Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive management context

  1. Flexible Ubiquitous Learning Management System Adapted to Learning Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ji-Seong; Kim, Mihye; Park, Chan; Yoo, Jae-Soo; Yoo, Kwan-Hee

    This paper proposes a u-learning management system (ULMS) appropriate to the ubiquitous learning environment, with emphasis on the significance of context awareness and adaptation in learning. The proposed system supports the basic functions of an e-learning management system and incorporates a number of tools and additional features to provide a more customized learning service. The proposed system automatically corresponds to various forms of user terminal without modifying the existing system. The functions, formats, and course learning activities of the system are dynamically and adaptively constructed at runtime according to user terminals, course types, pedagogical goals as well as student characteristics and learning context. A prototype for university use has been implemented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed approach. We regard the proposed ULMS as an ideal u-learning system because it can not only lead students into continuous and mobile 'anytime, anywhere' learning using any kind of terminal, but can also foster enhanced self-directed learning through the establishment of an adaptive learning environment.

  2. Monitoring in the context of structured decision-making and adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, J.E.; Runge, M.C.; Laskowski, H.P.; Kendall, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    In a natural resource management setting, monitoring is a crucial component of an informed process for making decisions, and monitoring design should be driven by the decision context and associated uncertainties. Monitoring itself can play >3 roles. First, it is important for state-dependent decision-making, as when managers need to know the system state before deciding on the appropriate course of action during the ensuing management cycle. Second, monitoring is critical for evaluating the effectiveness of management actions relative to objectives. Third, in an adaptive management setting, monitoring provides the feedback loop for learning about the system; learning is sought not for its own sake but primarily to better achieve management objectives. In this case, monitoring should be designed to reduce the critical uncertainties in models of the managed system. The United States Geological Survey and United States Fish and Wildlife Service are conducting a large-scale management experiment on 23 National Wildlife Refuges across the Northeast and Midwest Regions. The primary management objective is to provide habitat for migratory waterbirds, particularly during migration, using water-level manipulations in managed wetlands. Key uncertainties are related to the potential trade-offs created by management for a specific waterbird guild (e.g., migratory shorebirds) and the response of waterbirds, plant communities, and invertebrates to specific experimental hydroperiods. We reviewed the monitoring program associated with this study, and the ways that specific observations fill >1 of the roles identified above. We used observations from our monitoring to improve state-dependent decisions to control undesired plants, to evaluate management performance relative to shallow-water habitat objectives, and to evaluate potential trade-offs between waterfowl and shorebird habitat management. With limited staff and budgets, management agencies need efficient monitoring

  3. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  4. Designing monitoring programs in an adaptive management context for regional multiple species conservation plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, A.J.; Trenham, P.C.; Fisher, R.N.; Hathaway, S.A.; Johnson, B.S.; Torres, S.G.; Moore, Y.C.

    2004-01-01

    critical management uncertainties; and 3) implementing long-term monitoring and adaptive management. Ultimately, the success of regional conservation planning depends on the ability of monitoring programs to confront the challenges of adaptively managing and monitoring complex ecosystems and diverse arrays of sensitive species.

  5. Creating a Forest-Wide Context for Adaptive Management at Jackson Demonstration State Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liquori, M.; Helms, J.; Porter, D.

    2010-12-01

    expedite a distribution of forest stand characteristics ranging from young to old. This system would provide the context for research and monitoring involving a wide array of hydro-geomorphic and ecological issues, while concentrating efforts into collaborative Centers of Excellence. Together, these ROMF elements can provide a backbone for adaptive management that will be relevant to a broad array of stakeholders, including landowners, agencies, conservation groups and policy makers.

  6. Translation, adaptation and validation the contents of the Diabetes Medical Management Plan for the Brazilian context

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho; Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; da Silva, Daniel Dutra Romualdo; Bosco, Adriana Aparecida; Gabriel, Beatriz Diniz; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Rodrigues, Júlia Santos Nunes; Pagano, Adriana Silvina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to translate, adapt and validate the contents of the Diabetes Medical Management Plan for the Brazilian context. This protocol was developed by the American Diabetes Association and guides the procedure of educators for the care of children and adolescents with diabetes in schools. Method: this methodological study was conducted in four stages: initial translation, synthesis of initial translation, back translation and content validation by an expert committee, composed of 94 specialists (29 applied linguists and 65 health professionals), for evaluation of the translated version through an online questionnaire. The concordance level of the judges was calculated based on the Content Validity Index. Data were exported into the R program for statistical analysis: Results: the evaluation of the instrument showed good concordance between the judges of the Health and Applied Linguistics areas, with a mean content validity index of 0.9 and 0.89, respectively, and slight variability of the index between groups (difference of less than 0.01). The items in the translated version, evaluated as unsatisfactory by the judges, were reformulated based on the considerations of the professionals of each group. Conclusion: a Brazilian version of Diabetes Medical Management Plan was constructed, called the Plano de Manejo do Diabetes na Escola. PMID:27508911

  7. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  8. Adaptation of a difficult-to-manage asthma programme for implementation in the Dutch context: a modified e-Delphi.

    PubMed

    Honkoop, Persijn J; Pinnock, Hilary; Kievits-Smeets, Regien M M; Sterk, Peter J; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard; In 't Veen, Johannes C C M

    2017-02-09

    Patients with difficult-to-manage asthma represent a heterogeneous subgroup of asthma patients who require extensive assessment and tailored management. The International Primary Care Respiratory Group approach emphasises the importance of differentiating patients with asthma that is difficult to manage from those with severe disease. Local adaptation of this approach, however, is required to ensure an appropriate strategy for implementation in the Dutch context. We used a modified three-round e-Delphi approach to assess the opinion of all relevant stakeholders (general practitioners, pulmonologists, practice nurses, pulmonary nurses and people with asthma). In the first round, the participants were asked to provide potentially relevant items for a difficult-to-manage asthma programme, which resulted in 67 items. In the second round, we asked participants to rate the relevance of specific items on a seven-point Likert scale, and 46 items were selected as relevant. In the third round, the selected items were categorised and items were ranked within the categories according to relevance. Finally, we created the alphabet acronym for the categories 'the A-I of difficult-to-manage asthma' to resonate with an established Dutch 'A-E acronym for determining asthma control'. This should facilitate implementation of this programme within the existing structure of educational material on asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care, with potential for improving management of difficult-to-manage asthma. Other countries could use a similar approach to create a locally adapted version of such a programme.

  9. River basin management planning in the context of climate change adaptation and mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspersen, B. S.; Kjær, T.

    2012-12-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) raises a number of challenges for river basin management planning in the EU Member States, one of which concerns the incorporation of climate change considerations in the development of action programmes. This includes adaptation to climate-related risks as well as mitigation of climate change through possible adverse effects of WFD implementation measures on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Complying with proposed WFD water quality standards for 'good ecological status' in Denmark requires programmes of measures (PoMs) to reduce nutrient losses to surface waters from point and diffuse sources. The combined future impacts of climate change are projected to lead to a shifting baseline, resulting in a situation where loads of nutrients have to be reduced more than estimated under present climate conditions. In this study, a GIS-based decision support system is used to support the integration of climate change challenges into the development of PoMs in the Isefjord-Roskilde Fjord River Basin in Denmark. Alternative PoMs are evaluated in terms of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness under varying nutrient reduction targets related to climate change impacts and the potential for synergies between reduction of diffuse nutrient losses and mitigation of GHG emissions is assessed at catchment scale. There appears to be a substantial potential for reductions of GHG emissions through the implementation of WFD PoMs; including measures related to land use change, energy crops and manure based biogas systems. A targeted and differentiated approach to the development of PoMs is believed to be necessary in order to exploit this kind of win-win solutions in river basin management planning and to ensure appropriate and cost-effective climate change adaptation strategies.

  10. Rehabilitation Experiments in the Context of Adaptive Management, Lower Missouri River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. B.; Gaeuman, D. A.; Elliott, C. M.; Johnson, H. E.; Laustrup, M. S.

    2004-12-01

    Morphology of the highly engineered Lower Missouri River (Sioux City, Iowa to St. Louis, Missouri) is nearly independent of flow regime because channelization has greatly reduced opportunity for channel adjustment. Rehabilitation efforts have therefore focused on altering channel form directly rather than altering flow regime. Rehabilitation sites offer the potential for experimental studies to address geomorphic adjustments and tradeoffs in form and flow in river recovery. Implementation of experiments remains a challenge, however, because increased scientific understanding is not universally valued by all stakeholders participating in the adaptive management process. Nevertheless, some rehabilitation sites have been utilized for opportunistic geomorphic experiments. Engineered rehabilitation projects typically seek to increase diversity of habitats, with emphasis on increasing areas of shallow, slow current velocity that are much diminished from their historical extent and which are thought to be especially important to recovering ecological processes. Projects fall into two broad categories: those that increase width of the channel or diversity of habitats between the high banks, and those that create or re-create side-channel chutes. Early results from two contrasting experiments in side-channel chute development indicate that a) the experimentally uncontrolled sequence and magnitude of hydroclimatic events have a substantial effect on morphogenesis, and b) geomorphic and ecological responses are highly influenced by reach-scale spatial patterns of sediment and large-woody debris transport that determine fluxes into chutes. After less than a year of monitoring of channel-widening experiments, we have only preliminary results, but we have developed a keen appreciation for experimental approaches in an extremely dynamic and spatially diverse river. Particular challenges are developing robust, cost-effective, geomorphic performance metrics and designing

  11. Adaptation of a difficult-to-manage asthma programme for implementation in the Dutch context: a modified e-Delphi

    PubMed Central

    Honkoop, Persijn J; Pinnock, Hilary; Kievits-Smeets, Regien M M; Sterk, Peter J; Dekhuijzen, P N Richard; in ’t Veen, Johannes C C M

    2017-01-01

    Patients with difficult-to-manage asthma represent a heterogeneous subgroup of asthma patients who require extensive assessment and tailored management. The International Primary Care Respiratory Group approach emphasises the importance of differentiating patients with asthma that is difficult to manage from those with severe disease. Local adaptation of this approach, however, is required to ensure an appropriate strategy for implementation in the Dutch context. We used a modified three-round e-Delphi approach to assess the opinion of all relevant stakeholders (general practitioners, pulmonologists, practice nurses, pulmonary nurses and people with asthma). In the first round, the participants were asked to provide potentially relevant items for a difficult-to-manage asthma programme, which resulted in 67 items. In the second round, we asked participants to rate the relevance of specific items on a seven-point Likert scale, and 46 items were selected as relevant. In the third round, the selected items were categorised and items were ranked within the categories according to relevance. Finally, we created the alphabet acronym for the categories ‘the A–I of difficult-to-manage asthma’ to resonate with an established Dutch ‘A–E acronym for determining asthma control’. This should facilitate implementation of this programme within the existing structure of educational material on asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in primary care, with potential for improving management of difficult-to-manage asthma. Other countries could use a similar approach to create a locally adapted version of such a programme. PMID:28184039

  12. Collaborative implementation for ecological restoration on US Public Lands: implications for legal context, accountability, and adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Butler, William H; Monroe, Ashley; McCaffrey, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    The Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP), established in 2009, encourages collaborative landscape scale ecosystem restoration efforts on United States Forest Service (USFS) lands. Although the USFS employees have experience engaging in collaborative planning, CFLRP requires collaboration in implementation, a domain where little prior experience can be drawn on for guidance. The purpose of this research is to identify the ways in which CFLRP's collaborative participants and agency personnel conceptualize how stakeholders can contribute to implementation on landscape scale restoration projects, and to build theory on dynamics of collaborative implementation in environmental management. This research uses a grounded theory methodology to explore collaborative implementation from the perspectives and experiences of participants in landscapes selected as part of the CFLRP in 2010. Interviewees characterized collaborative implementation as encompassing three different types of activities: prioritization, enhancing treatments, and multiparty monitoring. The paper describes examples of activities in each of these categories and then identifies ways in which collaborative implementation in the context of CFLRP (1) is both hindered and enabled by overlapping legal mandates about agency collaboration, (2) creates opportunities for expanded accountability through informal and relational means, and, (3) creates feedback loops at multiple temporal and spatial scales through which monitoring information, prioritization, and implementation actions shape restoration work both within and across projects throughout the landscape creating more robust opportunities for adaptive management.

  13. Collaborative Implementation for Ecological Restoration on US Public Lands: Implications for Legal Context, Accountability, and Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, William H.; Monroe, Ashley; McCaffrey, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    The Collaborative Forest Landscape Restoration Program (CFLRP), established in 2009, encourages collaborative landscape scale ecosystem restoration efforts on United States Forest Service (USFS) lands. Although the USFS employees have experience engaging in collaborative planning, CFLRP requires collaboration in implementation, a domain where little prior experience can be drawn on for guidance. The purpose of this research is to identify the ways in which CFLRP's collaborative participants and agency personnel conceptualize how stakeholders can contribute to implementation on landscape scale restoration projects, and to build theory on dynamics of collaborative implementation in environmental management. This research uses a grounded theory methodology to explore collaborative implementation from the perspectives and experiences of participants in landscapes selected as part of the CFLRP in 2010. Interviewees characterized collaborative implementation as encompassing three different types of activities: prioritization, enhancing treatments, and multiparty monitoring. The paper describes examples of activities in each of these categories and then identifies ways in which collaborative implementation in the context of CFLRP (1) is both hindered and enabled by overlapping legal mandates about agency collaboration, (2) creates opportunities for expanded accountability through informal and relational means, and, (3) creates feedback loops at multiple temporal and spatial scales through which monitoring information, prioritization, and implementation actions shape restoration work both within and across projects throughout the landscape creating more robust opportunities for adaptive management.

  14. Addressing Disaster Risk Management and Adaptation to Climate Change in the Context of Sustainable Development in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman Elasha, B. M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX) demonstrates that an extreme event which used to occur infrequently and perceived today as abnormal will be tomorrow's 'normal' weather. For example the drought events in the African Sahel which once came every decade could now come every couple of years bringing a new challenge and leading to severe disturbances and rapid environmental changes. The report identified and analyzed the problems associated with extreme climatic events, and examined how human responses to these events and the consequent disasters could contribute to adaptation objectives, and how adaptation to climate change could become better integrated with Disasters Risk Management (DRM) practices. Moreover, a number of studies explored the linkages and interactions between disasters and development and clearly demonstrates how the exposure to extremes and vulnerability to climate change can hinder development efforts, emphasizing the need for much smarter development and economic policies that consider managing disaster risk and implement adaptation measures as main components of sustainable development. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of findings from IPCC reports and other studies and will draw on existing experiences and lessons learned to explore the linkages between disaster risk management, adaptation and economic development in Africa. It will also shed light on some of the regional and global interventions which aim at mitigating the impacts of extremes and disasters in African countries characterized by high exposure & vulnerability and low adaptive capacity. It concludes by highlighting the need for broader cooperation and partnership between development partners and agencies working on disaster risk management & climate change adaptation including the private sector, bilateral and multilateral agencies in order to ensure sustainable development.

  15. Adaptive Management of Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management. As such, management may be treated as experiment, with replication, or management may be conducted in an iterative manner. Although the concept has resonated with many...

  16. Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gain) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. The present study examined this phenomenon of context-specific adaptationfor horizontal saccades, using a variety of contexts. Our overall goal was to assess the efficacy of different context cues in switching between adapted states. A standard double-step paradigm was used to adapt saccade gain. In each experiment, we asked for a simultaneous gain decrease in one context and gain increase in another context, and then determined if a change in the context would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal eye position worked well as a context cue: saccades with the eyes deviated to the right could be made to have higher gains while saccades with the eyes deviated to the left could be made to have lower gains. Vertical eye position was less effective. This suggests that the more closely related a context cue is to the response being adapted, the more effective it is. Roll tilt of the head, and upright versus supine orientations, were somewhat effective in context switching; these paradigms contain orientation of gravity with respect to the head as part of the context.

  17. Adaptive management: Chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  18. Behaviour Management in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Early Childhood Association, Inc., Watson.

    Based upon the belief that what children learn from adult responses to their early behavior sets the foundations on which they will build all future learning, this publication provides information for teachers on the appropriate guidance and management of children's behavior in early childhood settings using a contextual approach. Issues discussed…

  19. Context aware adaptive security service model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunia, Marcin A.

    2015-09-01

    Present systems and devices are usually protected against different threats concerning digital data processing. The protection mechanisms consume resources, which are either highly limited or intensively utilized by many entities. The optimization of these resources usage is advantageous. The resources that are saved performing optimization may be utilized by other mechanisms or may be sufficient for longer time. It is usually assumed that protection has to provide specific quality and attack resistance. By interpreting context situation of business services - users and services themselves, it is possible to adapt security services parameters to countermeasure threats associated with current situation. This approach leads to optimization of used resources and maintains sufficient security level. This paper presents architecture of adaptive security service, which is context-aware and exploits quality of context data issue.

  20. Adaptation and risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.

  1. Saccade adaptation specific to visual context.

    PubMed

    Herman, James P; Harwood, Mark R; Wallman, Josh

    2009-04-01

    When saccades consistently overshoot their targets, saccade amplitudes gradually decrease, thereby maintaining accuracy. This adaptive process has been seen as a form of motor learning that copes with changes in physical parameters of the eye and its muscles, brought about by aging or pathology. One would not expect such a motor-repair mechanism to be specific to the visual properties of the target stimulus. We had subjects make saccades to sudden movements of either of two targets-a steadily illuminated circle or a flickering circle-one of which stepped back during each saccade it elicited, simulating the effect of a hypermetric saccade. Saccade gain (saccade amplitude/target amplitude) decreased by 15% for the target that stepped back versus 6% for the target that did not step back. Most of the change in gain between successive blocks of trials of each type occurred on the first saccade of the block, decreasing by 0.12 on the first trial of a step-back block and increasing by 0.1 on the first trial of a no-step-back block. The differential adaptation of the two targets required postsaccadic feedback of both target types, as shown in a separate experiment, in which saccades to only one target received feedback, and the gain did not differ between the two target types. This demonstration that a context defined by a visual stimulus can serve as an effective cue for switching saccade gain between states suggests that saccade adaptation may have a heretofore unsuspected dimension of adaptability.

  2. Context Management Middleware in Heterogeneous Mobile Computing Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Salim Raza

    2010-11-01

    Mobile computing environments are characterized by heterogeneity—systems consisting of different device types, operating systems, network interfaces, and communication protocols. Such heterogeneity calls for middleware that can adapt to different execution contexts, hide heterogeneity from applications, and transparently and dynamically switch between network and sensor technologies. Additionally, middleware for context-aware systems must keep a context model (a model of their environment), taking into account several aspects of the environment. The more complex and heterogeneous an execution environment is, the more complicated its underlying context model. Moreover, because systems can evolve, context management must also support model evolution without restarting, reconfiguring, or redeploying applications and services. We describe a context management middleware that can efficiently handle context despite the execution environment's heterogeneity and evolution. It uses context meta-information to improve a context-aware system's overall performance.

  3. Climate impacts on European agriculture and water management in the context of adaptation and mitigation--the importance of an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Falloon, Pete; Betts, Richard

    2010-11-01

    We review and qualitatively assess the importance of interactions and feedbacks in assessing climate change impacts on water and agriculture in Europe. We focus particularly on the impact of future hydrological changes on agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation and adaptation options. Future projected trends in European agriculture include northward movement of crop suitability zones and increasing crop productivity in Northern Europe, but declining productivity and suitability in Southern Europe. This may be accompanied by a widening of water resource differences between the North and South, and an increase in extreme rainfall events and droughts. Changes in future hydrology and water management practices will influence agricultural adaptation measures and alter the effectiveness of agricultural mitigation strategies. These interactions are often highly complex and influenced by a number of factors which are themselves influenced by climate. Mainly positive impacts may be anticipated for Northern Europe, where agricultural adaptation may be shaped by reduced vulnerability of production, increased water supply and reduced water demand. However, increasing flood hazards may present challenges for agriculture, and summer irrigation shortages may result from earlier spring runoff peaks in some regions. Conversely, the need for effective adaptation will be greatest in Southern Europe as a result of increased production vulnerability, reduced water supply and increased demands for irrigation. Increasing flood and drought risks will further contribute to the need for robust management practices. The impacts of future hydrological changes on agricultural mitigation in Europe will depend on the balance between changes in productivity and rates of decomposition and GHG emission, both of which depend on climatic, land and management factors. Small increases in European soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks per unit land area are anticipated considering changes in climate

  4. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of `knowledge work' and Westley's 2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers—`managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics—scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the `doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

  5. Sensory, motor, and combined contexts for context-specific adaptation of saccade gain in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Saccadic eye movements can be adapted in a context-specific manner such that their gain can be made to depend on the state of a prevailing context cue. We asked whether context cues are more effective if their nature is primarily sensory, motor, or a combination of sensory and motor. Subjects underwent context-specific adaptation using one of three different context cues: a pure sensory context (head roll-tilt right or left); a pure motor context (changes in saccade direction); or a combined sensory-motor context (head roll-tilt and changes in saccade direction). We observed context-specific adaptation in each condition; the greatest degree of context-specificity occurred in paradigms that used the motor cue, alone or in conjunction with the sensory cue. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  6. Context-specific adaptation of saccade gain in parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Roberts, Dale C.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies established that vestibular reflexes can have two adapted states (e.g., gains) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. Our earlier work demonstrated this phenomenon of context-specific adaptation for saccadic eye movements: we asked for gain decrease in one context state and gain increase in another context state, and then determined if a change in the context state would invoke switching between the adapted states. Horizontal and vertical eye position and head orientation could serve, to varying degrees, as cues for switching between two different saccade gains. In the present study, we asked whether gravity magnitude could serve as a context cue: saccade adaptation was performed during parabolic flight, which provides alternating levels of gravitoinertial force (0 g and 1.8 g). Results were less robust than those from ground experiments, but established that different saccade magnitudes could be associated with different gravity levels.

  7. Putting Actions in Context: Visual Action Adaptation Aftereffects Are Modulated by Social Contexts

    PubMed Central

    de la Rosa, Stephan; Streuber, Stephan; Giese, Martin; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Curio, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    The social context in which an action is embedded provides important information for the interpretation of an action. Is this social context integrated during the visual recognition of an action? We used a behavioural visual adaptation paradigm to address this question and measured participants’ perceptual bias of a test action after they were adapted to one of two adaptors (adaptation after-effect). The action adaptation after-effect was measured for the same set of adaptors in two different social contexts. Our results indicate that the size of the adaptation effect varied with social context (social context modulation) although the physical appearance of the adaptors remained unchanged. Three additional experiments provided evidence that the observed social context modulation of the adaptation effect are owed to the adaptation of visual action recognition processes. We found that adaptation is critical for the social context modulation (experiment 2). Moreover, the effect is not mediated by emotional content of the action alone (experiment 3) and visual information about the action seems to be critical for the emergence of action adaptation effects (experiment 4). Taken together these results suggest that processes underlying visual action recognition are sensitive to the social context of an action. PMID:24466123

  8. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management. Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adapta...

  9. Hydropower, Adaptive Management, and Biodiversity

    PubMed

    WIERINGA; MORTON

    1996-11-01

    / Adaptive management is a policy framework within which an iterative process of decision making is followed based on the observed responses to and effectiveness of previous decisions. The use of adaptive management allows science-based research and monitoring of natural resource and ecological community responses, in conjunction with societal values and goals, to guide decisions concerning man's activities. The adaptive management process has been proposed for application to hydropower operations at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, a situation that requires complex balancing of natural resources requirements and competing human uses. This example is representative of the general increase in public interest in the operation of hydropower facilities and possible effects on downstream natural resources and of the growing conflicts between uses and users of river-based resources. This paper describes the adaptive management process, using the Glen Canyon Dam example, and discusses ways to make the process work effectively in managing downstream natural resources and biodiversity. KEY WORDS: Adaptive management; Biodiversity; Hydropower; Glen Canyon Dam; Ecology

  10. Context Management Platform for Tourism Applications

    PubMed Central

    Buján, David; Martín, David; Torices, Ortzi; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Lamsfus, Carlos; Abaitua, Joseba; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene

    2013-01-01

    The notion of context has been widely studied and there are several authors that have proposed different definitions of context. However, context has not been widely studied in the framework of human mobility and the notion of context has been imported directly from other computing fields without specifically addressing the tourism domain requirements. In order to store and manage context information a context data model and a context management platform are needed. Ontologies have been widely used in context modelling, but many of them are designed to be applied in general ubiquitous computing environments, do not contain specific concepts related to the tourism domain or some approaches do not contain enough concepts to represent context information related to the visitor on the move. That is why we propose a new approach to provide a better solution to model context data in tourism environments, adding more value to our solution reusing data about tourist resources from an Open Data repository and publishing it as Linked Data. We also propose the architecture for a context information management platform based on this context data model. PMID:23797739

  11. Context management platform for tourism applications.

    PubMed

    Buján, David; Martín, David; Torices, Ortzi; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Lamsfus, Carlos; Abaitua, Joseba; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene

    2013-06-24

    The notion of context has been widely studied and there are several authors that have proposed different definitions of context. However, context has not been widely studied in the framework of human mobility and the notion of context has been imported directly from other computing fields without specifically addressing the tourism domain requirements. In order to store and manage context information a context data model and a context management platform are needed. Ontologies have been widely used in context modelling, but many of them are designed to be applied in general ubiquitous computing environments, do not contain specific concepts related to the tourism domain or some approaches do not contain enough concepts to represent context information related to the visitor on the move. That is why we propose a new approach to provide a better solution to model context data in tourism environments, adding more value to our solution reusing data about tourist resources from an Open Data repository and publishing it as Linked Data. We also propose the architecture for a context information management platform based on this context data model.

  12. Warm Season Storms, Floods, and Tributary Sand Inputs below Glen Canyon Dam: Investigating Salience to Adaptive Management in the Context of a 10-Year Long Controlled Flooding Experiment in Grand Canyon National Park, AZ, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, S.; Melis, T. S.; Topping, D. J.; Pulwarty, R. S.; Eischeid, J.

    2013-12-01

    The planning and decision processes in the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) strive to balance numerous, often competing, objectives, such as, water supply, hydropower generation, low flow maintenance, maximizing conservation of downstream tributary sand supply, endangered native fish, and other sociocultural resources of Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park. In this context, use of monitored and predictive information on the warm season floods (at point-to-regional scales) has been identified as lead-information for a new 10-year long controlled flooding experiment (termed the High-Flow Experiment Protocol) intended to determine management options for rebuilding and maintaining sandbars in Grand Canyon; an adaptive strategy that can potentially facilitate improved planning and dam operations. In this work, we focus on a key concern identified by the GCDAMP, related to the timing and volume of tributary sand input from the Paria and Little Colorado Rivers (located 26 and 124 km below the dam, respectively) into the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. Episodic and intraseasonal variations (with links to equatorial and sub-tropical Pacific sea surface temperature variability) in the southwest hydroclimatology are investigated to understand the magnitude, timing and spatial scales of warm season floods from this relatively small, but prolific sand producing drainage of the semi-arid Colorado Plateau. The coupled variations of the flood-driven sediment input (magnitude and timing) from these two drainages into the Colorado River are also investigated. The physical processes, including diagnosis of storms and moisture sources, are mapped alongside the planning and decision processes for the ongoing experimental flood releases from the Glen Canyon Dam which are aimed at achieving restoration and maintenance of sandbars and instream ecology. The GCDAMP represents one of the most visible and widely recognized

  13. Context-dependent arm pointing adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidler, R. D.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stelmach, G. E.

    2001-01-01

    We sought to determine the effectiveness of head posture as a contextual cue to facilitate adaptive transitions in manual control during visuomotor distortions. Subjects performed arm pointing movements by drawing on a digitizing tablet, with targets and movement trajectories displayed in real time on a computer monitor. Adaptation was induced by presenting the trajectories in an altered gain format on the monitor. The subjects were shown visual displays of their movements that corresponded to either 0.5 or 1.5 scaling of the movements made. Subjects were assigned to three groups: the head orientation group tilted the head towards the right shoulder when drawing under a 0.5 gain of display and towards the left shoulder when drawing under a 1.5 gain of display; the target orientation group had the home and target positions rotated counterclockwise when drawing under the 0.5 gain and clockwise for the 1.5 gain; the arm posture group changed the elbow angle of the arm they were not drawing with from full flexion to full extension with 0.5 and 1.5 gain display changes. To determine if contextual cues were associated with display alternations, the gain changes were returned to the standard (1.0) display. Aftereffects were assessed to determine the efficacy of the head orientation contextual cue compared to the two control cues. The head orientation cue was effectively associated with the multiple gains. The target orientation cue also demonstrated some effectiveness while the arm posture cue did not. The results demonstrate that contextual cues can be used to switch between multiple adaptive states. These data provide support for the idea that static head orientation information is a crucial component to the arm adaptation process. These data further define the functional linkage between head posture and arm pointing movements.

  14. Context-Dependent Arm Pointing Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidler, R. D.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stelmach, G. E.

    2000-01-01

    We sought to determine the effectiveness of head posture as a contextual cue to facilitate adaptive transitions in manual control during visuomotor distortions. Subjects performed arm pointing movements by drawing on a digitizing tablet, with targets and movement trajectories displayed in real time on a computer monitor. Adaptation was induced by presenting the trajectories in an altered gain format on the monitor. The subjects were shown visual displays of their movements that corresponded to either 0.5 or 1.5 scaling of the movements made. Subjects were assigned to three groups: the head orientation group tilted the head towards the right shoulder when drawing under a 0.5 gain of display and towards the left shoulder when drawing under a 1.5 gain of display, the target orientation group had the home & target positions rotated counterclockwise when drawing under the 0.5 gain and clockwise for the 1.5 gain, the arm posture group changed the elbow angle of the arm they were not drawing with from full flexion to full extension with 0.5 and 1.5 gain display changes. To determine if contextual cues were associated with display alternations, the gain changes were returned to the standard (1.0) display. Aftereffects were assessed to determine the efficacy of the head orientation contextual cue. . compared to the two control cues. The head orientation cue was effectively associated with the multiple gains. The target orientation cue also demonstrated some effectiveness while the.arm posture cue did not. The results demonstrate that contextual cues can be used to switch between multiple adaptive states. These data provide support for the idea that static head orientation information is a crucial component to the arm adaptation process. These data further define the functional linkage between head posture and arm pointing movements.

  15. A Distributed Value of Information (VoI)-Based Approach for Mission-Adaptive Context-Aware Information Management and Presentation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-16

    context-aware, situational awareness, quality of information, wearable 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...Section 2 we provide our definitions of Quality of Information (QoI) and VoI in the context of the approach we took in designing the system. Section 3...for public release; distribution is unlimited. 2 An early attempt to define data quality emerged from work on assessment of industrial processes by

  16. Adaptive management of urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmestani, A.; Shuster, W.; Green, O. O.

    2013-12-01

    Consent decree settlements for violations of the Clean Water Act (1972) increasingly include provisions for redress of combined sewer overflow activity through hybrid approaches that incorporate the best of both gray (e.g., storage tunnels) and green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens). Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to improve environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that can help regulated communities achieve environmental quality objectives. We are using an adaptive management approach to guide a green infrastructure retrofit of a neighborhood in the Slavic Village Development Corporation area (Cleveland, Ohio). We are in the process of gathering hydrologic and ecosystem services data and will use this data as a basis for collaboration with area citizens on a plan to use green infrastructure to contain stormflows. Monitoring data provides researchers with feedback on the impact of green infrastructure implementation and suggest where improvements can be made.

  17. A Semantic Web Based System for Context Metadata Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanov, Svetlin; Huang, Vincent

    With the increasing usage of embedded systems and sensors in our surroundings, a new type of information systems - context aware systems - are gaining importance. These user-centric systems acquire context information which describes the state of the user and the user environment, and offer adaptable and personalized services based on the user context information. The central part of a context aware system is the context model used for describing user context information. The context information originates from a multitude of heterogeneous sources, such as personal calendars, sensors attached to the users or to the user’s environment and Web based sources, such as social networking sites. The information from these sources is typically on different abstraction levels and is organized according to different data models. This work proposes a Semantic Web based context metadata management system. The first part of the work develops an ontology model for user context. The user context model integrates information from multiple and heterogeneous sources which are modeled largely by reusing existing well accepted ontologies. The second part of the work proposes a method to infer and reason about additional user context information based on the available context information using rules and ontologies. We instantiate and evaluate the proposed system by performing a social networking case study called meetFriends. In this application, information is collected from various sources such as sensors attached to the users and public web sources - YellowPages. The moods of the users are inferred from a set of rules. A meeting between two users can be set up based on the moods, locations and preferences of the users. The results indicate that Semantic Web technologies are well suited for integrating various data sources, processing of user context information, and enabling adaptable and personalized services.

  18. Context-aware adaptive spelling in motor imagery BCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdikis, S.; Leeb, R.; Millán, J. d. R.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. This work presents a first motor imagery-based, adaptive brain-computer interface (BCI) speller, which is able to exploit application-derived context for improved, simultaneous classifier adaptation and spelling. Online spelling experiments with ten able-bodied users evaluate the ability of our scheme, first, to alleviate non-stationarity of brain signals for restoring the subject’s performances, second, to guide naive users into BCI control avoiding initial offline BCI calibration and, third, to outperform regular unsupervised adaptation. Approach. Our co-adaptive framework combines the BrainTree speller with smooth-batch linear discriminant analysis adaptation. The latter enjoys contextual assistance through BrainTree’s language model to improve online expectation-maximization maximum-likelihood estimation. Main results. Our results verify the possibility to restore single-sample classification and BCI command accuracy, as well as spelling speed for expert users. Most importantly, context-aware adaptation performs significantly better than its unsupervised equivalent and similar to the supervised one. Although no significant differences are found with respect to the state-of-the-art PMean approach, the proposed algorithm is shown to be advantageous for 30% of the users. Significance. We demonstrate the possibility to circumvent supervised BCI recalibration, saving time without compromising the adaptation quality. On the other hand, we show that this type of classifier adaptation is not as efficient for BCI training purposes.

  19. Multimodel inference and adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehme, S.E.; Powell, L.A.; Allen, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Ecology is an inherently complex science coping with correlated variables, nonlinear interactions and multiple scales of pattern and process, making it difficult for experiments to result in clear, strong inference. Natural resource managers, policy makers, and stakeholders rely on science to provide timely and accurate management recommendations. However, the time necessary to untangle the complexities of interactions within ecosystems is often far greater than the time available to make management decisions. One method of coping with this problem is multimodel inference. Multimodel inference assesses uncertainty by calculating likelihoods among multiple competing hypotheses, but multimodel inference results are often equivocal. Despite this, there may be pressure for ecologists to provide management recommendations regardless of the strength of their study’s inference. We reviewed papers in the Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) and the journal Conservation Biology (CB) to quantify the prevalence of multimodel inference approaches, the resulting inference (weak versus strong), and how authors dealt with the uncertainty. Thirty-eight percent and 14%, respectively, of articles in the JWM and CB used multimodel inference approaches. Strong inference was rarely observed, with only 7% of JWM and 20% of CB articles resulting in strong inference. We found the majority of weak inference papers in both journals (59%) gave specific management recommendations. Model selection uncertainty was ignored in most recommendations for management. We suggest that adaptive management is an ideal method to resolve uncertainty when research results in weak inference.

  20. Managing Adaptive Challenges: Learning with Principals in Bermuda and Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Maslin-Ostrowski, Patricia; Hoffman, Alexander M.; Barbaro, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We interviewed eight principals from Bermuda and Florida about how they identify and manage their most pressing challenges. Their challenges are composed of both adaptive and technical work, requiring leaders to learn to diagnose and manage them. Challenges focused on change and were traced to accountability contexts, yet accountability was not…

  1. Adaptive management of watersheds and related resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of learning about natural resources through the practice of management has been around for several decades and by now is associated with the term adaptive management. The objectives of this paper are to offer a framework for adaptive management that includes an operational definition, a description of conditions in which it can be usefully applied, and a systematic approach to its application. Adaptive decisionmaking is described as iterative, learning-based management in two phases, each with its own mechanisms for feedback and adaptation. The linkages between traditional experimental science and adaptive management are discussed.

  2. Performance Benefits Associated with Context-Dependent Arm Pointing Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidler, R. D.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stelmach, George E.

    2000-01-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that head orientation can be used as a contextual cue to switch between mUltiple adaptive states. Subjects were assigned to one of three groups: the head orientation group tilted the head towards the right shoulder when drawing under a 0.5 gain of display and towards the left shoulder when drawing under a 1.5 gain of display; the target orientation group had the home & target positions rotated counterclockwise when drawing under the 0.5 gain and clockwise for the l.5 gain; the arm posture group changed the elbow angle of the arm they were not drawing with from full flexion to full extension with 0.5 and l.5 gain display changes. The head orientation cue was effectively associated with the multiple gains, in comparison to the control conditions. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether this context-dependent adaptation results in any savings in terms of performance measures such as movement duration and movement smoothness when subjects switch between multiple adaptive states. Subjects in the head adaptation group demonstrated reduced movement duration and increased movement smoothness (measured via normalized j erk scores) in comparison to the two control groups when switching between the 0.5 and 1.5 gain. of display. This work has demonstrated not only that subjects can acquire context-dependent adaptation, but also that it results in a significant savings of performance upon transfer between adaptive states

  3. Intelligent Context-Aware and Adaptive Interface for Mobile LBS.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiangfan; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Context-aware user interface plays an important role in many human-computer Interaction tasks of location based services. Although spatial models for context-aware systems have been studied extensively, how to locate specific spatial information for users is still not well resolved, which is important in the mobile environment where location based services users are impeded by device limitations. Better context-aware human-computer interaction models of mobile location based services are needed not just to predict performance outcomes, such as whether people will be able to find the information needed to complete a human-computer interaction task, but to understand human processes that interact in spatial query, which will in turn inform the detailed design of better user interfaces in mobile location based services. In this study, a context-aware adaptive model for mobile location based services interface is proposed, which contains three major sections: purpose, adjustment, and adaptation. Based on this model we try to describe the process of user operation and interface adaptation clearly through the dynamic interaction between users and the interface. Then we show how the model applies users' demands in a complicated environment and suggested the feasibility by the experimental results.

  4. Context-specific adaptation of pursuit initiation in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takagi, M.; Abe, H.; Hasegawa, S.; Usui, T.; Hasebe, H.; Miki, A.; Zee, D. S.; Shelhauser, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine if multiple states for the initiation of pursuit, as assessed by acceleration in the "open-loop" period, can be learned and gated by context. METHODS: Four normal subjects were studied. A modified step-ramp paradigm for horizontal pursuit was used to induce adaptation. In an increasing paradigm, target velocity doubled 230 msec after onset; in a decreasing paradigm, it was halved. In the first experiment, vertical eye position (+/-5 degrees ) was used as the context cue, and the training paradigm (increasing or decreasing) changed with vertical eye position. In the second experiment, with vertical position constant, when the target was red, training was decreasing, and when green, increasing. The average eye acceleration in the first 100 msec of tracking was the index of open-loop pursuit performance. RESULTS: With vertical position as the cue, pursuit adaptation differed between up and down gaze. In some cases, the direction of adaptation was in exact accord with the training stimuli. In others, acceleration increased or decreased for both up and down gaze but always in correct relative proportion to the training stimuli. In contrast, multiple adaptive states were not induced with color as the cue. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple values for the relationship between the average eye acceleration during the initiation of pursuit and target velocity could be learned and gated by context. Vertical position was an effective contextual cue but not target color, implying that useful contextual cues must be similar to those occurring naturally, for example, orbital position with eye muscle weakness.

  5. An introduction to adaptive management for threatened and endangered species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Management of threatened and endangered species would seem to be a perfect context for adaptive management. Many of the decisions are recurrent and plagued by uncertainty, exactly the conditions that warrant an adaptive approach. But although the potential of adaptive management in these settings has been extolled, there are limited applications in practice. The impediments to practical implementation are manifold and include semantic confusion, institutional inertia, misperceptions about the suitability and utility, and a lack of guiding examples. In this special section of the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, we hope to reinvigorate the appropriate application of adaptive management for threatened and endangered species by framing such management in a decision-analytical context, clarifying misperceptions, classifying the types of decisions that might be amenable to an adaptive approach, and providing three fully developed case studies. In this overview paper, I define terms, review the past application of adaptive management, challenge perceived hurdles, and set the stage for the case studies which follow.

  6. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  7. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  8. Transfer of postural adaptation depends on context of prior exposure.

    PubMed

    Pienciak-Siewert, Alison; Barletta, Anthony J; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2014-04-01

    Postural control is significantly affected by the postural base of support; however, the effects on postural adaptation are not well understood. Here we investigated how adaptation and transfer of anticipatory postural control are affected by stance width. Subjects made reaching movements in a novel dynamic environment while holding the handle of a force-generating robotic arm. Each subject initially adapted to the dynamics while standing in a wide stance and then switched to a narrow stance, or vice versa. Our hypothesis is that anticipatory postural control, reflected in center of pressure (COP) movement, is not affected by stance width, as long as the control remains within functional limits; therefore we predicted that subjects in either stance would show similar COP movement by the end of adaptation and immediately upon transfer to the other stance. We found that both groups showed similar adaptation of postural control, by using different muscle activation strategies to account for the differing stance widths. One group, after adapting in wide stance, transferred similar postural control to narrow stance, by modifying their muscle activity to account for the new stance. Interestingly, the other group showed an increase in postural control when transferring from narrow to wide stance, associated with no change in muscle activity. These results confirm that adaptation of anticipatory postural control is not affected by stance width, as long as the control remains within biomechanical limits. However, transfer of control between stance widths is affected by the initial context in which the task is learned.

  9. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Pyke, David A.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Wills, Skye A.; Brown, Joel R.; Karl, Jason W.; Havstad, Kris M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management (Holling 1973; Walters and Holling 1990). Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adaptation of management until desired results are achieved (Brown and MacLeod 1996; Savory and Butterfield 1999). However, adaptive management is often criticized because very few projects ever complete more than one cycle, resulting in little adaptation and little knowledge gain (Lee 1999; Walters 2007). One significant criticism is that adaptive management is often used as a justification for undertaking actions with uncertain outcomes or as a surrogate for the development of specific, measurable indicators and monitoring programs (Lee 1999; Ruhl 2007).

  10. MobiDiC: Context Adaptive Digital Signage with Coupons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Jörg; Krüger, Antonio

    In this paper we present a field study of a digital signage system that measures audience response with coupons in order to enable context adaptivity. In the concept for context adaptivity, the signs sense their environment; decide which content to show, and then sense the audience reaction to the content shown. From this audience measurement, the strategies which content to show in which situation are refined. As one instantiation of audience measurement, we propose a novel simple couponing system, where customers can photograph the coupons at the signs. Thus, it can be measured whether customers really went to the shop. To investigate the feasibility of this approach, we implemented a prototype of 20 signs in the city center of Münster, Germany. During one year of deployment, we investigated usage of the system through interviews with shop owners and customers. Our experiences show that customer attention towards the signs is a major hurdle to overcome.

  11. Soft systems thinking and social learning for adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Cundill, G; Cumming, G S; Biggs, D; Fabricius, C

    2012-02-01

    The success of adaptive management in conservation has been questioned and the objective-based management paradigm on which it is based has been heavily criticized. Soft systems thinking and social-learning theory expose errors in the assumption that complex systems can be dispassionately managed by objective observers and highlight the fact that conservation is a social process in which objectives are contested and learning is context dependent. We used these insights to rethink adaptive management in a way that focuses on the social processes involved in management and decision making. Our approach to adaptive management is based on the following assumptions: action toward a common goal is an emergent property of complex social relationships; the introduction of new knowledge, alternative values, and new ways of understanding the world can become a stimulating force for learning, creativity, and change; learning is contextual and is fundamentally about practice; and defining the goal to be addressed is continuous and in principle never ends. We believe five key activities are crucial to defining the goal that is to be addressed in an adaptive-management context and to determining the objectives that are desirable and feasible to the participants: situate the problem in its social and ecological context; raise awareness about alternative views of a problem and encourage enquiry and deconstruction of frames of reference; undertake collaborative actions; and reflect on learning.

  12. Management challenges of context-aware learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankowska, Malgorzata

    2015-02-01

    The work covers different definitions of context and the explanation of the context value for university learning organization and management. The thesis of the paper is as follows: students' focus on sources of context has impact on their knowledge acquisition and determines students' profiles and learning process, within which the teachers support de-contextualization, i.e., generalization of experience and knowledge. The work emphasizes the meaning of mobile devices in university learning process. The paper presents the value of BYOD (bring-your-own-device) strategy at universities and opportunities for m-education. The student survey results are presented to emphasize the value of that strategy. Beyond that, the students' preferences towards open source software and open learning materials are also discussed and evaluated by student survey. Finally, the process of contextualization and de-contextualization is developed for support the learning at university level.

  13. Adaptive Management for a Turbulent Future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Pope, Kevin L.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  14. Adaptive management for a turbulent future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Fontaine, J.J.; Pope, K.L.; Garmestani, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  15. Improving Voluntary Environmental Management Programs: Facilitating Learning and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genskow, Kenneth D.; Wood, Danielle M.

    2011-05-01

    Environmental planners and managers face unique challenges understanding and documenting the effectiveness of programs that rely on voluntary actions by private landowners. Programs, such as those aimed at reducing nonpoint source pollution or improving habitat, intend to reach those goals by persuading landowners to adopt behaviors and management practices consistent with environmental restoration and protection. Our purpose with this paper is to identify barriers for improving voluntary environmental management programs and ways to overcome them. We first draw upon insights regarding data, learning, and adaptation from the adaptive management and performance management literatures, describing three key issues: overcoming information constraints, structural limitations, and organizational culture. Although these lessons are applicable to a variety of voluntary environmental management programs, we then present the issues in the context of on-going research for nonpoint source water quality pollution. We end the discussion by highlighting important elements for advancing voluntary program efforts.

  16. Rapid perceptual adaptation to high gravitoinertial force levels Evidence for context-specific adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1982-01-01

    Subjects exposed to periodic variations in gravitoinertial force (2-G peak) in parabolic flight maneuvers quickly come to perceive the peak force level as having decreased in intensity. By the end of a 40-parabola flight, the decrease in apparent force is approximately 40%. On successive flight days, the apparent intensity of the force loads seems to decrease as well, indicating a cumulative adaptive effect. None of the subjects reported feeling abnormally 'light' for more than a minute or two after return to 1-G background force levels. The pattern of findings suggests a context-specific adaptation to high-force levels.

  17. Adaptive grazing management experiment: The new frontier of grazing management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Adaptive Grazing Management experiment at the USDA-ARS Central Plains Experimental Range addresses important gaps in our current understanding of grazing management including: 1) lack of management-science partnerships to more fully understand the effect of management decisions, 2) need for mana...

  18. 50 CFR 218.241 - Adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.241 Adaptive management. NMFS may modify (including...) Results from the Navy's monitoring from the previous year's operation of SURTASS LFA sonar. (b)...

  19. 50 CFR 218.241 - Adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.241 Adaptive management. NMFS may modify (including...) Results from the Navy's monitoring from the previous year's operation of SURTASS LFA sonar. (b)...

  20. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2001-12-20

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenancewithin the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior isinherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptivemanagement, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science isneeded.

  1. Introduction: contexts and concepts of adaptability and plasticity in 20th-century plant science.

    PubMed

    Baranski, Marci; Peirson, B R Erick

    2015-04-01

    Nowhere is the problem of understanding the complex linkages between organisms and their environments more apparent than in the science of plants. Today, efforts by scientists to predict and manage the biological consequences of shifting global and regional climates depend on understanding how organisms respond morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally to changes in their environments. Investigating organismal "adaptability" (or "plasticity") is rarely straightforward, prompting controversy and discourse among and between ecologists and agricultural scientists. Concepts like agro-climatic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity, and genotype-environment interaction (GxE) are key to those debates, and their complex histories have imbued them with assumptions and meanings that are consequential but often opaque. This special section explores the diverse ways in which organismal adaptability has been conceptualized and investigated in the second half of the 20th century, and the multifarious political, economic, environmental, and intellectual contexts in which those conceptions have emerged and evolved. The papers in this section bring together perspectives from the histories of agriculture, population ecology, evolutionary theory, and plant physiology, cutting across Asian, North American, and British contexts. As a whole, this section highlights not only the diversity of meanings of "adaptability" and "plasticity," but also the complex linkages between those meanings, the scientific practices and technologies in which they are embedded, and the ends toward which those practices and technologies are employed.

  2. Everglades Collaborative Adaptive Management Program Progress

    EPA Science Inventory

    When the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) was authorized in 2000, adaptive management (AM) was recognized as a necessary tool to address uncertainty in achieving the broad goals and objectives for restoring a highly managed system. The Everglades covers18,000 squ...

  3. Adaptive Management Implementation: Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program Trinity River Restoration Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittler, R.; McBain, S.; Stalnaker, C.; Bizier, P.; DeBarry, P.

    2003-01-01

    Two adaptive management programs, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) and the Trinity River Restoration Program (TRRP) are examined. In both cases, the focus is on managing the aquatic and riparian systems downstream of a large dam and water supply project. The status of the two programs, lessons learned by the program managers and the Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management (AEAM) evolution of the TRRP are discussed. The Trinity River illustrates some of the scientific uncertainities that a program faces and the ways the program evolves from concept through implementation.

  4. Context adaptive binary arithmetic decoding on transport triggered architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouvinen, Joona; Jääskeläinen, Pekka; Rintaluoma, Tero; Silvén, Olli; Takala, Jarmo

    2008-02-01

    Video coding standards, such as MPEG-4, H.264, and VC1, define hybrid transform based block motion compensated techniques that employ almost the same coding tools. This observation has been a foundation for defining the MPEG Reconfigurable Multimedia Coding framework that targets to facilitate multi-format codec design. The idea is to send a description of the codec with the bit stream, and to reconfigure the coding tools accordingly on-the-fly. This kind of approach favors software solutions, and is a substantial challenge for the implementers of mobile multimedia devices that aim at high energy efficiency. In particularly as high definition formats are about to be required from mobile multimedia devices, variable length decoders are becoming a serious bottleneck. Even at current moderate mobile video bitrates software based variable length decoders swallow a major portion of the resources of a mobile processor. In this paper we present a Transport Triggered Architecture (TTA) based programmable implementation for Context Adaptive Binary Arithmetic de-Coding (CABAC) that is used e.g. in the main profile of H.264 and in JPEG2000. The solution can be used even for other variable length codes.

  5. Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, Douglas K.; Sweeney, Susan M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  6. Adaptive resource management and the value of information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Breininger, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The value of information is a general and broadly applicable concept that has been used for several decades to aid in making decisions in the face of uncertainty. Yet there are relatively few examples of its use in ecology and natural resources management, and almost none that are framed in terms of the future impacts of management decisions. In this paper we discuss the value of information in a context of adaptive management, in which actions are taken sequentially over a timeframe and both future resource conditions and residual uncertainties about resource responses are taken into account. Our objective is to derive the value of reducing or eliminating uncertainty in adaptive decision making. We describe several measures of the value of information, with each based on management objectives that are appropriate for adaptive management. We highlight some mathematical properties of these measures, discuss their geometries, and illustrate them with an example in natural resources management. Accounting for the value of information can help to inform decisions about whether and how much to monitor resource conditions through time.

  7. Adaptive resource management and the value of information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.; Eaton, M.J.; Breininger, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The value of information is a general and broadly applicable concept that has been used for several decades to aid in making decisions in the face of uncertainty. Yet there are relatively few examples of its use in ecology and natural resources management, and almost none that are framed in terms of the future impacts of management decisions. In this paper we discuss the value of information in a context of adaptive management, in which actions are taken sequentially over a timeframe and both future resource conditions and residual uncertainties about resource responses are taken into account. Our objective is to derive the value of reducing or eliminating uncertainty in adaptive decision making. We describe several measures of the value of information, with each based on management objectives that are appropriate for adaptive management. We highlight some mathematical properties of these measures, discuss their geometries, and illustrate them with an example in natural resources management. Accounting for the value of information can help to inform decisions about whether and how much to monitor resource conditions through time. ?? 2011.

  8. Examining adaptations of evidence-based programs in natural contexts.

    PubMed

    Moore, Julia E; Bumbarger, Brian K; Cooper, Brittany Rhoades

    2013-06-01

    When evidence-based programs (EBPs) are scaled up in natural, or non-research, settings, adaptations are commonly made. Given the fidelity-versus-adaptation debate, theoretical rationales have been provided for the pros and cons of adaptations. Yet the basis of this debate is theoretical; thus, empirical evidence is needed to understand the types of adaptations made in natural settings. In the present study, we introduce a taxonomy for understanding adaptations. This taxonomy addresses several aspects of adaptations made to programs including the fit (philosophical or logistical), timing (proactive or reactive), and valence, or the degree to which the adaptations align with the program's goals and theory, (positive, negative, or neutral). Self-reported qualitative data from communities delivering one of ten state-funded EBPs were coded based on the taxonomy constructs; additionally, quantitative data were used to examine the types and reasons for making adaptations under natural conditions. Forty-four percent of respondents reported making adaptations. Adaptations to the procedures, dosage, and content were cited most often. Lack of time, limited resources, and difficulty retaining participants were listed as the most common reasons for making adaptations. Most adaptations were made reactively, as a result of issues of logistical fit, and were not aligned with, or deviated from, the program's goals and theory.

  9. 77 FR 74203 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  10. 75 FR 51284 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  11. 75 FR 10501 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  12. 77 FR 50155 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  13. 77 FR 30314 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  14. 76 FR 14044 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  15. 76 FR 23621 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  16. 75 FR 17158 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  17. 76 FR 34248 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  18. 77 FR 10766 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  19. 75 FR 70947 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  20. 75 FR 27814 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...-W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  1. Adaptive management for soil ecosystem services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birge, Hannah E.; Bevans, Rebecca A.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Baer, Sara G.; Wall, Diana H.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by soil include regulation of the atmosphere and climate, primary (including agricultural) production, waste processing, decomposition, nutrient conservation, water purification, erosion control, medical resources, pest control, and disease mitigation. The simultaneous production of these multiple services arises from complex interactions among diverse aboveground and belowground communities across multiple scales. When a system is mismanaged, non-linear and persistent losses in ecosystem services can arise. Adaptive management is an approach to management designed to reduce uncertainty as management proceeds. By developing alternative hypotheses, testing these hypotheses and adjusting management in response to outcomes, managers can probe dynamic mechanistic relationships among aboveground and belowground soil system components. In doing so, soil ecosystem services can be preserved and critical ecological thresholds avoided. Here, we present an adaptive management framework designed to reduce uncertainty surrounding the soil system, even when soil ecosystem services production is not the explicit management objective, so that managers can reach their management goals without undermining soil multifunctionality or contributing to an irreversible loss of soil ecosystem services.

  2. A Context-Aware Self-Adaptive Fractal Based Generalized Pedagogical Agent Framework for Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulehouache, Soufiane; Maamri, Ramdane; Sahnoun, Zaidi

    2015-01-01

    The Pedagogical Agents (PAs) for Mobile Learning (m-learning) must be able not only to adapt the teaching to the learner knowledge level and profile but also to ensure the pedagogical efficiency within unpredictable changing runtime contexts. Therefore, to deal with this issue, this paper proposes a Context-aware Self-Adaptive Fractal Component…

  3. Managing adaptively for multifunctionality in agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Hodbod, Jennifer; Barreteau, Olivier; Allen, Craig; Magda, Danièle

    2016-12-01

    The critical importance of agricultural systems for food security and as a dominant global landcover requires management that considers the full dimensions of system functions at appropriate scales, i.e. multifunctionality. We propose that adaptive management is the most suitable management approach for such goals, given its ability to reduce uncertainty over time and support multiple objectives within a system, for multiple actors. As such, adaptive management may be the most appropriate method for sustainably intensifying production whilst increasing the quantity and quality of ecosystem services. However, the current assessment of performance of agricultural systems doesn't reward ecosystem service provision. Therefore, we present an overview of the ecosystem functions agricultural systems should and could provide, coupled with a revised definition for assessing the performance of agricultural systems from a multifunctional perspective that, when all satisfied, would create adaptive agricultural systems that can increase production whilst ensuring food security and the quantity and quality of ecosystem services. The outcome of this high level of performance is the capacity to respond to multiple shocks without collapse, equity and triple bottom line sustainability. Through the assessment of case studies, we find that alternatives to industrialized agricultural systems incorporate more functional goals, but that there are mixed findings as to whether these goals translate into positive measurable outcomes. We suggest that an adaptive management perspective would support the implementation of a systematic analysis of the social, ecological and economic trade-offs occurring within such systems, particularly between ecosystem services and functions, in order to provide suitable and comparable assessments. We also identify indicators to monitor performance at multiple scales in agricultural systems which can be used within an adaptive management framework to increase

  4. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-06-16

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.

  5. Adaptable Learning Assistant for Item Bank Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuntiyagul, Atorn; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Wongsawang, Damras

    2008-01-01

    We present PKIP, an adaptable learning assistant tool for managing question items in item banks. PKIP is not only able to automatically assist educational users to categorize the question items into predefined categories by their contents but also to correctly retrieve the items by specifying the category and/or the difficulty level. PKIP adapts…

  6. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social–ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives. PMID:26082542

  7. Adaptive management for drought on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management for drought on rangelands encompasses 1) enterprise flexibility – herd structure where the proportion of cow-calf pairs and yearlings provides plasticity to match forage availability with forage demand, with advantages to economic returns and increased resiliency of plant communi...

  8. Adaptive Resource Management Technology for Satellite Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Lonnie; Tjaden, Brett; Pfarr, Barbara B.; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This manuscript describes the Sensor Web Adaptive Resource Manager (SWARM) project. The primary focus of the project is on the design and prototyping of middleware for managing computing and network resources in a way that enables the information systems of satellite constellations to provide realtime performance within dynamic environments. The middleware has been prototyped, and it has been evaluated by employing it to manage a pool of distributed resources for the ITOS (Integrated Test and Operations System) satellite command and control software system. The design of the middleware is discussed and a summary of the evaluation effort is provided.

  9. Managing Multiple Goals in Real Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Caroline F.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding students' multiple goals in real learning contexts is an emerging area of importance for educators and researchers investigating student motivation in classrooms. This qualitative study conducted over an academic year investigates the multiple goals articulated by seven 11-year-old students and explores relationships between goals…

  10. Managing Human Resources in a Multinational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumetzberger, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To develop more sensitivity for different patterns of human resource management in multinational companies. Design/methodology/approach: Systemic approach; the concepts and models are based on the evaluation of consulting projects in the field of human resource management. Findings: A concept of four typical varieties of human resource…

  11. Adaptation to elevated CO2 in different biodiversity contexts

    PubMed Central

    Kleynhans, Elizabeth J.; Otto, Sarah P.; Reich, Peter B.; Vellend, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of migration, species persistence depends on adaption to a changing environment, but whether and how adaptation to global change is altered by community diversity is not understood. Community diversity may prevent, enhance or alter how species adapt to changing conditions by influencing population sizes, genetic diversity and/or the fitness landscape experienced by focal species. We tested the impact of community diversity on adaptation by performing a reciprocal transplant experiment on grasses that evolved for 14 years under ambient and elevated CO2, in communities of low or high species richness. Using biomass as a fitness proxy, we find evidence for local adaptation to elevated CO2, but only for plants assayed in a community of similar diversity to the one experienced during the period of selection. Our results indicate that the biological community shapes the very nature of the fitness landscape within which species evolve in response to elevated CO2. PMID:27510545

  12. Designing Forest Adaptation Experiments through Manager-Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, L. M.; Swanston, C.; Janowiak, M.

    2014-12-01

    Three common forest adaptation options discussed in the context of an uncertain future climate are: creating resistance, promoting resilience, and enabling forests to respond to change. Though there is consensus on the broad management goals addressed by each of these options, translating these concepts into management plans specific for individual forest types that vary in structure, composition, and function remains a challenge. We will describe a decision-making framework that we employed within a manager-scientist partnership to develop a suite of adaptation treatments for two contrasting forest types as part of a long-term forest management experiment. The first, in northern Minnesota, is a red pine-dominated forest with components of white pine, aspen, paper birch, and northern red oak, with a hazel understory. The second, in southwest Colorado, is a warm-dry mixed conifer forest dominated by ponderosa pine, white fir, and Douglas-fir, with scattered aspen and an understory of Gambel oak. The current conditions at both sites are characterized by overstocking with moderate-to-high fuel loading, vulnerability to numerous forest health threats, and are generally uncharacteristic of historic structure and composition. The desired future condition articulated by managers for each site included elements of historic structure and natural range of variability, but were greatly tempered by known vulnerabilities and projected changes to climate and disturbance patterns. The resultant range of treatments we developed are distinct for each forest type, and address a wide range of management objectives.

  13. Role of Science, Policy, and Society in Adaptive Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Richard M. T.

    2009-03-01

    Planning for an Uncertain Future: Monitoring, Integration, and Adaptation; Estes Park, Colorado, 8-11 September 2008; Water managers around the world are being tasked to include potential effects of climate change in their future operations scenarios. One important water manager, the federal government, owns and manages 30% of all land in the United States, the vast majority of which is in western states and Alaska. On 9 March 2007, the Secretary of the Interior signed Order 3270, which states that adaptive management should be considered when (1) there are consequential decisions to be made; (2) there is an opportunity to apply learning; (3) the objectives of management are clear; (4) the value of reducing uncertainty is high; (5) uncertainty can be expressed as a set of competing, testable models; and (6) an experimental design and monitoring system can be put in place with a reasonable expectation of reducing uncertainty. The Third Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds provided an appropriate forum to discuss science-driven resource management in the context of new adaptive management strategies. The conference was organized by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and cosponsored by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Agricultural Research Service, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

  14. Role of adaptive management for watershed councils.

    PubMed

    Habron, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Recent findings in the Umpqua River Basin in southwestern Oregon illustrate a tension in the rise of both community-based and watershed-based approaches to aquatic resource management. While community-based institutions such as watershed councils offer relief from the government control landowners dislike, community-based approaches impinge on landowners' strong belief in independence and private property rights. Watershed councils do offer the local control landowners advocate; however, institutional success hinges on watershed councils' ability to reduce bureaucracy, foster productive discussion and understanding among stakeholders, and provide financial, technical, and coordination support. Yet, to accomplish these tasks current watershed councils rely on the fiscal and technical capital of the very governmental entities that landowners distrust. Adaptive management provides a basis for addressing the apparent tension by incorporating landowners' belief in environmental resilience and acceptance of experimentation that rejects "one size fits all solutions." Therefore community-based adaptive watershed management provides watershed councils a framework that balances landowners' independence and fear of government intrusion, acknowledges the benefits of community cooperation through watershed councils, and enables ecological assessment of landowner-preferred practices. Community-based adaptive management integrates social and ecological suitability to achieve conservation outcomes by providing landowners the flexibility to use a diverse set of conservation practices to achieve desired ecological outcomes, instead of imposing regulations or specific practices.

  15. Adaptable data management for systems biology investigations

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, John; Rovira, Hector; Cavnor, Chris; Burdick, David; Killcoyne, Sarah; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    Background Within research each experiment is different, the focus changes and the data is generated from a continually evolving barrage of technologies. There is a continual introduction of new techniques whose usage ranges from in-house protocols through to high-throughput instrumentation. To support these requirements data management systems are needed that can be rapidly built and readily adapted for new usage. Results The adaptable data management system discussed is designed to support the seamless mining and analysis of biological experiment data that is commonly used in systems biology (e.g. ChIP-chip, gene expression, proteomics, imaging, flow cytometry). We use different content graphs to represent different views upon the data. These views are designed for different roles: equipment specific views are used to gather instrumentation information; data processing oriented views are provided to enable the rapid development of analysis applications; and research project specific views are used to organize information for individual research experiments. This management system allows for both the rapid introduction of new types of information and the evolution of the knowledge it represents. Conclusion Data management is an important aspect of any research enterprise. It is the foundation on which most applications are built, and must be easily extended to serve new functionality for new scientific areas. We have found that adopting a three-tier architecture for data management, built around distributed standardized content repositories, allows us to rapidly develop new applications to support a diverse user community. PMID:19265554

  16. Lightweight Adaptation of Classifiers to Users and Contexts: Trends of the Emerging Domain

    PubMed Central

    Vildjiounaite, Elena; Gimel'farb, Georgy; Kyllönen, Vesa; Peltola, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent computer applications need to adapt their behaviour to contexts and users, but conventional classifier adaptation methods require long data collection and/or training times. Therefore classifier adaptation is often performed as follows: at design time application developers define typical usage contexts and provide reasoning models for each of these contexts, and then at runtime an appropriate model is selected from available ones. Typically, definition of usage contexts and reasoning models heavily relies on domain knowledge. However, in practice many applications are used in so diverse situations that no developer can predict them all and collect for each situation adequate training and test databases. Such applications have to adapt to a new user or unknown context at runtime just from interaction with the user, preferably in fairly lightweight ways, that is, requiring limited user effort to collect training data and limited time of performing the adaptation. This paper analyses adaptation trends in several emerging domains and outlines promising ideas, proposed for making multimodal classifiers user-specific and context-specific without significant user efforts, detailed domain knowledge, and/or complete retraining of the classifiers. Based on this analysis, this paper identifies important application characteristics and presents guidelines to consider these characteristics in adaptation design. PMID:26473165

  17. Adaptive Management for Urban Watersheds: The Slavic Village Pilot Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to reduce the uncertainty in environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that ca...

  18. Medicare disease management in policy context.

    PubMed

    Linden, Ariel; Adler-Milstein, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Interim results of the Medicare health support (MHS) demonstration projects suggest that commercial disease management (DM) is unable to deliver short-term medical cost savings. This is not surprising given the current DM program focus on compliance with process measures that may only lead to cost savings in the long-term. A program focused on reducing near-term hospitalizations is more likely to deliver savings during the initial 3-year phase of MHS. If the early trends in MHS are indicative of the final results, CMS will face the decision of whether to abandon commercial DM in favor of other chronic care management strategies. This article supports the upcoming assessment by describing the characteristics of the current commercial DM model that limit its ability to deliver short-term medical cost savings and the changes required to overcome these limitations.

  19. CAreDroid: Adaptation Framework for Android Context-Aware Applications.

    PubMed

    Elmalaki, Salma; Wanner, Lucas; Srivastava, Mani

    2015-09-01

    Context-awareness is the ability of software systems to sense and adapt to their physical environment. Many contemporary mobile applications adapt to changing locations, connectivity states, available computational and energy resources, and proximity to other users and devices. Nevertheless, there is little systematic support for context-awareness in contemporary mobile operating systems. Because of this, application developers must build their own context-awareness adaptation engines, dealing directly with sensors and polluting application code with complex adaptation decisions. In this paper, we introduce CAreDroid, which is a framework that is designed to decouple the application logic from the complex adaptation decisions in Android context-aware applications. In this framework, developers are required- only-to focus on the application logic by providing a list of methods that are sensitive to certain contexts along with the permissible operating ranges under those contexts. At run time, CAreDroid monitors the context of the physical environment and intercepts calls to sensitive methods, activating only the blocks of code that best fit the current physical context. CAreDroid is implemented as part of the Android runtime system. By pushing context monitoring and adaptation into the runtime system, CAreDroid eases the development of context-aware applications and increases their efficiency. In particular, case study applications implemented using CAre-Droid are shown to have: (1) at least half lines of code fewer and (2) at least 10× more efficient in execution time compared to equivalent context-aware applications that use only standard Android APIs.

  20. CAreDroid: Adaptation Framework for Android Context-Aware Applications

    PubMed Central

    Elmalaki, Salma; Wanner, Lucas; Srivastava, Mani

    2015-01-01

    Context-awareness is the ability of software systems to sense and adapt to their physical environment. Many contemporary mobile applications adapt to changing locations, connectivity states, available computational and energy resources, and proximity to other users and devices. Nevertheless, there is little systematic support for context-awareness in contemporary mobile operating systems. Because of this, application developers must build their own context-awareness adaptation engines, dealing directly with sensors and polluting application code with complex adaptation decisions. In this paper, we introduce CAreDroid, which is a framework that is designed to decouple the application logic from the complex adaptation decisions in Android context-aware applications. In this framework, developers are required— only—to focus on the application logic by providing a list of methods that are sensitive to certain contexts along with the permissible operating ranges under those contexts. At run time, CAreDroid monitors the context of the physical environment and intercepts calls to sensitive methods, activating only the blocks of code that best fit the current physical context. CAreDroid is implemented as part of the Android runtime system. By pushing context monitoring and adaptation into the runtime system, CAreDroid eases the development of context-aware applications and increases their efficiency. In particular, case study applications implemented using CAre-Droid are shown to have: (1) at least half lines of code fewer and (2) at least 10× more efficient in execution time compared to equivalent context-aware applications that use only standard Android APIs. PMID:26834512

  1. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide recommendations to the...

  2. 71 FR 44042 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-08-03

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and provide recommendations to the Secretary...

  3. 73 FR 45070 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide recommendations to the...

  4. Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    1 of 2 Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management Approaches Melanie Sandberg, Tom Reynolds...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management...1 Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management Approaches* Melanie

  5. Organizational Context and the Success of Management Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ein-Dor, Phillip; Segev, Eli

    1978-01-01

    This paper identifies the organizational context variables affecting the success and failure of management information systems. The variables are categorized as uncontrollable, partially controllable, and controlled. Available from the Institue of Management Sciences, Circulation Dept., 345 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, Connecticut 06511; Single copy…

  6. Adaptive Management as an Effective Strategy: Interdisciplinary Perceptions for Natural Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiss, Lindsay M.; Hessenauer, Jan-Michael; Nathan, Lucas R.; O'Connor, Kelly M.; Liberati, Marjorie R.; Kloster, Danielle P.; Barclay, Janet R.; Vokoun, Jason C.; Morzillo, Anita T.

    2017-02-01

    Adaptive management is a well-established approach to managing natural resources, but there is little evidence demonstrating effectiveness of adaptive management over traditional management techniques. Peer-reviewed literature attempts to draw conclusions about adaptive management effectiveness using social perceptions, but those studies are largely restricted to employees of US federal organizations. To gain a more comprehensive insight into perceived adaptive management effectiveness, this study aimed to broaden the suite of disciplines, professional affiliations, and geographic backgrounds represented by both practitioners and scholars. A questionnaire contained a series of questions concerning factors that lead to or inhibit effective management, followed by another set of questions focused on adaptive management. Using a continuum representing strategies of both adaptive management and traditional management, respondents selected those strategies that they perceived as being effective. Overall, characteristics (i.e., strategies, stakeholders, and barriers) identified by respondents as contributing to effective management closely aligned with adaptive management. Responses were correlated to the type of adaptive management experience rather than an individual's discipline, occupational, or regional affiliation. In particular, perceptions of characteristics contributing to adaptive management effectiveness varied between respondents who identified as adaptive management scholars (i.e., no implementation experience) and adaptive management practitioners. Together, these results supported two concepts that make adaptive management effective: practitioners emphasized adaptive management's value as a long-term approach and scholars noted the importance of stakeholder involvement. Even so, more communication between practitioners and scholars regarding adaptive management effectiveness could promote interdisciplinary learning and problem solving for improved

  7. Adaptive management of natural resources-framework and issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management, an approach for simultaneously managing and learning about natural resources, has been around for several decades. Interest in adaptive decision making has grown steadily over that time, and by now many in natural resources conservation claim that adaptive management is the approach they use in meeting their resource management responsibilities. Yet there remains considerable ambiguity about what adaptive management actually is, and how it is to be implemented by practitioners. The objective of this paper is to present a framework and conditions for adaptive decision making, and discuss some important challenges in its application. Adaptive management is described as a two-phase process of deliberative and iterative phases, which are implemented sequentially over the timeframe of an application. Key elements, processes, and issues in adaptive decision making are highlighted in terms of this framework. Special emphasis is given to the question of geographic scale, the difficulties presented by non-stationarity, and organizational challenges in implementing adaptive management. ?? 2010.

  8. Gambling in the Public Marketplace: Adaptations to Economic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Demand for public games of chance was examined over a 24-year period, across various contexts of the prevailing gaming environment that included significant political and economic events. Lottery sales trends revealed devaluation of large jackpots beyond that due to inflation as they became more common, with the steepest discounting in the…

  9. CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-31

    CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change 1st Interim Report Report Documentation Page Form...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) CSIR ,PO Box 395,Pretoria 0001, South Africa, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  10. Adaptive management of social-ecological systems: the path forward

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management remains at the forefront of environmental management nearly 40 years after its original conception, largely because we have yet to develop other methodologies that offer the same promise. Despite the criticisms of adaptive management and the numerous failed attempts to implement it, adaptive management has yet to be replaced with a better alternative. The concept persists because it is simple, allows action despite uncertainty, and fosters learning. Moving forward, adaptive management of social-ecological systems provides policymakers, managers and scientists a powerful tool for managing for resilience in the face of uncertainty.

  11. Learning multiple visuomotor transformations: adaptation and context-dependent recall.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Sima; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L

    2004-10-01

    Recent motor control theories suggest that the brain uses internal models to plan and control accurate movements. An internal model is thought to represent how the biomechanics of the arm interacting with the outside world would respond to a motor command; therefore it can be seen as a predictive model of the reafference that helps the system plan ahead. Moreover, adaptation studies show that humans can learn multiple internal models. It is not clear, however, whether and how contextual cues are used to switch among competing internal models, which are required to compensate for altered environments. To investigate this question, we asked healthy participants to perform center-out pointing movements under normal and distorted visual feedback (0 degrees , 30 degrees counterclockwise, and 60 degrees clockwise rotation of hand-screen cursor relationships) conditions. The results suggest that humans can learn multiple environments simultaneously and can use contextual cues to facilitate adaptation and to recall the appropriate internal model of the visuomotor transformation.

  12. Context-Aware Adaptive Hybrid Semantic Relatedness in Biomedical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emadzadeh, Ehsan

    Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language Processing (NLP) solutions. Methods for calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts can be very useful in solutions solving different problems such as relationship extraction, ontology creation and question / answering [1--6]. Several techniques exist in calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts. These techniques utilize different knowledge sources and corpora. So far, researchers attempted to find the best hybrid method for each domain by combining semantic relatedness techniques and data sources manually. In this work, attempts were made to eliminate the needs for manually combining semantic relatedness methods targeting any new contexts or resources through proposing an automated method, which attempted to find the best combination of semantic relatedness techniques and resources to achieve the best semantic relatedness score in every context. This may help the research community find the best hybrid method for each context considering the available algorithms and resources.

  13. Towards Increased Relevance: Context-Adapted Models of the Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Örtenblad, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this paper are to take a closer look at the relevance of the idea of the learning organization for organizations in different generalized organizational contexts; to open up for the existence of multiple, context-adapted models of the learning organization; and to suggest a number of such models.…

  14. A Context-Adaptive Teacher Training Model in a Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Min; Chiang, Feng Kuang; Jiang, Ya Na; Yu, Sheng Quan

    2017-01-01

    In view of the discrepancies in teacher training and teaching practice, this paper put forward a context-adaptive teacher training model in a ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment. The innovative model provides teachers of different subjects with adaptive and personalized learning content in a u-learning environment, implements intra- and…

  15. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The concept of refugia has long been studied from theoretical and paleontological perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, locations that may be unusually buffered from climate change effects so as to increase persistence of valued resources. Here we distinguish between paleoecological and contemporary viewpoints, characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia, summarize the process of identifying and mapping them, and delineate how refugia can fit into the existing framework of natural resource management. We also suggest three primary courses of action at these sites: prioritization, protection, and propagation. Although not a panacea, managing climate change refugia can be an important adaptation option for conserving valuable resources in the face of ongoing and future climate change. “In a nutshell” (100 words) • Climate change refugia are defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change, enabling persistence of valued physical, ecological, and cultural resources. • Refugia can be incorporated as key components of a climate adaptation strategy because their prioritization by management may enable their associated resources to persist locally and eventually spread to future suitable habitat. • Steps for

  16. Managing climate change refugia for climate adaptation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morelli, Toni; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change.

  17. Adaptive momentum management for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, E.

    1987-01-01

    Momentum management is discussed for a Large Space Structure (LSS) with the structure selected configuration being the Initial Orbital Configuration (IOC) of the dual keel space station. The external forces considered were gravity gradient and aerodynamic torques. The goal of the momentum management scheme developed is to remove the bias components of the external torques and center the cyclic components of the stored angular momentum. The scheme investigated is adaptive to uncertainties of the inertia tensor and requires only approximate knowledge of principle moments of inertia. Computational requirements are minimal and should present no implementation problem in a flight type computer and the method proposed is shown to be effective in the presence of attitude control bandwidths as low as .01 radian/sec.

  18. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Dulen, Deanna M.; Ebersole, Joseph L.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Millar, Constance I.; Maher, Sean P.; Monahan, William B.; Nydick, Koren R.; Redmond, Kelly T.; Sawyer, Sarah C.; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change. PMID:27509088

  19. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Dulen, Deanna M; Ebersole, Joseph L; Jackson, Stephen T; Lundquist, Jessica D; Millar, Constance I; Maher, Sean P; Monahan, William B; Nydick, Koren R; Redmond, Kelly T; Sawyer, Sarah C; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change.

  20. Adaptive Challenges Rising from the Life Context of African-American Caregiving Grandmothers with Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Carthron, Dana; Bailey, Donald E.; Anderson, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    To understand the challenges arising from the context within which diabetic African-American caregiving grandmothers self-manage their diabetes we used the Adaptive Leadership Framework. Additionally, challenges to retaining this population in a longitudinal study were examined. In this exploratory, longitudinal, qualitative pilot study, data were collected at five time-points over 18 months. We coded the data using content analysis and conducted the within-case and cross-case analyses using data matrices. Lack of awareness of available resources, represented a technical challenge within the life context of these grandmothers and the remaining three themes: family upheaval; priority setting (with subthemes of difficulty meeting basic needs and competing demands); and self-silencing and self-sacrifice represented adaptive challenges. The context of African-American grandmothers’ lives created primarily adaptive challenges that were complex and without immediate solutions. Research is needed to develop culturally and contextually appropriate interventions to help this vulnerable group develop capacity for adaptive work. PMID:27064619

  1. Context adaptable driver information--or, what do whom need and want when?

    PubMed

    Davidsson, Staffan; Alm, Håkan

    2014-07-01

    This study deals with a first step towards context adaptive functionality of a Driver Information System. Driving a car is a complex task for which the driver needs appropriate information to fulfil his or her goals. New technologies enable adaptability to driver state, task, personality etcetera and also to the context. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate what information people perceive that they need and want from the car in different contexts and to what extent there is consensus about the function. A new methodology was developed, and 33 private car drivers were interviewed and asked to rate a number of possible abstract functions in a car in different contexts. It was shown that people need and want different types of information in different contexts. It was furthermore indicated that there is sometimes a difference in drivers' opinions about what should be presented by the car and that there is varying consensus over different functions in different contexts. The rating result was illustrated by an easily perceived Context Function Matrix. The results may be used in the design of a context adaptive driver information system.

  2. Deficits in context-dependent adaptive coding of reward in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kirschner, Matthias; Hager, Oliver M; Bischof, Martin; Hartmann-Riemer, Matthias N; Kluge, Agne; Seifritz, Erich; Tobler, Philippe N; Kaiser, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical principles of information processing and empirical findings suggest that to efficiently represent all possible rewards in the natural environment, reward-sensitive neurons have to adapt their coding range dynamically to the current reward context. Adaptation ensures that the reward system is most sensitive for the most likely rewards, enabling the system to efficiently represent a potentially infinite range of reward information. A deficit in neural adaptation would prevent precise representation of rewards and could have detrimental effects for an organism’s ability to optimally engage with its environment. In schizophrenia, reward processing is known to be impaired and has been linked to different symptom dimensions. However, despite the fundamental significance of coding reward adaptively, no study has elucidated whether adaptive reward processing is impaired in schizophrenia. We therefore studied patients with schizophrenia (n=27) and healthy controls (n=25), using functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with a variant of the monetary incentive delay task. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia showed less efficient neural adaptation to the current reward context, which leads to imprecise neural representation of reward. Importantly, the deficit correlated with total symptom severity. Our results suggest that some of the deficits in reward processing in schizophrenia might be due to inefficient neural adaptation to the current reward context. Furthermore, because adaptive coding is a ubiquitous feature of the brain, we believe that our findings provide an avenue in defining a general impairment in neural information processing underlying this debilitating disorder. PMID:27430009

  3. Context-specific adaptation of the gain of the oculomotor response to lateral translation using roll and pitch head tilts as contexts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Peng, Grace C Y.; Ramat, Stefano; Patel, Vivek

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies established that vestibular and oculomotor behaviors can have two adapted states (e.g., gain) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. The present study examined this phenomenon of context-specific adaptation for the oculomotor response to interaural translation (which we term "linear vestibulo-ocular reflex" or LVOR even though it may have extravestibular components). Subjects sat upright on a linear sled and were translated at 0.7 Hz and 0.3 gpeak acceleration while a visual-vestibular mismatch paradigm was used to adaptively increase (x2) or decrease (x0) the gain of the LVOR. In each experimental session, gain increase was asked for in one context, and gain decrease in another context. Testing in darkness with steps and sines before and after adaptation, in each context, assessed the extent to which the context itself could recall the gain state that was imposed in that context during adaptation. Two different contexts were used: head pitch (26 degrees forward and backward) and head roll (26 degrees or 45 degrees, right and left). Head roll tilt worked well as a context cue: with the head rolled to the right the LVOR could be made to have a higher gain than with the head rolled to the left. Head pitch tilt was less effective as a context cue. This suggests that the more closely related a context cue is to the response being adapted, the more effective it is.

  4. Understanding and managing compliance in the nature conservation context.

    PubMed

    Arias, Adrian

    2015-04-15

    Nature conservation relies largely on peoples' rule adherence. However, noncompliance in the conservation context is common: it is one of the largest illegal activities in the world, degrading societies, economies and the environment. Understanding and managing compliance is key for ensuring effective conservation, nevertheless crucial concepts and tools are scattered in a wide array of literature. Here I review and integrate these concepts and tools in an effort to guide compliance management in the conservation context. First, I address the understanding of compliance by breaking it down into five key questions: who?, what?, when?, where? and why?. A special focus is given to 'why?' because the answer to this question explains the reasons for compliance and noncompliance, providing critical information for management interventions. Second, I review compliance management strategies, from voluntary compliance to coerced compliance. Finally, I suggest a system, initially proposed for tax compliance, to balance these multiple compliance management strategies. This paper differs from others by providing a broad yet practical scope on theory and tools for understanding and managing compliance in the nature conservation context.

  5. Context-Specific Adaptation of Gravity-Dependent Vestibular Reflex Responses (NSBRI Neurovestibular Project 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark; Goldberg, Jefim; Minor, Lloyd B.; Paloski, William H.; Young, Laurence R.; Zee, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Impairment of gaze and head stabilization reflexes can lead to disorientation and reduced performance in sensorimotor tasks such as piloting of spacecraft. Transitions between different gravitoinertial force (gif) environments - as during different phases of space flight - provide an extreme test of the adaptive capabilities of these mechanisms. We wish to determine to what extent the sensorimotor skills acquired in one gravity environment will transfer to others, and to what extent gravity serves as a context cue for inhibiting such transfer. We use the general approach of adapting a response (saccades, vestibuloocular reflex: VOR, or vestibulocollic reflex: VCR) to a particular change in gain or phase in one gif condition, adapting to a different gain or phase in a second gif condition, and then seeing if gif itself - the context cue - can recall the previously-learned adapted responses. Previous evidence indicates that unless there is specific training to induce context-specificity, reflex adaptation is sequential rather than simultaneous. Various experiments in this project investigate the behavioral properties, neurophysiological basis, and anatomical substrate of context-specific learning, using otolith (gravity) signals as a context cue. In the following, we outline the methods for all experiments in this project, and provide details and results on selected experiments.

  6. Managing Change in a Medical Context: Guidelines for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Rodney; Grant, Janet

    This booklet presents guidelines for the management of change in medicine in Great Britain, particularly post-basic medical education. Following a forward and introduction, a description of the study from which the guidelines were developed is presented. That study was a major investigation of adapting business and industry change management…

  7. Public access management as an adaptive wildlife management tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    One key issue in the Black Mesa – Black Canyon area is the interaction between motorized vehicles and. The working hypothesis for this study is that early season elk movement onto private lands and the National Park is precipitated by increased use of Off Highway Vehicles (OHV’s). Data on intensity of motorized use is extremely limited. In this study, we monitor intensity of motorized vehicle and trail use on elk movements and habitat usage and analyze interactions. If management agencies decide to alter accessibility, we will monitor wildlife responses to changes in the human-use regime. This provides a unique opportunity for adaptive management experimentation based on coordinated research and monitoring. The products from this project will provide natural resource managers across the nation with tools and information to better meet these resource challenges.

  8. Statistical context shapes stimulus-specific adaptation in human auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Molly J.; Fromboluti, Elisa Kim; McAuley, J. Devin

    2015-01-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation is the phenomenon whereby neural response magnitude decreases with repeated stimulation. Inconsistencies between recent nonhuman animal recordings and computational modeling suggest dynamic influences on stimulus-specific adaptation. The present human electroencephalography (EEG) study investigates the potential role of statistical context in dynamically modulating stimulus-specific adaptation by examining the auditory cortex-generated N1 and P2 components. As in previous studies of stimulus-specific adaptation, listeners were presented with oddball sequences in which the presentation of a repeated tone was infrequently interrupted by rare spectral changes taking on three different magnitudes. Critically, the statistical context varied with respect to the probability of small versus large spectral changes within oddball sequences (half of the time a small change was most probable; in the other half a large change was most probable). We observed larger N1 and P2 amplitudes (i.e., release from adaptation) for all spectral changes in the small-change compared with the large-change statistical context. The increase in response magnitude also held for responses to tones presented with high probability, indicating that statistical adaptation can overrule stimulus probability per se in its influence on neural responses. Computational modeling showed that the degree of coadaptation in auditory cortex changed depending on the statistical context, which in turn affected stimulus-specific adaptation. Thus the present data demonstrate that stimulus-specific adaptation in human auditory cortex critically depends on statistical context. Finally, the present results challenge the implicit assumption of stationarity of neural response magnitudes that governs the practice of isolating established deviant-detection responses such as the mismatch negativity. PMID:25652920

  9. The social context of managing diabetes across the life span.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, Deborah J; Helgeson, Vicki; Berg, Cynthia A

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes self-management is crucial to maintaining quality of life and preventing long-term complications, and it occurs daily in the context of close interpersonal relationships. This article examines how social relationships are central to meeting the complex demands of managing Type I and Type 2 diabetes across the life span. The social context of diabetes management includes multiple resources, including family (parents, spouses), peers, romantic partners, and health care providers. We discuss how these social resources change across the life span, focusing on childhood and adolescence, emerging adulthood, and adulthood and aging. We review how diabetes both affects and is affected by key social relationships at each developmental period. Despite high variability in how the social context is conceptualized and measured across studies, findings converge on the characteristics of social relationships that facilitate or undermine diabetes management across the life span. These characteristics are consistent with both Interpersonal Theory and Self-Determination Theory, 2 organizing frameworks that we utilize to explore social behaviors that are related to diabetes management. Involvement and support from one's social partners, particularly family members, is consistently associated with good diabetes outcomes when characterized by warmth, collaboration, and acceptance. Underinvolvement and interactions characterized by conflict and criticism are consistently associated with poor diabetes outcomes. Intrusive involvement that contains elements of social control may undermine diabetes management, particularly when it impinges on self-efficacy. Implications for future research directions and for interventions that promote the effective use of the social context to improve diabetes self-management are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Adapting inland fisheries management to a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, Craig; Glazer, Bob A.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Irwin, Brian J.; Jacobson, Peter C.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Shuter, Brian J.; Whitney, James E.; Lynch, Abigail J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource decision makers are challenged to adapt management to a changing climate while balancing short-term management goals with long-term changes in aquatic systems. Adaptation will require developing resilient ecosystems and resilient management systems. Decision makers already have tools to develop or ensure resilient aquatic systems and fisheries such as managing harvest and riparian zones. Because fisheries management often interacts with multiple stakeholders, adaptation strategies involving fisheries managers and other partners focused on land use, policy, and human systems, coupled with long-term monitoring, are necessary for resilient systems. We show how agencies and organizations are adapting to a changing climate in Minnesota and Ontario lakes and Montana streams. We also present how the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission created a management structure to develop adaptation strategies. These examples demonstrate how organizations and agencies can cope with climate change effects on fishes and fisheries through creating resilient management and ecological systems.

  11. 62 FR 66384 - Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-12-18

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, DOI. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) will... Work Group (1999 program, management objectives, approach to beach/habitat building flow...

  12. Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems: The Path Forward

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management remains at the forefront of environmental management nearly 40 years after its original conception, largely because we have yet to develop other methodologies that offer the same promise. Despite the criticisms of adaptive management and the numerous failed at...

  13. Using Virtualization and Automatic Evaluation: Adapting Network Services Management Courses to the EHEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, S.; Robles-Gomez, A.; Hernandez, R.; Caminero, A. C.; Pastor, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the adaptation of a course on the management of network services in operating systems, called NetServicesOS, to the context of the new European Higher Education Area (EHEA). NetServicesOS is a mandatory course in one of the official graduate programs in the Faculty of Computer Science at the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a…

  14. Lessons Learned from the Everglades Collaborative Adaptive Management Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent technical papers explore whether adaptive management (AM) is useful for environmental management and restoration efforts and discuss the many challenges to overcome for successful implementation, especially for large-scale restoration programs (McLain and Lee 1996; Levine ...

  15. Rapidly Building Visual Management Systems for Context-Aware Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Ichiro

    A component framework for building and operating visual interfaces for context-aware services in ubiquitous computing environments is presented. By using a compound-document technology, it provides physical entities, places, stationary or mobile computing devices, and services with visual components as multimedia representations to enable them to be annotated and controlled them. It can automatically assemble visual components into a visual interface for monitoring and managing context-aware services according to the spatial-containment relationships between their targets in the physical world by using underlying location-sensing systems. End-users can manually deploy and customize context-aware services through user-friendly GUI-based manipulations for editing documents. This paper presents the design for this framework and describes its implementation and practical applications in user/location-aware assistant systems in two museums.

  16. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  17. A context management system for a cost-efficient smart home platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, J.; Klein, A.; Mannweiler, C.; Schotten, H. D.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of state-of-the-art architectures for integrating wireless sensor and actuators networks into the Future Internet. Furthermore, we will address advantages and disadvantages of the different architectures. With respect to these criteria, we develop a new architecture overcoming these weaknesses. Our system, called Smart Home Context Management System, will be used for intelligent home utilities, appliances, and electronics and includes physical, logical as well as network context sources within one concept. It considers important aspects and requirements of modern context management systems for smart X applications: plug and play as well as plug and trust capabilities, scalability, extensibility, security, and adaptability. As such, it is able to control roller blinds, heating systems as well as learn, for example, the user's taste w.r.t. to home entertainment (music, videos, etc.). Moreover, Smart Grid applications and Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) functions are applicable. With respect to AAL, we included an Emergency Handling function. It assures that emergency calls (police, ambulance or fire department) are processed appropriately. Our concept is based on a centralized Context Broker architecture, enhanced by a distributed Context Broker system. The goal of this concept is to develop a simple, low-priced, multi-functional, and save architecture affordable for everybody. Individual components of the architecture are well tested. Implementation and testing of the architecture as a whole is in progress.

  18. Adaptive mobility management scheme in hierarchical mobile IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Bo; Song, Junde

    2004-04-01

    Hierarchical mobile IPv6 makes the mobility management localized. Registration with HA is only needed while MN moving between MAP domains. This paper proposed an adaptive mobility management scheme based on the hierarchical mobile IPv6. The scheme focuses on the MN operation as well as MAP operation during the handoff. Adaptive MAP selection algorithm can be used to select a suitable MAP to register with once MN moves into a new subnet while MAP can thus adaptively changing his management domain. Furthermore, MAP can also adaptively changes its level in the hierarchical referring on the service load or other related information. Detailed handoff algorithm is also discussed in this paper.

  19. Adapting natural resource management to climate change: The South Central Oregon and Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halofsky, J.; Peterson, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help natural resource managers take the first steps to incorporate climate change into management and take advantage of opportunities to balance the negative effects of climate change. We recently initiated two science-management climate change adaptation partnerships, one with three national forests and one national park in south central Oregon, and the other with 16 national forests, three national parks and other stakeholders in the northern Rockies region. Goals of both partnerships were to: (1) synthesize published information and data to assess the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of key resource areas, including water use, infrastructure, fisheries, and vegetation and disturbance; (2) develop science-based adaptation strategies and tactics that will help to mitigate the negative effects of climate change and assist the transition of biological systems and management to a warmer climate; (3) ensure adaptation strategies and tactics are incorporated into relevant planning documents; and (4) foster an enduring partnership to facilitate ongoing dialogue and activities related to climate change in the partnerships regions. After an initial vulnerability assessment by agency and university scientists and local resource specialists, adaptation strategies and tactics were developed in a series of scientist-manager workshops. The final vulnerability assessments and adaptation actions are incorporated in technical reports. The partnerships produced concrete adaptation options for national forest and other natural resource managers and illustrated the utility of place-based vulnerability assessments and scientist-manager workshops in adapting to climate change.

  20. Adapting Natural Resource Management to Climate Change: The Blue Mountains and Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halofsky, J.; Peterson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help natural resource managers take the first steps to incorporate climate change into management and take advantage of opportunities to balance the negative effects of climate change. We recently initiated two science-management climate change adaptation partnerships, one with three national forests and other key stakeholders in the Blue Mountains region of northeastern Oregon, and the other with 16 national forests, three national parks and other stakeholders in the northern Rockies region. Goals of both partnerships were to: (1) synthesize published information and data to assess the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of key resource areas, including water use, infrastructure, fisheries, and vegetation and disturbance; (2) develop science-based adaptation strategies and tactics that will help to mitigate the negative effects of climate change and assist the transition of biological systems and management to a warmer climate; (3) ensure adaptation strategies and tactics are incorporated into relevant planning documents; and (4) foster an enduring partnership to facilitate ongoing dialogue and activities related to climate change in the partnerships regions. After an initial vulnerability assessment by agency and university scientists and local resource specialists, adaptation strategies and tactics were developed in a series of scientist-manager workshops. The final vulnerability assessments and adaptation actions are incorporated in technical reports. The partnerships produced concrete adaptation options for national forest and other natural resource managers and illustrated the utility of place-based vulnerability assessments and scientist-manager workshops in adapting to climate change.

  1. Context-Specific Adaptation of Gravity-Dependent Vestibular Reflex Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Stabilization of the eyes and head during body movements is important for maintaining balance and keeping the images of objects stationary on our retinas. Impairment of this ability can lead to disorientation and reduced performance in sensorimotor tasks such as piloting of spacecraft. In the absence of a normal earth gravity field, the dynamics of head stabilization, and the interpretation of vestibular signals that sense gravity and linear acceleration, are subject to change. Transitions between different gravitoinertial force environments - as during different phases of space flight - provide an extreme test of the adaptive mechanisms that maintain these reflexive abilities. It is vitally important to determine human adaptive capabilities in such a circumstance, so that we can know to what extent the sensorimotor skills acquired in one gravity environment will transfer to others. Our work lays the foundation for understanding these capabilities, and for determining how we can aid the processes of adaptation and readaptation. An integrated set of experiments addresses this issue. We use the general approach of adapting some type of reflexive eye movement (saccades, the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (AVOR), the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR)), or the vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR), to a particular change in gain or phase in one condition of gravitoiner-tial force, and adapting to a different gain or phase (or asking for no change) in a second gravitoinertial force condition, and then seeing if the gravitoinertial force itself - the context cue - can recall the previously learned adapted responses. The majority of the experiments in the laboratory use the direction of vertical gaze or the direction of gravity (head tilt) as the context cue. This allows us to study context-specificity in a ground-based setting. One set of experiments, to be performed in parabolic flight, specifically uses the magnitude of gravitoinertial force as a context cue. This is a

  2. Passive and active adaptive management: approaches and an example.

    PubMed

    Williams, Byron K

    2011-05-01

    Adaptive management is a framework for resource conservation that promotes iterative learning-based decision making. Yet there remains considerable confusion about what adaptive management entails, and how to actually make resource decisions adaptively. A key but somewhat ambiguous distinction in adaptive management is between active and passive forms of adaptive decision making. The objective of this paper is to illustrate some approaches to active and passive adaptive management with a simple example involving the drawdown of water impoundments on a wildlife refuge. The approaches are illustrated for the drawdown example, and contrasted in terms of objectives, costs, and potential learning rates. Some key challenges to the actual practice of AM are discussed, and tradeoffs between implementation costs and long-term benefits are highlighted.

  3. Passive and active adaptive management: Approaches and an example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management is a framework for resource conservation that promotes iterative learning-based decision making. Yet there remains considerable confusion about what adaptive management entails, and how to actually make resource decisions adaptively. A key but somewhat ambiguous distinction in adaptive management is between active and passive forms of adaptive decision making. The objective of this paper is to illustrate some approaches to active and passive adaptive management with a simple example involving the drawdown of water impoundments on a wildlife refuge. The approaches are illustrated for the drawdown example, and contrasted in terms of objectives, costs, and potential learning rates. Some key challenges to the actual practice of AM are discussed, and tradeoffs between implementation costs and long-term benefits are highlighted. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. 76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group...-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG),...

  5. 77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and...

  6. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and...

  7. 77 FR 43117 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and...

  8. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work...

  9. 79 FR 3873 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-01-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group...-575) of 1992. The GCDAMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group...

  10. 79 FR 24748 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-05-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and...

  11. 80 FR 21261 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2015-04-17

    ....05940913.7000000] Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG... committee, the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and...

  12. Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    2010 Northrop Grumman 14 Manager Leadership Behaviors of Managers Visionary Leadership Motivates and Encourages Promotes Organizational Learning Behaviors...most © Copyright 2009 Northrop GrummanCopyright 2010 Northrop Grumman 19 vulnerable? The Manager: Promotes Organizational Learning • Promotes...emphasize collaboration, team empowerment, trust, and organizational learning • Train managers in the practices that works best in adaptive environments

  13. Complex Adaptive Systems as Metaphors for Organizational Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmberg, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of complex adaptive systems (CAS) from the perspective of managing organizations, to describe and explore the management principles in a case study of an organization with unconventional ways of management and to present a tentative model for managing organizations as CAS--system…

  14. Adaptive Management for Decision Making at the Program and Project Levels of the Missouri River Recovery Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Anderson, Michael G.; Tyre, Drew; Fleming, Craig A.

    2009-02-28

    The paper, “Adaptive Management: Background for Stakeholders in the Missouri River Recovery Program,” introduced the concept of adaptive management (AM), its principles and how they relate to one-another, how AM is applied, and challenges for its implementation. This companion paper describes how the AM principles were applied to specific management actions within the Missouri River Recovery Program to facilitate understanding, decision-making, and stakeholder engagement. For context, we begin with a brief synopsis of the Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) and the strategy for implementing adaptive management (AM) within the program; we finish with an example of AM in action within Phase I of the MRPP.

  15. Treating without Seeing: Pain Management Practice in a Thai Context

    PubMed Central

    Namvongprom, Ampaporn; Mazaheri, Monir

    2016-01-01

    Pain management is a core nursing function, and it plays a key role in postoperative care. It is important to understand the cultural context of nursing practices and how this affects effective pain management. The aim of this study was to describe the professional and cultural framework within which pain management is practiced on a Thai surgical ward. Spradley's ethnographic methodology was used. Data were collected through 98.5 hours of field observations and interviews at a surgical ward in Thailand. Three themes were constructed that describe the way Thai nurses practiced pain management: (i) complex communications system to address pain and to respond to it, (ii) the essence of Thai-ness, and (iii) a passive approach to pain management. The results indicate that, in the response to discomfort and pain, better pain management will result if there is a shift from functional to patient-centered care. The nursing culture needs to be further researched and discussed, in order to set priorities in line with the goals of national and international organizations for improving postoperative care and promoting patient comfort. PMID:28044071

  16. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  17. Adaptive and Rational Anticipations in Risk Management Systems and Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-11-01

    The global financial crisis of year 2009 is explained as a result of uncoordinated risk management decisions in business firms and economic organisations. The underlying reason for this can be found in the current financial system. As the financial market has lost much of its direct coupling to the concrete economy it provides misleading information to economic decision makers at all levels. Hence, the financial system has moved from a state of moderate and slow cyclical fluctuations into a state of fast and chaotic ones. Those misleading decisions can further be described, but not explained, by help of adaptive and rational expectations from macroeconomic theory. In this context, AE, the Adaptive Expectations are related to weak passive Exo-anticipation, and RE, the Rational expectations can be related to a strong, active and design oriented anticipation. The shortcomings of conventional cures, which builds on a reactive paradigm, have already been demonstrated in economic literature and are here further underlined by help of Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety", Weaver's distinction between systems of "Disorganized Complexity" and those of "Organized Complexity", and Klir's "Reconstructability Analysis". Anticipatory decision-making is hence here proposed as a replacement to current expectation based and passive risk management. An anticipatory model of the business cycle is presented for supporting that proposition. The model, which is an extension of the Kaldor-Kalecki model, includes both retardation and anticipation. While cybernetics with the feedback process in control system deals with an explicit goal or purpose given to a system, the anticipatory system discussed here deals with a behaviour for which the future state of the system is built by the system itself, without explicit goal. A system with weak anticipation is based on a predictive model of the system, while a system with strong anticipation builds its own future by itself. Numerical simulations on

  18. Reducing uncertainty about objective functions in adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends the uncertainty framework of adaptive management to include uncertainty about the objectives to be used in guiding decisions. Adaptive decision making typically assumes explicit and agreed-upon objectives for management, but allows for uncertainty as to the structure of the decision process that generates change through time. Yet it is not unusual for there to be uncertainty (or disagreement) about objectives, with different stakeholders expressing different views not only about resource responses to management but also about the appropriate management objectives. In this paper I extend the treatment of uncertainty in adaptive management, and describe a stochastic structure for the joint occurrence of uncertainty about objectives as well as models, and show how adaptive decision making and the assessment of post-decision monitoring data can be used to reduce uncertainties of both kinds. Different degrees of association between model and objective uncertainty lead to different patterns of learning about objectives. ?? 2011.

  19. A multi-interface adaptive hypermedia system to promote consumer-provider partnership in chronic disease management.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Maria; Warren, Jim; Jones, Sara; Chung, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Much of chronic disease management depends on active partnership of consumer and provider. Our system promotes diabetes management through profiling and adaptive support of both consumer and provider. We use a University Podiatry Clinic and diabetes consumer information portal as inter-related contexts that share profile information.

  20. Context-dependent adaptation of visually-guided arm movements and vestibular eye movements: role of the cerebellum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Richard F.

    2003-01-01

    Accurate motor control requires adaptive processes that correct for gradual and rapid perturbations in the properties of the controlled object. The ability to quickly switch between different movement synergies using sensory cues, referred to as context-dependent adaptation, is a subject of considerable interest at present. The potential function of the cerebellum in context-dependent adaptation remains uncertain, but the data reviewed below suggest that it may play a fundamental role in this process.

  1. Implementing Adaptive Performance Management in Server Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; Gorton, Ian

    2007-06-11

    Performance and scalability are critical quality attributes for server applications in Internet-facing business systems. These applications operate in dynamic environments with rapidly fluctuating user loads and resource levels, and unpredictable system faults. Adaptive (autonomic) systems research aims to augment such server applications with intelligent control logic that can detect and react to sudden environmental changes. However, developing this adaptive logic is complex in itself. In addition, executing the adaptive logic consumes processing resources, and hence may (paradoxically) adversely affect application performance. In this paper we describe an approach for developing high-performance adaptive server applications and the supporting technology. The Adaptive Server Framework (ASF) is built on standard middleware services, and can be used to augment legacy systems with adaptive behavior without needing to change the application business logic. Crucially, ASF provides built-in control loop components to optimize the overall application performance, which comprises both the business and adaptive logic. The control loop is based on performance models and allows systems designers to tune the performance levels simply by modifying high level declarative policies. We demonstrate the use of ASF in a case study.

  2. Application study of piecewise context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding combined with modified LZC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yan; Jun, Xie Cheng

    2006-08-01

    An algorithm of combining LZC and arithmetic coding algorithm for image compression is presented and both theory deduction and simulation result prove the correctness and feasibility of the algorithm. According to the characteristic of context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding and entropy, LZC was modified to cooperate the optimized piecewise arithmetic coding, this algorithm improved the compression ratio without any additional time consumption compared to traditional method.

  3. CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change 2nd Interim Report Approved for public release...number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 JUN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CSIR Contribution to Defining...Industrial Research ( CSIR ),PO Box 395,Pretoria 0001, South Africa, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER ; 1675-EN-01 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY

  4. CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-30

    of climate change . The grant supports a comparison of historic human responses to environmental change in the Mississippi River and the Nile River...reducing the exposure to the hazard or reducing the vulnerability associated with the hazard. Whereas the reduction of the hazard ( climate change ...CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change 4th Interim Report Report Documentation Page Form

  5. CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    supports a comparison of historic human responses to environmental change in the Mississippi River and the Nile River, as measured by human security...capabilities to handle large-scale changes. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of adaptive capacity compares areas in the Mississippi and Nile...Basin. The Mississippi case area serves as a more controlled case study with the Nile Basin representing a context with more limited historical data

  6. Characterizing the Networks of Digital Information that Support Collaborative Adaptive Forest Management in Sierra Nevada Forests.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shufei; Iles, Alastair; Kelly, Maggi

    2015-07-01

    Some of the factors that can contribute to the success of collaborative adaptive management--such as social learning, open communication, and trust--are built upon a foundation of the open exchange of information about science and management between participants and the public. Despite the importance of information transparency, the use and flow of information in collaborative adaptive management has not been characterized in detail in the literature, and currently there exist opportunities to develop strategies for increasing the exchange of information, as well as to track information flow in such contexts. As digital information channels and networks have been increased over the last decade, powerful new information monitoring tools have also been evolved allowing for the complete characterization of information products through their production, transport, use, and monitoring. This study uses these tools to investigate the use of various science and management information products in a case study--the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project--using a mixed method (citation analysis, web analytics, and content analysis) research approach borrowed from the information processing and management field. The results from our case study show that information technologies greatly facilitate the flow and use of digital information, leading to multiparty collaborations such as knowledge transfer and public participation in science research. We conclude with recommendations for expanding information exchange in collaborative adaptive management by taking advantage of available information technologies and networks.

  7. Systems identification and the adaptive management of waterfowl in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Waterfowl management in the United States is one of the more visible conservation success stories in the United States. It is authorized and supported by appropriate legislative authorities, based on large-scale monitoring programs, and widely accepted by the public. The process is one of only a limited number of large-scale examples of effective collaboration between research and management, integrating scientific information with management in a coherent framework for regulatory decision-making. However, harvest management continues to face some serious technical problems, many of which focus on sequential identification of the resource system in a context of optimal decision-making. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical foundation of adaptive harvest management, the approach currently in use in the United States for regulatory decision-making. We lay out the legal and institutional framework for adaptive harvest management and provide a formal description of regulatory decision-making in terms of adaptive optimization. We discuss some technical and institutional challenges in applying adaptive harvest management and focus specifically on methods of estimating resource states for linear resource systems.

  8. Adaptive management of ecosystem services across different land use regimes.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, J B

    2016-12-01

    Using adaptive management to manage desired flows of ecosystem services may seem on the surface to be a good fit, but many social, economic, environmental, legal, and political factors influence how good a fit. One strongly influential factor is the land use regime within which the profile of ecosystem services is being managed. Shaped largely by legal mandates, market forces, and social and cultural practices, different land use regimes present different opportunities for and constraints on goals for ecosystem services and pose different decision making environments. Even where all other conditions appear amenable to using adaptive management, therefore, it is essential to consider the constraining (or liberating) effects of different land use regimes when deciding whether to adopt adaptive management to achieve those goals and, if so, how to implement it.

  9. The influence of context on the implementation of adaptive emotion regulation strategies.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-08-01

    Putatively adaptive emotion regulation strategies (e.g., acceptance, problem solving, reappraisal) show weaker associations with psychopathology than putatively maladaptive strategies (e.g., avoidance, self-criticism, hiding expression, suppression of experience, worry, rumination). This is puzzling, given the central role that adaptive strategies play in a wide range of psychotherapeutic approaches. We explored this asymmetry by examining the effects of context (i.e., emotion intensity, type of emotion, social vs. academic circumstances) on the implementation of adaptive and maladaptive strategies. We asked 111 participants to describe 8 emotion-eliciting situations and identify which strategies they used in order to regulate their affect. We found support for a contextual model of emotion regulation, in which adaptive strategies were implemented with more cross-situational variability than maladaptive strategies. In addition, the variability in implementation of two adaptive strategies (acceptance, problem solving) predicted lower levels of psychopathology, suggesting that flexible implementation of such strategies in line with contextual demands is associated with better mental health. We discuss these findings by underscoring the importance of adopting a functional approach to the delineation of contextual factors that influence the implementation of emotion regulation strategies.

  10. Characterizing the Networks of Digital Information that Support Collaborative Adaptive Forest Management in Sierra Nevada Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shufei; Iles, Alastair; Kelly, Maggi

    2015-07-01

    Some of the factors that can contribute to the success of collaborative adaptive management—such as social learning, open communication, and trust—are built upon a foundation of the open exchange of information about science and management between participants and the public. Despite the importance of information transparency, the use and flow of information in collaborative adaptive management has not been characterized in detail in the literature, and currently there exist opportunities to develop strategies for increasing the exchange of information, as well as to track information flow in such contexts. As digital information channels and networks have been increased over the last decade, powerful new information monitoring tools have also been evolved allowing for the complete characterization of information products through their production, transport, use, and monitoring. This study uses these tools to investigate the use of various science and management information products in a case study—the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project—using a mixed method (citation analysis, web analytics, and content analysis) research approach borrowed from the information processing and management field. The results from our case study show that information technologies greatly facilitate the flow and use of digital information, leading to multiparty collaborations such as knowledge transfer and public participation in science research. We conclude with recommendations for expanding information exchange in collaborative adaptive management by taking advantage of available information technologies and networks.

  11. Outcomes of a type 2 diabetes education program adapted to the cultural contexts of Saudi women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Bannay, Hana R.; Jongbloed, Lyn E.; Jarus, Tal; Alabdulwahab, Sami S.; Khoja, Tawfik A.; Dean, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the outcomes of a pilot intervention of a type 2 diabetes (T2D) education program, based on international standards, and adapted to the cultural and religious contexts of Saudi women. Methods: This study is an experiment of a pilot intervention carried out between August 2011 and January 2012 at the primary health clinics in Dammam. Women at risk of or diagnosed with T2D (N=35 including dropouts) were assigned to one of 2 groups; an intervention group participated in a pilot intervention of T2D education program, based on international standards and tailored to their cultural and religious contexts; and a usual care group received the usual care for diabetes in Saudi Arabia. Outcomes included blood glucose, body composition, 6-minute walk distance, life satisfaction, quality of life, and diabetes knowledge. The intervention group participated in a focus group of their program experience. Data analysis was based on mixed methods. Results: Based on 95% confidence interval comparisons, improvements were noted in blood sugar, 6-minute walk distance, quality of life, and diabetes knowledge in participants of the intervention group. They also reported improvements in lifestyle-related health behaviors after the education program. Conclusion: Saudi women may benefit from a T2D education program based on international standards and adapted to their cultural and religious contexts. PMID:26108595

  12. Clark's Nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) Flexibly Adapt Caching Behavior to a Cooperative Context.

    PubMed

    Clary, Dawson; Kelly, Debbie M

    2016-01-01

    Corvids recognize when their caches are at risk of being stolen by others and have developed strategies to protect these caches from pilferage. For instance, Clark's nutcrackers will suppress the number of caches they make if being observed by a potential thief. However, cache protection has most often been studied using competitive contexts, so it is unclear whether corvids can adjust their caching in beneficial ways to accommodate non-competitive situations. Therefore, we examined whether Clark's nutcrackers, a non-social corvid, would flexibly adapt their caching behaviors to a cooperative context. To do so, birds were given a caching task during which caches made by one individual were reciprocally exchanged for the caches of a partner bird over repeated trials. In this scenario, if caching behaviors can be flexibly deployed, then the birds should recognize the cooperative nature of the task and maintain or increase caching levels over time. However, if cache protection strategies are applied independent of social context and simply in response to cache theft, then cache suppression should occur. In the current experiment, we found that the birds maintained caching throughout the experiment. We report that males increased caching in response to a manipulation in which caches were artificially added, suggesting the birds could adapt to the cooperative nature of the task. Additionally, we show that caching decisions were not solely due to motivational factors, instead showing an additional influence attributed to the behavior of the partner bird.

  13. Clark’s Nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) Flexibly Adapt Caching Behavior to a Cooperative Context

    PubMed Central

    Clary, Dawson; Kelly, Debbie M.

    2016-01-01

    Corvids recognize when their caches are at risk of being stolen by others and have developed strategies to protect these caches from pilferage. For instance, Clark’s nutcrackers will suppress the number of caches they make if being observed by a potential thief. However, cache protection has most often been studied using competitive contexts, so it is unclear whether corvids can adjust their caching in beneficial ways to accommodate non-competitive situations. Therefore, we examined whether Clark’s nutcrackers, a non-social corvid, would flexibly adapt their caching behaviors to a cooperative context. To do so, birds were given a caching task during which caches made by one individual were reciprocally exchanged for the caches of a partner bird over repeated trials. In this scenario, if caching behaviors can be flexibly deployed, then the birds should recognize the cooperative nature of the task and maintain or increase caching levels over time. However, if cache protection strategies are applied independent of social context and simply in response to cache theft, then cache suppression should occur. In the current experiment, we found that the birds maintained caching throughout the experiment. We report that males increased caching in response to a manipulation in which caches were artificially added, suggesting the birds could adapt to the cooperative nature of the task. Additionally, we show that caching decisions were not solely due to motivational factors, instead showing an additional influence attributed to the behavior of the partner bird. PMID:27826273

  14. Adaptation of the AnyBody™ Musculoskeletal Shoulder Model to the Nonconforming Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Context.

    PubMed

    Sins, Lauranne; Tétreault, Patrice; Hagemeister, Nicola; Nuño, Natalia

    2015-10-01

    Current musculoskeletal inverse dynamics shoulder models have two limitations to use in the context of nonconforming total shoulder arthroplasty (NC-TSA). First, the ball and socket glenohumeral (GH) joint simplification avoids any humeral head translations. Second, there is no contact at the GH joint to compute the contact area and the center of pressure (COP) between the two components of NC-TSA. In this paper, we adapted the AnyBody™ shoulder model by introducing humeral head translations and contact between the two components of an NC-TSA. Abduction in the scapular plane was considered. The main objective of this study was to adapt the AnyBody™ shoulder model to a NC-TSA context and to compare the results of our model (translations, COP, contact area, GH joint reaction forces (GH-JRFs), and muscular forces) with previous numerical, experimental, and clinical studies. Humeral head translations and contact were successfully introduced in our adapted shoulder model with strong support for our findings by previous studies.

  15. Protocol and practice in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, F.; Williams, K.

    1999-01-01

    Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in setting hunting

  16. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon... AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon...

  17. The Value of Adaptive Regret Management in Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Jamie C.; Wrosch, Carsten; Pushkar, Dolores; Li, Karen Z. H.

    2013-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study examined the associations between regret management, everyday activities, and retirement satisfaction among recent retirees. We hypothesized that the regulation of a severe life regret can facilitate activity engagement and retirement satisfaction, but only if retirees manage their regrets adaptively by either…

  18. Engaging stakeholders for adaptive management using structured decision analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Elise R.; Kathryn, D.; Kennedy, Mickett

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive management is different from other types of management in that it includes all stakeholders (versus only policy makers) in the process, uses resource optimization techniques to evaluate competing objectives, and recognizes and attempts to reduce uncertainty inherent in natural resource systems. Management actions are negotiated by stakeholders, monitored results are compared to predictions of how the system should respond, and management strategies are adjusted in a “monitor-compare-adjust” iterative routine. Many adaptive management projects fail because of the lack of stakeholder identification, engagement, and continued involvement. Primary reasons for this vary but are usually related to either stakeholders not having ownership (or representation) in decision processes or disenfranchisement of stakeholders after adaptive management begins. We present an example in which stakeholders participated fully in adaptive management of a southeastern regulated river. Structured decision analysis was used to define management objectives and stakeholder values and to determine initial flow prescriptions. The process was transparent, and the visual nature of the modeling software allowed stakeholders to see how their interests and values were represented in the decision process. The development of a stakeholder governance structure and communication mechanism has been critical to the success of the project.

  19. Rich Water World an adaptive water management tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rheenen, Hans; van den Berg, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Rich Water World an adaptive water management tool based on weather forecasting, sensor data and hydrological modelling. Climate change will cause periods of more extreme rainfall relieved by periods of drought. Water systems have to become more robust and self supporting in order to prevent damage by flooding and drought. For climate proof water management, it is important to anticipate on extreme events by using excellent weather forecast data, sensor data on soil and water, and hydrologic model data. The Rich Water World project has created an Adaptive Water Management Tool that integrates all these data.

  20. Adapting environmental management to uncertain but inevitable change

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Sam; Fuller, Richard A.; Iwamura, Takuya; Chadès, Iadine

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of adaptation actions to protect biodiversity is limited by uncertainty about the future. One reason for this is the fear of making the wrong decisions caused by the myriad future scenarios presented to decision-makers. We propose an adaptive management (AM) method for optimally managing a population under uncertain and changing habitat conditions. Our approach incorporates multiple future scenarios and continually learns the best management strategy from observations, even as conditions change. We demonstrate the performance of our AM approach by applying it to the spatial management of migratory shorebird habitats on the East Asian–Australasian flyway, predicted to be severely impacted by future sea-level rise. By accounting for non-stationary dynamics, our solution protects 25 000 more birds per year than the current best stationary approach. Our approach can be applied to many ecological systems that require efficient adaptation strategies for an uncertain future. PMID:25972463

  1. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  2. Migration in the context of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change: insights from analogues

    PubMed Central

    McLeman, Robert A.; Hunter, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    Migration is one of the variety of ways by which human populations adapt to environmental changes. The study of migration in the context of anthropogenic climate change is often approached using the concept of vulnerability and its key functional elements: exposure, system sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. This article explores the interaction of climate change and vulnerability through review of case studies of dry-season migration in the West African Sahel, hurricane-related population displacements in the Caribbean basin, winter migration of ‘snowbirds’ to the US Sun-belt, and 1930s drought migration on the North American Great Plains. These examples are then used as analogues for identifying general causal, temporal, and spatial dimensions of climate migration, along with potential considerations for policy-making and future research needs. PMID:22022342

  3. Adaptive management for ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Birgé, Hannah E; Allen, Craig R; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Pope, Kevin L

    2016-12-01

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex internal feedbacks, and non-linearity that often interferes with desired management outcomes, and insufficient understanding of nature and people. Adaptive management was developed to reduce such uncertainty. We present a framework for the application of adaptive management for ecosystem services that explicitly accounts for cross-scale tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services. Our framework focuses on identifying key spatiotemporal scales (plot, patch, ecosystem, landscape, and region) that encompass dominant structures and processes in the system, and includes within- and cross-scale dynamics, ecosystem service tradeoffs, and management controllability within and across scales. Resilience theory recognizes that a limited set of ecological processes in a given system regulate ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes is poorly understood. If management actions erode or remove these processes, the system may shift into an alternative state unlikely to support the production of desired services. Adaptive management provides a process to assess the underlying within and cross-scale tradeoffs associated with production of ecosystem services while proceeding with management designed to meet the demands of a growing human population.

  4. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a) | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex internal feedbacks, and non-linearity that often interferes with desired management outcomes, and insufficient understanding of nature and people. Adaptive management was developed to reduce such uncertainty. We present a framework for the application of adaptive management for ecosystem services that explicitly accounts for cross-scale tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services. Our framework focuses on identifying key spatiotemporal scales (plot, patch, ecosystem, landscape, and region) that encompass dominant structures and processes in the system, and includes within- and cross-scale dynamics, ecosystem service tradeoffs, and management controllability within and across scales. Resilience theory recognizes that a limited set of ecological processes in a given system regulate ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes is poorly understood. If management actions erode or remove these processes, the system may shift into an alternative state unlikely to support the production of desired services. Adaptive management provides a process to assess the underlying within and cross-scale tradeoffs associated with production of ecosystem services while proceeding with manage

  5. A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sea level rise is causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat for fish, shellfish, and wildlife, including species of concern, such as the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). We present a climate change adaptation strategy (CCAS) adopted by scientific, management, and policy stakeholders for managing coastal marshes and enhancing system resiliency. A common adaptive management approach previously used for restoration projects was modified to identify climate-related vulnerabilities and plan climate change adaptive actions. As an example of implementation of the CCAS, we describe the stakeholder plans and management actions the US Fish and Wildlife Service and partners developed to build coastal resiliency in the Narrow River Estuary, RI, in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. When possible, an experimental BACI (before-after, control-impact) design, described as pre- and post-sampling at the impact site and one or more control sites, was incorporated into the climate change adaptation and implementation plans. Specific climate change adaptive actions and monitoring plans are described and include shoreline stabilization, restoring marsh drainage, increasing marsh elevation, and enabling upland marsh migration. The CCAS provides a framework and methodology for successfully managing coa

  6. Bridging the management-science partnership gap: Adaptive grazing management experiment in shortgrass steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Adaptive Grazing Management experiment (2013-2023) in shortgrass steppe of Colorado addresses a critical gap in grazing management: lack of management-science partnerships to more fully understand the effect of management decisions for multiple ecosystem goods and services at ranch-scales. A Sta...

  7. 78 FR 54482 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection with the performance...

  8. 76 FR 54487 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection...

  9. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  10. On valuing information in adaptive-management models.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alana L; McCarthy, Michael A

    2010-08-01

    Active adaptive management looks at the benefit of using strategies that may be suboptimal in the near term but may provide additional information that will facilitate better management in the future. In many adaptive-management problems that have been studied, the optimal active and passive policies (accounting for learning when designing policies and designing policy on the basis of current best information, respectively) are very similar. This seems paradoxical; when faced with uncertainty about the best course of action, managers should spend very little effort on actively designing programs to learn about the system they are managing. We considered two possible reasons why active and passive adaptive solutions are often similar. First, the benefits of learning are often confined to the particular case study in the modeled scenario, whereas in reality information gained from local studies is often applied more broadly. Second, management objectives that incorporate the variance of an estimate may place greater emphasis on learning than more commonly used objectives that aim to maximize an expected value. We explored these issues in a case study of Merri Creek, Melbourne, Australia, in which the aim was to choose between two options for revegetation. We explicitly incorporated monitoring costs in the model. The value of the terminal rewards and the choice of objective both influenced the difference between active and passive adaptive solutions. Explicitly considering the cost of monitoring provided a different perspective on how the terminal reward and management objective affected learning. The states for which it was optimal to monitor did not always coincide with the states in which active and passive adaptive management differed. Our results emphasize that spending resources on monitoring is only optimal when the expected benefits of the options being considered are similar and when the pay-off for learning about their benefits is large.

  11. Adaptive and Context-Aware Reconciliation of Reactive and Pro-active Behavior in Evolving Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajcevski, Goce; Scheuermann, Peter

    One distinct characteristics of the context-aware systems is their ability to react and adapt to the evolution of the environment, which is often a result of changes in the values of various (possibly correlated) attributes. Based on these changes, reactive systems typically take corrective actions, e.g., adjusting parameters in order to maintain the desired specifications of the system's state. Pro-active systems, on the other hand, may change the mode of interaction with the environment as well as the desired goals of the system. In this paper we describe our (ECA)2 paradigm for reactive behavior with proactive impact and we present our ongoing work and vision for a system that is capable of context-aware adaptation, while ensuring the maintenance of a set of desired behavioral policies. Our main focus is on developing a formalism that provides tools for expressing normal, as well as defeasible and/or exceptional specification. However, at the same time, we insist on a sound semantics and the capability of answering hypothetical "what-if" queries. Towards this end, we introduce the high-level language L_{ EAR} that can be used to describe the dynamics of the problem domain, specify triggers under the (ECA)2 paradigm, and reason about the consequences of the possible evolutions.

  12. Sedimentary Geology Context and Challenges for Cyberinfrastructure Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. A.; Budd, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    A cyberinfrastructure data management system for sedimentary geology is crucial to multiple facets of interdisciplinary Earth science research, as sedimentary systems form the deep-time framework for many geoscience communities. The breadth and depth of the sedimentary field spans research on the processes that form, shape and affect the Earth's sedimentary crust and distribute resources such as hydrocarbons, coal, and water. The sedimentary record is used by Earth scientists to explore questions such as the continental crust evolution, dynamics of Earth's past climates and oceans, evolution of the biosphere, and the human interface with Earth surface processes. Major challenges to a data management system for sedimentary geology are the volume and diversity of field, analytical, and experimental data, along with many types of physical objects. Objects include rock samples, biological specimens, cores, and photographs. Field data runs the gamut from discrete location and spatial orientation to vertical records of bed thickness, textures, color, sedimentary structures, and grain types. Ex situ information can include geochemistry, mineralogy, petrophysics, chronologic, and paleobiologic data. All data types cover multiple order-of-magnitude scales, often requiring correlation of the multiple scales with varying degrees of resolution. The stratigraphic framework needs dimensional context with locality, time, space, and depth relationships. A significant challenge is that physical objects represent discrete values at specific points, but measured stratigraphic sections are continuous. In many cases, field data is not easily quantified, and determining uncertainty can be difficult. Despite many possible hurdles, the sedimentary community is anxious to embrace geoinformatic resources that can provide better tools to integrate the many data types, create better search capabilities, and equip our communities to conduct high-impact science at unprecedented levels.

  13. Adaptive Capacity in Community Forest Management: A Systematic Review of Studies in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunju; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the indicators of adaptive capacity along with disturbances in community forest management systems in the East Asian countries, China, Japan and South Korea. Although these countries have centuries-old traditions of community-based forest management, they have been less researched in light of adaptive capacity for resilient social-ecological systems. Recent social and ecological disturbances bring about new challenges and/or opportunities to the capacity of forest related communities to adapt to rapidly changing conditions. Through a systematic review of the community forestry and related adaptive capacity literature in three East Asian countries, this study addressed the role of diverse knowledge systems, such as traditional and Western scientific knowledge, and civic traditions of self-organization in local communities that characterized adaptive capacity of this region. This study extends our understanding of community-based conservation efforts and traditions of this region, and adds to the understandings gleaned from studies of community forestry in the West and sacred forests in other parts of Asia and Africa. Further research on ways to increase adaptive capacity is needed in a site-specific context.

  14. Adaptive Capacity in Community Forest Management: A Systematic Review of Studies in East Asia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunju; Krasny, Marianne E

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the indicators of adaptive capacity along with disturbances in community forest management systems in the East Asian countries, China, Japan and South Korea. Although these countries have centuries-old traditions of community-based forest management, they have been less researched in light of adaptive capacity for resilient social-ecological systems. Recent social and ecological disturbances bring about new challenges and/or opportunities to the capacity of forest related communities to adapt to rapidly changing conditions. Through a systematic review of the community forestry and related adaptive capacity literature in three East Asian countries, this study addressed the role of diverse knowledge systems, such as traditional and Western scientific knowledge, and civic traditions of self-organization in local communities that characterized adaptive capacity of this region. This study extends our understanding of community-based conservation efforts and traditions of this region, and adds to the understandings gleaned from studies of community forestry in the West and sacred forests in other parts of Asia and Africa. Further research on ways to increase adaptive capacity is needed in a site-specific context.

  15. Placing invasive species management in a spatiotemporal context.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christopher M; Bode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Invasive species are a worldwide issue, both ecologically and economically. A large body of work focuses on various aspects of invasive species control, including how to allocate control efforts to eradicate an invasive population as cost effectively as possible: There are a diverse range of invasive species management problems, and past mathematical analyses generally focus on isolated examples, making it hard to identify and understand parallels between the different contexts. In this study, we use a single spatiotemporal model to tackle the problem of allocating control effort for invasive species when suppressing an island invasive species, and for long-term spatial suppression projects. Using feral cat suppression as an illustrative example, we identify the optimal resource allocation for island and mainland suppression projects. Our results demonstrate how using a single model to solve different problems reveals similar characteristics of the solutions in different scenarios. As well as illustrating the insights offered by linking problems through a spatiotemporal model, we also derive novel and practically applicable results for our case studies. For temporal suppression projects on islands, we find that lengthy projects are more cost effective and that rapid control projects are only economically cost effective when population growth rates are high or diminishing returns on control effort are low. When suppressing invasive species around conservation assets (e.g., national parks or exclusion fences), we find that the size of buffer zones should depend on the ratio of the species growth and spread rate.

  16. Giving Context to the Physician Competency Reference Set: Adapting to the Needs of Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Eckstrand, Kristen L.; Potter, Jennifer; Bayer, Carey Roth; Englander, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Delineating the requisite competencies of a 21st-century physician is the first step in the paradigm shift to competency-based medical education. Over the past two decades, more than 150 lists of competencies have emerged. In a synthesis of these lists, the Physician Competency Reference Set (PCRS) provided a unifying framework of competencies that define the general physician. The PCRS is not context or population specific; however, competently caring for certain underrepresented populations or specific medical conditions can require more specific context. Previously developed competency lists describing care for these populations have been disconnected from an overarching competency framework, limiting their uptake. To address this gap, the Association of American Medical Colleges Advisory Committee on Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, and Sex Development adapted the PCRS by adding context- and content-specific qualifying statements to existing PCRS competencies to better meet the needs of diverse patient populations. This Article describes the committee’s process in developing these qualifiers of competence. To facilitate widespread adoption of the contextualized competencies in U.S. medical schools, the committee used an established competency framework to develop qualifiers of competence to improve the health of individuals who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender; gender nonconforming; or born with differences in sexual development. This process can be applied to other underrepresented populations or medical conditions, ensuring that relevant topics are included in medical education and, ultimately, health care outcomes are improved for all patients inclusive of diversity, background, and ability. PMID:26796092

  17. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  18. Adopting public values and climate change adaptation strategies in urban forest management: A review and analysis of the relevant literature.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez Barona, Camilo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees are a dominant natural element in cities; they provide important ecosystem services to urban citizens and help urban areas adapt to climate change. Many rationales have been proposed to provide a purpose for urban forest management, some of which have been ineffective in addressing important ecological and social management themes. Among these rationales we find a values-based perspective, which sees management as a process where the desires of urban dwellers are met. Another perspective is climate change adaptation, which sees management as a process where urban forest vulnerability to climate change is reduced and resilience enhanced. Both these rationales have the advantage of complementing, enhancing, and broadening urban forest management objectives. A critical analysis of the literature on public values related to urban forests and climate change adaptation in the context of urban forests is undertaken to discuss what it means to adopt these two issues in urban forest management. The analysis suggests that by seeing urban forest management as a process by which public values are satisfied and urban-forest vulnerabilities to climate change are reduced, we can place issues such as naturalization, adaptive management, and engaging people in management at the centre of urban forest management. Focusing urban forest management on these issues may help ensure the success of programs focused on planting more trees and increasing citizen participation in urban forest management.

  19. The Dynamics of Vulnerability and Implications for Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons from Urban Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.; Daly, M.; Travis, W.; Wilhelmi, O.; Klein, R.; Kenney, D.; Ray, A. J.; Miller, K.

    2013-12-01

    Recent reports and scholarship have suggested that adapting to current climate variability may represent a "no regrets" strategy for adapting to climate change. Filling "adaptation deficits" and other approaches that rely on addressing current vulnerabilities are of course helpful for responding to current climate variability, but we find here that they are not sufficient for adapting to climate change. First, following a comprehensive review and unique synthesis of the natural hazards and climate adaptation literatures, we advance six reasons why adapting to climate variability is not sufficient for adapting to climate change: 1) Vulnerability is different at different levels of exposure; 2) Coping with climate variability is not equivalent to adaptation to longer term change; 3) The socioeconomic context for vulnerability is constantly changing; 4) The perception of risk associated with climate variability does not necessarily promote adaptive behavior in the face of climate change; 5) Adaptations made to short term climate variability may reduce the flexibility of the system in the long term; and 6) Adaptive actions may shift vulnerabilities to other parts of the system or to other people. Instead we suggest that decision makers faced with choices to adapt to climate change must consider the dynamics of vulnerability in a connected system-- how choices made in one part of the system might impact other valued outcomes or even create new vulnerabilities. Furthermore we suggest that rather than expressing climate change adaptation as an extension of adaptation to climate variability, the research and practice communities would do well to articulate adaptation as an imperfect policy, with tradeoffs and consequences and that decisions be prioritized to preserve flexibility be revisited often as climate change unfolds. We then present the results of a number of empirical studies of decision making for drought in urban water systems in the United States to understand

  20. Psychological adaptation to spousal bereavement in old age: The role of trait resilience, marital history, and context of death.

    PubMed

    Spahni, Stefanie; Bennett, Kate M; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the effect of marital status and gender on various indicators of psychological adaptation, namely depressive symptoms, loneliness, and life satisfaction. It further explores the role of trait resilience, marital history, and context of death for predicting these outcomes in bereaved individuals. Four hundred eighty widowed individuals aged between 60 and 89 were compared with 759 married peers. Main effects were found for marital status and gender for all indicators. The regression analyses illustrate the multifaceted structure of psychological adaptation. Trait resilience is a key factor in adapting to spousal bereavement, whereas marital history and the context are secondary.

  1. Adaptive Management: From More Talk to Real Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Byron K.; Brown, Eleanor D.

    2014-02-01

    The challenges currently facing resource managers are large-scale and complex, and demand new approaches to balance development and conservation goals. One approach that shows considerable promise for addressing these challenges is adaptive management, which by now is broadly seen as a natural, intuitive, and potentially effective way to address decision-making in the face of uncertainties. Yet the concept of adaptive management continues to evolve, and its record of success remains limited. In this article, we present an operational framework for adaptive decision-making, and describe the challenges and opportunities in applying it to real-world problems. We discuss the key elements required for adaptive decision-making, and their integration into an iterative process that highlights and distinguishes technical and social learning. We illustrate the elements and processes of the framework with some successful on-the-ground examples of natural resource management. Finally, we address some of the difficulties in applying learning-based management, and finish with a discussion of future directions and strategic challenges.

  2. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, P.; Rossetti, A.; Brambilla, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina) retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  3. Lessons Learned from the First Decade of Adaptive Management in Comprehensive Everglades Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although few successful examples of large-scale adaptive management applications are available to ecosystem restoration scientists and managers, examining where and how the components of an adaptive management program have been successfully implemented yields insight into what ...

  4. A Holistic Management Architecture for Large-Scale Adaptive Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    MANAGEMENT ARCHITECTURE FOR LARGE-SCALE ADAPTIVE NETWORKS by Michael R. Clement September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Alex Bordetsky Second Reader...TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL September 2007 Author: Michael R. Clement Approved by: Dr. Alex ...achieve in life is by His will. Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam. To my parents, my family, and Caitlin: For supporting me, listening to me when I got

  5. Context cue-dependent saccadic adaptation in rhesus macaques cannot be elicited using color.

    PubMed

    Cecala, Aaron L; Smalianchuk, Ivan; Khanna, Sanjeev B; Smith, Matthew A; Gandhi, Neeraj J

    2015-07-01

    When the head does not move, rapid movements of the eyes called saccades are used to redirect the line of sight. Saccades are defined by a series of metrical and kinematic (evolution of a movement as a function of time) relationships. For example, the amplitude of a saccade made from one visual target to another is roughly 90% of the distance between the initial fixation point (T0) and the peripheral target (T1). However, this stereotypical relationship between saccade amplitude and initial retinal error (T1-T0) may be altered, either increased or decreased, by surreptitiously displacing a visual target during an ongoing saccade. This form of motor learning (called saccadic adaptation) has been described in both humans and monkeys. Recent experiments in humans and monkeys have suggested that internal (proprioceptive) and external (target shape, color, and/or motion) cues may be used to produce context-dependent adaptation. We tested the hypothesis that an external contextual cue (target color) could be used to evoke differential gain (actual saccade/initial retinal error) states in rhesus monkeys. We did not observe differential gain states correlated with target color regardless of whether targets were displaced along the same vector as the primary saccade or perpendicular to it. Furthermore, this observation held true regardless of whether adaptation trials using various colors and intrasaccade target displacements were randomly intermixed or presented in short or long blocks of trials. These results are consistent with hypotheses that state that color cannot be used as a contextual cue and are interpreted in light of previous studies of saccadic adaptation in both humans and monkeys.

  6. Climate and Adaptive Management: What Are We Learning While We're Doing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R.; Melis, T.; Shurts, J.; Jain, S.

    2005-12-01

    Learning is of strategic importance in the decades-long process of adapting to climatic change and variability and in accumulating lessons from past and current practices. Even when physical effects can be established with fair confidence there usually exist large uncertainties about biological and ecological effects and even greater uncertainties with respect to social consequences. Much work and experience has shown that long-term environmental problems can seldom be dealt with by single discrete actions or policies but respond only to continuing, sustained efforts at learning, supported by steady public attention and visibility. In many cases, the complications of recorded changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, temperature soil moisture, runoff, frequency and magnitudes of droughts and floods have not been explicitly included in response planning. The idea of "adaptive management" has been widely advocated as a bridge between science and policy with a specific focus on ecosystems. We discuss this idea in the context of climatic and other uncertainties but ground the discussion in the implementation of actual adaptive management programs. Adaptive management has three key tenets (1) Policies are experiments that should be designed to produce usable lessons; (2) It should operate on scales compatible with natural processes, recognizing social and economic viability within functioning ecosystems; and: (3) Is realized through effective partnerships among private, local, state, tribal and federal interests. In a watershed setting this can mean balancing hydropower production, habitat management, conservation, endangered species recovery, and cultural resources in order to experiment, learn, incorporate learning, and adapt. Each of these carries its sources of uncertainty. The primary focus is on the experience of the Columbia and Colorado River Basins, the longest running explicit efforts at adaptive management. Experience will also be drawn

  7. Learning and adaptation in the management of waterfowl harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2011-01-01

    A formal framework for the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests was adopted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1995. The process admits competing models of waterfowl population dynamics and harvest impacts, and relies on model averaging to compute optimal strategies for regulating harvest. Model weights, reflecting the relative ability of the alternative models to predict changes in population size, are used in the model averaging and are updated each year based on a comparison of model predictions and observations of population size. Since its inception the adaptive harvest program has focused principally on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), which constitute a large portion of the U.S. waterfowl harvest. Four competing models, derived from a combination of two survival and two reproductive hypotheses, were originally assigned equal weights. In the last year of available information (2007), model weights favored the weakly density-dependent reproductive hypothesis over the strongly density-dependent one, and the additive mortality hypothesis over the compensatory one. The change in model weights led to a more conservative harvesting policy than what was in effect in the early years of the program. Adaptive harvest management has been successful in many ways, but nonetheless has exposed the difficulties in defining management objectives, in predicting and regulating harvests, and in coping with the tradeoffs inherent in managing multiple waterfowl stocks exposed to a common harvest. The key challenge now facing managers is whether adaptive harvest management as an institution can be sufficiently adaptive, and whether the knowledge and experience gained from the process can be reflected in higher-level policy decisions.

  8. Adaptive Management of Computing and Network Resources for Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara; Welch, Lonnie R.; Detter, Ryan; Tjaden, Brett; Huh, Eui-Nam; Szczur, Martha R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    It is likely that NASA's future spacecraft systems will consist of distributed processes which will handle dynamically varying workloads in response to perceived scientific events, the spacecraft environment, spacecraft anomalies and user commands. Since all situations and possible uses of sensors cannot be anticipated during pre-deployment phases, an approach for dynamically adapting the allocation of distributed computational and communication resources is needed. To address this, we are evolving the DeSiDeRaTa adaptive resource management approach to enable reconfigurable ground and space information systems. The DeSiDeRaTa approach embodies a set of middleware mechanisms for adapting resource allocations, and a framework for reasoning about the real-time performance of distributed application systems. The framework and middleware will be extended to accommodate (1) the dynamic aspects of intra-constellation network topologies, and (2) the complete real-time path from the instrument to the user. We are developing a ground-based testbed that will enable NASA to perform early evaluation of adaptive resource management techniques without the expense of first deploying them in space. The benefits of the proposed effort are numerous, including the ability to use sensors in new ways not anticipated at design time; the production of information technology that ties the sensor web together; the accommodation of greater numbers of missions with fewer resources; and the opportunity to leverage the DeSiDeRaTa project's expertise, infrastructure and models for adaptive resource management for distributed real-time systems.

  9. Judging adaptive management practices of U.S. agencies.

    PubMed

    Fischman, Robert L; Ruhl, J B

    2016-04-01

    All U.S. federal agencies administering environmental laws purport to practice adaptive management (AM), but little is known about how they actually implement this conservation tool. A gap between the theory and practice of AM is revealed in judicial decisions reviewing agency adaptive management plans. We analyzed all U.S. federal court opinions published through 1 January 2015 to identify the agency AM practices courts found most deficient. The shortcomings included lack of clear objectives and processes, monitoring thresholds, and defined actions triggered by thresholds. This trio of agency shortcuts around critical, iterative steps characterizes what we call AM-lite. Passive AM differs from active AM in its relative lack of management interventions through experimental strategies. In contrast, AM-lite is a distinctive form of passive AM that fails to provide for the iterative steps necessary to learn from management. Courts have developed a sophisticated understanding of AM and often offer instructive rather than merely critical opinions. The role of the judiciary is limited by agency discretion under U.S. administrative law. But courts have overturned some agency AM-lite practices and insisted on more rigorous analyses to ensure that the promised benefits of structured learning and fine-tuned management have a reasonable likelihood of occurring. Nonetheless, there remains a mismatch in U.S. administrative law between the flexibility demanded by adaptive management and the legal objectives of transparency, public participation, and finality.

  10. 62 FR 42818 - Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-08-08

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior... Work Group (AMWG) will be an open public meeting to discuss administrative and program related issues. This meeting will discuss the following agenda items: Work Group organization, technical work...

  11. Adaptive Knowledge Management of Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an approach to Adaptive Knowledge Management (AKM) of project-based learning (PBL) is to intensify subject study through guiding, inducing, and facilitating development knowledge, accountability skills, and collaborative skills of students. Knowledge development is attained by knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge…

  12. A hardware architecture for a context-adaptive binary arithmetic coder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudharsanan, Subramania; Cohen, Adam

    2005-03-01

    The H.264 video compression standard uses a context-adaptive binary arithmetic coder (CABAC) as an entropy coding mechanism. While the coder provides excellent compression efficiency, it is computationally demanding. On typical general-purpose processors, it can take up to hundreds of cycles to encode a single bit. In this paper, we propose an architecture for a CABAC encoder that can easily be incorporated into system-on-chip designs for H.264 compression. The CABAC is inherently serial and we divide the problem into several stages to derive a design that can provide a throughput of two cycles per encoded bit. The engine proposed is capable of handling binarization of the syntactical elements and provides the coded bit-stream via a first-in first-out buffer. The design is implemented on an Altera FPGA platform that can run at 50 MHz enabling a 25 Mbps encoding rate.

  13. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, S.K.; Morris, J.K.; Sanders, J.S.; Wiley, E.N.; Brooks, M.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.; Marynowski, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  14. Adaptive governance of riverine and wetland ecosystem goods and services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive governance and adaptive management have developed over the past quarter century in response to institutional and organizational failures, and unforeseen changes in natural resource dynamics. Adaptive governance provides a context for managing known and unknown consequenc...

  15. A optimized context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding algorithm in progressive H.264 encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Guang; Shi, Xu-li; An, Ping; Zhang, Zhao-yang; Gao, Ge; Teng, Guo-wei

    2006-05-01

    Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a new entropy coding method presented in H.264/AVC that is highly efficient in video coding. In the method, the probability of current symbol is estimated by using the wisely designed context model, which is adaptive and can approach to the statistic characteristic. Then an arithmetic coding mechanism largely reduces the redundancy in inter-symbol. Compared with UVLC method in the prior standard, CABAC is complicated but efficiently reduce the bit rate. Based on thorough analysis of coding and decoding methods of CABAC, This paper proposed two methods, sub-table method and stream-reuse methods, to improve the encoding efficiency implemented in H.264 JM code. In JM, the CABAC function produces bits one by one of every syntactic element. Multiplication operating times after times in the CABAC function lead to it inefficient.The proposed algorithm creates tables beforehand and then produce every bits of syntactic element. In JM, intra-prediction and inter-prediction mode selection algorithm with different criterion is based on RDO(rate distortion optimization) model. One of the parameter of the RDO model is bit rate that is produced by CABAC operator. After intra-prediction or inter-prediction mode selection, the CABAC stream is discard and is recalculated to output stream. The proposed Stream-reuse algorithm puts the stream in memory that is created in mode selection algorithm and reuses it in encoding function. Experiment results show that our proposed algorithm can averagely speed up 17 to 78 MSEL higher speed for QCIF and CIF sequences individually compared with the original algorithm of JM at the cost of only a little memory space. The CABAC was realized in our progressive h.264 encoder.

  16. Adaptive management for improving species conservation across the captive-wild spectrum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canessa, Stefano; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Southwell, Darren M; Armstrong, Doug P.; Chadès, Iadine; Lacy, Robert C; Converse, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of endangered species increasingly envisages complex strategies that integrate captive and wild management actions. Management decisions in this context must be made in the face of uncertainty, often with limited capacity to collect information. Adaptive management (AM) combines management and monitoring, with the aim of updating knowledge and improving decision-making over time. We provide a guide for managers who may realize the potential of AM, but are unsure where to start. The urgent need for iterative management decisions, the existence of uncertainty, and the opportunity for learning offered by often highly-controlled captive environments create favorable conditions for AM. However, experiments and monitoring may be complicated by small sample sizes, and the ability to control the system, including stochasticity and observability, may be limited toward the wild end of the spectrum. We illustrate the key steps to implementing AM in threatened species management using four case studies, including the management of captive programs for cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and whooping cranes (Grus americana), of a translocation protocol for Arizona cliffroses Purshia subintegra and of ongoing supplementary feeding of reintroduced hihi (Notiomystis cincta) populations. For each case study, we explain (1) how to clarify whether the decision can be improved by learning (i.e. it is iterative and complicated by uncertainty) and what the management objectives are; (2) how to articulate uncertainty via alternative, testable hypotheses such as competing models or parameter distributions; (3) how to formally define how additional information can be collected and incorporated in future management decisions.

  17. Received sensitivity: adapting Ainsworth's scale to capture sensitivity in a multiple-caregiver context.

    PubMed

    Mesman, Judi; Minter, Tessa; Angnged, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    A network of multiple caregivers contributing to the care of an infant is the norm in many non-Western cultural contexts. Current observational measures of caregiver sensitive responsiveness to infant signals focus on single caregivers, failing to capture the total experience of the infant when it comes to the sensitive responsiveness received from multiple sources. The current paper aims to introduce the construct of received sensitivity that captures the sensitivity that an infant experiences from multiple sources in cultural contexts where simultaneous multiple caregiving is common. The paper further presents an adaptation of Ainsworth's Sensitivity versus Insensitivity observation scale to allow for the assessment of sensitivity as received by the infant regardless of who is providing the sensitive responses to its signals. The potential usefulness of the Received Sensitivity scale is illustrated by two case studies of infants from an Agta forager community in the Philippines where infants are routinely taken care of by multiple caregivers. The case studies show that the infants' total experience of being responded to sensitively cannot be simply derived from the sum of individual caregiver sensitivity scores, demonstrating the potential added value of the new Received Sensitivity observation measure.

  18. Context adaptive binary arithmetic coding-based data hiding in partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dawen; Wang, Rangding

    2015-05-01

    A scheme of data hiding directly in a partially encrypted version of H.264/AVC videos is proposed which includes three parts, i.e., selective encryption, data embedding and data extraction. Selective encryption is performed on context adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) bin-strings via stream ciphers. By careful selection of CABAC entropy coder syntax elements for selective encryption, the encrypted bitstream is format-compliant and has exactly the same bit rate. Then a data-hider embeds the additional data into partially encrypted H.264/AVC videos using a CABAC bin-string substitution technique without accessing the plaintext of the video content. Since bin-string substitution is carried out on those residual coefficients with approximately the same magnitude, the quality of the decrypted video is satisfactory. Video file size is strictly preserved even after data embedding. In order to adapt to different application scenarios, data extraction can be done either in the encrypted domain or in the decrypted domain. Experimental results have demonstrated the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  19. Adaptive Adolescent Flexibility: Neurodevelopment of Decision-making and Learning in a Risky Context.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Ethan M; Telzer, Eva H

    2017-03-01

    Research on adolescence has largely focused on the particular biological and neural changes that place teens at risk for negative outcomes linked to increases in sensation-seeking and risky behavior. However, there is a growing interest in the adaptive function of adolescence, with work highlighting the dual nature of adolescence as a period of potential risk and opportunity. We examined how behavioral and neural sensitivity to risk and reward varies as a function of age using the Balloon Analog Risk Task. Seventy-seven children and adolescents (ages 8-17 years) completed the Balloon Analog Risk Task during an fMRI session. Results indicate that adolescents show greater learning throughout the task. Furthermore, older participants showed increased neural responses to reward in the OFC and ventral striatum, increased activation to risk in the mid-cingulate cortex, as well as increased functional OFC-medial PFC coupling in both risk and reward contexts. Age-related changes in regional activity and interregional connectivity explain the link between age and increases in flexible learning. These results support the idea that adolescents' sensitivity to risk and reward supports adaptive learning and behavioral approaches for reward acquisition.

  20. Adaptive Adolescent Flexibility: Neurodevelopment of Decision-making and Learning in a Risky Context

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Ethan M.; Telzer, Eva H.

    2017-01-01

    Research on adolescence has largely focused on the particular biological and neural changes that place teens at risk for negative outcomes linked to increases in sensation-seeking and risky behavior. However, there is a growing interest in the adaptive function of adolescence, with work highlighting the dual nature of adolescence as a period of potential risk and opportunity. We examined how behavioral and neural sensitivity to risk and reward varies as a function of age using the Balloon Analog Risk Task. Seventy-seven children and adolescents (ages 8–17 years) completed the Balloon Analog Risk Task during an fMRI session. Results indicate that adolescents show greater learning throughout the task. Furthermore, older participants showed increased neural responses to reward in the OFC and ventral striatum, increased activation to risk in the mid-cingulate cortex, as well as increased functional OFC–medial PFC coupling in both risk and reward contexts. Age-related changes in regional activity and interregional connectivity explain the link between age and increases in flexible learning. These results support the idea that adolescents’ sensitivity to risk and reward supports adaptive learning and behavioral approaches for reward acquisition. PMID:28129057

  1. Cognitions as determinants of (mal)adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behavior in an organizational context.

    PubMed

    Spörrle, Matthias; Welpe, Isabell M; Försterling, Friedrich

    2006-01-01

    This study applies the theoretical concepts of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT; Ellis, 1962, 1994) to the analysis of functional and dysfunctional behaviour and emotions in the workplace and tests central assumptions of REBT in an organizational setting. We argue that Ellis' appraisal theory of emotion sheds light on some of the cognitive and emotional antecedents of emotional intelligence and emotionally intelligent behaviour. In an extension of REBT, we posit that adaptive emotions resulting from rational cognitions reflect more emotional intelligence than maladaptive emotions which result from irrational cognitions, because the former lead to functional behaviour. We hypothesize that semantically similar emotions (e.g. annoyance and rage) lead to different behavioural reactions and have a different functionality in an organizational context. The results of scenario experiments using organizational vignettes confirm the central assumptions of Ellis' appraisal theory and support our hypotheses of a correspondence between adaptive emotions and emotionally intelligent behaviour. Additionally, we find evidence that irrational job-related attitudes result in reduced work (but not life) satisfaction.

  2. Accelerating adaptation of natural resource management to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn A F

    2013-02-01

    Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants' self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world.

  3. Context-dependent planktivory: interacting effects of turbidity and predation risk on adaptive foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pangle, Kevin L.; Malinich, Timothy D.; Bunnell, David B.; DeVries, Dennis R.; Ludsin, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    By shaping species interactions, adaptive phenotypic plasticity can profoundly influence ecosystems. Predicting such outcomes has proven difficult, however, owing in part to the dependence of plasticity on the environmental context. Of particular relevance are environmental factors that affect sensory performance in organisms in ways that alter the tradeoffs associated with adaptive phenotypic responses. We explored the influence of turbidity, which simultaneously and differentially affects the sensory performance of consumers at multiple trophic levels, on the indirect effect of a top predator (piscivorous fish) on a basal prey resource (zooplankton) that is mediated through changes in the plastic foraging behavior of an intermediate consumer (zooplanktivorous fish). We first generated theoretical predictions of the adaptive foraging response of a zooplanktivore across wide gradients of turbidity and predation risk by a piscivore. Our model predicted that predation risk can change the negative relationship between intermediate consumer foraging and turbidity into a humped-shaped (unimodal) one in which foraging is low in both clear and highly turbid conditions due to foraging-related risk and visual constraints, respectively. Consequently, the positive trait-mediated indirect effect (TMIE) of the top predator on the basal resource is predicted to peak at low turbidity and decline thereafter until it reaches an asymptote of zero at intermediate turbidity levels (when foraging equals that which is predicted when the top predator is absent). We used field observations and a laboratory experiment to test our model predictions. In support, we found humped-shaped relationships between planktivory and turbidity for several zooplanktivorous fishes from diverse freshwater ecosystems with predation risk. Further, our experiment demonstrated that predation risk reduced zooplanktivory by yellow perch (Perca flavescens) at a low turbidity, but had no effect on consumption at

  4. Managing for Climate Change in Western Forest Ecosystems; The Role of Refugia in Adaptation Strategies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, C. I.; Morelli, T.

    2009-12-01

    Managing forested ecosystems in western North America for adaptation to climate change involves options that depend on resource objectives, landscape conditions, sensitivity to change, and social desires. Strategies range from preserving species and ecosystems in the face of change (resisting change); managing for resilience to change; realigning ecosystems that have been severely altered so that they can adapt successfully; and enabling species to respond to climate changes. We are exploring one extreme in this range of strategies, that is, to manage locations, species, communities, or ecosystems as refugia. This concept is familiar from the Quaternary literature as isolated locations where climates remained warm during cold glacial intervals and wherein species contracted and persisted in small populations. References to refugia have been made in the climate-adaptation literature but little elaborated, and applications have not been described. We are addressing this gap conceptually and in case-studies from national forest and national park environments in California. Using a classification of refugium categories, we extend the concept beyond the original use to include diverse locations and conditions where plant or animal species, or ecosystems of concern, would persist during future changing climatic backgrounds. These locations may be determined as refugial for reasons of local microclimate, substrate, elevation, topographic context, paleohistory, species ecology, or management capacity. Recognizing that species and ecosystems respond to climate change differently, refugium strategies are appropriate in some situations and not others. We describe favorable conditions for using refugium strategies and elaborate specific approaches in Sierra Nevada case studies.

  5. The Role of Federal Government for Climate Adaptation in the Urban Context: Results of a workshop (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buizer, J.; Chhetri, N.; Roy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme weather events in urban areas such as torrential rainfall in Chicago and London, floods in Boston and Elbe and heat waves in Europe have shed stark light on cities’ vulnerability to the effects of climate change. At the same time, cities themselves are significant net contributors to GHG’s attributable to climatic changes through the built environment (e.g. housing, roads, and parking lots), transport, consumption and recreation. In the arid region of southwestern United States, issues associated with the adequacy of water resources, urban heat island, and air quality best exemplify these contributions. This duality - cities as impacted by, and contributors to extreme climatic patterns induced by climate change, and the specific climate information needed for decision-making by city planners - provided the impetus for a two-day workshop in January 2009. Organized by Arizona State University, the workshop included city managers, planners, private sector stakeholders, water managers, researchers, and Federal program managers. The aim was to identify information needs, and data and research gaps, as well as to design strategies to address climate uncertainty. Two key approaches discussed were: a) building multiple, flexible scenarios and modeling efforts that enable decision-makers to plan for a number of possible futures, and b) matching Federal climate assets to local, regional and sectoral needs through continuous collaboration that supports decision-making within the social, economic, and political context of the place. Federal leadership in facilitating, coordinating and informing efforts that nurture the creative intellectual capacity of cities to produce integrated solutions to mitigate the effects of and adapt to climate change will go a long way in addressing urban climate adaptation in the United States. Participants outlined a number of concerns and suggestions for Federal government leaders and services associated with a national climate

  6. Adapting to context in community-based participatory research: "participatory starting points" in a Chinese immigrant worker community.

    PubMed

    Chang, Charlotte; Salvatore, Alicia L; Lee, Pam Tau; Liu, Shaw San; Tom, Alex T; Morales, Alvaro; Baker, Robin; Minkler, Meredith

    2013-06-01

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasingly being used to better understand and improve the health of diverse communities. A key strength of this research orientation is its adaptability to community contexts and characteristics. To date, however, few studies explicitly discuss adaptations made to CBPR principles and processes in response to community context and partners' needs. Using data from our CBPR study, the San Francisco Chinatown Restaurant Worker Health and Safety Project, and drawing from literature on immigrant political incorporation, we examine the links between the contexts of the Chinese immigrant worker community, adaptations made by our collaborative, and study outcomes. In particular, we explore the concepts of contexts of reception and participatory starting points, which may be especially relevant for partnerships with immigrant communities whose members have historically had lower rates of civic and political participation in the US. We discuss contextual findings such as worker partner accounts of language barriers, economic and social marginalization, and civic skills and participation, as well as subsequent adaptations made by the partnership. We also describe the relative effectiveness of these adaptations in yielding equitable participation and building partners' capacity. We conclude by sharing lessons learned and their implications for CBPR and partnerships with immigrant communities more broadly.

  7. The five-factor model of personality, subjective well-being, and social adaptation: generalizability to the Spanish context.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Victor M

    2005-06-01

    The relationships between the five-factor model of personality, subjective well-being, and social adaptation were examined in two Spanish groups, one of 112 undergraduate students and one of 177 participants from the general population. Analyses showed a clear pattern of low but positive associations among scores on well-being, social adaptation, and four of the five factors of personality (Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability), very similar to those obtained by previous research in the American context.

  8. Can Conservation Contracts Co-exist with Change? Payment for Ecosystem Services in the Context of Adaptive Decision-Making and Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Tanya; Murtinho, Felipe; Cárdenas Camacho, Luis Mario; Crespo, Patricio; McHugh, Sarah; Salmerón, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the ability of payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs to operate in the context of dynamic and complex social-ecological systems. Drawing on the experiences of two different PES programs in Latin America, we examine how PES institutions fit with the tenets of adaptive decision-making for sustainable resource management. We identify how the program goals and the connection to the market influence the incentive structure, information gathering, learning and feedback processes, and the structure of decision-making rights, specifically the ability to make and modify resource-use rules. Although limited in their generalizability, findings from the two case studies suggest a tension between the contractual model of PES and adaptive decision-making in natural resource systems. PES programs are not inherently decentralized, flexible management tools, as PES contracts tend to restrict decision-making rights and offer minimal flexibility mechanisms to change resource-use practices over the duration of the contract period. Furthermore, PES design and flexibility is heavily dependent on the goals and mission of the buyer and the respective market. If PES is to facilitate sustainable resource management, greater attention is needed to assess how the institutional design of the PES contracts influence the motivation and capacity of participants and program officers alike to adaptively manage the respective resource systems.

  9. Can conservation contracts co-exist with change? Payment for ecosystem services in the context of adaptive decision-making and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Tanya; Murtinho, Felipe; Cárdenas Camacho, Luis Mario; Crespo, Patricio; McHugh, Sarah; Salmerón, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the ability of payment for ecosystem services (PES) programs to operate in the context of dynamic and complex social-ecological systems. Drawing on the experiences of two different PES programs in Latin America, we examine how PES institutions fit with the tenets of adaptive decision-making for sustainable resource management. We identify how the program goals and the connection to the market influence the incentive structure, information gathering, learning and feedback processes, and the structure of decision-making rights, specifically the ability to make and modify resource-use rules. Although limited in their generalizability, findings from the two case studies suggest a tension between the contractual model of PES and adaptive decision-making in natural resource systems. PES programs are not inherently decentralized, flexible management tools, as PES contracts tend to restrict decision-making rights and offer minimal flexibility mechanisms to change resource-use practices over the duration of the contract period. Furthermore, PES design and flexibility is heavily dependent on the goals and mission of the buyer and the respective market. If PES is to facilitate sustainable resource management, greater attention is needed to assess how the institutional design of the PES contracts influence the motivation and capacity of participants and program officers alike to adaptively manage the respective resource systems.

  10. Climate change adaptation through urban heat management in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brian; Vargo, Jason; Liu, Peng; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead

    2013-07-16

    This study explores the potential effectiveness of metropolitan land cover change as a climate change adaptation strategy for managing rising temperatures in a large and rapidly warming metropolitan region of the United States. Through the integration of a mesoscale meteorological model with estimated land cover data for the Atlanta, Georgia region in 2010, this study quantifies the influence of extensive land cover change at the periphery of a large metropolitan region on temperature within the city center. The first study to directly model a metropolitan scale heat transfer mechanism, we find both enhanced tree canopy and impervious cover in the suburban zones of the Atlanta region to produce statistically significant cooling and warming effects in the urban core. Based on these findings, we conclude that urban heat island management both within and beyond the central developed core of large cities may provide an effective climate change adaptation strategy for large metropolitan regions.

  11. Adaptive management: a paradigm for remediation of public facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Janecky, David R; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Doerr, Ted B

    2009-01-01

    Public facility restoration planning traditionally focused on response to natural disasters and hazardous materials accidental releases. These plans now need to integrate response to terrorist actions. Therefore, plans must address a wide range of potential vulnerabilities. Similar types of broad remediation planning are needed for restoration of waste and hazardous material handling areas and facilities. There are strong similarities in damage results and remediation activities between unintentional and terrorist actions; however, the uncertainties associated with terrorist actions result in a re-evaluation of approaches to planning. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in confined industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. Therefore, they arguably involve a superset of drivers, concerns and public agencies compared to other restoration efforts. This superset of conditions increases complexity of interactions, reduces our knowledge of the initial conditions, and even condenses the timeline for restoration response. Therefore, evaluations of alternative restoration management approaches developed for responding to terrorist actions provide useful knowledge for large, complex waste management projects. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the 'adaptive management' paradigm provides a constructive parallel operations paradigm for restoration of facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, multiple/simUltaneous public agency actions, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a facility and surrounding area(s) after a

  12. Adaptability in Crisis Management: The Role of Organizational Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    and hindrance stress : Relationships with exhaustion, motivation to learn, and learning performance. Journal of Applied Psychology , 89, 883-891...The notion of EOs is not new. Indeed, in organizational psychology and management sciences very similar concepts – for example, empowered self...role and implications of adaptability in relation to other aspects of teamwork and team effectiveness, for instance team cognition (e.g., shared

  13. Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Adaptive Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, N.

    2006-12-01

    The dramatic changes of societal complexity due to intensive interactions among agricultural, industrial, and municipal sectors have resulted in acute issues of water resources redistribution and water quality management in many river basins. Given the fact that integrated watershed management is more a political and societal than a technical challenge, there is a need for developing a compelling method leading to justify a water-based land use program in some critical regions. Adaptive watershed management is viewed as an indispensable tool nowadays for providing step-wise constructive decision support that is concerned with all related aspects of the water consumption cycle and those facilities affecting water quality and quantity temporally and spatially. Yet the greatest challenge that decision makers face today is to consider how to leverage ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty to their competitive advantage of management policy quantitatively. This paper explores a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation method for water resources redistribution and subsequent water quality management with respect to a multipurpose channel-reservoir system--the Tseng- Wen River Basin, South Taiwan. Four fuzzy operators tailored for this fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis depict greater flexibility in representing the complexity of various possible trade-offs among management alternatives constrained by physical, economic, and technical factors essential for adaptive watershed management. The management strategies derived may enable decision makers to integrate a vast number of internal weirs, water intakes, reservoirs, drainage ditches, transfer pipelines, and wastewater treatment facilities within the basin and bring up the permitting issue for transboundary diversion from a neighboring river basin. Experience gained indicates that the use of different types of fuzzy operators is highly instructive, which also provide unique guidance collectively for achieving the overarching goals

  14. Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Disaster Risk Reduction in Urban Contexts: Perceptions and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the perceptions of disaster risk reduction (DRR) practitioners concerning the on-going integration of climate change adaptation (CCA) into their practices in urban contexts in Nicaragua. Understanding their perceptions is important as this will provide information on how this integration can be improved. Exploring the perceptions of practitioners in Nicaragua is important as the country has a long history of disasters, and practitioners have been developing the current DRR planning framework for more than a decade. The analysis is based on semi-structured interviews designed to collect information about practitioners’ understanding of: (a) CCA, (b) the current level of integration of CCA into DRR and urban planning, (c) the opportunities and constraints of this integration, and (d) the potential to adapt cities to climate change. The results revealed that practitioners’ perception is that the integration of CCA into their practice is at an early stage, and that they need to improve their understanding of CCA in terms of a development issue. Three main constraints on improved integration were identified: (a) a recognized lack of understanding of CCA, (b) insufficient guidance on how to integrate it, and (c) the limited opportunities to integrate it into urban planning due to a lack of instruments and capacity in this field. Three opportunities were also identified: (a) practitioners’ awareness of the need to integrate CCA into their practices, (b) the robust structure of the DRR planning framework in the country, which provides a suitable channel for facilitating integration, and (c) the fact that CCA is receiving more attention and financial and technical support from the international community. PMID:24475365

  15. Managed care and private health insurance in a global context.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Jonathan P; Famadas, Joanna Case; Waters, Hugh R; Gikic, Djordje

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an overview of the current role of private health insurance and private care management organizations around the globe. We describe past experiences and challenges associated with the export of U.S.-style managed care. We provide a framework for understanding the potential opportunities within a national health system for expanding managed care approaches and also private health insurance more generally. This article is relevant to both the United States and members of the international community.

  16. Pathology and failure in the design and implementation of adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Gunderson, Lance H.

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual underpinnings for adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex ecological systems as a result non-linear interactions among components and emergence, yet management decisions must still be made. The strength of adaptive management is in the recognition and confrontation of such uncertainty. Rather than ignore uncertainty, or use it to preclude management actions, adaptive management can foster resilience and flexibility to cope with an uncertain future, and develop safe to fail management approaches that acknowledge inevitable changes and surprises. Since its initial introduction, adaptive management has been hailed as a solution to endless trial and error approaches to complex natural resource management challenges. However, its implementation has failed more often than not. It does not produce easy answers, and it is appropriate in only a subset of natural resource management problems. Clearly adaptive management has great potential when applied appropriately. Just as clearly adaptive management has seemingly failed to live up to its high expectations. Why? We outline nine pathologies and challenges that can lead to failure in adaptive management programs. We focus on general sources of failures in adaptive management, so that others can avoid these pitfalls in the future. Adaptive management can be a powerful and beneficial tool when applied correctly to appropriate management problems; the challenge is to keep the concept of adaptive management from being hijacked for inappropriate use.

  17. Collegiality as Uncertainty Management: Multilevel Contexts of Collaborative Teacher Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ham, Seung-Hwan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore how collaborative teacher interaction is contingent upon teachers' immediate classroom and school-organizational contexts as well as broader societal and policy environments. Notwithstanding the widely acknowledged connection between teacher collegiality in schools and its beneficial effects, little systematic effort has…

  18. The Importance of Context in Management Education: A Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mervin; Tsakissiris, Jane

    2017-01-01

    Engaging large first year classes in tertiary education poses a number of significant challenges, many of which have been addressed in the literature. One area that has not received the kind of attention it warrants is the context within which student learning takes place. This paper reports on the processes used to engage a large first year…

  19. A review of hypertext in a NASA project management context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Christopher J.

    1987-01-01

    The principles of data storage, the comparative strengths of data bases, and the evolution of hypertext within this context are discussed. A classification schema of indexing and of hypertext document structures is provided. Issues associated with hypertext implementation are also discussed and potential areas for further research are indicated.

  20. The role of adaptive management as an operational approach for resource management agencies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    In making resource management decisions, agencies use a variety of approaches that involve different levels of political concern, historical precedence, data analyses, and evaluation. Traditional decision-making approaches have often failed to achieve objectives for complex problems in large systems, such as the Everglades or the Colorado River. I contend that adaptive management is the best approach available to agencies for addressing this type of complex problem, although its success has been limited thus far. Traditional decision-making approaches have been fairly successful at addressing relatively straightforward problems in small, replicated systems, such as management of trout in small streams or pulp production in forests. However, this success may be jeopardized as more users place increasing demands on these systems. Adaptive management has received little attention from agencies for addressing problems in small-scale systems, but I suggest that it may be a useful approach for creating a holistic view of common problems and developing guidelines that can then be used in simpler, more traditional approaches to management. Although adaptive management may be more expensive to initiate than traditional approaches, it may be less expensive in the long run if it leads to more effective management. The overall goal of adaptive management is not to maintain an optimal condition of the resource, but to develop an optimal management capacity. This is accomplished by maintaining ecological resilience that allows the system to react to inevitable stresses, and generating flexibility in institutions and stakeholders that allows managers to react when conditions change. The result is that, rather than managing for a single, optimal state, we manage within a range of acceptable outcomes while avoiding catastrophes and irreversible negative effects. Copyright ?? 1999 by The Resilience Alliance.

  1. 69 FR 41278 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group; Notice of Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-07-08

    ... Office of the Secretary Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group; Notice of Renewal This notice is... of the Interior (Secretary) is renewing the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and provide recommendations to the...

  2. 64 FR 173 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group; Notice of Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-01-04

    ... Office of the Secretary Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group; Notice of Renewal This notice is... of the Interior (Secretary) is renewing the Glen Canyon Dam adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and provide recommendations to the...

  3. Complexity modeling for context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) in H.264/AVC decoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Szu-Wei; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    2007-09-01

    One way to save the power consumption in the H.264 decoder is for the H.264 encoder to generate decoderfriendly bit streams. By following this idea, a decoding complexity model of context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) for H.264/AVC is investigated in this research. Since different coding modes will have an impact on the number of quantized transformed coeffcients (QTCs) and motion vectors (MVs) and, consequently, the complexity of entropy decoding, the encoder with a complexity model can estimate the complexity of entropy decoding and choose the best coding mode to yield the best tradeoff between the rate, distortion and decoding complexity performance. The complexity model consists of two parts: one for source data (i.e. QTCs) and the other for header data (i.e. the macro-block (MB) type and MVs). Thus, the proposed CABAC decoding complexity model of a MB is a function of QTCs and associated MVs, which is verified experimentally. The proposed CABAC decoding complexity model can provide good estimation results for variant bit streams. Practical applications of this complexity model will also be discussed.

  4. Edge Detection on Images of Pseudoimpedance Section Supported by Context and Adaptive Transformation Model Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawalec-Latała, Ewa

    2014-03-01

    Most of underground hydrocarbon storage are located in depleted natural gas reservoirs. Seismic survey is the most economical source of detailed subsurface information. The inversion of seismic section for obtaining pseudoacoustic impedance section gives the possibility to extract detailed subsurface information. The seismic wavelet parameters and noise briefly influence the resolution. Low signal parameters, especially long signal duration time and the presence of noise decrease pseudoimpedance resolution. Drawing out from measurement or modelled seismic data approximation of distribution of acoustic pseuoimpedance leads us to visualisation and images useful to stratum homogeneity identification goal. In this paper, the improvement of geologic section image resolution by use of minimum entropy deconvolution method before inversion is applied. The author proposes context and adaptive transformation of images and edge detection methods as a way to increase the effectiveness of correct interpretation of simulated images. In the paper, the edge detection algorithms using Sobel, Prewitt, Robert, Canny operators as well as Laplacian of Gaussian method are emphasised. Wiener filtering of image transformation improving rock section structure interpretation pseudoimpedance matrix on proper acoustic pseudoimpedance value, corresponding to selected geologic stratum. The goal of the study is to develop applications of image transformation tools to inhomogeneity detection in salt deposits.

  5. Adapting the Helpful Responses Questionnaire to assess communication skills involved in delivering contingency management: Preliminary psychometrics

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues’ (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write ‘what they would say next.’ In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. PMID:25770870

  6. Diagnosis-Prescription in the Context of Instructional Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besel, Ronald

    1973-01-01

    Author argues that individual assessment of the students learning style should precede the decision of which teaching method is appropriate. He applies the medical terminology of diagnosis-prescription to this method of instructional development for management. (HB)

  7. Monitoring and evaluation to support adaptive co-management: Lessons learned from the Millennium Villages Project.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sarah; Sullivan, Clare; Palm, Cheryl; Huynh, Uyen; Diru, William; Masira, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    This article focuses attention on monitoring and evaluation approaches that will help resource managers to manage for change and uncertainty in adaptive co-management (ACM). ACM is a learning-by-doing approach that aims to build flexible community-based natural resource governance systems through collaborative or otherwise participatory means. We describe the framework for monitoring and evaluation that we developed and applied in ten African countries, which includes fixed indicators and measures for co-management performance monitoring, a process evaluation element, a platform for repeat ecological surveillance, and a longitudinal household survey. We comment on the usefulness of this framework, and its applicability to a wide range of geographic contexts. We then present a four step model to assist managers in applying the framework to specific co-management problems. The model suggests a cascade approach to defining key evaluations questions at a systems, network, individual and synthesis level. We illustrate the application of our model and framework by means of a case study of a co-managed agroforestry program in western Kenya.

  8. Rangeland Rummy - a board game to support adaptive management of rangeland-based livestock systems.

    PubMed

    Farrié, B; Jouven, M; Launay, F; Moreau, J-C; Moulin, C-H; Piquet, M; Taverne, M; Tchakérian, E; Thénard, V; Martin, G

    2015-01-01

    Rangeland-based livestock systems have to deal with the significant instability and uncertainty of the agricultural context (policy changes, volatility of input prices, etc.), and especially of the climatic context. Thus, they are particularly concerned by adaptive management strategies. To support the development of such strategies, we developed a board game including a computer model called "Rangeland Rummy". It is to be used by groups of farmers and agricultural consultants in the context of short workshops (about 3 h). Rangeland Rummy builds upon five types of material object: (i) a game board; (ii) a calendar stick indicating the starting date of the game board; (iii) sticks marked with the feed resources available for combinations of vegetation types and their management practices; (iv) cards to define animal groups and their feeding requirements throughout the year; (v) cards related to types of feed that can be attributed to animal groups throughout the year. Using these material objects, farmers collectively design a rangeland-based livestock system. This system is immediately evaluated using a computer model, i.e. a spreadsheet providing graphs and indicators providing information on, among other things, the extent to which quantitative and qualitative animal feeding requirements are covered across the year. Playing the game thus consists in collectively and iteratively designing and evaluating rangeland-based livestock systems, while confronting the players with new contextual challenges (e.g. interannual variability of weather, volatility of input prices) or new farmers' objectives (e.g. being self-sufficient for animal feeding). An example of application of Rangeland Rummy with 3 farmers in southern France is reported. Applications show that it tends to develop farmers' adaptive capacity by stimulating their discussions and the exchange of locally-relevant knowledge on management strategies and practices in rangeland-based livestock systems.

  9. Context-adaptive based CU processing for 3D-HEVC

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Liquan; An, Ping; Liu, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    The 3D High Efficiency Video Coding (3D-HEVC) standard aims to code 3D videos that usually contain multi-view texture videos and its corresponding depth information. It inherits the same quadtree prediction structure of HEVC to code both texture videos and depth maps. Each coding unit (CU) allows recursively splitting into four equal sub-CUs. At each CU depth level, it enables 10 types of inter modes and 35 types of intra modes in inter frames. Furthermore, the inter-view prediction tools are applied to each view in the test model of 3D-HEVC (HTM), which uses variable size disparity-compensated prediction to exploit inter-view correlation within neighbor views. It also exploits redundancies between a texture video and its associated depth using inter-component coding tools. These achieve the highest coding efficiency to code 3D videos but require a very high computational complexity. In this paper, we propose a context-adaptive based fast CU processing algorithm to jointly optimize the most complex components of HTM including CU depth level decision, mode decision, motion estimation (ME) and disparity estimation (DE) processes. It is based on the hypothesis that the optimal CU depth level, prediction mode and motion vector of a CU are correlated with those from spatiotemporal, inter-view and inter-component neighboring CUs. We analyze the video content based on coding information from neighboring CUs and early predict each CU into one of five categories i.e., DE-omitted CU, ME-DE-omitted CU, SPLIT CU, Non-SPLIT CU and normal CU, and then each type of CU adaptively adopts different processing strategies. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm saves 70% encoder runtime on average with only a 0.1% BD-rate increase on coded views and 0.8% BD-rate increase on synthesized views. Our algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of coding time saving or with better RD performance. PMID:28182719

  10. Face Adaptation Effects Show Strong and Long-Lasting Transfer from Lab to More Ecological Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Ditye, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A review on recent experiments on figural face aftereffects reveals that adaptation effects in famous faces can last for hours up to days. Such adaptations seem to be highly reliable regarding test–retest designs as well as regarding the generalizability of adaptation across different adaptation routines and adaptations toward different kinds of facial properties. However, in the studies conducted so far, adaptation and the subsequent test phase were carried out in typical laboratory environments. Under these circumstances, it cannot be ruled out that the observed effects are, in fact, episodic learn–test compatibility effects. To test for ecological validity in adaptation effects we used an adaptation paradigm including environmental and social properties that differed between adaptation and test phase. With matched samples (n1 = n2 = 54) we found no main effects of experimental setting compatibility resulting from varying where the tests where conducted (environmental condition) nor any interaction with effects of stimulus compatibility resulting from varying stimulus similarity between adaptation and test phase using the same picture, different pictures of the same person, or different persons (transfer). This indicates that these adaptation effects are not artificial or merely lab-biased effects. Adaptation to face stimuli may document representational adaptations and tuning mechanisms that integrate new visual input in a very fast, reliable, and sustainable way. PMID:22291676

  11. Antidepressant Management in the Context of Suicidal Ideation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emslie, Graham J.; Waslick, Bruce; Weller, Elizabeth B.; Kloos, Angelica; Weller, Ronald A.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    A 15-year-old male presents with moderately severe depression, and fluoxetine 20 mg is initiated. When he returns 14 days later, he describes suicidal ideations for the first time. He has recurrent thoughts of wishing he were dead, a plan, but no intent to act. How would this affect medication management? This article presents the opinions of five…

  12. [Quality management and safety culture in medicine: context and concepts].

    PubMed

    Wischet, Werner; Eitzinger, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The publication of the IOM report "To err is human: building a safer health system" in 1999 put spotlight on the primacy of the principle of primum non nocere and made patient safety a central topic of quality management. A key conclusion of the report was the need for a well-developed safety culture. While concepts of quality management have evolved along the lines of ISO and Total Quality Management over the last decades patient safety still has not got the same amount of attention (PubMed). Evidence from other safety-critical areas but also from the field of medicine itself suggests that an efficient culture of safety is a conditio sine qua non for the sustainable improvement of patient safety. Considering these arguments the present paper aims at emphasizing the importance of an efficient culture of safety for patient safety and quality management in healthcare. In addition, key instruments of safety culture as well as their limitations will be presented.

  13. Continuum Thinking and the Contexts of Personal Information Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huvila, Isto; Eriksen, Jon; Häusner, Eva-Maria; Jansson, Ina-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent personal information management literature has underlined the significance of the contextuality of personal information and its use. The present article discusses the applicability of the records continuum model and its generalisation, continuum thinking, as a theoretical framework for explicating the overlap and evolution of…

  14. Management Succession, School Socioeconomic Context, and Basic Skills Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Brian; Denk, Charles E.

    1984-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a change in principals (management succession) on school level basic skills achievement using longitudinal data on 149 San Francisco Bay Area Schools. The findings indicate that changes can affect school achievement, but that leadership effects develop slowly and are conditioned by a schools' socioeconomic…

  15. Understanding and Managing Employability in Changing Career Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of employability as it has evolved over time and to propose a new definition which reflects the critical variables that contribute to employability at an individual level. It also offers suggestions for how to manage employability and careers at both an individual and an organisational…

  16. Implementing Parent Management Training in the Context of Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eamon, Mary Keegan; Venkataraman, Meenakshi

    2003-01-01

    Parent management training (PMT) is a well-investigated, effective, and preferred treatment for children's externalizing behaviors and related disorders. This article explores why, unfortunately, PMT is not as effective for children living in poor families, who disproportionately exhibit the behaviors that PMT is designed to correct. (Contains 40…

  17. The Internet in the Context of Cross-Cultural Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsoomair, Jon Franklin

    1997-01-01

    The Internet offers inexpensive contact with other cultures. This article describes the development of a cross-cultural management course for university seniors in business and economics and MBA students that made extensive use of the Internet to establish relationships with counterparts and mentors in other countries. Outlines course objectives,…

  18. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-15

    Climate change is already taking place, and further changes are inevitable. Developing countries, and particularly the poorest people in these countries, are most at risk. The impacts result not only from gradual changes in temperature and sea level but also, in particular, from increased climate variability and extremes, including more intense floods, droughts, and storms. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of developing countries and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people around the world. Climate change thus directly affects the World Bank Group's mission of eradicating poverty. It also puts at risk many projects in a wide range of sectors, including infrastructure, agriculture, human health, water resources, and environment. The risks include physical threats to the investments, potential underperformance, and the possibility that projects will indirectly contribute to rising vulnerability by, for example, triggering investment and settlement in high-risk areas. The way to address these concerns is not to separate climate change adaptation from other priorities but to integrate comprehensive climate risk management into development planning, programs, and projects. While there is a great need to heighten awareness of climate risk in Bank work, a large body of experience on climate risk management is already available, in analytical work, in country dialogues, and in a growing number of investment projects. This operational experience highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda: getting the right sectoral departments and senior policy makers involved; incorporating risk management into economic planning; engaging a wide range of nongovernmental actors (businesses, nongovernmental organizations, communities, and so on); giving attention to regulatory issues; and choosing strategies that will pay off immediately under current

  19. Hydrologic landscape units and adaptive management of intermountain wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Stephen G.; Sojda, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    daptive management is often proposed to assist in the management of national wildlife refuges and allows the exploration of alternatives as well as the addition of ne w knowledge as it becomes available. The hydrological landscape unit can be a good foundation for such efforts. Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is in an intermountain basin dominated by vertical tectonics in the Northern Rocky Mountains. A geographic information system was used to define the boundaries for the hydrologic landscape units there. Units identified include alluvial fan, interfan, stream alluvi um and basin flat. Management alternatives can be informed by ex amination of processes that occu r on the units. For example, an ancient alluvial fan unit related to Red Rock Creek appear s to be isolated from stream flow today, with recharge dominated by precipitation and bedrock springs; while other alluvial fan units in the area have shallow ground water recharged from mountain streams and precipitation. The scale of hydrologic processes in interfan units differs from that in alluvial fan hydrologic landscape units. These differences are important when the refuge is evaluating habitat management activities. Hydrologic landscape units provide scientific unde rpinnings for the refuge’s comprehensive planning process. New geologic, hydrologic, and biologic knowledge can be integrated into the hydrologic landscape unit definition and improve adaptive management.

  20. Adaptive multibeam concepts for traffic management satellite systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisaga, J. J.; Blank, H. A.; Klein, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The analysis of the performance of the various implementations of the simultaneous system in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans has demonstrated that the use of adaptive system concepts in satellite traffic management systems can greatly improve the performance capabilities of these systems as compared to the corresponding performance capabilities of conventional nonadaptive satellite communications systems. It is considered that the techniques developed and analyzed represent a significant technological advance, and that the performance improvement achieved will generally outweigh the increased cost and implementation factors.

  1. Motor adaptation in complex sports - the influence of visual context information on the adaptation of the three-point shot to altered task demands in expert basketball players.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Fries, Udo

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of visual context information on skilled motor behaviour and motor adaptation in basketball. The rules of basketball in Europe have recently changed, such that that the distance for three-point shots increased from 6.25 m to 6.75 m. As such, we tested the extent to which basketball experts can adapt to the longer distance when a) only the unfamiliar, new three-point line was provided as floor markings (NL group), or b) the familiar, old three-point line was provided in addition to the new floor markings (OL group). In the present study 20 expert basketball players performed 40 three-point shots from 6.25 m and 40 shots from 6.75 m. We assessed the percentage of hits and analysed the landing position of the ball. Results showed better adaptation of throwing performance to the longer distance when the old three-point line was provided as a visual landmark, compared to when only the new three-point line was provided. We hypothesise that the three-point line delivered relevant information needed to successfully adapt to the greater distance in the OL group, whereas it disturbed performance and ability to adapt in the NL group. The importance of visual landmarks on motor adaptation in basketball throwing is discussed relative to the influence of other information sources (i.e. angle of elevation relative to the basket) and sport practice.

  2. Adaptive momentum management for the dual keel Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, M.; Hahn, E.

    1987-01-01

    The report discusses momentum management for a large space structure with the structure selected configuration being the Initial Orbital Configuration of the dual-keel Space Station. The external torques considered were gravity gradient and aerodynamic torques. The goal of the momentum management scheme developed is to remove the bias components of the external torques and center the cyclic components of the stored angular momentum. The scheme investigated is adaptive to uncertainties of the inertia tensor and requires only approximate knowledge of principal moments of inertia. Computational requirements are minimal and should present no implementation problem in a flight-type computer. The method proposed is shown to be effective in the presence of attitude control bandwidths as low as 0.01 radian/sec.

  3. Adaptive forest management for drinking water protection under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeck, R.; Hochbichler, E.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water resources drawn from forested catchment areas are prominent for providing water supply on our planet. Despite the fact that source waters stemming from forested watersheds have generally lower water quality problems than those stemming from agriculturally used watersheds, it has to be guaranteed that the forest stands meet high standards regarding their water protection functionality. For fulfilling these, forest management concepts have to be applied, which are adaptive regarding the specific forest site conditions and also regarding climate change scenarios. In the past century forest management in the alpine area of Austria was mainly based on the cultivation of Norway spruce, by the way neglecting specific forest site conditions, what caused in many cases highly vulnerable mono-species forest stands. The GIS based forest hydrotope model (FoHyM) provides a framework for forest management, which defines the most crucial parameters in a spatial explicit form. FoHyM stratifies the spacious drinking water protection catchments into forest hydrotopes, being operational units for forest management. The primary information layer of FoHyM is the potential natural forest community, which reflects the specific forest site conditions regarding geology, soil types, elevation above sea level, exposition and inclination adequately and hence defines the specific forest hydrotopes. For each forest hydrotope, the adequate tree species composition and forest stand structure for drinking water protection functionality was deduced, based on the plant-sociological information base provided by FoHyM. The most important overall purpose for the related elaboration of adaptive forest management concepts and measures was the improvement of forest stand stability, which can be seen as the crucial parameter for drinking water protection. Only stable forest stands can protect the fragile soil and humus layers and hence prevent erosion process which could endanger the water

  4. Teacher Management in a Decentralised School Context in Nepal: Fuelling Tension and Dissent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanal, Peshal

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the issues and concerns of Nepalese teachers in relation to Gaynor's (1998) three models of teacher management (administrative, grassroots and alternative), constructed in the context of decentralisation reform around the world. The article suggests that the existing teacher management policies in Nepal are problematic and…

  5. A Model for Instructors' Adoption of Learning Management Systems: Empirical Validation in Higher Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findik Coskuncay, Duygu; Ozkan, Sevgi

    2013-01-01

    Through the rapid expansion of information technologies, Learning Management Systems have become one of the most important innovations for delivering education. However, successful implementation and management of these systems are primarily based on the instructors' adoption. In this context, this study aims to understand behavioral intentions…

  6. Evaluating mallard adaptive management models with time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, P.B.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife practitioners concerned with midcontinent mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) management in the United States have instituted a system of adaptive harvest management (AHM) as an objective format for setting harvest regulations. Under the AHM paradigm, predictions from a set of models that reflect key uncertainties about processes underlying population dynamics are used in coordination with optimization software to determine an optimal set of harvest decisions. Managers use comparisons of the predictive abilities of these models to gauge the relative truth of different hypotheses about density-dependent recruitment and survival, with better-predicting models giving more weight to the determination of harvest regulations. We tested the effectiveness of this strategy by examining convergence rates of 'predictor' models when the true model for population dynamics was known a priori. We generated time series for cases when the a priori model was 1 of the predictor models as well as for several cases when the a priori model was not in the model set. We further examined the addition of different levels of uncertainty into the variance structure of predictor models, reflecting different levels of confidence about estimated parameters. We showed that in certain situations, the model-selection process favors a predictor model that incorporates the hypotheses of additive harvest mortality and weakly density-dependent recruitment, even when the model is not used to generate data. Higher levels of predictor model variance led to decreased rates of convergence to the model that generated the data, but model weight trajectories were in general more stable. We suggest that predictive models should incorporate all sources of uncertainty about estimated parameters, that the variance structure should be similar for all predictor models, and that models with different functional forms for population dynamics should be considered for inclusion in predictor model! sets. All of these

  7. Two-step Adaptive Management for choosing between two management actions.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alana L; Walker, Leila; Runge, Michael C; McDonald-Madden, Eve; McCarthy, Michael A

    2017-01-31

    Adaptive management is widely advocated to improve environmental management. Derivations of optimal strategies for adaptive management, however, tend to be case specific and time consuming. In contrast, managers might seek relatively simple guidance, such as insight into when a new potential management action should be considered, and how much effort should be expended on trialing such an action. We constructed a two time-step scenario where a manager is choosing between two possible management actions. The manager has a total budget which can be split between a learning phase and an implementation phase. We use this scenario to investigate when and how much a manager should invest in learning about the management actions available. The optimal investment in learning can be understood intuitively by accounting for the expected value of sample information, the benefits that accrue during learning, the direct costs of learning, and the opportunity costs of learning. We find that the optimal proportion of the budget to spend on learning is characterized by several critical thresholds that mark a jump from spending a large proportion of the budget on learning to spending nothing. For example, as sampling variance increases it is optimal to spend a larger proportion of the budget on learning, up to a point - if the sampling variance passes a critical threshold, it is no longer beneficial to invest in learning. Similar thresholds are observed as a function of the total budget and the difference in the expected performance of the two actions. We illustrate how this model can be applied using a case study of choosing between alternative rearing diets for hihi, an endangered New Zealand passerine. Although the model presented is a simplified scenario, we believe it is relevant to many management situations. Managers often have relatively short time horizons for management, and might be reluctant to consider further investment in learning and monitoring beyond collecting

  8. Improving our legacy: incorporation of adaptive management into state wildlife action plans.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Joseph J

    2011-05-01

    The loss of biodiversity is a mounting concern, but despite numerous attempts there are few large scale conservation efforts that have proven successful in reversing current declines. Given the challenge of biodiversity conservation, there is a need to develop strategic conservation plans that address species declines even with the inherent uncertainty in managing multiple species in complex environments. In 2002, the State Wildlife Grant program was initiated to fulfill this need, and while not explicitly outlined by Congress follows the fundamental premise of adaptive management, 'Learning by doing'. When action is necessary, but basic biological information and an understanding of appropriate management strategies are lacking, adaptive management enables managers to be proactive in spite of uncertainty. However, regardless of the strengths of adaptive management, the development of an effective adaptive management framework is challenging. In a review of 53 State Wildlife Action Plans, I found a keen awareness by planners that adaptive management was an effective method for addressing biodiversity conservation, but the development and incorporation of explicit adaptive management approaches within each plan remained elusive. Only ~25% of the plans included a framework for how adaptive management would be implemented at the project level within their state. There was, however, considerable support across plans for further development and implementation of adaptive management. By furthering the incorporation of adaptive management principles in conservation plans and explicitly outlining the decision making process, states will be poised to meet the pending challenges to biodiversity conservation.

  9. Improving our legacy: Incorporation of adaptive management into state wildlife action plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is a mounting concern, but despite numerous attempts there are few large scale conservation efforts that have proven successful in reversing current declines. Given the challenge of biodiversity conservation, there is a need to develop strategic conservation plans that address species declines even with the inherent uncertainty in managing multiple species in complex environments. In 2002, the State Wildlife Grant program was initiated to fulfill this need, and while not explicitly outlined by Congress follows the fundamental premise of adaptive management, 'Learning by doing'. When action is necessary, but basic biological information and an understanding of appropriate management strategies are lacking, adaptive management enables managers to be proactive in spite of uncertainty. However, regardless of the strengths of adaptive management, the development of an effective adaptive management framework is challenging. In a review of 53 State Wildlife Action Plans, I found a keen awareness by planners that adaptive management was an effective method for addressing biodiversity conservation, but the development and incorporation of explicit adaptive management approaches within each plan remained elusive. Only ???25% of the plans included a framework for how adaptive management would be implemented at the project level within their state. There was, however, considerable support across plans for further development and implementation of adaptive management. By furthering the incorporation of adaptive management principles in conservation plans and explicitly outlining the decision making process, states will be poised to meet the pending challenges to biodiversity conservation. ?? 2010 .

  10. CSIR Contribution to Defining Adaptive Capacity in the Context of Environmental Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-31

    including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), stating that adaptation options exist in all sectors, but some adaptation responses...supports CSIR and ERDC research in adaptation to water-related impacts of climate change . The grant supports a comparison of historic human responses to...reducing the exposure to the hazard or reducing the vulnerability associated with the hazard. Whereas the reduction of the hazard ( climate change

  11. Natural Flood Management in context: evaluating and enhancing the impact.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Peter; Beven, Keith; Hankin, Barry; Lamb, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The series of flood events in the UK throughout December 2015 have led to calls for a reappraisal of the country's approach to flood management. In parts of Cumbria so-called "1 in 100" year floods have occurred three times in the last ten years, leading to significant infrastructure damage. Hard-engineered defences upgraded to cope with an anticipated 20% increase in peak flows and these 1% AEP events have been overwhelmed. It has become more widely acknowledged that unsympathetic agricultural and upland management practices, mainly since the Second World War, have led to a significant loss of storage in mid and upper catchments and their consequent ability to retain and slow storm run-off. Natural Flood Management (NFM) is a nature-based solution to restoring this storage and flood peak attenuation through a network of small-scale features exploiting natural topography and materials. Combined with other "soft" interventions such as restoring flood plain roughness and tree-planting, NFM offers the attractive prospect of an intervention that can target both the ecological and chemical objectives of the Water Framework Directive and the resilience demanded by the Floods Directive. We developed a simple computerised physical routing model that can account for the presence of in-channel and offline features such as would be found in a NFM scheme. These will add storage to the channel and floodplain and throttle the downstream discharge at storm flows. The model was applied to the heavily-modified channel network of an agricultural catchment in North Yorkshire using the run-off simulated for two storm events that caused flooding downstream in the autumn of 2012. Using up to 60 online features we demonstrated some gains in channel storage and a small impact on the flood hydrograph which would, however, have been insufficient to prevent the downstream floods in either of the storms. Complementary research at JBA has applied their hydrodynamic model JFLOW+ to identify

  12. A distributed reasoning engine ecosystem for semantic context-management in smart environments.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

    2012-01-01

    To be able to react adequately a smart environment must be aware of the context and its changes. Modeling the context allows applications to better understand it and to adapt to its changes. In order to do this an appropriate formal representation method is needed. Ontologies have proven themselves to be one of the best tools to do it. Semantic inference provides a powerful framework to reason over the context data. But there are some problems with this approach. The inference over semantic context information can be cumbersome when working with a large amount of data. This situation has become more common in modern smart environments where there are a lot sensors and devices available. In order to tackle this problem we have developed a mechanism to distribute the context reasoning problem into smaller parts in order to reduce the inference time. In this paper we describe a distributed peer-to-peer agent architecture of context consumers and context providers. We explain how this inference sharing process works, partitioning the context information according to the interests of the agents, location and a certainty factor. We also discuss the system architecture, analyzing the negotiation process between the agents. Finally we compare the distributed reasoning with the centralized one, analyzing in which situations is more suitable each approach.

  13. A Distributed Reasoning Engine Ecosystem for Semantic Context-Management in Smart Environments

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

    2012-01-01

    To be able to react adequately a smart environment must be aware of the context and its changes. Modeling the context allows applications to better understand it and to adapt to its changes. In order to do this an appropriate formal representation method is needed. Ontologies have proven themselves to be one of the best tools to do it. Semantic inference provides a powerful framework to reason over the context data. But there are some problems with this approach. The inference over semantic context information can be cumbersome when working with a large amount of data. This situation has become more common in modern smart environments where there are a lot sensors and devices available. In order to tackle this problem we have developed a mechanism to distribute the context reasoning problem into smaller parts in order to reduce the inference time. In this paper we describe a distributed peer-to-peer agent architecture of context consumers and context providers. We explain how this inference sharing process works, partitioning the context information according to the interests of the agents, location and a certainty factor. We also discuss the system architecture, analyzing the negotiation process between the agents. Finally we compare the distributed reasoning with the centralized one, analyzing in which situations is more suitable each approach. PMID:23112596

  14. Boundary work for implementing adaptive management: A water sector application.

    PubMed

    Adem Esmail, Blal; Geneletti, Davide; Albert, Christian

    2017-03-24

    Boundary work, defined as effort to mediate between knowledge and action, is a promising approach for facilitating knowledge co-production for sustainable development. Here, we investigate a case study of knowledge co-production, to assess the applicability of boundary work as a conceptual framework to support implementing adaptive management in the water sector. We refer to a boundary work classification recently proposed by Clark et al., (2016), based on three types of knowledge uses, i.e. enlightenment, decision-, and negotiation-support, and three types of sources, i.e. personal expertise, single, and multiple communities of expertise. Our empirical results confirm boundary work has been crucial for the three types of knowledge use. For enlightenment and decision-support, effective interaction among knowledge producers and users was achieved through diverse boundary work practices, including joint agenda setting, and sharing of data and expertise. This initial boundary work eased subsequent knowledge co-production for decision-support and negotiations, in combination with stepping up of cooperation between relevant actors, suitable legislation and pressure for problem solving. Our analysis highlighted the temporal dimension matters - building trust around enlightenment first, and then using this as a basis for managing knowledge co-production for decision-, and negotiation support. We reconfirmed that boundary work is not a single time achievement, rather is a dynamic process, and we emphasized the importance of key actors driving the process, such as water utilities. Our results provide a rich case study of how strategic boundary work can facilitate knowledge co-production for adaptive management in the water sector. The boundary work practices employed here could also be transferred to other cases. Water utilities, as intermediaries between providers and beneficiaries of the important water-related ecosystem service of clean water provision, can indeed serve

  15. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Intelligibility in Context Scale for South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascoe, Michelle; McLeod, Sharynne

    2016-01-01

    The Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS) is a screening questionnaire that focuses on parents' perceptions of children's speech in different contexts. Originally developed in English, it has been translated into 60 languages and the validity and clinical utility of the scale has been documented in a range of countries. In South Africa, there are…

  16. Exploring the Effects of Intercultural Learning on Cross-Cultural Adaptation in a Study Abroad Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Yau

    2011-01-01

    This study targets Asian students studying abroad and explores the effects of intercultural learning on their cross-cultural adaptation by drawing upon a questionnaire survey. On the one hand, the results of this study find that under the influence of intercultural learning, students respond differently in their cross-cultural adaptation and no…

  17. Samanjasya Staff Development: Adaptive Praxis through Building on Teacher Context and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathina, Jyothi; DeVoogd, Glenn L.

    2011-01-01

    In typical short-term teacher development workshops, experts model instructional practices for teachers so that teachers can then adapt the model to their own situation. Such workshops are often ineffective because of the lack of adjustment before modeling and the overreliance on teacher adaptation of existing practices. In this article, we argue…

  18. Adapting to a changing world: Implications for water management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loucks, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Everyone is aware that the world is changing, and that many of these changes will impact our water resource supplies and how they are used and managed. It's always a challenge to try to predict the future, especially the very uncertain distant future. But one thing is certain, the future environment our descendants will experience will differ from the economic, social, technological and natural conditions we experience today. Some aspects of the changes that are happening may not be under human control, but many are. And to the extent they are, we can influence that future. In this paper I attempt to speculate about a future some 40 to 50 years from now, and how water will need to be managed then. My goal is to motivate some thinking and discussion about how we as water managers can influence and prepare ourselves (or our successors) for that future. It will require collaboration among multiple disciplines to determine how best we as a profession can help society adapt to these changes, and this in turn will require all of us to learn how to work together more effectively than we do now. This theme fits in with the current interest in sustainability, for no matter how it is defined, sustainability makes us think about the long-term future. How do we develop and manage our natural and cultural resources in ways that benefit both us and future generations of people living on this earth? What will their needs and goals be? We don't know and that is the major challenge in deciding what decisions we might make today on their behalf. Here I attempt to identify the challenges and issues water managers could be addressing some 40 to 50 years from now, and what we in each of our disciplines, and together, can begin to do now to address them.

  19. Deriving empirical benchmarks from existing monitoring datasets for rangeland adaptive management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under adaptive management, goals and decisions for managing rangeland resources are shaped by requirements like the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Land Health Standards, which specify desired conditions. Without formalized, quantitative benchmarks for triggering management actions, adaptive man...

  20. Self-management in patients with COPD: theoretical context, content, outcomes, and integration into clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Kaptein, Ad A; Fischer, Maarten J; Scharloo, Margreet

    2014-01-01

    In this narrative review, we put self-management in the context of a 50-year history of research about how patients with COPD respond to their illness. We review a definition of self-management, and emphasize that self-management should be combined with disease management and the chronic care model in order to be effective. Reviewing the empirical status of self-management in COPD, we conclude that self-management is part and parcel of modern, patient-oriented biopsychosocial care. In pulmonary rehabilitation programs, self-management is instrumental in improving patients’ functional status and quality of life. We conclude by emphasizing how studying the way persons with COPD make sense of their illness helps in refining self-management, and thereby patient-reported outcomes in COPD. PMID:25214777

  1. Self-management in patients with COPD: theoretical context, content, outcomes, and integration into clinical care.

    PubMed

    Kaptein, Ad A; Fischer, Maarten J; Scharloo, Margreet

    2014-01-01

    In this narrative review, we put self-management in the context of a 50-year history of research about how patients with COPD respond to their illness. We review a definition of self-management, and emphasize that self-management should be combined with disease management and the chronic care model in order to be effective. Reviewing the empirical status of self-management in COPD, we conclude that self-management is part and parcel of modern, patient-oriented biopsychosocial care. In pulmonary rehabilitation programs, self-management is instrumental in improving patients' functional status and quality of life. We conclude by emphasizing how studying the way persons with COPD make sense of their illness helps in refining self-management, and thereby patient-reported outcomes in COPD.

  2. Adapting California Water Management to Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanak, E.; Lund, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    California faces the prospect of significant water management challenges from climate change. The most certain changes are accelerated sea level rise and increased temperatures, which will reduce the Sierra Nevada snowpack and shift more runoff to winter months. These changes will likely cause major problems for flood control, for water supply reservoir operations, and for the maintenance of the present system of water exports through the fragile levee system of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Rising water temperatures also are likely to compromise habitat for some native aquatic species and pose challenges for reservoir operations, which must release cool water to support fish downstream. Although there is as yet little scientific consensus on the effects of climate change on overall precipitation levels, many expect precipitation variability to increase, with more extreme drought and flood events posing additional challenges to water managers. Fortunately, California also possesses numerous assets - including adaptation tools and institutional capabilities - which can limit vulnerability of the state’s residents to changing conditions. Water supply managers have already begun using underground storage, water transfers, conservation, recycling, and desalination to expand their capacity to meet changing demands, and these same tools present cost-effective options for responding to a wide range of climate change scenarios. Many staples of flood management - including reservoir operations, levees, bypasses, insurance, and land-use regulation - are appropriate for the challenges posed by increasing flood flows. Yet actions are also needed to improve response capacity in some areas. For water supply, a central issue is the management of the Delta, where new conveyance and habitat investments and regulations are needed to sustain water supply reliability and ecosystem conditions. For flood management, studies to anticipate required changes have only begun, and

  3. A Service-oriented Approach towards Context-aware Mobile Learning Management Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    towards a pervasive university. Keywords-context-aware computing, service-oriented archi- tecture, mobile computing, elearning , learn management sys- tem I...usage of device- specific features provide support for various ubiquitous and pervasive eLearning scenarios [2][3]. By knowing where the user currently...data from the mobile device towards a context-aware mobile LMS. II. BASIC CONCEPTS For a better understanding of the presented eLearning sce- narios

  4. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Context-Aware Smart Home Energy Manager (CASHEM)

    SciTech Connect

    Foslien, Wendy K.; Curtner, Keith L.

    2013-01-15

    Because of growing energy demands and shortages, residential home owners are turning to energy conservation measures and smart home energy management devices to help them reduce energy costs and live more sustainably. In this context, the Honeywell team researched, developed, and tested the Context Aware Smart Home Energy Manager (CASHEM) as a trusted advisor for home energy management. The project focused on connecting multiple devices in a home through a uniform user interface. The design of the user interface was an important feature of the project because it provided a single place for the homeowner to control all devices and was also where they received coaching. CASHEM then used data collected from homes to identify the contexts that affect operation of home appliances. CASHEM's goal was to reduce energy consumption while keeping the user's key needs satisfied. Thus, CASHEM was intended to find the opportunities to minimize energy consumption in a way that fit the user's lifestyle.

  5. ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance System Window Manager Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Mike W.; Innis, John D.; Miller, Steven P.; Wagner, Lucas G.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in modeling languages have made it feasible to formally specify and analyze the behavior of large system components. Synchronous data flow languages, such as Lustre, SCR, and RSML-e are particularly well suited to this task, and commercial versions of these tools such as SCADE and Simulink are growing in popularity among designers of safety critical systems, largely due to their ability to automatically generate code from the models. At the same time, advances in formal analysis tools have made it practical to formally verify important properties of these models to ensure that design defects are identified and corrected early in the lifecycle. This report describes how these tools have been applied to the ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance Window Manager being developed by Rockwell Collins Inc. This work demonstrates how formal methods can be easily and cost-efficiently used to remove defects early in the design cycle.

  6. Adaptive local linear regression with application to printer color management.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maya R; Garcia, Eric K; Chin, Erika

    2008-06-01

    Local learning methods, such as local linear regression and nearest neighbor classifiers, base estimates on nearby training samples, neighbors. Usually, the number of neighbors used in estimation is fixed to be a global "optimal" value, chosen by cross validation. This paper proposes adapting the number of neighbors used for estimation to the local geometry of the data, without need for cross validation. The term enclosing neighborhood is introduced to describe a set of neighbors whose convex hull contains the test point when possible. It is proven that enclosing neighborhoods yield bounded estimation variance under some assumptions. Three such enclosing neighborhood definitions are presented: natural neighbors, natural neighbors inclusive, and enclosing k-NN. The effectiveness of these neighborhood definitions with local linear regression is tested for estimating lookup tables for color management. Significant improvements in error metrics are shown, indicating that enclosing neighborhoods may be a promising adaptive neighborhood definition for other local learning tasks as well, depending on the density of training samples.

  7. Managing coastal environments under climate change: Pathways to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; García-León, Manuel; Gracia, Vicente; Devoy, Robert; Stanica, Adrian; Gault, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the question of how to manage vulnerable coastal systems so as to make them sustainable under present and future climates. This is interpreted in terms of the coastal functionality, mainly natural services and support for socio-economic activities. From here we discuss how to adapt for long term trends and for short terms episodic events using the DPSIR framework. The analysis is presented for coastal archetypes from Spain, Ireland and Romania, sweeping a range of meteo-oceanographic and socio-economic pressures, resulting in a wide range of fluxes among them those related to sediment. The analysis emphasizes the variables that provide a higher level of robustness. That means mean sea level for physical factors and population density for human factors. For each of the studied cases high and low sustainability practices, based on stakeholders preferences, are considered and discussed. This allows proposing alternatives and carrying out an integrated assessment in the last section of the paper. This assessment permits building a sequence of interventions called adaptation pathway that enhances the natural resilience of the studied coastal systems and therefore increases their sustainability under present and future conditions.

  8. Adaptive Management of Bull Trout Populations in the Lemhi Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James T.; Tyre, Andrew J.; Converse, Sarah J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Miller, Damien; Post van der Burg, Max; Thomas, Carmen; Thompson, Ralph J.; Wood, Jeri; Brewer, Donna; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a stream-living salmonid distributed in drainages of the northwestern United States, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act because of rangewide declines. One proposed recovery action is the reconnection of tributaries in the Lemhi Basin. Past water use policies in this core area disconnected headwater spawning sites from downstream habitat and have led to the loss of migratory life history forms. We developed an adaptive management framework to analyze which types of streams should be prioritized for reconnection under a proposed Habitat Conservation Plan. We developed a Stochastic Dynamic Program that identified optimal policies over time under four different assumptions about the nature of the migratory behavior and the effects of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on subpopulations of bull trout. In general, given the current state of the system and the uncertainties about the dynamics, the optimal policy would be to connect streams that are currently occupied by bull trout. We also estimated the value of information as the difference between absolute certainty about which of our four assumptions were correct, and a model averaged optimization assuming no knowledge. Overall there is little to be gained by learning about the dynamics of the system in its current state, although in other parts of the state space reducing uncertainties about the system would be very valuable. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis; the optimal decision at the current state does not change even when parameter values are changed up to 75% of the baseline values. Overall, the exercise demonstrates that it is possible to apply adaptive management principles to threatened and endangered species, but logistical and data availability constraints make detailed analyses difficult.

  9. Forest management under climatic and social uncertainty: trade-offs between reducing climate change impacts and fostering adaptive capacity.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Rupert; Lexer, Manfred J

    2013-01-15

    The unabated continuation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and the lack of an international consensus on a stringent climate change mitigation policy underscore the importance of adaptation for coping with the all but inevitable changes in the climate system. Adaptation measures in forestry have particularly long lead times. A timely implementation is thus crucial for reducing the considerable climate vulnerability of forest ecosystems. However, since future environmental conditions as well as future societal demands on forests are inherently uncertain, a core requirement for adaptation is robustness to a wide variety of possible futures. Here we explicitly address the roles of climatic and social uncertainty in forest management, and tackle the question of robustness of adaptation measures in the context of multi-objective sustainable forest management (SFM). We used the Austrian Federal Forests (AFF) as a case study, and employed a comprehensive vulnerability assessment framework based on ecosystem modeling, multi-criteria decision analysis, and practitioner participation. We explicitly considered climate uncertainty by means of three climate change scenarios, and accounted for uncertainty in future social demands by means of three societal preference scenarios regarding SFM indicators. We found that the effects of climatic and social uncertainty on the projected performance of management were in the same order of magnitude, underlining the notion that climate change adaptation requires an integrated social-ecological perspective. Furthermore, our analysis of adaptation measures revealed considerable trade-offs between reducing adverse impacts of climate change and facilitating adaptive capacity. This finding implies that prioritization between these two general aims of adaptation is necessary in management planning, which we suggest can draw on uncertainty analysis: Where the variation induced by social-ecological uncertainty renders measures aiming to

  10. Multilevel learning in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests: 20 years and counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Boomer, G. Scott; Williams, Byron K.; Nichols, James D.; Case, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service implemented an adaptive harvest management program (AHM) for the sport harvest of midcontinent mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The program has been successful in reducing long-standing contentiousness in the regulatory process, while integrating science and policy in a coherent, rigorous, and transparent fashion. After 20 years, much has been learned about the relationship among waterfowl populations, their environment, and hunting regulations, with each increment of learning contributing to better management decisions. At the same time, however, much has been changing in the social, institutional, and environmental arenas that provide context for the AHM process. Declines in hunter numbers, competition from more pressing conservation issues, and global-change processes are increasingly challenging waterfowl managers to faithfully reflect the needs and desires of stakeholders, to account for an increasing number of institutional constraints, and to (probabilistically) predict the consequences of regulatory policy in a changing environment. We review the lessons learned from the AHM process so far, and describe emerging challenges and ways in which they may be addressed. We conclude that the practice of AHM has greatly increased an awareness of the roles of social values, trade-offs, and attitudes toward risk in regulatory decision-making. Nevertheless, going forward the waterfowl management community will need to focus not only on the relationships among habitat, harvest, and waterfowl populations, but on the ways in which society values waterfowl and how those values can change over time. 

  11. Pitfalls of applying adaptive management to a wolf population in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Theberge, John B; Theberge, Mary T; Vucetich, John A; Paquet, Paul C

    2006-04-01

    We examined adaptive management (AM), applied as a science with testable and falsifiable hypothesis, in the context of a large carnivore population, specifically to wolf (Canis lupus lycaon) management in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. Evidence of a population decline was based upon 12 years of data on 137 different radio-collared wolves. Because human killing accounted for an average of 66% of deaths, and most killing occurred adjacent to the park, a management prescription of complete protection for wolves around the park for 30 months was initiated in January 2001. We evaluated the probability of being able to test the null hypothesis, that protecting wolves adjacent to the park for 30 months would not result in a positive population response. Using preceding variances in population change, yearling recruitment, and mortality rates, we conducted this evaluation in two ways, the former involving a power analysis, the latter involving modeling. Both approaches showed the falsifiability of the hypothesis to be low. The reason, inherent in the application of AM to issues of population biology, especially of large carnivores, was stochasticity of the ecological system and time constraints of the human system. We discuss the political background that led up to the management prescription, and ways to avoid misapplication of a scientific approach to AM in such situations. For the latter, the merit of adjusting the relative probability levels of making Type I or Type II errors are discussed, along with recommendations that in the interests of conservation, avoiding a Type II error holds precedence.

  12. Resource Management for Real-Time Adaptive Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Lonnie; Chelberg, David; Pfarr, Barbara; Fleeman, David; Parrott, David; Tan, Zhen-Yu; Jain, Shikha; Drews, Frank; Bruggeman, Carl; Shuler, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Increased autonomy and automation in onboard flight systems offer numerous potential benefits, including cost reduction and greater flexibility. The existence of generic mechanisms for automation is critical for handling unanticipated science events and anomalies where limitations in traditional control software with fixed, predetermined algorithms can mean loss of science data and missed opportunities for observing important terrestrial events. We have developed such a mechanism by adding a Hierarchical Agent-based ReaLTime technology (HART) extension to our Dynamic Resource Management (DRM) middleware. Traditional DRM provides mechanisms to monitor the realtime performance of distributed applications and to move applications among processors to improve real-time performance. In the HART project we have designed and implemented a performance adaptation mechanism to improve reaktime performance. To use this mechanism, applications are developed that can run at various levels of quality. The DRM can choose a setting for the quality level of an application dynamically at run-time in order to manage satellite resource usage more effectively. A groundbased prototype of a satellite system that captures and processes images has also been developed as part of this project to be used as a benchmark for evaluating the resource management framework A significant enhancement of this generic mission-independent framework allows scientists to specify the utility, or "scientific benefit," of science observations under various conditions like cloud cover and compression method. The resource manager then uses these benefit tables to determine in redtime how to set the quality levels for applications to maximize overall system utility as defined by the scientists running the mission. We also show how maintenance functions llke health and safety data can be integrated into the utility framework. Once thls framework has been certified for missions and successfully flight tested it

  13. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program: An experiment in science-based resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kaplinski, m

    2001-12-01

    In 1996, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management (GCDAMP) program was established to provide input on Glen Canyon Dam operations and their affect on the Colorado Ecosystem in Grand Canyon. The GCDAMP is a bold experiment in federal resource management that features a governing partnership with all relevant stakeholders sitting at the same table. It is a complicated, difficult process where stakeholder-derived management actions must balance resource protection with water and power delivery compacts, the Endangered Species Act, the National Historical Preservation Act, the Grand Canyon Protection Act, National Park Service Policy, and other stakeholder concerns. The program consists of four entities: the Adaptive Management Workgroup (AMWG), the Technical Workgroup (TWG), the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC), and independent review panels. The AMWG and TWG are federal advisory committees that consists of federal and state resource managers, Native American tribes, power, environmental and recreation interests. The AMWG is develops, evaluates and recommends alternative dam operations to the Secretary. The TWG translates AMWG policy and goals into management objectives and information needs, provides questions that serve as the basis for long-term monitoring and research activities, interprets research results from the GCMRC, and prepares reports as required for the AMWG. The GCMRC is an independent science center that is responsible for all GCDAMP monitoring and research activities. The GCMRC utilizes proposal requests with external peer review and an in-house staff that directs and synthesizes monitoring and research results. The GCMRC meets regularly with the TWG and AMWG and provides scientific information on the consequences of GCDAMP actions. Independent review panels consist of external peer review panels that provide reviews of scientific activities and the program in general, technical advice to the GCMRC, TWG and AMWG, and play a critical

  14. Active adaptive management for reintroduction of an animal population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Captive animals are frequently reintroduced to the wild in the face of uncertainty, but that uncertainty can often be reduced over the course of the reintroduction effort, providing the opportunity for adaptive management. One common uncertainty in reintroductions is the short-term survival rate of released adults (a release cost), an important factor because it can affect whether releasing adults or juveniles is better. Information about this rate can improve the success of the reintroduction program, but does the expected gain offset the costs of obtaining the information? I explored this question for reintroduction of the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) by framing the management question as a belief Markov decision process, characterizing uncertainty about release cost with 2 information state variables, and finding the solution using stochastic dynamic programming. For a reintroduction program of fixed length (e.g., 5 years of releases), the optimal policy in the final release year resembles the deterministic solution: release either all adults or all juveniles depending on whether the point estimate for the survival rate in question is above or below a specific threshold. But the optimal policy in the earlier release years 1) includes release of a mixture of juveniles and adults under some circumstances, and 2) recommends release of adults even when the point estimate of survival is much less than the deterministic threshold. These results show that in an iterated decision setting, the optimal decision in early years can be quite different from that in later years because of the value of learning. 

  15. The impact of social context on self-management in women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Webel, Allison R; Cuca, Yvette; Okonsky, Jennifer G; Asher, Alice K; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Salata, Robert A

    2013-06-01

    HIV self-management is central to the health of people living with HIV and is comprised of the daily tasks individuals employ to manage their illness. Women living with HIV are confronted with social context vulnerabilities that impede their ability to conduct HIV self-management behaviors, including demanding social roles, poverty, homelessness, decreased social capital, and limited access to health care. We examined the relationship between these vulnerabilities and HIV self-management in a cross-sectional secondary analysis of 260 women living with HIV from two U.S. sites. All social context variables were assessed using validated self-report scales. HIV Self-Management was assessed using the HIV Self-Management Scale that measures daily health practices, HIV social support, and the chronic nature of HIV. Data were analyzed using appropriate descriptive statistics and multivariable regression. Mean age was 46 years and 65% of participants were African-American. Results indicated that social context variables, particularly social capital, significantly predicted all domains of HIV self-management including daily health practices (F = 5.40, adjusted R(2) = 0.27, p < 0.01), HIV social support (F = 4.50, adjusted R(2) = 0.22, p < 0.01), and accepting the chronic nature of HIV (F = 5.57, adjusted R(2) = 0.27, p < 0.01). We found evidence to support the influence of the traditional social roles of mother and employee on the daily health practices and the chronic nature of HIV domains of HIV self-management. Our data support the idea that women's social context influences their HIV self-management behavior. While social context has been previously identified as important, our data provide new evidence on which aspects of social context might be important targets of self-management interventions for women living with HIV. Working to improve social capital and to incorporate social roles into the daily health practices of women living with HIV may improve the health of

  16. The Impact of Social Context on Self-Management in Women Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Webel, Allison R.; Cuca, Yvette; Okonsky, Jennifer G.; Asher, Alice K.; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Salata, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    HIV self-management is central to the health of people living with HIV and is comprised of the daily tasks individuals employ to manage their illness. Women living with HIV are confronted with social context vulnerabilities that impede their ability to conduct HIV self-management behaviors, including demanding social roles, poverty, homelessness, decreased social capital, and limited access to health care. We examined the relationship between these vulnerabilities and HIV self-management in a cross-sectional secondary analysis of 260 women living with HIV from two U.S. sites. All social context variables were assessed using validated self-report scales. HIV Self-Management was assessed using the HIV Self-Management Scale that measures daily health practices, HIV social support, and the chronic nature of HIV. Data were analyzed using appropriate descriptive statistics and multivariable regression. Mean age was 46 years and 65% of participants were African-American. Results indicated that social context variables, particularly social capital, significantly predicated all domains of HIV self-management including daily health practices (F=5.40, adjusted R2=0.27, p<0.01), HIV social support (F=4.50, adjusted R2=0.22, p<0.01), and accepting the chronic nature of HIV (F=5.57, adjusted R2=0.27, p<0.01). We found evidence to support the influence of the traditional social roles of mother and employee on the daily health practices and the chronic nature of HIV domains of HIV self-management. Our data support the idea that women’s social context influences their HIV self-management behavior. While social context has been previously identified as important, our data provide new evidence on which aspects of social context might be important targets of self-management interventions for women living with HIV. Working to improve social capital and to incorporate social roles into the daily health practices of women living with HIV may improve the health of this population. PMID

  17. Uncertainty assessment of urban pluvial flood risk in a context of climate change adaptation decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Zhou, Qianqian

    2014-05-01

    There has been a significant increase in climatic extremes in many regions. In Central and Northern Europe, this has led to more frequent and more severe floods. Along with improved flood modelling technologies this has enabled development of economic assessment of climate change adaptation to increasing urban flood risk. Assessment of adaptation strategies often requires a comprehensive risk-based economic analysis of current risk, drivers of change of risk over time, and measures to reduce the risk. However, such studies are often associated with large uncertainties. The uncertainties arise from basic assumptions in the economic analysis and the hydrological model, but also from the projection of future societies to local climate change impacts and suitable adaptation options. This presents a challenge to decision makers when trying to identify robust measures. We present an integrated uncertainty analysis, which can assess and quantify the overall uncertainty in relation to climate change adaptation to urban flash floods. The analysis is based on an uncertainty cascade that by means of Monte Carlo simulations of flood risk assessments incorporates climate change impacts as a key driver of risk changes over time. The overall uncertainty is then attributed to six bulk processes: climate change impact, urban rainfall-runoff processes, stage-depth functions, unit cost of repair, cost of adaptation measures, and discount rate. We apply the approach on an urban hydrological catchment in Odense, Denmark, and find that the uncertainty on the climate change impact appears to have the least influence on the net present value of the studied adaptation measures-. This does not imply that the climate change impact is not important, but that the uncertainties are not dominating when deciding on action or in-action. We then consider the uncertainty related to choosing between adaptation options given that a decision of action has been taken. In this case the major part of the

  18. An Adaptive Management Approach for Summer Water Level Reductions on the Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.L.; Barko, J.W.; Clevenstine, R.; Davis, M.; Galat, D.L.; Lubinski, S.J.; Nestler, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    understanding, the main questions still associated with drawdowns include (1) the effects of frequency of drawdowns (from once every few years to multiple years in succession); (2) timing of the beginning of drawdowns (follow the descending arm of the flood pulse versus always beginning in early summer); (3) long-term benefits (greater than 5-6 years), especially as compared to known short-term loses (e.g., mortality of mussels in exposed areas, loss of submersed vegetation in exposed areas, cost of advanced dredging); and (4) the effects in northern (above pool 14) versus southern pools (pool 14 and below, and the Illinois River). An adaptive management design should address these questions to reduce uncertainty in predictions of drawdown effects and help determine if different implementation strategies are needed in different parts of the system. Given that drawdowns will continue to be used as a management tool on the UMRS, we suggest that some drawdowns be conducted in an adaptive management context that helps meet management objectives, but also provides efficient learning about the questions listed above. We propose two different, but interrelated, experimental designs to address these questions. Both designs call for conducting multiple drawdowns in multiple pools (2-4 pools) to allow direct comparison of results and produce rapid learning. However, the report does not provide a detailed scope of work for carrying out the designs. If managers choose to implement one of the experimental designs, specifics of choosing appropriate pools and developing a monitoring plan will need to be determined through collaboration among managers, researchers, and statisticians. We suggest characteristics to consider in selecting treatment and reference pools (study sites) and also provide guidance for developing a monitoring plan. Some aspects of these two designs could be implemented individually, but by implementing individual elements, direct comparisons of some design features

  19. A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered in the Context of Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) is efficacious in reducing drug use. Typically, reinforcers are provided on an individual basis to patients for submitting drug-negative samples. However, most treatment is provided in a group context, and poor attendance is a substantial concern. This study evaluated whether adding CM to group-based…

  20. Context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding with precise probability estimation and complexity scalability for high-efficiency video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwowski, Damian; Domański, Marek

    2016-01-01

    An improved context-based adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) is presented. The idea for the improvement is to use a more accurate mechanism for estimation of symbol probabilities in the standard CABAC algorithm. The authors' proposal of such a mechanism is based on the context-tree weighting technique. In the framework of a high-efficiency video coding (HEVC) video encoder, the improved CABAC allows 0.7% to 4.5% bitrate saving compared to the original CABAC algorithm. The application of the proposed algorithm marginally affects the complexity of HEVC video encoder, but the complexity of video decoder increases by 32% to 38%. In order to decrease the complexity of video decoding, a new tool has been proposed for the improved CABAC that enables scaling of the decoder complexity. Experiments show that this tool gives 5% to 7.5% reduction of the decoding time while still maintaining high efficiency in the data compression.

  1. Adaptive and context-aware detection and classification of potential QoS degradation events in biomedical wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Carlos; Miranda, Francisco; Mendes, Paulo M.

    2016-06-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks in healthcare has the potential to enhance the services provided to citizens. In particular, they play an important role in the development of state-of-the-art patient monitoring applications. Nevertheless, due to the critical nature of the data conveyed by such patient monitoring applications, they have to fulfil high standards of quality of service in order to obtain the confidence of all players in the healthcare industry. In such context, vis-à-vis the quality of service being provided by the wireless sensor network, this work presents an adaptive and context-aware method to detect and classify performance degradation events. The proposed method has the ability to catch the most significant and damaging variations on the metrics being used to quantify the quality of service provided by the network without overreacting to small and innocuous variations on the metric's value.

  2. Adaptive practices in heart failure care teams: implications for patient-centered care in the context of complexity

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Glendon R; Bates, Joanna; LaDonna, Kori A; Schulz, Valerie N; Strachan, Patricia H; McDougall, Allan; Lingard, Lorelei

    2015-01-01

    Background Heart failure (HF), one of the three leading causes of death, is a chronic, progressive, incurable disease. There is growing support for integration of palliative care’s holistic approach to suffering, but insufficient understanding of how this would happen in the complex team context of HF care. This study examined how HF care teams, as defined by patients, work together to provide care to patients with advanced disease. Methods Team members were identified by each participating patient, generating team sampling units (TSUs) for each patient. Drawn from five study sites in three Canadian provinces, our dataset consists of 209 interviews from 50 TSUs. Drawing on a theoretical framing of HF teams as complex adaptive systems (CAS), interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method associated with constructivist grounded theory. Results This paper centers on the dominant theme of system practices, how HF care delivery is reported to work organizationally, socially, and practically, and describes two subthemes: “the way things work around here”, which were commonplace, routine ways of doing things, and “the way we make things work around here”, which were more conscious, effortful adaptations to usual practice in response to emergent needs. An adaptive practice, often a small alteration to routine, could have amplified effects beyond those intended by the innovating team member and could extend to other settings. Conclusion Adaptive practices emerged unpredictably and were variably experienced by team members. Our study offers an empirically grounded explanation of how HF care teams self-organize and how adaptive practices emerge from nonlinear interdependencies among diverse agents. We use these insights to reframe the question of palliative care integration, to ask how best to foster palliative care-aligned adaptive practices in HF care. This work has implications for health care’s growing challenge of providing care to those with

  3. Adaptive Flow Management in Regulated Rivers: Successes and Challenges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. T.; Melis, T. S.; Kennedy, T.; Korman, J.; Ortlepp, J.

    2013-12-01

    Experimental high flows are becoming common management actions in rivers affected by large dams. When implemented under clear objectives and goals, experimental flows provide opportunities for long-term ecological successes but also impose various ecological challenges as systems shift under environmental change or from human-related actions. We present case studies from long-term adaptive flow management programs on the River Spöl, Switzerland and the Colorado River, USA, both of which are regulated by high dams and flow through National Parks. The management goals in each system differ thus reflecting the different high flow practices implemented over time. Regulated flows in the Spöl reflect a compromise between hydropower needs and ecology (native brown trout fishery), whereas Glen Canyon Dam flows have mainly been directed towards maintenance of river beaches in Grand Canyon National Park with co-management of both nonnative rainbow trout in the tailwater immediately below the dam and downstream endangered native fish of Grand Canyon also an objective. Some 24 experimental floods have occurred on the Spöl over the last 13 years, resulting in a positive effect on the trout fishery and a zoobenthic assemblage having a more typical alpine stream composition. The system has experienced various shifts in assemblage composition over time with the last shift occurring 7 years after the initial floods. A major challenge occurred in spring 2013 with an accidental release of fine sediments from the reservoir behind Punt dal Gall Dam, causing high fish mortality and smothering of the river bottom. Results showed that the effect was pronounced near the dam and gradually lessened downriver to the lower reservoir. Zoobenthic assemblages displayed relatively high resistance to the event and some fish found refugia in the lower reservoir and larger side tributaries, thus projecting a faster recovery than initially thought. Below Glen Canyon dam, benefits to sandbars have

  4. Trade-offs between solar radiation management, carbon dioxide removal, emissions mitigation and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Naomi; Lenton, Timothy

    2010-05-01

    The possible use of solar radiation control strategies to counteract global warming is explored through a number scenarios of different anthropogenic CO2 emission reduction pathways and carbon dioxide removal interventions. Using a simple Earth system model, we illustrate the trade-offs between CO2 emission reduction, the use of carbon dioxide removal geoengineering interventions (‘negative emissions') and solar radiation management (SRM). These relationships are illustrated over a multi-centennial timescale, allowing sufficient time for the carbon-cycle to respond to the anthropogenic perturbation. The anthropogenic CO2 emission scenarios (focussing on those from fossil fuel combustion) range from more to less stringent mitigation of emissions and includes the scenario assumed in our previous work on the maximum cooling potential of different geoengineering options. Results are presented in terms of transient atmospheric CO2 concentration and global mean temperature from year 1900 to year 2500. Implementation of solar radiation control strategies requires an understanding of the timing and effect of terminating such an intervention, a so called ‘exit strategy'. The results illustrate a number of considerations regarding exit strategies, including the inherent commitment to either carbon dioxide removal interventions, or the length of time the solar radiation control mechanism must be maintained for. The impacts of the various trade-offs are also discussed in the context of adaptation and adaptive resilience. The results have a bearing on policy and long term planning by illustrating some of the important assumptions regarding implementation of solar radiation management. These include baseline assumptions about emission mitigation efforts, timescale of intervention maintenance and impacts on adaptation.

  5. Accelerating Adaptation of Natural Resource Management to Address Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn AF

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants’ self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world. Acelerando la Adaptación del Manejo de Recursos Naturales para

  6. An Adaptive Navigation Support System for Conducting Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning in Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Chuang-Kai; Tseng, Judy C. R.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Heller, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    In context-aware ubiquitous learning, students are guided to learn in the real world with personalized supports from the learning system. As the learning resources are realistic objects in the real world, certain physical constraints, such as the limitation of stream of people who visit the same learning object, the time for moving from one object…

  7. Navigating Middle Grades: Role of School Context in Students' Social Adaptation and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ha Yeon; Schwartz, Kate; Cappella, Elise; Seidman, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Informed by the current literature, this study examines social contexts across middle grade schools with different grade span configurations. In doing so, the authors aim to build understanding of where and how to target interventions in the middle grades to enhance maintenance of social-emotional adjustment and experiences from middle childhood…

  8. Adaptive Multimedia Content Delivery for Context-Aware U-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xinyou; Okamoto, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Empowered by mobile computing, teachers and students can benefit from computing in more scenarios beyond the traditional computer classroom. But because of the much diversity of device specification, learning contents and mobile context existing today, the learners get a bad learning experience (e.g. rich contents cannot be displayed correctly)…

  9. Adaptation to Cognitive Context and Item Information in the Medial Temporal Lobes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2012-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) play an essential role in episodic memory, and accumulating evidence indicates that two MTL subregions--the perirhinal (PRc) and parahippocampal (PHc) cortices--might have different functions. According to the binding of item and context theory ( [16] and [21]), PRc is involved in processing item information, the…

  10. Adaptation by Design: A Context-Sensitive, Dialogic Approach to Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Ben; Polman, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    Applied researchers, whether working with the framework of design-based research or intervention science, face a similar implementation challenge: practitioners who enact their programs typically do so in varied, context-specific ways. Although this variability is often seen as a problem for those who privilege fidelity and standardization, we…

  11. "A Context-Adaptive Model for Program Evaluation": A Reader Reacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meinke, Mark W.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a model of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program evaluation and suggests ESL professionals begin to see themselves within the wider context of training and development and begin applying useful disciplines of the business world to their activities. (four references) (JL)

  12. Modeling Student Test-Taking Motivation in the Context of an Adaptive Achievement Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; Kingsbury, G. Gage

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the utility of response time-based analyses in understanding the behavior of unmotivated test takers. For the data from an adaptive achievement test, patterns of observed rapid-guessing behavior and item response accuracy were compared to the behavior expected under several types of models that have been proposed to represent…

  13. Contributions of the Relational Context to Career Adaptability among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Bledsoe, Meredith

    2005-01-01

    The combined and unique contributions of four relational factors to four dimensions of career adaptability were examined for a sample of 322 urban high school students. When all variables were considered simultaneously, canonical analysis revealed that support from family, teachers, and close friends, and peer beliefs about school contributed…

  14. Consideration of reference points for the management of renewable resources under an adaptive management paradigm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Brian J.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The success of natural resource management depends on monitoring, assessment and enforcement. In support of these efforts, reference points (RPs) are often viewed as critical values of management-relevant indicators. This paper considers RPs from the standpoint of objective-driven decision making in dynamic resource systems, guided by principles of structured decision making (SDM) and adaptive resource management (AM). During the development of natural resource policy, RPs have been variously treated as either ‘targets’ or ‘triggers’. Under a SDM/AM paradigm, target RPs correspond approximately to value-based objectives, which may in turn be either of fundamental interest to stakeholders or intermediaries to other central objectives. By contrast, trigger RPs correspond to decision rules that are presumed to lead to desirable outcomes (such as the programme targets). Casting RPs as triggers or targets within a SDM framework is helpful towards clarifying why (or whether) a particular metric is appropriate. Further, the benefits of a SDM/AM process include elucidation of underlying untested assumptions that may reveal alternative metrics for use as RPs. Likewise, a structured decision-analytic framework may also reveal that failure to achieve management goals is not because the metrics are wrong, but because the decision-making process in which they are embedded is insufficiently robust to uncertainty, is not efficiently directed at producing a resource objective, or is incapable of adaptation to new knowledge.

  15. Watershed Conservation, Groundwater Management, and Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumasset, J.; Burnett, K.; Wada, C.

    2009-12-01

    5-10% reduction in wet season mean precipitation and a 5% increase during the dry season by the end of the 21st century. These trends will be used to condition the time series analysis through Bayesian updating. The resulting distributions, conditioned for seasonality and long-run climate change, will be used to recursively simulate daily rainfalls, thereby allowing for serial correlation and forming a basis for the watershed model to recursively determine components of the water balance equation. The methodology will allow us to generate different sequences of rainfall from the estimated distribution and the corresponding recharge functions. These in turn are used as the basis of optimizing groundwater management under both the watershed conservation program and no conservation. We calculate how much adaptation via joint optimization of watershed conservation and groundwater management decreases the damages from declining precipitation. Inasmuch as groundwater scarcity increases with the forecasted climate change, even under optimal groundwater management, the value of watershed conservation also increases.

  16. Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters in a Changing Climate: Lessons for Adaptation to Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrandrea, M.; Field, C. B.; Mach, K. J.; Barros, V.

    2013-12-01

    The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, published in 2012, integrates expertise in climate science, disaster risk reduction, and adaptation to inform discussions on how to reduce and manage the risks of extreme events and disasters in a changing climate. Impacts and the risks of disasters are determined by the interaction of the physical characteristics of weather and climate events with the vulnerability of exposed human society and ecosystems. The Special Report evaluates the factors that make people and infrastructure vulnerable to extreme events, trends in disaster losses, recent and future changes in the relationship between climate change and extremes, and experience with a wide range of options used by institutions, organizations, and communities to reduce exposure and vulnerability, and improve resilience, to climate extremes. Actions ranging from incremental improvements in governance and technology to more transformational changes are assessed. The Special Report provides a knowledge base that is also relevant to the broader context of managing the risks of climate change through mitigation, adaptation, and other responses, assessed in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), to be completed in 2014. These themes include managing risks through an iterative process involving learning about risks and the effectiveness of responses, employing a portfolio of actions tailored to local circumstances but with links from local to global scales, and considering additional benefits of actions such as improving livelihoods and well-being. The Working Group II contribution to the AR5 also examines the ways that extreme events and their impacts contribute to understanding of vulnerabilities and adaptation deficits in the context of climate change, the extent to which impacts of climate change are experienced through changes in the frequency and severity of extremes as opposed to mean changes

  17. 78 FR 42799 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of... AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent.... Dated: July 11, 2013. Glen Knowles, Chief, Adaptive Management Work Group, Upper Colorado...

  18. 75 FR 44809 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG), a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center,...

  19. 65 FR 62750 - Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group and Glen Canyon Technical Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-10-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group and Glen Canyon Technical Work Group... organized and includes a federal advisory committee (the Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group, or AMWG), a technical work group (the Glen Canyon Technical Work Group, or TWG), a monitoring and...

  20. 74 FR 36505 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-07-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a federal advisory committee, the Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG), a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center,...

  1. 74 FR 16009 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-04-08

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1992. The AMP includes a federal advisory committee (AMWG), a technical work group (TWG), a monitoring... . Dated: March 19, 2009. Dennis Kubly, Chief, Adaptive Management Group, Environmental Resources...

  2. An Adaptive Approach to Managing Knowledge Development in a Project-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an adaptive approach to managing the development of students' knowledge in the comprehensive project-based learning (PBL) environment. Subject study is realized by two-stage PBL. It shapes adaptive knowledge management (KM) process and promotes the correct balance between personalized and collaborative learning. The…

  3. 77 FR 60138 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Teleconference/Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Teleconference/ Web-Based... Wildlife Service, announce a public teleconference/web-based meeting of ] the Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG). DATES: Teleconference/web-based meeting: Wednesday October 17, 2012, from 9 a.m....

  4. 78 FR 5830 - Renewal of the Trinity River Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River restoration efforts. FOR... Office of the Secretary Renewal of the Trinity River Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Office of... consultation with the General Services Administration, has renewed the Trinity River Adaptive...

  5. Maximizing the utility of monitoring to the adaptive management of natural resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, William L.; Moore, Clinton T.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Data collection is an important step in any investigation about the structure or processes related to a natural system. In a purely scientific investigation (experiments, quasi-experiments, observational studies), data collection is part of the scientific method, preceded by the identification of hypotheses and the design of any manipulations of the system to test those hypotheses. Data collection and the manipulations that precede it are ideally designed to maximize the information that is derived from the study. That is, such investigations should be designed for maximum power to evaluate the relative validity of the hypotheses posed. When data collection is intended to inform the management of ecological systems, we call it monitoring. Note that our definition of monitoring encompasses a broader range of data-collection efforts than some alternative definitions – e.g. Chapter 3. The purpose of monitoring as we use the term can vary, from surveillance or “thumb on the pulse” monitoring (see Nichols and Williams 2006), intended to detect changes in a system due to any non-specified source (e.g. the North American Breeding Bird Survey), to very specific and targeted monitoring of the results of specific management actions (e.g. banding and aerial survey efforts related to North American waterfowl harvest management). Although a role of surveillance monitoring is to detect unanticipated changes in a system, the same result is possible from a collection of targeted monitoring programs distributed across the same spatial range (Box 4.1). In the face of limited budgets and many specific management questions, tying monitoring as closely as possible to management needs is warranted (Nichols and Williams 2006). Adaptive resource management (ARM; Walters 1986, Williams 1997, Kendall 2001, Moore and Conroy 2006, McCarthy and Possingham 2007, Conroy et al. 2008a) provides a context and specific purpose for monitoring: to evaluate decisions with respect to achievement

  6. Beyond Reactive Planning: Self Adaptive Software and Self Modeling Software in Predictive Deliberation Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    13th ICCRTS “C2 for Complex Endeavors” Title of Paper: Beyond Reactive Planning: Self Adaptive Software and Self Modeling Software in...Adaptive Software and Self Modeling Software in Predictive Deliberation Management 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...space. We present the following hypothesis: predictive deliberation management using self adapting and self modeling software will be required to provide

  7. Hormones: commentary. Riding the physiological roller coaster: adaptive significance of cortisol stress reactivity to social contexts.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Peres, Jeremy C; Dismukes, Andrew R; Lee, Yoojin; Phan, Jenny M

    2014-02-01

    The authors conjecture that to understand normal stress regulation, including cortisol stress reactivity, it is important to understand why these biomarkers are released and what they function to accomplish within the individual. This perspective holds that high (or rising) cortisol has advantages and disadvantages that must be understood within a context to understand how individual differences unfold. This perspective is juxtaposed with a popular vantage point of this stress hormone or of stress exposure that emphasizes the deleterious consequences or problems of this hormone. While the costs and benefits of cortisol are emphasized for normal stress regulation, this dynamic context-dependent purpose of stress hormones should extend to the development of psychopathology as well. This functional and dynamic view of cortisol is helpful for interpreting why Tackett and colleagues (2014) appear to observe advantageous cortisol recovery from stress in individuals with elevated personality disorder symptoms.

  8. Adapting the mini mental status to the context of the West-Indies.

    PubMed

    Godaert, Lidvine; Godard-Sebillotte, Claire; Bousquet, Lionel; Devouche, Emmanuel; Hugonot-Diener, Laurence; Nuissier, Joëlle; Triboulet, Frank; Fanon, Jean-Luc

    2017-03-01

    The mini mental state examination (MMSE) has become a benchmark for the screening and follow-up of cognitive impairment. The numerous translations of the MMS into other languages attest to its popularity. Clinical practice suggests that the consensual French version from the Greco (Groupe de réflexion sur les évaluations cognitives - Research working group for cognitive assessment) is not adapted to the West-Indies population because of the low socio-economic level and the widespread use of the Creole language among the elderly population. Modification of certain items by a multidisciplinary committee made it possible to adapt the instrument to the Creole culture. This procedure increases comprehension of the instrument, and should lead to improved detection of cognitive impairment in the West-Indies.

  9. Agricultural Catchments: Evaluating Policies and Monitoring Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, P.; Shortle, G.; Mellander, P. E.; Shore, M.; McDonald, N.; Buckley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural management in river catchments must combine the objectives of economic profit and environmental stewardship and, in many countries, mitigate the decline of water quality and/or maintain high water quality. Achieving these objectives is, amongst other activities, in the remit of 'sustainable intensification'. Of concern is the efficient use of crop nutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, and minimising or offsetting the effects of transfers from land to water - corner-stone requirements of many agri-environmental regulations. This requires a robust monitoring programme that can audit the stages of nutrient inputs and outputs in river catchments and indicate where the likely points of successful policy interventions can be observed - or confounded. In this paper, a catchment, or watershed, experimental design and results are described for monitoring the nutrient transfer continuum in the Irish agricultural landscape against the backdrop of the European Union Nitrates and Water Framework Directives. This Agricultural Catchments Programme experimental design also serves to indicate water quality pressure-points that may be catchment specific as agricultural activities intensify to adapt to national efforts to build important parts of the post-recession economy.

  10. Parent Management Training-Oregon Model: Adapting Intervention with Rigorous Research.

    PubMed

    Forgatch, Marion S; Kjøbli, John

    2016-09-01

    Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO(®) ) is a set of theory-based parenting programs with status as evidence-based treatments. PMTO has been rigorously tested in efficacy and effectiveness trials in different contexts, cultures, and formats. Parents, the presumed agents of change, learn core parenting practices, specifically skill encouragement, limit setting, monitoring/supervision, interpersonal problem solving, and positive involvement. The intervention effectively prevents and ameliorates children's behavior problems by replacing coercive interactions with positive parenting practices. Delivery format includes sessions with individual families in agencies or families' homes, parent groups, and web-based and telehealth communication. Mediational models have tested parenting practices as mechanisms of change for children's behavior and found support for the theory underlying PMTO programs. Moderating effects include children's age, maternal depression, and social disadvantage. The Norwegian PMTO implementation is presented as an example of how PMTO has been tailored to reach diverse populations as delivered by multiple systems of care throughout the nation. An implementation and research center in Oslo provides infrastructure and promotes collaboration between practitioners and researchers to conduct rigorous intervention research. Although evidence-based and tested within a wide array of contexts and populations, PMTO must continue to adapt to an ever-changing world.

  11. Concepts for a standard based cross-organisational information security management system in the context of a nationwide EHR.

    PubMed

    Mense, Alexander; Hoheiser-Pförtner, Franz; Schmid, Martin; Wahl, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Working with health related data necessitates appropriate levels of security and privacy. Information security, meaning ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability, is more organizational, than technical in nature. It includes many organizational and management measures, is based on well-defined security roles, processes, and documents, and needs permanent adaption of security policies, continuously monitoring, and measures assessment. This big challenge for any organization leads to implementation of an information security management system (ISMS). In the context of establishing a regional or national electronic health record for integrated care (ICEHR), the situation is worse. Changing the medical information exchange from on-demand peer-to-peer connections to health information networks requires all organizations participating in the EHR system to have consistent security levels and to follow the same security guidelines and rules. Also, the implementation must be monitored and audited, establishing cross-organizational information security management systems (ISMS) based on international standards. This paper evaluates requirements and defines basic concepts for an ISO 27000 series-based cross-organizational ISMS in the healthcare domain and especially for the implementation of the nationwide electronic health record in Austria (ELGA).

  12. FORUM: Balancing Endangered Species and Ecosystems: A Case Study of Adaptive Management in Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Meretsky; Wegner; Stevens

    2000-06-01

    / Adaptive ecosystem management seeks to sustain ecosystems while extracting or using natural resources. The goal of endangered species management under the Endangered Species Act is limited to the protection and recovery of designated species, and the act takes precedence over other policies and regulations guiding ecosystem management. We present an example of conflict between endangered species and ecosystem management during the first planned flood on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in 1996. We discuss the resolution of the conflict and the circumstances that allowed a solution to be reached. We recommend that adaptive management be implemented extensively and early in ecosystem management so that information and working relationships will be available to address conflicts as they arise. Though adaptive management is not a panacea, it offers the best opportunity for balanced solutions to competing management goals.

  13. Designing an ecological and adaptable virtual task in the context of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Evelyne; Cao, Xue; Douguet, Anne-Sophie; Fuchs, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Brain damage is a major cause of disability that often leads to deficits in Executive Functions (EF) with dramatic consequences on activities of daily living. While rehabilitation approaches of the dysexecutive syndrome are still limited, Virtual Reality (VR) has shown its potential to propose innovative intervention strategies based on ecologically valid functional tasks. The purpose of this paper is to present the design process of the Therapeutic Virtual Kitchen (TVK) in which ecological and adaptable virtual tasks may be configured by the therapists for patients' assessment and rehabilitation. The outcomes of a preliminary test of feasibility among members of our laboratory and Kerpape Rehabilitation Center are reported and discussed.

  14. Risk perceptions and behavioral context: U.S. Forest Service fire management professionals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Jonathan G.; Carpenter, Edwin H.; Cortner, Hanna J.; Cleaves, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Fire managers from the U.S. Forest Service were surveyed to determine which decision factors most strongly influenced their fire‐risk decisions. Safety, the resources at risk, public opinion, and the reliability of information were important influences on these decisions. This research allowed direct comparison between fire managers’ perceptions of factor importance and how their fire‐risk decisions changed in response to those factors. These risk decisions were highly responsive to changes in context (an escaped wildfire decision versus a prescribed burning decision) as well as to changing factors. The results demonstrate the utility of using scenarios in risk research and the vital importance of context in studying risk‐taking behavior. Research which attempts to remove risk decisions from their real‐world context may well distort the nature of risk‐taking behavior.

  15. A Framework for the Development of Context-Adaptable User Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Gervasio; Paz-Lopez, Alejandro; Becerra, Jose A.; Duro, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of developing user interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing (UC) and Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. These kind of systems are expected to provide a natural user experience, considering interaction modalities adapted to the user abilities and preferences and using whatever interaction devices are present in the environment. These interaction devices are not necessarily known at design time. The task is quite complicated due to the variety of devices and technologies, and the diversity of scenarios, and it usually burdens the developer with the need to create many different UIs in order to consider the foreseeable user-environment combinations. Here, we propose an UI abstraction framework for UC and AmI systems that effectively improves the portability of those systems between different environments and for different users. It allows developers to design and implement a single UI capable of being deployed with different devices and modalities regardless the physical location. PMID:27399711

  16. A Framework for the Development of Context-Adaptable User Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing Systems.

    PubMed

    Varela, Gervasio; Paz-Lopez, Alejandro; Becerra, Jose A; Duro, Richard

    2016-07-07

    This paper addresses the problem of developing user interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing (UC) and Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. These kind of systems are expected to provide a natural user experience, considering interaction modalities adapted to the user abilities and preferences and using whatever interaction devices are present in the environment. These interaction devices are not necessarily known at design time. The task is quite complicated due to the variety of devices and technologies, and the diversity of scenarios, and it usually burdens the developer with the need to create many different UIs in order to consider the foreseeable user-environment combinations. Here, we propose an UI abstraction framework for UC and AmI systems that effectively improves the portability of those systems between different environments and for different users. It allows developers to design and implement a single UI capable of being deployed with different devices and modalities regardless the physical location.

  17. Adapting biomodulatory strategies for treatment in new contexts: pancreatic and oral cancers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbil, Sriram R.; Rizvi, Imran; Khan, Amjad P.; Celli, Jonathan P.; Maytin, Edward V.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    Biomodulation of cancer cell metabolism represents a promising approach to overcome tumor heterogeneity and poor selectivity, which contribute significantly to treatment resistance. To date, several studies have demonstrated that modulation of cell metabolism including the heme synthesis pathway serves as an elegant approach to improve the efficacy of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the ability of biomodulation-enhanced PDT to improve outcomes in low resource settings and to address challenges in treating lethal tumors with exogenous photosensitizers remains underexplored. The ability of vitamin D or methotrexate to enhance PDT efficacy in a carcinogen-induced hamster cheek pouch model of oral squamous cell carcinoma and in 3D cell-based models for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is evaluated. Challenges associated with adapting PDT regimens to low resource settings, understanding the effects of biomodulatory agents on the metabolism of cancer cells, and the differential effects of biomodulatory agents on tumor and stromal cells will be discussed.

  18. Impact of learning adaptability and time management disposition on study engagement among Chinese baccalaureate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Ying; Liu, Yan-Hui; Yang, Ji-Peng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among study engagement, learning adaptability, and time management disposition in a sample of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. A convenient sample of 467 baccalaureate nursing students was surveyed in two universities in Tianjin, China. Students completed a questionnaire that included their demographic information, Chinese Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Questionnaire, Learning Adaptability Scale, and Adolescence Time Management Disposition Scale. One-way analysis of variance tests were used to assess the relationship between certain characteristics of baccalaureate nursing students. Pearson correlation was performed to test the correlation among study engagement, learning adaptability, and time management disposition. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of time management disposition. The results revealed that study engagement (F = 7.20, P < .01) and learning adaptability (F = 4.41, P < .01) differed across grade groups. Learning adaptability (r = 0.382, P < .01) and time management disposition (r = 0.741, P < .01) were positively related with study engagement. Time management disposition had a partially mediating effect on the relationship between study engagement and learning adaptability. The findings implicate that educators should not only promote interventions to increase engagement of baccalaureate nursing students but also focus on development, investment in adaptability, and time management.

  19. Gene context analysis in the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) data management system.

    PubMed

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chu, Ken; Ivanova, Natalia; Hooper, Sean D; Markowitz, Victor M; Kyrpides, Nikos C

    2009-11-24

    Computational methods for determining the function of genes in newly sequenced genomes have been traditionally based on sequence similarity to genes whose function has been identified experimentally. Function prediction methods can be extended using gene context analysis approaches such as examining the conservation of chromosomal gene clusters, gene fusion events and co-occurrence profiles across genomes. Context analysis is based on the observation that functionally related genes are often having similar gene context and relies on the identification of such events across phylogenetically diverse collection of genomes. We have used the data management system of the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) as the framework to implement and explore the power of gene context analysis methods because it provides one of the largest available genome integrations. Visualization and search tools to facilitate gene context analysis have been developed and applied across all publicly available archaeal and bacterial genomes in IMG. These computations are now maintained as part of IMG's regular genome content update cycle. IMG is available at: http://img.jgi.doe.gov.

  20. Gene context analysis in the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) data management system

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Chu, Ken; Ivanova, Natalia; Hooper, Sean D.; Markowitz, Victor M.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2009-05-01

    Computational methods for determining the function of genes in newly sequenced genomes have been traditionally based on sequence similarity to genes whose function has been identified experimentally. Function prediction methods can be extended using gene context analysis approaches such as examining the conservation of chromosomal gene clusters, gene fusion events and co-occurrence profiles across genomes. Context analysis is based on the observation that functionally related genes are often having similar gene context and relies on the identification of such events across a statistically significant and phylogeneticaly diverse collection of genomes. We have used the data management system of the Integrated Microbial Genomes (IMG) as the framework to implement and explore the power of gene context analysis methods because it provides one of the largest available genome integrations. Visualization and search tools to facilitate and explore gene context analysis have been developed and applied across all publicly available archaeal and bacterial genomes in IMG. These computations are now maintained as part of IMG's regular genome content update cycle. IMG is available at: http://img.jgi.doe.gov.

  1. Management Strategies for Complex Adaptive Systems: Sensemaking, Learning, and Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Reuben R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Misspecification of the nature of organizations may be a major reason for difficulty in achieving performance improvement. Organizations are often viewed as machine-like, but complexity science suggests that organizations should be viewed as complex adaptive systems. I identify the characteristics of complex adaptive systems and give examples of…

  2. Adaptive harvest management of North American waterfowl populations: a brief history and future prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Runge, M.C.; Johnson, F.A.; Williams, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1995, the US Fish and Wildlife Service has used an adaptive approach to the management of sport harvest of mid-continent Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in North America. This approach differs from many current approaches to conservation and management in requiring close collaboration between managers and scientists. Key elements of this process are objectives, alternative management actions, models permitting prediction of system responses, and a monitoring program. The iterative process produces optimal management decisions and leads to reduction in uncertainty about response of populations to management. This general approach to management has a number of desirable features and is recommended for use in many other programs of management and conservation.

  3. Managing uncertainty in the context of clubfoot care: exploring the value of uncertainty management theory and the sense of virtual community.

    PubMed

    Oprescu, Florin; Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John; Andsager, Julie; Morcuende, Jose A

    2013-01-01

    Serious health conditions, such as clubfoot, could be a major source of uncertainty and stress for parents of children affected. How parents deal with uncertainty and stress as related to their child's health condition is of interest for medical professionals and health communicators alike. While physicians remain a preferred source of health information, during medical encounters or via phone and email communication, many individuals seek out health information on the Internet, including in online support communities. This study explored the connections between Uncertainty Management Theory (UMT) constructs and the potential contribution of the sense of virtual community (SOVC) to the UMT framework. The results of this research suggest that the UMT needs to be adapted for use in online contexts. One way is to include theoretical constructs, such as the sense of virtual community, specifically developed to measure online interactions. A modified and updated Uncertainty Management Theory could be useful in exploring, analyzing and understanding online behaviors related to health conditions such as clubfoot and thus contribute substantially to what we know about caregivers in their role as uncertainty managers.

  4. Conceptual Modeling for Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management in the Barycz Valley, Lower Silesia, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Magnuszewski, Piotr; Sendzimir, Jan; Kronenberg, Jakub

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of interactions in socio-ecological systems makes it very difficult to plan and implement policies successfully. Traditional environmental management and assessment techniques produce unsatisfactory results because they often ignore facets of system structure that underlie complexity: delays, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Assuming that causes are linked in a linear chain, they concentrate on technological developments (“hard path”) as the only solutions to environmental problems. Adaptive Management is recognized as a promising alternative approach directly addressing links between social and ecological systems and involving stakeholders in the analysis and decision process. This “soft path” requires special tools to facilitate collaboration between “experts” and stakeholders in analyzing complex situations and prioritizing policies and actions. We have applied conceptual modeling to increase communication, understanding and commitment in the project of seven NGOs “Sustainable Regional Development in the Odra Catchment”. The main goal was to help our NGO partners to facilitate their efforts related to developing sustainable policies and practices to respond to large-scale challenges (EU accession, global changes in climate and economy) to their natural, economic and socio-cultural heritages. Among the variety of sustainability issues explored by these NGOs, two (extensive agricultural practices and “green” local products) were examined by using Adaptive Management (AM) as a framework that would link analysis, discussion, research, actions and monitoring. Within the AM framework the project coordinators used tools of systems analysis (Mental Model Mapping) to facilitate discussions in which NGO professionals and local stakeholders could graphically diagram and study their understanding of what factors interacted and how they affect the region’s sustainability. These discussions produced larger-scale Regional Sustainability

  5. Conceptual modeling for adaptive environmental assessment and management in the Barycz Valley, lower Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed

    Magnuszewski, Piotr; Sendzimir, Jan; Kronenberg, Jakub

    2005-08-01

    The complexity of interactions in socio-ecological systems makes it very difficult to plan and implement policies successfully. Traditional environmental management and assessment techniques produce unsatisfactory results because they often ignore facets of system structure that underlie complexity: delays, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Assuming that causes are linked in a linear chain, they concentrate on technological developments ("hard path") as the only solutions to environmental problems. Adaptive Management is recognized as a promising alternative approach directly addressing links between social and ecological systems and involving stakeholders in the analysis and decision process. This "soft path" requires special tools to facilitate collaboration between "experts" and stakeholders in analyzing complex situations and prioritizing policies and actions. We have applied conceptual modeling to increase communication, understanding and commitment in the project of seven NGOs "Sustainable Regional Development in the Odra Catchment". The main goal was to help our NGO partners to facilitate their efforts related to developing sustainable policies and practices to respond to large-scale challenges (EU accession, global changes in climate and economy) to their natural, economic and socio-cultural heritages. Among the variety of sustainability issues explored by these NGOs, two (extensive agricultural practices and "green" local products) were examined by using Adaptive Management (AM) as a framework that would link analysis, discussion, research, actions and monitoring. Within the AM framework the project coordinators used tools of systems analysis (Mental Model Mapping) to facilitate discussions in which NGO professionals and local stakeholders could graphically diagram and study their understanding of what factors interacted and how they affect the region's sustainability. These discussions produced larger-scale Regional Sustainability Models as well as more

  6. Adaption of Talent Management Scale into Turkish: Sinop University Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Elife Dogan; Serin, Huseyin; Karakus, Ozge; Ergene, Ozkan; Corbaci, E. Cihat; Kilic, Nayil

    2017-01-01

    As a result of globalization, talented employees have been needed in the workplace anymore. With being hired of talented employees, new understanding of management has appeared and talent management has gained importance due to this new understanding. Talent management is a kind of management understanding according to which employees feel…

  7. SAMCO: Society Adaptation for coping with Mountain risks in a global change COntext

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Bernardie, Severine; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Puissant, Anne; Houet, Thomas; Berger, Frederic; Fort, Monique; Pierre, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The SAMCO project aims to develop a proactive resilience framework enhancing the overall resilience of societies on the impacts of mountain risks. The project aims to elaborate methodological tools to characterize and measure ecosystem and societal resilience from an operative perspective on three mountain representative case studies. To achieve this objective, the methodology is split in several points with (1) the definition of the potential impacts of global environmental changes (climate system, ecosystem e.g. land use, socio-economic system) on landslide hazards, (2) the analysis of these consequences in terms of vulnerability (e.g. changes in the location and characteristics of the impacted areas and level of their perturbation) and (3) the implementation of a methodology for quantitatively investigating and mapping indicators of mountain slope vulnerability exposed to several hazard types, and the development of a GIS-based demonstration platform. The strength and originality of the SAMCO project will be to combine different techniques, methodologies and models (multi-hazard assessment, risk evolution in time, vulnerability functional analysis, and governance strategies) and to gather various interdisciplinary expertises in earth sciences, environmental sciences, and social sciences. The multidisciplinary background of the members could potentially lead to the development of new concepts and emerging strategies for mountain hazard/risk adaptation. Research areas, characterized by a variety of environmental, economical and social settings, are severely affected by landslides, and have experienced significant land use modifications (reforestation, abandonment of traditional agricultural practices) and human interferences (urban expansion, ski resorts construction) over the last century.

  8. Public sector reform and governance for adaptation: implications of new public management for adaptive capacity in Mexico and Norway.

    PubMed

    Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

    2011-03-01

    Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation--namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability--have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

  9. A public health context for residual risk assessment and risk management under the clean air act.

    PubMed

    Charnley, G; Goldstein, B D

    1998-09-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act required the EPA to institute new pollution control technology requirements for industrial sources of air pollution. In part because agreement could not be reached on the best way for the EPA to determine whether any significant risks to human health will remain after the technology controls are in place, the amendments also created a Commission on Risk Assessment and Risk Management and gave the commission a broad mandate to review and make recommendations concerning risk assessment and risk management in federal regulatory programs. In its March 1997 final report to Congress and the administration, the commission recommended a tiered approach to assessing such residual risks. That approach included the idea that when decisions about managing residual risks are made, emissions should be evaluated in the context of other sources of air pollution. Evaluating risks in their larger contexts is consistent with what the commission called a public health approach to environmental risk management. This paper describes the public health approach and how it applies to evaluating residual risks under the Clean Air Act.

  10. Expanding the table: the web as a tool for participatory adaptive management in California forests.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Maggi; Ferranto, Shasta; Lei, Shufei; Ueda, Ken-ichi; Huntsinger, Lynn

    2012-10-30

    Participatory adaptive management is widely promoted as the new paradigm in public lands management. It is grounded in two underlying principles - that management experiments and diverse sources of information should be used to continually refine management in complex ecological systems, and that the public must be included throughout the adaptive management process. Access to scientific results and exchange of information is at the core of both of these principles. The recent proliferation of Internet communities and web-based participation tools raises the question of how the Internet might help facilitate information exchange in participatory adaptive management. Using a case study approach, the role of web technologies in facilitating the flow of transparent and useful information was examined in a participatory adaptive management project focused on Forest Service vegetation management treatments in California's Sierra Nevada. Three evaluation methods were used: analysis of web usage and content, a survey of active participants, and a review of comments posted to the project website. Results suggest that the web played an important role throughout the adaptive management cycle by supporting communication through disseminating information to the public and increasing the transparency of the scientific process. The web played a small, but important role in public consultation, by providing a forum for targeted questions and feedback from the public. Internet technology did not actively support the two-way flow of information necessary for mutual learning. Web technology complements face-to-face interactions and public meetings, rather than replacing them.

  11. 76 FR 70751 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River... policy, coordinates and reviews management actions, and provides organizational budget oversight. This... program, Watersheds work program, TRRP budget update, Hatchery practices review, Fish marking,...

  12. Facilitating adaptive management in a government program: A household energy efficiency case study.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Jim; Graham, Alex; Ghafoori, Eraj; Pyke, Susan; Kaufman, Stefan; Boulet, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Interim evaluations of government programs can sometimes reveal lower than expected outcomes, leading to the question of how adjustments can be made while the program is still underway. Although adaptive management frameworks can provide a practical roadmap to address this question, a lack of successful learnings and poor implementation have hampered the progress and wider application of adaptive management. Using a case study involving an energy efficiency government program targeting low-income households, this article provides supporting evidence on how adaptive management can be facilitated and applied. Factors such as proactive and responsive leadership, establishing a research-practice interface, and recognizing the skills, expertise, and contributions of multiple stakeholders guided adjustments to the program, and later paved the way for longer-term organizational learning that impacted how other programs are delivered. Implications for knowledge and practice, and a discussion of the challenges faced in the program, advance current thinking in adaptive management.

  13. Motivation, Management, and Mastery: A Theory of Resilience in the Context of HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Joseph P.; Florom-Smith, Aubrey; Vermeesch, Amber; Barroso, Susana; DeLeon, Diego A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Clients with HIV infection have been conceptualized as a resilient population. Although a few researchers have documented resilience among clients with HIV infection, a theory of resilience in the context of HIV infection has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to describe the process by which resilience occurs for clients in the context of HIV infection. METHOD Grounded theory methodology was used to sample and analyze data from 15 qualitative interviews with adults with HIV infection. Data were collected until saturation was reached. RESULTS A theory, motivation, management, and mastery, a description of the process by which resilience occurs in the context of HIV infection, emerged from the data. CONCLUSION Many clients living with HIV infection are resilient, despite the physical, psychological, and social challenges of this chronic illness. Nursing interventions to promote resilience among clients with HIV infection should be directed toward identification of client motivation factors and disease management strategies that may influence health outcomes of people living with HIV infection. PMID:23392433

  14. 33 CFR 385.31 - Adaptive management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District shall, in consultation with the Department of the... implementation of the Plan. The Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District shall develop... the South Florida Water Management District for use in preparing the assessment report. The...

  15. 33 CFR 385.31 - Adaptive management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District shall, in consultation with the Department of the... implementation of the Plan. The Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District shall develop... the South Florida Water Management District for use in preparing the assessment report. The...

  16. 33 CFR 385.31 - Adaptive management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District shall, in consultation with the Department of the... implementation of the Plan. The Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District shall develop... the South Florida Water Management District for use in preparing the assessment report. The...

  17. 33 CFR 385.31 - Adaptive management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District shall, in consultation with the Department of the... implementation of the Plan. The Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District shall develop... the South Florida Water Management District for use in preparing the assessment report. The...

  18. 33 CFR 385.31 - Adaptive management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District shall, in consultation with the Department of the... implementation of the Plan. The Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District shall develop... the South Florida Water Management District for use in preparing the assessment report. The...

  19. Yet Another Adaptive Learning Management System Based on Felder and Silverman's Learning Styles and Mashup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi-Hsing; Chen, Yen-Yi; Chen, Nian-Shing; Lu, You-Te; Fang, Rong-Jyue

    2016-01-01

    This study designs and implements an adaptive learning management system based on Felder and Silverman's Learning Style Model and the Mashup technology. In this system, Felder and Silverman's Learning Style model is used to assess students' learning styles, in order to provide adaptive learning to leverage learners' learning preferences.…

  20. An Open IMS-Based User Modelling Approach for Developing Adaptive Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boticario, Jesus G.; Santos, Olga C.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive LMS have not yet reached the eLearning marketplace due to methodological, technological and management open issues. At aDeNu group, we have been working on two key challenges for the last five years in related research projects. Firstly, develop the general framework and a running architecture to support the adaptive life cycle (i.e.,…

  1. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melis, T. S.; Walters, C. J.; Korman, J.

    2013-12-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem downstream of Glen Canyon Dam in Glen Canyon National Recreation Area (GCNRA) and Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) of northern Arizona, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has evaluated experimental flow and nonflow policy tests since 1990. Flow experiments have consisted of a variety of water releases from the dam within pre-existing annual downstream delivery agreements. The daily experimental dam operation, termed the Modified Low Fluctuating Flow (MLFF), implemented in 1996 to increase daily low flows and decrease daily peaks were intended to limit daily flow range to conserve tributary sand inputs and improve navigation among other objectives, including hydropower energy. Other flow tests have included controlled floods with some larger releases bypassing the dam's hydropower plant to rebuild and maintain eroded sandbars in GCNP. Experimental daily hydropeaking tests beyond MLFF have also been evaluated for managing the exotic recreational rainbow trout fishery in the dam's GCNRA tailwater. Experimental nonflow policies, such as physical removal of exotic fish below the tailwater, and experimental translocation of endangered native humpback chub from spawning habitats in the Little Colorado River (the largest natal origin site for chub in the basin) to other tributaries within GCNP have also been monitored. None of these large-scale field experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions, owing to inadequate monitoring programs and confounding of treatment effects with effects of ongoing natural changes; most notably, a persistent warming of the river resulting from reduced storage in the dam's reservoir after 2003. But there have been several surprising results relative to predictions from models developed to identify monitoring needs and evaluate experimental design options at the start of the adaptive ecosystem assessment and management program in 1997

  2. Adaptability of optimization concept in the context of cryogenic distribution for superconducting magnets of fusion machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Ritendra Nath; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Shah, Nitin Dineshkumar; Choukekar, Ketan; Badgujar, Satish

    2012-06-01

    Cryogenic distribution system (CDS) plays a vital role for reliable operation of largescale fusion machines in a Tokamak configuration. Managing dynamic heat loads from the superconducting magnets, namely, toroidal field, poloidal field, central solenoid and supporting structure is the most important function of the CDS along with the static heat loads. Two concepts are foreseen for the configuration of the CDS: singular distribution and collective distribution. In the first concept, each magnet is assigned with one distribution box having its own sub-cooler bath. In the collective concept, it is possible to share one common bath for more than one magnet system. The case study has been performed with an identical dynamic heat load profile applied to both concepts in the same time domain. The choices of a combined system from the magnets are also part of the study without compromising the system functionality. Process modeling and detailed simulations have been performed for both the options using Aspen HYSYS®. Multiple plasma pulses per day have been considered to verify the residual energy deposited in the superconducting magnets at the end of the plasma pulse. Preliminary 3D modeling using CATIA® has been performed along with the first level of component sizing.

  3. Integrated and adaptive management of water resources: Tensions, legacies, and the next best thing

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.; Johns, Owen R.; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Nelson, Donald

    2011-02-01

    Integrated water resources management (IWRM) and adaptive management (AM) are two institutional and management paradigms designed to address shortcomings within water systems governance – the limits of hierarchical water institutional arrangements in the case of IWRM and the challenge of making water management decisions under uncertainty in the case of AM. Recently, there has been a trend to merge these paradigms to address the growing complexity of stressors shaping water management, such as globalization and climate change. However, because many of these joint approaches have received little empirical attention, questions remain about how they might work (or not) in practice. Here, we explore a few of these issues using empirical research carried out in Brazil. We focus on highlighting the potentially negative interactions, tensions, and tradeoffs between different institutions/mechanisms perceived as desirable as research and practice attempt to make water systems management simultaneously integrated and adaptive. Our examples pertain mainly on the use of techno-scientific knowledge in water management and governance in Brazil’s IWRM model and how it relates to participation, democracy, deliberation, diversity, and adaptability. We show that a legacy of technical and hierarchical management has shaped the integration of management, and subsequently, the degree to which management might also be adaptive. While integrated systems may be more legitimate and accountable than top-down command and control ones, the mechanisms of IWRM may be at odds with the flexible, experimental, and self-organizing nature of AM.

  4. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  5. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  6. How does the context and design of participatory decision-making processes affect their outcomes? Evidence from sustainable land management in global drylands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vente, Joris; Reed, Mark; Stringer, Lindsay; Valente, Sandra; Newig, Jens

    2014-05-01

    It is widely accepted that the design of participatory processes in environmental management needs to be adapted to local contexts. Yet, it is not clear which elements of process design are universal, making it difficult to design processes that deliver beneficial outcomes across different contexts. We used empirical evidence to analyse the extent to which context and process design can enable or impede stakeholder participation and facilitate beneficial environmental and social outcomes in a range of decision-making contexts where stakeholders are engaged in environmental management. To explore the role of national-scale context on the outcomes of participatory processes, we interviewed facilitators from a process that was replicated across 13 dryland study sites around the world, which focussed on selecting Sustainable Land Management (SLM) options in close collaboration with stakeholders. To explore the role of process design and local context, we interviewed participants and facilitators in 11 case studies in Spain and Portugal in which different process designs were used. Interview data were analysed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches to characterise relationships between process design, context and process outcomes. The similarity of outcomes across the 13 international study sites suggested that the national socio-cultural context in which a participatory process is conducted has little impact on its outcomes. However, analysis of cases from Spain and Portugal showed that some aspects of local context may affect outcomes. Having said this, factors associated with process design and participant selection played a more significant role in influencing outcomes in both countries. Processes that led to more beneficial outcomes for the environment and/or participants were likely to include: the legitimate representation of stakeholders; professional facilitation including structured methods for eliciting and aggregating information and

  7. Health risk in the context of climate change and adaptation - Concept and mapping as an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienberger, S.; Notenbaert, A.; Zeil, P.; Bett, B.; Hagenlocher, M.; Omolo, A.

    2012-04-01

    Climate change has been stated as being one of the greatest challenges to global health in the current century. Climate change impacts on human health and the socio-economic and related poverty consequences are however still poorly understood. While epidemiological issues are strongly coupled with environmental and climatic parameters, the social and economic circumstances of populations might be of equal or even greater importance when trying to identify vulnerable populations and design appropriate and well-targeted adaptation measures. The inter-linkage between climate change, human health risk and socio-economic impacts remains an important - but largely outstanding - research field. We present an overview on how risk is traditionally being conceptualised in the human health domain and reflect critically on integrated approaches as being currently used in the climate change context. The presentation will also review existing approaches, and how they can be integrated towards adaptation tools. Following this review, an integrated risk concept is being presented, which has been currently adapted under the EC FP7 research project (HEALTHY FUTURES; http://www.healthyfutures.eu/). In this approach, health risk is not only defined through the disease itself (as hazard) but also by the inherent vulnerability of the system, population or region under study. It is in fact the interaction of environment and society that leads to the development of diseases and the subsequent risk of being negatively affected by it. In this conceptual framework vulnerability is being attributed to domains of lack of resilience as well as underlying preconditions determining susceptibilities. To fulfil a holistic picture vulnerability can be associated to social, economic, environmental, institutional, cultural and physical dimensions. The proposed framework also establishes the important nexus to adaptation and how different measures can be related to avoid disease outbreaks, reduce

  8. Caregiver perception of asthma management of children in the context of poverty

    PubMed Central

    Bellin, Melissa H.; Land, Cassie; Newsome, Angelica; Kub, Joan; Mudd, Shawna S.; Bollinger, Mary Elizabeth; Butz, Arlene M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Low-income caregivers of young children with high-risk asthma experience social stressors and illness-related demands that may impede effective home asthma management. Knowledge of the caregiving experience in the context of poverty is limited. Methods Convenience sampling methods were used to recruit low-income caregivers of children aged 7–12 years, who are frequently in the Emergency Room (ED) for uncontrolled asthma. Thirteen caregivers participated in focus groups that were designed to elicit reflections on asthma home and community management from the caregiver perspective. A grounded theory approach was used in the open coding of transcript data from three focus groups, as well as to revise and reorganize emerging themes and sub-themes. Results Participants (Mean age = 33.9 years) were predominantly the biological mother (92.3%), single (84.6%), and impoverished (69.2% reported annual household income ≤ $30,000). Their children (Mean age = 7.8 years) were African-American (100%), enrolled in Medicaid (92.3%), averaged 1.38 (SD = 0.7) ED visits over the prior 3 months, resided in homes with at least one smoker (61.5%), and nearly all (84.6%) experienced activity limitations due to asthma. Five themes emerged in the analysis: intensive caregiving role, complex and shared asthma management responsibility, parental beliefs and structural barriers to guideline-based care, lack of control over environmental triggers, and parent advocacy to improve child asthma care and outcomes. Conclusions Caregivers managing a child with high-risk asthma in the context of poverty indicate the need for ongoing asthma education, increased sensitivity to the complexity of home asthma management, and family-centered interventions that enhance communication and collaboration between caregivers and providers. PMID:27304455

  9. Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Field, C.B.; Barros, V.; Stocker, T.F.

    2012-07-01

    This Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX) has been jointly coordinated by Working Groups I (WGI) and II (WGII) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The report focuses on the relationship between climate change and extreme weather and climate events, the impacts of such events, and the strategies to manage the associated risks. This Special Report, in particular, contributes to frame the challenge of dealing with extreme weather and climate events as an issue in decision making under uncertainty, analyzing response in the context of risk management. The report consists of nine chapters, covering risk management; observed and projected changes in extreme weather and climate events; exposure and vulnerability to as well as losses resulting from such events; adaptation options from the local to the international scale; the role of sustainable development in modulating risks; and insights from specific case studies. (LN)

  10. Adaptive management of river flows in Europe: A transferable framework for implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, M. F.; Holman, I. P.; Grabowski, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    The evidence base for defining flow regimes to support healthy river ecosystems is weak, as there are few studies which quantify the ecological impact associated with different degrees of hydrological alteration. As a result, river flow standards used to manage water abstraction are largely based on expert judgement. Planned adaptive management studies on multiple rivers under the European Water Framework Directive represent an opportunity to learn about ecological flow requirements and improve the quantitative evidence base. However, identifying clear ecological responses to flow alteration can be a significant challenge, because of the complexity of river systems and the other factors which may confound the response. This paper describes the Adaptive River Management (ARM) framework, a flexible framework for implementing adaptive management of river flows that is transferable to other regions of the world. Application of the framework will ensure that the effectiveness of implemented management actions is appraised and that transferable quantitative data are collected that can be used in other geographical regions.

  11. Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

    2011-03-01

    Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation—namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability—have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

  12. Adapting Educational Materials in Data Management for Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, D.

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the process of creating a workshop in data management for astronomy graduate students. It will describe the motivation, process, and sources reviewed for such a workshop, concluding with an outline of the final workshop and lessons learned from the process. Many drivers have contributed to the growing interest in data management planning, including increased funder requirements for data management plans and an increased interest in libraries and information centers supporting data curation services.

  13. An Enhanced Adaptive Management Approach for Remediation of Legacy Mercury in the South River

    PubMed Central

    Foran, Christy M.; Baker, Kelsie M.; Grosso, Nancy R.; Linkov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties about future conditions and the effects of chosen actions, as well as increasing resource scarcity, have been driving forces in the utilization of adaptive management strategies. However, many applications of adaptive management have been criticized for a number of shortcomings, including a limited ability to learn from actions and a lack of consideration of stakeholder objectives. To address these criticisms, we supplement existing adaptive management approaches with a decision-analytical approach that first informs the initial selection of management alternatives and then allows for periodic re-evaluation or phased implementation of management alternatives based on monitoring information and incorporation of stakeholder values. We describe the application of this enhanced adaptive management (EAM) framework to compare remedial alternatives for mercury in the South River, based on an understanding of the loading and behavior of mercury in the South River near Waynesboro, VA. The outcomes show that the ranking of remedial alternatives is influenced by uncertainty in the mercury loading model, by the relative importance placed on different criteria, and by cost estimates. The process itself demonstrates that a decision model can link project performance criteria, decision-maker preferences, environmental models, and short- and long-term monitoring information with management choices to help shape a remediation approach that provides useful information for adaptive, incremental implementation. PMID:25665032

  14. An enhanced adaptive management approach for remediation of legacy mercury in the South River.

    PubMed

    Foran, Christy M; Baker, Kelsie M; Grosso, Nancy R; Linkov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties about future conditions and the effects of chosen actions, as well as increasing resource scarcity, have been driving forces in the utilization of adaptive management strategies. However, many applications of adaptive management have been criticized for a number of shortcomings, including a limited ability to learn from actions and a lack of consideration of stakeholder objectives. To address these criticisms, we supplement existing adaptive management approaches with a decision-analytical approach that first informs the initial selection of management alternatives and then allows for periodic re-evaluation or phased implementation of management alternatives based on monitoring information and incorporation of stakeholder values. We describe the application of this enhanced adaptive management (EAM) framework to compare remedial alternatives for mercury in the South River, based on an understanding of the loading and behavior of mercury in the South River near Waynesboro, VA. The outcomes show that the ranking of remedial alternatives is influenced by uncertainty in the mercury loading model, by the relative importance placed on different criteria, and by cost estimates. The process itself demonstrates that a decision model can link project performance criteria, decision-maker preferences, environmental models, and short- and long-term monitoring information with management choices to help shape a remediation approach that provides useful information for adaptive, incremental implementation.

  15. A Word to the Wise: Advice for Scientists Engaged in Collaborative Adaptive Management.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, Peter; Huber, Ann; Saah, David S; Battles, John J

    2017-01-25

    Collaborative adaptive management is a process for making decisions about the environment in the face of uncertainty and conflict. Scientists have a central role to play in these decisions. However, while scientists are well trained to reduce uncertainty by discovering new knowledge, most lack experience with the means to mitigate conflict in contested situations. To address this gap, we drew from our efforts coordinating a large collaborative adaptive management effort, the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project, to offer advice to our fellow environmental scientists. Key challenges posed by collaborative adaptive management include the confusion caused by multiple institutional cultures, the need to provide information at management-relevant scales, frequent turnover in participants, fluctuations in enthusiasm among key constituencies, and diverse definitions of success among partners. Effective strategies included a dedication to consistency, a commitment to transparency, the willingness to communicate frequently via multiple forums, and the capacity for flexibility. Collaborative adaptive management represents a promising, new model for scientific engagement with the public. Learning the lessons of effective collaboration in environmental management is an essential task to achieve the shared goal of a sustainable future.

  16. Refocusing acute psychiatry, performance management, standards and accountability, a new context for mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Harnett, P J; Bowles, N; Coughlan, A

    2009-06-01

    The term 'performance management' has an aversive 'managerial' aspect, is unappealing to many public sector staff and has an 'image problem'. Perhaps as a consequence, it has failed to make a significant impact on Irish public sector workers, notably mental health nurses. In this paper, performance management is introduced and examined within an Irish healthcare context and with reference to its use in other countries. Some of the challenges faced by Irish mental health nurses and the potential benefits of working within a performance managed workplace are discussed. The paper concludes that performance management is likely to increasingly affect nurses, either as active agents or as passive recipients of a change that is thrust on them. The authors anticipate that the performance management 'image problem' will give way to recognition that this is a fundamental change which has the potential to enable health services to change. This change will bring high standards of transparency, worker involvement in decision making, an explicit value base for health services and individual teams. It provides the potential for clear practice standards and high standards of transparency as well as worker welfare in all aspects, including supporting employment and career progression.

  17. Multilevel and Hybrid Architecture for Device Abstraction and Context Information Management in Smart Home Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláez, Víctor; González, Roberto; San Martín, Luis Ángel; Campos, Antonio; Lobato, Vanesa

    Hardware device management, and context information acquisition and abstraction are key factors to develop the ambient intelligent paradigm in smart homes. This work presents an architecture that addresses these two problems and provides a usable framework to develop applications easily. In contrast to other proposals, this work addresses performance issues specifically. Results show that the execution performance of the developed prototype is suitable for deployment in a real environment. In addition, the modular design of the system allows the user to develop applications using different techniques and different levels of abstraction.

  18. Spectrum management considerations of adaptive power control in satellite networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawitz, P.; Sullivan, T.

    1983-01-01

    Adaptive power control concepts for the compensation of rain attenuation are considered for uplinks and downlinks. The performance of example power-controlled and fixed-EIRP uplinks is compared in terms of C/Ns and C/Is. Provisional conclusions are drawn with regard to the efficacy of uplink and downlink power control orbit/spectrum utilization efficiency.

  19. Embedded Culture and Intercultural Adaptation: Implications for Managing the Needs of Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodycott, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Students who travel abroad for study bring with them a wealth of cultural resources and expectations that influence their ability to adapt and acculturate into their new environment. While the ability to fit into their new context is a largely personal endeavour, for students from Confucian heritage societies, the cultural expectations of family…

  20. Analysis of Risk Management in Adapted Physical Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelle L.; Donovan, Jacqueline B.; Berg, Dominck A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs vary on how the topics of safe teaching and risk management are addressed. Common practices to cover such issues include requiring textbooks, lesson planning, peer teaching, videotaping, reflecting, and reading case law analyses. We used a mixed methods design to examine how risk management is…

  1. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex intern...

  2. Shifts in fisheries management: adapting to regime shifts

    PubMed Central

    King, Jacquelynne R.; McFarlane, Gordon A.; Punt, André E.

    2015-01-01

    For many years, fisheries management was based on optimizing yield and maintaining a target biomass, with little regard given to low-frequency environmental forcing. However, this policy was often unsuccessful. In the last two to three decades, fisheries science and management have undergone a shift towards balancing sustainable yield with conservation, with the goal of including ecosystem considerations in decision-making frameworks. Scientific understanding of low-frequency climate–ocean variability, which is manifested as ecosystem regime shifts and states, has led to attempts to incorporate these shifts and states into fisheries assessment and management. To date, operationalizing these attempts to provide tactical advice has met with limited success. We review efforts to incorporate regime shifts and states into the assessment and management of fisheries resources, propose directions for future investigation and outline a potential framework to include regime shifts and changes in ecosystem states into fisheries management.

  3. Evolution or revolution? Adapting to complexity in wound management.

    PubMed

    Harding, Keith; Gray, David; Timmons, John; Hurd, Theresa

    2007-06-01

    Wound clinics are seeing an increase in the number of 'complex' wounds, which arise as the result of the interaction between multiple coexisting systemic pathologies, environmental factors and local wound factors. These complex wounds require an approach to diagnosis and management that can encapsulate all these factors. Unified wound assessment approaches such as HEIDI (History, Examination, Investigations, Diagnosis and management plan), wound bed preparation and applied wound management systems are essential to reach a definitive diagnosis and to ensure that management is agreed between the various clinical specialities that may be involved. A series of case histories is presented that illustrate the benefits of a unified approach to wound management. Results of a study into the cost-effectiveness of an improved foam dressing are presented, and the problems of demonstrating the ability to make long-term savings through short-term expenditure are discussed.

  4. Reviewing molecular adaptations of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes in the context of reproductive fitness in natural transmission cycles

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Jean I.

    2009-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is caused by a group of pathogenic spirochetes – most often Borrelia burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and B. garinii – that are vectored by hard ticks in the Ixodes ricinus-persulcatus complex, which feed on a variety of mammals, birds, and lizards. Although LB is one of the best-studied vector-borne zoonoses, the annual incidence in North America and Europe leads other vector-borne diseases and continues to increase. What factors make the LB system so successful, and how can researchers hope to reduce disease risk – either through vaccinating humans or reducing the risk of contacting infected ticks in nature? Discoveries of molecular interactions involved in the transmission of LB spirochetes have accelerated recently, revealing complex interactions among the spirochete-tick-vertebrate triad. These interactions involve multiple, and often redundant, pathways that reflect the evolution of general and specific mechanisms by which the spirochetes survive and reproduce. Previous reviews have focused on the molecular interactions or population biology of the system. Here molecular interactions among the LB spirochete, its vector, and vertebrate hosts are reviewed in the context of natural maintenance cycles, which represent the ecological and evolutionary contexts that shape these interactions. This holistic system approach may help researchers develop additional testable hypotheses about transmission processes, interpret laboratory results, and guide development of future LB control measures and management. PMID:19368764

  5. Medicines management support to older people: understanding the context of systems failure

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Stephen; Martin, Graham; Rai, Gurcharan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Changing demographics and pressures on the healthcare system mean that more older people with complex medical problems need to be supported in primary and community care settings. The challenge of managing medicines effectively in frail elderly patients is considerable. Our research investigates what can go wrong and why, and seeks insight into the context that might set the scene for system failure. Setting North London; a district general hospital and surrounding health authorities. Participants 7 patients who had been admitted to hospital and 16 informants involved in their care. Design Patients with preventable medication-related admissions were identified in an occurrence screening study. An accident investigation approach was used to create case studies from accounts of staff involved in each patient's care prior to their admission. Structured analysis of case studies according to the accident investigation approach was complemented by a separate analysis of interviews using open coding with constant comparison to identify and illustrate higher-level contextual themes. Outcomes The study sheds light on care management problems, their causes and the context in which care management problems and their causes have occurred. Results Care management problems were rooted in issues with decision-making, information support and communications among staff members and between staff, patients and carers. Poor judgement, slips and deviations from best practice were attributed to task overload and complexity. Within general practice, at the interface with community services and with hospitals, we identified disruption to traditional intraprofessional and interprofessional roles, assumptions, channels and media of communication which together created conditions that might compromise patient safety. Conclusions New ways of working driven by the ethos of productivity are disrupting traditional intraprofessional and interprofessional roles, assumptions, channels

  6. Strategic Management of Electronic Commerce: An Adaptation of the Balanced Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Helen; Tibbits, Hendrika

    2000-01-01

    The balanced scorecard is a formal management technique built on the premise that measurement is a prerequisite to strategic management. A case study of the implementation of the balanced scorecard in a public utility is analyzed to suggest how the basic concepts and philosophy of the balanced scorecard can be retained in its adaptation to the…

  7. 76 FR 584 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... assessments, (3) Colorado River Basin hydrology, (4) and the Long-Term Experimental and Management Plan. In... provided to Glen Knowles, Bureau of Reclamation, Upper Colorado Regional Office, 125 South State Street.... Glen Knowles, Chief, Adaptive Management Work Group, Environmental Resources Division, Upper...

  8. Self-Regulation Strategies and Technologies for Adaptive Learning Management Systems for Web-based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Heeok; Joung, Sunyoung

    2004-01-01

    The current study identifies the potential problems of current web-based instruction and learning management systems in terms of its lack of flexibility and customization required for individual learners? different goals, backgrounds, knowledge levels, and learning capabilities. Advanced adaptive learning management system technologies are able to…

  9. Turnaround Management Strategies: The Adaptive Model and the Constructive Model. ASHE 1983 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen E.

    The use of two management strategies by 14 liberal arts and comprehensive colleges attempting to recover from serious financial decline during 1973-1976 were studied. The adaptive model of strategy, based on resource dependence, involves managing demands in order to satisfy critical-resource providers. The constructive model of strategy, based on…

  10. Adaptive management in the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System: Science-management partnerships for conservation delivery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Lonsdorf, E.V.; Knutson, M.G.; Laskowski, H.P.; Lor, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to recurrent decision making in which uncertainty about the decision is reduced over time through comparison of outcomes predicted by competing models against observed values of those outcomes. The National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is a large land management program charged with making natural resource management decisions, which often are made under considerable uncertainty, severe operational constraints, and conditions that limit ability to precisely carry out actions as intended. The NWRS presents outstanding opportunities for the application of adaptive management, but also difficult challenges. We describe two cooperative programs between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Geological Survey to implement adaptive management at scales ranging from small, single refuge applications to large, multi-refuge, multi-region projects. Our experience to date suggests three important attributes common to successful implementation: a vigorous multi-partner collaboration, practical and informative decision framework components, and a sustained commitment to the process. Administrators in both agencies should consider these attributes when developing programs to promote the use and acceptance of adaptive management in the NWRS. ?? 2010 .

  11. Adaptive management in the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System: science-management partnerships for conservation delivery.

    PubMed

    Moore, Clinton T; Lonsdorf, Eric V; Knutson, Melinda G; Laskowski, Harold P; Lor, Socheata K

    2011-05-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to recurrent decision making in which uncertainty about the decision is reduced over time through comparison of outcomes predicted by competing models against observed values of those outcomes. The National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is a large land management program charged with making natural resource management decisions, which often are made under considerable uncertainty, severe operational constraints, and conditions that limit ability to precisely carry out actions as intended. The NWRS presents outstanding opportunities for the application of adaptive management, but also difficult challenges. We describe two cooperative programs between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Geological Survey to implement adaptive management at scales ranging from small, single refuge applications to large, multi-refuge, multi-region projects. Our experience to date suggests three important attributes common to successful implementation: a vigorous multi-partner collaboration, practical and informative decision framework components, and a sustained commitment to the process. Administrators in both agencies should consider these attributes when developing programs to promote the use and acceptance of adaptive management in the NWRS.

  12. Proactive monitoring and adaptive management of social carrying capacity in Arches National Park: an application of computer simulation modeling.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Steven R; Manning, Robert E; Valliere, William A; Wang, Benjamin

    2003-07-01

    Public visits to parks and protected areas continue to increase and may threaten the integrity of natural and cultural resources and the quality of the visitor experience. Scientists and managers have adopted the concept of carrying capacity to address the impacts of visitor use. In the context of outdoor recreation, the social component of carrying capacity refers to the level of visitor use that can be accommodated in parks and protected areas without diminishing the quality of the visitor experience to an unacceptable degree. This study expands and illustrates the use of computer simulation modeling as a tool for proactive monitoring and adaptive management of social carrying capacity at Arches National Park. A travel simulation model of daily visitor use throughout the Park's road and trail network and at selected attraction sites was developed, and simulations were conducted to estimate a daily social carrying capacity for Delicate Arch, an attraction site in Arches National Park, and for the Park as a whole. Further, a series of simulations were conducted to estimate the effect of a mandatory shuttle bus system on daily social carrying capacity of Delicate Arch to illustrate how computer simulation modeling can be used as a tool to facilitate adaptive management of social carrying capacity.

  13. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  14. Societal transformation and adaptation necessary to manage dynamics in flood hazard and risk mitigation (TRANS-ADAPT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Thaler, Thomas; Bonnefond, Mathieu; Clarke, Darren; Driessen, Peter; Hegger, Dries; Gatien-Tournat, Amandine; Gralepois, Mathilde; Fournier, Marie; Mees, Heleen; Murphy, Conor; Servain-Courant, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    project is both scientifically innovative and policy relevant, thereby supporting climate policy needs in Europe towards a concept of risk governance. Key words: climate change adaptation; transformation; flood risk management; resilience; vulnerability; innovative bottom-up developments; multifunctional use

  15. Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Broom, Donald M

    2006-01-01

    The term adaptation is used in biology in three different ways. It may refer to changes which occur at the cell and organ level, or at the individual level, or at the level of gene action and evolutionary processes. Adaptation by cells, especially nerve cells helps in: communication within the body, the distinguishing of stimuli, the avoidance of overload and the conservation of energy. The time course and complexity of these mechanisms varies. Adaptive characters of organisms, including adaptive behaviours, increase fitness so this adaptation is evolutionary. The major part of this paper concerns adaptation by individuals and its relationships to welfare. In complex animals, feed forward control is widely used. Individuals predict problems and adapt by acting before the environmental effect is substantial. Much of adaptation involves brain control and animals have a set of needs, located in the brain and acting largely via motivational mechanisms, to regulate life. Needs may be for resources but are also for actions and stimuli which are part of the mechanism which has evolved to obtain the resources. Hence pigs do not just need food but need to be able to carry out actions like rooting in earth or manipulating materials which are part of foraging behaviour. The welfare of an individual is its state as regards its attempts to cope with its environment. This state includes various adaptive mechanisms including feelings and those which cope with disease. The part of welfare which is concerned with coping with pathology is health. Disease, which implies some significant effect of pathology, always results in poor welfare. Welfare varies over a range from very good, when adaptation is effective and there are feelings of pleasure or contentment, to very poor. A key point concerning the concept of individual adaptation in relation to welfare is that welfare may be good or poor while adaptation is occurring. Some adaptation is very easy and energetically cheap and

  16. Transient scenarios for robust climate change adaptation illustrated for water management in The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haasnoot, M.; Schellekens, J.; Beersma, J. J.; Middelkoop, H.; Kwadijk, J. C. J.

    2015-10-01

    Climate scenarios are used to explore impacts of possible future climates and to assess the robustness of adaptation actions across a range of futures. Time-dependent climate scenarios are commonly used in mitigation studies. However, despite the dynamic nature of adaptation, most scenarios for local or regional decision making on climate adaptation are static ‘endpoint’ projections. This paper describes the development and use of transient (time-dependent) scenarios by means of a case on water management in the Netherlands. Relevant boundary conditions (sea level, precipitation and evaporation) were constructed by generating an ensemble of synthetic time-series with a rainfall generator and a transient delta change method. Climate change impacted river flows were then generated with a hydrological simulation model for the Rhine basin. The transient scenarios were applied in model simulations and game experiments. We argue that there are at least three important assets of using transient scenarios for supporting robust climate adaptation: (1) raise awareness about (a) the implications of climate variability and climate change for decision making and (b) the difficulty of finding proof of climate change in relevant variables for water management; (2) assessment of when to adapt by identifying adaptation tipping points which can then be used to explore adaptation pathways, and (3) identification of triggers for climate adaptation.

  17. Soliciting scientific information and beliefs in predictive modeling and adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Post-normal science requires public engagement and adaptive corrections in addressing issues with high complexity and uncertainty. An adaptive management framework is presented for the improved management of natural resources and environments through a public participation process. The framework solicits the gathering and transformation and/or modeling of scientific information but also explicitly solicits the expression of participant beliefs. Beliefs and information are compared, explicitly discussed for alignments or misalignments, and ultimately melded back together as a "knowledge" basis for making decisions. An effort is made to recognize the human or participant biases that may affect the information base and the potential decisions. In a separate step, an attempt is made to recognize and predict the potential "winners" and "losers" (perceived or real) of any decision or action. These "winners" and "losers" include present human communities with different spatial, demographic or socio-economic characteristics as well as more dispersed or more diffusely characterized regional or global communities. "Winners" and "losers" may also include future human communities as well as communities of other biotic species. As in any adaptive management framework, assessment of predictions, iterative follow-through and adaptation of policies or actions is essential, and commonly very difficult or impossible to achieve. Recognizing beforehand the limits of adaptive management is essential. More generally, knowledge of the behavioral and economic sciences and of ethics and sociology will be key to a successful implementation of this adaptive management framework. Knowledge of biogeophysical processes will also be essential, but by definition of the issues being addressed, will always be incomplete and highly uncertain. The human dimensions of the issues addressed and the participatory processes used carry their own complexities and uncertainties. Some ideas and principles are

  18. Improving environmental and social targeting through adaptive management in Mexico's payments for hydrological services program.

    PubMed

    Sims, Katharine R E; Alix-Garcia, Jennifer M; Shapiro-Garza, Elizabeth; Fine, Leah R; Radeloff, Volker C; Aronson, Glen; Castillo, Selene; Ramirez-Reyes, Carlos; Yañez-Pagans, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Natural resource managers are often expected to achieve both environmental protection and economic development even when there are fundamental trade-offs between these goals. Adaptive management provides a theoretical structure for program administrators to balance social priorities in the presence of trade-offs and to improve conservation targeting. We used the case of Mexico's federal Payments for Hydrological Services program (PSAH) to illustrate the importance of adaptive management for improving program targeting. We documented adaptive elements of PSAH and corresponding changes in program eligibility and selection criteria. To evaluate whether these changes resulted in enrollment of lands of high environmental and social priority, we compared the environmental and social characteristics of the areas enrolled in the program with the characteristics of all forested areas in Mexico, all areas eligible for the program, and all areas submitted for application to the program. The program successfully enrolled areas of both high ecological and social priority, and over time, adaptive changes in the program's criteria for eligibility and selection led to increased enrollment of land scoring high on both dimensions. Three factors facilitated adaptive management in Mexico and are likely to be generally important for conservation managers: a supportive political environment, including financial backing and encouragement to experiment from the federal government; availability of relatively good social and environmental data; and active participation in the review process by stakeholders and outside evaluators.

  19. Comparative Comparison of Implementing School-Based Management in Developed Countries in the Historical Context: From Theory to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi, Saeid; Beidokhti, Aliakbar Amin; Fathi, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to study the comparative comparison of implementing school-based management in developed countries in the historical context: from theory to practice. School-based management is not by itself and objective but a valuable tool in order to reach sagacity, capabilities and the enthusiasm from most people having shares in school.…

  20. Reliability and Factor Analysis of a Blackboard Course Management System Success: A Scale Development and Validation in an Educational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Adeyinka

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of 52 items for measuring Blackboard course management system success was investigated with the aim of validating the Blackboard CMS success scale in an educational context. Through a survey, the Blackboard course management system (BCMS) success scale was administered to 503 students at the University of Botswana. Data collected…

  1. Adapting Project Management Practices to Research-Based Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, P.; Baker, T.; Corbin, B.; Keith, L.; Loerch, L.; Mullenax, C.; Myers, R.; Rhodes, B.; Skytland, N.

    2007-01-01

    From dealing with the inherent uncertainties in outcomes of scientific research to the lack of applicability of current NASA Procedural Requirements guidance documentation, research-based projects present challenges that require unique application of classical project management techniques. If additionally challenged by the creation of a new program transitioning from basic to applied research in a technical environment often unfamiliar with the cost and schedule constraints addressed by project management practices, such projects can find themselves struggling throughout their life cycles. Finally, supplying deliverables to a prime vehicle customer, also in the formative stage, adds further complexity to the development and management of research-based projects. The Biomedical Research and Countermeasures Projects Branch at NASA Johnson Space Center encompasses several diverse applied research-based or research-enabling projects within the newly-formed Human Research Program. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the organizational structure and environment in which these projects operate and how the projects coordinate to address and manage technical requirements. We will identify several of the challenges (cost, technical, schedule, and personnel) encountered by projects across the Branch, present case reports of actions taken and techniques implemented to deal with these challenges, and then close the session with an open forum discussion of remaining challenges and potential mitigations.

  2. Multimodal and Adaptive Learning Management: An Iterative Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David R.; Orey, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the outcome of a comprehensive learning management system implemented at a Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) hospital in the Southeast United States. Specifically this SCI hospital has been experiencing an evident volume of patients returning seeking more information about the nature of their injuries. Recognizing…

  3. Management of Hypertension: Adapting New Guidelines for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanji, Jeffrey L.; Batt, Mark E.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses recent guidelines on hypertension from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and details the latest management protocols for patients with high blood pressure. The article helps physicians interpret the guidelines for treating active patients, highlighting diagnosis, step care revision, pharmacology, and sports participation…

  4. [Indication guidelines for medical rehabilitation in the context of disease management programmes].

    PubMed

    Raspe, Heiner

    2005-02-01

    In current and upcoming disease management programmes in Germany, the provision of medical services is strongly oriented on ICD diagnoses and on services traditionally provided by the statutory health insurance. Multidisciplinary services, such as medical rehabilitation, mostly covered by other payers (e.g. pension funds) are not taken into account. On the other hand, many chronically-ill patients have complex and multifocal health complaints that are best addressed by multidisciplinary interventions. Considering this inherent deficit, in 2002 the German Society of Rehabilitation Sciences has initiated the research project "Indication Guidelines" aimed at developing indication criteria for rehabilitation in the context of disease management programmes. The concept presented in this paper relies on three basic requirements: 1. Impaired participation (according to ICF) caused by multifocal deficits leads to the definition of goals for rehabilitation, taking into account clinical and legal aspects as well as the patients preferences. 2. Multifocal health problems are best addressed by a multidisciplinary rehabilitation programme as it is currently provided by the German pension funds. 3. Scientific evidence has to demonstrate that these programmes are very likely to be effective (positive rehabilitation prognosis, evidence-based rehabilitation). Further requirements include adequate instruction of patients, as well as intensive and prolonged after-care. Both could be very well integrated into comprehensive disease management programmes.

  5. An Ecoregional Context for Forest Management on National Wildlife Refuges of the Upper Midwest, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corace, R. Gregory; Shartell, Lindsey M.; Schulte, Lisa A.; Brininger, Wayne L.; McDowell, Michelle K. D.; Kashian, Daniel M.

    2012-02-01

    To facilitate forest planning and management on National Wildlife Refuges, we synthesized multiple data sources to describe land ownership patterns, land cover, landscape pattern, and changes in forest composition for four ecoregions and their associated refuges of the Upper Midwest. We related observed patterns to ecological processes important for forest conservation and restoration, with specific attention to refuge patterns of importance for forest landbirds of conservation priority. The large amount of public land within the ecoregions (31-80%) suggests that opportunities exist for coarse and meso-scale approaches to conserving and restoring ecological processes affecting the refuges, particularly historical fire regimes. Forests dominate both ecoregions and refuges, but refuge forest patches are generally larger and more aggregated than in associated ecoregions. Broadleaf taxa have increased in dominance in the ecoregions and displaced fire-dependent taxa such as pine ( Pinus spp.) and other coniferous species; these changes in forest composition have likely also affected refuge forests. Despite compositional changes, larger forest patches on refuges suggests that they may provide better habitat for area-sensitive forest landbirds of mature, compositionally diverse forests than surrounding lands if management continues to promote increased patch size. We reason that although fine-scale research and monitoring for species of conservation priority is important, broad scale (ecoregional) assessments provide crucial context for effective forest and wildlife management in protected areas.

  6. An ecoregional context for forest management on National Wildlife Refuges of the Upper Midwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Corace, R Gregory; Shartell, Lindsey M; Schulte, Lisa A; Brininger, Wayne L; McDowell, Michelle K D; Kashian, Daniel M

    2012-02-01

    To facilitate forest planning and management on National Wildlife Refuges, we synthesized multiple data sources to describe land ownership patterns, land cover, landscape pattern, and changes in forest composition for four ecoregions and their associated refuges of the Upper Midwest. We related observed patterns to ecological processes important for forest conservation and restoration, with specific attention to refuge patterns of importance for forest landbirds of conservation priority. The large amount of public land within the ecoregions (31-80%) suggests that opportunities exist for coarse and meso-scale approaches to conserving and restoring ecological processes affecting the refuges, particularly historical fire regimes. Forests dominate both ecoregions and refuges, but refuge forest patches are generally larger and more aggregated than in associated ecoregions. Broadleaf taxa have increased in dominance in the ecoregions and displaced fire-dependent taxa such as pine (Pinus spp.) and other coniferous species; these changes in forest composition have likely also affected refuge forests. Despite compositional changes, larger forest patches on refuges suggests that they may provide better habitat for area-sensitive forest landbirds of mature, compositionally diverse forests than surrounding lands if management continues to promote increased patch size. We reason that although fine-scale research and monitoring for species of conservation priority is important, broad scale (ecoregional) assessments provide crucial context for effective forest and wildlife management in protected areas.

  7. 64 FR 54639 - Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen Canyon Technical Work Group (TWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-10-07

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen Canyon Technical Work... Management Work Group, a technical work group, a monitoring and research center, and independent review... to act upon. DATES AND LOCATION: The Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group will conduct two...

  8. 65 FR 48731 - Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen Canyon Technical Work Group (TWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-08-09

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen Canyon Technical Work... Management Work Group,'' a technical work group, a monitoring and research center, and independent review... Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group will conduct a public meeting: Phoenix, Arizona--January...

  9. Fish traders as key actors in fisheries: gender and adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Lindström, Lars; Jiddawi, Narriman S

    2013-12-01

    This paper fills an important gap towards adaptive management of small-scale fisheries by analyzing the gender dimension of fish trade in Zanzibar, Tanzania. We hypothesize that gender-based differences are present in the fish value chain and to test the hypothesis interviews were performed to analyze: (i) markets, customers, and mobility, (ii) material and economic resources, (iii) traded fish species, (iv) contacts and organizations, and (v) perceptions and experiences. Additionally, management documents were analyzed to examine the degree to which gender is considered. Results show that women traders had less access to social and economic resources, profitable markets, and high-value fish, which resulted in lower income. These gender inequalities are linked, among others, to women's reproductive roles such as childcare and household responsibilities. Formal fisheries management was found to be gender insensitive, showing how a crucial feedback element of adaptive management is missing in Zanzibar's management system, i.e., knowledge about key actors, their needs and challenges.

  10. Surprise and opportunity for learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Walters, Carl; Korman, Josh

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  11. Adapting hypertension self-management interventions to enhance their sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ameling, Jessica M; Ephraim, Patti L; Bone, Lee R; Levine, David M; Roter, Debra L; Wolff, Jennifer L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Noronha, Gary J; Fagan, Peter J; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Cooper, Lisa A; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Albert, Michael C; Flynn, Sarah J; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-01-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions' cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community members. The process required substantial time and resources, and the adapted interventions will be tested in a randomized controlled trial.

  12. Adaptive governance of riverine and wetland ecosystem goods and services.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Lance H; Cosens, Barbara; Garmestani, Ahjond S

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive governance and adaptive management have developed over the past quarter century in response to institutional and organizational failures, and unforeseen changes in natural resource dynamics. Adaptive governance provides a context for managing known and unknown consequences of prior management approaches and for increasing legitimacy in the implementation of flexible and adaptive management. Using examples from iconic water systems in the United States, we explore the proposition that adaptive management and adaptive governance are useful for evaluating the complexities of trade-offs among ecosystem goods and services.

  13. Motion management with phase-adapted 4D-optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohadani, Omid; Seco, Joao; Bortfeld, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Cancer treatment with ionizing radiation is often compromised by organ motion, in particular for lung cases. Motion uncertainties can significantly degrade an otherwise optimized treatment plan. We present a spatiotemporal optimization method, which takes into account all phases of breathing via the corresponding 4D-CTs and provides a 4D-optimal plan that can be delivered throughout all breathing phases. Monte Carlo dose calculations are employed to warrant for highest dosimetric accuracy, as pertinent to study motion effects in lung. We demonstrate the performance of this optimization method with clinical lung cancer cases and compare the outcomes to conventional gating techniques. We report significant improvements in target coverage and in healthy tissue sparing at a comparable computational expense. Furthermore, we show that the phase-adapted 4D-optimized plans are robust against irregular breathing, as opposed to gating. This technique has the potential to yield a higher delivery efficiency and a decisively shorter delivery time.

  14. African-American lesbian identity management and identity development in the context of family and community.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shannon J

    2011-01-01

    Don't Ask, Don't Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they defined and navigated Don't Ask, Don't Tell. They encountered challenges and successes in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning African-American lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and communities.

  15. Development of temporal context-based feature abstractions for enabling monitoring and managing of interventions.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Pei-Yun Sabrina; Ramakrishnan, Sreeram; Yu, Ke; Akushevich, Marina; Sharma, Shweta; Mooiweer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Disease self-management programs and intervention/care plan monitoring are often unable to systematically leverage patient-generated information, especially those requiring interpretation of the temporal contexts of the measurement. While existing techniques help in capturing and storing the relevant data, their ability to determine appropriate metrics most sensitive to that individual is limited or non-existent. This is attributable to the lack of unifying models for enabling such interpretations and the non-trivial process required to generate meaningful feature abstractions to support individualized prognosis. To address these issues, a data-driven approach designed to identify the right abstractions for key features relevant to personalization and monitoring of care is discussed.

  16. Carbon-equivalent metrics for albedo changes in land management contexts: relevance of the time dimension.

    PubMed

    Bright, Ryan M; Bogren, Wiley; Bernier, Pierre; Astrup, Rasmus

    2016-09-01

    Surface albedo is an important physical property by which the land surface regulates climate. A wide and growing body of literature suggests that failing to account for surface albedo can result in suboptimal or even counterproductive climate-motivated policies of the land-based sectors. As such, albedo changes are increasingly included in climate impact assessments of forestry and other land sector projects through conversion of radiative forcings into carbon or carbon dioxide equivalents. However, the prevailing methodology does not sufficiently accommodate dynamic albedo changes on land or CO2 in the atmosphere. We present two new metrics designed to address these deficiencies, referring to them as the time-dependent emissions equivalent and the time-independent emissions equivalent of albedo changes. We demonstrate their application in various land management contexts and discuss their merits and uncertainties.

  17. Adaptive Local Linear Regression with Application to Printer Color Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    values formed the test samples. This process guaranteed that the CIELAB test samples were in the gamut for each printer, but each printer had a...digital images has recently led to increased consumer demand for accurate color reproduction. Given a CIELAB color one would like to reproduce, the color...management problem is to determine what RGB color one must send the printer to minimize the error between the desired CIELAB color and the CIELAB

  18. The Application of Adaptive Management to Ecosystem Restoration Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    implementation. The management flexibility produced by vigorous project design lowers costs by reducing the likelihood that existing projects will...elevation in the swamp  Increase the durations of dry periods in the swamp to improve baldcypress and tupelo productivity and to increase seed ... germination and survival of these key species  Improve fish and wildlife habitat in the swamp and in Blind River USACE, Convent/Blind River 2009

  19. Infrastructure and adaptive management in an eco-hydrological Delta: Lessons learned from design and construction of the Haringvliet Sluices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsen, Max; Mostert, Erik; van der Zaag, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Consequences of climate change include an increase in extreme weather events in North-West Europe. The Netherlands is directly affected by these extreme events, in particular in water management practices. Large investments in infrastructure were made ever since the floods of 1953, leading to a higher level of protection against flooding from the sea and to a managed eco-hydrological Delta. Adaptive water management is presented as an approach to deal with challenges in water allocation and flood protection. One challenge to adaptive water management relates to infrastructure. Large works are often inevitable and essential in flood protection. Hydraulic infrastructure however tends to be inflexible by nature and requires a level of robustness to deliver the desired performance over time. In this study, we focus on the relation between desired performance of infrastructure and adaptation to environmental change and evolving social demands. The objective of this study is to gain an understanding of the evolution of the desired performance of water management infrastructure. This serves two purposes: an increased understanding of design and construction of existing infrastructure, and potential lessons learned for future hydraulic infrastructure in the context of adaptive management. A qualitative approach was used to evaluate over 130 reports on all stages of the design, planning and construction of the Haringvliet sluices as part of the realization of the Delta Works. The time frame is set between 1950 and 1970. The main source of information is a set of quarterly reports to the Dutch parliament, published between 1956 and 1988, and which provided detailed information on design, construction, maintenance, system behavior, policy needs, social demands and stakeholders. The original objectives of the infrastructure were reflected in its design: protection against flooding, protection against salt intrusion and discharge of water and ice - all with a desired ease of

  20. Validation and adaptation of the hospital consumer assessment of healthcare providers and systems in Arabic context: Evidence from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alanazi, Mohammed R; Alamry, Ahmed; Alsurmi, Khaled

    2017-04-01

    One of the main purposes of healthcare organizations is to serve patients by providing safe and high-quality patient-centered care. Patients are considered the most appropriate source to assess the quality level of healthcare services. The objectives of this paper were to describe the translation and adaptation process of the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey for Arabic speaking populations, examine the degree of equivalence between the original English version and the Arabic translated version, and estimate and report the validity and reliability of the translated Arabic HCAHPS version. The translation process had four main steps: (1) qualified bilingual translators translated the HCAHPS from English to Arabic; (2) the Arabic version was translated back to English and reviewed by experts to ensure content accuracy (content equivalence); (3) both Arabic and English versions were verified for accuracy and validity of the translation, checking for the similarities and differences (semantic equivalence); (4) finally, two independent bilinguals reviewed and made the final revision of both the Arabic and English versions separately and agreed on one final version that is similar and equivalent to the original English version in terms of content and meaning. The study findings showed that the overall Cronbach's α for the Arabic HCAHPS version was 0.90, showing good internal consistency across the 9 separate domains, which ranged from 0.70 to 0.97 Cronbach's α. The correlation coefficient between each statement for each separate domain revealed a highly positive significant correlation ranging from 0.72 to 0.89. The results of the study show empirical evidence of validity and reliability of HCAHPS in its Arabic version. Moreover, the Arabic version of HCAHPS in our study presented good internal consistency and it is highly recommended to be replicated and applied in the context of other Arab countries.

  1. Scientifically defensible fish conservation and recovery plans: Addressing diffuse threats and developing rigorous adaptive management plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maas-Hebner, Kathleen G.; Schreck, Carl B.; Hughes, Robert M.; Yeakley, Alan; Molina, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the importance of addressing diffuse threats to long-term species and habitat viability in fish conservation and recovery planning. In the Pacific Northwest, USA, salmonid management plans have typically focused on degraded freshwater habitat, dams, fish passage, harvest rates, and hatchery releases. However, such plans inadequately address threats related to human population and economic growth, intra- and interspecific competition, and changes in climate, ocean, and estuarine conditions. Based on reviews conducted on eight conservation and/or recovery plans, we found that though threats resulting from such changes are difficult to model and/or predict, they are especially important for wide-ranging diadromous species. Adaptive management is also a critical but often inadequately constructed component of those plans. Adaptive management should be designed to respond to evolving knowledge about the fish and their supporting ecosystems; if done properly, it should help improve conservation efforts by decreasing uncertainty regarding known and diffuse threats. We conclude with a general call for environmental managers and planners to reinvigorate the adaptive management process in future management plans, including more explicitly identifying critical uncertainties, implementing monitoring programs to reduce those uncertainties, and explicitly stating what management actions will occur when pre-identified trigger points are reached.

  2. Native Prairie Adaptive Management: a multi region adaptive approach to invasive plant management on Fish and Wildlife Service owned native prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses, smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Management to suppress these invasive plants has had poor to inconsistent success. The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. In partnership with the FWS, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. This joint partnership is known as the Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) initiative. The NPAM decision framework is built around practical constraints faced by FWS refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen FWS field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, have participated in the initiative. These FWS cooperators share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. Though the scope is broad, the initiative interfaces with individual land managers who provide site-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators. We describe the technical components of this approach, how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. During an initial scoping workshop, FWS cooperators developed a consensus management objective

  3. Adaptive Voltage Management Enabling Energy Efficiency in Nanoscale Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Alexander E.

    Battery powered devices emphasize energy efficiency in modern sub-22 nm CMOS microprocessors rendering classic power reduction solutions not sufficient. Classical solutions that reduce power consumption in high performance integrated circuits are superseded with novel and enhanced power reduction techniques to enable the greater energy efficiency desired in modern microprocessors and emerging mobile platforms. Dynamic power consumption is reduced by operating over a wide range of supply voltages. This region of operation is enabled by a high speed and power efficient level shifter which translates low voltage digital signals to higher voltages (and vice versa), a key component that enables communication among circuits operating at different voltage levels. Additionally, optimizing the wide supply voltage range of signals propagating across long interconnect enables greater energy savings. A closed-form delay model supporting wide voltage range is developed to enable this capability. The model supports an ultra-wide voltage range from nominal voltages to subthreshold voltages, and a wide range of repeater sizes. To mitigate the drawback of lower operating speed at reduced supply voltages, the high performance exhibited by MOS current mode logic technology is exploited. High performance and energy efficient circuits are enabled by combining this logic style with power efficient near threshold circuits. Many-core systems that operate at high frequencies and process highly parallel workloads benefit from this combination of MCML with NTC. Due to aggressive scaling, static power consumption can in some cases overshadow dynamic power. Techniques to lower leakage power have therefore become an important objective in modern microprocessors. To address this issue, an adaptive power gating technique is proposed. This technique utilizes high levels of granularity to save additional leakage power when a circuit is active as opposed to standard power gating that saves static

  4. A historical context of municipal solid waste management in the United States.

    PubMed

    Louis, Garrick E

    2004-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in the United States is a system comprised of regulatory, administrative, market, technology, and social subcomponents, and can only be understood in the context of its historical evolution. American cities lacked organized public works for street cleaning, refuse collection, water treatment, and human waste removal until the early 1800s. Recurrent epidemics forced efforts to improve public health and the environment. The belief in anticontagionism led to the construction of water treatment and sewerage works during the nineteenth century, by sanitary engineers working for regional public health authorities. This infrastructure was capital intensive and required regional institutions to finance and administer it. By the time attention turned to solid waste management in the 1880s, funding was not available for a regional infrastructure. Thus, solid waste management was established as a local responsibility, centred on nearby municipal dumps. George Waring of New York City organized solid waste management around engineering unit operations; including street sweeping, refuse collection, transportation, resource recovery and disposal. This approach was adopted nationwide, and was managed by City Departments of Sanitation. Innovations such as the introduction of trucks, motorized street sweepers, incineration, and sanitary landfill were developed in the following decades. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), is the defining legislation for MSWM practice in America today. It forced the closure of open dumps nationwide, and required regional planning for MSWM. The closure of municipal dumps caused a 'garbage crisis' in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Private companies assumed an expanded role in MSWM through regional facilities that required the transportation of MSW across state lines. These transboundary movements of MSW created the issue of flow control, in which the US Supreme Court affirmed the protection

  5. Does external funding help adaptation? Evidence from community-based water management in the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    Murtinho, Felipe; Eakin, Hallie; López-Carr, David; Hayes, Tanya M

    2013-11-01

    Despite debate regarding whether, and in what form, communities need external support for adaptation to environmental change, few studies have examined how external funding impacts adaptation decisions in rural resource-dependent communities. In this article, we use quantitative and qualitative methods to assess how different funding sources influence the initiative to adapt to water scarcity in the Colombian Andes. We compare efforts to adapt to water scarcity in 111 rural Andean communities with varied dependence on external funding for water management activities. Findings suggest that despite efforts to use their own internal resources, communities often need external support to finance adaptation strategies. However, not all external financial support positively impacts a community's abilities to adapt. Results show the importance of community-driven requests for external support. In cases where external support was unsolicited, the results show a decline, or "crowding-out," in community efforts to adapt. In contrast, in cases where communities initiated the request for external support to fund their own projects, findings show that external intervention is more likely to enhance or "crowds-in" community-driven adaptation.

  6. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (II): Case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, rapid economic development and increase of the human population are considered as the major triggers of increasing challenges for water resources management. This proposed integrated optimal allocation model (IOAM) for complex adaptive system of water resources management is applied in Dongjiang River basin located in the Guangdong Province of China. The IOAM is calibrated and validated under baseline period 2010 year and future period 2011-2030 year, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model can make a trade-off between demand and supply for sustainable development of society, economy, ecology and environment and achieve adaptive management of water resources allocation. The optimal scheme derived by multi-objective evaluation is recommended for decision-makers in order to maximize the comprehensive benefits of water resources management.

  7. Life history and evolutionary adaptation of Pacific salmon and its application in management

    SciTech Connect

    Wevers, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    An approach to understanding and managing anadromous salmon, steelhead, and sea-run cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) based on life history and evolutionary adaptive capacities of species and stocks is presented. Species, stocks, and local populations are viewed as systems that are continuously adapting to changing environmental conditions. They have the potential capacity to evolve in different ways in different environments through both life history and evolutionary adaptation. Habitat organization forms a template for genus, species, stock, and local population life history organization. Harvesting, habitat alteration resulting from land use practices and other human activities can alter the organization and adaptive capacities of species and stocks, and thus their long term persistence. The adaptive capacity of Oncorhynchus relative to its habitat and management environment is examined at the species, stock, and local population levels. Life history characteristics of representative stocks and local populations are analyzed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DECORANA). Fresh water migration distance and latitude are used to [open quotes]explain[close quotes] ordination patterns of Oncorhynchus species in the North Pacific Basin. Fresh water migration difficulty and mean annual runoff as used to interpret life history patterns of Columbia Basin chinook salmon stocks. Upstream migration difficulty and fall water temperatures are used to explain the ordination patterns of local populations of Willamette spring chinook salmon. Fishery management practices are examined in terms of their impacts on the organization and adaptive capacity of species, stocks, and local populations of Oncorhynchus. Management generalizations and guidelines derived from the life history theory are applied to management of Willamette spring chinook salmon.

  8. An ICT-Based Diabetes Management System Tested for Health Care Delivery in the African Context

    PubMed Central

    Takenga, Claude; Berndt, Rolf-Dietrich; Musongya, Olivier; Kitero, Joël; Katoke, Remi; Molo, Kakule; Kazingufu, Basile; Meni, Malikwisha; Vikandy, Mambo; Takenga, Henri

    2014-01-01

    The demand for new healthcare services is growing rapidly. Improving accessibility of the African population to diabetes care seems to be a big challenge in most countries where the number of care centers and medical staff is reduced. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have great potential to address some of these challenges faced by several countries in providing accessible, cost-effective, and high-quality health care services. This paper presents the Mobil Diab system which is a telemedical approach proposed for the management of long-term diseases. The system applies modern mobile and web technologies which overcome geographical barriers, and increase access to health care services. The idea of the system is to involve patients in the therapy process and motivate them for an active participation. For validation of the system in African context, a trial was conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 40 Subjects with diabetes divided randomly into control and intervention groups were included in the test. Results show that Mobil Diab is suitable for African countries and presents a number of benefits for the population and public health care system. It improves clinical management and delivery of diabetes care services by enhancing access, quality, motivation, reassurance, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness. PMID:25136358

  9. An ICT-Based Diabetes Management System Tested for Health Care Delivery in the African Context.

    PubMed

    Takenga, Claude; Berndt, Rolf-Dietrich; Musongya, Olivier; Kitero, Joël; Katoke, Remi; Molo, Kakule; Kazingufu, Basile; Meni, Malikwisha; Vikandy, Mambo; Takenga, Henri

    2014-01-01

    The demand for new healthcare services is growing rapidly. Improving accessibility of the African population to diabetes care seems to be a big challenge in most countries where the number of care centers and medical staff is reduced. Information and communication technologies (ICT) have great potential to address some of these challenges faced by several countries in providing accessible, cost-effective, and high-quality health care services. This paper presents the Mobil Diab system which is a telemedical approach proposed for the management of long-term diseases. The system applies modern mobile and web technologies which overcome geographical barriers, and increase access to health care services. The idea of the system is to involve patients in the therapy process and motivate them for an active participation. For validation of the system in African context, a trial was conducted in the Democratic Republic of Congo. 40 Subjects with diabetes divided randomly into control and intervention groups were included in the test. Results show that Mobil Diab is suitable for African countries and presents a number of benefits for the population and public health care system. It improves clinical management and delivery of diabetes care services by enhancing access, quality, motivation, reassurance, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness.

  10. Increasing sustainable stormwater management adaption through transdisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingfield, Thea; Potter, Karen; Jones, Gareth; Spees, Jack; Macdonald, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The Ribble Rivers Trust leads a partnership of land and water management organisations that use a holistic approach to water management in the Ribble catchment. They are interested in incorporating sustainable stormwater systems, into their program of delivery with a view to ensuring that their activities to improve the environments and habitats of the catchment also contribute to reducing flood risk. A methodology, to locate interventions that would slow water within the catchment are identified; however partner buy in, institutional caution and economic barriers are felt to be hindering delivery. In response a transdisciplinary research project in which both the academics of the University of Liverpool and the practitioners of The Ribble Rivers Trust are active investigators has been established. The project aims to increase the uptake of sustainable stormwater management techniques through the analysis of the institutional, experiential and governance processes and their interactions with the physical hydrological processes governing stormwater systems. Research that is transdisciplinary must integrate academic knowledge with practitioner, local understanding and practice. Furthermore methodologies belonging to different academic fields must be blended together to collect, analyse and interpret data in order to examine complex problems through different disciplinary lenses in an integrated way. This approach has been developed in response to the complex relationships of cause and effect of contemporary inter-related economic, environmental and societal challenges. There have been a number of challenges to overcome as transdisciplinary researchers, the first and most important was to understand the different research philosophies and theoretical assumptions behind various natural science and social science research methods. Without this understanding research methodologies could be flawed and would not be effectively integrated and the data would not be

  11. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  12. Project management plan for the Objective Supply Capability Adaptive Redesign (OSCAR) project

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, K.A.; Reid, R.W.

    1997-02-01

    This document establishes the project management plan for design and development of the Object Supply Capability Adaptive Redesign (OSCAR) Project. The purpose of the project management plan is to document the plans, goals, directions, commitments, approaches, and decisions that relate to guiding a project throughout its life cycle. Special attention is given to project goals, deliverables, sponsor and project standards, project resources, schedule, and cost estimates.

  13. Adapting global influenza management strategies to address emerging viruses.

    PubMed

    Noah, Diana L; Noah, James W

    2013-07-15

    Death by respiratory complications from influenza infections continues to be a major global health concern. Antiviral drugs are widely available for therapy and prophylaxis, but viral mutations have resulted in resistance that threatens to reduce the long-term utility of approved antivirals. Vaccination is the best method for controlling influenza, but vaccine strategies are blunted by virus antigenic drift and shift. Genetic shift in particular has led to four pandemics in the last century, which have prompted the development of efficient global surveillance and vaccination programs. Although the influenza pandemic of 2009 emphasized the need for the rapid standardization of global surveillance methods and the preparation and dissemination of global assay standards for improved reporting and diagnostic tools, outbreaks of novel influenza strains continue to occur, and current efforts must be enhanced by aggressive public education programs to promote increased vaccination rates in the global population. Recently, a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus with potential to become a pandemic strain emerged in China and was transmitted from animals to humans with a demonstrated >20% mortality rate. Sporadic outbreaks of highly lethal avian virus strains have already increased public awareness and altered annual vaccine production strategies to prevent the natural adaption of this virus to human-to-human transmission. Additional strategies for combating influenza include advancement of new antivirals for unexploited viral or host cellular targets; novel adjuvants and alternate vaccine delivery systems; and development of universal protein, DNA, or multivalent vaccines designed to increase immune responsiveness and enhance public health response times.

  14. Evaluating adaptive governance approaches to sustainable water management in north-west Thailand.

    PubMed

    Clark, Julian R A; Semmahasak, Chutiwalanch

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive governance is advanced as a potent means of addressing institutional fit of natural resource systems with prevailing modes of political-administrative management. Its advocates also argue that it enhances participatory and learning opportunities for stakeholders over time. Yet an increasing number of studies demonstrate real difficulties in implementing adaptive governance 'solutions'. This paper builds on these debates by examining the introduction of adaptive governance to water management in Chiang Mai province, north-west Thailand. The paper considers, first, the limitations of current water governance modes at the provincial scale, and the rationale for implementation of an adaptive approach. The new approach is then critically examined, with its initial performance and likely future success evaluated by (i) analysis of water stakeholders' opinions of its first year of operation; and (ii) comparison of its governance attributes against recent empirical accounts of implementation difficulty and failure of adaptive governance of natural resource management more generally. The analysis confirms the potentially significant role that the new approach can play in brokering and resolving the underlying differences in stakeholder representation and knowledge construction at the heart of the prevailing water governance modes in north-west Thailand.

  15. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David; Sweka, John A.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; Wong, Richard; Lyons, James E.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Kalasz, Kevin; Brust, Jeffrey; Klopfer, Michelle; Spear, Braddock

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species.

  16. 36 CFR 219.11 - Monitoring and evaluation for adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... national, regional, and local supply and demand for products, services, and values. Special consideration should be given to those uses, values, products, and services that the National Forest System is uniquely... adaptive management. 219.11 Section 219.11 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE,...

  17. 75 FR 20381 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... technical work group (TWG), a monitoring and research center, and independent review panels. The AMWG makes.... (PDT) to ensure that the connections work properly. The one hour test Web site is:...

  18. 75 FR 439 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY... Federal advisory committee, the Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG), a Technical Work Group (TWG), a... Plan and Socio-economic workshops, updates from the public outreach ad hoc group, and a report from...

  19. 73 FR 500 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-01-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... technical work group (TWG), a monitoring and research center, and independent review panels. The AMWG...

  20. 50 CFR 218.128 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.128 Section 218.128 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... Letters of Authorization are restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that...

  1. 50 CFR 218.128 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.128 Section 218.128 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... comment on renewals of Letters of Authorization are restricted to: (1) New cited information and...

  2. 50 CFR 218.177 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.177 Section 218.177 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in this document are in need...

  3. 50 CFR 218.8 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.8 Section 218.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in this document...

  4. 50 CFR 216.278 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management. 216.278 Section 216.278 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... comment on renewals of Letters of Authorization are restricted to: (1) New cited information and...

  5. 50 CFR 218.177 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.177 Section 218.177 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... Letters of Authorization are restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that...

  6. 50 CFR 217.77 - Renewal of a Letter of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of a Letter of Authorization and adaptive management. 217.77 Section 217.77 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... Authorization are restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made...

  7. 50 CFR 218.37 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.37 Section 218.37 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in this document are in need...

  8. 50 CFR 216.278 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management. 216.278 Section 216.278 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... comment on renewals of Letters of Authorization are restricted to: (1) New cited information and...

  9. 50 CFR 218.187 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.187 Section 218.187 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... Authorization are restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made...

  10. 50 CFR 218.17 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.17 Section 218.17 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in this document...

  11. 50 CFR 218.27 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management. 218.27 Section 218.27 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE...) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in this document are in need...

  12. 50 CFR 217.88 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 217.88 Section 217.88 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in this...

  13. 50 CFR 218.8 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.8 Section 218.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in this...

  14. 50 CFR 217.77 - Renewal of a Letter of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of a Letter of Authorization and adaptive management. 217.77 Section 217.77 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... Authorization are restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made...

  15. 50 CFR 218.108 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.108 Section 218.108 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... these regulations. Below are some of the possible sources of new data that could contribute to...

  16. 50 CFR 218.187 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.187 Section 218.187 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... Authorization are restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made...

  17. 50 CFR 218.118 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.118 Section 218.118 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... of these regulations. Below are some of the possible sources of new data that could contribute to...

  18. 50 CFR 216.248 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management. 216.248 Section 216.248 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... are restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in...

  19. 50 CFR 218.37 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.37 Section 218.37 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE...) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in this document are in need...

  20. 50 CFR 216.248 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and Adaptive Management. 216.248 Section 216.248 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... are restricted to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in...

  1. 50 CFR 218.17 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management. 218.17 Section 218.17 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... to: (1) New cited information and data indicating that the determinations made in this document...

  2. Adaptive Management and Monitoring as Fundamental Tools to Effective Salt Marsh Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management as applied to ecological restoration is a systematic decision-making process in which the results of restoration activities are repeatedly monitored and evaluated to provide guidance that can be used in determining any necessary future restoration actions. In...

  3. 78 FR 35312 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Web-Based Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting, teleconference and web-based meeting of the Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG). DATES: Public meeting, Teleconference, and...

  4. 78 FR 17226 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Web-Based Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting, teleconference and web-based meeting of the Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG). DATES: Public meeting, Teleconference, and...

  5. 78 FR 49281 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Web-Based Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting, teleconference, and web-based meeting of the Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG). DATES: Public meeting, Teleconference, and...

  6. 76 FR 4365 - Renewal of the Trinity River Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Office of the Secretary Renewal of the Trinity River Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Office of... Working Group (Working Group) for 2 years. The Working Group provides recommendations on all aspects of...; 707-822-7201. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Working Group conducts its operations in accordance...

  7. Adaptive management of perennial pepperweed for endangered specias and tidal marsh recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial pepperweed has invaded a wide range of habitat types in the far west. In the San Francisco Estuary, dense infestations have impacted sensitive tidal wetlands and compromised endangered species recovery efforts. An adaptive management effort to reduce perennial pepperweed was initiated by...

  8. Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2005-01-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…

  9. Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability: Enhancing the positive and mitigating the negative effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability are needed to reduce enterprise risk, increase resilience of rangeland/grassland ecosystems and deliver sustainable provision of ecosystem goods (e.g., livestock production) and services (e.g., wildlife habitat) from western North ...

  10. Adapting to the Online Teaching Environment: Using Literature To Develop Experiential Exercises for International Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusinko, Cathy A.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that literature may be a valuable tool in adapting teaching methods to the online environment, particularly developing experiential exercises, and in helping students become better international managers by building communication skills, team building skills, and contextual understanding of cultural diversity issues. Includes an example…

  11. An Evolving Simulation/Gaming Process to Facilitate Adaptive Watershed Management in Northern Mountainous Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaud, Cecile; Promburom, Tanya; Trebuil, Guy; Bousquet, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The decentralization of natural resource management provides an opportunity for communities to increase their participation in related decision making. Research should propose adapted methodologies enabling the numerous stakeholders of these complex socioecological settings to define their problems and identify agreed-on solutions. This article…

  12. 50 CFR 218.177 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... adaptive management. 218.177 Section 218.177 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE..., Development, Test, and Evaluation Activities in the Naval Sea System Command (NAVSEA) Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport Range Complex and the Associated Proposed Extensions Study Area § 218.177...

  13. 50 CFR 218.177 - Renewal of Letters of Authorization and adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... adaptive management. 218.177 Section 218.177 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE..., Development, Test, and Evaluation Activities in the Naval Sea System Command (NAVSEA) Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport Range Complex and the Associated Proposed Extensions Study Area § 218.177...

  14. Farms adaptation to changes in flood risk: a management approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivot, Jean-Marc; Martin, Philippe

    2002-10-01

    Creating flood expansion areas e.g. for the protection of urban areas from flooding involves a localised increase in risk which may require farmers to be compensated for crop damage or other losses. With this in mind, the paper sets out the approach used to study the problem and gives results obtained from a survey of farms liable to flooding in central France. The approach is based on a study of decisions made by farmers in situations of uncertainty, using the concept of 'model of action'. The results show that damage caused to farming areas by flooding should be considered both at field level and at farm level. The damage caused to the field depends on the flood itself, the fixed characteristics of the field, and the plant species cultivated. However, the losses to the farm taken as a whole can differ considerably from those for the flooded field, due to 'knock-on' effects on farm operations which depend on the internal organization, the availability of production resources, and the farmer's objectives, both for the farm as a whole and for its individual enterprises. Three main strategies regarding possible flood events were identified. Reasons for choosing one of these include the way the farmer perceives the risk and the size of the area liable to flooding. Finally, the formalisation of farm system management in the face of uncertainty, especially due to flooding, enables compensation to be calculated for farmers whose land is affected by the creation of flood expansion areas.

  15. Motivation and drives in bottom-up developments in natural hazards management: multiple-use of adaptation strategies in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    Losses from extreme hydrological events, such as recently experienced in Europe have focused the attention of policymakers as well as researchers on vulnerability to natural hazards. In parallel, the context of changing flood risks under climate and societal change is driving transformation in the role of the state in responsibility sharing and individual responsibilities for risk management and precaution. The new policy agenda enhances the responsibilities of local authorities and private citizens in hazard management and reduces the role of central governments. Within the objective is to place added responsibility on local organisations and citizens to determine locally-based strategies for risk reduction. A major challenge of modelling adaptation is to represent the complexity of coupled human-environmental systems and particularly the feedback loops between environmental dynamics and human decision-making processes on different scales. This paper focuses on bottom-up initiatives to flood risk management which are, by definition, different from the mainstream. These initiatives are clearly influenced (positively or negatively) by a number of factors, where the combination of these interdependences can create specific conditions that alter the opportunity for effective governance arrangements in a local scheme approach. In total, this study identified six general drivers which encourage the implementation of flood storages, such as direct relation to recent major flood frequency and history, the initiative of individual stakeholders (promoters), political pressures from outside (e.g. business companies, private households) and a strong solidarity attitude of municipalities and the stakeholders involved. Although partnership approach may be seen as an 'optimal' solution for flood risk management, in practice there are many limitations and barriers in establishing these collaborations and making them effective (especially in the long term) with the consequences

  16. Climate change adaptation and Integrated Water Resource Management in the water sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Fulco; van Slobbe, Erik; Cofino, Wim

    2014-10-01

    Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) was introduced in 1980s to better optimise water uses between different water demanding sectors. However, since it was introduced water systems have become more complicated due to changes in the global water cycle as a result of climate change. The realization that climate change will have a significant impact on water availability and flood risks has driven research and policy making on adaptation. This paper discusses the main similarities and differences between climate change adaptation and IWRM. The main difference between the two is the focus on current and historic issues of IWRM compared to the (long-term) future focus of adaptation. One of the main problems of implementing climate change adaptation is the large uncertainties in future projections. Two completely different approaches to adaptation have been developed in response to these large uncertainties. A top-down approach based on large scale biophysical impacts analyses focussing on quantifying and minimizing uncertainty by using a large range of scenarios and different climate and impact models. The main problem with this approach is the propagation of uncertainties within the modelling chain. The opposite is the bottom up approach which basically ignores uncertainty. It focusses on reducing vulnerabilities, often at local scale, by developing resilient water systems. Both these approaches however are unsuitable for integrating into water management. The bottom up approach focuses too much on socio-economic vulnerability and too little on developing (technical) solutions. The top-down approach often results in an “explosion” of uncertainty and therefore complicates decision making. A more promising direction of adaptation would be a risk based approach. Future research should further develop and test an approach which starts with developing adaptation strategies based on current and future risks. These strategies should then be evaluated using a range

  17. Climate Variability: Adaptation Strategies for Colorado River Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulp, T. J.; Prairie, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    The importance of the Colorado River system to the western United States and the Republic of Mexico is well documented. Much has been written recently in response to the lingering drought and increasing demands on the system. Questions such as "has the river run out of water?", "how low can it go?", and "will Lake Mead go dry?" express the concern that the river system will be hard-pressed to continue to meet future demands, particularly if droughts tend toward increased magnitudes and longer durations. Reservoirs on the main stream of the Colorado River are managed by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), on behalf of the Secretary of the U.S. Department of the Interior (Secretary). Over 80% of the 60 million acre-feet of storage capacity is contained in Lake Powell and Lake Mead, large reservoirs that are located in each of the sub-basins (Upper Basin and Lower Basin) defined in the 1922 Colorado River Compact. In response to the worst drought conditions in approximately one hundred years of recorded history and the lack of specific operational guidelines for operation of Lake Powell and Lake Mead for drought and low reservoir conditions, the Secretary adopted new operational guidelines in December 2007 that will be used for an interim period (through 2026). The Interim Guidelines were the result of an intense, three-year effort in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Several alternative operational rules were compared with respect to future potential impacts to Colorado River resources, including lake levels, water delivery, hydropower production, water quality, recreation, and fish and wildlife and published in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Due to the large uncertainty regarding future inflows into the system, particularly in a changing climate, these comparisons were presented in probabilistic terms in order to assess the risk of key events (e.g., the timing and magnitude of water shortages). Because it is

  18. AIDS Drug Assistance Programs: managers confront uncertainty and need to adapt as the Affordable Care Act kicks in.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erika G; Meehan, Terence; Schackman, Bruce R

    2013-06-01

    With the Affordable Care Act set to expand insurance coverage to millions more Americans next year, existing discretionary health programs that receive federal support might find themselves competing for funds as the health reform law is fully implemented. To assess the implications the Affordable Care Act might have for discretionary health programs, we focused on state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs, which provide free medications to low-income HIV patients. We conducted semistructured interviews with program managers from twenty-two states. Many of the managers predicted that their programs will change focus to provide "wrap-around services," such as helping newly insured clients finance out-of-pocket expenses, including copayments, deductibles, and premiums. Although program managers acknowledged that they must adapt to a changing environment, many said that they were overwhelmed by the complexity of the Affordable Care Act, and some expressed fear that state AIDS Drug Assistance Programs would be eliminated entirely. To remain viable, such programs must identify and justify the need for services in the context of the Affordable Care Act and receive sufficient political support and funding.

  19. 76 FR 47237 - Notice of Public Meeting for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Federal Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Public Meeting for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior..., the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and...

  20. 65 FR 9296 - Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen Canyon Technical Work Group (TWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-02-24

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen Canyon Technical Work... ``Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group,'' a technical work group, a monitoring and research... meeting. The Glen Canyon Technical Work Group (TWG) will conduct one public meeting as follows: March...

  1. 65 FR 15173 - Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen Canyon Technical Work Group (TWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-03-21

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen Canyon Technical Work Group (TWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Bureau of... an upcoming public meeting of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The meeting...

  2. 66 FR 8980 - Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen Canyon Technical Work Group (TWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-02-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen Canyon Technical Work... has been organized and includes a federal advisory committee (the AMWG), a technical work group (the...: The Adaptive Management Work Group will conduct the following public meetings: Phoenix,...

  3. 63 FR 69304 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen Canyon Technical Work Group (TWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-12-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) and Glen Canyon Technical Work Group (TWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group will conduct an open public meeting to...

  4. Integrating Systems Health Management with Adaptive Controls for a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Goebel, Kai; Trinh, Khanh V.; Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. Systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage. Advanced adaptive controls can provide the mechanism to enable optimized operations that also provide the enabling technology for Systems Health Management goals. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency management and adaptive controls. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  5. A Multi-Temporal Context-Aware System for Competences Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, João H.; Barbosa, Jorge L.; Kich, Marcos; Brito, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of computing technology and wireless networks has contributed to the miniaturization of mobile devices and their increase in power, providing services anywhere and anytime. In this scenario, applications have considered the user's contexts to make decisions (Context Awareness). Context-aware applications have enabled new…

  6. Changes in timber haul emissions in the context of shifting forest management and infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Sean P; Blackard, Jock A; Morgan, Todd A; Loeffler, Dan; Jones, Greg; Songster, Jon; Brandt, Jason P; Moisen, Gretchen G; DeBlander, Larry T

    2009-01-01

    Background Although significant amounts of carbon may be stored in harvested wood products, the extraction of that carbon from the forest generally entails combustion of fossil fuels. The transport of timber from the forest to primary milling facilities may in particular create emissions that reduce the net sequestration value of product carbon storage. However, attempts to quantify the effects of transport on the net effects of forest management typically use relatively sparse survey data to determine transportation emission factors. We developed an approach for systematically determining transport emissions using: 1) -remotely sensed maps to estimate the spatial distribution of harvests, and 2) - industry data to determine landscape-level harvest volumes as well as the location and processing totals of individual mills. These data support spatial network analysis that can produce estimates of fossil carbon released in timber transport. Results Transport-related emissions, evaluated as a fraction of transported wood carbon at 4 points in time on a landscape in western Montana (USA), rose from 0.5% in 1988 to 1.7% in 2004 as local mills closed and spatial patterns of harvest shifted due to decreased logging on federal lands. Conclusion The apparent sensitivity of transport emissions to harvest and infrastructure patterns suggests that timber haul is a dynamic component of forest carbon management that bears further study both across regions and over time. The monitoring approach used here, which draws only from widely available monitoring data, could readily be adapted to provide current and historical estimates of transport emissions in a consistent way across large areas. PMID:19874619

  7. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  8. The enabling institutional context for integrated water management: lessons from Melbourne.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Briony C; Brown, Rebekah R; Frantzeskaki, Niki; de Haan, Fjalar J; Deletic, Ana

    2013-12-15

    There is widespread international acceptance that climate change, demographic shifts and resource limitations impact on the performance of water servicing in cities. In response to these challenges, many scholars propose that a fundamental move away from traditional centralised infrastructure towards more integrated water management is required. However, there is limited practical or scholarly understanding of how to enable this change in practice and few modern cities have done so successfully. This paper addresses this gap by analysing empirical evidence of Melbourne's recent experience in shifting towards a hybrid of centralised and decentralised infrastructure to draw lessons about the institutional context that enabled this shift. The research was based on a qualitative single-case study, involving interviews and envisioning workshops with urban water practitioners who have been directly involved in Melbourne's water system changes. It was found that significant changes occurred in the cultural-cognitive, normative and regulative dimensions of Melbourne's water system. These included a shift in cultural beliefs for the water profession, new knowledge through evidence and learning, additional water servicing goals and priorities, political leadership, community pressure, better coordinated governance arrangements and strong market mechanisms. The paper synthesises lessons from the case study that, with further development, could form the basis of prescriptive guidance for enabling the shift to new modes of water servicing to support more liveable, sustainable and resilient outcomes for future cities.

  9. ICAO safety management systems (SMS) development in environmental contexts: A field study of greater China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leib, Steven M.

    This was a mixed-methods exploratory study to investigate association between environmental context and the implementation status of Safety Management Systems (SMS) at airports in Greater China. Using a framework of Institutional Theory, this study looked at three regions of Greater China and explored internal and external environments of SMS at airports within each region. It used ICAO standards to evaluate the implementation status of SMS at those airports based on the perceptions of 126 participants. This research also employed snowballing technique to spread a survey tool to participants in Greater China through several key gatekeepers, and then applied the Delphi method for interviews with key gatekeepers themselves. Analysis of the data suggested several associations between various sub-concepts of the external environment and different components of SMS in the three regions. In addition, the data suggested a relationship between the internal environment as a whole and the overall status of SMS implementation in each region. Lastly, the study makes several recommendations for future research regarding global standards implemented in local environments, the evaluation of SMS implementation status, and the theoretical implications of this study.

  10. Educational Reform and Modernisation in Europe: The Role of National Contexts in Mediating the New Public Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, David; Grimaldi, Emiliano; Gunter, Helen M; Møller, Jorunn; Serpieri, Roberto; Skedsmo, Guri

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the spread of new public management (NPM) across European education systems as it has traversed national boundaries. While recognising the transnational dimensions of the spread of NPM, the authors offer new insights into the importance of national contexts in mediating this development in educational settings by focusing…

  11. Early Professional Development in the Scottish Context: Pre-Service High School Teachers and the Management of Behaviour in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an account of an exploratory piece of research focused on understanding more fully the nature of pre-service teachers' developing approaches to classroom behaviour management on a one-year postgraduate teacher education programme in the Scottish context. Drawing on individual and focus group interviews as well as journaling of…

  12. Perspectives of Turkish Intern and Non-Intern Students towards Sport Management Internship within the Context of Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coknaz, Dilsad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences between intern and non-intern students in terms of their perspectives on sport management internship within the context of field experience. The subjects of the study were a total of 189 students. They were 4th year students who completed their internship and 3rd year students who were yet to…

  13. Conditions and limitations on learning in the adaptive management of mallard harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, F.A.; Kendall, W.L.; Dubovsky, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service adopted a protocol for the adaptive management of waterfowl hunting regulations (AHM) to help reduce uncertainty about the magnitude of sustainable harvests. To date, the AHM process has focused principally on the midcontinent population of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), whose dynamics are described by 4 alternative models. Collectively, these models express uncertainty (or disagreement) about whether harvest is an additive or a compensatory form of mortality and whether the reproductive process is weakly or strongly density-dependent. Each model is associated with a probability or 'weight,' which describes its relative ability to predict changes in population size. These Bayesian probabilities are updated annually using a comparison of population size predicted under each model with that observed by a monitoring program. The current AHM process is passively adaptive, in the sense that there is no a priori consideration of how harvest decisions might affect discrimination among models. We contrast this approach with an actively adaptive approach, in which harvest decisions are used in part to produce the learning needed to increase long-term management performance. Our investigation suggests that the passive approach is expected to perform nearly as well as an optimal actively adaptive approach, particularly considering the nature of the model set, management objectives and constraints, and current regulatory alternatives. We offer some comments about the nature of the biological hypotheses being tested and describe some of the inherent limitations on learning in the AHM process.

  14. Towards evenly distributed grazing patterns: including social context in sheep management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background. A large proportion of natural grasslands around the world is exposed to overgrazing resulting in land degradation and biodiversity loss. Although there is an increasing effort in the promotion of sustainable livestock management, rangeland degradation still occurs because animals’ foraging behaviour is highly selective at different spatial scales. The assessment of the ecological mechanisms modulating the spatial distribution of grazing and how to control it has critical implications for long term conservation of resources and the sustainability of livestock production. Considering the relevance of social interactions on animals’ space use patterns, our aim was to explore the potential effects of including animals’ social context into management strategies using domestic sheep grazing in rangelands as case study. Methods. We used GPS data from 19 Merino sheep (approximately 10% of the flock) grazing on three different paddocks (with sizes from 80 to 1000 Ha) during a year, to estimate resource selection functions of sheep grazing in flocks of different levels of heterogeneity. We assessed the effects of sheep class (i.e., ewes, wethers, and hoggets), age, body condition and time since release on habitat selection patterns. Results. We found that social rank was reflected on sheep habitat use, where dominant individuals (i.e., reproductive females) used more intensively the most preferred areas and low-ranked (i.e., yearlings) used less preferred areas. Our results showed that when sheep grazed on more heterogeneous flocks, grazing patterns were more evenly distributed at all the paddocks considered in this study. On the other hand, when high-ranked individuals were removed from the flock, low-ranked sheep shifted their selection patterns by increasing the use of the most preferred areas and strongly avoided to use less preferred sites (i.e., a highly selective grazing behaviour). Discussion. Although homogenization and segregation of flocks by

  15. People-centred landslide early warning systems in the context of risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haß, S.; Asch, K.; Fernandez-Steeger, T.; Arnhardt, C.

    2009-04-01

    In the current hazard research people-centred warning becomes more and more important, because different types of organizations and groups have to be involved in the warning process. This fact has to be taken into account when developing early warning systems. The effectiveness of early warning depends not only on technical capabilities but also on the preparedness of decision makers and their immediate response on how to act in case of emergency. Hence early warning systems have to be regarded in the context of an integrated and holistic risk management. Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures include people-centred, timely and understandable warning. Further responsible authorities have to be identified in advance and standards for risk communication have to be established. Up to now, hazard and risk assessment for geohazards focuses on the development of inventory, susceptibility, hazard and risk maps. But often, especially in Europe, there are no institutional structures for managing geohazards and in addition there is a lack of an authority that is legally obliged to alarm on landslides at national or regional level. One of the main characteristics within the warning process for natural hazards e.g. in Germany is the split of responsibility between scientific authorities (wissenschaftliche Fachbehörde) and enforcement authorities (Vollzugsbehörde). The scientific authority provides the experts who define the methods and measures for monitoring and evaluate the hazard level. The main focus is the acquisition and evaluation of data and subsequently the distribution of information. The enforcement authority issues official warnings about dangerous natural phenomena. Hence the information chain in the context of early warning ranges over two different institutions, the forecast service and the warning service. But there doesn't exist a framework for warning processes in terms of landslides as yet. The concept for managing natural disasters is often reduced to

  16. A Framework Approach to Evaluate Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Public Engagement Strategies for Radioactive Waste Management - 13430

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The complex interplay of politics, economics and culture undermines attempts to define universal best practices for public engagement in the management of nuclear materials. In the international context, communicators must rely on careful adaptation and creative execution to make standard communication techniques succeed in their local communities. Nuclear professionals need an approach to assess and adapt culturally specific public engagement strategies to meet the demands of their particular political, economic and social structures. Using participant interviews and public sources, the Potomac Communications Group reviewed country-specific examples of nuclear-related communication efforts to provide insight into a proposed approach. The review considered a spectrum of cultural dimensions related to diversity, authority, conformity, proximity and time. Comparisons help to identify cross-cultural influences of various public engagement tactics and to inform a framework for communicators. While not prescriptive in its application, the framework offers a way for communicators to assess the salience of outreach tactics in specific situations. The approach can guide communicators to evaluate and tailor engagement strategies to achieve localized public outreach goals. (authors)

  17. Climate Change in Colorado: Developing a Synthesis of the Science to Support Water Resources Management and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.; Barsugli, J. J.; Averyt, K. B.; Deheza, V.; Udall, B.

    2008-12-01

    In 2007 Colorado's Governor Ritter issued a Colorado Climate Action Plan, in response to the risks associated with climate change and sets a goal to adapt to those climate changes "that cannot be avoided." The Western Water Assessment, a NOAA funded RISA program, was commissioned to do a synthesis of the science on climate change aimed at planners, decisionmakers, and policymakers in water in Colorado. Changes in Colorado's climate and implications for water resources are occurring in a global context. The objective of the report is to communicate the state of the science regarding the physical aspects of climate change that are important for evaluating impacts on Colorado's water resources, and to support state efforts to develop a water adaptation plan. However, the identification of specific climate change impacts on water resources is beyond the scope of this report. Water managers have a long history of adapting to changing circumstances, including changes in economies and land use, environmental concerns, and population growth. Climate change will further affect the decisions made about use of water. However, current water management practices may not be robust enough to cope with this climate change. This presentation reports on the process of developing the report and challenges we faced. We developed the report based on ongoing interactions with the water management community and discussions with them about their decision processes and needs. A second presentation (see Barsugli et al) presents the synthesis findings from the report. We followed the IPCC WG1 model of observations, attribution, and projections. However, many published studies and datasets include information about Colorado, there are few climate studies that focus only on the state. Consequently, many important scientific analyses for Colorado have not been done, and Colorado- specific information is often imbedded in or averaged with studies of the larger Western U.S. We used findings from

  18. Adaptive introgression as a resource for management and genetic conservation in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill A; Miller, Joshua M

    2016-02-01

    Current rates of climate change require organisms to respond through migration, phenotypic plasticity, or genetic changes via adaptation. We focused on questions regarding species' and populations' ability to respond to climate change through adaptation. Specifically, the role adaptive introgression, movement of genetic material from the genome of 1 species into the genome of another through repeated interbreeding, may play in increasing species' ability to respond to a changing climate. Such interspecific gene flow may mediate extinction risk or consequences of limited adaptive potential that result from standing genetic variation and mutation alone, enabling a quicker demographic recovery in response to changing environments. Despite the near dismissal of the potential benefits of hybridization by conservation practitioners, we examined a number of case studies across different taxa that suggest gene flow between sympatric or parapatric sister species or within species that exhibit strong ecotypic differentiation may represent an underutilized management option to conserve evolutionary potential in a changing environment. This will be particularly true where advanced-generation hybrids exhibit adaptive traits outside the parental phenotypic range, a phenomenon known as transgressive segregation. The ideas presented in this essay are meant to provoke discussion regarding how we maintain evolutionary potential, the conservation value of natural hybrid zones, and consideration of their important role in adaptation to climate.

  19. The evolution of Rare Pride: using evaluation to drive adaptive management in a biodiversity conservation organization.

    PubMed

    Jenks, Brett; Vaughan, Peter W; Butler, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    Rare Pride is a social marketing program that stimulates human behavior change in order to promote biodiversity conservation in critically threatened regions in developing countries. A series of formal evaluation studies, networking strategies, and evaluative inquiries have driven a 20-year process of adaptive management that has resulted in extensive programmatic changes within Pride. This paper describes the types of evaluation that Rare used to drive adaptive management and the changes it caused in Pride's theory-of-change and programmatic structure. We argue that (a) qualitative data gathered from partners and staff through structured interviews is most effective at identifying problems with current programs and procedures, (b) networking with other organizations is the most effective strategy for learning of new management strategies, and (c) quantitative data gathered through surveys is effective at measuring program impact and quality. Adaptive management has allowed Rare to increase its Pride program from implementing about two campaigns per year in 2001 to more than 40 per year in 2009 while improving program quality and maintaining program impact.

  20. Boots on the Ground: Science-Management Partnerships Facilitate Climate Change Adaptation in National Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. L.; Halofsky, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Effective climate change engagement on public lands is characterized by (1) an enduring science-management partnership, (2) involvement of key stakeholders, (3) consideration of broad landscapes with multiple landowners, (4) science-based, peer-reviewed assessments of sensitivity of natural resources to climate change, (5) adaptation strategies and tactics developed by resource managers, and (6) leadership and a workforce motivated to implement climate-smart practices in resource planning and project management. Using this sequence of steps, the U.S. Forest Service, in collaboration with other agencies and universities, has developed climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation plans for national forests and other lands. Although implementation (step 6) has been slow in some cases, the success of this process has been documented in 25 national forests and is now being accelerated across the National Forest System (155 national forests). Although hundreds of meetings, strategies, plans, and panels have focused on climate change adaptation over the past decade, only direct engagement between scientists and resource managers (less planning, more doing) has resulted in substantive outcomes.