Power Outage Data Collection Latency (PODCL) that is 1/10th of the 4G LTE PODCL.

  6. Mac configuration management at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Allan B

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) had a need for central configuration management of non-Windows computers. LANL has three to five thousand Macs and an equal number of Linux based systems. The primary goal was to be able to inventory all non-windows systems and patch Mc OS X systems. LANL examined a number of commercial and open source solutions and ultimately selected Puppet. This paper will discuss why we chose Puppet, how we implemented it, and some lessons we learned along the way.

  7. STS-52 Payload Specialist MacLean during camera training at JSC's MAIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Canadian Payload Specialist Steven G. MacLean practices using a camera for the Earth observations portion of his scheduled October spaceflight. MacLean, standing on the aft flight deck, points a HASSELBLAD camera out overhead window W8 during the training session in JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT). The CCT is part of the shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. MacLean represents the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

  8. MacXAFS: An EXAFS analysis package for the Macintosh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouldin, C.; Furenlid, L.; Elam, T.

    1995-02-01

    We present an EXAFS analysis package that runs on the Apple Macintosh. (Certain commercial products are identified in the article for the sake of completeness. This does not constitute and endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Naval Research Laboratory, or Broohaven National Lab.) The MacXAFS package is derived from a suite of EXAFS analysis programs originally written at the University of Washington. The MacXAFS package preserves the portable computational kernel of this well-tested group of programs and adds a graphical interface by using HyperCard. Communication between the core analysis programs and the HyperCard interface is done by using ASCII script files that direct the execution of the FORTRAN-based analysis programs. The user is largely insulated from the FORTRAN code, but instead interacts with the more intuitive Hypercard interface. This implementation preserves the portability of the ANSI FORTRAN programs, while taking full advantage of the platform-specific user interface features of the Macintosh. Computationally intensive programs, such as the ab initio XAFS calculation program FEFF can be executed remotely via a TCP/IP connection. Due to the clean separation of the interface and the computational kernel, this package is readily extensible by writing new programs, in FORTRAN or any other language, and adding the corresponding interface element in the HyperCard stack.

  9. OsteoMacs: Key players around bone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Miron, Richard J; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2016-03-01

    Osteal macrophages (OsteoMacs) are a special subtype of macrophage residing in bony tissues. Interesting findings from basic research have pointed to their vast and substantial roles in bone biology by demonstrating their key function in bone formation and remodeling. Despite these essential findings, much less information is available concerning their response to a variety of biomaterials used for bone regeneration with the majority of investigation primarily focused on their role during the foreign body reaction. With respect to biomaterials, it is well known that cells derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage are one of the first cell types in contact with implanted biomaterials. Here they demonstrate extremely plastic phenotypes with the ability to differentiate towards classical M1 or M2 macrophages, or subsequently fuse into osteoclasts or multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs). These MNGCs have previously been characterized as foreign body giant cells and associated with biomaterial rejection, however more recently their phenotypes have been implicated with wound healing and tissue regeneration by studies demonstrating their expression of key M2 markers around biomaterials. With such contrasting hypotheses, it becomes essential to better understand their roles to improve the development of osteo-compatible and osteo-promotive biomaterials. This review article expresses the necessity to further study OsteoMacs and MNGCs to understand their function in bone biomaterial tissue integration including dental/orthopedic implants and bone grafting materials.

  10. Internet Protocol-Hybrid Opto-Electronic Ring Network (IP-HORNET): A Novel Internet Protocol-Over-Wavelength Division Multiplexing (IP-Over-WDM) Multiple-Access Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    components and the W photonic receivers make the design impractical for a metro network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 2.28 Functional block diagram...data to send to a particular destination node, the corresponding TDM slots will go unused, even if another could make use of the extra bandwidth...channel makes the MAC protocol ideal for small, fixed-sized packets. However, Internetworking Protocol (IP) packets are inherently variable in size. Figure

  11. An Autonomous Self-Aware and Adaptive Fault Tolerant Routing Technique for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Sani; Lee, Jeong-A

    2015-01-01

    We propose an autonomous self-aware and adaptive fault-tolerant routing technique (ASAART) for wireless sensor networks. We address the limitations of self-healing routing (SHR) and self-selective routing (SSR) techniques for routing sensor data. We also examine the integration of autonomic self-aware and adaptive fault detection and resiliency techniques for route formation and route repair to provide resilience to errors and failures. We achieved this by using a combined continuous and slotted prioritized transmission back-off delay to obtain local and global network state information, as well as multiple random functions for attaining faster routing convergence and reliable route repair despite transient and permanent node failure rates and efficient adaptation to instantaneous network topology changes. The results of simulations based on a comparison of the ASAART with the SHR and SSR protocols for five different simulated scenarios in the presence of transient and permanent node failure rates exhibit a greater resiliency to errors and failure and better routing performance in terms of the number of successfully delivered network packets, end-to-end delay, delivered MAC layer packets, packet error rate, as well as efficient energy conservation in a highly congested, faulty, and scalable sensor network. PMID:26295236

  12. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional

  13. Self-Admitted Pretensions of Mac Users on a Predominantly PC University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Wood, Whitney L. Muhlenkamp; Firmin, Ruth L.; Wood, Jordan C.

    2010-01-01

    The present qualitative research study addressed the overall research question of college students' pretention dynamics in the context of a university setting. Thirty-five Mac users were interviewed on a university campus that exclusively supports PC machines. Mac users shared four self-admitted pretensions related to using Macintosh computers.…

  14. A Meta-Analytic Review of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Hakim, Amy; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam

    2002-01-01

    Using meta analysis, examined the predictive validity of scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (C. MacAndrew, 1965). Compared results for 161 studies with results for 63 studies using cut scores. Discusses why the use of continuous measures rather than cut scores is recommended. (SLD)

  15. Paradox applications integration ATP`s for MAC and mass balance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.; Mullaney, J.E.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system were set up to run under one common applications program. This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness. The scope of the tests is minimal, since both MAC and MBA have already been tested in detail as stand-alone programs.

  16. Morphological evaluation of sperm from infertile men selected by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS).

    PubMed

    Curti, Gianni; Skowronek, Fernanda; Vernochi, Rita; Rodriguez-Buzzi, Ana Laura; Rodriguez-Buzzi, Juan Carlos; Casanova, Gabriela; Sapiro, Rossana

    2014-12-01

    Electron microscopy analysis performed in five infertile human subjects after sperm selection by swim-up followed by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) demonstrated a decrease in the number of spermatozoa with characteristics compatible with cell death. However, no significant differences were found when the swim-up/MACS semen fraction was compared with swim-up fraction alone.

  17. High-Accuracy Compact MacCormack-Type Schemes for Computational Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, R.; Turkel, E.

    1998-01-01

    Using MacCormack-type methods, a new class of highly accurate compact MacCormack-type schemes is derived which does not require a tridiagonal matrix inversion to obtain the spatial derivatives. Two examples are shown, and results of these schemes for three linear and nonlinear CAA Benchmark Problems are presented.

  18. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Base, Tampa Bay, FL. 165.768 Section 165.768 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  19. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Base, Tampa Bay, FL. 165.768 Section 165.768 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  20. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Base, Tampa Bay, FL. 165.768 Section 165.768 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF....768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is a... title. All waters within Tampa Bay, Florida in the vicinity of MacDill Air Force Base,...

  1. 77 FR 66375 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Investment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... not change this definition. D. Section 652.10--Investment Management Farmer Mac commented that several...: Subpart A--Investment Management Sec. 652.1 Purpose. 652.5 Definitions. 652.10 Investment management. 652...; Farmer Mac Investment Management AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY:...

  2. Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105, anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered form the same area in Antartica, are characterized. Petrographic studies show that MAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan and highly aluminous (Al2O3-28 percent).

  3. MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 lunar highland meteorites - General description and consortium overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Schwarz, Carol; Score, Roberta; Mason, Brian

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 meteorites found in nearby locations in Antarctica, which are considered to be pieces of the same meteorite, are described. MAC88104/5 is an anorthositic breccia consisting of numerous small clasts in a glassy matrix. A summary list of lunar meteorites and a review of consortium research are presented.

  4. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAC organisms are able to grow, persist, and colonize in water distribution systems and may amplify in hospital hot water systems. This study examined the response of MAC organisms (M. avium, M. intracellulare, and MX) to a range of temperatures commonly associated with drinking...

  5. Environmental Assessment for Construction/Replacement Military Family Housing- Phase 5 MacDill AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    CONTACTED Kevin Gokeman 6 CES/CEC 2610 Pink Flamingo Avenue MacDill AFB, FL 33621 1-813-828-8681 Steve Boyd 6 CES/CEPP 2610 Pink Flamingo ... Flamingo Avenue MacDill AFB, FL 33621 1-813-828-8685 DECEMBER 2003 FINAL 5-1 List of Preparers Environmental Assessment for

  6. [Materials for the substantiation of the biological MAC of benzene].

    PubMed

    Ulanova, I P; Avilova, G G; Karpukhina, E A; Karimova, L K; Boĭko, V I; Makar'eva, L M

    1990-09-01

    Relatively great amount of benzene-originated phenol, the presence of a definite relationship between phenol amount in the urine and benzene content in the air indicate that it is reasonable to use a phenol sample as an exposure test. To determine the intensity of benzene exposure, data on phenol content in the urine of people working at some big-tonnage enterprises has been analyzed. On the basis of the national and foreign literature data on the correlation between the phenol urine concentration and the level of benzene exposure a regression equation was deduced, which has made it possible to calculate phenol content in the urine on the level of average working day benzene concentration adopted in the USSR. This value equals 15 mg/l, which was proposed as a biological benzene MAC.

  7. Interference Analysis Status and Plans for Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Interference issues related to the operation of an aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) in the C-Band (specifically 5091-5150 MHz) is being investigated. The issue of primary interest is co-channel interference from AeroMACS into mobile-satellite system (MSS) feeder uplinks. The effort is focusing on establishing practical limits on AeroMACS transmissions from airports so that the threshold of interference into MSS is not exceeded. The analyses are being performed with the software package Visualyse Professional, developed by Transfinite Systems Limited. Results with omni-directional antennas and plans to extend the models to represent AeroMACS more accurately will be presented. These models should enable realistic analyses of emerging AeroMACS designs to be developed from NASA Test Bed, RTCA 223, and European results.

  8. MicMac GIS application: free open source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, L.; Moutinho, O.; Teodoro, A.

    2016-10-01

    The use of Remotely Piloted Aerial System (RPAS) for remote sensing applications is becoming more frequent as the technologies on on-board cameras and the platform itself are becoming a serious contender to satellite and airplane imagery. MicMac is a photogrammetric tool for image matching that can be used in different contexts. It is an open source software and it can be used as a command line or with a graphic interface (for each command). The main objective of this work was the integration of MicMac with QGIS, which is also an open source software, in order to create a new open source tool applied to photogrammetry/remote sensing. Python language was used to develop the application. This tool would be very useful in the manipulation and 3D modelling of a set of images. The main objective was to create a toolbar in QGIS with the basic functionalities with intuitive graphic interfaces. The toolbar is composed by three buttons: produce the points cloud, create the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and produce the orthophoto of the study area. The application was tested considering 35 photos, a subset of images acquired by a RPAS in the Aguda beach area, Porto, Portugal. They were used in order to create a 3D terrain model and from this model obtain an orthophoto and the corresponding DEM. The code is open and can be modified according to the user requirements. This integration would be very useful in photogrammetry and remote sensing community combined with GIS capabilities.

  9. Adaptive management of energy consumption, reliability and delay of wireless sensor node: Application to IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor node

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Designing a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to achieve a high Quality of Service (QoS) (network performance and durability) is a challenging problem. We address it by focusing on the performance of the 802.15.4 communication protocol because the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard is actually considered as one of the reference technologies in WSNs. In this paper, we propose to control the sustainable use of resources (i.e., energy consumption, reliability and timely packet transmission) of a wireless sensor node equipped with photovoltaic cells by an adaptive tuning not only of the MAC (Medium Access Control) parameters but also of the sampling frequency of the node. To do this, we use one of the existing control approaches, namely the viability theory, which aims to preserve the functions and the controls of a dynamic system in a set of desirable states. So, an analytical model, describing the evolution over time of nodal resources, is derived and used by a viability algorithm for the adaptive tuning of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol. The simulation analysis shows that our solution allows ensuring indefinitely, in the absence of hardware failure, the operations (lifetime duration, reliability and timely packet transmission) of an 802.15.4 WSN and one can temporarily increase the sampling frequency of the node beyond the regular sampling one. This latter brings advantages for agricultural and environmental applications such as precision agriculture, flood or fire prevention. Main results show that our current approach enable to send more information when critical events occur without the node runs out of energy. Finally, we argue that our approach is generic and can be applied to other types of WSN. PMID:28235097

  10. Adaptive management of energy consumption, reliability and delay of wireless sensor node: Application to IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor node.

    PubMed

    Kone, Cheick Tidjane; Mathias, Jean-Denis; De Sousa, Gil

    2017-01-01

    Designing a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) to achieve a high Quality of Service (QoS) (network performance and durability) is a challenging problem. We address it by focusing on the performance of the 802.15.4 communication protocol because the IEEE 802.15.4 Standard is actually considered as one of the reference technologies in WSNs. In this paper, we propose to control the sustainable use of resources (i.e., energy consumption, reliability and timely packet transmission) of a wireless sensor node equipped with photovoltaic cells by an adaptive tuning not only of the MAC (Medium Access Control) parameters but also of the sampling frequency of the node. To do this, we use one of the existing control approaches, namely the viability theory, which aims to preserve the functions and the controls of a dynamic system in a set of desirable states. So, an analytical model, describing the evolution over time of nodal resources, is derived and used by a viability algorithm for the adaptive tuning of the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol. The simulation analysis shows that our solution allows ensuring indefinitely, in the absence of hardware failure, the operations (lifetime duration, reliability and timely packet transmission) of an 802.15.4 WSN and one can temporarily increase the sampling frequency of the node beyond the regular sampling one. This latter brings advantages for agricultural and environmental applications such as precision agriculture, flood or fire prevention. Main results show that our current approach enable to send more information when critical events occur without the node runs out of energy. Finally, we argue that our approach is generic and can be applied to other types of WSN.

  11. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.635 Section 334.635 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area... section shall be enforced by the Commander, MacDill Air Force Base, Florida, and/or such persons...

  12. Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the course of evolution, fungi have adapted to occupy specific niches, from symbiotically inhabiting the flora of the intestinal tract of mammals to saprophytic growth on leaf litter resting on the forest floor. In plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field ...

  13. Alternative parallel ring protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Kale, V.

    1990-01-01

    Communication protocols are know to influence the utilization and performance of communication network. The effect of two token ring protocols on a gigabit network with multiple ring structure is investigated. In the first protocol, a mode sends at most one message on receiving a token. In the second protocol, a mode sends all the waiting messages when a token is received. The behavior of these protocols is shown to be highly dependent on the number of rings as well as the load in the network.

  14. A tale of two mitochondrial channels, MAC and PTP, in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kinnally, Kathleen W; Antonsson, Bruno

    2007-05-01

    The crucial step in the intrinsic, or mitochondrial, apoptotic pathway is permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Permeabilization triggers release of apoptogenic factors, such as cytochrome c, from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol where these factors ensure propagation of the apoptotic cascade and execution of cell death. However, the mechanism(s) underlying permeabilization of the outer membrane remain controversial. Two mechanisms, involving opening of two different mitochondrial channels, have been proposed to be responsible for the permeabilization; the permeability transition pore (PTP) in the inner membrane and the mitochondrial apoptosis-induced channel (MAC) in the outer membrane. Opening of PTP would lead to matrix swelling, subsequent rupture of the outer membrane, and an unspecific release of intermembrane proteins into the cytosol. However, many believe PTP opening is a consequence of apoptosis and this channel is thought to principally play a role in necrosis, not apoptosis. Activation of MAC is exquisitely regulated by Bcl-2 family proteins, which are the sentinels of apoptosis. MAC provides specific pores in the outer membrane for the passage of intermembrane proteins, in particular cytochrome c, to the cytosol. The electrophysiological characteristics of MAC are very similar to Bax channels and depletion of Bax significantly diminishes MAC activity, suggesting that Bax is an essential constituent of MAC in some systems. The characteristics of various mitochondrial channels and Bax are compared. The involvement of MAC and PTP activities in apoptosis of disease and their pharmacology are discussed.

  15. LFA-1 is sufficient in mediating neutrophil emigration in Mac-1-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, H; Smith, C W; Perrard, J; Bullard, D; Tang, L; Shappell, S B; Entman, M L; Beaudet, A L; Ballantyne, C M

    1997-01-01

    To better define the specific function of Mac-1 (CD11b) versus LFA-1 (CD11a) and the other CD11 integrins in vivo, we have disrupted murine CD11b by targeted homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and generated mice which are homozygous for a mutation in CD11b. A null mutation was confirmed by Southern blotting, RNase protection assay, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Neutrophils isolated from mice deficient in Mac-1 were defective in adherence to keyhole limpet hemocyanin-coated glass, iC3b-mediated phagocytosis, and homotypic aggregation. When challenged by thioglycollate intraperitoneally, Mac-1-deficient mice had similar levels of neutrophil accumulation in the peritoneal cavity at 1, 2, and 4 h. Treatment with mAb to LFA-1 blocked 78% of neutrophil accumulation in Mac-1-deficient mice and 58% in wild-type mice. Neutrophil emigration into the peritoneal cavity 16 h after the implantation of fibrinogen-coated disks was not reduced in Mac-1-deficient mice whereas neutrophil adhesion to the fibrinogen-coated disks was reduced by > 90%. Neutrophils from Mac-1-deficient mice also showed reduced degranulation. Our results demonstrate that Mac-1 plays a critical role in mediating binding of neutrophils to fibrinogen and neutrophil degranulation, but is not necessary for effective neutrophil emigration, which is more dependent upon LFA-1. PMID:9077544

  16. Localization of the membrane attack complex (MAC) in experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    The role of the membrane attack complex (MAC) as a mediator of renal tissue injury was evaluated in rats affected by bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced immune complex glomerulonephritis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed concurrent deposits of IgG, BSA, C3, and the MAC along glomerular capillary walls, although the MAC manifested a more restricted distribution than that observed for immune complexes. Immunoelectron microscopic techniques were utilized to demonstrate immune complexes, C3, and the MAC within dense deposits in the subepithelial aspect of the basement membrane. Visceral epithelial foot processes were fused in areas overlying large dense deposits and exhibited intense staining for the MAC, lesser reactivity for C3 but IgG was absent from the foot process membranes. Smaller granular deposits of immune complexes, C3, and the MAC were observed in the subendothelial region of the lamina rara interna and the lamina densa. Immune complexes may activate the classical complement pathway causing diffuse injury to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), allowing subepithelial accumulation of complexes. These observations implicate the MAC as a mediator of GBM and juxtaposed podocyte membrane injury, thereby contributing to disruption of the glomerular filtration barrier. IgG and C3 were demonstrated within tubulointerstitial regions on the surface of collagen fibers in close proximity to the tubular basement membrane (TBM) of proximal convoluted tubules. Within the TBM, C3 localization was prominent with diminished reactivity for the MAC, but IgG was not detectable. The demonstration of C3 and scant MAC deposits in the TBM of nonimmunized control rats without evidence of interstitial IgG and C3 deposits suggests that both nonimmune and immune processes play a role in the pathogenesis of extraglomerular lesions. Evidence derived from these morphologic studies indicates that the MAC is associated with injury to the GBM, foot process membranes of visceral

  17. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Pyke, David A.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Wills, Skye A.; Brown, Joel R.; Karl, Jason W.; Havstad, Kris M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management (Holling 1973; Walters and Holling 1990). Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adaptation of management until desired results are achieved (Brown and MacLeod 1996; Savory and Butterfield 1999). However, adaptive management is often criticized because very few projects ever complete more than one cycle, resulting in little adaptation and little knowledge gain (Lee 1999; Walters 2007). One significant criticism is that adaptive management is often used as a justification for undertaking actions with uncertain outcomes or as a surrogate for the development of specific, measurable indicators and monitoring programs (Lee 1999; Ruhl 2007).

  18. MAC to VAX Connectivity: Heartrate Spectral Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Hasan H.; Faruque, Monazer

    1993-01-01

    The heart rate Spectral Analysis System (SAS) acquires and analyzes, in real-time, the Space Shuttle onboard electrocardiograph (EKG) experiment signals, calculates the heartrate, and applies a Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) to the heart rate. The system also calculates other statistical parameters such as the 'mean heart rate' over specific time period and heart rate histogram. This SAS is used by NASA Principal Investigators as a research tool to determine the effects of weightlessness on the human cardiovascular system. This is also used to determine if Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) is an effective countermeasure to the orthostatic intolerance experienced by astronauts upon return to normal gravity. In microgravity, astronauts perform the LBNP experiment in the mid deck of the Space Shuttle. The experiment data are downlinked by the orbiter telemetry system, then processed and analyzed in real-time by the integrated Life Sciences Data Acquisition (LSDS) - Spectral Analysis System. The data system is integrated within the framework of two different computer systems, VAX and Macintosh (Mac), using the networking infrastructure to assist the investigators in further understanding the most complex machine on Earth--the human body.

  19. Sandbox for Mac Malware v 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Walkup, Elizabeth

    2016-05-19

    This software is an analyzer for automated sandbox analysis of malware on the OS X operating system. It runs inside an OS X virtual machine to collect data about what happens when a given file is opened or run. As of August 2014, there was no sandbox software for Mac OS X malware, as it requires different methods from those used on the Windows OS (which most sandboxes are written for). This software adds OS X analysis capabilities to an existing open-source sandbox, Cuckoo Sandbox (http://cuckoosandbox.org/), which previously only worked for Windows. The analyzer itself can take many different types of files as input: the traditional Mach-O and FAT executables, .app files, zip files, Python scripts, Java archives, and web pages, as well as PDFs and other documents. While the file is running, the analyzer also simulates rudimentary human interaction with clicks and mouse movements in order to bypass the tests some malware use to see if they are being analyzed. The analyzer outputs several different kinds of data: function call traces, network captures, screenshots, and all created and modified files. This work also includes a static analysis Cuckoo module for Mach-O binary files. It extracts file structures, code library imports and exports, and signatures. This data can be used along with the analyzer results to create signatures for malware.

  20. Modified pterional craniotomy without "MacCarty keyhole".

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Samuel; Mizrahi, Cezar José; Margolin, Emil; Spektor, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    Pterional craniotomy is one of the most widely used approaches in neurosurgery. The MacCarty keyhole has remained the preferred means of beginning the craniotomy to achieve a low access point; however, the bone opening may result in a residual defect and an aesthetically unpleasant depression in the periorbital area. We present our modification of the traditional technique. Instead of drilling the keyhole in the frontoperiorbital area, the classical location, we perform a 5 × 15 mm strip craniectomy at the lowest accessible point in the infratemporal fossa, corresponding to the projection of the most lateral point of the sphenoid ridge. The anterior half of this opening exposes the basal frontal dura, while the posterior half brings the temporal dura into view. This modified technique was applied in 48 pterional craniotomies performed for removal of a variety of neoplasms during 2014-2015. There were no approach-related complications. Aesthetic outcomes and patient acceptance have been good; no patient developed skin depression in the periorbital area. In our experience, craniotomy for a pterional approach with the lowest possible access to the frontotemporal skull base may be performed by drilling a narrow oblong opening, without the use of any keyhole or burr hole, to create a smaller skull defect and achieve optimal aesthetic outcomes.

  1. CT protocol management: simplifying the process by using a master protocol concept.

    PubMed

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Bour, Robert K; Rubert, Nicholas; Wendt, Gary; Pozniak, Myron; Ranallo, Frank N

    2015-07-08

    This article explains a method for creating CT protocols for a wide range of patient body sizes and clinical indications, using detailed tube current information from a small set of commonly used protocols. Analytical expressions were created relating CT technical acquisition parameters which can be used to create new CT protocols on a given scanner or customize protocols from one scanner to another. Plots of mA as a function of patient size for specific anatomical regions were generated and used to identify the tube output needs for patients as a function of size for a single master protocol. Tube output data were obtained from the DICOM header of clinical images from our PACS and patient size was measured from CT localizer radiographs under IRB approval. This master protocol was then used to create 11 additional master protocols. The 12 master protocols were further combined to create 39 single and multiphase clinical protocols. Radiologist acceptance rate of exams scanned using the clinical protocols was monitored for 12,857 patients to analyze the effectiveness of the presented protocol management methods using a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. A single routine adult abdominal protocol was used as the master protocol to create 11 additional master abdominal protocols of varying dose and beam energy. Situations in which the maximum tube current would have been exceeded are presented, and the trade-offs between increasing the effective tube output via 1) decreasing pitch, 2) increasing the scan time, or 3) increasing the kV are discussed. Out of 12 master protocols customized across three different scanners, only one had a statistically significant acceptance rate that differed from the scanner it was customized from. The difference, however, was only 1% and was judged to be negligible. All other master protocols differed in acceptance rate insignificantly between scanners. The methodology described in this paper allows a small set of master protocols to be

  2. CT protocol management: simplifying the process by using a master protocol concept.

    PubMed

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Bour, Robert K; Rubert, Nicholas; Wendt, Gary; Pozniak, Myron; Ranallo, Frank N

    2015-07-01

    This article explains a method for creating CT protocols for a wide range of patient body sizes and clinical indications, using detailed tube current information from a small set of commonly used protocols. Analytical expressions were created relating CT technical acquisition parameters which can be used to create new CT protocols on a given scanner or customize protocols from one scanner to another. Plots of mA as a function of patient size for specific anatomical regions were generated and used to identify the tube output needs for patients as a function of size for a single master protocol. Tube output data were obtained from the DICOM header of clinical images from our PACS and patient size was measured from CT localizer radiographs under IRB approval. This master protocol was then used to create 11 additional master protocols. The 12 master protocols were further combined to create 39 single and multiphase clinical protocols. Radiologist acceptance rate of exams scanned using the clinical protocols was monitored for 12,857 patients to analyze the effectiveness of the presented protocol management methods using a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. A single routine adult abdominal protocol was used as the master protocol to create 11 additional master abdominal protocols of varying dose and beam energy. Situations in which the maximum tube current would have been exceeded are presented, and the trade-offs between increasing the effective tube output via 1) decreasing pitch, 2) increasing the scan time, or 3) increasing the kV are discussed. Out of 12 master protocols customized across three different scanners, only one had a statistically significant acceptance rate that differed from the scanner it was customized from. The difference, however, was only 1% and was judged to be negligible. All other master protocols differed in acceptance rate insignificantly between scanners. The methodology described in this paper allows a small set of master protocols to be

  3. Internet Protocol Implementation Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    Communications Netwv ’rks Reference: (a) USDR&E Memo, lHost-to-Host Protocols for Data Communications Networks," 23 Dec 78 (b) DoD Standard Transmission Control...memorandum is to clarify DOD policy concerning standardization of host-to-host protocols for data communications networks. 2. Tho policy cited in reference...function is intendel Lu paoe inrdased emphasis and Initiative on the Important and currently volatile technology of data communications protocol

  4. BIG MAC: A bolometer array for mid-infrared astronomy, Center Director's Discretionary Fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesco, C. M.; Decher, R.; Baugher, C.

    1985-01-01

    The infrared array referred to as Big Mac (for Marshall Array Camera), was designed for ground based astronomical observations in the wavelength range 5 to 35 microns. It contains 20 discrete gallium-doped germanium bolometer detectors at a temperature of 1.4K. Each bolometer is irradiated by a square field mirror constituting a single pixel of the array. The mirrors are arranged contiguously in four columns and five rows, thus defining the array configuration. Big Mac utilized cold reimaging optics and an up looking dewar. The total Big Mac system also contains a telescope interface tube for mounting the dewar and a computer for data acquisition and processing. Initial astronomical observations at a major infrared observatory indicate that Big Mac performance is excellent, having achieved the design specifications and making this instrument an outstanding tool for astrophysics.

  5. Austin MacCormick and the Education of Adult Prisoners: Still Relevant Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsinger, Isabel

    1997-01-01

    Austin MacCormick's 1931 model for correctional education is applicable in today's prisons. It describes the program, facilities, teaching staff, and curriculum, which includes literacy, math, social sciences, health, vocational, social, and cultural education. (SK)

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 3, 1934, DETAIL OF CORNICE (SOUTH ELEVATION). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

  7. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, 1934, DETAIL OF MANTEL (PARLOR -- SOUTH WALL). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

  8. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, 1934, DETAIL OF STAIR (1st STORY -- REAR HALL). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

  9. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 23, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 23, 1934, DETAIL OF MANTEL (LIVING ROOM -- WEST WALL). - Edwin Forrest House, 436 West Twenty-second Street, New York County, NY

  10. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 23, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 23, 1934, DETAIL OF DOORWAY (LIVING ROOM -- NORTH WALL). - Edwin Forrest House, 436 West Twenty-second Street, New York County, NY

  11. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 10, 1934, DETAIL OF PORTICO (FROM SOUTHWEST). - Old Leake & Watts Orphanage, Amsterdam Avenue & 110th Street, New York County, NY

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (FRONT). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

  13. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 DETAIL OF STAIR (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

  14. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 DETAIL OF STAIR, DOOR AND COLUMNS (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

  15. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 INSIDE STAIR (LOOKING SOUTH). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

  16. John MacCulloch, MD (1773-1835): a dedicated geologist.

    PubMed

    Hull, Gillian

    2007-11-01

    The teaching in Scottish medical schools in the second half of the 18th century had a reputation that stretched far beyond Britain. Edinburgh attracted students not only for its high academic standards but also for its freedom from religious constraints and its developing interest in the sciences. John MacCulloch was taught at Edinburgh by Joseph Black (1728-99) who had chosen chemistry as a career rather than medicine. Already MacCulloch's enquiring mind ranged over many subjects.

  17. The Macolumn - the Mac gets geophysical. [A review of geophysical software for the Apple Macintosh computer

    SciTech Connect

    Busbey, A.B. )

    1990-02-01

    Seismic Processing Workshop, a program by Parallel Geosciences of Austin, TX, is discussed in this column. The program is a high-speed, interactive seismic processing and computer analysis system for the Apple Macintosh II family of computers. Also reviewed in this column are three products from Wilkerson Associates of Champaign, IL. SubSide is an interactive program for basin subsidence analysis; MacFault and MacThrustRamp are programs for modeling faults.

  18. Evaluation of a High-Accuracy MacCormack-Type Scheme Using Benchmark Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, R.

    1997-01-01

    Due to their inherent dissipation and stability, the MacCormack scheme and its variants have been widely used in the computation of unsteady flow and acoustic problems. However, these schemes require many points per wavelength in order to propagate waves with a reasonable amount of accuracy. In this work, the linear wave propagation characteristics of MacCormack-type schemes are shown by solving several of the CAA Benchmark Problems.

  19. The Operational Leadership of General Douglas MacArthur in OPERATION CHROMITE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. The Operational Leadership of General Douglas MacArthur in OPERATION CHROMITE by Judie A. Heineman Commander, United...Operations. The contents of this paper reflect my own personal views and are not necessarily endorsed by the Naval War College or the Department of...MacArthur in Operation Chromite 9. Personal Author: Judie Ann Heineman, Commander, United States Navy 10.Type of Report: FINAL 11. Date of Report: 13

  20. Delayed wound healing in Mac-1-deficient mice is associated with normal monocyte recruitment.

    PubMed

    Sisco, Mark; Chao, Jerome D; Kim, Injoong; Mogford, Jon E; Mayadas, Tanya N; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    The Mac-1 integrin is an important mediator of migration and inflammatory activation of neutrophils and monocytes. However, the role of Mac-1 in modulating macrophage emigration and activation and its subsequent impact on cutaneous wound healing have not been fully elucidated. To examine the significance of Mac-1 to murine wound healing, we measured epithelialization and granulation tissue formation in partial-thickness ear wounds and full-thickness head wounds, respectively, in Mac-1-deficient mice. Wounds were histologically analyzed at postwounding days 3, 5, and 7. The gap measured between the leading edges of inward-migrating granulation tissue was significantly increased in knockout mice compared with control animals at day 5 (3.8+/-0.3 vs. 2.6+/-0.5 mm; p<0.001) and day 7 (2.2+/-0.4 vs. 0.96+/-0.73 mm; p=0.005). Epithelial gap measurements were also increased in knockout mice vs. wild-type controls at days 3 (0.62+/-0.02 vs. 0.54+/-0.07 mm; p<0.05) and 5 (0.58+/-0.06 vs. 0.39+/-0.08 mm; p<0.001). Immunohistochemistry showed equal numbers of macrophages in knockout and control wounds. These findings show that Mac-1 is required for normal wound healing but that the attenuation in the deposition of granulation tissue and wound epithelialization in Mac-1 knockout mice is not associated with decreased monocyte migration into the wound.

  1. Considerations for Improving the Capacity and Performance of AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has progressed from concept through prototype development, testing, and standards development and is now poised for the first operational deployments at nine US airports by the Federal Aviation Administration. These initial deployments will support fixed applications. Mobile applications providing connectivity to and from aircraft and ground-based vehicles on the airport surface will occur at some point in the future. Given that many fixed applications are possible for AeroMACS, it is necessary to now consider whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS will be reached even before the mobile applications are ready to be added, since AeroMACS is constrained by both available bandwidth and transmit power limitations. This paper describes some concepts that may be applied to improve the future capacity of AeroMACS, with a particular emphasis on gains that can be derived from the addition of IEEE 802.16j multihop relays to the AeroMACS standard, where a significant analysis effort has been undertaken.

  2. Functional implications of an intermeshing cogwheel-like interaction between TolC and MacA in the action of macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongbin; Song, Saemee; Moeller, Arne; Kim, Nahee; Piao, Shunfu; Sim, Se-Hoon; Kang, Mooseok; Yu, Wookyung; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Kangseok; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2011-04-15

    Macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC has been identified in diverse gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli. The inner membrane transporter MacB requires the outer membrane factor TolC and the periplasmic adaptor protein MacA to form a functional tripartite complex. In this study, we used a chimeric protein containing the tip region of the TolC α-barrel to investigate the role of the TolC α-barrel tip region with regard to its interaction with MacA. The chimeric protein formed a stable complex with MacA, and the complex formation was abolished by substitution at the functionally essential residues located at the MacA α-helical tip region. Electron microscopic study delineated that this complex was made by tip-to-tip interaction between the tip regions of the α-barrels of TolC and MacA, which correlated well with the TolC and MacA complex calculated by molecular dynamics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the MacA hexamer interacts with TolC in a tip-to-tip manner, and implies the manner by which MacA induces opening of the TolC channel.

  3. National Sample Assessment Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    These protocols represent a working guide for planning and implementing national sample assessments in connection with the national Key Performance Measures (KPMs). The protocols are intended for agencies involved in planning or conducting national sample assessments and personnel responsible for administering associated tenders or contracts,…

  4. Montreal protocol: Business opportunites

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed by 24 countries in 1987, establishing measures for controlling the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This publication begins with some background information on ozone depletion and the history of the Protocol. It then describes aspects of the Protocol`s Multilateral Fund, created to assist developing countries to meet Protocol deadlines: Its administration, structure, and how projects are initiated. Names, addresses, and phone/fax numbers of Fund contacts are provided. Canadian projects under the Fund are then reviewed and opportunities for Canadian environmental companies are noted. Finally, information sheets are presented which summarize Fund-related Canadian bilateral projects undertaken to date.

  5. Reliable broadcast protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, T. A.; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    A number of broadcast protocols that are reliable subject to a variety of ordering and delivery guarantees are considered. Developing applications that are distributed over a number of sites and/or must tolerate the failures of some of them becomes a considerably simpler task when such protocols are available for communication. Without such protocols the kinds of distributed applications that can reasonably be built will have a very limited scope. As the trend towards distribution and decentralization continues, it will not be surprising if reliable broadcast protocols have the same role in distributed operating systems of the future that message passing mechanisms have in the operating systems of today. On the other hand, the problems of engineering such a system remain large. For example, deciding which protocol is the most appropriate to use in a certain situation or how to balance the latency-communication-storage costs is not an easy question.

  6. Automated manufacturing of chimeric antigen receptor T cells for adoptive immunotherapy using CliniMACS prodigy.

    PubMed

    Mock, Ulrike; Nickolay, Lauren; Philip, Brian; Cheung, Gordon Weng-Kit; Zhan, Hong; Johnston, Ian C D; Kaiser, Andrew D; Peggs, Karl; Pule, Martin; Thrasher, Adrian J; Qasim, Waseem

    2016-08-01

    Novel cell therapies derived from human T lymphocytes are exhibiting enormous potential in early-phase clinical trials in patients with hematologic malignancies. Ex vivo modification of T cells is currently limited to a small number of centers with the required infrastructure and expertise. The process requires isolation, activation, transduction, expansion and cryopreservation steps. To simplify procedures and widen applicability for clinical therapies, automation of these procedures is being developed. The CliniMACS Prodigy (Miltenyi Biotec) has recently been adapted for lentiviral transduction of T cells and here we analyse the feasibility of a clinically compliant T-cell engineering process for the manufacture of T cells encoding chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) for CD19 (CAR19), a widely targeted antigen in B-cell malignancies. Using a closed, single-use tubing set we processed mononuclear cells from fresh or frozen leukapheresis harvests collected from healthy volunteer donors. Cells were phenotyped and subjected to automated processing and activation using TransAct, a polymeric nanomatrix activation reagent incorporating CD3/CD28-specific antibodies. Cells were then transduced and expanded in the CentriCult-Unit of the tubing set, under stabilized culture conditions with automated feeding and media exchange. The process was continuously monitored to determine kinetics of expansion, transduction efficiency and phenotype of the engineered cells in comparison with small-scale transductions run in parallel. We found that transduction efficiencies, phenotype and function of CAR19 T cells were comparable with existing procedures and overall T-cell yields sufficient for anticipated therapeutic dosing. The automation of closed-system T-cell engineering should improve dissemination of emerging immunotherapies and greatly widen applicability.

  7. ZEA-TDMA: design and system level implementation of a TDMA protocol for anonymous wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Debasmit; Dong, Bo; Biswas, Subir

    2013-05-01

    Wireless sensor network used in military applications may be deployed in hostile environments, where privacy and security is of primary concern. This can lead to the formation of a trust-based sub-network among mutually-trusting nodes. However, designing a TDMA MAC protocol is very challenging in situations where such multiple sub-networks coexist, since TDMA protocols require node identity information for slot assignments. This paper introduces a novel distributed TDMA MAC protocol, ZEA-TDMA (Zero Exposure Anonymous TDMA), for anonymous wireless networks. ZEA-TDMA achieves slot allocation with strict anonymity constraints, i.e. without nodes having to exchange any identity revealing information. By using just the relative time of arrival of packets and a novel technique of wireless collision-detection and resolution for fixed packetsizes, ZEA-TDMA is able to achieve MAC slot-allocation which is described as follows. Initially, a newly joined node listens to its one-hop neighborhood channel usage and creates a slot allocation table based on its own relative time, and finally, selects a slot that is collision free within its one-hop neighborhood. The selected slot can however cause hidden collisions with a two-hop neighbor of the node. These collisions are resolved by a common neighbor of the colliding nodes, which first detects the collision, and then resolve them using an interrupt packet. ZEA-TDMA provides the following features: a) it is a TDMA protocol ideally suited for highly secure or strictly anonymous environments b) it can be used in heterogeneous environments where devices use different packet structures c) it does not require network time-synchronization, and d) it is insensitive to channel errors. We have implemented ZEA-TDMA on the MICA2 hardware platform running TinyOS and evaluated the protocol functionality and performance on a MICA2 test-bed.

  8. Identification of a copper-induced intramolecular interaction in the transcription factor Mac1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, L T; Winge, D R

    1998-01-01

    Mac1 mediates copper (Cu)-dependent expression of genes involved in high-affinity uptake of copper ions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mac1 is a transcriptional activator in Cu-deficient cells, but is inhibited in Cu-replete cells. Mac1 resides within the nucleus in both Cu-deficient and Cu-loaded cells. Cu inhibition of Mac1 appears to result from binding of eight copper ions within a C-terminal segment consisting of two Cys-rich motifs. In addition, two zinc ions are bound within the N-terminal DNA-binding domain. Only 4-5 mol. eq. Cu are bound to a mutant Mac1 (His279Gln substitution) that is impervious to Cu inhibition. The CuMac1 complex is luminescent, indicative of copper bound in the Cu(I) state. Cu binding induces a molecular switch resulting in an intramolecular interaction in Mac1 between the N-terminal DNA-binding domain and the C-terminal activation domain. This allosteric interaction is Cu dependent and is not observed when Mac1 contained the mutant His279Gln substitution. Fusion of the minimal DNA-binding domain of Mac1 (residues 1-159) to the minimal Cu-binding activation domain (residues 252-341) yields a functional Cu-regulated transcriptional activator. These results suggest that Cu repression of Mac1 arises from a Cu-induced intramolecular interaction that inhibits both DNA binding and transactivation activities. PMID:9736617

  9. Evaluation and Adaptation of a Laboratory-Based cDNA Library Preparation Protocol for Retrospective Sequencing of Archived MicroRNAs from up to 35-Year-Old Clinical FFPE Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Loudig, Olivier; Wang, Tao; Ye, Kenny; Lin, Juan; Wang, Yihong; Ramnauth, Andrew; Liu, Christina; Stark, Azadeh; Chitale, Dhananjay; Greenlee, Robert; Multerer, Deborah; Honda, Stacey; Daida, Yihe; Spencer Feigelson, Heather; Glass, Andrew; Couch, Fergus J.; Rohan, Thomas; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z.

    2017-01-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, when used in conjunction with patient clinical data history, represent an invaluable resource for molecular studies of cancer. Even though nucleic acids extracted from archived FFPE tissues are degraded, their molecular analysis has become possible. In this study, we optimized a laboratory-based next-generation sequencing barcoded cDNA library preparation protocol for analysis of small RNAs recovered from archived FFPE tissues. Using matched fresh and FFPE specimens, we evaluated the robustness and reproducibility of our optimized approach, as well as its applicability to archived clinical specimens stored for up to 35 years. We then evaluated this cDNA library preparation protocol by performing a miRNA expression analysis of archived breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) specimens, selected for their relation to the risk of subsequent breast cancer development and obtained from six different institutions. Our analyses identified six miRNAs (miR-29a, miR-221, miR-375, miR-184, miR-363, miR-455-5p) differentially expressed between DCIS lesions from women who subsequently developed an invasive breast cancer (cases) and women who did not develop invasive breast cancer within the same time interval (control). Our thorough evaluation and application of this laboratory-based miRNA sequencing analysis indicates that the preparation of small RNA cDNA libraries can reliably be performed on older, archived, clinically-classified specimens. PMID:28335433

  10. A Token Ring Protocol for Dynamic Ad-hoc Wireless Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Top, P; Kohlhepp, V; Dowla, F

    2005-09-30

    A wireless ad-hoc networking protocol is presented. The protocol is designed to be flexible, easy to use and adaptable to a wide variety of potential applications. The primary considerations in design are small code size, guaranteed bandwidth access, limited delay, and error resilience in a highly dynamic ad-hoc environment. These considerations are achieved through the use of token ring protocol.

  11. Adaptation, Implementation Plan, and Evaluation of an Online Tobacco Cessation Training Program for Health Care Professionals in Three Spanish-Speaking Latin American Countries: Protocol of the Fruitful Study

    PubMed Central

    Company, Assumpta; Guillen, Olga; Margalef, Mercè; Arrien, Martha Alicia; Sánchez, Claudia; Cáceres de León, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Background Tobacco cessation training programs to treat tobacco dependence have measureable effects on patients’ smoking. Tobacco consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is high and slowly decreasing, but these countries usually lack measures to face the epidemic, including tobacco cessation training programs for health professionals and organizations. Based on a previous online smoking cessation training program for hospital workers in Spain, the Fruitful Study aims to increase smoking cessation knowledge, attitudes, self-confidence, and performance interventions among health care professionals of three Spanish-speaking low- and middle-income Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries. Objective The purpose of this paper is to describe the methodology and evaluation strategy of the Fruitful Study intended to adapt, implement, and test the effectiveness of an online, evidence-based tobacco cessation training program addressed to health professionals from Bolivia, Guatemala, and Paraguay. Methods This study will use a mixed-methods design with a pre-post evaluation (quantitative approach) and in-depth interviews and focus groups (qualitative approach). The main outcomes will be (1) participants’ attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors before and after the training; and (2) the level of implementation of tobacco control policies within the hospitals before and after the training. Results To date, adaptation of the materials, study enrollment, and training activities have been completed. During the adaptation, the main mismatches were language background and content adaptation. Several aids were developed to enable students’ training enrollment, including access to computers, support from technicians, and reminders to correctly complete the course. Follow-up data collection is in progress. We have enrolled 281 hospital workers. Results are expected at the beginning of 2017 and will be reported in two follow-up papers: one about the formative

  12. Characterization of the Murine Myeloid Precursor Cell Line MuMac-E8

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, Stephan; Riemschneider, Sina; Kohlschmidt, Janine; Hilger, Nadja; Fueldner, Christiane; Knauer, Jens; Sack, Ulrich; Emmrich, Frank; Lehmann, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Starting point for the present work was the assumption that the cell line MuMac-E8 represents a murine cell population with stem cell properties. Preliminary studies already pointed to the expression of stem-cell associated markers and a self-regenerative potential of the cells. The cell line MuMac-E8 should be examined for their differential stage within stem cell hierarchy. MuMac-E8 cells were derived from a chimeric mouse model of arthritis. It could be shown that MuMac-E8 cells express mRNA of some genes associated with pluripotent stem cells (Nanog, Nucleostemin), of genes for hematopoietic markers (EPCR, Sca-1, CD11b, CD45), for the mesenchymal marker CD105 and of genes for the neural markers Pax-6 and Ezrin. In methylcellulose and May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, hematopoietic colonies were obtained but the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice could not be rescued. Osteogenic differentiation was not detectable. Thus, it became evident that MuMac-E8 represents not a stem cell line. However, MuMac-E8 cells expressed several myeloid surface markers (i.e. CD11b, F4/80, CD14, CD64), showed phagocytosis and is capable of producing nitric oxide. Thus, this cell line seems to be arrested an advanced stage of myeloid differentiation. Adherence data measured by impedance-based real-time cell analysis together with cell morphology data suggested that MuMac-E8 represents a new macrophage precursor cell line exhibiting weak adherence. This cell line is suitable as an in-vitro model for testing of macrophage functions. Moreover, it might be also useful for differentiation or reprogramming studies. PMID:25546418

  13. Reliable multicast protocol specifications protocol operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This appendix contains the complete state tables for Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) Normal Operation, Multi-RPC Extensions, Membership Change Extensions, and Reformation Extensions. First the event types are presented. Afterwards, each RMP operation state, normal and extended, is presented individually and its events shown. Events in the RMP specification are one of several things: (1) arriving packets, (2) expired alarms, (3) user events, (4) exceptional conditions.

  14. Protocols — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    EDRN investigators protocols. The following is a list of the EDRN protocols that have been captured and curated. Additional information will be added as it is available. Contact information is provided as part of the detail for each protocol.

  15. Quantum deniable authentication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Min; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yu-Guang

    2014-07-01

    The proposed quantum identity authentication schemes only involved authentication between two communicators, but communications with deniability capability are often desired in electronic applications such as online negotiation and electronic voting. In this paper, we proposed a quantum deniable authentication protocol. According to the property of unitary transformation and quantum one-way function, this protocol can provide that only the specified receiver can identify the true source of a given message and the specified receiver cannot prove the source of the message to a third party by a transcript simulation algorithm. Moreover, the quantum key distribution and quantum encryption algorithm guarantee the unconditional security of this scheme. Security analysis results show that this protocol satisfies the basic security requirements of deniable authentication protocol such as completeness and deniability and can withstand the forgery attack, impersonation attack, inter-resend attack.

  16. Silicon Nanostructures Produced by Modified MacEtch Method for Antireflective Si Surface.

    PubMed

    Nichkalo, Stepan; Druzhinin, Anatoly; Evtukh, Anatoliy; Bratus', Oleg; Steblova, Olga

    2017-12-01

    This work pertains to the method for modification of silicon (Si) wafer morphology by metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) technique suitable for fabrication of antireflective Si surfaces. For this purpose, we made different Au catalyst patterns on the surface of Si substrate. This modification allowed to obtain the close-packed Au nanodrop (ND) pattern that generates the nanowires (NWs) and the well-separated Au NDs, which induce the nanopore (NP) formation. The antireflective properties of these structures in comparison with NWs produced by the conventional Ag-MacEtch method were analysed. The total surface reflectance of 1~7% for SiNWs and ~17% for SiNPs was observed over the entire Si-absorbing region. Moreover, SiNWs prepared by Au-MacEtch demonstrate better antireflective properties in contrast to those formed by conventional Ag-assisted chemical etching. So, the use of SiNWs produced by the modified Au-MacEtch method as the antireflective material is favored over those prepared by Ag-MacEtch due to their higher light absorption and lower reflectance. The possible reason of these findings is discussed.

  17. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) wildland fire perimeters, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Sandra P.; Schneider, Norma J.; Guthrie, John D.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) has been collecting and storing data on wildland fire perimeters since August 2000. The dataset presented via this U.S. Geological Survey Data Series product contains the GeoMAC wildland fire perimeter data for the calendar year 2008, which are based upon input from incident intelligence sources, Global Positioning System (GPS) data, and infrared (IR) imagery. Wildland fire perimeter data are obtained from the incidents, evaluated for completeness and accuracy, and processed to reflect consistent field names and attributes. After a quality check, the perimeters are loaded to GeoMAC databases, which support the GeoMAC Web application for access by wildland fire managers and the public. The wildland fire perimeters are viewed through the Web application. The data are subsequently archived according to year and state and are made available for downloading through the Internet in shapefile and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. These wildland fire perimeter data are also retained for historical, planning, and research purposes. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center HTTP site at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/outgoing/GeoMAC/historic_fire_data/. The links are also provided on the sidebar.

  18. Silicon Nanostructures Produced by Modified MacEtch Method for Antireflective Si Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichkalo, Stepan; Druzhinin, Anatoly; Evtukh, Anatoliy; Bratus', Oleg; Steblova, Olga

    2017-02-01

    This work pertains to the method for modification of silicon (Si) wafer morphology by metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) technique suitable for fabrication of antireflective Si surfaces. For this purpose, we made different Au catalyst patterns on the surface of Si substrate. This modification allowed to obtain the close-packed Au nanodrop (ND) pattern that generates the nanowires (NWs) and the well-separated Au NDs, which induce the nanopore (NP) formation. The antireflective properties of these structures in comparison with NWs produced by the conventional Ag-MacEtch method were analysed. The total surface reflectance of 1 7% for SiNWs and 17% for SiNPs was observed over the entire Si-absorbing region. Moreover, SiNWs prepared by Au-MacEtch demonstrate better antireflective properties in contrast to those formed by conventional Ag-assisted chemical etching. So, the use of SiNWs produced by the modified Au-MacEtch method as the antireflective material is favored over those prepared by Ag-MacEtch due to their higher light absorption and lower reflectance. The possible reason of these findings is discussed.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    SciTech Connect

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2008-05-01

    A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  20. Eliminating the Heart from the Curcumin Molecule: Monocarbonyl Curcumin Mimics (MACs)

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Dinesh; Kim, Yong Joon; Shim, Hyunsuk; Snyder, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a natural product with several thousand years of heritage. Its traditional Asian application to human ailments has been subjected in recent decades to worldwide pharmacological, biochemical and clinical investigations. Curcumin’s Achilles heel lies in its poor aqueous solubility and rapid degradation at pH ~ 7.4. Researchers have sought to unlock curcumin’s assets by chemical manipulation. One class of molecules under scrutiny are the monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs). A thousand plus such agents have been created and tested primarily against cancer and inflammation. The outcome is clear. In vitro, MACs furnish a 10–20 fold potency gain vs. curcumin for numerous cancer cell lines and cellular proteins. Similarly, MACs have successfully demonstrated better pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in mice and greater tumor regression in cancer xenografts in vivo than curcumin. The compounds reveal limited toxicity as measured by murine weight gain and histopathological assessment. To our knowledge, MAC members have not yet been monitored in larger animals or humans. However, Phase 1 clinical trials are certainly on the horizon. The present review focuses on the large and evolving body of work in cancer and inflammation, but also covers MAC structural diversity and early discovery for treatment of bacteria, tuberculosis, Alzheimer’s disease and malaria. PMID:25547726

  1. Implementation of a reference management system, MacRefer, under HyperCard.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Sato, S; Horikoshi, I

    1996-06-01

    We have developed a reference management system, MacRefer, using HyperTalk on Macintosh personal computers. Using this program, one can automatically acquire data from databases created by EndNote Plus and from OVID- or Medlar-formatted records downloaded via an online use of Medline. The MacRefer's capability of formatting bibliographic database in user-defined formats is comparable with the exemplified bibliography maker, EndNote Plus. Moreover, MacRefer has several competitive features, which are insufficiently equipped with EndNote Plus. For example, MacRefer is capable of (1) maintaining subsets within a database, (2) executing complex, structured searches combining up to nine keywords for any data field with the results and search conditions preserved, and (3) easily browsing (a portion of) reference database. Although MacRefer cannot be recognized as an absolute alternative of EndNote Plus because of several limitations inherent to HyperCard, the compensatory use of these two programs will expand the personal utilization of bibliographic databases.

  2. Halothane concentrations required to block the cardiovascular responses to incision (MAC CVR) in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Y; Dohi, S

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the halothane concentration in N2O required to block the cardiovascular responses to skin incision (MAC CVR) in infants and children. We studied 64 unpremedicated ASA 1 infants and children (one month to seven years). In each infant or child, anaesthesia was induced slowly with halothane and N2O, and an endotracheal tube was placed. The MAC CVR was assessed, after a steady state end-tidal halothane concentration had been established for ten minutes, by the "up and down technique" of Dixon. Positive responses were defined as an increase in MAP or HR > 10%. The MAC CVR50 values of halothane with 60% N2O were 1.16 +/- 0.23% at 1-6 mo, 1.17 +/- 0.18% at 7-12 mo, 0.95 +/- 0.26% at 1-3 yr, and 1.12 +/- 0.16% at 4-7 yr. The value at 1-3 years children was less than those in the other age groups (P < 0.05). The changes of MAP were correlated with changes of both HR and pupillary diameter. These results indicate that the values of MAC CVR50 of halothane in infants and children are higher than those required to block motor responses (MAC). The halothane requirement to block cardiovascular responses is lowest in the children aged one to three years.

  3. Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) significantly decreases the hybridization efficiency of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Kuo, P L; Guo, H R

    2001-05-01

    Fetal cells were enriched from maternal blood using density gradient centrifugation of Histopaque followed by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) to select CD71-positive cells. For each specimen, cells partially purified by Histopaque were split into equal portions, and each portion was subjected to purification by MACS in parallel. Cells before and after MACS were subjected to dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with X- and Y-chromosome-specific probes. We found that the hybridization rates were decreased by approximately 10% after MACS based on duplicated analysis for each sample.

  4. Detection of constitutive heterodimerization of the integrin Mac-1 subunits by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Guo; Yang Huayan; Wang Chen; Zhang Feng; You Zhendong; Wang Guiying; He Cheng; Chen Yizhang . E-mail: yzchen0928@yahoo.com; Xu Zhihan . E-mail: zzxu@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2006-08-04

    Macrophage differentiation antigen associated with complement three receptor function (Mac-1) belongs to {beta}{sub 2} subfamily of integrins that mediate important cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Biochemical studies have indicated that Mac-1 is a constitutive heterodimer in vitro. Here, we detected the heterodimerization of Mac-1 subunits in living cells by means of two fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques (fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy) and our results demonstrated that there is constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits and this constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits is cell-type independent. Through FRET imaging, we found that heterodimers of Mac-1 mainly localized in plasma membrane, perinuclear, and Golgi area in living cells. Furthermore, through analysis of the estimated physical distances between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fused to Mac-1 subunits, we suggested that the conformation of Mac-1 subunits is not affected by the fusion of CFP or YFP and inferred that Mac-1 subunits take different conformation when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, respectively.

  5. Comparing McGRATH® MAC, C-MAC®, and Macintosh Laryngoscopes Operated by Medical Students: A Randomized, Crossover, Manikin Study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Myungju; Lee, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that the McGRATH MAC would decrease the time of intubation compared to C-MAC for novices. Thirty-nine medical students who had used the Macintosh blade to intubate a manikin fewer than 3 times were recruited. The participants performed sequential intubations on the manikin in two simulated settings that included a normal airway and a difficult airway (tongue edema). The intubation time, success rate of intubation, Cormack-Lehane grade at laryngoscopy, and difficulty using the device were recorded. Each participant was asked to identify the device that was most useful. The intubation time decreased significantly and by a similar amount to the McGRATH MAC and C-MAC compared to the Macintosh blade (P < 0.001 and P = 0.017, resp.). In the difficult airway, the intubation times were similar among the three devices. The McGRATH MAC and C-MAC significantly increased the success rate of intubation, improved the Cormack-Lehane grade, and decreased the difficulty score compared to the Macintosh blade in both airway settings. The majority of participants selected the McGRATH MAC as the most useful device. The McGRATH MAC and C-MAC may offer similar benefits for intubation compared to the Macintosh blade in normal and difficult airway situations. PMID:27703983

  6. Computer-assisted machine-to-human protocols for authentication of a RAM-based embedded system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrissa, Abdourhamane; Aubert, Alain; Fournel, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    Mobile readers used for optical identification of manufactured products can be tampered in different ways: with hardware Trojan or by powering up with fake configuration data. How a human verifier can authenticate the reader to be handled for goods verification? In this paper, two cryptographic protocols are proposed to achieve the verification of a RAM-based system through a trusted auxiliary machine. Such a system is assumed to be composed of a RAM memory and a secure block (in practice a FPGA or a configurable microcontroller). The system is connected to an input/output interface and contains a Non Volatile Memory where the configuration data are stored. Here, except the secure block, all the blocks are exposed to attacks. At the registration stage of the first protocol, the MAC of both the secret and the configuration data, denoted M0 is computed by the mobile device without saving it then transmitted to the user in a secure environment. At the verification stage, the reader which is challenged with nonces sendsMACs / HMACs of both nonces and MAC M0 (to be recomputed), keyed with the secret. These responses are verified by the user through a trusted auxiliary MAC computer unit. Here the verifier does not need to tract a (long) list of challenge / response pairs. This makes the protocol tractable for a human verifier as its participation in the authentication process is increased. In counterpart the secret has to be shared with the auxiliary unit. This constraint is relaxed in a second protocol directly derived from Fiat-Shamir's scheme.

  7. Optimal sensor placement for maximum area coverage (MAC) for damage localization in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiene, M.; Sharif Khodaei, Z.; Aliabadi, M. H.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper an optimal sensor placement algorithm for attaining the maximum area coverage (MAC) within a sensor network is presented. The proposed novel approach takes into account physical properties of Lamb wave propagation (attenuation profile, direction dependant group velocity due to material anisotropy) and geometrical complexities (boundary reflections, presence of openings) of the structure. A feature of the proposed optimization approach lies in the fact that it is independent of characteristics of the damage detection algorithm (e.g. probability of detection) making it readily up-scalable to large complex composite structures such as aircraft stiffened composite panel. The proposed fitness function (MAC) is independent of damage parameters (type, severity, location). Statistical analysis carried out shows that the proposed optimum sensor network with MAC results in high probability of damage localization. Genetic algorithm is coupled with the fitness function to provide an efficient optimization strategy.

  8. AeroMACS C-Band Interference Modeling and Simulation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    A new C-band (5091-5150 MHz) airport communications system designated as Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being planned under the Federal Aviation Administration s NextGen program. It is necessary to establish practical limits on AeroMACS transmission power from airports so that the threshold of interference into the Mobile Satellite Service (Globalstar) feeder uplinks is not exceeded. To help provide guidelines for these limits, interference models have been created with the commercial software Visualyse Professional. In this presentation, simulation results were shown for the aggregate interference power at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at each of up to 757 airports in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the surrounding area. Both omni-directional and sectoral antenna configurations were modeled. Effects of antenna height, beamwidth, and tilt were presented.

  9. MAC/GMC 4.0 User's Manual: Keywords Manual. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    This document is the second volume in the three volume set of User's Manuals for the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells Version 4.0 (MAC/GMC 4.0). Volume 1 is the Theory Manual, this document is the Keywords Manual, and Volume 3 is the Example Problem Manual. MAC/GMC 4.0 is a composite material and laminate analysis software program developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It is based on the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, which provides access to the local stress and strain fields in the composite material. This access grants GMC the ability to accommodate arbitrary local models for inelastic material behavior and various types of damage and failure analysis. MAC/GMC 4.0 has been built around GMC to provide the theory with a user-friendly framework, along with a library of local inelastic, damage, and failure models. Further, applications of simulated thermo-mechanical loading, generation of output results, and selection of architectures to represent the composite material have been automated in MAC/GMC 4.0. Finally, classical lamination theory has been implemented within MAC/GMC 4.0 wherein GMC is used to model the composite material response of each ply. Consequently, the full range of GMC composite material capabilities is available for analysis of arbitrary laminate configurations as well. This volume describes the basic information required to use the MAC/GMC 4.0 software, including a 'Getting Started' section, and an in-depth description of each of the 22 keywords used in the input file to control the execution of the code.

  10. MAC/GMC 4.0 User's Manual: Example Problem Manual. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    This document is the third volume in the three volume set of User's Manuals for the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells Version 4.0 (MAC/GMC 4.0). Volume 1 is the Theory Manual, Volume 2 is the Keywords Manual, and this document is the Example Problems Manual. MAC/GMC 4.0 is a composite material and laminate analysis software program developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It is based on the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, which provides access to the local stress and strain fields in the composite material. This access grants GMC the ability to accommodate arbitrary local models for inelastic material behavior and various types of damage and failure analysis. MAC/GMC 4.0 has been built around GMC to provide the theory with a user-friendly framework, along with a library of local inelastic, damage, and failure models. Further, application of simulated thermo-mechanical loading, generation of output results, and selection of architectures to represent the composite material, have been automated in MAC/GMC 4.0. Finally, classical lamination theory has been implemented within MAC/GMC 4.0 wherein GMC is used to model the composite material response of each ply. Consequently, the full range of GMC composite material capabilities is available for analysis of arbitrary laminate configurations as well. This volume provides in-depth descriptions of 43 example problems, which were specially designed to highlight many of the most important capabilities of the code. The actual input files associated with each example problem are distributed with the MAC/GMC 4.0 software; thus providing the user with a convenient starting point for their own specialized problems of interest.

  11. Climate Change in Myanmar: Impacts and Adaptation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    stage, it can be argued that signing on to the Rio Summit, the Kyoto Protocol and other similar treaties was done for purely political benefit with...the Kyoto Protocol . Furthermore, regional agreements are in place to mitigate environmental issues and adapt to climate change. Among these are...the Kyoto Protocol in late 1997. As these developments advanced together, SLORC/SPDC policies showed greater consideration for the environment and

  12. Cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Reyes-Colón, Dalynés; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Eduardo A.; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Sosa, María A.

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. Simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. Although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. Observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape responses, and fighting have led to the suggestion that biogenic amine receptors may play a role in modulating interactive behaviors. As a first step in understanding this potential role of such receptors, we have cloned and fully sequenced two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac, from the CNS of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and have mapped their CNS immunohistochemical distribution. 5-HT1Mac was found primarily on the membranes of subsets of cells in all CNS ganglia, in fibers that traverse all CNS regions, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of cells in the brain, circum- and subesophageal ganglia (SEG), most of which also appear to contain dopamine. The pattern of 5-HT2Mac immunoreactivity was found to differ significantly, being found mostly in the central neuropil area of all ganglia, in glomeruli of the brain’s olfactory lobes, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of neurons in the SEG, thoracic and some abdominal ganglia. The observed differences in terms of localization, distribution within cells, and intensity of immunoreactive staining throughout the prawn’s CNS suggest that these receptors are likely to play different roles. PMID:19184976

  13. Fundamentally different roles for LFA-1, Mac-1 and alpha4-integrin in neutrophil chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Heit, Bryan; Colarusso, Pina; Kubes, Paul

    2005-11-15

    Although the LFA-1, Mac-1 and alpha(4) integrins are required for chemotaxis, it is unknown how they are regulated or what specific role they play. Previously we demonstrated that fMLP and IL-8 induce chemotaxis via the p38 MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways, respectively. Here we show that these chemoattractants also activate and use Mac-1 and LFA-1 in a differential manner during chemotaxis. Using integrin-specific substrata, we demonstrate that cell movement in response to IL-8 is mediated by Mac-1, whereas LFA-1 is required for directional migration. By contrast, chemotaxis to fMLP requires Mac-1 for cell movement, whereas LFA-1 and alpha(4)-integrin are required for directional migration. On serum protein, which contains ligands for LFA-1, Mac-1 and alpha(4)-integrin, chemotaxis to fMLP is dependent on Mac-1, whereas chemotaxis to IL-8 is dependent on LFA-1. These results suggest that Mac-1 is the dominant integrin involved in chemotaxis to fMLP, and LFA-1 is the dominant integrin involved in chemotaxis to IL-8. Consistent with these observations, higher quantities of high-affinity Mac-1 are found on cells chemotaxing to fMLP then on cells chemotaxing to IL-8. Moreover, a much larger quantity of clustered LFA-1 was found on cells migrating to IL-8 compared to cells moving towards fMLP. When cells are presented with competing gradients of fMLP and IL-8, they preferentially migrate towards fMLP and activate/utilize integrins in a manner identical to fMLP alone. Under the same conditions, p38 MAPK inhibition abolishes the preferential migration to fMLP; instead, the cells migrate preferentially towards IL-8. The activation and utilization of integrins under these conditions are consistent with patterns observed with IL-8 alone. Together, these data suggest that fMLP and IL-8 differentially activate integrins for use during chemotaxis, that p38 MAPK is a major mediator in the activation and utilization of integrins, and selective integrin

  14. Relationship of DUI recidivism to moral reasoning, sensation seeking, and MacAndrew alcoholism scores.

    PubMed

    Little, G L; Robinson, K D

    1989-12-01

    115 convicted male DUI offenders were treated with Moral Reconation Therapy during their incarceration. Postrelease recidivism status (arrests) was correlated with the pretest, posttest, and change scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale, Life-purpose scores, and Moral Reasoning scores. Analysis showed that recidivism correlated positively and significantly with the pretest scores on the MacAndrew scale and approached significance with both pre- and posttest scores on the Sensation Seeking Scale. Recidivism status correlated negatively and significantly with scores on the highest levels of moral reasoning (Scale 6 pretest and posttest and Principled Reasoning pretest).

  15. POD/MAC-Based Modal Basis Selection for a Reduced Order Nonlinear Response Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Przekop, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to explore the applicability of a POD/MAC basis selection technique to a nonlinear structural response analysis. For the case studied the application of the POD/MAC technique resulted in a substantial improvement of the reduced order simulation when compared to a classic approach utilizing only low frequency modes present in the excitation bandwidth. Further studies are aimed to expand application of the presented technique to more complex structures including non-planar and two-dimensional configurations. For non-planar structures the separation of different displacement components may not be necessary or desirable.

  16. Additive contribution of nitrous oxide to halothane MAC in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Murray, D J; Mehta, M P; Forbes, R B; Dull, D L

    1990-08-01

    Fifty-one infants and small children (14.7 +/- 7.2 mo) were studied to determine the MAC of halothane in O2 (n = 11) and in the presence of three different nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations (25% [n = 13], 50% [n = 13], and 75% [n = 14]). In the three N2O groups, after randomly assigning patients to an N2O group, anesthesia was induced with halothane and N2O using a pediatric circle system. After endotracheal intubation, halothane and N2O end-expired concentrations were adjusted to predetermined concentrations. The initial halothane concentrations in each group were based on the assumption that each percent N2O reduced halothane concentrations by 0.01 vol % (assumed halothane MAC = 1.0 vol %). Based on the response of the preceding subject in each group, halothane concentrations were increased or decreased depending on whether the response was to move or not to move, respectively, in response to the surgical incision. The mean duration of constant end-tidal concentrations before skin incision was 10 min. End-tidal gases were sampled and measured from a separate distal sampling port of an endotracheal tube during controlled ventilation (Perkin-Elmer Mass Spectrometer). The MAC value for halothane in O2 was 0.94 +/- 0.08 vol % (mean +/- SD). The MAC values of halothane in the presence of 25%, 50%, and 75% N2O were 0.78 +/- 0.12 vol %, 0.44 +/- 0.10 vol %, and 0.29 +/- 0.06 vol %, respectively. All concentrations of N2O significantly reduced the MAC of halothane. A regression analysis through all four data points yielded a linear relationship (r2 = 0.87) with a predicted MAC for N2O of 105 vol %. Unlike halothane and isoflurane, the predicted MAC of N2O in infants and children is similar to that reported by others in adults. Similar to the results of clinical studies in adults, the contribution of N2O to halothane MAC in children is additive.

  17. Protocols for quantum binary voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Kishore; Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Pathak, Anirban

    Two new protocols for quantum binary voting are proposed. One of the proposed protocols is designed using a standard scheme for controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC), and the other one is designed using the idea of quantum cryptographic switch, which uses a technique known as permutation of particles. A few possible alternative approaches to accomplish the same task (quantum binary voting) have also been discussed. Security of the proposed protocols is analyzed. Further, the efficiencies of the proposed protocols are computed, and are compared with that of the existing protocols. The comparison has established that the proposed protocols are more efficient than the existing protocols.

  18. An Application of MacLaury's Vantage Theory to Abstract Categories: Identity and the Process of Categorisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiszak, Malgorzata

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an application of Robert E. MacLaury's Vantage Theory (VT) to the analysis of real life spoken discourse. It utilizes Dennis R. Preston's (1994) modification of MacLaury's VT. It elucidates how cognitive processes of coordinate selection and combination contribute to the on-line construction of category membership in the abstract…

  19. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.635 Section 334.635 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted...

  20. 42 CFR 405.1062 - Applicability of local coverage determinations and other policies not binding on the ALJ and MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAC are not bound by LCDs, LMRPs, or CMS program guidance, such as program memoranda and manual... MAC may not set aside or review the validity of an LMRP or LCD for purposes of a claim appeal. An ALJ or the DAB may review or set aside an LCD (or any part of an LMRP that constitutes an LCD)...

  1. 42 CFR 405.1062 - Applicability of local coverage determinations and other policies not binding on the ALJ and MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MAC are not bound by LCDs, LMRPs, or CMS program guidance, such as program memoranda and manual... MAC may not set aside or review the validity of an LMRP or LCD for purposes of a claim appeal. An ALJ or the DAB may review or set aside an LCD (or any part of an LMRP that constitutes an LCD)...

  2. Equivalence of Forms K and L of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests with Fifth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jerry L.; VanLeirsburg, Peggy

    A study answered the question: are there significant differences in scores for two forms of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Third Edition? Subjects, 23 fifth graders, were given Forms K and L, Level 5/6, of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Test. The tests were administered by the regular classroom teacher in two testing sessions. Students were…

  3. Education for Personal Life: John MacMurray on Why Learning to Be Human Requires Emotional Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllister, James

    2014-01-01

    In this article I discuss the philosophy of John MacMurray, and in particular, his little-examined writings on discipline and emotion education. It is argued that discipline is a vital element in the emotion education MacMurray thought central to learning to be human, because for him it takes concerted effort to overcome the human tendency toward…

  4. Changing the Shape of American Radio Drama: Innovation and Representation in Archibald MacLeish's "The Fall of the City."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Glenn D.

    The (CBS Radio) Columbia Workshop, formed in 1936, encouraged the writing and production of creative, non-traditional radio drama such as Archibald MacLeish's verse play "The Fall of the City," which aired on April 11, 1937. MacLeish considered radio the ideal medium for poetry because it offers only aural stimuli without competition…

  5. Separation of SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60 labelled undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells from a heterogeneous cell population using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS).

    PubMed

    Fong, Chui Yee; Peh, Gary S L; Gauthaman, Kalamegam; Bongso, Ariff

    2009-03-01

    A major concern in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cell replacement therapy is the risk of tumorigenesis from undifferentiated hESCs residing in the population of hESC-derived cells. Separation of these undifferentiated hESCs from the differentiated derivatives using cell sorting methods may be a plausible approach in overcoming this problem. We therefore explored magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to separate labelled undifferentiated hESCs from a heterogeneous population of hESCs and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) deliberately mixed respectively at different ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60 and 50:50) to mimic a standard in vitro differentiation protocol, instead of using a hESC-differentiated cell population, so that we could be sure of the actual number of cells separated. HES-3 and HES-4 cells were labelled in separate experiments for the stem cell markers SSEA-4 and TRA-1-60 using primary antibodies. Anti-PE magnetic microbeads that recognize the PE-conjugated SSEA-4 labelled hESCs was added to the heterogeneous cell mixture and passed through the MACS column. The cells that passed through the column ('flow-through' fraction) and those retained ('labelled' fraction') were subsequently analysed using FACS. The maximum efficacy of hESCs retention using MACS was 81.0 +/- 2.9% (HES-3) and 83.6 +/- 4.2% (HES-4). Using FACS, all the undifferentiated hESCs labelled with the two cell-surface markers could be removed by selective gating. Both hESCs and HepG2 cells in the 'flow-through' fraction following MACS separation were viable in culture whereas by FACS separation only the HepG2 cells were viable. FACS efficiently helps to eliminate the undifferentiated hESCs based on their cell-surface antigens expressed.

  6. Protocol for a Delay-Tolerant Data-Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgerson, Jordan; Hooke, Adrian; Burleigh, Scott; Fall, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    As its name partly indicates, the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol is a protocol for delay-tolerant transmission of data via communication networks. This protocol was conceived as a result of studies of how to adapt Internet protocols so that Internet-like services could be provided across interplanetary distances in support of deep-space exploration. The protocol, and software to implement the protocol, is being developed in collaboration among experts at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and other institutions. No current Internet protocols can accommodate long transmission delay times or intermittent link connectivity. The DTN Bundle Protocol represents a departure from the standard Internet assumption that a continuous path is available from a host computer to a client computer: It provides for routing of data through networks that may be disjointed and may be characterized by long transmission delays. In addition to networks that include deepspace communication links, examples of such networks include terrestrial ones within which branches are temporarily disconnected. The protocol is based partly on the definition of a message-based overlay above the transport layers of the networks on which it is hosted.

  7. Packet-Based Protocol Efficiency for Aeronautical and Satellite Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carek, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between bit error ratios and the effective link efficiency when transporting data with a packet-based protocol. Relations are developed to quantify the impact of a protocol s packet size and header size relative to the bit error ratio of the underlying link. These relations are examined in the context of radio transmissions that exhibit variable error conditions, such as those used in satellite, aeronautical, and other wireless networks. A comparison of two packet sizing methodologies is presented. From these relations, the true ability of a link to deliver user data, or information, is determined. Relations are developed to calculate the optimal protocol packet size forgiven link error characteristics. These relations could be useful in future research for developing an adaptive protocol layer. They can also be used for sizing protocols in the design of static links, where bit error ratios have small variability.

  8. Protocol for secure quantum machine learning at a distant place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2015-10-01

    The application of machine learning to quantum information processing has recently attracted keen interest, particularly for the optimization of control parameters in quantum tasks without any pre-programmed knowledge. By adapting the machine learning technique, we present a novel protocol in which an arbitrarily initialized device at a learner's location is taught by a provider located at a distant place. The protocol is designed such that any external learner who attempts to participate in or disrupt the learning process can be prohibited or noticed. We numerically demonstrate that our protocol works faithfully for single-qubit operation devices. A trade-off between the inaccuracy and the learning time is also analyzed.

  9. WOODSTOVE DURABILITY TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of an accelerated laboratory test to simulate in-home woodstove aging and degradation. nown as a stress test, the protocol determines the long-term durability of woodstove models in a 1- to 2-week time frame. wo avenues of research have been t...

  10. Simple wavelength assignment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaputra, Stephen; Touch, Joseph D.; Bannister, Joseph A.

    2000-10-01

    IP routers can be coupled with wavelength-selective optical cross- connects to support existing Internet infrastructure in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network. Because optical wavelength routing is transparent to IP, packets can bypass traditional forwarding and pass directly through the optical cross-connect, resulting in very high throughput and low delay routing. This approach shares features with label switching, but wavelengths are much more scarce resource than labels. Because optical switches have larger switching times than electronic switches, and wavelength conversions are expensive, wavelength label swapping is not easily done. Wavelength label assignments must consider these limitations to be practical in an optical environment. The performance of an instance of this approach, called Packet over Wavelengths (POW) has been simulated and studied. A new signaling protocol, Simple Wavelength Assignment Protocol (SWAP) is devised to be POW signaling protocol. SWAP takes into account the optical device limitations, and is designed to minimize wavelength conversion, utilize wavelengths with the merging of flows, and reduce the reconfiguration of optical switches. SWAP, to our knowledge, is the first approach to combine signaling and wavelength assignment in an on- line protocol. This paper describes high level SWAP design challenges, decision, and overhead.

  11. Advanced Quantum Communication Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-17

    theoretically optimal configuration, and compared hyperentangled and multi-pair encoding. Table of Contents: Summary 2 Relativistic Quantum Cryptography ( RQC ...error rates, for 4- and 6-state RQC 4. Intensity pulses to generate uniform time-interval probability distributions 5. Schematic of photon-arrival...Protocols: Scientific Progress and Accomplishments “Relativistic” Quantum Cryptography We have implemented relativistic quantum cryptography ( RQC ) using

  12. What's a Research Protocol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Philip J; Mooney, Jeanette A

    2004-01-01

    A clinical trial needs a carefully structured, written plan in order not only to ensure its smooth running and successful conclusion but also to gain the compulsory agreement of an ethical committee. Such a plan is called a protocol. It consists of several stages. These are: (1) An introduction; (2) A statement of aims, objectives, hypotheses and…

  13. The Master Protocol Concept.

    PubMed

    Redman, Mary W; Allegra, Carmen J

    2015-10-01

    During the past decade, biomedical technologies have undergone an explosive evolution-from the publication of the first complete human genome in 2003, after more than a decade of effort and at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars-to the present time, where a complete genomic sequence can be available in less than a day and at a small fraction of the cost of the original sequence. The widespread availability of next-generation genomic sequencing has opened the door to the development of precision oncology. The need to test multiple new targeted agents both alone and in combination with other targeted therapies, as well as classic cytotoxic agents, demands the development of novel therapeutic platforms (particularly Master Protocols) capable of efficiently and effectively testing multiple targeted agents or targeted therapeutic strategies in relatively small patient subpopulations. Here, we describe the Master Protocol concept, with a focus on the expected gains and complexities of the use of this design. An overview of Master Protocols currently active or in development is provided along with a more extensive discussion of the Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP study).

  14. Dependence of AeroMACS Interference on Airport Radiation Pattern Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at the 497 major airports in the contiguous United States was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on the number of antenna beams per airport, gain patterns, and beam direction orientations was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  15. Using a Networked Mac Lab To Facilitate Learning in Art, Foreign Languages, and English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutchin, Patricia; And Others

    These presentations examine the use of a new Macintosh Lab in Commercial Art Technology, Spanish, and English Composition classes at Clark State Community College. The first paper describes the Commercial Art Technology program at the college, highlighting the use of the Mac Lab installed in September 1993 and discussing the Electronic Publishing,…

  16. The Mac Internet Tour Guide: Cruising the Internet the Easy Way. [First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraase, Michael

    Published exclusively for MacIntosh computer users, this guide provides an overview of Internet resources for new and experienced users. E-mail, file transfer, and decompression software used to access the resources are included on a 800k, 3.5 inch disk. The following chapters are included: (1) "What Is the Internet" covers finding your…

  17. The Big Mac and Teaching about Japan. Footnotes. Volume 8, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    2003-01-01

    The Big Mac can be effective tool in helping students achieve a better understanding of Japan. It can defeat Orientalist stereotypes about the Japanese--and also challenge young people who might have oversimplified notions of what exactly occurs when U.S. fast food chains take root in another culture. Many deride McDonald's as a villain…

  18. Berkeley Lab Scientist Named MacArthur ''Genius'' Fellow for Audio Preservation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Carl

    2013-09-24

    Audio Preservationist Carl Haber was named a MacArthur Fellow in 2013. The Fellowship is a $625,000, no-strings-attached grant for individuals who have shown exceptional creativity in their work and the promise to do more. Learn more at http://www.macfound.org/fellows.

  19. Analysis and convergence of the MAC scheme. Part 1: The linear problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolaides, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The MAC discretization of fluid flow is analyzed for the stationary Stokes equations. It is proved that the discrete approximations do in fact converge to the exact solutions of the flow equations. Estimates using mesh dependent norms analogous to the standard H(sup 1) and L(sup 2) norms are given for the velocity and pressure, respectively.

  20. Detecting DIF in Polytomous Items Using MACS, IRT and Ordinal Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elosua, Paula; Wells, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the Type I error rate and power of two model-based procedures, the mean and covariance structure model (MACS) and the item response theory (IRT), and an observed-score based procedure, ordinal logistic regression, for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. A simulation…

  1. General MacArthur’s Strategic Success During the Early Months of the Korean War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Almond , FECOM’s Chief of Staff, recommended to General MacArthur to send a US infantry task force to Korea with the purpose to delay the North...elements of combat power. 156 MG Almond did not organize the GHQ as a joint headquarters to exploit the opportunities such as the North Korean long

  2. Application of Multihop Relay for Performance Enhancement of AeroMACS Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A new transmission technology, based on IEEE 802.16-2009 (WiMAX), is currently being developed for airport surface communications. A C-band spectrum allocation at 5091 to 5150 MHz has been created by International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to carry this application. The proposed technology, known as AeroMACS, will be used to support fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. This article proposes and demonstrates that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. This amendment introduces multihop relay as an optional deployment that may be used to provide additional coverage and/or enhance the capacity of the network. Particular airport surface radio coverage situations for which IEEE 802.16-2009-WiMAX provides resolutions that are inefficient, costly, or excessively power consuming are discussed. In all these cases, it is argued that 16j technology offers a much better alternative. A major concern about deployment of AeroMACS is interference to co-allocated applications such as the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder link. Our initial simulation results suggest that no additional interference to MSS feeder link is caused by deployment of IEEE 802.16j-based AeroMACS.

  3. Young Galaxy Candidates in the Hubble Frontier Fields. IV. MACS J1149.5+2223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Zitrin, Adi; Infante, Leopoldo; Laporte, Nicolas; Huang, Xingxing; Moustakas, John; Ford, Holland C.; Shu, Xinwen; Wang, Junxian; Diego, Jose M.; Bauer, Franz E.; Troncoso Iribarren, Paulina; Broadhurst, Tom; Molino, Alberto

    2017-02-01

    We search for high-redshift dropout galaxies behind the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) galaxy cluster MACS J1149.5+2223, a powerful cosmic lens that has revealed a number of unique objects in its field. Using the deep images from the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes, we find 11 galaxies at z > 7 in the MACS J1149.5+2223 cluster field, and 11 in its parallel field. The high-redshift nature of the bright z ≃ 9.6 galaxy MACS1149-JD, previously reported by Zheng et al., is further supported by non-detection in the extremely deep optical images from the HFF campaign. With the new photometry, the best photometric redshift solution for MACS1149-JD reduces slightly to z = 9.44 ± 0.12. The young galaxy has an estimated stellar mass of (7+/- 2)× {10}8 {M}ȯ , and was formed at z={13.2}-1.6+1.9 when the universe was ≈300 Myr old. Data available for the first four HFF clusters have already enabled us to find faint galaxies to an intrinsic magnitude of {M}{UV}≃ -15.5, approximately a factor of 10 deeper than the parallel fields.

  4. 78 FR 5320 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Capital Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... strategies, and (iii) provide FCA with notification of Farmer Mac's proposed capital distributions before... cushion to absorb unexpected losses and improve an institution's long-term resilience. The recent global...\\ Bank for International Settlements, Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, Basel III, A...

  5. Final Environmental Assessment for Aerial Spraying for Invasive Species Control MacDill AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    golf courses are sources of known contamination. 3.5 FLOODPLAINS MacDill AFB’s topography is flat, with surface elevations that range from sea...contact. MSDS: Nufarm Weedar 64 BroadleafHerbicide Page 2 of7 Eye Contact: Causes corneal opacity, irreversible eye damage. Vapors and mist can cause

  6. The Westley-MacLean Model Revisited: An Extension of a Conceptual Model for Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, Stephen

    A revision of the Westley-MacLean model of 1957 for communication research accommodates an incorporation of some of the research areas that have blossomed during the last three decades. The revision concentrates on two aspects of the original: (1) organizational features within the advocate, communicator and audience roles; and (2) environmental…

  7. 33 CFR 165.768 - Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.768 Security Zone; MacDill Air Force Base, Tampa Bay, FL. (a) Location. The following area is...

  8. There is no MacWilliams identity for convolutional codes. [transmission gain comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, J. B.; Mceliece, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    An example is provided of two convolutional codes that have the same transmission gain but whose dual codes do not. This shows that no analog of the MacWilliams identity for block codes can exist relating the transmission gains of a convolutional code and its dual.

  9. Foreign Language Authoring Systems: Judith Frommer's MacLang Spoken Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frommer, Judith

    1987-01-01

    MacLang, a user-friendly authoring system for the Macintosh computer, helps second language teachers prepare and tailor computer exercises and activities; is usable with any Roman-alphabet language, Russian, and Greek; gives students intelligent feedback; and allows students to control computer activity in order to individualize learning.…

  10. 75 FR 69154 - Land Release for Long Island MacArthur Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... proposed release from aeronautical use of approximately 17.69 acres of airport property, to allow for non-aeronautical development. The parcel is located on the northeast corner of the Long Island MacArthur Airport... sponsor's Federal obligation to use certain airport land for aeronautical use. Issued in Garden City,...

  11. Low Power and Robust PHY-MAC Solution for Medical BAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farserotu, John R.; Gerrits, John F. M.; Rousselot, Jérôme

    This paper provides an overview of CSEMs FM-UWB PHY-MAC proposal to IEEE802.15.6, Task Group 6, Body Area Networks. The proposed solution provides for an ultra low power, yet robust and reliable solution for low data rate medical BAN. The paper examines the key features and performance aspects of the proposal.

  12. Teaching Justice after MacIntyre: Toward a Catholic Philosophy of Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    How is the commitment to social justice sustained over a lifetime? This would seem to be a matter of character, and that calls attention to the Aristotelian tradition in ethics. No one provides as much insight into the challenge of the contemporary appropriation of this tradition as Alasdair MacIntyre. Although a moral philosopher rather than a…

  13. New upper bounds on the rate of a code via the Delsarte-MacWilliams inequalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Rodemich, E. R.; Rumsey, H., Jr.; Welch, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    An upper bound on the rate of a binary code as a function of minimum code distance (using a Hamming code metric) is arrived at from Delsarte-MacWilliams inequalities. The upper bound so found is asymptotically less than Levenshtein's bound, and a fortiori less than Elias' bound. Appendices review properties of Krawtchouk polynomials and Q-polynomials utilized in the rigorous proofs.

  14. Moraine Area Career System (MACS). Technology Preparation Final Report for 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraine Valley Community Coll., Palos Hills, IL.

    The Moraine Area Career System (MACS) Tech Prep Applied Academics Core project was undertaken to develop a written replicable model core of applied academics for selected vocational-technical programs that would emphasize Illinois goals for learning and technical content (including critical and computer literacy). A tech prep advisory council…

  15. Berkeley Lab Scientist Named MacArthur ''Genius'' Fellow for Audio Preservation Research

    ScienceCinema

    Haber, Carl

    2016-07-12

    Audio Preservationist Carl Haber was named a MacArthur Fellow in 2013. The Fellowship is a $625,000, no-strings-attached grant for individuals who have shown exceptional creativity in their work and the promise to do more. Learn more at http://www.macfound.org/fellows.

  16. CEFPI 2000 Design Portfolio: James D. MacConnell Award Winner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facility Planner, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents an architectural description of the Edmonds-Woodway High School (Washington), winner of the James D. MacConnel Award from the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International. Photos, floor plans, and project data and school statistics are included. (GR)

  17. Short-Form Versions of the Spanish MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Maldonodo, Donna; Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Lia C. H.

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish-language MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (S-CDIs) are well-established parent report tools for assessing the language development of Spanish-speaking children under 3 years. Here, we introduce the short-form versions of the S-CDIs (SFI and SFII), offered as alternatives to the long forms for screening purposes or…

  18. Environmental Assessment for Construct/Demolish Dog Kennel Facility MacDill AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    Re: Working Dog Kennel Correspondence 2610 Pink Flamingo Ave. Bldg. 147 Room 306 Phone: (813) 828-0459 Fax: (813) 828-2212 E-mail...of October. Thank you for your support. Jason K Jason Kirkpatrick, 6 CES/CEVN Environmental Program Manager 2610 Pink Flamingo Avenue MacDill AFB

  19. Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, M.M.; McKay, D.S. ); Wentworth, S.J.; Martinez, R.R.; Mittlefehldt, D.W. ); Wang, Mingsheng; Lipschutz, M.E. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 are anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered from the same area in Antarctica which are demonstrated to be paired samples of the same fall. Petrographic studies of matrix and clasts show that mAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It contains a small amount of highland impact glass and very few regolith glass spherules. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan (mg{prime} = 63) and highly aluminous (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 28%). REE and other incompatible element concentrations are very low. Compositions of anorthositic, granulitic, and impact melt breccia clasts are very similar to, but distinct from, matrix composition. MAC88104/5 is very similar in composition to the other anorthositic lunar meteorites, but each of the meteorites is distinct. The anorthositic lunar meteorites, especially MAC88104/5 and Y82192/3/86032, are very similar to North Ray Crater feldspathic fragmental breccias in composition and petrography. These fragmental lunar meteorites may have been ancient, deeply buried breccias from the megaregolith. Comparisons of chemical petrographic features and exposure histories suggest that the twelve lunar meteorites were derived from two to nine, but probably four to seven, impact onto the lunar surface. Discrepancies between the proportions of lunar meteorites and results of Apollo missions may be due to unrepresentative sampling. Lunar meteorites provide valuable new information on the nature of the lunar crust.

  20. Environmental Assessment for Perimeter Security Lighting at Fort MacArthur, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    community of San Pedro. Soils within this association typically consist of marine sandstone, shale and breccia . Topography The community of San Pedro...typically comprised of marine sandstone, shale and breccia . Fort MacArthur is situated on Montezuma Clay Adobe which consists of excessively drained

  1. Assessing Internalizing, Externalizing, and Attention Problems in Young Children: Validation of the MacArthur HBQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Schreiber, Jane E.; Schmidt, Nicole L.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the validity of the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire (HBQ) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine optimal thresholds for the HBQ in predicting Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version-IV (DISC-IV)diagnoses. The roles of child sex, level of impairment, and physical health in…

  2. Dependence of AeroMACS Interference on Airport Radiation Pattern Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091-5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at the 497 major airports in the contiguous United States was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on the number of antenna beams per airport, gain patterns, and beam direction orientations was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  3. Testing Evolutionary Hypotheses in the Classroom with MacClade Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codella, Sylvio G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces MacClade which is a Macintosh-based software package that uses the techniques of cladistic analysis to explore evolutionary patterns. Describes a novel and effective exercise that allows undergraduate biology majors to test a hypothesis about behavioral evolution in insects. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. Application of Multihop Relay for Performance Enhancement of AeroMACS Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamali, Behnam; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    A new transmission technology, based on IEEE 802.16-2009 (WiMAX), is currently being developed for airport surface communications. A C-band spectrum allocation at 5091-5150 MHz has been created by ITU to carry this application. The proposed technology, known as AeroMACS, will be used to support fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. This article proposes and demonstrates that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. This amendment introduces multihop relay as an optional deployment that may be used to provide additional coverage and/or enhance the capacity of the network. Particular airport surface radio coverage situations for which IEEE 802.16-2009-WiMAX provides resolutions that are inefficient, costly, or excessively power consuming are discussed. In all these cases, it is argued that 16j technology offers a much better alternative. A major concern about deployment of AeroMACS is interference to co-allocated applications such as the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder link. Our initial simulation results suggest that no additional interference to MSS feeder link is caused by deployment of IEEE 802.16j-based AeroMACS.

  5. The Leishmania donovani histidine acid ecto-phosphatase LdMAcP: insight into its structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Papadaki, Amalia; Politou, Anastasia S.; Smirlis, Despina; Kotini, Maria P.; Kourou, Konstadina; Papamarcaki, Thomais; Boleti, Haralabia

    2015-01-01

    Acid ecto-phosphatase activity has been implicated in Leishmania donovani promastigote virulence. In the present study, we report data contributing to the molecular/structural and functional characterization of the L. donovani LdMAcP (L. donovani membrane acid phosphatase), member of the histidine acid phosphatase (HAcP) family. LdMAcP is membrane-anchored and shares high sequence identity with the major secreted L. donovani acid phosphatases (LdSAcPs). Sequence comparison of the LdMAcP orthologues in Leishmania sp. revealed strain polymorphism and species specificity for the L. donovani complex, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (Khala azar), proposing thus a potential value of LdMAcP as an epidemiological or diagnostic tool. The extracellular orientation of the LdMAcP catalytic domain was confirmed in L. donovani promastigotes, wild-type (wt) and transgenic overexpressing a recombinant LdMAcP–mRFP1 (monomeric RFP1) chimera, as well as in transiently transfected mammalian cells expressing rLdMAcP–His. For the first time it is demonstrated in the present study that LdMAcP confers tartrate resistant acid ecto-phosphatase activity in live L. donovani promastigotes. The latter confirmed the long sought molecular identity of at least one enzyme contributing to this activity. Interestingly, the L. donovani rLdMAcP–mRFP1 promastigotes generated in this study, showed significantly higher infectivity and virulence indexes than control parasites in the infection of J774 mouse macrophages highlighting thereby a role for LdMAcP in the parasite's virulence. PMID:25695743

  6. Composition of Estonian Infants' Expressive Lexicon According to the Adaptation of CDI/Words and Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and the composition of expressive lexicon was studied in a sample of 903 infants between the age of 0;8 and 1;4 whose parents completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Gestures. As expected, older children had on average larger vocabularies compared to younger children.…

  7. A low power medium access control protocol for wireless medical sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lamprinos, I; Prentza, A; Sakka, E; Koutsouris, D

    2004-01-01

    The concept of a wireless integrated network of sensors, already applied in several sectors of our everyday life, such as security, transportation and environment monitoring, can as well provide an advanced monitor and control resource for healthcare services. By networking medical sensors wirelessly, attaching them in patient's body, we create the appropriate infrastructure for continuous and real-time monitoring of patient without discomforting him. This infrastructure can improve healthcare by providing the means for flexible acquisition of vital signs, while at the same time it provides more convenience to the patient. Given the type of wireless network, traditional medium access control (MAC) protocols cannot take advantage of the application specific requirements and information characteristics occurring in medical sensor networks, such as the demand for low power consumption and the rather limited and asymmetric data traffic. In this paper, we present the architecture of a low power MAC protocol, designated to support wireless networks of medical sensors. This protocol aims to improve energy efficiency by exploiting the inherent application features and requirements. It is oriented towards the avoidance of main energy wastage sources, such as idle listening, collision and power outspending.

  8. Manual Ability Classification System (MACS): reliability between therapists and parents in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniela B. R.; Funayama, Carolina A. R.; Pfeifer, Luzia I.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) has been widely used to describe the manual ability of children with cerebral palsy (CP); however its reliability has not been verified in Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To establish the inter- and intra-rater reliability of the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS by comparing the classifications given by therapists and parents of children with CP. METHOD: Data were obtained from 90 children with CP between the ages of 4 and 18 years, who were treated at the neurology and rehabilitation clinics of a Brazilian hospital. Therapists (an occupational therapist and a student) classified manual ability (MACS) through direct observation and information provided by parents. Therapists and parents used the Portuguese-Brazil version of the MACS. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was obtained using unweighted Kappa coefficient (k) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The Chi-square test was used to identify the predominance of disagreements in the classification of parents and therapists. RESULTS: An almost perfect agreement resulted among therapists [K=0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.97); ICC=0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.98)], as well as with intra-rater (therapists), with Kappa ranging between 0.83 and 0.95 and ICC between 0.96 and 0.99 for the evaluator with more and less experience in rehabilitation, respectively. The agreement between therapists and parents was fair [K=0.36 (95% CI 0.22-0.50); ICC=0.79 (95% CI 0.70-0.86)]. CONCLUSIONS: The Portuguese version of the MACS is a reliable instrument to be used jointly by parents and therapists. PMID:25651133

  9. MacA is a second cytochrome c peroxidase of Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Julian; Hoffmann, Maren; Ellis, Katie E; Seidel, Antonia; Spatzal, Thomas; Gerhardt, Stefan; Elliott, Sean J; Einsle, Oliver

    2012-04-03

    The metal-reducing δ-proteobacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces a large number of c-type cytochromes, many of which have been implicated in the transfer of electrons to insoluble metal oxides. Among these, the dihemic MacA was assigned a central role. Here we have produced G. sulfurreducens MacA by recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and have solved its three-dimensional structure in three different oxidation states. Sequence comparisons group MacA into the family of diheme cytochrome c peroxidases, and the protein indeed showed hydrogen peroxide reductase activity with ABTS(-2) as an electron donor. The observed K(M) was 38.5 ± 3.7 μM H(2)O(2) and v(max) was 0.78 ± 0.03 μmol of H(2)O(2)·min(-1)·mg(-1), resulting in a turnover number k(cat) = 0.46 · s(-1). In contrast, no Fe(III) reductase activity was observed. MacA was found to display electrochemical properties similar to other bacterial diheme peroxidases, in addition to the ability to electrochemically mediate electron transfer to the soluble cytochrome PpcA. Differences in activity between CcpA and MacA can be rationalized with structural variations in one of the three loop regions, loop 2, that undergoes conformational changes during reductive activation of the enzyme. This loop is adjacent to the active site heme and forms an open loop structure rather than a more rigid helix as in CcpA. For the activation of the protein, the loop has to displace the distal ligand to the active site heme, H93, in loop 1. A H93G variant showed an unexpected formation of a helix in loop 2 and disorder in loop 1, while a M297H variant that altered the properties of the electron transfer heme abolished reductive activation.

  10. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    PubMed Central

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  11. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs.

    PubMed

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-09-23

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation).

  12. Low-dose dexamethasone as a treatment for women with heavy menstrual bleeding: protocol for response-adaptive randomised placebo-controlled dose-finding parallel group trial (DexFEM)

    PubMed Central

    Warner, P; Weir, C J; Hansen, C H; Douglas, A; Madhra, M; Hillier, S G; Saunders, P T K; Iredale, J P; Semple, S; Walker, B R; Critchley, H O D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) diminishes individual quality-of-life and poses substantial societal burden. In HMB endometrium, inactivation of cortisol (by enzyme 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2)), may cause local endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency and hence increased angiogenesis and impaired vasoconstriction. We propose that ‘rescue’ of luteal phase endometrial glucocorticoid deficiency could reduce menstrual bleeding. Methods and analysis DexFEM is a double-blind response-adaptive parallel-group placebo-controlled trial in women with HMB (108 to be randomised), with active treatment the potent oral synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, which is relatively resistant to 11βHSD2 inactivation. Participants will be aged over 18 years, with mean measured menstrual blood loss (MBL) for two screening cycles ≥50 mL. The primary outcome is reduction in MBL from screening. Secondary end points are questionnaire assessments of treatment effect and acceptability. Treatment will be for 5 days in the mid-luteal phases of three treatment menstrual cycles. Six doses of low-dose dexamethasone (ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 mg twice daily) will be compared with placebo, to ascertain optimal dose, and whether this has advantage over placebo. Statistical efficiency is maximised by allowing randomisation probabilities to ‘adapt’ at five points during enrolment phase, based on the response data available so far, to favour doses expected to provide greatest additional information on the dose–response. Bayesian Normal Dynamic Linear Modelling, with baseline MBL included as covariate, will determine optimal dose (re reduction in MBL). Secondary end points will be analysed using generalised dynamic linear models. For each dose for all end points, a 95% credible interval will be calculated for effect versus placebo. Ethics and dissemination Dexamethasone is widely used and hence well-characterised safety-wise. Ethical approval has been

  13. THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) RECOVERED FROM LOS ANGELES POTABLE WATER, A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF INFECTION IN AIDS PATIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Los Angeles water was investigated as a possible source of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in patients with AIDS. MAC consists of M.avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI) and Mycobacterium X (MX)(positive for MAC by DNA probe but not MA or MI). The study included 13 reser...

  14. Generalized teleportation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Goren; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2006-04-15

    A generalized teleportation protocol (GTP) for N qubits is presented, where the teleportation channels are nonmaximally entangled and all the free parameters of the protocol are considered: Alice's measurement basis, her sets of acceptable results, and Bob's unitary operations. The full range of fidelity (F) of the teleported state and the probability of success (P{sub suc}) to obtain a given fidelity are achieved by changing these free parameters. A channel efficiency bound is found, where one can determine how to divide it between F and P{sub suc}. A one-qubit formulation is presented and then expanded to N qubits. A proposed experimental setup that implements the GTP is given using linear optics.

  15. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  16. Visual Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory systems continuously mold themselves to the widely varying contexts in which they must operate. Studies of these adaptations have played a long and central role in vision science. In part this is because the specific adaptations remain a powerful tool for dissecting vision, by exposing the mechanisms that are adapting. That is, “if it adapts, it's there.” Many insights about vision have come from using adaptation in this way, as a method. A second important trend has been the realization that the processes of adaptation are themselves essential to how vision works, and thus are likely to operate at all levels. That is, “if it's there, it adapts.” This has focused interest on the mechanisms of adaptation as the target rather than the probe. Together both approaches have led to an emerging insight of adaptation as a fundamental and ubiquitous coding strategy impacting all aspects of how we see. PMID:26858985

  17. Effects of a single bolus intravenous dose of tramadol on minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in dogs.

    PubMed

    Itami, Takaharu; Kawase, Kodai; Tamaru, Naomichi; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Tamura, Jun; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Umar, Mohammed A; Inoue, Hiroki; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    Tramadol is an atypical opioid analgesic widely used in small animal practice. This study was designed to determine the effect of a single intravenous (IV) dose of tramadol on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane in dogs. Six beagle dogs were anesthetized twice to determine the sevoflurane MAC with or without an administration of tramadol (4 mg/kg, IV) at 7 days interval. The sevoflurane MAC was determined using a tail clamp method in each dog ventilated with positive pressure ventilation. The tramadol administration produced a significant reduction in the sevoflurane MAC by 22.3 ± 12.2% (1.44 ± 0.28% with tramadol versus 1.86 ± 0.30% without tramadol, P=0.010). This MAC reduction had been determined from 122 ± 19 to 180 ± 41 min following the tramadol administration. During this period, the plasma concentrations of tramadol and its metabolite, O-desmethyltramadol (M1), decreased from 429 ± 64 to 332 ± 55 ng/ml and from 136 ± 24 to 114 ± 68 ng/ml, respectively, but these changes were not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure and SpO2 between the control and tramadol treatment. The dogs that received tramadol treatment sometimes breathed spontaneously. Therefore, their respiratory rates significantly increased, and PETCO2 decreased during the MAC determination. In conclusion, the single IV dose of tramadol produced a significant reduction in the sevoflurane MAC in dogs.

  18. Matrix-assisted cocrystallization (MAC) simultaneous production and formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals by hot-melt extrusion.

    PubMed

    Boksa, Kevin; Otte, Andrew; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2014-09-01

    A novel method for the simultaneous production and formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals, matrix-assisted cocrystallization (MAC), is presented. Hot-melt extrusion (HME) is used to create cocrystals by coprocessing the drug and coformer in the presence of a matrix material. Carbamazepine (CBZ), nicotinamide (NCT), and Soluplus were used as a model drug, coformer, and matrix, respectively. The MAC product containing 80:20 (w/w) cocrystal:matrix was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed for quantifying the efficiency of cocrystal formation. The MAC product was estimated to be 78% (w/w) cocrystal (theoretical 80%), with approximately 0.3% mixture of free (unreacted) CBZ and NCT, and 21.6% Soluplus (theoretical 20%) with the PLS model. A physical mixture (PM) of a reference cocrystal (RCC), prepared by precipitation from solution, and Soluplus resulted in faster dissolution relative to the pure RCC. However, the MAC product with the exact same composition resulted in considerably faster dissolution and higher maximum concentration (∼five-fold) than those of the PM. The MAC product consists of high-quality cocrystals embedded in a matrix. The processing aspect of MAC plays a major role on the faster dissolution observed. The MAC approach offers a scalable process, suitable for the continuous manufacturing and formulation of pharmaceutical cocrystals.

  19. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  20. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  1. Robust Optimization of Biological Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Patrick; Davis, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    When conducting high-throughput biological experiments, it is often necessary to develop a protocol that is both inexpensive and robust. Standard approaches are either not cost-effective or arrive at an optimized protocol that is sensitive to experimental variations. We show here a novel approach that directly minimizes the cost of the protocol while ensuring the protocol is robust to experimental variation. Our approach uses a risk-averse conditional value-at-risk criterion in a robust parameter design framework. We demonstrate this approach on a polymerase chain reaction protocol and show that our improved protocol is less expensive than the standard protocol and more robust than a protocol optimized without consideration of experimental variation. PMID:26417115

  2. Quantifying Habitual Levels of Physical Activity According to Impact in Older People: Accelerometry Protocol for the VIBE Study

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin C.; Hannam, Kimberly; Coulson, Jessica; Ireland, Alex; McPhee, Jamie S.; Moss, Charlotte; Edwards, Mark H.; Dennison, Elaine; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayers, Adrian; Lipperts, Matthijs; Grimm, Bernd; Tobias, Jon H.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) may need to produce high impacts to be osteogenic. The aim of this study was to identify threshold(s) for defining high impact PA for future analyses in the VIBE (Vertical Impact and Bone in the Elderly) study, based on home recordings with triaxial accelerometers. Recordings were obtained from 19 Master Athlete Cohort (MAC; mean 67.6 years) and 15 Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS; mean 77.7 years) participants. Data cleaning protocols were developed to exclude artifacts. Accelerations expressed in g units were categorized into three bands selected from the distribution of positive Y-axis peak accelerations. Data were available for 6.6 and 4.4 days from MAC and HCS participants respectively, with approximately 14 hr recording daily. Three-fold more 0.5–1.0g impacts were observed in MAC versus HCS, 20-fold more 1.0–1.5g impacts, and 140-fold more impacts ≥ 1.5g. Our analysis protocol successfully distinguishes PA levels in active and sedentary older individuals. PMID:26372670

  3. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  4. A redescription of Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) (Trematoda: Aspidogastrea) from the florida pompano fish Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766) off the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Alves, P V; Borges, J N; Santos, C P; Luque, J L

    2015-05-01

    A redescription of the aspidogastrean trematode Lobatostoma kemostoma (MacCallum & MacCallum, 1913) is provided based on examination of type material, voucher specimens available at institutional collections and newly collected specimens from the type host, Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus, 1766), off the Angra dos Reis, Brazil. Partial sequence of its 28S rDNA is given. Lobatostoma kemostoma can be distinguished from the other eight species of the genus by: (1) the hindbody being longer than the ventral disc; and (2) the cephalic lobes having the same shape and size. Features observed for the first time include the number and detailed arrangement of alveoli on the ventral disc, the terminal genitalia and the ovarian complex. New illustrations and morphometric data are given. In the present survey the host specificity in the genus, the validity of some morphological features and the occurrence of an Indian species of Lobatostoma from off the Brazilian coast are discussed. A lectotype of L. kemostoma from the type series deposited at United States National Parasite Collection is also designated.

  5. The tip region of the MacA alpha-hairpin is important for the binding to TolC to the Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC pump.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongbin; Sim, Se-Hoon; Song, Saemee; Piao, Shunfu; Kim, Hong-Man; Jin, Xiao Ling; Lee, Kangseok; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2010-04-16

    The tripartite efflux pump MacAB-TolC found in gram-negative bacteria is involved in resistance to antibiotics. We previously reported the funnel-like hexameric structure of the adaptor protein MacA to be physiologically relevant. In this study, we investigated the role of the tip region of its alpha-hairpin, which forms a cogwheel structure in the funnel-like shape of the MacA hexamer. Mutational and biochemical analyses revealed that the conserved residues located at the tip region of the alpha-hairpin of MacA play an essential role in the binding of TolC. Our findings offer a molecular basis for understanding the drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Communication complexity protocols for qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Tamir, Boaz

    2007-03-15

    Consider a function where its entries are distributed among many parties. Suppose each party is allowed to send only a limited amount of information to a referee. The referee can use a classical protocol to compute the value of the global function. Is there a quantum protocol improving the results of all classical protocols? In a recent work Brukner et al. showed the deep connection between such problems and the theory of Bell inequalities. Here we generalize the theory to trits. There, the best classical protocol fails whereas the quantum protocol yields the correct answer.

  7. Macintosh II based space Telemetry and Command (MacTac) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominy, Carol T.; Chesney, James R.; Collins, Aaron S.; Kay, W. K.

    1991-01-01

    The general architecture and the principal functions of the Macintosh II based Telemetry and Command system, presently under development, are described, with attention given to custom telemetry cards, input/output interfaces, and the icon driven user interface. The MacTac is a low-cost, transportable, easy to use, compact system designed to meet the requirements specified by the Consultative Committeee for Space Data Systems while remaining flexible enough to support a wide variety of other user specific telemetry processing requirements, such as TDM data. In addition, the MacTac can accept or generate forward data (such as spacecraft commands), calculate and append a Polynomial Check Code, and output these data to NASCOM to provide full Telemetry and Command capability.

  8. A comparative study of upwind and MacCormack schemes for CAA benchmark problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanathan, K.; Sankar, L. N.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, upwind schemes and MacCormack schemes are evaluated as to their suitability for aeroacoustic applications. The governing equations are cast in a curvilinear coordinate system and discretized using finite volume concepts. A flux splitting procedure is used for the upwind schemes, where the signals crossing the cell faces are grouped into two categories: signals that bring information from outside into the cell, and signals that leave the cell. These signals may be computed in several ways, with the desired spatial and temporal accuracy achieved by choosing appropriate interpolating polynomials. The classical MacCormack schemes employed here are fourth order accurate in time and space. Results for categories 1, 4, and 6 of the workshop's benchmark problems are presented. Comparisons are also made with the exact solutions, where available. The main conclusions of this study are finally presented.

  9. Global Mobile Satellite Service Interference Analysis for the AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Apaza, Rafael D..; Hall, Ward; Phillips, Brent

    2013-01-01

    The AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based on the IEEE 802.16-2009 mobile wireless standard, is envisioned as the wireless network which will cover all areas of airport surfaces for next generation air transportation. It is expected to be implemented in the 5091-5150 MHz frequency band which is also occupied by mobile satellite service uplinks. Thus the AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. Simulations using Visualyse software were performed utilizing a global database of 6207 airports. Variations in base station and subscriber antenna distribution and gain pattern were examined. Based on these simulations, recommendations for global airport base station and subscriber antenna power transmission limitations are provided.

  10. Identification of MAC1: A Small Molecule That Rescues Spindle Bipolarity in Monastrol-Treated Cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Obaidi, Naowras; Mitchison, Timothy J; Crews, Craig M; Mayer, Thomas U

    2016-06-17

    The genetic integrity of each organism is intimately tied to the correct segregation of its genome during mitosis. Insights into the underlying mechanisms are fundamental for both basic research and the development of novel strategies to treat mitosis-relevant diseases such as cancer. Due to their fast mode of action, small molecules are invaluable tools to dissect mitosis. Yet, there is a great demand for novel antimitotic compounds. We performed a chemical genetic suppression screen to identify compounds that restore spindle bipolarity in cells treated with Monastrol, an inhibitor of the mitotic kinesin Eg5. We identified one compound-MAC1-that rescued spindle bipolarity in cells lacking Eg5 activity. Mechanistically, MAC1 induces the formation of additional microtubule nucleation centers, which allows kinesin Kif15-dependent bipolar spindle assembly in the absence of Eg5 activity. Thus, our chemical genetic suppression screen revealed novel unexpected insights into the mechanism of spindle assembly in mammalian cells.

  11. Reliable Acquisition of RAM Dumps from Intel-Based Apple Mac Computers over FireWire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, Pavel; Almansoori, Afrah

    RAM content acquisition is an important step in live forensic analysis of computer systems. FireWire offers an attractive way to acquire RAM content of Apple Mac computers equipped with a FireWire connection. However, the existing techniques for doing so require substantial knowledge of the target computer configuration and cannot be used reliably on a previously unknown computer in a crime scene. This paper proposes a novel method for acquiring RAM content of Apple Mac computers over FireWire, which automatically discovers necessary information about the target computer and can be used in the crime scene setting. As an application of the developed method, the techniques for recovery of AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) conversation fragments from RAM dumps are also discussed in this paper.

  12. Turbulent small-scale neutral and ion density fluctuations as measured during MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luebken, F.-J.; Hillert, W.; Vonzahn, U.; Blix, T. A.; Thrane, E. V.

    1989-01-01

    During the MAC/Epsilon campaign (Fall 1987, from Andoya, Northern Norway, 69 N, 16 E) a total of four altitude profiles of neutral gas number densities and six profiles of ion number densities were measured with high spatial resolution in the height range from 60 to 120 km. First results of these rocket-borne experiments are presented with emphasis on small scale turbulent density variations and related turbulent parameter as structure function constants and energy dissipation rates.

  13. General Douglas MacArthur Military Leadership Writing Competition, Command and General Staff College, 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...1 Managing Risk in Today’s Army This paper is the second place winner of the General Douglas MacArthur...principles to guide leaders at all levels. In support of this important objective, the manual offers a comprehensive framework for leadership that

  14. Environmental Assessment for Renovation and Small Addition for AGE Facility MacDill AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3 . DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Environmental Assessment...ENVIRONMENTAL PERMIT REQUIREMENTS..................................................... 3 2.0 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION AND ALTERNATIVES...Approximate Location of Aerospace Ground Equipment Facility in Relation to the 100-year Floodplain, MacDill Air Force Base Figure 3 -1 Demo Existing

  15. Microfabricated inserts for magic angle coil spinning (MACS) wireless NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Badilita, Vlad; Fassbender, Birgit; Kratt, Kai; Wong, Alan; Bonhomme, Christian; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Korvink, Jan G; Wallrabe, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development and testing of the first automatically microfabricated probes to be used in conjunction with the magic angle coil spinning (MACS) NMR technique. NMR spectroscopy is a versatile technique for a large range of applications, but its intrinsically low sensitivity poses significant difficulties in analyzing mass- and volume-limited samples. The combination of microfabrication technology and MACS addresses several well-known NMR issues in a concerted manner for the first time: (i) reproducible wafer-scale fabrication of the first-in-kind on-chip LC microresonator for inductive coupling of the NMR signal and reliable exploitation of MACS capabilities; (ii) improving the sensitivity and the spectral resolution by simultaneous spinning the detection microcoil together with the sample at the "magic angle" of 54.74° with respect to the direction of the magnetic field (magic angle spinning - MAS), accompanied by the wireless signal transmission between the microcoil and the primary circuit of the NMR spectrometer; (iii) given the high spinning rates (tens of kHz) involved in the MAS methodology, the microfabricated inserts exhibit a clear kinematic advantage over their previously demonstrated counterparts due to the inherent capability to produce small radius cylindrical geometries, thus tremendously reducing the mechanical stress and tearing forces on the sample. In order to demonstrate the versatility of the microfabrication technology, we have designed MACS probes for various Larmor frequencies (194, 500 and 700 MHz) testing several samples such as water, Drosophila pupae, adamantane solid and LiCl at different magic angle spinning speeds.

  16. Trainer’s Guide: Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator (MACS) Basic Rifle Marksmanship (M16 Rifle)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    Evans, K. L. (1989). Joint service mult’.umose arcade combat simulator ( JMACS ) user guide (ARI Research Product 89-23). Alexandria, VA: U. S. Army...troubleshooting of the JMACS hardware. Features of the JMACS training software and associated performance standards are also descnbed. The MACS BRM sofp- ware...described in the Trainer.Guide and the report by Broom and associates (1989) has replaced the JMACS training software throughout the services. The updated

  17. 3. Credit PEM. Interior of Martinsburg plant showing two MacIntousch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Credit PEM. Interior of Martinsburg plant showing two MacIntousch Seymore steam engines and one Taylor steam engine belt driving (from let to right) a sperry 30 light, 220 Volt generator, a Westinghouse 900 light, 2200 Volt generator, a Ball 80 light are generator, and two Edison, 900 light, 220 Volt generators. Note switchboard to left. Photo c. 1896. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  18. Infection of Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria.

    PubMed

    Balseiro, Ana; Merediz, Isabel; Sevilla, Iker A; García-Castro, Carmen; Gortázar, Christian; Prieto, José M; Delahay, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    There are few reports of infection with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteria in badgers. In this study archive data relating to the isolation of MAC organisms from badgers in the UK is presented, and information derived from recent cases of such infection in Spain is used to illustrate the associated pathology and to characterise strain types. Tissue samples were cultured for mycobacteria and, in the case of Spanish badgers, were examined both histopathologically and using immunohistochemistry, and DNA typing of M. avium isolates was also carried out. A total of 5 (7.35%) and 281 (0.51%) isolates of M. avium spp. were recovered from badgers from the studies in Spain and the UK, respectively. DNA typing of the isolates from Spain identified the sub-species M. avium hominissuis and M. avium avium. These findings provide new information on the prevalence of MAC organisms in badgers in the UK and Spain. The extent to which infected badgers may be involved in the epidemiology of M. avium in other wild or domestic hosts remains unknown.

  19. Scavenging of hydrogen peroxide by alveolar type II pneumocytes (ATII) and macrophages (MAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, L.; Slater, M.; Baker, R.; Matalon, S. )

    1990-02-26

    The pulmonary epithelium is often a target of increased concentrations of extracellularly generated reactive oxygen species (PROS). In this study the authors quantified whether freshly isolated ATII and unstimulated MAC may scavenge extracellularly generated hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and to determine the mechanisms involved. Cells were suspended in Eagles minimum essential medium and incubated with 500 {mu}M xanthine and 10 mU/ml xanthine oxidase for 60 min at 37C. In a separate series of experiments cells were preincubated with 10 {mu}M aminotriazole (ATZ) which decreased their catalase activity 60% of their initial values. Both ATII and MAC scavenged significant amounts of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. After exposure to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} cell viabilities for the control (-ATZ) and ATZ treated cells were {ge}50%. The ability of ATII and MAC to scavenge extracellular H{sub 2}O{sub 2} may protect the alveolar epithelium from reactive oxygen species injury.

  20. The MacGyver effect: alive and well in health services research?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a manner similar to the television action hero MacGyver, health services researchers need to respond to the pressure of unpredictable demands and constrained time frames. The results are often both innovative and functional, with the creation of outputs that could not have been anticipated in the initial planning and design of the research. Discussion In the conduct of health services research many challenges to robust research processes are generated as a result of the interface between academic research, health policy and implementation agendas. Within a complex and rapidly evolving environment the task of the health services researcher is, therefore, to juggle sometimes contradictory pressures to produce valid results. Summary This paper identifies the MacGyver-type dilemmas which arise in health services research, wherein innovation may be called for, to maintain the intended scientific method and rigour. These 'MacGyver drivers' are framed as opposing issues from the perspective of both academic and public policy communities. The ideas expressed in this paper are illustrated by four examples from research projects positioned at the interface between public policy strategy and academia. PMID:21929826

  1. Detection of Spoofed MAC Addresses in 802.11 Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Kai; Li, Jing; Sampalli, Srinivas

    Medium Access Control (MAC) address spoofing is considered as an important first step in a hacker's attempt to launch a variety of attacks on 802.11 wireless networks. Unfortunately, MAC address spoofing is hard to detect. Most current spoofing detection systems mainly use the sequence number (SN) tracking technique, which has drawbacks. Firstly, it may lead to an increase in the number of false positives. Secondly, such techniques cannot be used in systems with wireless cards that do not follow standard 802.11 sequence number patterns. Thirdly, attackers can forge sequence numbers, thereby causing the attacks to go undetected. We present a new architecture called WISE GUARD (Wireless Security Guard) for detection of MAC address spoofing on 802.11 wireless LANs. It integrates three detection techniques - SN tracking, Operating System (OS) fingerprinting & tracking and Received Signal Strength (RSS) fingerprinting & tracking. It also includes the fingerprinting of Access Point (AP) parameters as an extension to the OS fingerprinting for detection of AP address spoofing. We have implemented WISE GUARD on a test bed using off-the-shelf wireless devices and open source drivers. Experimental results show that the new design enhances the detection effectiveness and reduces the number of false positives in comparison with current approaches.

  2. Magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process: Preparation and optimization of particles for removal of transuranic elements

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Bradley, C.; Buchholz, B.A.; Aase, S.B.; Tuazon, H.E.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Landsberger, S.

    1995-05-01

    The Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process combines the selectivity afforded by solvent extractants with magnetic separation by using specially coated magnetic particles to provide a more efficient chemical separation of transuranic (TRU) elements, other radionuclides, and heavy metals from waste streams. Development of the MACS process uses chemical and physical techniques to elucidate the properties of particle coatings and the extent of radiolytic and chemical damage to the particles, and to optimize the stages of loading, extraction, and particle regeneration. This report describes the development of a separation process for TRU elements from various high-level waste streams. Polymer-coated ferromagnetic particles with an adsorbed layer of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) diluted with tributyl phosphate (TBP) were evaluated for use in the separation and recovery of americium and plutonium from nuclear waste solutions. Due to their chemical nature, these extractants selectively complex americium and plutonium contaminants onto the particles, which can then be recovered from the solution by using a magnet. The partition coefficients were larger than those expected based on liquid[liquid extractions, and the extraction proceeded with rapid kinetics. Extractants were stripped from the particles with alcohols and 400-fold volume reductions were achieved. Particles were more sensitive to acid hydrolysis than to radiolysis. Overall, the optimization of a suitable NMCS particle for TRU separation was achieved under simulant conditions, and a MACS unit is currently being designed for an in-lab demonstration.

  3. MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 lunar highland meteorites: General description and consortium overview

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, M.M. ); Schwarz, C.; Score, R. ); Mason, B. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 are new lunar meteorites returned from Antarctica by the 1988-1989 US meteorite collection team. The two specimens were found in nearby locations and, based on field and laboratory evidence, are thought to be pieces of the same meteorite. MAC88105 is the largest lunar meteorite yet found (662 g). MAC88104/5 is an anorthositic breccia consisting of numerous small clasts in a glassy matrix. An origin on the Moon is supported by mineral, bulk, and oxygen isotope compositions. A consortium of twenty research groups has studied these meteorites. Samples were prepared at the NASA Johnson Space Center meteorite processing laboratory. Details of consortium plans and allocations are documented herein. A summary list of lunar meteorites and an overview of consortium research is presented. Discussions in this and the following consortium papers involve the issue of paired meteorites and paired ejecta, and what new information about the nature and evolution of the lunar crust is provided by the lunar meteorites.

  4. Detection of Legionella, L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) along potable water distribution pipelines.

    PubMed

    Whiley, Harriet; Keegan, Alexandra; Fallowfield, Howard; Bentham, Richard

    2014-07-18

    Inhalation of potable water presents a potential route of exposure to opportunistic pathogens and hence warrants significant public health concern. This study used qPCR to detect opportunistic pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC at multiple points along two potable water distribution pipelines. One used chlorine disinfection and the other chloramine disinfection. Samples were collected four times over the year to provide seasonal variation and the chlorine or chloramine residual was measured during collection. Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC were detected in both distribution systems throughout the year and were all detected at a maximum concentration of 103 copies/mL in the chlorine disinfected system and 106, 103 and 104 copies/mL respectively in the chloramine disinfected system. The concentrations of these opportunistic pathogens were primarily controlled throughout the distribution network through the maintenance of disinfection residuals. At a dead-end and when the disinfection residual was not maintained significant (p < 0.05) increases in concentration were observed when compared to the concentration measured closest to the processing plant in the same pipeline and sampling period. Total coliforms were not present in any water sample collected. This study demonstrates the ability of Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and MAC to survive the potable water disinfection process and highlights the need for greater measures to control these organisms along the distribution pipeline and at point of use.

  5. Analysis of Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.

    2011-01-01

    To synchronize clocks between spacecraft in proximity, the Proximity-1 Space Link Interleaved Time Synchronization (PITS) Protocol has been proposed. PITS is based on the NTP Interleaved On-Wire Protocol and is capable of being adapted and integrated into CCSDS Proximity-1 Space Link Protocol with minimal modifications. In this work, we will discuss the correctness and liveness of PITS. Further, we analyze and evaluate the performance of time synchronization latency with various channel error rates in different PITS operational modes.

  6. Deformation, Failure, and Fatigue Life of SiC/Ti-15-3 Laminates Accurately Predicted by MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) (ref.1) has been extended to enable fully coupled macro-micro deformation, failure, and fatigue life predictions for advanced metal matrix, ceramic matrix, and polymer matrix composites. Because of the multiaxial nature of the code's underlying micromechanics model, GMC--which allows the incorporation of complex local inelastic constitutive models--MAC/GMC finds its most important application in metal matrix composites, like the SiC/Ti-15-3 composite examined here. Furthermore, since GMC predicts the microscale fields within each constituent of the composite material, submodels for local effects such as fiber breakage, interfacial debonding, and matrix fatigue damage can and have been built into MAC/GMC. The present application of MAC/GMC highlights the combination of these features, which has enabled the accurate modeling of the deformation, failure, and life of titanium matrix composites.

  7. Distributed reservation control protocols for random access broadcasting channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, E. P.; Ephremides, A.

    1981-05-01

    Attention is given to a communication network consisting of an arbitrary number of nodes which can communicate with each other via a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast channel. The reported investigation is concerned with the development of efficient distributed multiple access protocols for traffic consisting primarily of single packet messages in a datagram mode of operation. The motivation for the design of the protocols came from the consideration of efficient multiple access utilization of moderate to high bandwidth (4-40 Mbit/s capacity) communication satellite channels used for the transmission of short (1000-10,000 bits) fixed length packets. Under these circumstances, the ratio of roundtrip propagation time to packet transmission time is between 100 to 10,000. It is shown how a TDMA channel can be adaptively shared by datagram traffic and constant bandwidth users such as in digital voice applications. The distributed reservation control protocols described are a hybrid between contention and reservation protocols.

  8. Distributed reservation control protocols for random access broadcasting channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. P.; Ephremides, A.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to a communication network consisting of an arbitrary number of nodes which can communicate with each other via a time-division multiple access (TDMA) broadcast channel. The reported investigation is concerned with the development of efficient distributed multiple access protocols for traffic consisting primarily of single packet messages in a datagram mode of operation. The motivation for the design of the protocols came from the consideration of efficient multiple access utilization of moderate to high bandwidth (4-40 Mbit/s capacity) communication satellite channels used for the transmission of short (1000-10,000 bits) fixed length packets. Under these circumstances, the ratio of roundtrip propagation time to packet transmission time is between 100 to 10,000. It is shown how a TDMA channel can be adaptively shared by datagram traffic and constant bandwidth users such as in digital voice applications. The distributed reservation control protocols described are a hybrid between contention and reservation protocols.

  9. Improving security in the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Benjamin E.

    1992-09-01

    The arrival of high speed packet switched fiber optic LAN's has allowed local area design architectures to be used for larger metropolitan area network (MAN) implementations. The current LAN security mechanisms used in larger and faster fiber optic LAN's and MAN's are often inappropriate or unacceptable for use with emerging applications. The protocol of the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) standard provides a natural means for message integrity and availability verification. However, privacy in FDDI is facilitated at higher layers through a generic LAN standard. This thesis proposes a modification to the FDDI protocol implemented at the medium access control (MAC) sublayer, which integrates a confidentiality mechanism for data transfer. The modification provides a simple comprehensive security package to meet the high performance needs of current and emerging applications. In the proposed modification, the inherent properties of the ring are exploited using a unique Central Key Translator to distribute initial session keys. A symmetric bit stream cipher based on modulo2 addition is used for encryption/decryption by the transmitting and receiving stations. Part of the plain text from transmitted message frames is used as feedback to generate new session keys.

  10. Simultaneous mobilization of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) and formyl peptide chemoattractant receptors in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Graves, V; Gabig, T; McCarthy, L; Strour, E F; Leemhuis, T; English, D

    1992-08-01

    Mobilization of a distinct subset of specific granules provides a physiologically important mechanism to recruit Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) from an intracellular pool to the external surface of the neutrophil plasma membrane, where the functionally active heterodimer mediates several adherence-dependent processes that are crucial for adequate host defense and cellular inflammatory responses. We observed similar characteristics for translocation of Mac-1 and neutrophil formyl peptide receptors (FPR) and hypothesize that the readily accessible pools of both Mac-1 and FPR are colocalized within this specific granule subset. Plasma membrane levels of both FPR (assessed with 3H-FMLP) and Mac-1 (assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]-Mo-1-labeled cells) were markedly downregulated in cells prepared at low temperature from blood cooled to 4 degrees C immediately after removal from the circulation. Levels of both FPR and Mac-1 remained low on cells held at 4 degrees C. Upon warming, spontaneous upregulation of Mac-1 and FPR occurred with similar kinetics and temperature dependency. Translocation of both Mac-1 and FPR was markedly potentiated by exposure of cells to either fluoride ion (which has been shown by others to specifically elicit exocytosis of gelatinase-rich and vitamin B-12 binding protein-poor granules) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a cytokine that markedly potentiates the neutrophils' host defense capabilities. Levels of both FPR and Mac-1 on F-- or GM-CSF-treated neutrophils exceeded those present on cells incubated at 37 degrees C for extended time intervals, indicating that stimulated translocation may involve mobilization of an additional granule subset. Scatchard analysis showed that only low-affinity FPR were translocated during spontaneous and stimulus-dependent upregulation. To directly compare FPR levels on the surface of cells displaying varying levels of Mac-1 within a

  11. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  12. Protocol Architecture Model Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs in communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space. GRC tasked Computer Networks and Software Inc. (CNS) to examine protocols and architectures for an In-Space Internet Node. CNS has developed a methodology for network reference models to support NASA's four mission areas: Earth Science, Space Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS), Aerospace Technology. This report applies the methodology to three space Internet-based communications scenarios for future missions. CNS has conceptualized, designed, and developed space Internet-based communications protocols and architectures for each of the independent scenarios. The scenarios are: Scenario 1: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) spacecraft inspace Internet node and a ground terminal Internet node via a Tracking and Data Rela Satellite (TDRS) transfer; Scenario 2: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) International Space Station and a ground terminal Internet node via a TDRS transfer; Scenario 3: Multicast Communications (or "Multicasting"), 1 Spacecraft to N Ground Receivers, N Ground Transmitters to 1 Ground Receiver via a Spacecraft.

  13. Heterogeneity of the Mac-1 expression on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with different types of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Katarzyna; Klink, Magdalena; Wilczyński, Jacek R; Szyłło, Krzysztof; Malinowski, Andrzej; Sułowska, Zofia; Nowak, Marek

    2016-02-01

    The expression level of Mac-1 on the surface of neutrophils is an important indicator of neutrophil activation. Under pathological conditions, Mac-1 is believed a key adhesion molecule that facilitates cancer progression and mediates the adhesion of tumour cells to the endothelium of blood vessels. Our previous findings indicated that circulating peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) expressed enhanced levels of Mac-1, which was functionally associated with an increased adhesive function of neutrophils. The objective of the current study was to analyse whether the value of individual components of the differential white cell count, including the neutrophil and lymphocyte ratios, which are markers of blood neutrophil activation, might be associated with certain types of ovarian cancer. We showed the increase in Mac-1 expression along with a parallel decrease of L-selectin and PSGL-1 on peripheral blood neutrophils of patients with EOC of early and advanced FIGO stages, which indicates an activated state of neutrophils in comparison to neutrophils of individuals without cancer. Despite a significant difference between Mac-1 expression in patients with and without cancer, a dramatic increase in Mac-1 expression was observed in the blood of patients with undifferentiated carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC. Moreover, the expression level of Mac-1 correlated with the number of neutrophils in patients with serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated EOC. The results of an ROC analysis demonstrated that the patients with the undifferentiated type of EOC form a distinct group with regard to Mac-1 expression on blood neutrophils. The results suggested a diverse biological cadre of immune cells in patients with undifferentiated ovarian carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC.

  14. LFA-1 and Mac-1 define characteristically different intralumenal crawling and emigration patterns for monocytes and neutrophils in situ.

    PubMed

    Sumagin, Ronen; Prizant, Hen; Lomakina, Elena; Waugh, Richard E; Sarelius, Ingrid H

    2010-12-01

    To exit blood vessels, most (∼80%) of the lumenally adhered monocytes and neutrophils crawl toward locations that support transmigration. Using intravital confocal microscopy of anesthetized mouse cremaster muscle, we separately examined the crawling and emigration patterns of monocytes and neutrophils in blood-perfused unstimulated or TNF-α-activated venules. Most of the interacting cells in microvessels are neutrophils; however, in unstimulated venules, a greater percentage of the total monocyte population is adherent compared with neutrophils (58.2 ± 6.1% versus 13.6 ± 0.9%, adhered/total interacting), and they crawl for significantly longer distances (147.3 ± 13.4 versus 61.8 ± 5.4 μm). Intriguingly, after TNF-α activation, monocytes crawled for significantly shorter distances (67.4 ± 9.6 μm), resembling neutrophil crawling. Using function-blocking Abs, we show that these different crawling patterns were due to CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1)- versus CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1)-mediated crawling. Blockade of either Mac-1 or LFA-1 revealed that both LFA-1 and Mac-1 contribute to monocyte crawling; however, the LFA-1-dependent crawling in unstimulated venules becomes Mac-1 dependent upon inflammation, likely due to increased expression of Mac-1. Mac-1 alone was responsible for neutrophil crawling in both unstimulated and TNF-α-activated venules. Consistent with the role of Mac-1 in crawling, Mac-1 block (compared with LFA-1) was also significantly more efficient in blocking TNF-α-induced extravasation of both monocytes and neutrophils in cremaster tissue and the peritoneal cavity. Thus, mechanisms underlying leukocyte crawling are important in regulating the inflammatory responses by regulating the numbers of leukocytes that transmigrate.

  15. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... portion of the base at latitude 27°51′52.901″ N., longitude 82°29′18.329″ W., thence directly to latitude... contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.635 Section 334.635 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted...

  16. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... portion of the base at latitude 27°51′52.901″ N., longitude 82°29′18.329″ W., thence directly to latitude... contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.635 Section 334.635 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted...

  17. 33 CFR 334.635 - Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... portion of the base at latitude 27°51′52.901″ N., longitude 82°29′18.329″ W., thence directly to latitude... contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.635 Section 334.635 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.635 Hillsborough Bay and waters contiguous to MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted...

  18. A mechanical stimulator for the determination of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of halothane in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Sobair, A T; Cottrell, D F; Camburn, M A

    1993-01-01

    The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of halothane was determined in New Zealand White rabbits. Tracheal anaesthetic concentrations were measured using a Siemens Servo Gas Monitor. A stimulator was used to deliver precisely controlled mechanical stimuli for the determination of MAC. Movement of the rabbit's head was recorded using a force transducer attached to the teeth. Evidence is presented that for the determination of MAC a precise nociceptive threshold is preferable to the so-called supramaximal stimulus used in clinical anaesthesia and in determination of anaesthetic potency. We conclude that techniques for the determination of MAC which disregard either sensitization of sensory mechanisms by producing tissue inflammation or the possibility of nerve compression by severe mechanical stimuli are of questionable value. The use of the mechanical stimulator described, or a similar device, would help in the standardization of the determination of MAC in all species by facilitating the application of a force of controlled amplitude, duration and velocity, thereby removing some of the variables which confound comparative studies of MAC.

  19. Implementation of Symptom Protocols for Nurses Providing Telephone‐Based Cancer Symptom Management: A Comparative Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Esther; Ballantyne, Barbara; Tarasuk, Joy; Skrutkowski, Myriam; Carley, Meg; Chapman, Kim; Kuziemsky, Craig; Kolari, Erin; Sabo, Brenda; Saucier, Andréanne; Shaw, Tara; Tardif, Lucie; Truant, Tracy; Cummings, Greta G.; Howell, Doris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The pan‐Canadian Oncology Symptom Triage and Remote Support (COSTaRS) team developed 13 evidence‐informed protocols for symptom management. Aim To build an effective and sustainable approach for implementing the COSTaRS protocols for nurses providing telephone‐based symptom support to cancer patients. Methods A comparative case study was guided by the Knowledge to Action Framework. Three cases were created for three Canadian oncology programs that have nurses providing telephone support. Teams of researchers and knowledge users: (a) assessed barriers and facilitators influencing protocol use, (b) adapted protocols for local use, (c) intervened to address barriers, (d) monitored use, and (e) assessed barriers and facilitators influencing sustained use. Analysis was within and across cases. Results At baseline, >85% nurses rated protocols positively but barriers were identified (64‐80% needed training). Patients and families identified similar barriers and thought protocols would enhance consistency among nurses teaching self‐management. Twenty‐two COSTaRS workshops reached 85% to 97% of targeted nurses (N = 119). Nurses felt more confident with symptom management and using the COSTaRS protocols (p < .01). Protocol adaptations addressed barriers (e.g., health records approval, creating pocket versions, distributing with telephone messages). Chart audits revealed that protocols used were documented for 11% to 47% of patient calls. Sustained use requires organizational alignment and ongoing leadership support. Linking Evidence to Action Protocol uptake was similar to trials that have evaluated tailored interventions to improve professional practice by overcoming identified barriers. Collaborating with knowledge users facilitated interpretation of findings, aided protocol adaptation, and supported implementation. Protocol implementation in nursing requires a tailored approach. A multifaceted intervention approach increased nurses’ use

  20. Early Vocabulary Development in Deaf Native Signers: A British Sign Language Adaptation of the Communicative Development Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolfe, Tyron; Herman, Rosalind; Roy, Penny; Woll, Bencie

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of assessments of sign language development in young deaf children. This study gathered age-related scores from a sample of deaf native signing children using an adapted version of the MacArthur-Bates CDI (Fenson et al., 1994). Method: Parental reports on children's receptive and expressive signing were collected…

  1. Preparation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) from naive and pancreatic tumor-bearing mice using flow cytometry and automated magnetic activated cell sorting (AutoMACS).

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nadine; Szekeres, Karoly; Cooper, Denise; Ghansah, Tomar

    2012-06-18

    MDSC are a heterogeneous population of immature macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes that accumulate in lymphoid organs in pathological conditions including parasitic infection, inflammation, traumatic stress, graft-versus-host disease, diabetes and cancer. In mice, MDSC express Mac-1 (CD11b) and Gr-1 (Ly6G and Ly6C) surface antigens. It is important to note that MDSC are well studied in various tumor-bearing hosts where they are significantly expanded and suppress anti-tumor immune responses compared to naïve counterparts. However, depending on the pathological condition, there are different subpopulations of MDSC with distinct mechanisms and targets of suppression. Therefore, effective methods to isolate viable MDSC populations are important in elucidating their different molecular mechanisms of suppression in vitro and in vivo. Recently, the Ghansah group has reported the expansion of MDSC in a murine pancreatic cancer model. Our tumor-bearing MDSC display a loss of homeostasis and increased suppressive function compared to naïve MDSC. MDSC percentages are significantly less in lymphoid compartments of naïve vs. tumor-bearing mice. This is a major caveat, which often hinders accurate comparative analyses of these MDSC. Therefore, enriching Gr-1(+) leukocytes from naïve mice prior to Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) enhances purity, viability and significantly reduces sort time. However, enrichment of Gr-1(+) leukocytes from tumor-bearing mice is optional as these are in abundance for quick FACS sorting. Therefore, in this protocol, we describe a highly efficient method of immunophenotyping MDSC and enriching Gr-1(+) leukocytes from spleens of naïve mice for sorting MDSC in a timely manner. Immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice are inoculated with murine Panc02 cells subcutaneously whereas naïve mice receive 1XPBS. Approximately 30 days post inoculation; spleens are harvested and processed into single-cell suspensions using a cell dissociation

  2. Climate adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  3. Space Wire Upper Layer Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn; Schnurr, Richard; Gilley, Daniel; Parkes, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses efforts to provide a streamlined approach for developing SpaceWire Upper layer protocols which allows industry to drive standardized communication solutions for real projects. The presentation proposes a simple packet header that will allow flexibility in implementing a diverse range of protocols.

  4. Supervised fully polarimetric classification of the Black Forest test site: From MAESTROI to MAC Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degrandi, G.; Lavalle, C.; Degroof, H.; Sieber, A.

    1992-01-01

    A study on the performance of a supervised fully polarimetric maximum likelihood classifier for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data when applied to a specific classification context: forest classification based on age classes and in the presence of a sloping terrain is presented. For the experimental part, the polarimetric AIRSAR data at P, L, and C-band, acquired over the German Black Forest near Freiburg in the frame of the 1989 MAESTRO-1 campaign and the 1991 MAC Europe campaign was used, MAESTRO-1 with an ESA/JRC sponsored campaign, and MAC Europe (Multi-sensor Aircraft Campaign); in both cases the multi-frequency polarimetric JPL Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) radar was flown over a number of European test sites. The study is structured as follows. At first, the general characteristics of the classifier and the dependencies from some parameters, like frequency bands, feature vector, calibration, using test areas lying on a flat terrain are investigated. Once it is determined the optimal conditions for the classifier performance, we then move on to the study of the slope effect. The bulk of this work is performed using the Maestrol data set. Next the classifier performance with the MAC Europe data is considered. The study is divided into two stages: first some of the tests done on the Maestro data are repeated, to highlight the improvements due to the new processing scheme that delivers 16 look data. Second we experiment with multi images classification with two goals: to assess the possibility of using a training set measured from one image to classify areas in different images; and to classify areas on critical slopes using different viewing angles. The main points of the study are listed and some of the results obtained so far are highlighted.

  5. Micromechanics Analysis Code With Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC): User Guide. Version 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.; Bednarcyk, B. A.; Wilt, T. E.; Trowbridge, D.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code, MAC, who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells, GMC, micromechanics model is described. MAC/ GMC is a versatile form of research software that "drives" the double or triply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC/GMC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein 1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control) and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed, 2) different integration algorithms may be selected, 3) a variety of material constitutive models (both deformation and life) may be utilized and/or implemented, and 4) a variety of fiber architectures (both unidirectional, laminate and woven) may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements contained within the supplied library of RVEs or input directly by the user, and 5) graphical post processing of the macro and/or micro field quantities is made available.

  6. Dietary carbohydrate, a Big Mac, and insulin requirements in type I diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vlachokosta, F V; Piper, C M; Gleason, R; Kinzel, L; Kahn, C R

    1988-04-01

    Using the artificial beta-cell (Biostator), we determined the insulin requirements in five nonobese type I (insulin-dependent) diabetic subjects who received isocaloric 40 and 60% mixed-carbohydrate diets in a crossover randomized fashion for 4 days, each day consisting of four equal meals. This was followed on day 5 by a "Big Mac Attack" lunch consisting of a Big Mac, french fries, and milk shake. Insulin requirements to maintain normoglycemia were calculated for each 24-h period and for the 2 h after each meal. The mean 24-h insulin requirements to maintain normoglycemia was greater for the 60% carbohydrate diet than the 40% diet. Although the four meals were of equal size, in all patients the insulin required to cover breakfast greater than lunch greater than dinner greater than or equal to snack. Expressed as milliunits per kilocalorie, the amount of insulin to cover breakfast was greater for the 60% (P less than .05) than the 40% carbohydrate diet and greater for breakfast than the other meals (P less than .01). Insulin requirements for the Big Mac (43% carbohydrate) were 58% greater than for the 40% carbohydrate diet, even after correction for caloric differences. In summary, 1) increasing dietary carbohydrate from 40 to 60% results in an increased insulin requirement for meals only; 2) insulin requirements are greater in the morning than in the evening, even when meal size is constant; and 3) very large meals with high fat and carbohydrate content result in a major increase in insulin requirement. These data indicate that diet has an important impact on insulin requirements in diabetes.

  7. Sounding of the plasmasphere by Mid-continent MAgnetoseismic Chain (McMAC) magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, P. J.; Engebretson, M. J.; Moldwin, M. B.; Russell, C. T.; Mann, I. R.; Hairston, M. R.; Reno, M.; Goldstein, J.; Winkler, L. I.; Cruz-Abeyro, J. L.; Lee, D.-H.; Yumoto, K.; Dalrymple, R.; Chen, B.; Gibson, J. P.

    2013-06-01

    We present a statistical analysis on the plasmaspheric mass density derived from the field line resonance (FLR) observations by the Mid-continent MAgnetoseismic Chain (McMAC). McMAC consists of nine stations in the United States and Mexico along the 330° magnetic longitude, spanning L-values between 1.5 and 3.4. Using the gradient method and an automated procedure for FLR detection, we studied a full year of McMAC observations between July 2006 and June 2007. We find that the rate of FLR detection can reach as high as 56% around local noon at L = 2.7, and the detection rates at higher and lower L-values decline due to the occasional presence of the plasmapause and weaker FLR signals, respectively. At L-values between 1.8 and 3.1, the inferred equatorial plasma mass density follows the L-dependence of L-4. By comparing the mass density with the electron density, we found that the ion mass gradually decreased from 1.7 amu at L = 1.8 to 1 amu at L = 3.1. The plasma mass density exhibits an annual variation that maximizes in January, and at L = 2.4 the ratio between January and July densities is 1.6. Our observations also show a local time dependence of plasmaspheric mass density that stays steady in the morning and rises postnoon, a phenomenon that may be attributed to the equatorial ionization anomaly as a part of the plasma neutral coupling at low latitude.

  8. Subretinal transplantation of MACS purified photoreceptor precursor cells into the adult mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Dominic; Santos-Ferreira, Tiago; Grahl, Sandra; Ader, Marius

    2014-02-22

    Vision impairment and blindness due to the loss of the light-sensing cells of the retina, i.e. photoreceptors, represents the main reason for disability in industrialized countries. Replacement of degenerated photoreceptors by cell transplantation represents a possible treatment option in future clinical applications. Indeed, recent preclinical studies demonstrated that immature photoreceptors, isolated from the neonatal mouse retina at postnatal day 4, have the potential to integrate into the adult mouse retina following subretinal transplantation. Donor cells generated a mature photoreceptor morphology including inner and outer segments, a round cell body located at the outer nuclear layer, and synaptic terminals in close proximity to endogenous bipolar cells. Indeed, recent reports demonstrated that donor photoreceptors functionally integrate into the neural circuitry of host mice. For a future clinical application of such cell replacement approach, purified suspensions of the cells of choice have to be generated and placed at the correct position for proper integration into the eye. For the enrichment of photoreceptor precursors, sorting should be based on specific cell surface antigens to avoid genetic reporter modification of donor cells. Here we show magnetic-associated cell sorting (MACS) - enrichment of transplantable rod photoreceptor precursors isolated from the neonatal retina of photoreceptor-specific reporter mice based on the cell surface marker CD73. Incubation with anti-CD73 antibodies followed by micro-bead conjugated secondary antibodies allowed the enrichment of rod photoreceptor precursors by MACS to approximately 90%. In comparison to flow cytometry, MACS has the advantage that it can be easier applied to GMP standards and that high amounts of cells can be sorted in relative short time periods. Injection of enriched cell suspensions into the subretinal space of adult wild-type mice resulted in a 3-fold higher integration rate compared to

  9. MC2: Dynamical Analysis of the Merging Galaxy Cluster MACS J1149.5+2223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovich, Nathan; Dawson, William A.; Wittman, David; Ogrean, Georgiana; van Weeren, Reinout; Bonafede, Annalisa

    2016-11-01

    We present an analysis of the merging cluster MACS J1149.5+2223 using archival imaging from Subaru/Suprime-Cam and multi-object spectroscopy from Keck/DEIMOS and Gemini/GMOS. We employ two- and three-dimensional substructure tests and determine that MACS J1149.5+2223 is composed of two separate mergers among three subclusters occurring ˜1 Gyr apart. The primary merger gives rise to elongated X-ray morphology and a radio relic in the southeast. The brightest cluster galaxy is a member of the northern subcluster of the primary merger. This subcluster is very massive ({16.7}-1.60+1.25× {10}14 {M}⊙ ). The southern subcluster is also very massive ({10.8}-3.54+3.37× {10}14 {M}⊙ ), yet it lacks an associated X-ray surface brightness peak, and it has been unidentified previously despite the detailed study of this Frontier Field cluster. A secondary merger is occurring in the north along the line of sight (LOS) with a third, less massive subcluster ({1.20}-0.34+0.19× {10}14 {M}⊙ ). We perform a Monte Carlo dynamical analysis on the main merger and estimate a collision speed at pericenter of {2770}-310+610 km s-1. We show the merger to be returning from apocenter with core passage occurring {1.16}-0.25+0.50 Gyr before the observed state. We identify the LOS merging subcluster in a strong lensing analysis in the literature and show that it is likely bound to MACS J1149 despite having reached an extreme collision velocity of ˜4000 km s-1.

  10. Proposal to elevate Mycobacterium avium complex ITS sequevar MAC-Q to Mycobacterium vulneris sp. nov.

    PubMed

    van Ingen, J; Boeree, M J; Kösters, K; Wieland, A; Tortoli, E; Dekhuijzen, P N R; van Soolingen, D

    2009-09-01

    The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) consists of four recognized species, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium colombiense, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium chimaera, and a variety of other strains that may be members of undescribed taxa. We report on two isolates of a scotochromogenic, slowly growing, non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species within the M. avium complex from a lymph node and an infected wound after a dogbite of separate patients in The Netherlands. The extrapulmonary infections in immunocompetent patients suggested a high level of virulence. These isolates were characterized by a unique nucleotide sequence in the 16S rRNA gene, 99% similar to Mycobacterium colombiense, and the MAC-Q 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence. Sequence analyses of the hsp65 gene revealed 97% similarity to M. avium. The rpoB gene sequence was 98% similar to M. colombiense. Phenotypically, the scotochromogenicity, positive semi-quantitative catalase and heat-stable catalase tests, negative tellurite reductase and urease tests and susceptibility to hydroxylamine and oleic acid set these isolates apart from related species. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of cell-wall mycolic acid content revealed a unique pattern, related to that of M. avium and M. colombiense. Together, these findings supported a separate species status within the Mycobacterium avium complex. We propose elevation of scotochromogenic M. avium complex strains sharing this 16S gene and MAC-Q ITS sequence to separate species status, for which the name Mycobacterium vulneris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NLA000700772T (=DSM 45247T=CIP 109859T).

  11. Characterization and Conductivity Behavior of Magnetic Activated Carbon (MAC) from FeCl2.4H2O-Containing Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aripin, Department Of Physics, Faculty Of Mathematics; Natural Science, Haluoleo University, Kampus Bumi Tridharma Anduonohu Kendari 93232 Indonesia

    2007-05-01

    Activated carbons (AC) and magnetic-containing activated carbons (MAC) have been synthesized using coconut shells as carbon sources and FeCl2.4H2O as magnetic precursor. The samples were characterized by nitrogen sorption, XRD, and FTIR. The BET surface area and total pore volume of MAC increase as the temperature increased. AC has XRD peaks, which evidences an amorphous carbon framework and MAC shows that this material consists of an organized carbon with the nanocrystalline magnetite embedded in its structure. The FTIR spectrum of MAC shows that carboxyl groups decreased as the temperature increased. Absorption bands of MAC shows the stretching and torsional vibration modes of the magnetite Fe-O bond in tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively. The electrical conductivity studies showed that conductivity of MAC is more than the AC due to structural properties of carbons exists on a framework containing metal structures.

  12. Distributed simulation of network protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterra, Frank; Overstreet, C. Michael; Maly, Kurt J.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations of high speed network protocols are very CPU intensive operations requiring very long run times. Very high speed network protocols (Gigabit/sec rates) require longer simulation runs in order to reach a steady state, while at the same time requiring additional CPU processing for each unit of time because of the data rates for the traffic being simulated. As protocol development proceeds and simulations provide insights into any problems associated with the protocol, the simulation model often must be changed to generate additional or finer statistical performance information. Iterating on this process is very time consuming due to the required run times for the simulation models. The results of the efforts to distribute a high speed ring network protocol, Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN), are presented.

  13. Coal-Mac, Inc. Phoenix No. 1 mine provides wildlife haven. 2007 Wildlife West Virginia Award

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, A.

    2007-07-15

    Coal Mac, Inc.'s Harless Wood Industrial Park off Holden 22 Mines Road in Logan Country, West Virginia is an award-winning reclamation site in the mountains frequented by geese, wild turkey, deer and black bears. Orchard grass and rye is a temporary cover for the timothy, clover and other seedlings. The area was mined several years ago. Some 40,000-50,000 tons of coal per month are surfaced mined with the current permit that takes in 1,500-2,000 acres. After removing the coal, valleys are backfilled as part of the mining and reclamation plan. 10 photos.

  14. Results of exploratory drilling at Point MacKenzie, Alaska, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patrick, Leslie

    1981-01-01

    The Matanuska-Susitna Borough anticipates industrial development near Point MacKenzie, Alaska. Because little hydrologic information is available for the area, the Borough contracted for the drilling of two test wells. It was found that: Both wells penetrated unconsolidated stratified clay, silt, sand, and gravel; each well penetrated a shallow unconfined and deeper confined aquifers; the water levels in the wells rise and fall with the tide; the chemical analyses indicate that the water quality meets the Alaska Drinking Water Standards, except for slightly high levels of manganese and pH; and the potential for saltwater intrusion should be evaluated as part of future studies. (USGS)

  15. SBMAC: smart blocking MAC mechanism for variable UW-ASN (Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network) environment.

    PubMed

    Shin, Soo-Young; Namgung, Jung-Il; Park, Soo-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, several MAC scheduling methods applicable to an underwater environment are proposed. Besides, a new marine communication system model was proposed to improve the reliability of the proposed SBMAC method. The scheme minimizes transmission of control frames except for data transmission and various transmission methods and ACK methods can be used together. Simulation models are set indices and analysis of the underwater environment is established to conduct reliable simulations. Consequently, the performance improvement of the proposed method is verified with respect to delay time, data transmission rate, memory utilization, energy efficiency, etc.

  16. 7 years of MacGyver sessions at EGU and AGU: what happened?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; Selker, John; Weijs, Steven; Luxemburg, Wim; Wickert, Andy; Blume, Theresa; Bamburger, Jan; Stoof, Cathelijne; Tauro, Flavia

    2016-04-01

    The session that this poster is in, the: "Self-made sensors and unintended use of measurement equipment", also known as the "MacGyver-session" has had 7 years of scientists contributing their self made devices, hacks and solutions with the hydrological community. In 2009, the first session was held at the AGU fall meeting and since 2011 a session is also organised at the EGU General Assembly. On this poster, and in the accompanying review paper, we will present an overview of the work presented in the last 7 years, cataloging the work of the inventive scientists who have contributed to these successful, and above all: fun, sessions.

  17. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  18. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  19. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  20. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  1. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  2. Maize multiple archesporial cells 1 (mac1), an ortholog of rice TDL1A, modulates cell proliferation and identity in early anther development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Ju Rachel; Nan, Guo-Ling; Kelliher, Timothy; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Vernoud, Vanessa; Golubovskaya, Inna N; Harper, Lisa; Egger, Rachel; Walbot, Virginia; Cande, W Zacheus

    2012-07-01

    To ensure fertility, complex somatic and germinal cell proliferation and differentiation programs must be executed in flowers. Loss-of-function of the maize multiple archesporial cells 1 (mac1) gene increases the meiotically competent population and ablates specification of somatic wall layers in anthers. We report the cloning of mac1, which is the ortholog of rice TDL1A. Contrary to prior studies in rice and Arabidopsis in which mac1-like genes were inferred to act late to suppress trans-differentiation of somatic tapetal cells into meiocytes, we find that mac1 anthers contain excess archesporial (AR) cells that proliferate at least twofold more rapidly than normal prior to tapetal specification, suggesting that MAC1 regulates cell proliferation. mac1 transcript is abundant in immature anthers and roots. By immunolocalization, MAC1 protein accumulates preferentially in AR cells with a declining radial gradient that could result from diffusion. By transient expression in onion epidermis, we demonstrate experimentally that MAC1 is secreted, confirming that the predicted signal peptide domain in MAC1 leads to secretion. Insights from cytology and double-mutant studies with ameiotic1 and absence of first division1 mutants confirm that MAC1 does not affect meiotic cell fate; it also operates independently of an epidermal, Ocl4-dependent pathway that regulates proliferation of subepidermal cells. MAC1 both suppresses excess AR proliferation and is responsible for triggering periclinal division of subepidermal cells. We discuss how MAC1 can coordinate the temporal and spatial pattern of cell proliferation in maize anthers.

  3. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results.

  4. RIC versus MAC UCBT in adults with AML: A report from Eurocord, the ALWP and the CTIWP of the EBMT

    PubMed Central

    Beohou, Eric; Labopin, Myriam; Sanz, Guillermo; Milpied, Noel; Michallet, Mauricette; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Blaise, Didier; Sierra, Jorge; Socié, Gérard; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Schmid, Christoph; Giebel, Sebastian; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Esteve, Jordi; Ciceri, Fabio; Savani, Bipin N.; Mohty, Mohamad; Gluckman, Eliane; Nagler, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) is the first cause of treatment failure after unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) following myeloablative conditioning (MAC). In the last decade, reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have been developed with the aim of reducing NRM and allowing older patients and those with medical comorbidities to benefit from UCBT. The aim of the current retrospective study was to compare transplantation outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients given UCBT after either RIC or MAC. Data from 894 adults with AML receiving a single or double UCBT as first allograft from 2004 to 2013 at EBMT centers were included in this study. 415 patients were given UCBT after RIC while 479 patients following a MAC. In comparison to MAC recipients, RIC recipients had a similar incidence of neutrophil engraftment and of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, RIC recipients had a higher incidence of disease relapse and a lower NRM, translating to comparable leukemia-free (LFS), GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) and overall survival (OS). These observations remained qualitatively similar after adjusting for differences between groups in multivariate analyses. In conclusion, these data suggest that LFS and OS are similar with RIC or with MAC in adults AML patients transplanted with UCBT. These observations could serve as basis for a future prospective randomized study. PMID:27250025

  5. Application of open-source photogrammetric software MicMac for monitoring surface deformation in laboratory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Olivier; Bertelsen, Hâvard S.; Guldstrand, Frank; Girod, Luc; Johannessen, Rikke F.; Bjugger, Fanny; Burchardt, Steffi; Mair, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying deformation is essential in modern laboratory models of geological systems. This paper presents a new laboratory monitoring method through the implementation of the open-source software MicMac, which efficiently implements photogrammetry in Structure-from-Motion algorithms. Critical evaluation is provided using results from two example laboratory geodesy scenarios: magma emplacement and strike-slip faulting. MicMac automatically processes images from synchronized cameras to compute time series of digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthorectified images of model surfaces. MicMac also implements digital image correlation to produce high-resolution displacements maps. The resolution of DEMs and displacement maps corresponds to the pixel size of the processed images. Using 24 MP cameras, the precision of DEMs and displacements is ~0.05 mm on a 40 × 40 cm surface. Processing displacement maps with Matlab® scripts allows automatic fracture mapping on the monitored surfaces. MicMac also offers the possibility to integrate 3-D models of excavated structures with the corresponding surface deformation data. The high resolution and high precision of MicMac results and the ability to generate virtual 3-D models of complex structures make it a very promising tool for quantitative monitoring in laboratory models of geological systems.

  6. A WiSN node SoC with real-time image compressor and IEEE 802.15.4 MAC accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Renyan; Liu, Leibo; Yin, Shouyi; Luo, Ao; Chen, Xinkai; Wei, Shaojun

    2014-11-01

    This article presents a wireless image sensor node SoC (system-on-a-chip) for low-power wireless image sensor network (WiSN), in which camera chip interface, high-quality image compression and IEEE 802.15.4 compliant acceleration modules are integrated on chip. The proposed SoC contains a hardware-implemented real-time lossless JPEG (JPEG-LS) compression engine for Bayer Color Filter Arrays (Bayer CFA), reaching a 3.5 bits/pixel with peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) greater than 46.3 dB and achieving a maximum 5 frames/s @16 MHz for VGA (640 × 480) colour images. The proposed hardware accelerator for IEEE 802.15.4 media access control (MAC) layer covers crucial protocol defined functions and algorithms, and reduces 45% software code in the host processor. This SoC has been fabricated in UMC 0.18 µm 1P6M CMOS process. The average power of the prototype chip is 18.2 mW at 3.0 V power supply and 16 MHz clock rate.

  7. The ALMA Frontier Fields Survey. I. 1.1 mm continuum detections in Abell 2744, MACS J0416.1-2403 and MACS J1149.5+2223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-López, J.; Bauer, F. E.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Kneissl, R.; Villard, E.; Carvajal, R.; Kim, S.; Laporte, N.; Anguita, T.; Aravena, M.; Bouwens, R. J.; Bradley, L.; Carrasco, M.; Demarco, R.; Ford, H.; Ibar, E.; Infante, L.; Messias, H.; Muñoz Arancibia, A. M.; Nagar, N.; Padilla, N.; Treister, E.; Troncoso, P.; Zitrin, A.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Dusty star-forming galaxies are among the most prodigious systems at high redshift (z > 1), characterized by high star-formation rates and huge dust reservoirs. The bright end of this population has been well characterized in recent years, but considerable uncertainties remain for fainter dusty star-forming galaxies, which are responsible for the bulk of star formation at high redshift and thus play a key role in galaxy growth and evolution. Aims: In this first paper of our series, we describe our methods for finding high redshift faint dusty galaxies using millimeter observations with ALMA. Methods: We obtained ALMA 1.1 mm mosaic images for three strong-lensing galaxy clusters from the Frontier Fields Survey, which constitute some of the best studied gravitational lenses to date. The ≈2' × 2' mosaics overlap with the deep HST WFC3/IR footprints and encompass the high magnification regions of each cluster for maximum intrinsic source sensitivity. The combination of extremely high ALMA sensitivity and the magnification power of these clusters allows us to systematically probe the sub-mJy population of dusty star-forming galaxies over a large surveyed area. Results: We present a description of the reduction and analysis of the ALMA continuum observations for the galaxy clusters Abell 2744 (z = 0.308), MACS J0416.1-2403 (z = 0.396) and MACS J1149.5+2223 (z = 0.543), for which we reach observed rms sensitivities of 55, 59 and 71 μJy beam-1 respectively. We detect 12 dusty star-forming galaxies at S/N ≥ 5.0 across the three clusters, all of them presenting coincidence with near-infrared detected counterparts in the HST images. None of the sources fall close to the lensing caustics, thus they are not strongly lensed. The observed 1.1 mm flux densities for the total sample of galaxies range from 0.41 to 2.82 mJy, with observed effective radii spanning ≲0.̋05 to 0.̋37 ± 0.̋21 . The lensing-corrected sizes of the detected sources appear to be in the

  8. Face adaptation does not improve performance on search or discrimination tasks.

    PubMed

    Ng, Minna; Boynton, Geoffrey M; Fine, Ione

    2008-01-04

    The face adaptation effect, as described by M. A. Webster and O. H. MacLin (1999), is a robust perceptual shift in the appearance of faces after a brief adaptation period. For example, prolonged exposure to Asian faces causes a Eurasian face to appear distinctly Caucasian. This adaptation effect has been documented for general configural effects, as well as for the facial properties of gender, ethnicity, expression, and identity. We began by replicating the finding that adaptation to ethnicity, gender, and a combination of both features induces selective shifts in category appearance. We then investigated whether this adaptation has perceptual consequences beyond a shift in the perceived category boundary by measuring the effects of adaptation on RSVP, spatial search, and discrimination tasks. Adaptation had no discernable effect on performance for any of these tasks.

  9. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips) are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. Results We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. Conclusions BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains. PMID:21059251

  10. Toothbrush Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Suggestions are presented for helping disabled individuals learn to use or adapt toothbrushes for proper dental care. A directory lists dental health instructional materials available from various organizations. (CB)

  11. Convergence Analysis of Triangular MAC Schemes for Two Dimensional Stokes Equations

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming; Zhong, Lin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the use of H(div) elements in the velocity–pressure formulation to discretize Stokes equations in two dimensions. We address the error estimate of the element pair RT0–P0, which is known to be suboptimal, and render the error estimate optimal by the symmetry of the grids and by the superconvergence result of Lagrange inter-polant. By enlarging RT0 such that it becomes a modified BDM-type element, we develop a new discretization BDM1b–P0. We, therefore, generalize the classical MAC scheme on rectangular grids to triangular grids and retain all the desirable properties of the MAC scheme: exact divergence-free, solver-friendly, and local conservation of physical quantities. Further, we prove that the proposed discretization BDM1b–P0 achieves the optimal convergence rate for both velocity and pressure on general quasi-uniform grids, and one and half order convergence rate for the vorticity and a recovered pressure. We demonstrate the validity of theories developed here by numerical experiments. PMID:26041948

  12. Time accurate application of the MacCormack 2-4 scheme on massively parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Dale A.; Long, Lyle N.

    1995-01-01

    Many recent computational efforts in turbulence and acoustics research have used higher order numerical algorithms. One popular method has been the explicit MacCormack 2-4 scheme. The MacCormack 2-4 scheme is second order accurate in time and fourth order accurate in space, and is stable for CFL's below 2/3. Current research has shown that the method can give accurate results but does exhibit significant Gibbs phenomena at sharp discontinuities. The impact of adding Jameson type second, third, and fourth order artificial viscosity was examined here. Category 2 problems, the nonlinear traveling wave and the Riemann problem, were computed using a CFL number of 0.25. This research has found that dispersion errors can be significantly reduced or nearly eliminated by using a combination of second and third order terms in the damping. Use of second and fourth order terms reduced the magnitude of dispersion errors but not as effectively as the second and third order combination. The program was coded using Thinking Machine's CM Fortran, a variant of Fortran 90/High Performance Fortran, and was executed on a 2K CM-200. Simple extrapolation boundary conditions were used for both problems.

  13. Islands as model systems in ecology and evolution: prospects fifty years after MacArthur-Wilson.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ben H; Simberloff, Daniel; Ricklefs, Robert E; Aguilée, Robin; Condamine, Fabien L; Gravel, Dominique; Morlon, Hélène; Mouquet, Nicolas; Rosindell, James; Casquet, Juliane; Conti, Elena; Cornuault, Josselin; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Hengl, Tomislav; Norder, Sietze J; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F; Sanmartín, Isabel; Strasberg, Dominique; Triantis, Kostas A; Valente, Luis M; Whittaker, Robert J; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Emerson, Brent C; Thébaud, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The study of islands as model systems has played an important role in the development of evolutionary and ecological theory. The 50th anniversary of MacArthur and Wilson's (December 1963) article, 'An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography', was a recent milestone for this theme. Since 1963, island systems have provided new insights into the formation of ecological communities. Here, building on such developments, we highlight prospects for research on islands to improve our understanding of the ecology and evolution of communities in general. Throughout, we emphasise how attributes of islands combine to provide unusual research opportunities, the implications of which stretch far beyond islands. Molecular tools and increasing data acquisition now permit re-assessment of some fundamental issues that interested MacArthur and Wilson. These include the formation of ecological networks, species abundance distributions, and the contribution of evolution to community assembly. We also extend our prospects to other fields of ecology and evolution - understanding ecosystem functioning, speciation and diversification - frequently employing assets of oceanic islands in inferring the geographic area within which evolution has occurred, and potential barriers to gene flow. Although island-based theory is continually being enriched, incorporating non-equilibrium dynamics is identified as a major challenge for the future.

  14. Evaluation of EBV transformation of human memory B-cells isolated by FACS and MACS techniques.

    PubMed

    Sadreddini, Sanam; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Younesi, Vahid; Pourlak, Tala; Afkham, Amir; Shokri, Fazel; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have been performed to develop effective neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can efficiently immortalize B-cells to establish lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and so it has been used extensively for transformation of B-cells to produce and secrete immunoglobulin. The present study addressed the effect of TLR7/8 agonist (R848), feeder cells layer and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) cell separation methods on the transformation efficiency of antibody-producing memory B-cells. For these studies, the antigen used for analyses of antibody formation was the tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) derived from Clostridium tetani. The results here showed that employing an HFFF.PI6 feeder cell layer, R848 agonist and FACS-mediated purification of memory B-cells led to increased transformation efficiency. Altogether, the effects of the R848 and the feeder cells provided an efficient method for EBV transformation of human B-cells. Moreover, there was an advantage in using FACS sorting of B-cells over the MACS method in the context of EBV transformation and immortalization of precursors of antigen-specific B-cells.

  15. MAC88105 - A regolith breccia from the lunar highlands: Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C. ); Kurat, G.; Branstaetter, F. )

    1991-11-01

    The new large lunar meteorite MAC88105 is a dense breccia, with lithic and mineral clasts and fragments set into a welded matrix. It is a regolith breccia which shows some recrystallization and evidence for a late shock event during which anorthositic glass veins were formed. Shock effects (most probably due to impact ejection from the moon) are present throughout the sample and require a shock pressure of about 25-30 GPa, in agreement with observations made on other lunar meteorites. The presence of devitrified glass (spheres and shards) supports a regolith origin. Most common are meta-meltbreccias consisting of abundant anorthitic plagioclase clasts and a dense, fine-grained matrix. Some fine-grained hornfelsic to granulitic metabreccias are also present. Lithic clast compositions are predominantly anorthositic noritic (or noritic anorthositic), and anorthositic troctolitic. The bulk comparison of MAC88105 is different from that of the lunar meteorites and suggests a different source, which is supported by cosmic-ray and noble gas data. At this time it seems likely that about four individual impact events have been responsible for delivering the seven highland meteorites.

  16. Tool for Generation of MAC/GMC Representative Unit Cell for CMC/PMC Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Pineda, Evan J.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes a recently developed analysis tool that enhances the resident capabilities of the Micromechanics Analysis Code with the Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) 4.0. This tool is especially useful in analyzing ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), where higher fidelity with improved accuracy of local response is needed. The tool, however, can be used for analyzing polymer matrix composites (PMCs) as well. MAC/GMC 4.0 is a composite material and laminate analysis software developed at NASA Glenn Research Center. The software package has been built around the concept of the generalized method of cells (GMC). The computer code is developed with a user friendly framework, along with a library of local inelastic, damage, and failure models. Further, application of simulated thermomechanical loading, generation of output results, and selection of architectures to represent the composite material have been automated to increase the user friendliness, as well as to make it more robust in terms of input preparation and code execution. Finally, classical lamination theory has been implemented within the software, wherein GMC is used to model the composite material response of each ply. Thus, the full range of GMC composite material capabilities is available for analysis of arbitrary laminate configurations as well. The primary focus of the current effort is to provide a graphical user interface (GUI) capability that generates a number of different user-defined repeating unit cells (RUCs). In addition, the code has provisions for generation of a MAC/GMC-compatible input text file that can be merged with any MAC/GMC input file tailored to analyze composite materials. Although the primary intention was to address the three different constituents and phases that are usually present in CMCs-namely, fibers, matrix, and interphase-it can be easily modified to address two-phase polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials where an interphase is absent. Currently, the

  17. Energy efficient medium access protocol for wireless medical body area sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Omeni, O; Wong, A; Burdett, A J; Toumazou, C

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-efficient MAC Protocol designed specifically for wireless body area sensor networks (WBASN) focused towards pervasive healthcare applications. Wireless body area networks consist of wireless sensor nodes attached to the human body to monitor vital signs such as body temperature, activity or heart-rate. The network adopts a master-slave architecture, where the body-worn slave node periodically sends sensor readings to a central master node. Unlike traditional peer-to-peer wireless sensor networks, the nodes in this biomedical WBASN are not deployed in an ad hoc fashion. Joining a network is centrally managed and all communications are single-hop. To reduce energy consumption, all the sensor nodes are in standby or sleep mode until the centrally assigned time slot. Once a node has joined a network, there is no possibility of collision within a cluster as all communication is initiated by the central node and is addressed uniquely to a slave node. To avoid collisions with nearby transmitters, a clear channel assessment algorithm based on standard listen-before-transmit (LBT) is used. To handle time slot overlaps, the novel concept of a wakeup fallback time is introduced. Using single-hop communication and centrally controlled sleep/wakeup times leads to significant energy reductions for this application compared to more ldquoflexiblerdquo network MAC protocols such as 802.11 or Zigbee. As duty cycle is reduced, the overall power consumption approaches the standby power. The protocol is implemented in hardware as part of the Sensiumtrade system-on-chip WBASN ASIC, in a 0.13- mum CMOS process.

  18. [An update of the obstetrics hemorrhage treatment protocol].

    PubMed

    Morillas-Ramírez, F; Ortiz-Gómez, J R; Palacio-Abizanda, F J; Fornet-Ruiz, I; Pérez-Lucas, R; Bermejo-Albares, L

    2014-04-01

    Obstetric hemorrhage is still a major cause of maternal and fetal morbimortality in developed countries. This is an underestimated problem, which usually appears unpredictably. A high proportion of the morbidity of obstetric hemorrhage is considered to be preventable if adequately managed. The major international clinical guidelines recommend producing consensus management protocols, adapted to local characteristics and keep them updated in the light of experience and new scientific publications. We present a protocol updated, according to the latest recommendations, and our own experience, in order to be used as a basis for those anesthesiologists who wish to use and adapt it locally to their daily work. This last aspect is very important to be effective, and is a task to be performed at each center, according to the availability of resources, personnel and architectural features.

  19. Collaborative lymphoedema management: developing a clinical protocol.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Mary; Walker, Jackie

    2011-05-01

    Lymphoedema is a very distressing chronic condition prevalent in some metastatic cancers. Conservative treatment of lymphoedema in palliative care involves complete/complex decongestive therapy (CDT) using manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), compression therapy (bandaging and/or garments), skincare, and remedial exercises, adapted to the needs of the patient. The aim of this service development project was to identify current practice in a hospice palliative care service, develop new assessment tools, and implement a collaborative clinical protocol to improve access to lymphoedema management for patients in the hospice. Two audits provided new evidence about patient profiles, patient assessment, and treatment outcomes for cancer- and non-cancer-related lymphoedema. This project had a quality-improvement effect on service delivery and developed an effective partnership approach to lymphoedema management between local district nursing services and the specialist lymphoedema physiotherapist.

  20. Nitric Oxide-Mediated Antioxidative Mechanism in Yeast through the Activation of the Transcription Factor Mac1

    PubMed Central

    Nasuno, Ryo; Aitoku, Miho; Manago, Yuki; Nishimura, Akira; Sasano, Yu; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses various defense mechanisms against environmental stresses that generate reactive oxygen species, leading to growth inhibition or cell death. Our recent study showed a novel antioxidative mechanism mediated by nitric oxide (NO) in yeast cells, but the mechanism underlying the oxidative stress tolerance remained unclear. We report here one of the downstream pathways of NO involved in stress-tolerance mechanism in yeast. Our microarray and real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that exogenous NO treatment induced the expression of genes responsible for copper metabolism under the control of the transcription factor Mac1, including the CTR1 gene encoding high-affinity copper transporter. Our ChIP analysis also demonstrated that exogenous NO enhances the binding of Mac1 to the promoter region of target genes. Interestingly, we found that NO produced under high-temperature stress conditions increased the transcription level of the CTR1 gene. Furthermore, NO produced during exposure to high temperature also increased intracellular copper content, the activity of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase Sod1, and cell viability after exposure to high-temperature in a manner dependent on Mac1. NO did not affect the expression of the MAC1 gene, indicating that NO activates Mac1 through its post-translational modification. Based on the results shown here, we propose a novel NO-mediated antioxidative mechanism that Mac1 activated by NO induces the CTR1 gene, leading to an increase in cellular copper level, and then Cu(I) activates Sod1. This is the first report to unveil the mechanism of NO-dependent antioxidative system in yeast. PMID:25423296

  1. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  2. [Premature ovarian failure: which protocols?].

    PubMed

    Merviel, P; Lourdel, E; Boulard, V; Cabry, R; Claeys, C; Oliéric, M-F; Sanguinet, P; Brasseur, F; Henri, I; Copin, H

    2008-09-01

    This review shows the results of the various studies concerning the protocols applied to the women presenting a premature ovarian failure. Will be thus analyzed the natural cycles (or semi-natural), the increase in the dose of gonadotrophins, the clomiphene citrate and the anti-aromatases, the protocols with GnRH agonists long, short, stop or microdoses, the protocols with GnRH antagonists and the adjuvant treatments: aspirin, nitric oxyde, recombinant LH recombining, growth hormone and androgens. The interest of several protocols is to collect a sufficient number of oocytes (and thus of embryos to be transferred), making it possible to obtain reasonable rates of pregnancy. However, it arises that the rates of pregnancy observed among these women depend not only on their ovarian reserve and their age, but are also function of the type of infertility, of the cycle number and the uterus.

  3. EPA Protocol Gas Verification Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate compressed gas calibration standards are needed to calibrate continuous emission monitors (CEMs) and ambient air quality monitors that are being used for regulatory purposes. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established its traceability protocol to ensure that co...

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies in the field of MACS J1206.2-0847 (Ebeling+, 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, H.; Ma, C. J.; Kneib, J.-P.; Jullo, E.; Courtney, N. J. D.; Barrett, E.; Edge, A. C.; Le Borgne, J.-F.

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopic observations of presumed cluster galaxies as well as of the giant arc in MACS J1206.2-0847 were performed with the FORS1 spectrograph in multi-object spectroscopy mode at the UT3 Melipal telescope of the VLT on 2002 April 11. Additional multi-object spectroscopy of colour-selected galaxies in the field of MACS J1206.2-0847 was performed on 2003 May 8, using the multi-object (MOS) spectrograph on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) on Mauna Kea. (1 data file).

  5. Measurement of the MACS of 159Tb(n, γ) at kT = 30 keV by Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praena, J.; Mastinu, P. F.; Pignatari, M.; Quesada, J. M.; Capote, R.; Morilla, Y.

    2014-06-01

    The measurement of the Maxwellian-Averaged Cross-Section (MACS) of the 159Tb(n, γ) reaction at kT = 30 keV by the activation technique is presented. An innovative method for the generation of Maxwellian neutron spectra at kT = 30 keV is used. An experimental value of 2166 ± 181 mb agrees well with the MACS value derived from the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation, but is higher than KADoNiS recommended value of 1580 ± 150 mb. Astrophysical implications are studied.

  6. ABM clinical protocol #20: Engorgement.

    PubMed

    Berens, Pam

    2009-06-01

    A central goal of The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient.

  7. Treatment Protocols as Hierarchical Structures

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Bassat, Moshe; Carlson, Richard W.; Puri, Vinod K.; Weil, Max Harry

    1978-01-01

    We view a treatment protocol as a hierarchical structure of therapeutic modules. The lowest level of this structure consists of individual therapeutic actions. Combinations of individual actions define higher level modules, which we call routines. Routines are designed to manage limited clinical problems, such as the routine for fluid loading to correct hypovolemia. Combinations of routines and additional actions, together with comments, questions, or precautions organized in a branching logic, in turn, define the treatment protocol for a given disorder. Adoption of this modular approach may facilitate the formulation of treatment protocols, since the physician is not required to prepare complex flowcharts. This hierarchical approach also allows protocols to be updated and modified in a flexible manner. By use of such a standard format, individual components may be fitted together to create protocols for multiple disorders. The technique is suited for computer implementation. We believe that this hierarchical approach may facilitate standarization of patient care as well as aid in clinical teaching. A protocol for acute pancreatitis is used to illustrate this technique.

  8. The MacArthur Maze Fire and Roadway Collapse: Consequences for SNF Transportation - 12476

    SciTech Connect

    Bajwa, Christopher S.; Easton, Earl P.; Adkins, Harold; Cuta, Judith; Klymyshyn, Nicholas; Suffield, Sarah

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, a severe transportation accident occurred near Oakland, California, on a section of Interstate 880 known as the 'MacArthur Maze', involving a tractor trailer carrying gasoline which impacted an overpass support column and burst into flames. The subsequent fire caused the collapse of portions of the Interstate 580 overpass onto the remains of the tractor-trailer in less than 20 minutes, due to a reduction of strength in the structural steel exposed to the fire. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is in the process of examining the impacts of this accident on the performance of a spent nuclear fuel transportation package, using detailed analysis models, in order to determine the potential regulatory implications related to the safe transport of spent nuclear fuel in the United States. This paper will provide a summary of this effort and present results and conclusions. The detailed thermal models of the MacArthur Maze fire scenario with ANSYS and COBRASFS have produced preliminary results indicating that in a fire of this severity, the peak fuel cladding temperature would almost certainly exceed the short-term limit of 570 deg. C (1058 deg. F), and would likely exceed the Zircaloy burst temperature limit of 750 deg. C (1382 deg. F) assumed in previous transportation studies. Additional work is needed to refine and verify some of the details of these complex models, but the overall results are consistent with previous fire analyses with similar models, and with the results obtained for the HAC fire evaluations with these models. These results as well as future results produced by these models can therefore be considered as reliable estimates of the temperatures that would be experienced in fire conditions of the severity of the MacArthur Maze fire scenario. The structural analyses show that the GA-4 package is robust enough to withstand the impact of the overhead span without suffering major damage or deformation to the containment boundary. The greatest

  9. Recent results from the MAC and MARK II detectors at PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Dorfan, J.

    1982-08-01

    Data from PEP are presented for the MAC and MARK II detectors. All data are at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV and correspond to a data set varying from 15 to 30 pb/sup -1/. R = sigma/sub hadronic//sigma/sub ..mu mu../ is presented by both groups, and inclusive momentum distributions (S(d sigma/dx)) for SPEAR and PEP energies are presented by the MARK II. The S(d sigma/dx) distributions exhibit sizeable scaling violations. Both groups have measured energy-energy correlations. The measurements yield ..cap alpha../sub s/ = 0.20 +- 0.01 +- 0.02 (MAC) and ..cap alpha../sub s/ = 0.19 +- 0.01 +- 0.03 (MARK II) where ..cap alpha../sub s/ is the strong coupling constant to first order. It is stressed however that this measurement of ..cap alpha../sub s/ is a very sensitive to nonperturbative (fragmentation) effects. The MARK II group has observed a clean D/sup *+-/ signal from which they obtain sigma(D/sup *+-/) = 0.25 +- 0.10 as the cross section for producing a charged D* at 29 GeV. The charm fragmentation function is measured and it appears to be fairly hard with an average fractional energy for the D*/sup + -/ of approx. 0.6. The MAC group has measured the tau lifetime and finds a value t/sub tau/ = (4.9 +- 2.0) x 10/sup -13/ secs. The MARK II group has measured the tau branching fractions into one (B/sub 1/) and three B/sub 3/ = 1 - B/sub 1/) charged prongs. They find B/sub 1/ = (86 +- 3 +- 1)%. They also find B/sub 5/ < 0.5% at the 90% confidence level. Also presented from the MARK II group are limits on the production of charged scalar particles (Higgs or technipions; H +-) which couple to tau's. For 2 < H +- mass < 10 GeV/c/sup 2/, the branching fraction for H +- to decay to tau nu/sub tau/ is found to be less than 5% at the 90% confidence level. 32 references.

  10. A New Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein (mac25) and Its Role in Breast Cancer and Cell Growth Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    Kato, M., Sato, H., Tsukada, T., Ikawa, Y., Aizawa, S., and Nagayoshi, M. A. A follistatin -like gene, mac25, may act as a growth suppressor of...T., Ikawa, Y., Aizawa, S., and Nagayoshi, M. A. A follistatin -like gene, mac25, may act as a growth suppressor of osteosarcoma cells., Oncogene. 12

  11. The α-barrel tip region of Escherichia coli TolC homologs of Vibrio vulnificus interacts with the MacA protein to form the functional macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minho; Kim, Hyun-Lee; Song, Saemee; Joo, Minju; Lee, Seunghwa; Kim, Daeyoung; Hahn, Yoonsoo; Ha, Nam-Chul; Lee, Kangseok

    2013-04-01

    TolC and its homologous family of proteins are outer membrane factors that are essential for exporting small molecules and toxins across the outer membrane in Gram-negative bacteria. Two open reading frames in the Vibrio vulnificus genome that encode proteins homologous to Escherichia coli TolC, designated TolCV1 and TolCV2, have 51.3% and 29.6% amino acid identity to TolC, respectively. In this study, we show that TolCV1 and TolCV2 functionally and physically interacted with the membrane fusion protein, MacA, a component of the macrolide-specific MacAB-TolC pump of E. coli. We further show that the conserved residues located at the aperture tip region of the α-hairpin of TolCV1 and TolCV2 played an essential role in the formation of the functional MacAB-TolC pump using site-directed mutational analyses. Our findings suggest that these outer membrane factors have conserved tip-to-tip interaction with the MacA membrane fusion protein for action of the drug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria.

  12. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  13. Gathering computational genomics and proteomics to unravel adaptive evolution.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Agostinho; Ramos, Maria João

    2007-09-06

    A recent editorial in PLoS Biology by MacCallum and Hill (2006) pointed out the inappropriateness of studies evaluating signatures of positive selection based solely in single-site analyses. Therefore the rising number of articles claiming positive selection that have been recently published urges the question of how to improve the bioinformatics standards for reliably unravel positive selection? Deeper integrative efforts using state-of-the-art methodologies at the gene-level and protein-level are improving positive selection studies. Here we provide some computational guidelines to thoroughly document molecular adaptation.

  14. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  15. Upwind MacCormack Euler solver with non-equilibrium chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherer, Scott E.; Scott, James N.

    1993-01-01

    A computer code, designated UMPIRE, is currently under development to solve the Euler equations in two dimensions with non-equilibrium chemistry. UMPIRE employs an explicit MacCormack algorithm with dissipation introduced via Roe's flux-difference split upwind method. The code also has the capability to employ a point-implicit methodology for flows where stiffness is introduced through the chemical source term. A technique consisting of diagonal sweeps across the computational domain from each corner is presented, which is used to reduce storage and execution requirements. Results depicting one dimensional shock tube flow for both calorically perfect gas and thermally perfect, dissociating nitrogen are presented to verify current capabilities of the program. Also, computational results from a chemical reactor vessel with no fluid dynamic effects are presented to check the chemistry capability and to verify the point implicit strategy.

  16. Exploitation of Multi-beam Directional Antennas for a Wireless TDMA/FDD MAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atmaca, Sedat; Ceken, Celal; Erturk, Ismail

    2008-05-01

    The effects of the multi-beam directional antennas on the performance of a new wireless TDMA/FDD MAC system are presented. Directional antennas intrinsically enable development of the SDMA systems and allow transmitting and receiving signals simultaneously at the same time slot. Employing a dynamic slot allocation table at a base station with 4 or 8 sector directional antennas and holding the wireless terminals' location information, a new SDMA/TDMA/FDD frame structure has been developed for wireless communications. The simulation studies realized using OPNET Modeler show that the proposed SDMA/TDMA/FDD system has substantially increased the traditional TDMA/FDD system capacity and provides 1.37 to 4 times better mean delay results when the number of users is increased from 4 to 32 under the same load in the wireless network models.

  17. Isolation and generation of clinical-grade dendritic cells using the CliniMACS system.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John D M; Piechaczek, Christoph; Winkels, Gregor; Schwamborn, Edith; Micheli, Daniela; Hennemann, Sonja; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) can either be generated from progenitors such as stem cells or CD14+ monocytes, or isolated directly from the blood. Blood-derived DC are present as at least two distinct populations-myeloid and plasmacytoid DC. Here we describe methods for the clinical-grade isolation of blood DC and DC precursors using the CliniMACS. We describe the isolation of ultra-pure monocytes in order to generate large numbers of monocyte-derived DC, and also new methods for the direct isolation of blood DC. Isolation of blood DC in large numbers means that natural DC with different properties can be investigated for their clinical function for the first time.

  18. Young Galaxy Candidates in the Hubble Frontier Fields. III. MACS J0717.5+3745

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, N.; Infante, L.; Troncoso Iribarren, P.; Zheng, W.; Molino, A.; Bauer, F. E.; Bina, D.; Broadhurst, Tom; Chilingarian, I.; Huang, X.; Garcia, S.; Kim, S.; Marques-Chaves, R.; Moustakas, J.; Pelló, R.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Shu, X.; Streblyanska, A.; Zitrin, A.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we present the results of our search for and study of z≳ 6 galaxy candidates behind the third Frontier Fields (FFs) cluster, MACS J0717.5+3745, and its parallel field, combining data from Hubble and Spitzer. We select 39 candidates using the Lyman break technique, for which the clear non-detection in optical make the extreme mid-z interlopers hypothesis unlikely. We also take benefit from z≳ 6 samples selected using the previous FF data sets of Abell 2744 and MACS 0416 to improve the constraints on the properties of very high redshift objects. We compute the redshift and the physical properties such emission lines properties, star formation rate, reddening, and stellar mass for all FF objects from their spectral energy distribution using templates including nebular emission lines. We study the relationship between several physical properties and confirm the trend already observed in previous surveys for evolution of star formation rate with galaxy mass and between the size and the UV luminosity of our candidates. The analysis of the evolution of the UV luminosity function with redshift seems more compatible with an evolution of density. Moreover, no robust z≥slant 8.5 object is selected behind the cluster field and few z˜ 9 candidates have been selected in the two previous data sets from this legacy survey, suggesting a strong evolution in the number density of galaxies between z˜ 8 and 9. Thanks to the use of the lensing cluster, we study the evolution of the star formation rate density produced by galaxies with L > 0.03 {L}\\star , and confirm the strong decrease observed between z˜ 8 and 9.

  19. Zoonotic aspects of Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC).

    PubMed

    Biet, Franck; Boschiroli, Maria Laura; Thorel, Marie Françoise; Guilloteau, Laurence A

    2005-01-01

    Pathogens that are transmitted between the environment, wildlife, livestock and humans represent major challenges for the protection of human and domestic animal health, the economic sustainability of agriculture, and the conservation of wildlife. Among such pathogens, the genus Mycobacterium is well represented by M. bovis, the etiological agent of bovine tuberculosis, M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map) the etiological agent of Johne disease, M. avium ssp. avium (Maa) and in a few common cases by other emergent environmental mycobacteria. Epidemiologic surveys performed in Europe, North America and New Zealand have demonstrated the existence and importance of environmental and wildlife reservoirs of mycobacterial infections that limit the attempts of disease control programmes. The aim of this review is to examine the zoonotic aspects of mycobacteria transmitted from the environment and wildlife. This work is focused on the species of two main groups of mycobacteria classified as important pathogens for humans and animals: first, M. bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis, which belongs to the M. tuberculosis complex and has a broad host range including wildlife, captive wildlife, domestic livestock, non-human primates and humans; the second group examined, is the M. avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) which includes M. avium ssp. avium causing major health problems in AIDS patients and M. avium ssp. paratuberculosis the etiological agent of Johne disease in cattle and identified in patients with Crohn disease. MAC agents, in addition to a broad host range, are environmental mycobacteria found in numerous biotopes including the soil, water, aerosols, protozoa, deep litter and fresh tropical vegetation. This review examines the possible reservoirs of these pathogens in the environment and in wildlife, their role as sources of infection in humans and animals and their health impact on humans. The possibilities of control and management programmes for

  20. Delusions, Anger, and Serious Violence: New Findings From the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Simone; Keers, Robert; Coid, Jeremy W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent research on the association between delusions and violence has suggested complex and differing pathways. Furthermore, it has been emphasized that temporal proximity is fundamental when investigating these relationships. We reanalyzed data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study utilizing a different methodological approach to investigate associations between specific delusions and violence. Methods: Longitudinal study of 1136 male and female civil psychiatric inpatients after discharge. Delusions, affect due to delusions, and violence were measured at baseline and in 5 follow-up assessments. Serious violence was established using the MacArthur Community Violence Interview. Logistic mixed-effect models for repeated measures were performed. Results: A “prospective” model confirmed previous findings that delusions do not predict later violence. However, reanalysis, considering temporal proximity, indicated a relationship between specific delusions and outcome including: being spied upon (adjusted OR [AOR] = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.06–2.47, P = .027), being followed (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.29–2.80, P = .001), being plotted against (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI = 1.14–2.52, P = .009), being under control of person/force (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.24–2.97, P = .003), thought insertion (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.00–2.66, P = .048), and having special gifts/powers (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.31–2.92, P = .001). All these delusions were associated with angry affect (P < .05). Inclusion of anger in the model significantly attenuated the main effects (except grandiose delusions), indicating an indirect pathway. Conclusions: Temporal proximity is crucial when investigating relationships between delusions and violence. Anger due to delusions is the key factor in this pathway. Our findings have important implications for identification of psychotic patients at risk for violent behavior and, most importantly, management of their risk. PMID:24048345

  1. MAC Europe 1991: Evaluation of AVIRIS, GER imaging spectrometry data for the land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmann, F.; Richter, R.; Rothfuss, H.; Werner, K.; Hausknecht, P.; Mueller, A.; Strobl, P.

    1992-01-01

    During the MAC Europe 91 Campaign, the area of Oberpfaffenhofen including the land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen was flown by the AVIRIS imaging spectrometer, the GER 2 imaging spectrometer (63 band scanner), and two SAR systems (NASA/JPL AIRSAR and DLR E-SAR). In parallel to the overflights ground spectrometry (ASD, IRIS M IV) and atmospheric measurements were carried out in order to provide data for optical sensor calibration. Ground spectrometry measurements were carried out in the runway area of the DLR research center Oberpfaffenhofen. This area was used as well during the GER 2 European flight campaign EISAC 89 as a calibration target. The land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen is located 3 km north of the DLR research center. During the MAC Europe 91 Campaign a ground survey was carried out for documentation in the ground information data base (vegetation type, vegetation geometry, soil type, and soil mixture). Crop stands analyzed were corn, barley and rape. The DLR runway area and the land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen were flown with the AVIRIS on 29 July and with the GER 2 on 12 and 23 July and 3 Sep. AVIRIS and GER 2 scenes were processed and atmospherically corrected for optical data analysis of optical and radar data. For the AVIRIS and the GER 2 scenes, signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) estimates were calculated. An example of the reflectance of 6 calibration targets inside a GER 2 scene of Oberpfaffenhofen is given. SNR values for the GER 2 for a medium albedo target are given. The integrated analysis for the optical and radar data was carried out in cooperation with the DLR Institute for Microwave Technologies.

  2. NASA 1990 Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MACs) for ecosystem and watershed studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickland, Diane E.; Asrar, Ghassem; Murphy, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The Multisensor Airborne Campaign (MAC) focus within NASA's former Land Processes research program was conceived to achieve the following objectives: to acquire relatively complete, multisensor data sets for well-studied field sites, to add a strong remote sensing science component to ecology-, hydrology-, and geology-oriented field projects, to create a research environment that promotes strong interactions among scientists within the program, and to more efficiently utilize and compete for the NASA fleet of remote sensing aircraft. Four new MAC's were conducted in 1990: the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project along an east-west transect through central Oregon, the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) project at the Northern Experimental Forest in Howland, Maine, the MACHYDRO project in the Mahantango Creek watershed in central Pennsylvania, and the Walnut Gulch project near Tombstone, Arizona. The OTTER project is testing a model that estimates the major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water through temperate coniferous forest ecosystems. The focus in the project is on short time-scale (days-year) variations in ecosystem function. The FED project is concerned with modeling vegetation changes of forest ecosystems using remotely sensed observations to extract biophysical properties of forest canopies. The focus in this project is on long time-scale (decades to millenia) changes in ecosystem structure. The MACHYDRO project is studying the role of soil moisture and its regulating effects on hydrologic processes. The focus of the study is to delineate soil moisture differences within a basin and their changes with respect to evapotranspiration, rainfall, and streamflow. The Walnut Gulch project is focused on the effects of soil moisture in the energy and water balance of arid and semiarid ecosystems and their feedbacks to the atmosphere via thermal forcing.

  3. NASA 1990 Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MACs) for ecosystem and watershed studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickland, Diane E.; Asrar, Ghassem; Murphy, Robert E.

    The Multisensor Airborne Campaign (MAC) focus within NASA's former Land Processes research program was conceived to achieve the following objectives: to acquire relatively complete, multisensor data sets for well-studied field sites, to add a strong remote sensing science component to ecology-, hydrology-, and geology-oriented field projects, to create a research environment that promotes strong interactions among scientists within the program, and to more efficiently utilize and compete for the NASA fleet of remote sensing aircraft. Four new MAC's were conducted in 1990: the Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) project along an east-west transect through central Oregon, the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) project at the Northern Experimental Forest in Howland, Maine, the MACHYDRO project in the Mahantango Creek watershed in central Pennsylvania, and the Walnut Gulch project near Tombstone, Arizona. The OTTER project is testing a model that estimates the major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water through temperate coniferous forest ecosystems. The focus in the project is on short time-scale (days-year) variations in ecosystem function. The FED project is concerned with modeling vegetation changes of forest ecosystems using remotely sensed observations to extract biophysical properties of forest canopies. The focus in this project is on long time-scale (decades to millenia) changes in ecosystem structure. The MACHYDRO project is studying the role of soil moisture and its regulating effects on hydrologic processes. The focus of the study is to delineate soil moisture differences within a basin and their changes with respect to evapotranspiration, rainfall, and streamflow. The Walnut Gulch project is focused on the effects of soil moisture in the energy and water balance of arid and semiarid ecosystems and their feedbacks to the atmosphere via thermal forcing.

  4. Adaptive Thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Bremer, P. -T.

    2014-08-26

    ADAPT is a topological analysis code that allow to compute local threshold, in particular relevance based thresholds for features defined in scalar fields. The initial target application is vortex detection but the software is more generally applicable to all threshold based feature definitions.

  5. Protocol Handbook - A Guide for the Base Protocol Officer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    rotighou I lIme 1.1 ni eml Slates Cioi mm dale of den iii lilt ough press , dent a ml its Ic rri tories and possess ions: U mit- ind io, television, r oil...At an official f unction, thc protocol of fjce:- or aide stands nearest the door and a little to the sine or rhe uln-, and anounces the names of the...Pennsylvania: The Stackpole Company, 1959. 8. Wood, John R. and Serres, Jean. Diplomatic Ceremonial and Protocol. New York: Columbia University Press

  6. 42 CFR 405.1116 - Effect of dismissal of request for MAC review or request for hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of dismissal of request for MAC review or request for hearing. 405.1116 Section 405.1116 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Determinations,...

  7. A Tutorial on the Use of Excel 2010 and Excel for Mac 2011 for Conducting Delay-Discounting Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Derek D.; Kaplan, Brent A.; Brewer, Adam T.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, researchers and practitioners in the behavioral sciences have profited from a growing literature on delay discounting. The purpose of this article is to provide readers with a brief tutorial on how to use Microsoft Office Excel 2010 and Excel for Mac 2011 to analyze discounting data to yield parameters for both the hyperbolic…

  8. 42 CFR 405.1140 - MAC review of ALJ decision in a case remanded by a Federal district court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED... district court. (a) General rules. (1) In accordance with § 405.1138, when a case is remanded by a Federal...) The MAC may assume jurisdiction based on written exceptions to the decision of the ALJ that a...

  9. Evidence for MAC waves at the top of Earth's core and implications for variations in length of day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffett, Bruce; Knezek, Nicholas; Holme, Richard

    2016-03-01

    Earth's liquid core hosts a diverse set of waves with periods ranging from days to thousands of years. One class of waves with periods of several decades is known to arise from an interplay between magnetic, Archimedes and Coriolis forces. These so-called MAC waves are thought to be relevant for interpreting historical fluctuations in the geomagnetic field. In this study, we show that MAC waves provide a good description of time-dependent zonal flow at the top of the core. The same collection of waves also offers a simple explanation for observed fluctuations in the dipole field. Both of these predictions require a stratified layer at the top of the core with a thickness of 130-140 km and a buoyancy frequency comparable to Earth's rotation rate. We extend these predictions to include changes in the length of day (LOD) and find that MAC waves can account for about half of the observed fluctuation at decadal periods. Larger fluctuations are possible when electromagnetic stresses couple MAC waves to flow in the interior of the core. In fact, an idealized model for the coupled motion overestimates the LOD fluctuations, probably reflecting limitations in this idealized model. Our results offer support for stable stratification at the top of the core and suggest a common origin for decadal fluctuations in the geomagnetic field and the LOD.

  10. Breaking Professional Boundaries: What the MacCrate Report on Lawyering Skills and Values Means for TPC Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    In 1992, the American Bar Association released the MacCrate Report, which listed the ten skills and four professional values that all attorneys need and critiqued law schools and state bars for not doing enough to teach and encourage the development of these skills and values. In response, law schools have significantly increased the skills-based…

  11. Differential Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infections with the Inbios JE Detect™ and DEN Detect™ MAC-ELISA Kits

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Barbara W.; Goodman, Christin H.; Jee, Youngmee; Featherstone, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of pediatric viral neurological disease in Asia. The JEV-specific IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum is the recommended method of laboratory diagnosis, but specificity of JEV MAC-ELISA can be low due to cross-reactivity. To increase the specificity of the commercially available JE Detect™ MAC-ELISA (JE Detect), a differential testing algorithm was developed in which samples tested by JE Detect with positive results were subsequently tested by the DEN Detect™ MAC-ELISA (DEN Detect) kit, and results of both tests were used to make the final interpretation. The testing algorithm was evaluated with a reference panel of serum and CSF samples submitted for confirmatory testing. In serum, the false Japanese encephalitis (JE) positive rate was reduced, but sequential testing in CSF resulted in reduced JE specificity, as true JEV+ CSF samples had positive results by both JE Detect and DEN Detect and were classified as JE− (dengue virus [DENV]+). Differential diagnosis of JE by sequential testing with JE Detect and DEN Detect increased specificity for JE in serum, but more data with CSF is needed to make a final determination on the usefulness of this testing algorithm for CSF. PMID:26856911

  12. Infant Communicative Development Assessed with the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Short Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frota, Sónia; Butler, Joseph; Correia, Susana; Severino, Cátia; Vicente, Selene; Vigário, Marina

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the European Portuguese MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories short forms, the first published instruments for the assessment of language development in EP-learning infants and toddlers. Normative data from the EP population are presented, focusing on developmental trends for vocabulary learning, production…

  13. Caracterización Astronómica del Cordón Macón

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Lambas, D.; Muriel, H.; Recabarren, P.; Renzi, V.; Vrech, R.; Sarazin, M.; Lombardi, G.

    We describe the tasks on astronomical characterisation developed by IATE in an E-ELT candidate site on the Macón Ridge, in the province of Salta, Argentina. The proposed site is located at 4637 m.o.s.l. . A net of equipments were installed on site and are acquiring data since May of 2008. Results are highly promising.

  14. 42 CFR 405.1140 - MAC review of ALJ decision in a case remanded by a Federal district court.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false MAC review of ALJ decision in a case remanded by a Federal district court. 405.1140 Section 405.1140 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM FEDERAL HEALTH INSURANCE FOR THE AGED AND DISABLED Determinations,...

  15. Personal Reflections on Austin MacCormick's 1931 Correctional Education Book: The Integration of Vocational, Academic, and Social Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattucci, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to connect theories Austin MacCormick discussed in his 1931 book "The Education of Adult Prisoners" with examples from modern correctional education practice. The author began teaching an institutional plumbing class in 2000, equipped with an undergraduate degree in elementary education and a master's…

  16. Strong-lensing Analysis of the Powerful Lensing Cluster MACS J2135.2-0102 (z = 0.33)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitrin, Adi; Broadhurst, Tom

    2016-12-01

    We present a light-traces-mass (LTM) strong-lensing model of the massive lensing cluster MACS J2135.2-0102 (z = 0.33 hereafter MACS2135), known in part for hosting the cosmic eye galaxy lens. MACS2135 is also known to multiply lens a z = 2.3 sub-millimeter galaxy near the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), as well as a prominent, triply imaged system at a large radius of ˜37″ south of the BCG. We use the latest available Hubble imaging to construct an accurate lensing model for this cluster, identifying six new multiply imaged systems with the guidance of our LTM method, so that we have roughly quadrupled the number of lensing constraints. We determine that MACS2135 is among the top lensing clusters known, comparable in size to the Hubble Frontier Fields. For a source at {z}s=2.32, we find an effective Einstein radius of {θ }e=27+/- 3\\prime\\prime , enclosing 1.12+/- 0.16× {10}14 {M}⊙ . We make our lens model, including mass and magnification maps, publicly available, in anticipation of searches for high-z galaxies with the James Webb Space Telescope, for which this cluster is a compelling target.

  17. The MacMagic Program and Its Effects on "English as a Second Language" Students. An Evaluation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Mi J.

    This report presents a description and evaluation of the MacMagic Program, a computer-facilitated core program in language arts and social studies in its fourth year of operation at Davidson Middle School in San Rafael, California. The program consists of two sixth- and two seventh-grade classrooms that use computers and cooperative learning…

  18. Assessing the effectiveness of low-pressure ultraviolet light for inactivating Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) micro-organisms

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: To assess low-pressure ultraviolet light (LP-UV) inactivation kinetics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) strains in a water matrix using collimated beam apparatus. Methods and Results: Strains of M. avium (n = 3) and Mycobacterium intracellulare (n = 2) were exposed t...

  19. Correlating the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests with the University Entrance English Examinations Held in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tzung-yu

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to seek the correlations of the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests (GMRT), a norm-referenced reading test used in the United States, with the AST and the GSAT English tests, the two most important college entrance English tests held annually in Taiwan. The AST group comprised 53 students, and the GSAT group included 171…

  20. Adaptation of adaptive optics systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Yu; Zhao, Dazun; Li, Chen

    1997-10-01

    In the paper, a concept of an adaptation of adaptive optical system (AAOS) is proposed. The AAOS has certain real time optimization ability against the variation of the brightness of detected objects m, atmospheric coherence length rO and atmospheric time constant τ by means of changing subaperture number and diameter, dynamic range, and system's temporal response. The necessity of AAOS using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and some technical approaches are discussed. Scheme and simulation of an AAOS with variable subaperture ability by use of both hardware and software are presented as an example of the system.