Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive management framework

  1. Adaptive management of natural resources-framework and issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management, an approach for simultaneously managing and learning about natural resources, has been around for several decades. Interest in adaptive decision making has grown steadily over that time, and by now many in natural resources conservation claim that adaptive management is the approach they use in meeting their resource management responsibilities. Yet there remains considerable ambiguity about what adaptive management actually is, and how it is to be implemented by practitioners. The objective of this paper is to present a framework and conditions for adaptive decision making, and discuss some important challenges in its application. Adaptive management is described as a two-phase process of deliberative and iterative phases, which are implemented sequentially over the timeframe of an application. Key elements, processes, and issues in adaptive decision making are highlighted in terms of this framework. Special emphasis is given to the question of geographic scale, the difficulties presented by non-stationarity, and organizational challenges in implementing adaptive management. ?? 2010.

  2. Adaptive management of river flows in Europe: A transferable framework for implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, M. F.; Holman, I. P.; Grabowski, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    The evidence base for defining flow regimes to support healthy river ecosystems is weak, as there are few studies which quantify the ecological impact associated with different degrees of hydrological alteration. As a result, river flow standards used to manage water abstraction are largely based on expert judgement. Planned adaptive management studies on multiple rivers under the European Water Framework Directive represent an opportunity to learn about ecological flow requirements and improve the quantitative evidence base. However, identifying clear ecological responses to flow alteration can be a significant challenge, because of the complexity of river systems and the other factors which may confound the response. This paper describes the Adaptive River Management (ARM) framework, a flexible framework for implementing adaptive management of river flows that is transferable to other regions of the world. Application of the framework will ensure that the effectiveness of implemented management actions is appraised and that transferable quantitative data are collected that can be used in other geographical regions.

  3. Development of a Resource Manager Framework for Adaptive Beamformer Selection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-27

    users there are interference signals in the environment from appliances such as microwave ovens, radio and television broadcasts from terrestrial and...framework is thus beneficial not only for its potential to increase the performance of electronic support receivers, but also to open up a new research thread...Solbach, “Finite impulse response-filter-based RF- beamforming network for wideband and ultra-wideband antenna arrays,” IET Microwaves , Antennas

  4. Enhancing learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability in health care organizations: the ELIAS performance management framework.

    PubMed

    Persaud, D David

    2014-01-01

    The development of sustainable health care organizations that provide high-quality accessible care is a topic of intense interest. This article provides a practical performance management framework that can be utilized to develop sustainable health care organizations. It is a cyclical 5-step process that is premised on accountability, performance management, and learning practices that are the foundation for a continuous process of measurement, disconfirmation, contextualization, implementation, and routinization This results in the enhancement of learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability (ELIAS). Important considerations such as recognizing that health care organizations are complex adaptive systems and the presence of a dynamic learning culture are necessary contextual factors that maximize the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Importantly, the ELIAS framework utilizes data that are already being collected by health care organizations for accountability, improvement, evaluation, and strategic purposes. Therefore, the benefit of the framework, when used as outlined, would be to enhance the chances of health care organizations achieving the goals of ongoing adaptation and sustainability, by design, rather than by chance.

  5. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  6. A framework for responding to coral disease outbreaks that facilitates adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Beeden, Roger; Maynard, Jeffrey A; Marshall, Paul A; Heron, Scott F; Willis, Bette L

    2012-01-01

    Predicted increases in coral disease outbreaks associated with climate change have implications for coral reef ecosystems and the people and industries that depend on them. It is critical that coral reef managers understand these implications and have the ability to assess and reduce risk, detect and contain outbreaks, and monitor and minimise impacts. Here, we present a coral disease response framework that has four core components: (1) an early warning system, (2) a tiered impact assessment program, (3) scaled management actions and (4) a communication plan. The early warning system combines predictive tools that monitor the risk of outbreaks of temperature-dependent coral diseases with in situ observations provided by a network of observers who regularly report on coral health and reef state. Verified reports of an increase in disease prevalence trigger a tiered response of more detailed impact assessment, targeted research and/or management actions. The response is scaled to the risk posed by the outbreak, which is a function of the severity and spatial extent of the impacts. We review potential management actions to mitigate coral disease impacts and facilitate recovery, considering emerging strategies unique to coral disease and more established strategies to support reef resilience. We also describe approaches to communicating about coral disease outbreaks that will address common misperceptions and raise awareness of the coral disease threat. By adopting this framework, managers and researchers can establish a community of practice and can develop response plans for the management of coral disease outbreaks based on local needs. The collaborations between managers and researchers we suggest will enable adaptive management of disease impacts following evaluating the cost-effectiveness of emerging response actions and incrementally improving our understanding of outbreak causation.

  7. A Framework for Responding to Coral Disease Outbreaks that Facilitates Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeden, Roger; Maynard, Jeffrey A.; Marshall, Paul A.; Heron, Scott F.; Willis, Bette L.

    2012-01-01

    Predicted increases in coral disease outbreaks associated with climate change have implications for coral reef ecosystems and the people and industries that depend on them. It is critical that coral reef managers understand these implications and have the ability to assess and reduce risk, detect and contain outbreaks, and monitor and minimise impacts. Here, we present a coral disease response framework that has four core components: (1) an early warning system, (2) a tiered impact assessment program, (3) scaled management actions and (4) a communication plan. The early warning system combines predictive tools that monitor the risk of outbreaks of temperature-dependent coral diseases with in situ observations provided by a network of observers who regularly report on coral health and reef state. Verified reports of an increase in disease prevalence trigger a tiered response of more detailed impact assessment, targeted research and/or management actions. The response is scaled to the risk posed by the outbreak, which is a function of the severity and spatial extent of the impacts. We review potential management actions to mitigate coral disease impacts and facilitate recovery, considering emerging strategies unique to coral disease and more established strategies to support reef resilience. We also describe approaches to communicating about coral disease outbreaks that will address common misperceptions and raise awareness of the coral disease threat. By adopting this framework, managers and researchers can establish a community of practice and can develop response plans for the management of coral disease outbreaks based on local needs. The collaborations between managers and researchers we suggest will enable adaptive management of disease impacts following evaluating the cost-effectiveness of emerging response actions and incrementally improving our understanding of outbreak causation.

  8. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  9. Opportunistic management of estuaries under climate change: A new adaptive decision-making framework and its practical application.

    PubMed

    Peirson, William; Davey, Erica; Jones, Alan; Hadwen, Wade; Bishop, Keith; Beger, Maria; Capon, Samantha; Fairweather, Peter; Creese, Bob; Smith, Timothy F; Gray, Leigh; Tomlinson, Rodger

    2015-11-01

    Ongoing coastal development and the prospect of severe climate change impacts present pressing estuary management and governance challenges. Robust approaches must recognise the intertwined social and ecological vulnerabilities of estuaries. Here, a new governance and management framework is proposed that recognises the integrated social-ecological systems of estuaries so as to permit transformative adaptation to climate change within these systems. The framework lists stakeholders and identifies estuarine uses and values. Goals are categorised that are specific to ecosystems, private property, public infrastructure, and human communities. Systematic adaptation management strategies are proposed with conceptual examples and associated governance approaches. Contrasting case studies are used to illustrate the practical application of these ideas. The framework will assist estuary managers worldwide to achieve their goals, minimise maladaptative responses, better identify competing interests, reduce stakeholder conflict and exploit opportunities for appropriate ecosystem restoration and sustainable development.

  10. Missouri River Emergent Sandbar Habitat Monitoring Plan - A Conceptual Framework for Adaptive Management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherfy, Mark H.; Stucker, Jennifer H.; Anteau, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    available to quantify changes in managed habitats for least terns and piping plovers, so that management effectiveness can be evaluated. Extremely high flows and flooding of the Missouri River in 1997 created and improved vast amounts of nesting habitat for least terns and piping plovers. Since 1998, there has been an apparent loss and/or degradation of habitat throughout the river system. However, during the same timeframe reservoir water levels have declined, exposing extensive piping plover breeding habitat. For example, 64 percent of adult piping plovers using the Missouri River in 2005 were observed on reservoir habitats, and 43 percent were observed on Lake Sakakawea (Threatened and Endangered Species Section, Omaha District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, unpub. data, 2006). Given the vast dynamics of this river and reservoir system, systemwide monitoring of habitat is clearly needed for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to employ adaptive management (with respect to river operations) to provide most optimal conditions for the maintenance of breeding habitat of least terns and piping plovers. As a result of this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, began work on a habitat monitoring plan in 2005 as a conceptual framework for adaptive management.

  11. An adaptive-management framework for optimal control of hiking near golden eagle nests in Denali National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; Fackler, Paul L.; Nichols, James D.; Runge, Michael C.; McIntyre, Carol L.; Lubow, Bruce L.; McCluskie, Maggie C.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Unintended effects of recreational activities in protected areas are of growing concern. We used an adaptive-management framework to develop guidelines for optimally managing hiking activities to maintain desired levels of territory occupancy and reproductive success of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in Denali National Park (Alaska, U.S.A.). The management decision was to restrict human access (hikers) to particular nesting territories to reduce disturbance. The management objective was to minimize restrictions on hikers while maintaining reproductive performance of eagles above some specified level. We based our decision analysis on predictive models of site occupancy of eagles developed using a combination of expert opinion and data collected from 93 eagle territories over 20 years. The best predictive model showed that restricting human access to eagle territories had little effect on occupancy dynamics. However, when considering important sources of uncertainty in the models, including environmental stochasticity, imperfect detection of hares on which eagles prey, and model uncertainty, restricting access of territories to hikers improved eagle reproduction substantially. An adaptive management framework such as ours may help reduce uncertainty of the effects of hiking activities on Golden Eagles

  12. An adaptive-management framework for optimal control of hiking near golden eagle nests in Denali National Park.

    PubMed

    Martin, Julien; Fackler, Paul L; Nichols, James D; Runge, Michael C; McIntyre, Carol L; Lubow, Bruce L; McCluskie, Maggie C; Schmutz, Joel A

    2011-04-01

    Unintended effects of recreational activities in protected areas are of growing concern. We used an adaptive-management framework to develop guidelines for optimally managing hiking activities to maintain desired levels of territory occupancy and reproductive success of Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in Denali National Park (Alaska, U.S.A.). The management decision was to restrict human access (hikers) to particular nesting territories to reduce disturbance. The management objective was to minimize restrictions on hikers while maintaining reproductive performance of eagles above some specified level. We based our decision analysis on predictive models of site occupancy of eagles developed using a combination of expert opinion and data collected from 93 eagle territories over 20 years. The best predictive model showed that restricting human access to eagle territories had little effect on occupancy dynamics. However, when considering important sources of uncertainty in the models, including environmental stochasticity, imperfect detection of hares on which eagles prey, and model uncertainty, restricting access of territories to hikers improved eagle reproduction substantially. An adaptive management framework such as ours may help reduce uncertainty of the effects of hiking activities on Golden Eagles.

  13. Evaluating success criteria and project monitoring in river enhancement within an adaptive management framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, T. K.; Galat, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective setting, performance measures, and accountability are important components of an adaptive-management approach to river-enhancement programs. Few lessons learned by river-enhancement practitioners in the United States have been documented and disseminated relative to the number of projects implemented. We conducted scripted telephone surveys with river-enhancement project managers and practitioners within the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) to determine the extent of setting project success criteria, monitoring, evaluation of monitoring data, and data dissemination. Investigation of these elements enabled a determination of those that inhibited adaptive management. Seventy river enhancement projects were surveyed. Only 34% of projects surveyed incorporated a quantified measure of project success. Managers most often relied on geophysical attributes of rivers when setting project success criteria, followed by biological communities. Ninety-one percent of projects that performed monitoring included biologic variables, but the lack of data collection before and after project completion and lack of field-based reference or control sites will make future assessments of ecologic success difficult. Twenty percent of projects that performed monitoring evaluated ???1 variable but did not disseminate their evaluations outside their organization. Results suggest greater incentives may be required to advance the science of river enhancement. Future river-enhancement programs within the UMRB and elsewhere can increase knowledge gained from individual projects by offering better guidance on setting success criteria before project initiation and evaluation through established monitoring protocols. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Implementation of a framework for multi-species, multi-objective adaptive management in Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, James D.; Lyons, James; Sweka, John A.; Kalasz, Kevin; Niles, Lawrence J.; Wong, Richard; Brust, Jeffrey; Davis, Michelle C.; Spear, Braddock

    2015-01-01

    Decision analytic approaches have been widely recommended as well suited to solving disputed and ecologically complex natural resource management problems with multiple objectives and high uncertainty. However, the difference between theory and practice is substantial, as there are very few actual resource management programs that represent formal applications of decision analysis. We applied the process of structured decision making to Atlantic horseshoe crab harvest decisions in the Delaware Bay region to develop a multispecies adaptive management (AM) plan, which is currently being implemented. Horseshoe crab harvest has been a controversial management issue since the late 1990s. A largely unregulated horseshoe crab harvest caused a decline in crab spawning abundance. That decline coincided with a major decline in migratory shorebird populations that consume horseshoe crab eggs on the sandy beaches of Delaware Bay during spring migration. Our approach incorporated multiple stakeholders, including fishery and shorebird conservation advocates, to account for diverse management objectives and varied opinions on ecosystem function. Through consensus building, we devised an objective statement and quantitative objective function to evaluate alternative crab harvest policies. We developed a set of competing ecological models accounting for the leading hypotheses on the interaction between shorebirds and horseshoe crabs. The models were initially weighted based on stakeholder confidence in these hypotheses, but weights will be adjusted based on monitoring and Bayesian model weight updating. These models were used together to predict the effects of management actions on the crab and shorebird populations. Finally, we used a dynamic optimization routine to identify the state dependent optimal harvest policy for horseshoe crabs, given the possible actions, the stated objectives and our competing hypotheses about system function. The AM plan was reviewed, accepted and

  15. Classifying climate change adaptation frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Complex socio-ecological demographics are factors that must be considered when addressing adaptation to the potential effects of climate change. As such, a suite of deployable climate change adaptation frameworks is necessary. Multiple frameworks that are required to communicate the risks of climate change and facilitate adaptation. Three principal adaptation frameworks have emerged from the literature; Scenario - Led (SL), Vulnerability - Led (VL) and Decision - Centric (DC). This study aims to identify to what extent these adaptation frameworks; either, planned or deployed are used in a neighbourhood vulnerable to climate change. This work presents a criterion that may be used as a tool for identifying the hallmarks of adaptation frameworks and thus enabling categorisation of projects. The study focussed on the coastal zone surrounding the Sizewell nuclear power plant in Suffolk in the UK. An online survey was conducted identifying climate change adaptation projects operating in the study area. This inventory was analysed to identify the hallmarks of each adaptation project; Levels of dependency on climate model information, Metrics/units of analysis utilised, Level of demographic knowledge, Level of stakeholder engagement, Adaptation implementation strategies and Scale of adaptation implementation. The study found that climate change adaptation projects could be categorised, based on the hallmarks identified, in accordance with the published literature. As such, the criterion may be used to establish the matrix of adaptation frameworks present in a given area. A comprehensive summary of the nature of adaptation frameworks in operation in a locality provides a platform for further comparative analysis. Such analysis, enabled by the criterion, may aid the selection of appropriate frameworks enhancing the efficacy of climate change adaptation.

  16. A Framework Approach to Evaluate Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Public Engagement Strategies for Radioactive Waste Management - 13430

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, Laura

    2013-07-01

    The complex interplay of politics, economics and culture undermines attempts to define universal best practices for public engagement in the management of nuclear materials. In the international context, communicators must rely on careful adaptation and creative execution to make standard communication techniques succeed in their local communities. Nuclear professionals need an approach to assess and adapt culturally specific public engagement strategies to meet the demands of their particular political, economic and social structures. Using participant interviews and public sources, the Potomac Communications Group reviewed country-specific examples of nuclear-related communication efforts to provide insight into a proposed approach. The review considered a spectrum of cultural dimensions related to diversity, authority, conformity, proximity and time. Comparisons help to identify cross-cultural influences of various public engagement tactics and to inform a framework for communicators. While not prescriptive in its application, the framework offers a way for communicators to assess the salience of outreach tactics in specific situations. The approach can guide communicators to evaluate and tailor engagement strategies to achieve localized public outreach goals. (authors)

  17. Adaptation and risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.

  18. An adaptive ant colony optimization framework for scheduling environmental flow management alternatives under varied environmental water availability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szemis, J. M.; Maier, H. R.; Dandy, G. C.

    2014-10-01

    Human water use is increasing and, as such, water for the environment is limited and needs to be managed efficiently. One method for achieving this is the scheduling of environmental flow management alternatives (EFMAs) (e.g., releases, wetland regulators), with these schedules generally developed over a number of years. However, the availability of environmental water changes annually as a result of natural variability (e.g., drought, wet years). To incorporate this variation and schedule EFMAs in a operational setting, a previously formulated multiobjective optimization approach for EFMA schedule development used for long-term planning has been modified and incorporated into an adaptive framework. As part of this approach, optimal schedules are updated at regular intervals during the planning horizon based on environmental water allocation forecasts, which are obtained using artificial neural networks. In addition, the changes between current and updated schedules can be minimized to reduce any disruptions to long-term planning. The utility of the approach is assessed by applying it to an 89km section of the River Murray in South Australia. Results indicate that the approach is beneficial under a range of hydrological conditions and an improved ecological response is obtained in a operational setting compared with previous long-term approaches. Also, it successfully produces trade-offs between the number of disruptions to schedules and the ecological response, with results suggesting that ecological response increases with minimal alterations required to existing schedules. Overall, the results indicate that the information obtained using the proposed approach potentially aides managers in the efficient management of environmental water.

  19. Adaptive Management of Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management. As such, management may be treated as experiment, with replication, or management may be conducted in an iterative manner. Although the concept has resonated with many...

  20. Water Management Adaptations for Aquatic Ecosystem Services Under a Changing Climate. Analytical Framework and Case Study for Chinook Salmon in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, M.; Mosser, C. M.; Thompson, L. C.; Purkey, D.; Moyle, P. B.

    2010-12-01

    Spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are vulnerable to climate change because, before spawning in autumn, adults hold in river pools where temperature increases during summer. As these species naturally experience temperatures close to tolerable thresholds, climate-induced flow and temperature changes can increase their vulnerability. Our objective was to assemble an analytical framework to assess temperature and streamflow thresholds that would lead to critical reductions in spring-run Chinook salmon abundance, and to evaluate management adaptations to ameliorate these impacts. The analytical framework coupled climate data with watershed hydrology and salmon population dynamics models. We used WEAP, an integrated watershed hydrology, water management, and temperature model; and SALMOD, a spatially explicit and size/stage structured model that predicts population dynamics of salmon in freshwater systems. The models simulated weekly mean streamflow, temperature, and salmon abundance in Butte Creek, California. We calibrated and validated the models to adequately fit historical data. With the analytical framework built, we used bias-corrected and spatially downscaled climate data from six General Circulation Models and two emission scenarios for the period 2010 - 2099 to run the two linked models, and generated a range of potential future outcomes. WEAP predicted that summer base flows were lower, and water temperatures were higher for climate scenarios vs. historical conditions. SALMOD predicted increased summer thermal mortality of adult salmon; the population was predicted to decline for all climate scenarios and model combinations. We tested management adaptations, including cessation of water diverted for power production, and storage of cold reservoir water upstream for release during hot weather. Some adaptations resulted in cooler temperatures, more adults surviving to spawn, and extended population survival time. The coupled models, together

  1. Rebound: A Framework for Automated Component Adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penix, John; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The REBOUND adaptation framework organizes a collection of adaptation tactics in a way that they can be selected based on the components available for adaptation. Adaptation tactics are specified formally in terms of the relationship between the component to be adapted and the resulting adapted component. The tactic specifications are used as matching conditions for specification-based component retrieval, creating a 'retrieval for adaptation' scenario. The results of specification matching are used to guide component adaptation. Several examples illustrate how the framework guides component and tactic selection and how basic tactics are composed to form more powerful tactics.

  2. A Framework for Effective Use of Hydroclimate Models in Climate-Change Adaptation Planning for Managed Habitats with Limited Hydrologic Response Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Flint, Lorraine; Thorne, James H.; Boynton, Ryan; Flint, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Climate-change adaptation planning for managed wetlands is challenging under uncertain futures when the impact of historic climate variability on wetland response is unquantified. We assessed vulnerability of Modoc National Wildlife Refuge (MNWR) through use of the Basin Characterization Model (BCM) landscape hydrology model, and six global climate models, representing projected wetter and drier conditions. We further developed a conceptual model that provides greater value for water managers by incorporating the BCM outputs into a conceptual framework that links modeled parameters to refuge management outcomes. This framework was used to identify landscape hydrology parameters that reflect refuge sensitivity to changes in (1) climatic water deficit (CWD) and recharge, and (2) the magnitude, timing, and frequency of water inputs. BCM outputs were developed for 1981-2100 to assess changes and forecast the probability of experiencing wet and dry water year types that have historically resulted in challenging conditions for refuge habitat management. We used a Yule's Q skill score to estimate the probability of modeled discharge that best represents historic water year types. CWD increased in all models across 72.3-100 % of the water supply basin by 2100. Earlier timing in discharge, greater cool season discharge, and lesser irrigation season water supply were predicted by most models. Under the worst-case scenario, moderately dry years increased from 10-20 to 40-60 % by 2100. MNWR could adapt by storing additional water during the cool season for later use and prioritizing irrigation of habitats during dry years.

  3. A Framework for Effective Use of Hydroclimate Models in Climate-Change Adaptation Planning for Managed Habitats with Limited Hydrologic Response Data.

    PubMed

    Esralew, Rachel A; Flint, Lorraine; Thorne, James H; Boynton, Ryan; Flint, Alan

    2016-07-01

    Climate-change adaptation planning for managed wetlands is challenging under uncertain futures when the impact of historic climate variability on wetland response is unquantified. We assessed vulnerability of Modoc National Wildlife Refuge (MNWR) through use of the Basin Characterization Model (BCM) landscape hydrology model, and six global climate models, representing projected wetter and drier conditions. We further developed a conceptual model that provides greater value for water managers by incorporating the BCM outputs into a conceptual framework that links modeled parameters to refuge management outcomes. This framework was used to identify landscape hydrology parameters that reflect refuge sensitivity to changes in (1) climatic water deficit (CWD) and recharge, and (2) the magnitude, timing, and frequency of water inputs. BCM outputs were developed for 1981-2100 to assess changes and forecast the probability of experiencing wet and dry water year types that have historically resulted in challenging conditions for refuge habitat management. We used a Yule's Q skill score to estimate the probability of modeled discharge that best represents historic water year types. CWD increased in all models across 72.3-100 % of the water supply basin by 2100. Earlier timing in discharge, greater cool season discharge, and lesser irrigation season water supply were predicted by most models. Under the worst-case scenario, moderately dry years increased from 10-20 to 40-60 % by 2100. MNWR could adapt by storing additional water during the cool season for later use and prioritizing irrigation of habitats during dry years.

  4. Adaptive management: Chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  5. Adaptive Leadership Framework for Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ruth A.; Bailey, Donald E.; Wu, Bei; Corazzini, Kirsten; McConnell, Eleanor S.; Thygeson, N. Marcus; Docherty, Sharron L.

    2015-01-01

    We propose the Adaptive Leadership Framework for Chronic Illness as a novel framework for conceptualizing, studying, and providing care. This framework is an application of the Adaptive Leadership Framework developed by Heifetz and colleagues for business. Our framework views health care as a complex adaptive system and addresses the intersection at which people with chronic illness interface with the care system. We shift focus from symptoms to symptoms and the challenges they pose for patients/families. We describe how providers and patients/families might collaborate to create shared meaning of symptoms and challenges to coproduce appropriate approaches to care. PMID:25647829

  6. Adaptive management of watersheds and related resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of learning about natural resources through the practice of management has been around for several decades and by now is associated with the term adaptive management. The objectives of this paper are to offer a framework for adaptive management that includes an operational definition, a description of conditions in which it can be usefully applied, and a systematic approach to its application. Adaptive decisionmaking is described as iterative, learning-based management in two phases, each with its own mechanisms for feedback and adaptation. The linkages between traditional experimental science and adaptive management are discussed.

  7. Hydropower, Adaptive Management, and Biodiversity

    PubMed

    WIERINGA; MORTON

    1996-11-01

    / Adaptive management is a policy framework within which an iterative process of decision making is followed based on the observed responses to and effectiveness of previous decisions. The use of adaptive management allows science-based research and monitoring of natural resource and ecological community responses, in conjunction with societal values and goals, to guide decisions concerning man's activities. The adaptive management process has been proposed for application to hydropower operations at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, a situation that requires complex balancing of natural resources requirements and competing human uses. This example is representative of the general increase in public interest in the operation of hydropower facilities and possible effects on downstream natural resources and of the growing conflicts between uses and users of river-based resources. This paper describes the adaptive management process, using the Glen Canyon Dam example, and discusses ways to make the process work effectively in managing downstream natural resources and biodiversity. KEY WORDS: Adaptive management; Biodiversity; Hydropower; Glen Canyon Dam; Ecology

  8. An Adaptive Course Generation Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Frederick W. B.; Lau, Rynson W. H.; Dharmendran, Parthiban

    2010-01-01

    Existing adaptive e-learning methods are supported by student (user) profiling for capturing student characteristics, and course structuring for organizing learning materials according to topics and levels of difficulties. Adaptive courses are then generated by extracting materials from the course structure to match the criteria specified in the…

  9. A DRDC Management Accountability Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    difficult to hold subordinates to account . Level 3 123 Atlantic, Valcartier, Ottawa, Toronto, and...Canada A DRDC Management Accountability Framework Final Report Contract Project Manager: Dr. Fazley Siddiq, 902-494-8802 Contract Number: W7707...B3H 3J5 This page intentionally left blank.   A DRDC Management Accountability Framework Final Report Judy A. Baroni Research

  10. Adaptive notification framework for smart nursing home.

    PubMed

    Betge-Brezetz, S; Dupont, M P; Ghorbel, M; Kamga, G B; Piekarec, S

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive notification framework which allows to optimally deliver and handle multimedia requests and alerts in a nursing home. This framework is operated with various applications (e.g., health alert, medicine reminder, and activity proposition) and has been evaluated with different real end-users (elderly resident and medical staff) in a pilot site. Results of these evaluations are presented and highlight the added value of the framework technology to enhance the quality of life of elderly people as well as the efficiency of the medical staff.

  11. Management Framework for Information Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathezer, Gordon

    1985-01-01

    The development and implementation of an institutional framework to guide the management and use of information technologies (computing, office automation, and telecommunications) at Mount Royal College in Calgary, Alberta, are described. (Author/MLW)

  12. Program and Project Management Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Cassandra D.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a framework and system architecture for integrating program and project management tools that may be applied consistently throughout Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to optimize planning, cost estimating, risk management, and project control. Project management methodology used in building interactive systems to accommodate the needs of the project managers is applied as a key component in assessing the usefulness and applicability of the framework and tools developed. Research for the project included investigation and analysis of industrial practices, KSC standards, policies, and techniques, Systems Management Office (SMO) personnel, and other documented experiences of project management experts. In addition, this project documents best practices derived from the literature as well as new or developing project management models, practices, and techniques.

  13. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of `knowledge work' and Westley's 2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers—`managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics—scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the `doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

  14. Frameworks Coordinate Scientific Data Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory computer scientists developed a unique software framework to help NASA manage its massive amounts of science data. Through a partnership with the Apache Software Foundation of Forest Hill, Maryland, the technology is now available as an open-source solution and is in use by cancer researchers and pediatric hospitals.

  15. Adaptive optimization as a design and management methodology for coal-mining enterprise in uncertain and volatile market environment - the conceptual framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalchenko, V. V.; Rubanik, Yu T.

    2016-10-01

    The work is devoted to the problem of cost-effective adaptation of coal mines to the volatile and uncertain market conditions. Conceptually it can be achieved through alignment of the dynamic characteristics of the coal mining system and power spectrum of market demand for coal product. In practical terms, this ensures the viability and competitiveness of coal mines. Transformation of dynamic characteristics is to be done by changing the structure of production system as well as corporate, logistics and management processes. The proposed methods and algorithms of control are aimed at the development of the theoretical foundations of adaptive optimization as basic methodology for coal mine enterprise management in conditions of high variability and uncertainty of economic and natural environment. Implementation of the proposed methodology requires a revision of the basic principles of open coal mining enterprises design.

  16. Integrated Regional Carbon Budgets from Anthropogenic and Biospheric Sources and Sinks: a holistic framework to evaluate mitigation and adaptive management approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Gurney, K.; Knox, S.; Riley, T.

    2006-12-01

    During the past century, increased land use changes and use of fossil energy sources, primarily coal and oil, have resulted in a rapid increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. In 2004, CO2 levels are estimated to have risen to 375 ppm, nearly 100 pm greater than the pre-industrial levels. Recent concerns regarding the impact of these increases and efforts to better understand regional sources and sinks of carbon has initiated research on regional accounting of carbon budgets which incorporate regional changes in carbon management and patterns of carbon exchange. Current efforts to develop regional budgets have separately estimated fossil fuel emissions, ecosystem sources and sinks, and ocean uptake, however, few studies have incorporated the role carbon management activities on regional differences in carbon sources and sinks. In this context, the most unequivocal drivers are demographic, economic, socio-political, science and technology related, cultural and religious. An improved understanding of carbon management is needed to evaluate current trends and to develop feasible strategies for carbon mitigation and sequestration. The various social and environmental factors affecting regional capacity to manage carbon are complex. The management considerations include aspects of energy, transportation, industry, agriculture and natural resource use. Analyses of these complexities linking decision making and carbon management within a regional context is a necessity in order to evaluate regional carbon budgets. The purpose of this paper is to explore how regional carbon budget information can contribute to the goal of holistic, adaptive regional development, to meet multiple criteria including (but extending well beyond) the management of regional carbon budgets. Our aim is to sharpen the utility of regional biophysical carbon budget information as a contributor to holistic decision- making.

  17. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management. Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adapta...

  18. A GIS-based Adaptive Management Decision Support System to Develop a Multi-Objective Framework: A case study utilizing GIS technologies and physically-based models to archieve improved decision making for site management.

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Lane, Leonard J.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Roberts, Damon

    2008-06-26

    The notion of Adaptive Management (AM) allows for the realization and adjustment of management practices in response to elements of uncertainty. In terms of natural resource management, this will typically integrate monitoring, databases, simulation modeling, decision theory, and expert judgment to evaluate management alternatives and adapt them as necessary to continually improve the natural resource condition as defined by the stakeholders. Natural resource management scenarios can often be expressed, viewed, and understood as a spatial and temporal problem. The integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) technologies and physically-based models provide an effective state-of-the-art solution for deriving, understanding, and applying AM scenarios for land use and remediation. A recently developed GIS-based adaptive management decision support system is presented for the U.S. Department of Defense Yakima Training Center near Yakima, Washington.

  19. Adaptive management for soil ecosystem services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birge, Hannah E.; Bevans, Rebecca A.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Baer, Sara G.; Wall, Diana H.

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem services provided by soil include regulation of the atmosphere and climate, primary (including agricultural) production, waste processing, decomposition, nutrient conservation, water purification, erosion control, medical resources, pest control, and disease mitigation. The simultaneous production of these multiple services arises from complex interactions among diverse aboveground and belowground communities across multiple scales. When a system is mismanaged, non-linear and persistent losses in ecosystem services can arise. Adaptive management is an approach to management designed to reduce uncertainty as management proceeds. By developing alternative hypotheses, testing these hypotheses and adjusting management in response to outcomes, managers can probe dynamic mechanistic relationships among aboveground and belowground soil system components. In doing so, soil ecosystem services can be preserved and critical ecological thresholds avoided. Here, we present an adaptive management framework designed to reduce uncertainty surrounding the soil system, even when soil ecosystem services production is not the explicit management objective, so that managers can reach their management goals without undermining soil multifunctionality or contributing to an irreversible loss of soil ecosystem services.

  20. Carpet: Adaptive Mesh Refinement for the Cactus Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetter, Erik; Hawley, Scott; Hawke, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Carpet is an adaptive mesh refinement and multi-patch driver for the Cactus Framework (ascl:1102.013). Cactus is a software framework for solving time-dependent partial differential equations on block-structured grids, and Carpet acts as driver layer providing adaptive mesh refinement, multi-patch capability, as well as parallelization and efficient I/O.

  1. Co-Producing Future Climate Scenarios for Adaptation and Management in the Gunnison Basin: An Integrative Framework for Developing Usable Climate Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, K. R.; Rangwala, I.; Travis, W.

    2013-12-01

    This research aims to develop usable climate information for decision making at local scales using an integrative framework, involving interactions between scientists and stakeholders, that facilitates a better understanding of the stakeholder's climate needs and sensitivities. We present a study from the Gunnison Basin, located in southwestern Colorado, that uses this framework to understand the climate needs of a diverse group of stakeholders, which includes ranchers, recreationalists, scientists, and public land managers, and how this local knowledge can be effectively utilized in creating usable future climate narratives for community level decision-making. We present an analysis based on detailed interviews of stakeholders which examine how elements of (1) spatial (e.g., region, watershed, slope) and temporal (e.g., seasonal, generational) scales, (2) features (e.g., snowpack, monsoon, avalanches, dust on snow, frost, storms), (3) processes (e.g., precipitation, runoff, evapotranspiration, fire, population dynamics, pest invasions), and (4) outcomes (e.g., harvest, income, user-days) can be incorporated with physical models and scientific understanding to identify the stakeholder's climate needs, and develop effective climate scenarios for decision making.

  2. Managing adaptively for multifunctionality in agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Hodbod, Jennifer; Barreteau, Olivier; Allen, Craig; Magda, Danièle

    2016-12-01

    The critical importance of agricultural systems for food security and as a dominant global landcover requires management that considers the full dimensions of system functions at appropriate scales, i.e. multifunctionality. We propose that adaptive management is the most suitable management approach for such goals, given its ability to reduce uncertainty over time and support multiple objectives within a system, for multiple actors. As such, adaptive management may be the most appropriate method for sustainably intensifying production whilst increasing the quantity and quality of ecosystem services. However, the current assessment of performance of agricultural systems doesn't reward ecosystem service provision. Therefore, we present an overview of the ecosystem functions agricultural systems should and could provide, coupled with a revised definition for assessing the performance of agricultural systems from a multifunctional perspective that, when all satisfied, would create adaptive agricultural systems that can increase production whilst ensuring food security and the quantity and quality of ecosystem services. The outcome of this high level of performance is the capacity to respond to multiple shocks without collapse, equity and triple bottom line sustainability. Through the assessment of case studies, we find that alternatives to industrialized agricultural systems incorporate more functional goals, but that there are mixed findings as to whether these goals translate into positive measurable outcomes. We suggest that an adaptive management perspective would support the implementation of a systematic analysis of the social, ecological and economic trade-offs occurring within such systems, particularly between ecosystem services and functions, in order to provide suitable and comparable assessments. We also identify indicators to monitor performance at multiple scales in agricultural systems which can be used within an adaptive management framework to increase

  3. Probabilistic economic frameworks for disaster risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulac, Guillaume; Forni, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Starting from the general concept of risk, we set up an economic analysis framework for Disaster Risk Management (DRM) investment. It builds on uncertainty management techniques - notably Monte Carlo simulations - and includes both a risk and performance metrics adapted to recurring issues in disaster risk management as entertained by governments and international organisations. This type of framework proves to be enlightening in several regards, and is thought to ease the promotion of DRM projects as "investments" rather than "costs to be born" and allow for meaningful comparison between DRM and other sectors. We then look at the specificities of disaster risk investments of medium to large scales through this framework, where some "invariants" can be identified, notably: (i) it makes more sense to perform analysis over long-term horizons -space and time scales are somewhat linked; (ii) profiling of the fluctuations of the gains and losses of DRM investments over long periods requires the ability to handle possibly highly volatile variables; (iii) complexity increases with the scale which results in a higher sensitivity of the analytic framework on the results; (iv) as the perimeter of analysis (time, theme and space-wise) is widened, intrinsic parameters of the project tend to weight lighter. This puts DRM in a very different perspective from traditional modelling, which usually builds on more intrinsic features of the disaster as it relates to the scientific knowledge about hazard(s). As models hardly accommodate for such complexity or "data entropy" (they require highly structured inputs), there is a need for a complementary approach to understand risk at global scale. The proposed framework suggests opting for flexible ad hoc modelling of specific issues consistent with one's objective, risk and performance metrics. Such tailored solutions are strongly context-dependant (time and budget, sensitivity of the studied variable in the economic framework) and can

  4. Adaptive management of urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmestani, A.; Shuster, W.; Green, O. O.

    2013-12-01

    Consent decree settlements for violations of the Clean Water Act (1972) increasingly include provisions for redress of combined sewer overflow activity through hybrid approaches that incorporate the best of both gray (e.g., storage tunnels) and green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens). Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to improve environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that can help regulated communities achieve environmental quality objectives. We are using an adaptive management approach to guide a green infrastructure retrofit of a neighborhood in the Slavic Village Development Corporation area (Cleveland, Ohio). We are in the process of gathering hydrologic and ecosystem services data and will use this data as a basis for collaboration with area citizens on a plan to use green infrastructure to contain stormflows. Monitoring data provides researchers with feedback on the impact of green infrastructure implementation and suggest where improvements can be made.

  5. Role of adaptive management for watershed councils.

    PubMed

    Habron, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Recent findings in the Umpqua River Basin in southwestern Oregon illustrate a tension in the rise of both community-based and watershed-based approaches to aquatic resource management. While community-based institutions such as watershed councils offer relief from the government control landowners dislike, community-based approaches impinge on landowners' strong belief in independence and private property rights. Watershed councils do offer the local control landowners advocate; however, institutional success hinges on watershed councils' ability to reduce bureaucracy, foster productive discussion and understanding among stakeholders, and provide financial, technical, and coordination support. Yet, to accomplish these tasks current watershed councils rely on the fiscal and technical capital of the very governmental entities that landowners distrust. Adaptive management provides a basis for addressing the apparent tension by incorporating landowners' belief in environmental resilience and acceptance of experimentation that rejects "one size fits all solutions." Therefore community-based adaptive watershed management provides watershed councils a framework that balances landowners' independence and fear of government intrusion, acknowledges the benefits of community cooperation through watershed councils, and enables ecological assessment of landowner-preferred practices. Community-based adaptive management integrates social and ecological suitability to achieve conservation outcomes by providing landowners the flexibility to use a diverse set of conservation practices to achieve desired ecological outcomes, instead of imposing regulations or specific practices.

  6. Passive and active adaptive management: approaches and an example.

    PubMed

    Williams, Byron K

    2011-05-01

    Adaptive management is a framework for resource conservation that promotes iterative learning-based decision making. Yet there remains considerable confusion about what adaptive management entails, and how to actually make resource decisions adaptively. A key but somewhat ambiguous distinction in adaptive management is between active and passive forms of adaptive decision making. The objective of this paper is to illustrate some approaches to active and passive adaptive management with a simple example involving the drawdown of water impoundments on a wildlife refuge. The approaches are illustrated for the drawdown example, and contrasted in terms of objectives, costs, and potential learning rates. Some key challenges to the actual practice of AM are discussed, and tradeoffs between implementation costs and long-term benefits are highlighted.

  7. Passive and active adaptive management: Approaches and an example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management is a framework for resource conservation that promotes iterative learning-based decision making. Yet there remains considerable confusion about what adaptive management entails, and how to actually make resource decisions adaptively. A key but somewhat ambiguous distinction in adaptive management is between active and passive forms of adaptive decision making. The objective of this paper is to illustrate some approaches to active and passive adaptive management with a simple example involving the drawdown of water impoundments on a wildlife refuge. The approaches are illustrated for the drawdown example, and contrasted in terms of objectives, costs, and potential learning rates. Some key challenges to the actual practice of AM are discussed, and tradeoffs between implementation costs and long-term benefits are highlighted. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Multimodel inference and adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehme, S.E.; Powell, L.A.; Allen, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Ecology is an inherently complex science coping with correlated variables, nonlinear interactions and multiple scales of pattern and process, making it difficult for experiments to result in clear, strong inference. Natural resource managers, policy makers, and stakeholders rely on science to provide timely and accurate management recommendations. However, the time necessary to untangle the complexities of interactions within ecosystems is often far greater than the time available to make management decisions. One method of coping with this problem is multimodel inference. Multimodel inference assesses uncertainty by calculating likelihoods among multiple competing hypotheses, but multimodel inference results are often equivocal. Despite this, there may be pressure for ecologists to provide management recommendations regardless of the strength of their study’s inference. We reviewed papers in the Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) and the journal Conservation Biology (CB) to quantify the prevalence of multimodel inference approaches, the resulting inference (weak versus strong), and how authors dealt with the uncertainty. Thirty-eight percent and 14%, respectively, of articles in the JWM and CB used multimodel inference approaches. Strong inference was rarely observed, with only 7% of JWM and 20% of CB articles resulting in strong inference. We found the majority of weak inference papers in both journals (59%) gave specific management recommendations. Model selection uncertainty was ignored in most recommendations for management. We suggest that adaptive management is an ideal method to resolve uncertainty when research results in weak inference.

  9. Adaption of the LUCI framework to account for detailed farm management: a case study exploring potential for achieving locally and nationally significant greenhouse gas, flooding and nutrient mitigation without compromising livelihoods on New Zealand farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Bethanna; Trodahl, Martha; Maxwell, Deborah; Easton, Stuart

    2016-04-01

    This talk discusses recent progress in adapting the Land Utilisation and Capability Indicator (LUCI) framework to take account of the impact of detailed farm management on greenhouse gas emissions and on water, sediment and nutrient delivery to waterways. LUCI is a land management decision support framework which examines the impact of current and potential interventions on a variety of outcomes, including flood mitigation, water supply, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, erosion, sediment and nutrient delivery to waterways, and agricultural production. The potential of the landscape to provide benefits is a function of both the biophysical properties of individual landscape elements and their configuration. Both are respected in LUCI where possible. For example, the hydrology, sediment and chemical routing algorithms are based on physical principles of hillslope flow, taking information on the storage and permeability capacity of elements within the landscape from soil and land use data and honoring physical thresholds, mass and energy balance constraints. LUCI discretizes hydrological response units within the landscape according to similarity of their hydraulic properties and preserves spatially explicit topographical routing. Implications of keeping the "status quo" or potential scenarios of land management change can then be evaluated under different meteorological or climatic events (e.g. flood return periods, rainfall events, droughts), cascading water through the hydrological response units using a "fill and spill" approach. These and other component algorithms are designed to be fast-running while maintaining physical consistency and fine spatial detail. This allows it to operate from subfield level scale to catchment, or even national scale, simultaneously. It analyses and communicates the spatial pattern of individual provision and tradeoffs/synergies between desired outcomes at detailed resolutions and provides suggestions on where management

  10. An Adaptive Framework for Image and Video Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    bandwidth on the camera transmission or memory is not optimally utilized. In this paper we outline a framework for an adaptive sensor where the spatial and...scene can be realized, with small distortion. Keywords: Adaptive Imaging, Varying Sampling Rate, Image Content Measure, Scene Adaptive, Camera ...second order effect on the spatio-temporal trade-off. Figure 1 is an example of the spatio-temporal sampling rate tradeoff in a typical camera (e.g

  11. Managing Across Cultures: A Learning Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Meena S.; And Others

    An approach to managing personnel across cultures is outlined. A framework is provided to help the supervisor become aware of beliefs and values that underlie the workplace preferences of managers in the United States and of other cultures. It integrates research in anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, and international business management. An…

  12. Assessing adaptation to the health risks of climate change: what guidance can existing frameworks provide?

    PubMed

    Füssel, Hans-Martin

    2008-02-01

    Climate change adaptation assessments aim at assisting policy-makers in reducing the health risks associated with climate change and variability. This paper identifies key characteristics of the climate-health relationship and of the adaptation decision problem that require consideration in climate change adaptation assessments. It then analyzes whether these characteristics are appropriately considered in existing guidelines for climate impact and adaptation assessment and in pertinent conceptual models from environmental epidemiology. The review finds three assessment guidelines based on a generalized risk management framework to be most useful for guiding adaptation assessments of human health. Since none of them adequately addresses all key challenges of the adaptation decision problem, actual adaptation assessments need to combine elements from different guidelines. Established conceptual models from environmental epidemiology are found to be of limited relevance for assessing and planning adaptation to climate change since the prevailing toxicological model of environmental health is not applicable to many climate-sensitive health risks.

  13. Managing climate change refugia for climate adaptation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morelli, Toni; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change.

  14. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Dulen, Deanna M.; Ebersole, Joseph L.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Millar, Constance I.; Maher, Sean P.; Monahan, William B.; Nydick, Koren R.; Redmond, Kelly T.; Sawyer, Sarah C.; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change. PMID:27509088

  15. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Dulen, Deanna M; Ebersole, Joseph L; Jackson, Stephen T; Lundquist, Jessica D; Millar, Constance I; Maher, Sean P; Monahan, William B; Nydick, Koren R; Redmond, Kelly T; Sawyer, Sarah C; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change.

  16. Reducing uncertainty about objective functions in adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends the uncertainty framework of adaptive management to include uncertainty about the objectives to be used in guiding decisions. Adaptive decision making typically assumes explicit and agreed-upon objectives for management, but allows for uncertainty as to the structure of the decision process that generates change through time. Yet it is not unusual for there to be uncertainty (or disagreement) about objectives, with different stakeholders expressing different views not only about resource responses to management but also about the appropriate management objectives. In this paper I extend the treatment of uncertainty in adaptive management, and describe a stochastic structure for the joint occurrence of uncertainty about objectives as well as models, and show how adaptive decision making and the assessment of post-decision monitoring data can be used to reduce uncertainties of both kinds. Different degrees of association between model and objective uncertainty lead to different patterns of learning about objectives. ?? 2011.

  17. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  18. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  19. Studying the clinical encounter with the Adaptive Leadership framework.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Donald E; Docherty, Sharron L; Adams, Judith A; Carthron, Dana L; Corazzini, Kirsten; Day, Jennifer R; Neglia, Elizabeth; Thygeson, Marcus; Anderson, Ruth A

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we discuss the concept of leadership as a personal capability, not contingent on one's position in a hierarchy. This type of leadership allows us to reframe both the care-giving and organizational roles of nurses and other front-line clinical staff. Little research has been done to explore what leadership means at the point of care, particularly in reference to the relationship between health care practitioners and patients and their family caregivers. The Adaptive Leadership framework, based on complexity science theory, provides a useful lens to explore practitioners' leadership behaviors at the point of care. This framework proposes that there are two broad categories of challenges that patients face: technical and adaptive. Whereas technical challenges are addressed with technical solutions that are delivered by practitioners, adaptive challenges require the patient (or family member) to adjust to a new situation and to do the work of adapting, learning, and behavior change. Adaptive leadership is the work that practitioners do to mobilize and support patients to do the adaptive work. The purpose of this paper is to describe this framework and demonstrate its application to nursing research. We demonstrate the framework's utility with five exemplars of nursing research problems that range from the individual to the system levels. The framework has the potential to guide researchers to ask new questions and to gain new insights into how practitioners interact with patients at the point of care to increase the patient's ability to tackle challenging problems and improve their own health care outcomes. It is a potentially powerful framework for developing and testing a new generation of interventions to address complex issues by harnessing and learning about the adaptive capabilities of patients within their life contexts.

  20. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The concept of refugia has long been studied from theoretical and paleontological perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, locations that may be unusually buffered from climate change effects so as to increase persistence of valued resources. Here we distinguish between paleoecological and contemporary viewpoints, characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia, summarize the process of identifying and mapping them, and delineate how refugia can fit into the existing framework of natural resource management. We also suggest three primary courses of action at these sites: prioritization, protection, and propagation. Although not a panacea, managing climate change refugia can be an important adaptation option for conserving valuable resources in the face of ongoing and future climate change. “In a nutshell” (100 words) • Climate change refugia are defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change, enabling persistence of valued physical, ecological, and cultural resources. • Refugia can be incorporated as key components of a climate adaptation strategy because their prioritization by management may enable their associated resources to persist locally and eventually spread to future suitable habitat. • Steps for

  1. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Pyke, David A.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Wills, Skye A.; Brown, Joel R.; Karl, Jason W.; Havstad, Kris M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management (Holling 1973; Walters and Holling 1990). Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adaptation of management until desired results are achieved (Brown and MacLeod 1996; Savory and Butterfield 1999). However, adaptive management is often criticized because very few projects ever complete more than one cycle, resulting in little adaptation and little knowledge gain (Lee 1999; Walters 2007). One significant criticism is that adaptive management is often used as a justification for undertaking actions with uncertain outcomes or as a surrogate for the development of specific, measurable indicators and monitoring programs (Lee 1999; Ruhl 2007).

  2. Restricted Complexity Framework for Nonlinear Adaptive Control in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Rube B.

    2004-02-01

    Control law adaptation that includes implicit or explicit adaptive state estimation, can be a fundamental underpinning for the success of intelligent control in complex systems, particularly during subsystem failures, where vital system states and parameters can be impractical or impossible to measure directly. A practical algorithm is proposed for adaptive state filtering and control in nonlinear dynamic systems when the state equations are unknown or are too complex to model analytically. The state equations and inverse plant model are approximated by using neural networks. A framework for a neural network based nonlinear dynamic inversion control law is proposed, as an extrapolation of prior developed restricted complexity methodology used to formulate the adaptive state filter. Examples of adaptive filter performance are presented for an SSME simulation with high pressure turbine failure to support extrapolations to adaptive control problems.

  3. Restricted Complexity Framework for Nonlinear Adaptive Control in Complex Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Rube B.

    2004-02-04

    Control law adaptation that includes implicit or explicit adaptive state estimation, can be a fundamental underpinning for the success of intelligent control in complex systems, particularly during subsystem failures, where vital system states and parameters can be impractical or impossible to measure directly. A practical algorithm is proposed for adaptive state filtering and control in nonlinear dynamic systems when the state equations are unknown or are too complex to model analytically. The state equations and inverse plant model are approximated by using neural networks. A framework for a neural network based nonlinear dynamic inversion control law is proposed, as an extrapolation of prior developed restricted complexity methodology used to formulate the adaptive state filter. Examples of adaptive filter performance are presented for an SSME simulation with high pressure turbine failure to support extrapolations to adaptive control problems.

  4. Project Management Framework to Organizational Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotnour, Tim; Barton, Saul

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a project management framework and associated models for organizational transitions. The framework contains an integrated set of steps an organization can take to lead an organizational transition such as downsizing and change in mission or role. The framework is designed to help an organization do the right work the right way with the right people at the right time. The underlying rationale for the steps in the framework is based on a set of findings which include: defining a transition as containing both near-term and long-term actions, designing actions which respond to drivers and achieve desired results, aligning the organization with the external environment, and aligning the internal components of the organization. The framework was developed based on best practices found in the literature, lessons learned from heads of organizations who have completed large-scale organizational changes, and concerns from employees at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The framework is described using KSC.

  5. Framework for Adaptable Operating and Runtime Systems: Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick G. Bridges

    2012-02-01

    In this grant, we examined a wide range of techniques for constructing high-performance con gurable system software for HPC systems and its application to DOE-relevant problems. Overall, research and development on this project focused in three specifc areas: (1) software frameworks for constructing and deploying con gurable system software, (2) applcation of these frameworks to HPC-oriented adaptable networking software, (3) performance analysis of HPC system software to understand opportunities for performance optimization.

  6. An Adaptive Middleware Framework for Scientific Computing at Extreme Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Gosney, Arzu; Oehmen, Christopher S.; Wynne, Adam S.; Almquist, Justin P.

    2010-08-04

    Large computing systems including clusters, clouds, and grids, provide high-performance capabilities that can be utilized for many applications. But as the ubiquity of these systems increases and the scope of analysis being done on them grows, there is a growing need for applications that 1) do not require users to learn the details of high performance systems, and 2) are flexible and adaptive in their usage of these systems to accommodate the best time-to-solution for end users. We introduce a new adaptive interface design and a prototype implementation within the framework of an established middleware framework, MeDICi, for high performance computing systems and describe the applicability of this adaptive design to a real-life scientific workflow. This adaptive framework provides an access model for implementing a processing pipeline using high performance systems that are not local to the data source, making it possible for the compute capabilities at one site to be applied to analysis on data being generated at another site in an automated process. This adaptive design improves overall time-to-solution by moving the data analysis task to the most appropriate resource dynamically, reacting to failures and load fluctuations.

  7. Adaptive invasive species distribution models: A framework for modeling incipient invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uden, Daniel R.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Corral, Lucia; Fricke, Kent A.

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of species distribution model(s) (SDM) for approximating, explaining, and predicting changes in species’ geographic locations is increasingly promoted for proactive ecological management. Although frameworks for modeling non-invasive species distributions are relatively well developed, their counterparts for invasive species—which may not be at equilibrium within recipient environments and often exhibit rapid transformations—are lacking. Additionally, adaptive ecological management strategies address the causes and effects of biological invasions and other complex issues in social-ecological systems. We conducted a review of biological invasions, species distribution models, and adaptive practices in ecological management, and developed a framework for adaptive, niche-based, invasive species distribution model (iSDM) development and utilization. This iterative, 10-step framework promotes consistency and transparency in iSDM development, allows for changes in invasive drivers and filters, integrates mechanistic and correlative modeling techniques, balances the avoidance of type 1 and type 2 errors in predictions, encourages the linking of monitoring and management actions, and facilitates incremental improvements in models and management across space, time, and institutional boundaries. These improvements are useful for advancing coordinated invasive species modeling, management and monitoring from local scales to the regional, continental and global scales at which biological invasions occur and harm native ecosystems and economies, as well as for anticipating and responding to biological invasions under continuing global change.

  8. A Program Management Framework for Facilities Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The challenge faced by senior facility leaders is not how to execute a single project, but rather, how to successfully execute a large program consisting of hundreds of projects. Senior facilities officers at universities, school districts, hospitals, airports, and other organizations with extensive facility inventories, typically manage project…

  9. An adaptive online learning framework for practical breast cancer diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Tianshu; Wang, Jie; Chen, Jiayu

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an adaptive online learning (OL) framework for supporting clinical breast cancer (BC) diagnosis. Unlike traditional data mining, which trains a particular model from a fixed set of medical data, our framework offers robust OL models that can be updated adaptively according to new data sequences and newly discovered features. As a result, our framework can naturally learn to perform BC diagnosis using experts' opinions on sequential patient cases with cumulative clinical measurements. The framework integrates both supervised learning (SL) models for BC risk assessment and reinforcement learning (RL) models for decision-making of clinical measurements. In other words, online SL and RL interact with one another, and under a doctor's supervision, push the patient's diagnosis further. Furthermore, our framework can quickly update relevant model parameters based on current diagnosis information during the training process. Additionally, it can build flexible fitted models by integrating different model structures and plugging in the corresponding parameters during the prediction (or decision-making) process. Even when the feature space is extended, it can initialize the corresponding parameters and extend the existing model structure without loss of the cumulative knowledge. We evaluate the OL framework on real datasets from BCSC and WBC, and demonstrate that our SL models achieve accurate BC risk assessment from sequential data and incremental features. We also verify that the well-trained RL models provide promising measurement suggestions.

  10. Adaptive management for ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Birgé, Hannah E; Allen, Craig R; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Pope, Kevin L

    2016-12-01

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex internal feedbacks, and non-linearity that often interferes with desired management outcomes, and insufficient understanding of nature and people. Adaptive management was developed to reduce such uncertainty. We present a framework for the application of adaptive management for ecosystem services that explicitly accounts for cross-scale tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services. Our framework focuses on identifying key spatiotemporal scales (plot, patch, ecosystem, landscape, and region) that encompass dominant structures and processes in the system, and includes within- and cross-scale dynamics, ecosystem service tradeoffs, and management controllability within and across scales. Resilience theory recognizes that a limited set of ecological processes in a given system regulate ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes is poorly understood. If management actions erode or remove these processes, the system may shift into an alternative state unlikely to support the production of desired services. Adaptive management provides a process to assess the underlying within and cross-scale tradeoffs associated with production of ecosystem services while proceeding with management designed to meet the demands of a growing human population.

  11. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a) | Science ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex internal feedbacks, and non-linearity that often interferes with desired management outcomes, and insufficient understanding of nature and people. Adaptive management was developed to reduce such uncertainty. We present a framework for the application of adaptive management for ecosystem services that explicitly accounts for cross-scale tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services. Our framework focuses on identifying key spatiotemporal scales (plot, patch, ecosystem, landscape, and region) that encompass dominant structures and processes in the system, and includes within- and cross-scale dynamics, ecosystem service tradeoffs, and management controllability within and across scales. Resilience theory recognizes that a limited set of ecological processes in a given system regulate ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes is poorly understood. If management actions erode or remove these processes, the system may shift into an alternative state unlikely to support the production of desired services. Adaptive management provides a process to assess the underlying within and cross-scale tradeoffs associated with production of ecosystem services while proceeding with manage

  12. Adaptive Management for a Turbulent Future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Pope, Kevin L.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  13. Adaptive management for a turbulent future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Fontaine, J.J.; Pope, K.L.; Garmestani, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  14. Framework for adaptive content delivery in heterogeneous network environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wei-Ying; Bedner, Ilja; Chang, Grace; Kuchinsky, Allan; Zhang, HongJiang

    1999-12-01

    The explosive growth of the Internet has come with increasing diversity and heterogeneity in terms of client device capability, network bandwidth, and user preferences. To date, most Web content has been designed with desktop computers in mind, and often contains rich media such as images, audio, and video. In many cases, this content is not suitable for devices like netTVs, handheld computers, personal digital assistants, and smart phones with relatively limited display capability, storage, processing power, and network access. Thus, Internet access is still constrained on these devices and there is a need to develop alternative approaches for information delivery. In this paper, we propose a framework for adaptive content delivery in heterogeneous environments. The goal is to improve content accessibility and perceived quality of service for information access under changing network and viewer conditions. The framework includes content adaptation algorithms, client capability and network bandwidth discovery methods, and a Decision Engine for determining when and how to adapt content. We describe this framework, initial system implementations based upon this framework, and the issues associated with the deployment of such systems based on different architectures.

  15. An extended framework for adaptive playback-based video summarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peker, Kadir A.; Divakaran, Ajay

    2003-11-01

    In our previous work, we described an adaptive fast playback framework for video summarization where we changed the playback rate using the motion activity feature so as to maintain a constant "pace." This method provides an effective way of skimming through video, especially when the motion is not too complex and the background is mostly still, such as in surveillance video. In this paper, we present an extended summarization framework that, in addition to motion activity, uses semantic cues such as face or skin color appearance, speech and music detection, or other domain dependent semantically significant events to control the playback rate. The semantic features we use are computationally inexpensive and can be computed in compressed domain, yet are robust, reliable, and have a wide range of applicability across different content types. The presented framework also allows for adaptive summaries based on preference, for example, to include more dramatic vs. action elements, or vice versa. The user can switch at any time between the skimming and the normal playback modes. The continuity of the video is preserved, and complete omission of segments that may be important to the user is avoided by using adaptive fast playback instead of skipping over long segments. The rule-set and the input parameters can be further modified to fit a certain domain or application. Our framework can be used by itself, or as a subsequent presentation stage for a summary produced by any other summarization technique that relies on generating a sub-set of the content.

  16. Confirming the Stankosky Knowledge Management Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ternes, Carl D., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    As a managerial construct, knowledge management (KM) optimizes organizational knowledge assets to achieve sustainable business advantages by connecting people with the intellectual resources needed to operate more effectively. Yet KM may have its greatest impact when used with repeatable, systems engineering-based "frameworks." As such, this study…

  17. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options☆

    PubMed Central

    Reed, M.S.; Podesta, G.; Fazey, I.; Geeson, N.; Hessel, R.; Hubacek, K.; Letson, D.; Nainggolan, D.; Prell, C.; Rickenbach, M.G.; Ritsema, C.; Schwilch, G.; Stringer, L.C.; Thomas, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change. PMID:25844020

  18. Combining analytical frameworks to assess livelihood vulnerability to climate change and analyse adaptation options.

    PubMed

    Reed, M S; Podesta, G; Fazey, I; Geeson, N; Hessel, R; Hubacek, K; Letson, D; Nainggolan, D; Prell, C; Rickenbach, M G; Ritsema, C; Schwilch, G; Stringer, L C; Thomas, A D

    2013-10-01

    Experts working on behalf of international development organisations need better tools to assist land managers in developing countries maintain their livelihoods, as climate change puts pressure on the ecosystem services that they depend upon. However, current understanding of livelihood vulnerability to climate change is based on a fractured and disparate set of theories and methods. This review therefore combines theoretical insights from sustainable livelihoods analysis with other analytical frameworks (including the ecosystem services framework, diffusion theory, social learning, adaptive management and transitions management) to assess the vulnerability of rural livelihoods to climate change. This integrated analytical framework helps diagnose vulnerability to climate change, whilst identifying and comparing adaptation options that could reduce vulnerability, following four broad steps: i) determine likely level of exposure to climate change, and how climate change might interact with existing stresses and other future drivers of change; ii) determine the sensitivity of stocks of capital assets and flows of ecosystem services to climate change; iii) identify factors influencing decisions to develop and/or adopt different adaptation strategies, based on innovation or the use/substitution of existing assets; and iv) identify and evaluate potential trade-offs between adaptation options. The paper concludes by identifying interdisciplinary research needs for assessing the vulnerability of livelihoods to climate change.

  19. Adaptive Management: From More Talk to Real Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Byron K.; Brown, Eleanor D.

    2014-02-01

    The challenges currently facing resource managers are large-scale and complex, and demand new approaches to balance development and conservation goals. One approach that shows considerable promise for addressing these challenges is adaptive management, which by now is broadly seen as a natural, intuitive, and potentially effective way to address decision-making in the face of uncertainties. Yet the concept of adaptive management continues to evolve, and its record of success remains limited. In this article, we present an operational framework for adaptive decision-making, and describe the challenges and opportunities in applying it to real-world problems. We discuss the key elements required for adaptive decision-making, and their integration into an iterative process that highlights and distinguishes technical and social learning. We illustrate the elements and processes of the framework with some successful on-the-ground examples of natural resource management. Finally, we address some of the difficulties in applying learning-based management, and finish with a discussion of future directions and strategic challenges.

  20. Frameworks for amending reservoir water management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mower, Ethan; Miranda, Leandro E.

    2013-01-01

    Managing water storage and withdrawals in many reservoirs requires establishing seasonal targets for water levels (i.e., rule curves) that are influenced by regional precipitation and diverse water demands. Rule curves are established as an attempt to balance various water needs such as flood control, irrigation, and environmental benefits such as fish and wildlife management. The processes and challenges associated with amending rule curves to balance multiuse needs are complicated and mostly unfamiliar to non-US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) natural resource managers and to the public. To inform natural resource managers and the public we describe the policies and process involved in amending rule curves in USACE reservoirs, including 3 frameworks: a general investigation, a continuing authority program, and the water control plan. Our review suggests that water management in reservoirs can be amended, but generally a multitude of constraints and competing demands must be addressed before such a change can be realized.

  1. Adaptive Management of Computing and Network Resources for Spacecraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara; Welch, Lonnie R.; Detter, Ryan; Tjaden, Brett; Huh, Eui-Nam; Szczur, Martha R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    It is likely that NASA's future spacecraft systems will consist of distributed processes which will handle dynamically varying workloads in response to perceived scientific events, the spacecraft environment, spacecraft anomalies and user commands. Since all situations and possible uses of sensors cannot be anticipated during pre-deployment phases, an approach for dynamically adapting the allocation of distributed computational and communication resources is needed. To address this, we are evolving the DeSiDeRaTa adaptive resource management approach to enable reconfigurable ground and space information systems. The DeSiDeRaTa approach embodies a set of middleware mechanisms for adapting resource allocations, and a framework for reasoning about the real-time performance of distributed application systems. The framework and middleware will be extended to accommodate (1) the dynamic aspects of intra-constellation network topologies, and (2) the complete real-time path from the instrument to the user. We are developing a ground-based testbed that will enable NASA to perform early evaluation of adaptive resource management techniques without the expense of first deploying them in space. The benefits of the proposed effort are numerous, including the ability to use sensors in new ways not anticipated at design time; the production of information technology that ties the sensor web together; the accommodation of greater numbers of missions with fewer resources; and the opportunity to leverage the DeSiDeRaTa project's expertise, infrastructure and models for adaptive resource management for distributed real-time systems.

  2. A century scale human-induced hydrological and ecological changes of wetlands of two large river basins in Australia (Murray) and China (Yangtze): development of an adaptive water resource management framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattel, G. R.; Dong, X.; Yang, X.

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the provision of food and water resources of two of the world's large river basins, the Murray and the Yangtze, has been significantly altered through widespread landscape modification. Long-term sedimentary archives, dating back to past centuries, from wetlands of these river basins reveal that rapid, basin-wide development has reduced resilience of biological communities, resulting in considerable decline in ecosystem services, including water quality. In particular, large-scale human disturbance to river systems, due to river regulation during the mid-20th century, has transformed the hydrology of rivers and wetlands, causing widespread disturbance to aquatic biological communities. Historical changes of cladoceran zooplankton (water fleas) were used to assess the hydrology and ecology of three Murray and Yangtze River wetlands over the past century. Subfossil assemblages of cladocerans retrieved from sediment cores (94, 45 and 65 cm) of three wetlands: Kings Billabong (Murray), Zhangdu and Liangzi Lakes (Yangtze) strongly responded to hydrological changes of the river after the mid-20th century. River regulation caused by construction of dams and weirs, and river channel modifications has led to hydrological alterations. The hydrological disturbances were either: (1) a prolonged inundation of wetlands, or (2) reduced river flow, which caused variability in wetland depth. These phenomena subsequently transformed the natural wetland habitats, leading to a switch in cladoceran assemblages preferring poor water quality and eutrophication. An adaptive water resource management framework for both of these river basins has been proposed to restore or optimize the conditions of wetland ecosystems impacted by 20th century human disturbance and climate change.

  3. IVHM Framework for Intelligent Integration for Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre; Trevino, Luis C.; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, this framework integrates technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear that IIVM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission objectives. These systems include the following: Guidance and Navigation; Communications and Tracking; Vehicle Monitoring; Information Transport and Integration; Vehicle Diagnostics; Vehicle Prognostics; Vehicle Mission Planning, Automated Repair and Replacement; Vehicle Control; Human Computer Interface; and Onboard Verification and Validation. Furthermore, the presented

  4. Adaptive grazing management experiment: The new frontier of grazing management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Adaptive Grazing Management experiment at the USDA-ARS Central Plains Experimental Range addresses important gaps in our current understanding of grazing management including: 1) lack of management-science partnerships to more fully understand the effect of management decisions, 2) need for mana...

  5. Improving our legacy: incorporation of adaptive management into state wildlife action plans.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Joseph J

    2011-05-01

    The loss of biodiversity is a mounting concern, but despite numerous attempts there are few large scale conservation efforts that have proven successful in reversing current declines. Given the challenge of biodiversity conservation, there is a need to develop strategic conservation plans that address species declines even with the inherent uncertainty in managing multiple species in complex environments. In 2002, the State Wildlife Grant program was initiated to fulfill this need, and while not explicitly outlined by Congress follows the fundamental premise of adaptive management, 'Learning by doing'. When action is necessary, but basic biological information and an understanding of appropriate management strategies are lacking, adaptive management enables managers to be proactive in spite of uncertainty. However, regardless of the strengths of adaptive management, the development of an effective adaptive management framework is challenging. In a review of 53 State Wildlife Action Plans, I found a keen awareness by planners that adaptive management was an effective method for addressing biodiversity conservation, but the development and incorporation of explicit adaptive management approaches within each plan remained elusive. Only ~25% of the plans included a framework for how adaptive management would be implemented at the project level within their state. There was, however, considerable support across plans for further development and implementation of adaptive management. By furthering the incorporation of adaptive management principles in conservation plans and explicitly outlining the decision making process, states will be poised to meet the pending challenges to biodiversity conservation.

  6. Improving our legacy: Incorporation of adaptive management into state wildlife action plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is a mounting concern, but despite numerous attempts there are few large scale conservation efforts that have proven successful in reversing current declines. Given the challenge of biodiversity conservation, there is a need to develop strategic conservation plans that address species declines even with the inherent uncertainty in managing multiple species in complex environments. In 2002, the State Wildlife Grant program was initiated to fulfill this need, and while not explicitly outlined by Congress follows the fundamental premise of adaptive management, 'Learning by doing'. When action is necessary, but basic biological information and an understanding of appropriate management strategies are lacking, adaptive management enables managers to be proactive in spite of uncertainty. However, regardless of the strengths of adaptive management, the development of an effective adaptive management framework is challenging. In a review of 53 State Wildlife Action Plans, I found a keen awareness by planners that adaptive management was an effective method for addressing biodiversity conservation, but the development and incorporation of explicit adaptive management approaches within each plan remained elusive. Only ???25% of the plans included a framework for how adaptive management would be implemented at the project level within their state. There was, however, considerable support across plans for further development and implementation of adaptive management. By furthering the incorporation of adaptive management principles in conservation plans and explicitly outlining the decision making process, states will be poised to meet the pending challenges to biodiversity conservation. ?? 2010 .

  7. 50 CFR 218.241 - Adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.241 Adaptive management. NMFS may modify (including...) Results from the Navy's monitoring from the previous year's operation of SURTASS LFA sonar. (b)...

  8. 50 CFR 218.241 - Adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.241 Adaptive management. NMFS may modify (including...) Results from the Navy's monitoring from the previous year's operation of SURTASS LFA sonar. (b)...

  9. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2001-12-20

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenancewithin the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior isinherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptivemanagement, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science isneeded.

  10. A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Management of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sea level rise is causing shoreline erosion, increased coastal flooding, and marsh vulnerability to the impact of storms. Coastal marshes provide flood abatement, carbon and nutrient sequestration, water quality maintenance, and habitat for fish, shellfish, and wildlife, including species of concern, such as the saltmarsh sparrow (Ammodramus caudacutus). We present a climate change adaptation strategy (CCAS) adopted by scientific, management, and policy stakeholders for managing coastal marshes and enhancing system resiliency. A common adaptive management approach previously used for restoration projects was modified to identify climate-related vulnerabilities and plan climate change adaptive actions. As an example of implementation of the CCAS, we describe the stakeholder plans and management actions the US Fish and Wildlife Service and partners developed to build coastal resiliency in the Narrow River Estuary, RI, in the aftermath of Superstorm Sandy. When possible, an experimental BACI (before-after, control-impact) design, described as pre- and post-sampling at the impact site and one or more control sites, was incorporated into the climate change adaptation and implementation plans. Specific climate change adaptive actions and monitoring plans are described and include shoreline stabilization, restoring marsh drainage, increasing marsh elevation, and enabling upland marsh migration. The CCAS provides a framework and methodology for successfully managing coa

  11. Risk management of sediment stress: a framework for sediment risk management research.

    PubMed

    Nietch, Christopher T; Borst, Michail; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph P

    2005-08-01

    Research related to the ecological risk management of sediment stress in watersheds is placed under a common conceptual framework in order to help promote the timely advance of decision support methods for aquatic resource managers and watershed-level planning. The proposed risk management research program relies heavily on model development and verification, and should be applied under an adaptive management approach. The framework is centered on using best management practices (BMPs), including eco-restoration. It is designed to encourage the development of numerical representations of the performance of these management options, the integration of this information into sediment transport simulation models that account for uncertainty in both input and output, and would use strategic environmental monitoring to guide sediment-related risk management decisions for mixed land use watersheds. The goal of this project was to provide a sound scientific framework based on recent state of the practice in sediment-related risk assessment and management for research and regulatory activities. As a result, shortcomings in the extant data and measurement and modeling tools were identified that can help determine future research direction. The compilation of information is beneficial to the coordination of related work being conducted within and across entities responsible for managing watershed-scale risks to aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Proliferation as a framework for adaptive planning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, M.A.

    1993-02-22

    Throughout the forty years of the cold war, the military proficiently demonstrated planning, exercising, and employing against weapons of mass destruction -- specifically nuclear weapons. However, this planning has never targeted the spread of those weapons. The four stages of proliferation (supply, demand, indigenous, threatening) provide a framework for using the adaptive planning concept and identifying proactive military objectives. The existence of nuclear technology, command and control of the weapons of mass destruction, associated moral issues, or the value of assured deterrence between two nuclear weapon states are not addressed. Weapons of mass destruction are the example used to examine the stages of proliferation. Once planning for proliferation of weapons of 'mass destruction has been proven effective, this framework can be applied to other types of proliferants such as narcotic trafficking and transfer of conventional/high technology arms.

  13. Fatigue Risk Management: A Maritime Framework

    PubMed Central

    Grech, Michelle Rita

    2016-01-01

    It is evident that despite efforts directed at mitigating the risk of fatigue through the adoption of hours of work and rest regulations and development of codes and guidelines, fatigue still remains a concern in shipping. Lack of fatigue management has been identified as a contributory factor in a number of recent accidents. This is further substantiated through research reports with shortfalls highlighted in current fatigue management approaches. These approaches mainly focus on prescriptive hours of work and rest and include an individualistic approach to managing fatigue. The expectation is that seafarers are responsible to manage and tolerate fatigue as part of their working life at sea. This attitude is an accepted part of a seafarer’s role. Poor compliance is one manifest of this problem with shipboard demands making it hard for seafarers to follow hours of work and rest regulations, forcing them into this “poor compliance” trap. This makes current fatigue management approaches ineffective. This paper proposes a risk based approach and way forward for the implementation of a fatigue risk management framework for shipping, aiming to support the hours of work and rest requirements. This forms part of the work currently underway to review and update the International Maritime Organization, Guidelines on Fatigue. PMID:26840326

  14. A New Adaptive Framework for Collaborative Filtering Prediction.

    PubMed

    Almosallam, Ibrahim A; Shang, Yi

    2008-06-01

    Collaborative filtering is one of the most successful techniques for recommendation systems and has been used in many commercial services provided by major companies including Amazon, TiVo and Netflix. In this paper we focus on memory-based collaborative filtering (CF). Existing CF techniques work well on dense data but poorly on sparse data. To address this weakness, we propose to use z-scores instead of explicit ratings and introduce a mechanism that adaptively combines global statistics with item-based values based on data density level. We present a new adaptive framework that encapsulates various CF algorithms and the relationships among them. An adaptive CF predictor is developed that can self adapt from user-based to item-based to hybrid methods based on the amount of available ratings. Our experimental results show that the new predictor consistently obtained more accurate predictions than existing CF methods, with the most significant improvement on sparse data sets. When applied to the Netflix Challenge data set, our method performed better than existing CF and singular value decomposition (SVD) methods and achieved 4.67% improvement over Netflix's system.

  15. A National Modeling Framework for Water Management Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bales, J. D.; Cline, D. W.; Pietrowsky, R.

    2013-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), all Federal agencies with complementary water-resources activities, entered into an Interagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) "Collaborative Science Services and Tools to Support Integrated and Adaptive Water Resources Management" to collaborate in activities that are supportive to their respective missions. One of the interagency activities is the development of a highly integrated national water modeling framework and information services framework. Together these frameworks establish a common operating picture, improve modeling and synthesis, support the sharing of data and products among agencies, and provide a platform for incorporation of new scientific understanding. Each of the agencies has existing operational systems to assist in carrying out their respective missions. The systems generally are designed, developed, tested, fielded, and supported by specialized teams. A broader, shared approach is envisioned and would include community modeling, wherein multiple independent investigators or teams develop and contribute new modeling capabilities based on science advances; modern technology in coupling model components and visualizing results; and a coupled atmospheric - hydrologic model construct such that the framework could be used in real-time water-resources decision making or for long-term management decisions. The framework also is being developed to account for organizational structures of the three partners such that, for example, national data sets can move down to the regional scale, and vice versa. We envision the national water modeling framework to be an important element of North American Water Program, to contribute to goals of the Program, and to be informed by the science and approaches developed as a part of the Program.

  16. Everglades Collaborative Adaptive Management Program Progress

    EPA Science Inventory

    When the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) was authorized in 2000, adaptive management (AM) was recognized as a necessary tool to address uncertainty in achieving the broad goals and objectives for restoring a highly managed system. The Everglades covers18,000 squ...

  17. A Framework to Manage Information Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. S.; King, T.; Crichton, D.; Walker, R.; Roberts, A.; Thieman, J.

    2008-05-01

    The Information Model is the foundation on which an Information System is built. It defines the entities to be processed, their attributes, and the relationships that add meaning. The development and subsequent management of the Information Model is the single most significant factor for the development of a successful information system. A framework of tools has been developed that supports the management of an information model with the rigor typically afforded to software development. This framework provides for evolutionary and collaborative development independent of system implementation choices. Once captured, the modeling information can be exported to common languages for the generation of documentation, application databases, and software code that supports both traditional and semantic web applications. This framework is being successfully used for several science information modeling projects including those for the Planetary Data System (PDS), the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), the National Cancer Institute's Early Detection Research Network (EDRN), and several Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) projects. The objective of the Space Physics Archive Search and Exchange (SPASE) program is to promote collaboration and coordination of archiving activity for the Space Plasma Physics community and ensure the compatibility of the architectures used for a global distributed system and the individual data centers. Over the past several years, the SPASE data model working group has made great progress in developing the SPASE Data Model and supporting artifacts including a data dictionary, XML Schema, and two ontologies. The authors have captured the SPASE Information Model in this framework. This allows the generation of documentation that presents the SPASE Information Model in object-oriented notation including UML class diagrams and class hierarchies. The modeling information can also be exported to semantic web languages such

  18. Adaptive Management Implementation: Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program Trinity River Restoration Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittler, R.; McBain, S.; Stalnaker, C.; Bizier, P.; DeBarry, P.

    2003-01-01

    Two adaptive management programs, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) and the Trinity River Restoration Program (TRRP) are examined. In both cases, the focus is on managing the aquatic and riparian systems downstream of a large dam and water supply project. The status of the two programs, lessons learned by the program managers and the Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management (AEAM) evolution of the TRRP are discussed. The Trinity River illustrates some of the scientific uncertainities that a program faces and the ways the program evolves from concept through implementation.

  19. A Novel Framework for Adaptation in Agriculture: Lessons Learned from California's Wine Industry (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholas, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    While crop yields are threatened by climate change, the management decisions of growers, including their practices to modify the microclimate experienced by the crop, can partially or even completely offset these damages. However, there have been few evaluations of adaptation on the farm scale, where managers are on the front lines of responding to global change. I will present a framework for classifying potential adaptations based on their temporal and spatial scale, their ease of implementation, and their effectiveness in altering or maintaining crop production. Applying this framework to the winegrowing industry in California, it appears that many strategies suggested in the literature for adaptation will either be of limited effectiveness, likely to be cost-prohibitive, or are not compatible with the current values of growers. However, interviews with and observations of winegrowers reveal that novel adaptations, not widely discussed in the literature, are already being employed, often by individuals in an experimental capacity and without community coordination. For example, in addition to irrigation, water is used to modify the vine microclimate for both heating (frost protection) and evaporative cooling. An analysis of responses to past environmental stresses in the wine industry revealed that growers tended to respond to stresses individually rather than collectively, except for severe, novel pests and diseases. Responses may be reactive or proactive; most proactive strategies have been short-term, in response to imminent stress. Growers tend to rely on their own experience to guide their management decisions, which may offer poor guidance under novel climate regimes. These findings highlight some of the difficulties expected in adapting to global change, as well as areas for strategic investments to enhance agricultural resilience to climate change. In particular, strategies to enhance the potential for effective proactive, collective responses could

  20. Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, Douglas K.; Sweeney, Susan M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  1. An open framework for risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, R.; Vandewart, R.; Wyss, G.; Funkhouser, D.

    1998-08-01

    Risk assessment methodologies are ready to enter their third generation. In this next generation, assessment will be based on a whole system understanding of the system to be assessed. To realize this vision of risk management, the authors have begun development of an extensible software tool kit. This tool kit breaks with the traditional approach to assessment by having the analyst spend the majority of the assessment time building an explicit model that documents in a single framework the various facets of the system, such as the system`s behavior, structure, and history. Given this explicit model of the system, a computer is able to automatically produce a standard assessment products, such as fault trees and event trees. This brings with it a number of advantages relative to current risk management tools. Among these are a greater sense of completeness and correctness in assessment results and the ability to preserve and later employ lessons learned.

  2. Visualization for learners: a framework for adapting scientists' tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelson, Daniel C.; Gordin, Douglas

    1998-08-01

    The use of scientific investigation tools for education is receiving considerable attention as a result of an increased emphasis in the educational community on open-ended inquiry. The scientific community possesses a treasure trove of tools that could be adapted for use by learners. Scientific visualization technologies, in particular, offer great promise for education because of the way they use visual representations to facilitate exploration of complex data. However, the tools that are used by scientists are inappropriate for learners because of their reliance on the tacit knowledge of expert users. Through a careful consideration of the differences between scientists and science students and the design of a series of scientific visualization environments for learners in grades 8-16, we have developed a design framework for the creation of scientific investigation tools based on those of scientists. The framework highlights five critical issues for the construction of tools to support inquiry-based learning: motivating context, learner-appropriate activities, data selection, scaffolding interfaces and support for learning. We have applied this framework to the design of ClimateWatcher, a scientific visualization environment for the investigation of issues related to global climate and climate change that is now in use in middle school, high school and university settings.

  3. 50 CFR 648.147 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Framework adjustments to management measures. 648.147 Section 648.147 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.147 Framework adjustments to management measures....

  4. 50 CFR 648.147 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Framework adjustments to management measures. 648.147 Section 648.147 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.147 Framework adjustments to management...

  5. 50 CFR 648.127 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Framework adjustments to management measures. 648.127 Section 648.127 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.127 Framework adjustments to management measures. Link to...

  6. Integrated Framework for an Urban Climate Adaptation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omitaomu, O.; Parish, E. S.; Nugent, P.; Mei, R.; Sylvester, L.; Ernst, K.; Absar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Cities have an opportunity to become more resilient to future climate change through investments made in urban infrastructure today. However, most cities lack access to credible high-resolution climate change projection information needed to assess and address potential vulnerabilities from future climate variability. Therefore, we present an integrated framework for developing an urban climate adaptation tool (Urban-CAT). Urban-CAT consists of four modules. Firstly, it provides climate projections at different spatial resolutions for quantifying urban landscape. Secondly, this projected data is combined with socio-economic data using leading and lagging indicators for assessing landscape vulnerability to climate extremes (e.g., urban flooding). Thirdly, a neighborhood scale modeling approach is presented for identifying candidate areas for adaptation strategies (e.g., green infrastructure as an adaptation strategy for urban flooding). Finally, all these capabilities are made available as a web-based tool to support decision-making and communication at the neighborhood and city levels. In this paper, we present some of the methods that drive each of the modules and demo some of the capabilities available to-date using the City of Knoxville in Tennessee as a case study.

  7. General Framework of Hearing Aid Fitting Management

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Soo Hee

    2016-01-01

    Hearing aids are one of the most widely used treatment options for the hearing impaired and optimal outcomes of hearing aids are supported by comprehensive hearing aid fitting protocols. Currently, the term 'hearing aid fitting' is prevalently used among service and industry sectors with its comprehensive procedures not systematically explicated. In addition, a variety of non-normalized guidelines for hearing aid fitting has led to non-uniform care, outcome variability, and dissatisfaction of the use of hearing aids. The main purpose of the present study is to suggest a general framework of standardized practice for hearing aid fitting management including its pre- and post-fitting stages. The management framework centers on its fitting process with its prior steps of assessment as well as its posterior steps of follow-up, thereby eliminating diverging interpretations and non-uniform practices. Outcomes of this study are also expected to improve potential benefits such as quality of hearing aid fitting, user satisfaction, and cost effectiveness across relevant stakeholders. PMID:27144226

  8. Implementing Adaptive Performance Management in Server Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; Gorton, Ian

    2007-06-11

    Performance and scalability are critical quality attributes for server applications in Internet-facing business systems. These applications operate in dynamic environments with rapidly fluctuating user loads and resource levels, and unpredictable system faults. Adaptive (autonomic) systems research aims to augment such server applications with intelligent control logic that can detect and react to sudden environmental changes. However, developing this adaptive logic is complex in itself. In addition, executing the adaptive logic consumes processing resources, and hence may (paradoxically) adversely affect application performance. In this paper we describe an approach for developing high-performance adaptive server applications and the supporting technology. The Adaptive Server Framework (ASF) is built on standard middleware services, and can be used to augment legacy systems with adaptive behavior without needing to change the application business logic. Crucially, ASF provides built-in control loop components to optimize the overall application performance, which comprises both the business and adaptive logic. The control loop is based on performance models and allows systems designers to tune the performance levels simply by modifying high level declarative policies. We demonstrate the use of ASF in a case study.

  9. The US Forest Service Framework for Climate Adaptation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleaves, D.

    2013-12-01

    Public lands are changing in response to climate change and related stressors such that resilience-based management plans that integrate climate-smart adaptation are needed. The goal of these plans is to facilitate land managers' consideration of a range of potential futures while simplifying the complex array of choices and assumptions in a rigorous, defensible manner. The foundation for climate response has been built into recent Forest Service policies, guidance, and strategies like the climate change Roadmap and Scorecard; 2012 Planning Rule; Cohesive Wildland Fire Management strategy; and Inventory, Monitoring & Assessment strategy. This has driven the need for information that is relevant, timely, and accessible to support vulnerability assessments and risk management to aid in designing and choosing alternatives and ranking actions. Managers must also consider carbon and greenhouse gas implications as well as understand the nature and level of uncertainties. The major adjustments that need to be made involve: improving risk-based decision making and working with predictive models and information; evaluating underlying assumptions against new realities and possibilities being revealed by climate science; integrating carbon cycle science and a new ethic of carbon stewardship into management practices; and preparing systems for inevitable changes to ameliorate negative effects, capture opportunities, or accept different and perhaps novel ecosystem configurations. We need to avoid waiting for complete science that never arrives and take actions that blend science and experience to boost learning, reduce costs and irreversible losses, and buy lead time.

  10. Urban water sustainability: an integrative framework for regional water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N. K.

    2015-11-01

    Traditional urban water supply portfolios have proven to be unsustainable under the uncertainties associated with growth and long-term climate variability. Introducing alternative water supplies such as recycled water, captured runoff, desalination, as well as demand management strategies such as conservation and efficiency measures, has been widely proposed to address the long-term sustainability of urban water resources. Collaborative efforts have the potential to achieve this goal through more efficient use of common pool resources and access to funding opportunities for supply diversification projects. However, this requires a paradigm shift towards holistic solutions that address the complexity of hydrologic, socio-economic and governance dynamics surrounding water management issues. The objective of this work is to develop a regional integrative framework for the assessment of water resource sustainability under current management practices, as well as to identify opportunities for sustainability improvement in coupled socio-hydrologic systems. We define the sustainability of a water utility as the ability to access reliable supplies to consistently satisfy current needs, make responsible use of supplies, and have the capacity to adapt to future scenarios. To compute a quantitative measure of sustainability, we develop a numerical index comprised of supply, demand, and adaptive capacity indicators, including an innovative way to account for the importance of having diverse supply sources. We demonstrate the application of this framework to the Hetch Hetchy Regional Water System in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. Our analyses demonstrate that water agencies that share common water supplies are in a good position to establish integrative regional management partnerships in order to achieve individual and collective short-term and long-term benefits.

  11. Toward consensus on self-management support: the international chronic condition self-management support framework.

    PubMed

    Mills, Susan L; Brady, Teresa J; Jayanthan, Janaki; Ziabakhsh, Shabnam; Sargious, Peter M

    2016-05-30

    Self-management support (SMS) initiatives have been hampered by insufficient attention to underserved and disadvantaged populations, a lack of integration between health, personal and social domains, over emphasis on individual responsibility and insufficient attention to ethical issues. This paper describes a SMS framework that provides guidance in developing comprehensive and coordinated approaches to SMS that may address these gaps and provides direction for decision makers in developing and implementing SMS initiatives in key areas at local levels. The framework was developed by researchers, policy-makers, practitioners and consumers from 5 English-speaking countries and reviewed by 203 individuals in 16 countries using an e-survey process. While developments in SMS will inevitably reflect local and regional contexts and needs, the strategic framework provides an emerging consensus on how we need to move SMS conceptualization, planning and development forward. The framework provides definitions of self-management (SM) and SMS, a collective vision, eight guiding principles and seven strategic directions. The framework combines important and relevant SM issues into a strategic document that provides potential value to the SMS field by helping decision-makers plan SMS initiatives that reflect local and regional needs and by catalyzing and expanding our thinking about the SMS field in relation to system thinking; shared responsibility; health equity and ethical issues. The framework was developed with the understanding that our knowledge and experience of SMS is continually evolving and that it should be modified and adapted as more evidence is available, and approaches in SMS advance.

  12. Cyclone preparedness and response: an analysis of lessons identified using an adapted military planning framework.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Peter; Oloruntoba, Richard; Spens, Karen

    2012-01-01

    The United Kingdom uses the Defence Lines of Development (DLOD) framework to analyse and understand the key components and costs of a military capability. Rooted in the Resource Based View (RBV) of a firm, an adapted DLOD approach is employed to explore, analyse and discuss the preparedness, planning and response strategies of two markedly different countries (Australia and Bangladesh) when faced with a major cyclone event of a comparable size. Given the numerous similarities in the challenges facing military forces in a complex emergency and humanitarian agencies in a natural disaster, the paper demonstrates the applicability of the DLOD framework as an analysis and planning tool in the cyclone preparedness planning and response phases, and more broadly within the disaster management area. In addition, the paper highlights the benefit to disaster managers, policymakers and researchers of exploiting comparative cross-learning opportunities from disaster events, drawn from different sectors and countries.

  13. A framework for adaptive monitoring of the cumulative effects of human footprint on biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Burton, A Cole; Huggard, David; Bayne, Erin; Schieck, Jim; Sólymos, Péter; Muhly, Tyler; Farr, Dan; Boutin, Stan

    2014-06-01

    Effective ecological monitoring is imperative in a human-dominated world, as our ability to manage functioning ecosystems will depend on understanding biodiversity responses to anthropogenic impacts. Yet, most monitoring efforts have either been narrowly focused on particular sites, species and stressors - thus inadequately considering the cumulative effects of multiple, interacting impacts at scales of management relevance - or too unfocused to provide specific guidance. We propose a cumulative effects monitoring framework that integrates multi-scaled surveillance of trends in biodiversity and land cover with targeted evaluation of hypothesized drivers of change. The framework is grounded in a flexible conceptual model and uses monitoring to generate and test empirical models that relate the status of diverse taxonomic groups to the nature and extent of human "footprint" and other landscape attributes. An adaptive cycle of standardized sampling, model development, and model evaluation provides a means to learn about the system and guide management. Additional benefits of the framework include standardized data on status and trend for a wide variety of biodiversity elements, spatially explicit models for regional planning and scenario evaluation, and identification of knowledge gaps for complementary research. We describe efforts to implement the framework in Alberta, Canada, through the Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute, and identify key challenges to be addressed.

  14. 77 FR 74203 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  15. 75 FR 51284 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  16. 75 FR 10501 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  17. 77 FR 50155 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  18. 77 FR 30314 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  19. 76 FR 14044 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  20. 76 FR 23621 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  1. 75 FR 17158 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  2. 76 FR 34248 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  3. 77 FR 10766 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  4. 75 FR 70947 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  5. 75 FR 27814 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ...-W4] Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River...

  6. Learning and adaptation in the management of waterfowl harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2011-01-01

    A formal framework for the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests was adopted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1995. The process admits competing models of waterfowl population dynamics and harvest impacts, and relies on model averaging to compute optimal strategies for regulating harvest. Model weights, reflecting the relative ability of the alternative models to predict changes in population size, are used in the model averaging and are updated each year based on a comparison of model predictions and observations of population size. Since its inception the adaptive harvest program has focused principally on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), which constitute a large portion of the U.S. waterfowl harvest. Four competing models, derived from a combination of two survival and two reproductive hypotheses, were originally assigned equal weights. In the last year of available information (2007), model weights favored the weakly density-dependent reproductive hypothesis over the strongly density-dependent one, and the additive mortality hypothesis over the compensatory one. The change in model weights led to a more conservative harvesting policy than what was in effect in the early years of the program. Adaptive harvest management has been successful in many ways, but nonetheless has exposed the difficulties in defining management objectives, in predicting and regulating harvests, and in coping with the tradeoffs inherent in managing multiple waterfowl stocks exposed to a common harvest. The key challenge now facing managers is whether adaptive harvest management as an institution can be sufficiently adaptive, and whether the knowledge and experience gained from the process can be reflected in higher-level policy decisions.

  7. A Multiscale Computational Framework to Understand Vascular Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Garbey, Marc; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berceli, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The failure rate for vascular interventions (vein bypass grafting, arterial angioplasty/stenting) remains unacceptably high. Over the past two decades, researchers have applied a wide variety of approaches to investigate the primary failure mechanisms, neointimal hyperplasia and aberrant remodeling of the wall, in an effort to identify novel therapeutic strategies. Despite incremental progress, specific cause/effect linkages among the primary drivers of the pathology, (hemodynamic factors, inflammatory biochemical mediators, cellular effectors) and vascular occlusive phenotype remain lacking. We propose a multiscale computational framework of vascular adaptation to develop a bridge between theory and experimental observation and to provide a method for the systematic testing of relevant clinical hypotheses. Cornerstone to our model is a feedback mechanism between environmental conditions and dynamic tissue plasticity described at the cellular level with an agent based model. Our implementation (i) is modular, (ii) starts from basic mechano-biology principle at the cell level and (iii) facilitates the agile development of the model. PMID:25977733

  8. Risk management frameworks for human health and environmental risks.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Cindy; Hrudey, Steve; Shortreed, John; Craig, Lorraine; Krewski, Daniel; Furgal, Chris; McColl, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    (formative, process, and outcome evaluation), and be prepared to change the decision if new information becomes available. Comprehensive and sound principles are critical to providing structure and integrity to risk management frameworks. Guiding principles are intended to provide an ethical grounding for considering the many factors involved in risk management decision making. Ten principles are proposed to guide risk management decision making. The first four principles were adapted and modified from Hattis (1996) along with the addition of two more principles by Hrudey (2000). These have been supplemented by another four principles to make the 10 presented. The principles are based in fundamental ethical principles and values. These principles are intended to be aspirational rather than prescriptive--their application requires flexibility and practical judgement. Risk management is inherently a process in search of balance among competing interests and concerns. Each risk management decision will be "balancing act" of competing priorities, and trade-offs may sometimes have to be made between seemingly conflicting principles. The 10 decision-making principles, with the corresponding ethical principle in italics are: 1. Do more good than harm (beneficence, nonmalificence).- The ultimate goal of good risk management is to prevent or minimize risk, or to "do good" as much as possible. 2. Fair process of decision making (fairness, natural justice). - Risk management must be just, equitable, impartial, unbiased, dispassionate, and objective as far as possible given the circumstances of each situation. 3. Ensure an equitable distribution of risk (equity). - An equitable process of risk management would ensure fair outcomes and equal treatment of all concerned through an equal distribution of benefits and burdens (includes the concept of distributive justice, i.e., equal opportunities for all individuals). 4. Seek optimal use of limited risk management resources (utility

  9. Generating Adaptive Behaviour within a Memory-Prediction Framework

    PubMed Central

    Rawlinson, David; Kowadlo, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    The Memory-Prediction Framework (MPF) and its Hierarchical-Temporal Memory implementation (HTM) have been widely applied to unsupervised learning problems, for both classification and prediction. To date, there has been no attempt to incorporate MPF/HTM in reinforcement learning or other adaptive systems; that is, to use knowledge embodied within the hierarchy to control a system, or to generate behaviour for an agent. This problem is interesting because the human neocortex is believed to play a vital role in the generation of behaviour, and the MPF is a model of the human neocortex. We propose some simple and biologically-plausible enhancements to the Memory-Prediction Framework. These cause it to explore and interact with an external world, while trying to maximize a continuous, time-varying reward function. All behaviour is generated and controlled within the MPF hierarchy. The hierarchy develops from a random initial configuration by interaction with the world and reinforcement learning only. Among other demonstrations, we show that a 2-node hierarchy can learn to successfully play “rocks, paper, scissors” against a predictable opponent. PMID:22272231

  10. A service-oriented medical framework for fast and adaptive information delivery in mobile environment.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjeong; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2009-11-01

    The need for fast treatment of patients in critical conditions motivates the use of mobile devices to provide prompt and consistent communication between hospitals and physicians. We propose a framework that supports ubiquitous access to medical systems using personalized mobile services and integrated medical systems. The proposed service-oriented medical framework provides dynamically composed services that are adapted to contextual variables such as the user's role, the network bandwidth, and resources available at mobile devices while supporting task allocation in distributed servers for massive resource-consuming services. It also manages accurate patient data by integrating local medical systems using medical information standards such as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine and Health Level 7. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our framework by building a prototype of context-based adaptation of computerized tomography image retrieval for acute stroke treatments, which allows images to be viewed on mobile devices with WiMax wireless network. The proposed medical framework reduces hospital delays of patients and facilitates treatments in the absence of medical specialists.

  11. An Open IMS-Based User Modelling Approach for Developing Adaptive Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boticario, Jesus G.; Santos, Olga C.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive LMS have not yet reached the eLearning marketplace due to methodological, technological and management open issues. At aDeNu group, we have been working on two key challenges for the last five years in related research projects. Firstly, develop the general framework and a running architecture to support the adaptive life cycle (i.e.,…

  12. The Resilience Assessment Framework: a common indicator for land management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Annette; Metternicht, Graciela; O'Connell, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    At the Rio+20 conference in June 2013, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reinforced their mutual interests in building linkages between biodiversity conservation, sustainable land management, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. The UNCCD sees building resilience of agro-ecosystems as a common interest that could strengthen linkages between the conventions and deliver synergies in progressing goals of each of the conventions. Furthermore, enhancing resilience of productive agro-ecosystems is fundamental to food security and sustainable development, and thus aligns with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Global Environment Facility (GEF) shares the interest of the conventions in building resilience in agro-ecosystems. Indicators of resilience are required for monitoring progress in these endeavors, application of a common indicator between the UNCCD, UNFCCC and CBD as a measure of both land-based adaptation and ecosystem resilience, could strengthen links between the conventions and increase attention to the broad benefits of improved land management. Consequently, the Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) to the GEF commissioned the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to produce a report reviewing the conceptual basis for resilience, and proposing an indicator approach that could meet the needs of the Conventions and the GEF for an indicator of agro-ecosystem resilience and land-based adaption. The paper presents a synthesis of scientific understanding of resilience in agro-ecosystems, reviews indicators that have been proposed, and, having concluded that none of the extant indicator approaches adequately assesses resilience of agro-ecosystems, proposes a new approach to the assessment of resilience. Recognizing that no single indicator of resilience is

  13. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-06-16

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.

  14. Adaptable Learning Assistant for Item Bank Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuntiyagul, Atorn; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Wongsawang, Damras

    2008-01-01

    We present PKIP, an adaptable learning assistant tool for managing question items in item banks. PKIP is not only able to automatically assist educational users to categorize the question items into predefined categories by their contents but also to correctly retrieve the items by specifying the category and/or the difficulty level. PKIP adapts…

  15. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social–ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives. PMID:26082542

  16. Adaptive management for drought on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management for drought on rangelands encompasses 1) enterprise flexibility – herd structure where the proportion of cow-calf pairs and yearlings provides plasticity to match forage availability with forage demand, with advantages to economic returns and increased resiliency of plant communi...

  17. An Assessment of Integrated Health Management Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Lybeck, Nancy; Coble, Jamie B.; Tawfik, Magdy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-05-18

    In order to meet the ever increasing demand for energy, the United States nuclear industry is turning to life extension of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs). Economically ensuring the safe, secure, and reliable operation of aging NPPs presents many challenges. The 2009 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop identified online monitoring of active and structural components as essential to better understanding and management of the challenges posed by aging NPPs. Additionally, there is increasing adoption of condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components in NPPs. These techniques provide a foundation upon which a variety of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic, and prognostic techniques can be deployed to continuously monitor and assess the health of NPP systems and components. The next step in the development of advanced online monitoring is to move beyond CBM to estimating the remaining useful life of active components using prognostic tools. Deployment of prognostic health management (PHM) on the scale of an NPP requires the use of an integrated health management (IHM) framework - a software product (or suite of products) used to manage the necessary elements needed for a complete implementation of online monitoring and prognostics. This paper provides a thoughtful look at the desirable functions and features of IHM architectures. A full PHM system involves several modules, including data acquisition, system modeling, fault detection, fault diagnostics, system prognostics, and advisory generation (operations and maintenance planning). The standards applicable to PHM applications are indentified and summarized. A list of evaluation criteria for PHM software products, developed to ensure scalability of the toolset to an environment with the complexity of an NPP, is presented. Fourteen commercially available PHM software products are identified and classified into four groups: research tools, PHM system development tools, deployable architectures

  18. 50 CFR 648.24 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Framework adjustments to management measures. 648.24 Section 648.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.24 Framework...

  19. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, S.K.; Morris, J.K.; Sanders, J.S.; Wiley, E.N.; Brooks, M.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.; Marynowski, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  20. Adaptive Resource Management Technology for Satellite Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Lonnie; Tjaden, Brett; Pfarr, Barbara B.; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This manuscript describes the Sensor Web Adaptive Resource Manager (SWARM) project. The primary focus of the project is on the design and prototyping of middleware for managing computing and network resources in a way that enables the information systems of satellite constellations to provide realtime performance within dynamic environments. The middleware has been prototyped, and it has been evaluated by employing it to manage a pool of distributed resources for the ITOS (Integrated Test and Operations System) satellite command and control software system. The design of the middleware is discussed and a summary of the evaluation effort is provided.

  1. Designing Forest Adaptation Experiments through Manager-Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, L. M.; Swanston, C.; Janowiak, M.

    2014-12-01

    Three common forest adaptation options discussed in the context of an uncertain future climate are: creating resistance, promoting resilience, and enabling forests to respond to change. Though there is consensus on the broad management goals addressed by each of these options, translating these concepts into management plans specific for individual forest types that vary in structure, composition, and function remains a challenge. We will describe a decision-making framework that we employed within a manager-scientist partnership to develop a suite of adaptation treatments for two contrasting forest types as part of a long-term forest management experiment. The first, in northern Minnesota, is a red pine-dominated forest with components of white pine, aspen, paper birch, and northern red oak, with a hazel understory. The second, in southwest Colorado, is a warm-dry mixed conifer forest dominated by ponderosa pine, white fir, and Douglas-fir, with scattered aspen and an understory of Gambel oak. The current conditions at both sites are characterized by overstocking with moderate-to-high fuel loading, vulnerability to numerous forest health threats, and are generally uncharacteristic of historic structure and composition. The desired future condition articulated by managers for each site included elements of historic structure and natural range of variability, but were greatly tempered by known vulnerabilities and projected changes to climate and disturbance patterns. The resultant range of treatments we developed are distinct for each forest type, and address a wide range of management objectives.

  2. Accelerating adaptation of natural resource management to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn A F

    2013-02-01

    Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants' self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world.

  3. A Behavioral Framework for Managing Massive Airline Flight Disruptions through Crisis Management, Organization Development, and Organization Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tulinda Deegan

    In this study the researcher provides a behavioral framework for managing massive airline flight disruptions (MAFD) in the United States. Under conditions of MAFD, multiple flights are disrupted throughout the airline's route network, customer service is negatively affected, additional costs are created for airlines, and governments intervene. This study is different from other studies relating to MAFD that have focused on the operational, technical, economic, financial, and customer service impacts. The researcher argues that airlines could improve the management of events that led to MAFD by applying the principles of crisis management where the entire organization is mobilized, rather than one department, adapting organization development (OD) interventions to implement change and organization learning (OL) processes to create culture of innovation, resulting in sustainable improvement in customer service, cost reductions, and mitigation of government intervention. At the intersection of crisis management, OD, and OL, the researcher has developed a new conceptual framework that enhances the resiliency of individuals and organizations in responding to unexpected-yet-recurring crises (e.g., MAFD) that impact operations. The researcher has adapted and augmented Lalonde's framework for managing crises through OD interventions by including OL processes. The OD interventions, coupled with OL, provide a framework for airline leaders to manage more effectively events that result in MAFD with the goal of improving passenger satisfaction, reducing costs, and preventing further government intervention. Further research is warranted to apply this conceptual framework to unexpected-yet-recurring crises that affect operations in other industries.

  4. A theoretical stochastic control framework for adapting radiotherapy to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Saberian, Fatemeh; Ghate, Archis; Kim, Minsun

    2016-10-07

    Hypoxia, that is, insufficient oxygen partial pressure, is a known cause of reduced radiosensitivity in solid tumors, and especially in head-and-neck tumors. It is thus believed to adversely affect the outcome of fractionated radiotherapy. Oxygen partial pressure varies spatially and temporally over the treatment course and exhibits inter-patient and intra-tumor variation. Emerging advances in non-invasive functional imaging offer the future possibility of adapting radiotherapy plans to this uncertain spatiotemporal evolution of hypoxia over the treatment course. We study the potential benefits of such adaptive planning via a theoretical stochastic control framework using computer-simulated evolution of hypoxia on computer-generated test cases in head-and-neck cancer. The exact solution of the resulting control problem is computationally intractable. We develop an approximation algorithm, called certainty equivalent control, that calls for the solution of a sequence of convex programs over the treatment course; dose-volume constraints are handled using a simple constraint generation method. These convex programs are solved using an interior point algorithm with a logarithmic barrier via Newton's method and backtracking line search. Convexity of various formulations in this paper is guaranteed by a sufficient condition on radiobiological tumor-response parameters. This condition is expected to hold for head-and-neck tumors and for other similarly responding tumors where the linear dose-response parameter is larger than the quadratic dose-response parameter. We perform numerical experiments on four test cases by using a first-order vector autoregressive process with exponential and rational-quadratic covariance functions from the spatiotemporal statistics literature to simulate the evolution of hypoxia. Our results suggest that dynamic planning could lead to a considerable improvement in the number of tumor cells remaining at the end of the treatment course. Through

  5. A theoretical stochastic control framework for adapting radiotherapy to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberian, Fatemeh; Ghate, Archis; Kim, Minsun

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia, that is, insufficient oxygen partial pressure, is a known cause of reduced radiosensitivity in solid tumors, and especially in head-and-neck tumors. It is thus believed to adversely affect the outcome of fractionated radiotherapy. Oxygen partial pressure varies spatially and temporally over the treatment course and exhibits inter-patient and intra-tumor variation. Emerging advances in non-invasive functional imaging offer the future possibility of adapting radiotherapy plans to this uncertain spatiotemporal evolution of hypoxia over the treatment course. We study the potential benefits of such adaptive planning via a theoretical stochastic control framework using computer-simulated evolution of hypoxia on computer-generated test cases in head-and-neck cancer. The exact solution of the resulting control problem is computationally intractable. We develop an approximation algorithm, called certainty equivalent control, that calls for the solution of a sequence of convex programs over the treatment course; dose-volume constraints are handled using a simple constraint generation method. These convex programs are solved using an interior point algorithm with a logarithmic barrier via Newton’s method and backtracking line search. Convexity of various formulations in this paper is guaranteed by a sufficient condition on radiobiological tumor-response parameters. This condition is expected to hold for head-and-neck tumors and for other similarly responding tumors where the linear dose-response parameter is larger than the quadratic dose-response parameter. We perform numerical experiments on four test cases by using a first-order vector autoregressive process with exponential and rational-quadratic covariance functions from the spatiotemporal statistics literature to simulate the evolution of hypoxia. Our results suggest that dynamic planning could lead to a considerable improvement in the number of tumor cells remaining at the end of the treatment course

  6. 50 CFR 648.77 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.77 Framework adjustments to... add or adjust management measures within the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog FMP if it finds...

  7. An Integrated Dynamic Online Management Framework for QoS-Sensitive Multimedia Overlay Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwook; Choi, Myungwhan; Kim, Sungchun

    New multimedia services over cellular/WLAN overlay networks require different Quality of Service (QoS) levels. Therefore, an efficient network management system is necessary in order to realize QoS sensitive multimedia services while enhancing network performance. In this paper, we propose a new online network management framework for overlay networks. Our online approach to network management exhibits dynamic adaptability, flexibility, and responsiveness to the traffic conditions in multimedia networks. Simulation results indicate that our proposed framework can strike the appropriate balance between performance criteria under widely varying diverse traffic loads.

  8. Building the framework for climate change adaptation in the urban areas using participatory approach: the Czech Republic experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmer, Adam; Hubatová, Marie; Lupač, Miroslav; Pondělíček, Michael; Šafařík, Miroslav; Šilhánková, Vladimíra; Vačkář, David

    2016-04-01

    The Czech Republic has experienced numerous extreme hydrometeorological / climatological events such as floods (significant ones in 1997, 2002, 2010, 2013), droughts (2013, 2015), heat waves (2015) and windstorms (2007) during past decades. These events are generally attributed to the ongoing climate change and caused loss of lives and significant material damages (up to several % of GDP in some years), especially in urban areas. To initiate the adaptation process of urban areas, the main objective was to prepare a framework for creating climate change adaptation strategies of individual cities reflecting physical-geographical and socioeconomical conditions of the Czech Republic. Three pilot cities (Hradec Králové, Žďár nad Sázavou, Dobru\\vska) were used to optimize entire procedure. Two sets of participatory seminars were organised in order to involve all key stakeholders (the city council, department of the environment, department of the crisis management, hydrometeorological institute, local experts, ...) into the process of creation of the adaptation strategy from its early stage. Lesson learned for the framework were related especially to its applicability on a local level, which is largely a matter of the understandability of the concept. Finally, this illustrative and widely applicable framework (so called 'road map to adaptation strategy') includes five steps: (i) analysis of existing strategies and plans on national, regional and local levels; (ii) analysing climate-change related hazards and key vulnerabilities; (iii) identification of adaptation needs, evaluation of existing adaptation capacity and formulation of future adaptation priorities; (iv) identification of limits and barriers for the adaptation (economical, environmental, ...); and (v) selection of specific types of adaptation measures reflecting identified adaptation needs and formulated adaptation priorities. Keywords: climate change adaptation (CCA); urban areas; participatory approach

  9. Soliciting scientific information and beliefs in predictive modeling and adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Post-normal science requires public engagement and adaptive corrections in addressing issues with high complexity and uncertainty. An adaptive management framework is presented for the improved management of natural resources and environments through a public participation process. The framework solicits the gathering and transformation and/or modeling of scientific information but also explicitly solicits the expression of participant beliefs. Beliefs and information are compared, explicitly discussed for alignments or misalignments, and ultimately melded back together as a "knowledge" basis for making decisions. An effort is made to recognize the human or participant biases that may affect the information base and the potential decisions. In a separate step, an attempt is made to recognize and predict the potential "winners" and "losers" (perceived or real) of any decision or action. These "winners" and "losers" include present human communities with different spatial, demographic or socio-economic characteristics as well as more dispersed or more diffusely characterized regional or global communities. "Winners" and "losers" may also include future human communities as well as communities of other biotic species. As in any adaptive management framework, assessment of predictions, iterative follow-through and adaptation of policies or actions is essential, and commonly very difficult or impossible to achieve. Recognizing beforehand the limits of adaptive management is essential. More generally, knowledge of the behavioral and economic sciences and of ethics and sociology will be key to a successful implementation of this adaptive management framework. Knowledge of biogeophysical processes will also be essential, but by definition of the issues being addressed, will always be incomplete and highly uncertain. The human dimensions of the issues addressed and the participatory processes used carry their own complexities and uncertainties. Some ideas and principles are

  10. Adaptable data management for systems biology investigations

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, John; Rovira, Hector; Cavnor, Chris; Burdick, David; Killcoyne, Sarah; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    Background Within research each experiment is different, the focus changes and the data is generated from a continually evolving barrage of technologies. There is a continual introduction of new techniques whose usage ranges from in-house protocols through to high-throughput instrumentation. To support these requirements data management systems are needed that can be rapidly built and readily adapted for new usage. Results The adaptable data management system discussed is designed to support the seamless mining and analysis of biological experiment data that is commonly used in systems biology (e.g. ChIP-chip, gene expression, proteomics, imaging, flow cytometry). We use different content graphs to represent different views upon the data. These views are designed for different roles: equipment specific views are used to gather instrumentation information; data processing oriented views are provided to enable the rapid development of analysis applications; and research project specific views are used to organize information for individual research experiments. This management system allows for both the rapid introduction of new types of information and the evolution of the knowledge it represents. Conclusion Data management is an important aspect of any research enterprise. It is the foundation on which most applications are built, and must be easily extended to serve new functionality for new scientific areas. We have found that adopting a three-tier architecture for data management, built around distributed standardized content repositories, allows us to rapidly develop new applications to support a diverse user community. PMID:19265554

  11. Error management for musicians: an interdisciplinary conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Kruse-Weber, Silke; Parncutt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Musicians tend to strive for flawless performance and perfection, avoiding errors at all costs. Dealing with errors while practicing or performing is often frustrating and can lead to anger and despair, which can explain musicians' generally negative attitude toward errors and the tendency to aim for flawless learning in instrumental music education. But even the best performances are rarely error-free, and research in general pedagogy and psychology has shown that errors provide useful information for the learning process. Research in instrumental pedagogy is still neglecting error issues; the benefits of risk management (before the error) and error management (during and after the error) are still underestimated. It follows that dealing with errors is a key aspect of music practice at home, teaching, and performance in public. And yet, to be innovative, or to make their performance extraordinary, musicians need to risk errors. Currently, most music students only acquire the ability to manage errors implicitly - or not at all. A more constructive, creative, and differentiated culture of errors would balance error tolerance and risk-taking against error prevention in ways that enhance music practice and music performance. The teaching environment should lay the foundation for the development of such an approach. In this contribution, we survey recent research in aviation, medicine, economics, psychology, and interdisciplinary decision theory that has demonstrated that specific error-management training can promote metacognitive skills that lead to better adaptive transfer and better performance skills. We summarize how this research can be applied to music, and survey-relevant research that is specifically tailored to the needs of musicians, including generic guidelines for risk and error management in music teaching and performance. On this basis, we develop a conceptual framework for risk management that can provide orientation for further music education and

  12. Error management for musicians: an interdisciplinary conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Kruse-Weber, Silke; Parncutt, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Musicians tend to strive for flawless performance and perfection, avoiding errors at all costs. Dealing with errors while practicing or performing is often frustrating and can lead to anger and despair, which can explain musicians’ generally negative attitude toward errors and the tendency to aim for flawless learning in instrumental music education. But even the best performances are rarely error-free, and research in general pedagogy and psychology has shown that errors provide useful information for the learning process. Research in instrumental pedagogy is still neglecting error issues; the benefits of risk management (before the error) and error management (during and after the error) are still underestimated. It follows that dealing with errors is a key aspect of music practice at home, teaching, and performance in public. And yet, to be innovative, or to make their performance extraordinary, musicians need to risk errors. Currently, most music students only acquire the ability to manage errors implicitly – or not at all. A more constructive, creative, and differentiated culture of errors would balance error tolerance and risk-taking against error prevention in ways that enhance music practice and music performance. The teaching environment should lay the foundation for the development of such an approach. In this contribution, we survey recent research in aviation, medicine, economics, psychology, and interdisciplinary decision theory that has demonstrated that specific error-management training can promote metacognitive skills that lead to better adaptive transfer and better performance skills. We summarize how this research can be applied to music, and survey-relevant research that is specifically tailored to the needs of musicians, including generic guidelines for risk and error management in music teaching and performance. On this basis, we develop a conceptual framework for risk management that can provide orientation for further music education and

  13. Adaptive Management for Urban Watersheds: The Slavic Village Pilot Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to reduce the uncertainty in environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that ca...

  14. Observer-Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (ORIME) Framework to Guide Formative Assessment of Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Tham, Kum Ying

    2013-11-01

    The Observer-Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator (ORIME) is adapted from RIME, an intuitive, self-explanatory and "synthetic" framework that assesses formatively, a student's ability to synthesise knowledge, skills and attitude during a clinical encounter with a patient. The "O" refers to a student's ability to pay attention and perceive with open-mindedness, people and events around him or her. The framework is suitable for definition of interim outcomes in a 5-year undergraduate programme. To align students' and clinical teachers' expectations further, selection of case complexity that is commensurate with student's seniority and competence should be guided and an adapted version of the Minnesota Complexity Assessment Tool is proposed.

  15. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide recommendations to the...

  16. 71 FR 44042 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-08-03

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and provide recommendations to the Secretary...

  17. 73 FR 45070 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide recommendations to the...

  18. Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    1 of 2 Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management Approaches Melanie Sandberg, Tom Reynolds...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management...1 Airport Characterization for the Adaptation of Surface Congestion Management Approaches* Melanie

  19. Adaptive Management as an Effective Strategy: Interdisciplinary Perceptions for Natural Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreiss, Lindsay M.; Hessenauer, Jan-Michael; Nathan, Lucas R.; O'Connor, Kelly M.; Liberati, Marjorie R.; Kloster, Danielle P.; Barclay, Janet R.; Vokoun, Jason C.; Morzillo, Anita T.

    2017-02-01

    Adaptive management is a well-established approach to managing natural resources, but there is little evidence demonstrating effectiveness of adaptive management over traditional management techniques. Peer-reviewed literature attempts to draw conclusions about adaptive management effectiveness using social perceptions, but those studies are largely restricted to employees of US federal organizations. To gain a more comprehensive insight into perceived adaptive management effectiveness, this study aimed to broaden the suite of disciplines, professional affiliations, and geographic backgrounds represented by both practitioners and scholars. A questionnaire contained a series of questions concerning factors that lead to or inhibit effective management, followed by another set of questions focused on adaptive management. Using a continuum representing strategies of both adaptive management and traditional management, respondents selected those strategies that they perceived as being effective. Overall, characteristics (i.e., strategies, stakeholders, and barriers) identified by respondents as contributing to effective management closely aligned with adaptive management. Responses were correlated to the type of adaptive management experience rather than an individual's discipline, occupational, or regional affiliation. In particular, perceptions of characteristics contributing to adaptive management effectiveness varied between respondents who identified as adaptive management scholars (i.e., no implementation experience) and adaptive management practitioners. Together, these results supported two concepts that make adaptive management effective: practitioners emphasized adaptive management's value as a long-term approach and scholars noted the importance of stakeholder involvement. Even so, more communication between practitioners and scholars regarding adaptive management effectiveness could promote interdisciplinary learning and problem solving for improved

  20. Adaptive management of social-ecological systems: the path forward

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management remains at the forefront of environmental management nearly 40 years after its original conception, largely because we have yet to develop other methodologies that offer the same promise. Despite the criticisms of adaptive management and the numerous failed attempts to implement it, adaptive management has yet to be replaced with a better alternative. The concept persists because it is simple, allows action despite uncertainty, and fosters learning. Moving forward, adaptive management of social-ecological systems provides policymakers, managers and scientists a powerful tool for managing for resilience in the face of uncertainty.

  1. A study of an adaptive replication framework for orchestrated composite web services.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Marwa F; Elyamany, Hany F; Nassar, Hamed M

    2013-01-01

    Replication is considered one of the most important techniques to improve the Quality of Services (QoS) of published Web Services. It has achieved impressive success in managing resource sharing and usage in order to moderate the energy consumed in IT environments. For a robust and successful replication process, attention should be paid to suitable time as well as the constraints and capabilities in which the process runs. The replication process is time-consuming since outsourcing some new replicas into other hosts is lengthy. Furthermore, nowadays, most of the business processes that might be implemented over the Web are composed of multiple Web services working together in two main styles: Orchestration and Choreography. Accomplishing a replication over such business processes is another challenge due to the complexity and flexibility involved. In this paper, we present an adaptive replication framework for regular and orchestrated composite Web services. The suggested framework includes a number of components for detecting unexpected and unhappy events that might occur when consuming the original published web services including failure or overloading. It also includes a specific replication controller to manage the replication process and select the best host that would encapsulate a new replica. In addition, it includes a component for predicting the incoming load in order to decrease the time needed for outsourcing new replicas, enhancing the performance greatly. A simulation environment has been created to measure the performance of the suggested framework. The results indicate that adaptive replication with prediction scenario is the best option for enhancing the performance of the replication process in an online business environment.

  2. Resource Management for Real-Time Adaptive Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Lonnie; Chelberg, David; Pfarr, Barbara; Fleeman, David; Parrott, David; Tan, Zhen-Yu; Jain, Shikha; Drews, Frank; Bruggeman, Carl; Shuler, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Increased autonomy and automation in onboard flight systems offer numerous potential benefits, including cost reduction and greater flexibility. The existence of generic mechanisms for automation is critical for handling unanticipated science events and anomalies where limitations in traditional control software with fixed, predetermined algorithms can mean loss of science data and missed opportunities for observing important terrestrial events. We have developed such a mechanism by adding a Hierarchical Agent-based ReaLTime technology (HART) extension to our Dynamic Resource Management (DRM) middleware. Traditional DRM provides mechanisms to monitor the realtime performance of distributed applications and to move applications among processors to improve real-time performance. In the HART project we have designed and implemented a performance adaptation mechanism to improve reaktime performance. To use this mechanism, applications are developed that can run at various levels of quality. The DRM can choose a setting for the quality level of an application dynamically at run-time in order to manage satellite resource usage more effectively. A groundbased prototype of a satellite system that captures and processes images has also been developed as part of this project to be used as a benchmark for evaluating the resource management framework A significant enhancement of this generic mission-independent framework allows scientists to specify the utility, or "scientific benefit," of science observations under various conditions like cloud cover and compression method. The resource manager then uses these benefit tables to determine in redtime how to set the quality levels for applications to maximize overall system utility as defined by the scientists running the mission. We also show how maintenance functions llke health and safety data can be integrated into the utility framework. Once thls framework has been certified for missions and successfully flight tested it

  3. Adaptive momentum management for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, E.

    1987-01-01

    Momentum management is discussed for a Large Space Structure (LSS) with the structure selected configuration being the Initial Orbital Configuration (IOC) of the dual keel space station. The external forces considered were gravity gradient and aerodynamic torques. The goal of the momentum management scheme developed is to remove the bias components of the external torques and center the cyclic components of the stored angular momentum. The scheme investigated is adaptive to uncertainties of the inertia tensor and requires only approximate knowledge of principle moments of inertia. Computational requirements are minimal and should present no implementation problem in a flight type computer and the method proposed is shown to be effective in the presence of attitude control bandwidths as low as .01 radian/sec.

  4. Consideration of reference points for the management of renewable resources under an adaptive management paradigm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Brian J.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The success of natural resource management depends on monitoring, assessment and enforcement. In support of these efforts, reference points (RPs) are often viewed as critical values of management-relevant indicators. This paper considers RPs from the standpoint of objective-driven decision making in dynamic resource systems, guided by principles of structured decision making (SDM) and adaptive resource management (AM). During the development of natural resource policy, RPs have been variously treated as either ‘targets’ or ‘triggers’. Under a SDM/AM paradigm, target RPs correspond approximately to value-based objectives, which may in turn be either of fundamental interest to stakeholders or intermediaries to other central objectives. By contrast, trigger RPs correspond to decision rules that are presumed to lead to desirable outcomes (such as the programme targets). Casting RPs as triggers or targets within a SDM framework is helpful towards clarifying why (or whether) a particular metric is appropriate. Further, the benefits of a SDM/AM process include elucidation of underlying untested assumptions that may reveal alternative metrics for use as RPs. Likewise, a structured decision-analytic framework may also reveal that failure to achieve management goals is not because the metrics are wrong, but because the decision-making process in which they are embedded is insufficiently robust to uncertainty, is not efficiently directed at producing a resource objective, or is incapable of adaptation to new knowledge.

  5. An Adaptive Framework for Selecting Environmental Monitoring Protocols to Support Ocean Renewable Energy Development

    PubMed Central

    Shumchenia, Emily J.; Smith, Sarah L.; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D.; King, John W.; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment. PMID:23319884

  6. An adaptive framework for selecting environmental monitoring protocols to support ocean renewable energy development.

    PubMed

    Shumchenia, Emily J; Smith, Sarah L; McCann, Jennifer; Carnevale, Michelle; Fugate, Grover; Kenney, Robert D; King, John W; Paton, Peter; Schwartz, Malia; Spaulding, Malcolm; Winiarski, Kristopher J

    2012-01-01

    Offshore renewable energy developments (OREDs) are projected to become common in the United States over the next two decades. There are both a need and an opportunity to guide efforts to identify and track impacts to the marine ecosystem resulting from these installations. A monitoring framework and standardized protocols that can be applied to multiple types of ORED would streamline scientific study, management, and permitting at these sites. We propose an adaptive and reactive framework based on indicators of the likely changes to the marine ecosystem due to ORED. We developed decision trees to identify suites of impacts at two scales (demonstration and commercial) depending on energy (wind, tidal, and wave), structure (e.g., turbine), and foundation type (e.g., monopile). Impacts were categorized by ecosystem component (benthic habitat and resources, fish and fisheries, avian species, marine mammals, and sea turtles) and monitoring objectives were developed for each. We present a case study at a commercial-scale wind farm and develop a monitoring plan for this development that addresses both local and national environmental concerns. In addition, framework has provided a starting point for identifying global research needs and objectives for understanding of the potential effects of ORED on the marine environment.

  7. 50 CFR 648.77 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.77 Framework adjustments to... the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog FMP if it finds that action is necessary to meet or...

  8. The "Blueprint" Framework for Career Management Skills: A Critical Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooley, Tristram; Watts, A. G.; Sultana, Ronald G.; Neary, Siobhan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the Blueprint framework for career management skills as it has been revealed across sequential implementations in the USA, Canada and Australia. It is argued that despite its lack of an empirical basis, the framework forms a useful and innovative means through which career theory, practice and policy can be connected. The…

  9. Facilitating adaptive management in a government program: A household energy efficiency case study.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Jim; Graham, Alex; Ghafoori, Eraj; Pyke, Susan; Kaufman, Stefan; Boulet, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Interim evaluations of government programs can sometimes reveal lower than expected outcomes, leading to the question of how adjustments can be made while the program is still underway. Although adaptive management frameworks can provide a practical roadmap to address this question, a lack of successful learnings and poor implementation have hampered the progress and wider application of adaptive management. Using a case study involving an energy efficiency government program targeting low-income households, this article provides supporting evidence on how adaptive management can be facilitated and applied. Factors such as proactive and responsive leadership, establishing a research-practice interface, and recognizing the skills, expertise, and contributions of multiple stakeholders guided adjustments to the program, and later paved the way for longer-term organizational learning that impacted how other programs are delivered. Implications for knowledge and practice, and a discussion of the challenges faced in the program, advance current thinking in adaptive management.

  10. Public access management as an adaptive wildlife management tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    One key issue in the Black Mesa – Black Canyon area is the interaction between motorized vehicles and. The working hypothesis for this study is that early season elk movement onto private lands and the National Park is precipitated by increased use of Off Highway Vehicles (OHV’s). Data on intensity of motorized use is extremely limited. In this study, we monitor intensity of motorized vehicle and trail use on elk movements and habitat usage and analyze interactions. If management agencies decide to alter accessibility, we will monitor wildlife responses to changes in the human-use regime. This provides a unique opportunity for adaptive management experimentation based on coordinated research and monitoring. The products from this project will provide natural resource managers across the nation with tools and information to better meet these resource challenges.

  11. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-15

    climate conditions. There are several ways in which the World Bank Group can continue helping its clients better manage climate risks to poverty reduction and sustainable development: Integrating climate risk management into the project cycle, by adopting early risk identification (for instance by applying a quick and simple risk-screening tool) and following up throughout the design process if necessary. Integrating climate risk management into country and sector dialogues, especially in countries and sectors that are particularly vulnerable. Enhancing internal support for and coordination of climate risk management by, for example, expanding analytical work and capacity for cross-support by the Global Climate Change Team and the Hazard Management Unit of the World Bank and by actively developing climate risk management activities within regional departments. Supporting the establishment of proper financing mechanisms for adaptation, using, for example, the Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development. New funding mechanisms created under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and being made operational by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), as well as the Kyoto Protocol, should be used to leverage maximum adaptation results within the Bank's broad range of development activities and investments. By enhancing climate risk management, the World Bank Group will be able to address the growing risks from climate change and, at the same time, make current development investments more resilient to climate variability and extreme weather events. In that way, climate risk management will not only guard the Bank's investments in a changing climate but will also improve the impact of development efforts right now.

  12. Adapting inland fisheries management to a changing climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, Craig; Glazer, Bob A.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Irwin, Brian J.; Jacobson, Peter C.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Shuter, Brian J.; Whitney, James E.; Lynch, Abigail J.

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource decision makers are challenged to adapt management to a changing climate while balancing short-term management goals with long-term changes in aquatic systems. Adaptation will require developing resilient ecosystems and resilient management systems. Decision makers already have tools to develop or ensure resilient aquatic systems and fisheries such as managing harvest and riparian zones. Because fisheries management often interacts with multiple stakeholders, adaptation strategies involving fisheries managers and other partners focused on land use, policy, and human systems, coupled with long-term monitoring, are necessary for resilient systems. We show how agencies and organizations are adapting to a changing climate in Minnesota and Ontario lakes and Montana streams. We also present how the Florida Fish and Wildlife Commission created a management structure to develop adaptation strategies. These examples demonstrate how organizations and agencies can cope with climate change effects on fishes and fisheries through creating resilient management and ecological systems.

  13. An adaptive decision framework for the conservation of a threatened plant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Clinton T.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Shea, Katriona; Lah, Kristopher J.; McKenzie, Paul M.; Ball, Lianne C.; Runge, Michael C.; Alexander, Helen M.

    2011-01-01

    Mead's milkweed Asclepias meadii, a long-lived perennial herb of tallgrass prairie and glade communities of the central United States, is a species designated as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Challenges to its successful management include the facts that much about its life history is unknown, its age at reproductive maturity is very advanced, certain life stages are practically unobservable, its productivity is responsive to unpredictable environmental events, and most of the known populations occur on private lands unprotected by any legal conservation instrument. One critical source of biological uncertainty is the degree to which fire promotes growth and reproductive response in the plant. To aid in its management, we developed a prototype population-level state-dependent decision-making framework that explicitly accounts for this uncertainty and for uncertainties related to stochastic environmental effects and vital rates. To parameterize the decision model, we used estimates found in the literature, and we analyzed data from a long-term monitoring program where fates of individual plants were observed through time. We demonstrate that different optimal courses of action are followed according to how one believes that fire influences reproductive response, and we show that the action taken for certain population states is informative for resolving uncertainty about competing beliefs regarding the effect of fire. We advocate the use of a model-predictive approach for the management of rare populations, particularly when management uncertainty is profound. Over time, an adaptive management approach should reduce uncertainty and improve management performance as predictions of management outcome generated under competing models are continually informed and updated by monitoring data.

  14. Lake eutrophication and environmental change: A viability framework for resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rougé, Charles; Deffuant, Guillaume

    2013-04-01

    We present a simple stochastic model of lake eutrophication to demonstrate how the mathematical framework of viability theory fosters operational definitions of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity, and then helps understand which response one should bring to environmental changes. The model represents the phosphorus dynamics, given that high concentrations trigger a regime change from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and causes ecological but also economic losses, for instance from tourism. Phosphorus comes from agricultural inputs upstream of the lake, and we will consider a stochastic input. We consider the system made of both the lake and its upstream region, and explore how to maintain the desirable ecological and economic properties of this system. In the viability framework, we translate these desirable properties into state constraints, then examine how, given the dynamics of the model and the available policy options, the properties can be kept. The set of states for which there exists a policy to keep the properties is called the viability kernel. We extend this framework to both major perturbations and long-term environmental changes. In our model, since the phosphorus inputs and outputs from the lake depend on rainfall, we will focus on extreme rainfall events and long-term changes in the rainfall regime. They can be described as changes in the state of the system, and may displace it outside the viability kernel. Its response can then be described using the concepts of resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Resilience is the capacity to recover by getting back to the viability kernel where the dynamics keep the system safe, and in this work we assume it to be the first objective of management. Computed for a given trajectory, vulnerability is a measure of the consequence of violating a property. We propose a family of functions from which cost functions and other vulnerability indicators can be derived for any trajectory. There can be

  15. 62 FR 66384 - Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-12-18

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, DOI. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) will... Work Group (1999 program, management objectives, approach to beach/habitat building flow...

  16. Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems: The Path Forward

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management remains at the forefront of environmental management nearly 40 years after its original conception, largely because we have yet to develop other methodologies that offer the same promise. Despite the criticisms of adaptive management and the numerous failed at...

  17. A Framework for Adaptive E-Learning Based on Distributed Re-Usable Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brusilovsky, Peter; Nijhavan, Hemanta

    This paper suggests that a way to the new generation of powerful E-learning systems starts on the crossroads of two emerging fields: courseware re-use and adaptive educational systems. The paper presents the KnowledgeTree, a framework for adaptive E-learning based on distributed re-usable learning activities currently under development. The goal…

  18. ActiveTutor: Towards More Adaptive Features in an E-Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Jean-Pierre; Sansonnet, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to sketch the emerging notion of auto-adaptive software when applied to e-learning software. Design/methodology/approach: The study and the implementation of the auto-adaptive architecture are based on the operational framework "ActiveTutor" that is used for teaching the topic of computer science programming in first-grade…

  19. Data governance frameworks and change management.

    PubMed

    Egelstaff, Richard; Wells, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Protecting and preserving data stored in electronic form is important, and ensuring that data is available to the correct access level requires consideration of the characteristics of the data and the purpose to which the data will be used. Important questions therefore are raised about what is the right data and who has the right access level. This is the substance of data governance. This paper will discuss the various aspects of data governance frameworks as it pertains to health care systems. The paper will also explore the changes that confront organisations and individuals as they embrace the requirements of data governance.

  20. TOMCAT: An Obsolescence Management Capability Assessment Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero Rojo, F. J.; Baguley, P.; Shaikh, N.; Roy, R.; Kelly, S.

    2012-05-01

    As the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) moves away from the traditional support contracts to contracting for availability/capability, it is essential that the MoD has confidence in Industry's capability to manage the risk of obsolescence. For this purpose, it was necessary to develop a set of metrics to demonstrate it. The eight key elements identified are as follows: obsolescence management governance; supplier; design for obsolescence; risk assessment; obsolescence monitoring; communication; and obsolescence resolution process. Each one was assessed, ranked, and was further broken down into major constituents. They formed the basis of the final 25 metrics, which were then ranked and weighted accordingly. These metrics are embedded into the Total Obsolescence Management Capability Assessment Tool (TOMCAT), which provides a mean for contractors to perform self-assessment and for the MoD to set obsolescence management capability improvement targets. This tool was subjected to rigorous industry scrutiny through different means, including workshops and piloting sessions, which led to refining the TOMCAT tool and the way in which the metrics are formulated. This tool has been developed as a web based application. The MoD is planning to standardise its usage by incorporating it to the obsolescence management policy for defence contracting.

  1. A framework for marketing image management.

    PubMed

    Barich, H; Kotler, P

    1991-01-01

    Managers know that the customer's impression of an organization is important. And sometimes companies attempt to determine just what that impression is. They conduct ad hoc surveys and focus groups. But too often the data is insubstantial, or difficult to analyze, or even inaccurate. Barich and Kotler introduce the concept of "marketing image" and describe a system of image management: designing a study, collecting data, analyzing image problems, modifying the image, and tracking responses to that image. They argue that only a systematic approach will yield useful and accurate information that a company can translate into action.

  2. Overseas Students' Intercultural Adaptation as Intercultural Learning: A Transformative Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Scherto

    2007-01-01

    In the context of increasing recruitment of overseas students by British higher education (HE) institutions, there has been a growing need to understand the process of students' intercultural adaptation and the approaches that can be adopted by British academic institutions in order to facilitate and support these students' learning experience in…

  3. Multiple Adaptation Types with Mitigation: A Framework for Policy Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective climate policy will consist of mitigation and adaptation implemented simultaneously in a policy portfolio to reduce the risks of climate change. The relative share of these responses will vary over time and will be adjusted in response to new information. Furthermore,...

  4. A Framework for the Development of Computerized Adaptive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nathan A.; Weiss, David J.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted over the past 40 years on technical aspects of computerized adaptive testing (CAT), such as item selection algorithms, item exposure controls, and termination criteria. However, there is little literature providing practical guidance on the development of a CAT. This paper seeks to collate some…

  5. Lessons Learned from the Everglades Collaborative Adaptive Management Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent technical papers explore whether adaptive management (AM) is useful for environmental management and restoration efforts and discuss the many challenges to overcome for successful implementation, especially for large-scale restoration programs (McLain and Lee 1996; Levine ...

  6. Systems identification and the adaptive management of waterfowl in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Waterfowl management in the United States is one of the more visible conservation success stories in the United States. It is authorized and supported by appropriate legislative authorities, based on large-scale monitoring programs, and widely accepted by the public. The process is one of only a limited number of large-scale examples of effective collaboration between research and management, integrating scientific information with management in a coherent framework for regulatory decision-making. However, harvest management continues to face some serious technical problems, many of which focus on sequential identification of the resource system in a context of optimal decision-making. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical foundation of adaptive harvest management, the approach currently in use in the United States for regulatory decision-making. We lay out the legal and institutional framework for adaptive harvest management and provide a formal description of regulatory decision-making in terms of adaptive optimization. We discuss some technical and institutional challenges in applying adaptive harvest management and focus specifically on methods of estimating resource states for linear resource systems.

  7. A Conceptual Framework for Planning Systemic Human Adaptation to Global Warming.

    PubMed

    Tait, Peter W; Hanna, Elizabeth G

    2015-08-31

    Human activity is having multiple, inter-related effects on ecosystems. Greenhouse gas emissions persisting along current trajectories threaten to significantly alter human society. At 0.85 °C of anthropogenic warming, deleterious human impacts are acutely evident. Additional warming of 0.5 °C-1.0 °C from already emitted CO₂ will further intensify extreme heat and damaging storm events. Failing to sufficiently address this trend will have a heavy human toll directly and indirectly on health. Along with mitigation efforts, societal adaptation to a warmer world is imperative. Adaptation efforts need to be significantly upscaled to prepare society to lessen the public health effects of rising temperatures. Modifying societal behaviour is inherently complex and presents a major policy challenge. We propose a social systems framework for conceptualizing adaptation that maps out three domains within the adaptation policy landscape: acclimatisation, behavioural adaptation and technological adaptation, which operate at societal and personal levels. We propose that overlaying this framework on a systems approach to societal change planning methods will enhance governments' capacity and efficacy in strategic planning for adaptation. This conceptual framework provides a policy oriented planning assessment tool that will help planners match interventions to the behaviours being targeted for change. We provide illustrative examples to demonstrate the framework's application as a planning tool.

  8. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Deltas are generally recognized as vulnerable to climate change and therefore a salient topic in adaptation science. Deltas are also highly dynamic systems viewed from physical (erosion, sedimentation, subsidence), social (demographic), economic (trade), infrastructures (transport, energy, metropolization) and cultural (multi-ethnic) perspectives. This multi-faceted dynamic character of delta areas warrants the emergence of a branch of applied adaptation science, Adaptive Delta Management, which explicitly focuses on climate adaptation of such highly dynamic and deeply uncertain systems. The application of Adaptive Delta Management in the Dutch Delta Program and its active international dissemination by Dutch professionals results in the rapid dissemination of Adaptive Delta Management to deltas worldwide. This global dissemination raises concerns among professionals in delta management on its applicability in deltas with cultural conditions and historical developments quite different from those found in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom where the practices now labelled as Adaptive Delta Management first emerged. This research develops an approach and gives a first analysis of the interaction between the characteristics of different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management and their alignment with the cultural conditions encountered in various delta's globally. In this analysis, first different management theories underlying approaches to Adaptive Delta Management as encountered in both scientific and professional publications are identified and characterized on three dimensions: The characteristics dimensions used are: orientation on today, orientation on the future, and decision making (Timmermans, 2015). The different underlying management theories encountered are policy analysis, strategic management, transition management, and adaptive management. These four management theories underlying different approaches in Adaptive Delta Management are connected to

  9. An Agent-Based Optimization Framework for Engineered Complex Adaptive Systems with Application to Demand Response in Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghnevis, Moeed

    The main objective of this research is to develop an integrated method to study emergent behavior and consequences of evolution and adaptation in engineered complex adaptive systems (ECASs). A multi-layer conceptual framework and modeling approach including behavioral and structural aspects is provided to describe the structure of a class of engineered complex systems and predict their future adaptive patterns. The approach allows the examination of complexity in the structure and the behavior of components as a result of their connections and in relation to their environment. This research describes and uses the major differences of natural complex adaptive systems (CASs) with artificial/engineered CASs to build a framework and platform for ECAS. While this framework focuses on the critical factors of an engineered system, it also enables one to synthetically employ engineering and mathematical models to analyze and measure complexity in such systems. In this way concepts of complex systems science are adapted to management science and system of systems engineering. In particular an integrated consumer-based optimization and agent-based modeling (ABM) platform is presented that enables managers to predict and partially control patterns of behaviors in ECASs. Demonstrated on the U.S. electricity markets, ABM is integrated with normative and subjective decision behavior recommended by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The approach integrates social networks, social science, complexity theory, and diffusion theory. Furthermore, it has unique and significant contribution in exploring and representing concrete managerial insights for ECASs and offering new optimized actions and modeling paradigms in agent-based simulation.

  10. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Development Risk Management Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Snowberg, David; Weber, Jochem

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade, the global marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) industry has suffered a number of serious technological and commercial setbacks. To help reduce the risks of industry failures and advance the development of new technologies, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an MHK Risk Management Framework. By addressing uncertainties, the MHK Risk Management Framework increases the likelihood of successful development of an MHK technology. It covers projects of any technical readiness level (TRL) or technical performance level (TPL) and all risk types (e.g. technological risk, regulatory risk, commercial risk) over the development cycle. This framework is intended for the development and deployment of a single MHK technology—not for multiple device deployments within a plant. This risk framework is intended to meet DOE’s risk management expectations for the MHK technology research and development efforts of the Water Power Program (see Appendix A). It also provides an overview of other relevant risk management tools and documentation.1 This framework emphasizes design and risk reviews as formal gates to ensure risks are managed throughout the technology development cycle. Section 1 presents the recommended technology development cycle, Sections 2 and 3 present tools to assess the TRL and TPL of the project, respectively. Section 4 presents a risk management process with design and risk reviews for actively managing risk within the project, and Section 5 presents a detailed description of a risk registry to collect the risk management information into one living document. Section 6 presents recommendations for collecting and using lessons learned throughout the development process.

  11. Adaptive mobility management scheme in hierarchical mobile IPv6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Bo; Song, Junde

    2004-04-01

    Hierarchical mobile IPv6 makes the mobility management localized. Registration with HA is only needed while MN moving between MAP domains. This paper proposed an adaptive mobility management scheme based on the hierarchical mobile IPv6. The scheme focuses on the MN operation as well as MAP operation during the handoff. Adaptive MAP selection algorithm can be used to select a suitable MAP to register with once MN moves into a new subnet while MAP can thus adaptively changing his management domain. Furthermore, MAP can also adaptively changes its level in the hierarchical referring on the service load or other related information. Detailed handoff algorithm is also discussed in this paper.

  12. Boundary work for implementing adaptive management: A water sector application.

    PubMed

    Adem Esmail, Blal; Geneletti, Davide; Albert, Christian

    2017-03-24

    Boundary work, defined as effort to mediate between knowledge and action, is a promising approach for facilitating knowledge co-production for sustainable development. Here, we investigate a case study of knowledge co-production, to assess the applicability of boundary work as a conceptual framework to support implementing adaptive management in the water sector. We refer to a boundary work classification recently proposed by Clark et al., (2016), based on three types of knowledge uses, i.e. enlightenment, decision-, and negotiation-support, and three types of sources, i.e. personal expertise, single, and multiple communities of expertise. Our empirical results confirm boundary work has been crucial for the three types of knowledge use. For enlightenment and decision-support, effective interaction among knowledge producers and users was achieved through diverse boundary work practices, including joint agenda setting, and sharing of data and expertise. This initial boundary work eased subsequent knowledge co-production for decision-support and negotiations, in combination with stepping up of cooperation between relevant actors, suitable legislation and pressure for problem solving. Our analysis highlighted the temporal dimension matters - building trust around enlightenment first, and then using this as a basis for managing knowledge co-production for decision-, and negotiation support. We reconfirmed that boundary work is not a single time achievement, rather is a dynamic process, and we emphasized the importance of key actors driving the process, such as water utilities. Our results provide a rich case study of how strategic boundary work can facilitate knowledge co-production for adaptive management in the water sector. The boundary work practices employed here could also be transferred to other cases. Water utilities, as intermediaries between providers and beneficiaries of the important water-related ecosystem service of clean water provision, can indeed serve

  13. Adapting natural resource management to climate change: The South Central Oregon and Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halofsky, J.; Peterson, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help natural resource managers take the first steps to incorporate climate change into management and take advantage of opportunities to balance the negative effects of climate change. We recently initiated two science-management climate change adaptation partnerships, one with three national forests and one national park in south central Oregon, and the other with 16 national forests, three national parks and other stakeholders in the northern Rockies region. Goals of both partnerships were to: (1) synthesize published information and data to assess the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of key resource areas, including water use, infrastructure, fisheries, and vegetation and disturbance; (2) develop science-based adaptation strategies and tactics that will help to mitigate the negative effects of climate change and assist the transition of biological systems and management to a warmer climate; (3) ensure adaptation strategies and tactics are incorporated into relevant planning documents; and (4) foster an enduring partnership to facilitate ongoing dialogue and activities related to climate change in the partnerships regions. After an initial vulnerability assessment by agency and university scientists and local resource specialists, adaptation strategies and tactics were developed in a series of scientist-manager workshops. The final vulnerability assessments and adaptation actions are incorporated in technical reports. The partnerships produced concrete adaptation options for national forest and other natural resource managers and illustrated the utility of place-based vulnerability assessments and scientist-manager workshops in adapting to climate change.

  14. Adapting Natural Resource Management to Climate Change: The Blue Mountains and Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halofsky, J.; Peterson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help natural resource managers take the first steps to incorporate climate change into management and take advantage of opportunities to balance the negative effects of climate change. We recently initiated two science-management climate change adaptation partnerships, one with three national forests and other key stakeholders in the Blue Mountains region of northeastern Oregon, and the other with 16 national forests, three national parks and other stakeholders in the northern Rockies region. Goals of both partnerships were to: (1) synthesize published information and data to assess the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of key resource areas, including water use, infrastructure, fisheries, and vegetation and disturbance; (2) develop science-based adaptation strategies and tactics that will help to mitigate the negative effects of climate change and assist the transition of biological systems and management to a warmer climate; (3) ensure adaptation strategies and tactics are incorporated into relevant planning documents; and (4) foster an enduring partnership to facilitate ongoing dialogue and activities related to climate change in the partnerships regions. After an initial vulnerability assessment by agency and university scientists and local resource specialists, adaptation strategies and tactics were developed in a series of scientist-manager workshops. The final vulnerability assessments and adaptation actions are incorporated in technical reports. The partnerships produced concrete adaptation options for national forest and other natural resource managers and illustrated the utility of place-based vulnerability assessments and scientist-manager workshops in adapting to climate change.

  15. A framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections for impact and adaptation studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Jean-Philippe; Hingray, Benoît

    2014-05-01

    In order to better understand the uncertainties in the climate of the next decades, an increasingly large number of increasingly diverse climate projections is being produced by the climate research community through coordinated initiatives (e.g., CMIP5, CORDEX), but also through more specific experiments at both the global scale (perturbed parameter ensembles) and the regional-to-local scale (empirical statistical downscaling ensembles). When significant efforts are put into making such projections available online, very few works focus on how to make such an enormous amount of information actually usable by the impact and adaptation community. Climate services should therefore include guidelines and recommendations for identifying subsets of climate projections that would have (1) a size manageable by downstream modelling approaches and (2) the relevant properties for informing adaptation strategies. This works proposes a generic framework for identifying tailored subsets of climate projections that would meet both the objectives and the constraints of a specific impact / adaptation study in a typical top-down approach. This decision framework builds on two main preliminary tasks that lead to critical choices in the selection strategy: (1) understanding the requirements of the specific impact / adaptation study, and (2) characterizing the (downscaled) climate projections dataset available. An impact / adaptation study has two types of requirements. First, the study may aim at various outcomes for a given climate-related feature: the best estimate of the future, the range of possible futures, a set of representative futures, or a statistically interpretable ensemble of futures. Second, impact models may come with specific constraints on climate input variables, like spatio-temporal and between-variables coherence. Additionally, when concurrent impact models are used, the most restrictive constraints have to be considered in order to be able to assess the

  16. 76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group...-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG),...

  17. 77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and...

  18. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and...

  19. 77 FR 43117 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and...

  20. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work...

  1. 79 FR 3873 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-01-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group...-575) of 1992. The GCDAMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group...

  2. 79 FR 24748 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-05-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and...

  3. 80 FR 21261 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2015-04-17

    ....05940913.7000000] Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG... committee, the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and...

  4. Leadership Behaviors of Management for Complex Adaptive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    2010 Northrop Grumman 14 Manager Leadership Behaviors of Managers Visionary Leadership Motivates and Encourages Promotes Organizational Learning Behaviors...most © Copyright 2009 Northrop GrummanCopyright 2010 Northrop Grumman 19 vulnerable? The Manager: Promotes Organizational Learning • Promotes...emphasize collaboration, team empowerment, trust, and organizational learning • Train managers in the practices that works best in adaptive environments

  5. Complex Adaptive Systems as Metaphors for Organizational Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmberg, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of complex adaptive systems (CAS) from the perspective of managing organizations, to describe and explore the management principles in a case study of an organization with unconventional ways of management and to present a tentative model for managing organizations as CAS--system…

  6. XML in an Adaptive Framework for Instrument Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Troy J.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is developing an extensible framework for instrument command and control, known as Instrument Remote Control (IRC), that combines the platform independent processing capabilities of Java with the power of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A key aspect of the architecture is software that is driven by an instrument description, written using the Instrument Markup Language (IML). IML is an XML dialect used to describe interfaces to control and monitor the instrument, command sets and command formats, data streams, communication mechanisms, and data processing algorithms.

  7. A framework for managing core facilities within the research enterprise.

    PubMed

    Haley, Rand

    2009-09-01

    Core facilities represent increasingly important operational and strategic components of institutions' research enterprises, especially in biomolecular science and engineering disciplines. With this realization, many research institutions are placing more attention on effectively managing core facilities within the research enterprise. A framework is presented for organizing the questions, challenges, and opportunities facing core facilities and the academic units and institutions in which they operate. This framework is intended to assist in guiding core facility management discussions in the context of a portfolio of facilities and within the overall institutional research enterprise.

  8. Managing coastal environments under climate change: Pathways to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín; García-León, Manuel; Gracia, Vicente; Devoy, Robert; Stanica, Adrian; Gault, Jeremy

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with the question of how to manage vulnerable coastal systems so as to make them sustainable under present and future climates. This is interpreted in terms of the coastal functionality, mainly natural services and support for socio-economic activities. From here we discuss how to adapt for long term trends and for short terms episodic events using the DPSIR framework. The analysis is presented for coastal archetypes from Spain, Ireland and Romania, sweeping a range of meteo-oceanographic and socio-economic pressures, resulting in a wide range of fluxes among them those related to sediment. The analysis emphasizes the variables that provide a higher level of robustness. That means mean sea level for physical factors and population density for human factors. For each of the studied cases high and low sustainability practices, based on stakeholders preferences, are considered and discussed. This allows proposing alternatives and carrying out an integrated assessment in the last section of the paper. This assessment permits building a sequence of interventions called adaptation pathway that enhances the natural resilience of the studied coastal systems and therefore increases their sustainability under present and future conditions.

  9. Model Adaptation for Prognostics in a Particle Filtering Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Goebel, Kai Frank

    2011-01-01

    One of the key motivating factors for using particle filters for prognostics is the ability to include model parameters as part of the state vector to be estimated. This performs model adaptation in conjunction with state tracking, and thus, produces a tuned model that can used for long term predictions. This feature of particle filters works in most part due to the fact that they are not subject to the "curse of dimensionality", i.e. the exponential growth of computational complexity with state dimension. However, in practice, this property holds for "well-designed" particle filters only as dimensionality increases. This paper explores the notion of wellness of design in the context of predicting remaining useful life for individual discharge cycles of Li-ion batteries. Prognostic metrics are used to analyze the tradeoff between different model designs and prediction performance. Results demonstrate how sensitivity analysis may be used to arrive at a well-designed prognostic model that can take advantage of the model adaptation properties of a particle filter.

  10. Adaptive forest management for drinking water protection under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeck, R.; Hochbichler, E.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water resources drawn from forested catchment areas are prominent for providing water supply on our planet. Despite the fact that source waters stemming from forested watersheds have generally lower water quality problems than those stemming from agriculturally used watersheds, it has to be guaranteed that the forest stands meet high standards regarding their water protection functionality. For fulfilling these, forest management concepts have to be applied, which are adaptive regarding the specific forest site conditions and also regarding climate change scenarios. In the past century forest management in the alpine area of Austria was mainly based on the cultivation of Norway spruce, by the way neglecting specific forest site conditions, what caused in many cases highly vulnerable mono-species forest stands. The GIS based forest hydrotope model (FoHyM) provides a framework for forest management, which defines the most crucial parameters in a spatial explicit form. FoHyM stratifies the spacious drinking water protection catchments into forest hydrotopes, being operational units for forest management. The primary information layer of FoHyM is the potential natural forest community, which reflects the specific forest site conditions regarding geology, soil types, elevation above sea level, exposition and inclination adequately and hence defines the specific forest hydrotopes. For each forest hydrotope, the adequate tree species composition and forest stand structure for drinking water protection functionality was deduced, based on the plant-sociological information base provided by FoHyM. The most important overall purpose for the related elaboration of adaptive forest management concepts and measures was the improvement of forest stand stability, which can be seen as the crucial parameter for drinking water protection. Only stable forest stands can protect the fragile soil and humus layers and hence prevent erosion process which could endanger the water

  11. An Enhanced Adaptive Management Approach for Remediation of Legacy Mercury in the South River

    PubMed Central

    Foran, Christy M.; Baker, Kelsie M.; Grosso, Nancy R.; Linkov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties about future conditions and the effects of chosen actions, as well as increasing resource scarcity, have been driving forces in the utilization of adaptive management strategies. However, many applications of adaptive management have been criticized for a number of shortcomings, including a limited ability to learn from actions and a lack of consideration of stakeholder objectives. To address these criticisms, we supplement existing adaptive management approaches with a decision-analytical approach that first informs the initial selection of management alternatives and then allows for periodic re-evaluation or phased implementation of management alternatives based on monitoring information and incorporation of stakeholder values. We describe the application of this enhanced adaptive management (EAM) framework to compare remedial alternatives for mercury in the South River, based on an understanding of the loading and behavior of mercury in the South River near Waynesboro, VA. The outcomes show that the ranking of remedial alternatives is influenced by uncertainty in the mercury loading model, by the relative importance placed on different criteria, and by cost estimates. The process itself demonstrates that a decision model can link project performance criteria, decision-maker preferences, environmental models, and short- and long-term monitoring information with management choices to help shape a remediation approach that provides useful information for adaptive, incremental implementation. PMID:25665032

  12. An enhanced adaptive management approach for remediation of legacy mercury in the South River.

    PubMed

    Foran, Christy M; Baker, Kelsie M; Grosso, Nancy R; Linkov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties about future conditions and the effects of chosen actions, as well as increasing resource scarcity, have been driving forces in the utilization of adaptive management strategies. However, many applications of adaptive management have been criticized for a number of shortcomings, including a limited ability to learn from actions and a lack of consideration of stakeholder objectives. To address these criticisms, we supplement existing adaptive management approaches with a decision-analytical approach that first informs the initial selection of management alternatives and then allows for periodic re-evaluation or phased implementation of management alternatives based on monitoring information and incorporation of stakeholder values. We describe the application of this enhanced adaptive management (EAM) framework to compare remedial alternatives for mercury in the South River, based on an understanding of the loading and behavior of mercury in the South River near Waynesboro, VA. The outcomes show that the ranking of remedial alternatives is influenced by uncertainty in the mercury loading model, by the relative importance placed on different criteria, and by cost estimates. The process itself demonstrates that a decision model can link project performance criteria, decision-maker preferences, environmental models, and short- and long-term monitoring information with management choices to help shape a remediation approach that provides useful information for adaptive, incremental implementation.

  13. Defining ecological and economical hydropoweroperations: a framework for managing dam releasesto meet multiple conflicting objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Elise R.

    2014-01-01

    Hydroelectric dams are a flexible source of power, provide flood control, and contribute to the economic growth of local communities through real-estate and recreation. Yet the impoundment of rivers can alter and fragment miles of critical riverine habitat needed for other competing needs such as downstream consumptive water use, fish and wildlife population viability, or other forms of recreation. Multiple conflicting interests can compromise progressive management especially with recognized uncertainties related to whether management actions will fulfill the objectives of policy makers, resource managers and/or facility owners. Decision analytic tools were used in a stakeholder-driven process to develop and implement a template for evaluation and prediction of the effects of water resource management of multiple-use systems under the context provided by R.L. Harris Dam on the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, USA. The approach provided a transparent and structured framework for decision-making and incorporated both existing and new data to meet multiple management objectives. Success of the template has been evaluated by the stakeholder governing body in an adaptive resource management framework since 2005 and is ongoing. Consequences of management of discharge at the dam were evaluated annually relative to stakeholder satisfaction to allow for adjustment of both management scenarios and objectives. This template can be applied to attempt to resolve conflict inherent in many dam-regulated systems where management decisions impact diverse values of stakeholders.

  14. A Framework for Spatial Assessment of Local Level Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity to Extreme Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmi, O.; Hayden, M.; Harlan, S.; Ruddell, D.; Komatsu, K.; England, B.; Uejio, C.

    2008-12-01

    Changing climate is predicted to increase the intensity and impacts of heat waves prompting the need to develop preparedness and adaptation strategies that reduce societal vulnerability. Central to understanding societal vulnerability, is adaptive capacity, the potential of a system or population to modify its features/behaviors so as to better cope with existing and anticipated stresses and fluctuations. Adaptive capacity influences adaptation, the actual adjustments made to cope with the impacts from current and future hazardous heat events. Understanding societal risks, vulnerabilities and adaptive capacity to extreme heat events and climate change requires an interdisciplinary approach that includes information about weather and climate, the natural and built environment, social processes and characteristics, interactions with the stakeholders, and an assessment of community vulnerability. This project presents a framework for an interdisciplinary approach and a case study that explore linkages between quantitative and qualitative data for a more comprehensive understanding of local level vulnerability and adaptive capacity to extreme heat events in Phoenix, Arizona. In this talk, we will present a methodological framework for conducting collaborative research on societal vulnerability and adaptive capacity on a local level that includes integration of household surveys into a quantitative spatial assessment of societal vulnerability. We highlight a collaborative partnership among researchers, community leaders and public health officials. Linkages between assessment of local adaptive capacity and development of regional climate change adaptation strategies will be discussed.

  15. A Conceptual Framework for Planning Systemic Human Adaptation to Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Peter W.; Hanna, Elizabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    Human activity is having multiple, inter-related effects on ecosystems. Greenhouse gas emissions persisting along current trajectories threaten to significantly alter human society. At 0.85 °C of anthropogenic warming, deleterious human impacts are acutely evident. Additional warming of 0.5 °C–1.0 °C from already emitted CO2 will further intensify extreme heat and damaging storm events. Failing to sufficiently address this trend will have a heavy human toll directly and indirectly on health. Along with mitigation efforts, societal adaptation to a warmer world is imperative. Adaptation efforts need to be significantly upscaled to prepare society to lessen the public health effects of rising temperatures. Modifying societal behaviour is inherently complex and presents a major policy challenge. We propose a social systems framework for conceptualizing adaptation that maps out three domains within the adaptation policy landscape: acclimatisation, behavioural adaptation and technological adaptation, which operate at societal and personal levels. We propose that overlaying this framework on a systems approach to societal change planning methods will enhance governments’ capacity and efficacy in strategic planning for adaptation. This conceptual framework provides a policy oriented planning assessment tool that will help planners match interventions to the behaviours being targeted for change. We provide illustrative examples to demonstrate the framework’s application as a planning tool. PMID:26334285

  16. The full spectrum of climate change adaptation: testing an analytical framework in Tyrolean mountain agriculture (Austria).

    PubMed

    Grüneis, Heidelinde; Penker, Marianne; Höferl, Karl-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Our scientific view on climate change adaptation (CCA) is unsatisfying in many ways: It is often dominated by a modernistic perspective of planned pro-active adaptation, with a selective focus on measures directly responding to climate change impacts and thus it is far from real-life conditions of those who are actually affected by climate change. Farmers have to simultaneously adapt to multiple changes. Therefore, also empirical climate change adaptation research needs a more integrative perspective on real-life climate change adaptations. This also has to consider "hidden" adaptations, which are not explicitly and directly motivated by CCA but actually contribute to the sector's adaptability to climate change. The aim of the present study is to develop and test an analytic framework that contributes to a broader understanding of CCA and to bridge the gap between scientific expertise and practical action. The framework distinguishes three types of CCA according to their climate related motivations: explicit adaptations, multi-purpose adaptations, and hidden adaptations. Although agriculture is among the sectors that are most affected by climate change, results from the case study of Tyrolean mountain agriculture show that climate change is ranked behind other more pressing "real-life-challenges" such as changing agricultural policies or market conditions. We identified numerous hidden adaptations which make a valuable contribution when dealing with climate change impacts. We conclude that these hidden adaptations have not only to be considered to get an integrative und more realistic view on CCA; they also provide a great opportunity for linking adaptation strategies to farmers' realities.

  17. Scenario Planning Provides a Framework for Climate Change Adaptation in the National Park Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Resource management decisions must be based on future expectations. Abundant evidence suggests climate change will have highly consequential effects on the Nation's natural and cultural resources, but specific impacts are difficult to accurately predict. This situation of too much information but not enough specificity can often lead to either paralysis or denial for decision makers. Scenario planning is an emerging tool for climate change adaptation that provides a structured framework for identifying and exploring critical drivers of change and their uncertain outcomes. Since 2007, the National Park Service (NPS) has been working with its partners to develop and apply a scenario-based approach for adaptation planning that integrates quantitative, model-driven, climate change projections with qualitative, participatory exercises to explore management and policy options under a range of future conditions. Major outcomes of this work are (1) increased understanding of key scientific results and uncertainties, (2) incorporation of alternative perspectives into park and landscape level planning, (3) identification of "no brainer" and "no gainer" actions, (4) strengthening of regional science-management partnerships, and (5) overall improved capacity for flexible decision making. The basic approach employed by NPS for scenario planning follows a typical adaptive management process: define the focal question, assess the relevant science, explore plausible futures, identify effective strategies, prioritize and implement actions, and monitor results. Many science and management partners contributed to the process, including NOAA Regional Integrated Science and Assessment teams (RISAs) and Regional Climate Centers (RCCs), USGS Research Centers, and other university and government scientists. The Global Business Network, an internationally recognized leader in scenario development, provided expert facilitation and training techniques. Climate science input is provided

  18. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  19. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework.

    PubMed

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-09-07

    Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers.

  20. Justice and Equity Implications of Climate Change Adaptation: A Theoretical Evaluation Framework

    PubMed Central

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects human health, and climate change adaptation aims to reduce these risks through infrastructural, behavioral, and technological measures. However, attributing direct human health effects to climate change adaptation is difficult, causing an ethical dilemma between the need for evidence of strategies and their precautionary implementation before such evidence has been generated. In the absence of conclusive evidence for individual adaptation strategies, alternative approaches to the measurement of adaptation effectiveness need to be developed. This article proposes a theoretical framework and a set of guiding questions to assess effects of adaptation strategies on seven domains of health determinants, including social, economic, infrastructure, institutional, community, environmental, and cultural determinants of health. Its focus on advancing gender equity and environmental justice concurrently with the implementation of health-related adaptation could serve as a template for policymakers and researchers. PMID:27618121

  1. Constrained Aeroacoustic Shape Optimization Using the Surrogate Management Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    412 A. L. Marsden, M. Wang & J. E. Dennis, Jr. rum for collaboration, as well as Charles Audet and Petros Koumoutsakos for valuable discussions...2003 Optimal aeroa- coustic shape design using the surrogate management framework. Submitted for review. MARSDEN, A. L., WANG, M. & KOUMOUTSAKOS , P

  2. Examining Household Asthma Management Behavior through a Microeconomic Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magzamen, Sheryl; Brandt, Sylvia J.; Tager, Ira B.

    2014-01-01

    National guidelines on the effective management of pediatric asthma have been promoted for over 20 years, yet asthma-related morbidity among low-income children remains disproportionately high. To date, household and clinical interventions designed to remediate these differences have been informed largely by a health behavior framework. However,…

  3. A DRDC Management Accountability Framework: Results of Cycle 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    assessment and improvement of business processes . Future plans: The following recommendations arise from this report: 1. Defence R&D Canada should...18 3.2.2 Vision of a Steady-State DRDC MAF .......................................................... 20 3.2.2.1 The Process ...Dalhousie University supported a cyclic development process for a DRDC management accountability framework (MAF), as follows: Cycle ‘zero’, which

  4. Adaptive Management of Bull Trout Populations in the Lemhi Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James T.; Tyre, Andrew J.; Converse, Sarah J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Miller, Damien; Post van der Burg, Max; Thomas, Carmen; Thompson, Ralph J.; Wood, Jeri; Brewer, Donna; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a stream-living salmonid distributed in drainages of the northwestern United States, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act because of rangewide declines. One proposed recovery action is the reconnection of tributaries in the Lemhi Basin. Past water use policies in this core area disconnected headwater spawning sites from downstream habitat and have led to the loss of migratory life history forms. We developed an adaptive management framework to analyze which types of streams should be prioritized for reconnection under a proposed Habitat Conservation Plan. We developed a Stochastic Dynamic Program that identified optimal policies over time under four different assumptions about the nature of the migratory behavior and the effects of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on subpopulations of bull trout. In general, given the current state of the system and the uncertainties about the dynamics, the optimal policy would be to connect streams that are currently occupied by bull trout. We also estimated the value of information as the difference between absolute certainty about which of our four assumptions were correct, and a model averaged optimization assuming no knowledge. Overall there is little to be gained by learning about the dynamics of the system in its current state, although in other parts of the state space reducing uncertainties about the system would be very valuable. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis; the optimal decision at the current state does not change even when parameter values are changed up to 75% of the baseline values. Overall, the exercise demonstrates that it is possible to apply adaptive management principles to threatened and endangered species, but logistical and data availability constraints make detailed analyses difficult.

  5. Engineering Change Management Method Framework in Mechanical Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stekolschik, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Engineering changes make an impact on different process chains in and outside the company, and lead to most error costs and time shifts. In fact, 30 to 50 per cent of development costs result from technical changes. Controlling engineering change processes can help us to avoid errors and risks, and contribute to cost optimization and a shorter time to market. This paper presents a method framework for controlling engineering changes at mechanical engineering companies. The developed classification of engineering changes and accordingly process requirements build the basis for the method framework. The developed method framework comprises two main areas: special data objects managed in different engineering IT tools and process framework. Objects from both areas are building blocks that can be selected to the overall business process based on the engineering process type and change classification. The process framework contains steps for the creation of change objects (both for overall change and for parts), change implementation, and release. Companies can select singleprocess building blocks from the framework, depending on the product development process and change impact. The developed change framework has been implemented at a division (10,000 employees) of a big German mechanical engineering company.

  6. Public sector reform and governance for adaptation: implications of new public management for adaptive capacity in Mexico and Norway.

    PubMed

    Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

    2011-03-01

    Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation--namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability--have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

  7. A Self-Adaptive Energy-Efficient Framework for Large Unattended Wireless Sensor Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-06

    Report 15-May-2009- 15-Aug-2014 4. 1ITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACT NUMBER Final Report: A Self-Adaptive Energy- Efficient Framework for W911NF-09-l-0154...unless so designated by other documentation. 14. ABSTRACT The objective of this research is to study energy efficient self-adaptive schemes for...1. ~~·· -~1....:1~ 15. SUBJECT TERMS wireless sensor networks, energy efficiency , adptive, data gathering, mobility, multiple-input

  8. Horizon: The Portable, Scalable, and Reusable Framework for Developing Automated Data Management and Product Generation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Alarcon, C.; Quach, N. T.

    2014-12-01

    Capture, curate, and analysis are the typical activities performed at any given Earth Science data center. Modern data management systems must be adaptable to heterogeneous science data formats, scalable to meet the mission's quality of service requirements, and able to manage the life-cycle of any given science data product. Designing a scalable data management doesn't happen overnight. It takes countless hours of refining, refactoring, retesting, and re-architecting. The Horizon data management and workflow framework, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is a portable, scalable, and reusable framework for developing high-performance data management and product generation workflow systems to automate data capturing, data curation, and data analysis activities. The NASA's Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC)'s Data Management and Archive System (DMAS) is its core data infrastructure that handles capturing and distribution of hundreds of thousands of satellite observations each day around the clock. DMAS is an application of the Horizon framework. The NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) is NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS)'s solution for making high-resolution global imageries available to the science communities. The Imagery Exchange (TIE), an application of the Horizon framework, is a core subsystem for GIBS responsible for data capturing and imagery generation automation to support the EOSDIS' 12 distributed active archive centers and 17 Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). This presentation discusses our ongoing effort in refining, refactoring, retesting, and re-architecting the Horizon framework to enable data-intensive science and its applications.

  9. Software Framework for Peer Data-Management Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John; Hardman, Sean; Crichton, Daniel; Hyon, Jason; Kelly, Sean; Tran, Thuy

    2007-01-01

    Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) is a software framework for creating a Web-based system for exchange of scientific data that are stored in diverse formats on computers at different sites under the management of scientific peers. OODT software consists of a set of cooperating, distributed peer components that provide distributed peer-to-peer (P2P) services that enable one peer to search and retrieve data managed by another peer. In effect, computers running OODT software at different locations become parts of an integrated data-management system.

  10. Prospects for Learning in River Management: Exploring the Initial Implementation of the Water Framework Directive in a Swedish River Basin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundmark, Carina; Jonsson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    This case study explores the initial implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the Lule River basin, Sweden, examining how and to what extent administrative procedures enable learning through dialogue and stakeholder collaboration. Theorising on adaptive co-management and social learning is used to structure what is to be learnt,…

  11. A framework for the assessment of severe accident management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kastenberg, W.E.; Apostolakis, G.; Dhir, V.K.

    1993-09-01

    Severe accident management can be defined as the use of existing and/or altemative resources, systems and actors to prevent or mitigate a core-melt accident. For each accident sequence and each combination of severe accident management strategies, there may be several options available to the operator, and each involves phenomenological and operational considerations regarding uncertainty. Operational uncertainties include operator, system and instrumentation behavior during an accident. A framework based on decision trees and influence diagrams has been developed which incorporates such criteria as feasibility, effectiveness, and adverse effects, for evaluating potential severe accident management strategies. The framework is also capable of propagating both data and model uncertainty. It is applied to several potential strategies including PWR cavity flooding, BWR drywell flooding, PWR depressurization and PWR feed and bleed.

  12. Expanding the prevention armamentarium portfolio: a framework for promoting HIV-Conversant Communities within a complex, adaptive epidemiological landscape.

    PubMed

    Burman, Christopher J; Aphane, Marota; Mtapuri, Oliver; Delobelle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a design journey that culminated in an HIV-Conversant Community Framework that is now being piloted in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The objective of the initiative is to reduce the aggregate community viral load by building capacity at multiple scales that strengthens peoples' HIV-related navigational skill sets-while simultaneously opening a 'chronic situation' schema. The framework design is based upon a transdisciplinary methodological combination that synthesises ideas and constructs from complexity science and the management sciences as a vehicle through which to re-conceptualise HIV prevention. This resulted in a prototype that included the following constructs: managing HIV-prevention in a complex, adaptive epidemiological landscape; problematising and increasing the scope of the HIV knowledge armamentarium through education that focuses on the viral load and Langerhans cells; disruptive innovation and safe-fail probes followed by the facilitation of path creations and pattern management implementation techniques. These constructs are underpinned by a 'middle-ground' prevention approach which is designed to bridge the prevention 'fault line', enabling a multi-ontology conceptualisation of the challenge to be developed. The article concludes that stepping outside of the 'ordered' epistemological parameters of the existing prevention 'messaging' mind-set towards a more systemic approach that emphasises agency, structure and social practices as a contribution to 'ending AIDS by 2030' is worthy of further attention if communities are to engage more adaptively with the dynamic HIV landscape in South Africa.

  13. A Framework for Managing Diver Impacts on Historic Shipwrecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edney, Joanne

    2016-12-01

    Shipwrecks are becoming increasingly popular and, therefore important attractions for recreational scuba divers. Divers' usage of these sites has the potential to create a range of adverse impacts on their cultural heritage values. Impacts associated with recreational scuba diving include boat anchor and mooring damage, impairment of site integrity and stability, the effects of intentional and unintentional contact with shipwrecks and artifacts, as well as divers' exhaled air bubbles coming into contact with shipwrecks. While these consequences may not present a major threat in comparison to other human impacts, such as fishing activities, extractive industries or commercial salvage, their cumulative effect can be significant, particularly at sites where visitation levels are high. Unlike natural events such as storms, diver impacts can be controlled and managing these impacts is an important component of a heritage management strategy for any site. Heritage managers face the difficult challenge of, on the one hand, balancing divers' access to important underwater cultural heritage sites, and on the other hand, protecting these sites. This paper outlines the causes and nature of potential recreational diver impacts on shipwrecks, briefly describing a range of management approaches that can mitigate such impacts, and presents a framework for the management of diver impacts on cultural heritage values of historic shipwrecks. The framework is designed to assist managers in deciding on appropriate management actions and priorities for particular sites.

  14. ARC Control Tower: A flexible generic distributed job management framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, J. K.; Cameron, D.; Filipčič, A.

    2015-12-01

    While current grid middleware implementations are quite advanced in terms of connecting jobs to resources, their client tools are generally quite minimal and features for managing large sets of jobs are left to the user to implement. The ARC Control Tower (aCT) is a very flexible job management framework that can be run on anything from a single users laptop to a multi-server distributed setup. aCT was originally designed to enable ATLAS jobs to be submitted to the ARC CE. However, with the recent redesign of aCT where the ATLAS specific elements are clearly separated from the ARC job management parts, the control tower can now easily be reused as a flexible generic distributed job manager for other communities. This paper will give a detailed explanation how aCT works as a job management framework and go through the steps needed to create a simple job manager using aCT and show that it can easily manage thousands of jobs.

  15. Monitoring and evaluation to support adaptive co-management: Lessons learned from the Millennium Villages Project.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sarah; Sullivan, Clare; Palm, Cheryl; Huynh, Uyen; Diru, William; Masira, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    This article focuses attention on monitoring and evaluation approaches that will help resource managers to manage for change and uncertainty in adaptive co-management (ACM). ACM is a learning-by-doing approach that aims to build flexible community-based natural resource governance systems through collaborative or otherwise participatory means. We describe the framework for monitoring and evaluation that we developed and applied in ten African countries, which includes fixed indicators and measures for co-management performance monitoring, a process evaluation element, a platform for repeat ecological surveillance, and a longitudinal household survey. We comment on the usefulness of this framework, and its applicability to a wide range of geographic contexts. We then present a four step model to assist managers in applying the framework to specific co-management problems. The model suggests a cascade approach to defining key evaluations questions at a systems, network, individual and synthesis level. We illustrate the application of our model and framework by means of a case study of a co-managed agroforestry program in western Kenya.

  16. Water hyacinth in China: a sustainability science-based management framework.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Jianguo; Fu, Zhihui; Zhu, Lei

    2007-12-01

    The invasion of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has resulted in enormous ecological and economic consequences worldwide. Although the spread of this weed in Africa, Australia, and North America has been well documented, its invasion in China is yet to be fully documented. Here we report that since its introduction about seven decades ago, water hyacinth has infested many water bodies across almost half of China's territory, causing a decline of native biodiversity, alteration of ecosystem services, deterioration of aquatic environments, and spread of diseases affecting human health. Water hyacinth infestations have also led to enormous economic losses in China by impeding water flows, paralyzing navigation, and damaging irrigation and hydroelectricity facilities. To effectively control the rampage of water hyacinth in China, we propose a sustainability science-based management framework that explicitly incorporates principles from landscape ecology and Integrated Pest Management. This framework emphasizes multiple-scale long-term monitoring and research, integration among different control techniques, combination of control with utilization, and landscape-level adaptive management. Sustainability science represents a new, transdisciplinary paradigm that integrates scientific research, technological innovation, and socioeconomic development of particular regions. Our proposed management framework is aimed to broaden the currently dominant biological control-centered view in China and to illustrate how sustainability science can be used to guide the research and management of water hyacinth.

  17. Water Hyacinth in China: A Sustainability Science-Based Management Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jianbo; Wu, Jianguo; Fu, Zhihui; Zhu, Lei

    2007-12-01

    The invasion of water hyacinth ( Eichhornia crassipes) has resulted in enormous ecological and economic consequences worldwide. Although the spread of this weed in Africa, Australia, and North America has been well documented, its invasion in China is yet to be fully documented. Here we report that since its introduction about seven decades ago, water hyacinth has infested many water bodies across almost half of China’s territory, causing a decline of native biodiversity, alteration of ecosystem services, deterioration of aquatic environments, and spread of diseases affecting human health. Water hyacinth infestations have also led to enormous economic losses in China by impeding water flows, paralyzing navigation, and damaging irrigation and hydroelectricity facilities. To effectively control the rampage of water hyacinth in China, we propose a sustainability science-based management framework that explicitly incorporates principles from landscape ecology and Integrated Pest Management. This framework emphasizes multiple-scale long-term monitoring and research, integration among different control techniques, combination of control with utilization, and landscape-level adaptive management. Sustainability science represents a new, transdisciplinary paradigm that integrates scientific research, technological innovation, and socioeconomic development of particular regions. Our proposed management framework is aimed to broaden the currently dominant biological control-centered view in China and to illustrate how sustainability science can be used to guide the research and management of water hyacinth.

  18. Adaptive management in the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System: Science-management partnerships for conservation delivery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Lonsdorf, E.V.; Knutson, M.G.; Laskowski, H.P.; Lor, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to recurrent decision making in which uncertainty about the decision is reduced over time through comparison of outcomes predicted by competing models against observed values of those outcomes. The National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is a large land management program charged with making natural resource management decisions, which often are made under considerable uncertainty, severe operational constraints, and conditions that limit ability to precisely carry out actions as intended. The NWRS presents outstanding opportunities for the application of adaptive management, but also difficult challenges. We describe two cooperative programs between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Geological Survey to implement adaptive management at scales ranging from small, single refuge applications to large, multi-refuge, multi-region projects. Our experience to date suggests three important attributes common to successful implementation: a vigorous multi-partner collaboration, practical and informative decision framework components, and a sustained commitment to the process. Administrators in both agencies should consider these attributes when developing programs to promote the use and acceptance of adaptive management in the NWRS. ?? 2010 .

  19. Adaptive management in the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System: science-management partnerships for conservation delivery.

    PubMed

    Moore, Clinton T; Lonsdorf, Eric V; Knutson, Melinda G; Laskowski, Harold P; Lor, Socheata K

    2011-05-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to recurrent decision making in which uncertainty about the decision is reduced over time through comparison of outcomes predicted by competing models against observed values of those outcomes. The National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is a large land management program charged with making natural resource management decisions, which often are made under considerable uncertainty, severe operational constraints, and conditions that limit ability to precisely carry out actions as intended. The NWRS presents outstanding opportunities for the application of adaptive management, but also difficult challenges. We describe two cooperative programs between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Geological Survey to implement adaptive management at scales ranging from small, single refuge applications to large, multi-refuge, multi-region projects. Our experience to date suggests three important attributes common to successful implementation: a vigorous multi-partner collaboration, practical and informative decision framework components, and a sustained commitment to the process. Administrators in both agencies should consider these attributes when developing programs to promote the use and acceptance of adaptive management in the NWRS.

  20. A Security Audit Framework to Manage Information System Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Teresa; Santos, Henrique

    The widespread adoption of information and communication technology have promoted an increase dependency of organizations in the performance of their Information Systems. As a result, adequate security procedures to properly manage information security must be established by the organizations, in order to protect their valued or critical resources from accidental or intentional attacks, and ensure their normal activity. A conceptual security framework to manage and audit Information System Security is proposed and discussed. The proposed framework intends to assist organizations firstly to understand what they precisely need to protect assets and what are their weaknesses (vulnerabilities), enabling to perform an adequate security management. Secondly, enabling a security audit framework to support the organization to assess the efficiency of the controls and policy adopted to prevent or mitigate attacks, threats and vulnerabilities, promoted by the advances of new technologies and new Internet-enabled services, that the organizations are subject of. The presented framework is based on a conceptual model approach, which contains the semantic description of the concepts defined in information security domain, based on the ISO/IEC_JCT1 standards.

  1. An Ecosystem Evaluation Framework for Global Seamount Conservation and Management

    PubMed Central

    Taranto, Gerald H.; Kvile, Kristina Ø.; Pitcher, Tony J.; Morato, Telmo

    2012-01-01

    In the last twenty years, several global targets for protection of marine biodiversity have been adopted but have failed. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at preserving 10% of all the marine biomes by 2020. For achieving this goal, ecologically or biologically significant areas (EBSA) have to be identified in all biogeographic regions. However, the methodologies for identifying the best suitable areas are still to be agreed. Here, we propose a framework for applying the CBD criteria to locate potential ecologically or biologically significant seamount areas based on the best information currently available. The framework combines the likelihood of a seamount constituting an EBSA and its level of human impact and can be used at global, regional and local scales. This methodology allows the classification of individual seamounts into four major portfolio conservation categories which can help optimize management efforts toward the protection of the most suitable areas. The framework was tested against 1000 dummy seamounts and satisfactorily assigned seamounts to proper EBSA and threats categories. Additionally, the framework was applied to eight case study seamounts that were included in three out of four portfolio categories: areas highly likely to be identified as EBSA with high degree of threat; areas highly likely to be EBSA with low degree of threat; and areas with a low likelihood of being EBSA with high degree of threat. This framework will allow managers to identify seamount EBSAs and to prioritize their policies in terms of protecting undisturbed areas, disturbed areas for recovery of habitats and species, or both based on their management objectives. It also identifies seamount EBSAs and threats considering different ecological groups in both pelagic and benthic communities. Therefore, this framework may represent an important tool to mitigate seamount biodiversity loss and to achieve the 2020 CBD goals. PMID:22905190

  2. An ecosystem evaluation framework for global seamount conservation and management.

    PubMed

    Taranto, Gerald H; Kvile, Kristina Ø; Pitcher, Tony J; Morato, Telmo

    2012-01-01

    In the last twenty years, several global targets for protection of marine biodiversity have been adopted but have failed. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) aims at preserving 10% of all the marine biomes by 2020. For achieving this goal, ecologically or biologically significant areas (EBSA) have to be identified in all biogeographic regions. However, the methodologies for identifying the best suitable areas are still to be agreed. Here, we propose a framework for applying the CBD criteria to locate potential ecologically or biologically significant seamount areas based on the best information currently available. The framework combines the likelihood of a seamount constituting an EBSA and its level of human impact and can be used at global, regional and local scales. This methodology allows the classification of individual seamounts into four major portfolio conservation categories which can help optimize management efforts toward the protection of the most suitable areas. The framework was tested against 1000 dummy seamounts and satisfactorily assigned seamounts to proper EBSA and threats categories. Additionally, the framework was applied to eight case study seamounts that were included in three out of four portfolio categories: areas highly likely to be identified as EBSA with high degree of threat; areas highly likely to be EBSA with low degree of threat; and areas with a low likelihood of being EBSA with high degree of threat. This framework will allow managers to identify seamount EBSAs and to prioritize their policies in terms of protecting undisturbed areas, disturbed areas for recovery of habitats and species, or both based on their management objectives. It also identifies seamount EBSAs and threats considering different ecological groups in both pelagic and benthic communities. Therefore, this framework may represent an important tool to mitigate seamount biodiversity loss and to achieve the 2020 CBD goals.

  3. Analysis of Management Practices in Lagos State Tertiary Institutions through Total Quality Management Structural Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AbdulAzeez, Abbas Tunde

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated total quality management practices and quality teacher education in public tertiary institutions in Lagos State. The study was therefore designed to analyse management practices in Lagos state tertiary institutions through total quality management structural framework. The selected public tertiary institutions in Lagos…

  4. An introduction to adaptive management for threatened and endangered species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Management of threatened and endangered species would seem to be a perfect context for adaptive management. Many of the decisions are recurrent and plagued by uncertainty, exactly the conditions that warrant an adaptive approach. But although the potential of adaptive management in these settings has been extolled, there are limited applications in practice. The impediments to practical implementation are manifold and include semantic confusion, institutional inertia, misperceptions about the suitability and utility, and a lack of guiding examples. In this special section of the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, we hope to reinvigorate the appropriate application of adaptive management for threatened and endangered species by framing such management in a decision-analytical context, clarifying misperceptions, classifying the types of decisions that might be amenable to an adaptive approach, and providing three fully developed case studies. In this overview paper, I define terms, review the past application of adaptive management, challenge perceived hurdles, and set the stage for the case studies which follow.

  5. Using a social justice and health framework to assess European climate change adaptation strategies.

    PubMed

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-11-28

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents.

  6. Using a Social Justice and Health Framework to Assess European Climate Change Adaptation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Boeckmann, Melanie; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Climate change puts pressure on existing health vulnerabilities through higher frequency of extreme weather events, changes in disease vector distribution or exacerbated air pollution. Climate change adaptation policies may hold potential to reduce societal inequities. We assessed the role of public health and social justice in European climate change adaptation using a three-fold approach: a document analysis, a critical discourse analysis of a subgroup of strategies, and a ranking of strategies against our social justice framework. The ranking approach favored planning that includes various adaptation types, social issues and infrastructure changes. Themes on values identified in the five subgroup documents showed that risks are perceived as contradictory, technology is viewed as savior, responsibilities need to be negotiated, and social justice is advocated by only a few countries. Of 21 strategy documents assessed overall, those from Austria, England and Sweden received the highest scores in the ranking. Our qualitative assessment showed that in European adaptation planning, progress could still be made through community involvement into adaptation decisions, consistent consideration of social and demographic determinants, and a stronger link between infrastructural adaptation and the health sector. Overall, a social justice framework can serve as an evaluation guideline for adaptation policy documents. PMID:25464133

  7. An Adaptive Multilevel Security Framework for the Data Stored in Cloud Environment.

    PubMed

    Dorairaj, Sudha Devi; Kaliannan, Thilagavathy

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is renowned for delivering information technology services based on internet. Nowadays, organizations are interested in moving their massive data and computations into cloud to reap their significant benefits of on demand service, resource pooling, and rapid elasticity that helps to satisfy the dynamically changing infrastructure demand without the burden of owning, managing, and maintaining it. Since the data needs to be secured throughout its life cycle, security of the data in cloud is a major challenge to be concentrated on because the data is in third party's premises. Any uniform simple or high level security method for all the data either compromises the sensitive data or proves to be too costly with increased overhead. Any common multiple method for all data becomes vulnerable when the common security pattern is identified at the event of successful attack on any information and also encourages more attacks on all other data. This paper suggests an adaptive multilevel security framework based on cryptography techniques that provide adequate security for the classified data stored in cloud. The proposed security system acclimates well for cloud environment and is also customizable and more reliant to meet the required level of security of data with different sensitivity that changes with business needs and commercial conditions.

  8. An Adaptive Multilevel Security Framework for the Data Stored in Cloud Environment

    PubMed Central

    Dorairaj, Sudha Devi; Kaliannan, Thilagavathy

    2015-01-01

    Cloud computing is renowned for delivering information technology services based on internet. Nowadays, organizations are interested in moving their massive data and computations into cloud to reap their significant benefits of on demand service, resource pooling, and rapid elasticity that helps to satisfy the dynamically changing infrastructure demand without the burden of owning, managing, and maintaining it. Since the data needs to be secured throughout its life cycle, security of the data in cloud is a major challenge to be concentrated on because the data is in third party's premises. Any uniform simple or high level security method for all the data either compromises the sensitive data or proves to be too costly with increased overhead. Any common multiple method for all data becomes vulnerable when the common security pattern is identified at the event of successful attack on any information and also encourages more attacks on all other data. This paper suggests an adaptive multilevel security framework based on cryptography techniques that provide adequate security for the classified data stored in cloud. The proposed security system acclimates well for cloud environment and is also customizable and more reliant to meet the required level of security of data with different sensitivity that changes with business needs and commercial conditions. PMID:26258165

  9. The Protected Areas Visitor Impact Management (PAVIM) framework: A simplified process for making management decisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America have resulted in ecological impacts, which some protected areas managers have addressed by employing visitor impact management frameworks. In this paper, we propose the Protected Area Visitor Impact Management (PAVIM) framework as an alternative to carrying capacity and other frameworks such as Limits of Acceptable Change. We use a set of evaluation criteria to compare the relative positive and negative attributes of carrying capacity, other decision-making frameworks and the new framework, within the context of their actual and potential use in Central and South America. Positive attributes of PAVIM include simplicity, flexibility, cost effectiveness, timeliness, and incorporating input from stakeholders and local residents. Negative attributes include diminished objectivity and cultural sensitivity issues. Further research and application of PAVIM are recommended.

  10. Using a Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Framework to Predict Physical Aggression Trajectories in Newlywed Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Amie; Lawrence, Erika; Barry, Robin A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a vulnerability-stress-adaptation framework to examine personality traits and chronic stress as predictors of the developmental course of physical aggression in the early years of marriage. Additionally, personality traits and physical aggression were examined as predictors of the developmental course of chronic stress. Data from…

  11. Can Survival Processing Enhance Story Memory? Testing the Generalizability of the Adaptive Memory Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seamon, John G.; Bohn, Justin M.; Coddington, Inslee E.; Ebling, Maritza C.; Grund, Ethan M.; Haring, Catherine T.; Jang, Sue-Jung; Kim, Daniel; Liong, Christopher; Paley, Frances M.; Pang, Luke K.; Siddique, Ashik H.

    2012-01-01

    Research from the adaptive memory framework shows that thinking about words in terms of their survival value in an incidental learning task enhances their free recall relative to other semantic encoding strategies and intentional learning (Nairne, Pandeirada, & Thompson, 2008). We found similar results. When participants used incidental…

  12. Gradually Adaptive Frameworks: Reasonable Disagreement and the Evolution of Evaluative Systems in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "gradually adaptive frameworks" is introduced as a model with the potential to describe the evolution of belief evaluative systems through the consideration of reasonable arguments and evidence. This concept is demonstrated through an analysis of specific points of disagreement between David Elliott's praxial philosophy…

  13. Gradually Adaptive Frameworks: Reasonable Disagreement and the Evolution of Evaluative Systems in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "gradually adaptive frameworks" is introduced as a model with the potential to describe the evolution of belief evaluative systems through the consideration of reasonable arguments and evidence. This concept is demonstrated through an analysis of specific points of disagreement between David Elliott's praxial…

  14. Studying citizen science through adaptive management and learning feedbacks as mechanisms for improving conservation.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Rebecca; Gray, Steven; Sorensen, Amanda; Newman, Greg; Mellor, David; Newman, Greg; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy; LaDeau, Shannon; Biehler, Dawn; Crall, Alycia

    2016-06-01

    Citizen science has generated a growing interest among scientists and community groups, and citizen science programs have been created specifically for conservation. We examined collaborative science, a highly interactive form of citizen science, which we developed within a theoretically informed framework. In this essay, we focused on 2 aspects of our framework: social learning and adaptive management. Social learning, in contrast to individual-based learning, stresses collaborative and generative insight making and is well-suited for adaptive management. Adaptive-management integrates feedback loops that are informed by what is learned and is guided by iterative decision making. Participants engaged in citizen science are able to add to what they are learning through primary data collection, which can result in the real-time information that is often necessary for conservation. Our work is particularly timely because research publications consistently report a lack of established frameworks and evaluation plans to address the extent of conservation outcomes in citizen science. To illustrate how our framework supports conservation through citizen science, we examined how 2 programs enacted our collaborative science framework. Further, we inspected preliminary conservation outcomes of our case-study programs. These programs, despite their recent implementation, are demonstrating promise with regard to positive conservation outcomes. To date, they are independently earning funds to support research, earning buy-in from local partners to engage in experimentation, and, in the absence of leading scientists, are collecting data to test ideas. We argue that this success is due to citizen scientists being organized around local issues and engaging in iterative, collaborative, and adaptive learning.

  15. Portfolio Decision Analysis Framework for Value-Focused Ecosystem Management.

    PubMed

    Convertino, Matteo; Valverde, L James

    2013-01-01

    Management of natural resources in coastal ecosystems is a complex process that is made more challenging by the need for stakeholders to confront the prospect of sea level rise and a host of other environmental stressors. This situation is especially true for coastal military installations, where resource managers need to balance conflicting objectives of environmental conservation against military mission. The development of restoration plans will necessitate incorporating stakeholder preferences, and will, moreover, require compliance with applicable federal/state laws and regulations. To promote the efficient allocation of scarce resources in space and time, we develop a portfolio decision analytic (PDA) framework that integrates models yielding policy-dependent predictions for changes in land cover and species metapopulations in response to restoration plans, under different climate change scenarios. In a manner that is somewhat analogous to financial portfolios, infrastructure and natural resources are classified as human and natural assets requiring management. The predictions serve as inputs to a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis model (MCDA) that is used to measure the benefits of restoration plans, as well as to construct Pareto frontiers that represent optimal portfolio allocations of restoration actions and resources. Optimal plans allow managers to maintain or increase asset values by contrasting the overall degradation of the habitat and possible increased risk of species decline against the benefits of mission success. The optimal combination of restoration actions that emerge from the PDA framework allows decision-makers to achieve higher environmental benefits, with equal or lower costs, than those achievable by adopting the myopic prescriptions of the MCDA model. The analytic framework presented here is generalizable for the selection of optimal management plans in any ecosystem where human use of the environment conflicts with the needs of

  16. Portfolio Decision Analysis Framework for Value-Focused Ecosystem Management

    PubMed Central

    Convertino, Matteo; Valverde, L. James

    2013-01-01

    Management of natural resources in coastal ecosystems is a complex process that is made more challenging by the need for stakeholders to confront the prospect of sea level rise and a host of other environmental stressors. This situation is especially true for coastal military installations, where resource managers need to balance conflicting objectives of environmental conservation against military mission. The development of restoration plans will necessitate incorporating stakeholder preferences, and will, moreover, require compliance with applicable federal/state laws and regulations. To promote the efficient allocation of scarce resources in space and time, we develop a portfolio decision analytic (PDA) framework that integrates models yielding policy-dependent predictions for changes in land cover and species metapopulations in response to restoration plans, under different climate change scenarios. In a manner that is somewhat analogous to financial portfolios, infrastructure and natural resources are classified as human and natural assets requiring management. The predictions serve as inputs to a Multi Criteria Decision Analysis model (MCDA) that is used to measure the benefits of restoration plans, as well as to construct Pareto frontiers that represent optimal portfolio allocations of restoration actions and resources. Optimal plans allow managers to maintain or increase asset values by contrasting the overall degradation of the habitat and possible increased risk of species decline against the benefits of mission success. The optimal combination of restoration actions that emerge from the PDA framework allows decision-makers to achieve higher environmental benefits, with equal or lower costs, than those achievable by adopting the myopic prescriptions of the MCDA model. The analytic framework presented here is generalizable for the selection of optimal management plans in any ecosystem where human use of the environment conflicts with the needs of

  17. Risk management frameworks: supporting the next generation of Murray-Darling Basin water sharing plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podger, G. M.; Cuddy, S. M.; Peeters, L.; Smith, T.; Bark, R. H.; Black, D. C.; Wallbrink, P.

    2014-09-01

    Water jurisdictions in Australia are required to prepare and implement water resource plans. In developing these plans the common goal is realising the best possible use of the water resources - maximising outcomes while minimising negative impacts. This requires managing the risks associated with assessing and balancing cultural, industrial, agricultural, social and environmental demands for water within a competitive and resource-limited environment. Recognising this, conformance to international risk management principles (ISO 31000:2009) have been embedded within the Murray-Darling Basin Plan. Yet, to date, there has been little strategic investment by water jurisdictions in bridging the gap between principle and practice. The ISO 31000 principles and the risk management framework that embodies them align well with an adaptive management paradigm within which to conduct water resource planning. They also provide an integrative framework for the development of workflows that link risk analysis with risk evaluation and mitigation (adaptation) scenarios, providing a transparent, repeatable and robust platform. This study, through a demonstration use case and a series of workflows, demonstrates to policy makers how these principles can be used to support the development of the next generation of water sharing plans in 2019. The workflows consider the uncertainty associated with climate and flow inputs, and model parameters on irrigation and hydropower production, meeting environmental flow objectives and recreational use of the water resource. The results provide insights to the risks associated with meeting a range of different objectives.

  18. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health.

  19. Multilevel Optimization Framework for Hierarchical Stiffened Shells Accelerated by Adaptive Equivalent Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Tian, Kuo; Zhao, Haixin; Hao, Peng; Zhu, Tianyu; Zhang, Ke; Ma, Yunlong

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve the post-buckling optimization efficiency of hierarchical stiffened shells, a multilevel optimization framework accelerated by adaptive equivalent strategy is presented in this paper. Firstly, the Numerical-based Smeared Stiffener Method (NSSM) for hierarchical stiffened shells is derived by means of the numerical implementation of asymptotic homogenization (NIAH) method. Based on the NSSM, a reasonable adaptive equivalent strategy for hierarchical stiffened shells is developed from the concept of hierarchy reduction. Its core idea is to self-adaptively decide which hierarchy of the structure should be equivalent according to the critical buckling mode rapidly predicted by NSSM. Compared with the detailed model, the high prediction accuracy and efficiency of the proposed model is highlighted. On the basis of this adaptive equivalent model, a multilevel optimization framework is then established by decomposing the complex entire optimization process into major-stiffener-level and minor-stiffener-level sub-optimizations, during which Fixed Point Iteration (FPI) is employed to accelerate convergence. Finally, the illustrative examples of the multilevel framework is carried out to demonstrate its efficiency and effectiveness to search for the global optimum result by contrast with the single-level optimization method. Remarkably, the high efficiency and flexibility of the adaptive equivalent strategy is indicated by compared with the single equivalent strategy.

  20. Real-Time Tracking Framework with Adaptive Features and Constrained Labels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Daqun; Xu, Tingfa; Chen, Shuoyang; Zhang, Jizhou; Jiang, Shenwang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel tracking framework with adaptive features and constrained labels (AFCL) to handle illumination variation, occlusion and appearance changes caused by the variation of positions. The novel ensemble classifier, including the Forward–Backward error and the location constraint is applied, to get the precise coordinates of the promising bounding boxes. The Forward–Backward error can enhance the adaptation and accuracy of the binary features, whereas the location constraint can overcome the label noise to a certain degree. We use the combiner which can evaluate the online templates and the outputs of the classifier to accommodate the complex situation. Evaluation of the widely used tracking benchmark shows that the proposed framework can significantly improve the tracking accuracy, and thus reduce the processing time. The proposed framework has been tested and implemented on the embedded system using TMS320C6416 and Cyclone Ⅲ kernel processors. The outputs show that achievable and satisfying results can be obtained. PMID:27618052

  1. First-Order Frameworks for Managing Models in Engineering Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natlia M.; Lewis, Robert Michael

    2000-01-01

    Approximation/model management optimization (AMMO) is a rigorous methodology for attaining solutions of high-fidelity optimization problems with minimal expense in high- fidelity function and derivative evaluation. First-order AMMO frameworks allow for a wide variety of models and underlying optimization algorithms. Recent demonstrations with aerodynamic optimization achieved three-fold savings in terms of high- fidelity function and derivative evaluation in the case of variable-resolution models and five-fold savings in the case of variable-fidelity physics models. The savings are problem dependent but certain trends are beginning to emerge. We give an overview of the first-order frameworks, current computational results, and an idea of the scope of the first-order framework applicability.

  2. Advanced Computational Framework for Environmental Management ZEM, Version 1.x

    SciTech Connect

    Vesselinov, Velimir V.; O'Malley, Daniel; Pandey, Sachin

    2016-11-04

    Typically environmental management problems require analysis of large and complex data sets originating from concurrent data streams with different data collection frequencies and pedigree. These big data sets require on-the-fly integration into a series of models with different complexity for various types of model analyses where the data are applied as soft and hard model constraints. This is needed to provide fast iterative model analyses based on the latest available data to guide decision-making. Furthermore, the data and model are associated with uncertainties. The uncertainties are probabilistic (e.g. measurement errors) and non-probabilistic (unknowns, e.g. alternative conceptual models characterizing site conditions). To address all of these issues, we have developed an integrated framework for real-time data and model analyses for environmental decision-making called ZEM. The framework allows for seamless and on-the-fly integration of data and modeling results for robust and scientifically-defensible decision-making applying advanced decision analyses tools such as Bayesian- Information-Gap Decision Theory (BIG-DT). The framework also includes advanced methods for optimization that are capable of dealing with a large number of unknown model parameters, and surrogate (reduced order) modeling capabilities based on support vector regression techniques. The framework is coded in Julia, a state-of-the-art high-performance programing language (http://julialang.org). The ZEM framework is open-source and can be applied to any environmental management site. The framework will be open-source and released under GPL V3 license.

  3. Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

    2011-03-01

    Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation—namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability—have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

  4. Agricultural Catchments: Evaluating Policies and Monitoring Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, P.; Shortle, G.; Mellander, P. E.; Shore, M.; McDonald, N.; Buckley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural management in river catchments must combine the objectives of economic profit and environmental stewardship and, in many countries, mitigate the decline of water quality and/or maintain high water quality. Achieving these objectives is, amongst other activities, in the remit of 'sustainable intensification'. Of concern is the efficient use of crop nutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, and minimising or offsetting the effects of transfers from land to water - corner-stone requirements of many agri-environmental regulations. This requires a robust monitoring programme that can audit the stages of nutrient inputs and outputs in river catchments and indicate where the likely points of successful policy interventions can be observed - or confounded. In this paper, a catchment, or watershed, experimental design and results are described for monitoring the nutrient transfer continuum in the Irish agricultural landscape against the backdrop of the European Union Nitrates and Water Framework Directives. This Agricultural Catchments Programme experimental design also serves to indicate water quality pressure-points that may be catchment specific as agricultural activities intensify to adapt to national efforts to build important parts of the post-recession economy.

  5. Adaptive management of ecosystem services across different land use regimes.

    PubMed

    Ruhl, J B

    2016-12-01

    Using adaptive management to manage desired flows of ecosystem services may seem on the surface to be a good fit, but many social, economic, environmental, legal, and political factors influence how good a fit. One strongly influential factor is the land use regime within which the profile of ecosystem services is being managed. Shaped largely by legal mandates, market forces, and social and cultural practices, different land use regimes present different opportunities for and constraints on goals for ecosystem services and pose different decision making environments. Even where all other conditions appear amenable to using adaptive management, therefore, it is essential to consider the constraining (or liberating) effects of different land use regimes when deciding whether to adopt adaptive management to achieve those goals and, if so, how to implement it.

  6. Disaster management and the emergency department: a framework for planning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deborah H; Proctor, Pamela W; Amos, Linda K

    2002-03-01

    Recent changes in the Joint Commission Accrediting Hospital Organization (JCAHO) Environment of Care standards are forcing hospitals to revisit their disaster planning process. Emergency Management, a process that is familiar to municipal and industry planners is now part of hospital disaster planning. A framework for making the necessary changes to the hospital disaster plan is presented. Examples of tools that might be useful in the planning process are also included.

  7. A framework for fibromyalgia management for primary care providers.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Lesley M; Clauw, Daniel J; Dunegan, L Jean; Turk, Dennis C

    2012-05-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread pain disorder commonly associated with comorbid symptoms, including fatigue and nonrestorative sleep. As in the management of other chronic medical disorders, the approach for fibromyalgia management follows core principles of comprehensive assessment, education, goal setting, multimodal treatment including pharmacological (eg, pregabalin, duloxetine, milnacipran) and nonpharmacological therapies (eg, physical activity, behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, education), and regular education and monitoring of treatment response and progress. Based on these core management principles, this review presents a framework for primary care providers through which they can develop a patient-centered treatment program for patients with fibromyalgia. This proactive and systematic treatment approach encourages ongoing education and patient self-management and is designed for use in the primary care setting.

  8. A multi-layered governance framework for incorporating social science insights into adapting to the health impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kathryn J; Ebi, Kristie; Friel, Sharon; McMichael, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Background Addressing climate change and its associated effects is a multi-dimensional and ongoing challenge. This includes recognizing that climate change will affect the health and wellbeing of all populations over short and longer terms, albeit in varied ways and intensities. That recognition has drawn attention to the need to take adaptive actions to lessen adverse impacts over the next few decades from unavoidable climate change, particularly in developing country settings. A range of sectors is responsible for appropriate adaptive policies and measures to address the health risks of climate change, including health services, water and sanitation, trade, agriculture, disaster management, and development. Objectives To broaden the framing of governance and decision-making processes by using innovative methods and assessments to illustrate the multi-sectoral nature of health-related adaptation to climate change. This is a shift from sector-specific to multi-level systems encompassing sectors and actors, across temporal and spatial scales. Design A review and synthesis of the current knowledge in the areas of health and climate change adaptation governance and decision-making processes. Results A novel framework is presented that incorporates social science insights into the formulation and implementation of adaptation activities and policies to lessen the health risks posed by climate change. Conclusion Clarification of the roles that different sectors, organizations, and individuals occupy in relation to the development of health-related adaptation strategies will facilitate the inclusion of health and wellbeing within multi-sector adaptation policies, thereby strengthening the overall set of responses to minimize the adverse health effects of climate change.

  9. A multi-layered governance framework for incorporating social science insights into adapting to the health impacts of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Kathryn J.; Ebi, Kristie; Friel, Sharon; McMichael, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Addressing climate change and its associated effects is a multi-dimensional and ongoing challenge. This includes recognizing that climate change will affect the health and wellbeing of all populations over short and longer terms, albeit in varied ways and intensities. That recognition has drawn attention to the need to take adaptive actions to lessen adverse impacts over the next few decades from unavoidable climate change, particularly in developing country settings. A range of sectors is responsible for appropriate adaptive policies and measures to address the health risks of climate change, including health services, water and sanitation, trade, agriculture, disaster management, and development. Objectives To broaden the framing of governance and decision-making processes by using innovative methods and assessments to illustrate the multi-sectoral nature of health-related adaptation to climate change. This is a shift from sector-specific to multi-level systems encompassing sectors and actors, across temporal and spatial scales. Design A review and synthesis of the current knowledge in the areas of health and climate change adaptation governance and decision-making processes. Results A novel framework is presented that incorporates social science insights into the formulation and implementation of adaptation activities and policies to lessen the health risks posed by climate change. Conclusion Clarification of the roles that different sectors, organizations, and individuals occupy in relation to the development of health-related adaptation strategies will facilitate the inclusion of health and wellbeing within multi-sector adaptation policies, thereby strengthening the overall set of responses to minimize the adverse health effects of climate change. PMID:24028938

  10. Protocol and practice in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, F.; Williams, K.

    1999-01-01

    Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in setting hunting

  11. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon... AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon...

  12. Managing Adaptive Challenges: Learning with Principals in Bermuda and Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Maslin-Ostrowski, Patricia; Hoffman, Alexander M.; Barbaro, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We interviewed eight principals from Bermuda and Florida about how they identify and manage their most pressing challenges. Their challenges are composed of both adaptive and technical work, requiring leaders to learn to diagnose and manage them. Challenges focused on change and were traced to accountability contexts, yet accountability was not…

  13. The Value of Adaptive Regret Management in Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Jamie C.; Wrosch, Carsten; Pushkar, Dolores; Li, Karen Z. H.

    2013-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study examined the associations between regret management, everyday activities, and retirement satisfaction among recent retirees. We hypothesized that the regulation of a severe life regret can facilitate activity engagement and retirement satisfaction, but only if retirees manage their regrets adaptively by either…

  14. Engaging stakeholders for adaptive management using structured decision analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Elise R.; Kathryn, D.; Kennedy, Mickett

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive management is different from other types of management in that it includes all stakeholders (versus only policy makers) in the process, uses resource optimization techniques to evaluate competing objectives, and recognizes and attempts to reduce uncertainty inherent in natural resource systems. Management actions are negotiated by stakeholders, monitored results are compared to predictions of how the system should respond, and management strategies are adjusted in a “monitor-compare-adjust” iterative routine. Many adaptive management projects fail because of the lack of stakeholder identification, engagement, and continued involvement. Primary reasons for this vary but are usually related to either stakeholders not having ownership (or representation) in decision processes or disenfranchisement of stakeholders after adaptive management begins. We present an example in which stakeholders participated fully in adaptive management of a southeastern regulated river. Structured decision analysis was used to define management objectives and stakeholder values and to determine initial flow prescriptions. The process was transparent, and the visual nature of the modeling software allowed stakeholders to see how their interests and values were represented in the decision process. The development of a stakeholder governance structure and communication mechanism has been critical to the success of the project.

  15. Rich Water World an adaptive water management tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rheenen, Hans; van den Berg, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Rich Water World an adaptive water management tool based on weather forecasting, sensor data and hydrological modelling. Climate change will cause periods of more extreme rainfall relieved by periods of drought. Water systems have to become more robust and self supporting in order to prevent damage by flooding and drought. For climate proof water management, it is important to anticipate on extreme events by using excellent weather forecast data, sensor data on soil and water, and hydrologic model data. The Rich Water World project has created an Adaptive Water Management Tool that integrates all these data.

  16. Adapting environmental management to uncertain but inevitable change

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Sam; Fuller, Richard A.; Iwamura, Takuya; Chadès, Iadine

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of adaptation actions to protect biodiversity is limited by uncertainty about the future. One reason for this is the fear of making the wrong decisions caused by the myriad future scenarios presented to decision-makers. We propose an adaptive management (AM) method for optimally managing a population under uncertain and changing habitat conditions. Our approach incorporates multiple future scenarios and continually learns the best management strategy from observations, even as conditions change. We demonstrate the performance of our AM approach by applying it to the spatial management of migratory shorebird habitats on the East Asian–Australasian flyway, predicted to be severely impacted by future sea-level rise. By accounting for non-stationary dynamics, our solution protects 25 000 more birds per year than the current best stationary approach. Our approach can be applied to many ecological systems that require efficient adaptation strategies for an uncertain future. PMID:25972463

  17. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  18. Improving Voluntary Environmental Management Programs: Facilitating Learning and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genskow, Kenneth D.; Wood, Danielle M.

    2011-05-01

    Environmental planners and managers face unique challenges understanding and documenting the effectiveness of programs that rely on voluntary actions by private landowners. Programs, such as those aimed at reducing nonpoint source pollution or improving habitat, intend to reach those goals by persuading landowners to adopt behaviors and management practices consistent with environmental restoration and protection. Our purpose with this paper is to identify barriers for improving voluntary environmental management programs and ways to overcome them. We first draw upon insights regarding data, learning, and adaptation from the adaptive management and performance management literatures, describing three key issues: overcoming information constraints, structural limitations, and organizational culture. Although these lessons are applicable to a variety of voluntary environmental management programs, we then present the issues in the context of on-going research for nonpoint source water quality pollution. We end the discussion by highlighting important elements for advancing voluntary program efforts.

  19. RISK MANAGEMENT OF SEDIMENT STRESS: A FRAMEWORK FOR SEDIMENT RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research related to the ecological risk management of sediment stress in watersheds is placed under a common conceptual framework in order to help promote the timely advance of decision support methods for aquatic resource managers and watershed-level planning. The proposed risk ...

  20. Design Framework for an Adaptive MOOC Enhanced by Blended Learning: Supplementary Training and Personalized Learning for Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gynther, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    The research project has developed a design framework for an adaptive MOOC that complements the MOOC format with blended learning. The design framework consists of a design model and a series of learning design principles which can be used to design in-service courses for teacher professional development. The framework has been evaluated by…

  1. An Expert System Framework for Adaptive Evidential Reasoning: Application to In-Flight Route Re-Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-21

    DECISION SCIENCE CON5ORKIUM, INK. YE AN EXPERT SYSTEM FRANIEWORK FOR ADAPTIVE EVIDENTIAL REASONING: APPLICATION T O IN-FLIGHT ROUTE RE-PLANNING...00-00-1986 to 00-00-1986 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE An Expert System Framework for Adaptive Evidential Reasoning: Application to In-Flight Route Re...EXPERT SYSTEM FRAMEWORK FOR ADAPTIVE EVIDENTIAL REASONING: APPLICATION T O IN-FLIGHT ROUTE RE-PLANNING Marvin S. Cohen, Kathryn B. Laskey, James

  2. A framework for modeling emerging diseases to inform management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Robin E.; Katz, Rachel A.; Richgels, Katherine L.D.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Grant, Evan

    2017-01-01

    The rapid emergence and reemergence of zoonotic diseases requires the ability to rapidly evaluate and implement optimal management decisions. Actions to control or mitigate the effects of emerging pathogens are commonly delayed because of uncertainty in the estimates and the predicted outcomes of the control tactics. The development of models that describe the best-known information regarding the disease system at the early stages of disease emergence is an essential step for optimal decision-making. Models can predict the potential effects of the pathogen, provide guidance for assessing the likelihood of success of different proposed management actions, quantify the uncertainty surrounding the choice of the optimal decision, and highlight critical areas for immediate research. We demonstrate how to develop models that can be used as a part of a decision-making framework to determine the likelihood of success of different management actions given current knowledge.

  3. A Framework for Modeling Emerging Diseases to Inform Management

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Rachel A.; Richgels, Katherine L.D.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Grant, Evan H.C.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid emergence and reemergence of zoonotic diseases requires the ability to rapidly evaluate and implement optimal management decisions. Actions to control or mitigate the effects of emerging pathogens are commonly delayed because of uncertainty in the estimates and the predicted outcomes of the control tactics. The development of models that describe the best-known information regarding the disease system at the early stages of disease emergence is an essential step for optimal decision-making. Models can predict the potential effects of the pathogen, provide guidance for assessing the likelihood of success of different proposed management actions, quantify the uncertainty surrounding the choice of the optimal decision, and highlight critical areas for immediate research. We demonstrate how to develop models that can be used as a part of a decision-making framework to determine the likelihood of success of different management actions given current knowledge. PMID:27983501

  4. An artificial intelligence framework for compensating transgressions and its application to diet management.

    PubMed

    Anselma, Luca; Mazzei, Alessandro; Michieli, Franco De

    2017-02-27

    Today, there is considerable interest in personal healthcare. The pervasiveness of technology allows to precisely track human behavior; however, when dealing with the development of an intelligent assistant exploiting data acquired through such technologies, a critical issue has to be taken into account; namely, that of supporting the user in the event of any transgression with respect to the optimal behavior. In this paper we present a reasoning framework based on Simple Temporal Problems that can be applied to a general class of problems,, which we called "cake&carrot problems", to support reasoning in presence of human transgression. The reasoning framework offers a number of facilities to ensure a smart management of possible "wrong behaviors" by a user to reach the goals defined by the problem. This paper describes the framework by means of the prototypical use case of diet domain. Indeed, following a healthy diet can be a difficult task for both practical and psychological reasons and dietary transgressions are hard to avoid. Therefore, the framework is tolerant to dietary transgressions and adapts the following meals to facilitate users in recovering from such transgressions. Finally, through a simulation involving a real hospital menu, we show that the framework can effectively achieve good results in a realistic scenario.

  5. An Adaptive Data Collection Algorithm Based on a Bayesian Compressed Sensing Framework

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Mengmeng; Cui, Jian

    2014-01-01

    For Wireless Sensor Networks, energy efficiency is always a key consideration in system design. Compressed sensing is a new theory which has promising prospects in WSNs. However, how to construct a sparse projection matrix is a problem. In this paper, based on a Bayesian compressed sensing framework, a new adaptive algorithm which can integrate routing and data collection is proposed. By introducing new target node selection metrics, embedding the routing structure and maximizing the differential entropy for each collection round, an adaptive projection vector is constructed. Simulations show that compared to reference algorithms, the proposed algorithm can decrease computation complexity and improve energy efficiency. PMID:24818659

  6. Soft systems thinking and social learning for adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Cundill, G; Cumming, G S; Biggs, D; Fabricius, C

    2012-02-01

    The success of adaptive management in conservation has been questioned and the objective-based management paradigm on which it is based has been heavily criticized. Soft systems thinking and social-learning theory expose errors in the assumption that complex systems can be dispassionately managed by objective observers and highlight the fact that conservation is a social process in which objectives are contested and learning is context dependent. We used these insights to rethink adaptive management in a way that focuses on the social processes involved in management and decision making. Our approach to adaptive management is based on the following assumptions: action toward a common goal is an emergent property of complex social relationships; the introduction of new knowledge, alternative values, and new ways of understanding the world can become a stimulating force for learning, creativity, and change; learning is contextual and is fundamentally about practice; and defining the goal to be addressed is continuous and in principle never ends. We believe five key activities are crucial to defining the goal that is to be addressed in an adaptive-management context and to determining the objectives that are desirable and feasible to the participants: situate the problem in its social and ecological context; raise awareness about alternative views of a problem and encourage enquiry and deconstruction of frames of reference; undertake collaborative actions; and reflect on learning.

  7. A tale of two rain gardens: Barriers and bridges to adaptive management of urban stormwater in Cleveland, Ohio.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, Brian C; Shuster, William D; Garmestani, Ahjond S; Furio, Brooke; Albro, Sandra L; Gardiner, Mary; Spring, MaLisa; Green, Olivia Odom

    2016-12-01

    Green infrastructure installations such as rain gardens and bioswales are increasingly regarded as viable tools to mitigate stormwater runoff at the parcel level. The use of adaptive management to implement and monitor green infrastructure projects as experimental attempts to manage stormwater has not been adequately explored as a way to optimize green infrastructure performance or increase social and political acceptance. Efforts to improve stormwater management through green infrastructure suffer from the complexity of overlapping jurisdictional boundaries, as well as interacting social and political forces that dictate the flow, consumption, conservation and disposal of urban wastewater flows. Within this urban milieu, adaptive management-rigorous experimentation applied as policy-can inform new wastewater management techniques such as the implementation of green infrastructure projects. In this article, we present a narrative of scientists and practitioners working together to apply an adaptive management approach to green infrastructure implementation for stormwater management in Cleveland, Ohio. In Cleveland, contextual legal requirements and environmental factors created an opportunity for government researchers, stormwater managers and community organizers to engage in the development of two distinct sets of rain gardens, each borne of unique social, economic and environmental processes. In this article we analyze social and political barriers to applying adaptive management as a framework for implementing green infrastructure experiments as policy. We conclude with a series of lessons learned and a reflection on the prospects for adaptive management to facilitate green infrastructure implementation for improved stormwater management.

  8. Applying Human Capital Management to Model Manpower Readiness: A Conceptual Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    CAPITAL MANAGEMENT TO MODEL MANPOWER READINESS: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK by Pert Chin Ngin December 2005 Associate Advisors: William R...Management to Model Manpower Readiness: A Conceptual Framework 6. AUTHOR(S) Pert Chin Ngin 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...distribution is unlimited. APPLYING HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT TO MODEL MANPOWER READINESS: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Pert Chin Ngin MAJOR, Republic of

  9. Reference frameworks for the health management of measles, breast cancer and diabetes (type II).

    PubMed

    Brand, Helmut; Schröder, Peter; Davies, John K; Escamilla, Ixhel; Hall, Caroline; Hickey, Kieran; Jelastopulu, Eleni; Mechtler, Reli; Yared, Wendy Tse; Volf, Jaroslav; Weihrauch, Birgit

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents reference frameworks which order effective and feasible policies and interventions for the health management of measles, breast cancer and diabetes (type II). These reference frameworks can be used to rapidly appraise regional health policy documents and existing health management systems. Furthermore, the reference frameworks can serve health policy makers for the planning of health management measures.

  10. Shifts in fisheries management: adapting to regime shifts

    PubMed Central

    King, Jacquelynne R.; McFarlane, Gordon A.; Punt, André E.

    2015-01-01

    For many years, fisheries management was based on optimizing yield and maintaining a target biomass, with little regard given to low-frequency environmental forcing. However, this policy was often unsuccessful. In the last two to three decades, fisheries science and management have undergone a shift towards balancing sustainable yield with conservation, with the goal of including ecosystem considerations in decision-making frameworks. Scientific understanding of low-frequency climate–ocean variability, which is manifested as ecosystem regime shifts and states, has led to attempts to incorporate these shifts and states into fisheries assessment and management. To date, operationalizing these attempts to provide tactical advice has met with limited success. We review efforts to incorporate regime shifts and states into the assessment and management of fisheries resources, propose directions for future investigation and outline a potential framework to include regime shifts and changes in ecosystem states into fisheries management.

  11. Missouri River Recovery Program Adaptive Management Process Framework, Version 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    projects (e.g., Yellowstone Intake, Montana). The Sub-Programs and projects that comprise the MRRP, as well as the congressional authorities can... Yellowstone Intake). The role of the SPgM is to ensure successful implementation of the overall program through communication of the USACE strategic...effects of the Annual Operating Plan [AOP]) in coordination with the ISP. 1.2.10 PM for Other Congressionally and WRDA Directed Work (e.g. Yellowstone

  12. Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Kenneth RN; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas AJ; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on

  13. Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Kenneth R N; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas A J; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on

  14. Bridging the management-science partnership gap: Adaptive grazing management experiment in shortgrass steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Adaptive Grazing Management experiment (2013-2023) in shortgrass steppe of Colorado addresses a critical gap in grazing management: lack of management-science partnerships to more fully understand the effect of management decisions for multiple ecosystem goods and services at ranch-scales. A Sta...

  15. 78 FR 54482 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection with the performance...

  16. 76 FR 54487 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection...

  17. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  18. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David; Sweka, John A.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; Wong, Richard; Lyons, James E.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Kalasz, Kevin; Brust, Jeffrey; Klopfer, Michelle; Spear, Braddock

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species.

  19. On valuing information in adaptive-management models.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alana L; McCarthy, Michael A

    2010-08-01

    Active adaptive management looks at the benefit of using strategies that may be suboptimal in the near term but may provide additional information that will facilitate better management in the future. In many adaptive-management problems that have been studied, the optimal active and passive policies (accounting for learning when designing policies and designing policy on the basis of current best information, respectively) are very similar. This seems paradoxical; when faced with uncertainty about the best course of action, managers should spend very little effort on actively designing programs to learn about the system they are managing. We considered two possible reasons why active and passive adaptive solutions are often similar. First, the benefits of learning are often confined to the particular case study in the modeled scenario, whereas in reality information gained from local studies is often applied more broadly. Second, management objectives that incorporate the variance of an estimate may place greater emphasis on learning than more commonly used objectives that aim to maximize an expected value. We explored these issues in a case study of Merri Creek, Melbourne, Australia, in which the aim was to choose between two options for revegetation. We explicitly incorporated monitoring costs in the model. The value of the terminal rewards and the choice of objective both influenced the difference between active and passive adaptive solutions. Explicitly considering the cost of monitoring provided a different perspective on how the terminal reward and management objective affected learning. The states for which it was optimal to monitor did not always coincide with the states in which active and passive adaptive management differed. Our results emphasize that spending resources on monitoring is only optimal when the expected benefits of the options being considered are similar and when the pay-off for learning about their benefits is large.

  20. Embedding Educational Design Pattern Frameworks into Learning Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derntl, Michael; Calvo, Rafael A.

    Educational design patterns describe reusable solutions to the design of learning tasks and environments. While there are many projects producing patterns, there are few approaches dealing with supporting the instructor/user in instantiating and running those patterns on learning management systems (LMS). This paper aims to make a leap forward in this direction by presenting two different methods of embedding design pattern frameworks into LMS: (1) Supplying custom LMS components as part of the design patterns, and (2) Configuring existing LMS components based on design patterns. Descriptions of implementations and implications of these methods are provided.

  1. Assessing levels of adaptation during implementation of evidence-based interventions: introducing the Rogers-Rütten framework.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Shelly-Ann K; Saunders, Ruth P; Richter, Donna L; Hussey, Jim; Elder, Keith; Lindley, Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Most HIV-prevention funding agencies require the use of evidence-based behavioral interventions, tested and proven to be effective through outcome evaluation. Adaptation of programs during implementation is common and may be influenced by many factors, including agency mission, time constraints, and funding streams. There are few theoretical frameworks to understand how these organizational and program-related factors influence the level of adaptation. This study used constructs from both Rogers's diffusion theory and Rütten's framework for policy analysis to create a conceptual framework that identifies determinants hypothesized to affect the level of adaptation. Preliminary measures of these constructs were also developed. This framework and its measures assess organizational and program-related factors associated with adaptation and could serve as a model to assess implementation and adaptation in fields outside of HIV prevention.

  2. Structured decision making as a conceptual framework to identify thresholds for conservation and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, J.; Runge, M.C.; Nichols, J.D.; Lubow, B.C.; Kendall, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Thresholds and their relevance to conservation have become a major topic of discussion in the ecological literature. Unfortunately, in many cases the lack of a clear conceptual framework for thinking about thresholds may have led to confusion in attempts to apply the concept of thresholds to conservation decisions. Here, we advocate a framework for thinking about thresholds in terms of a structured decision making process. The purpose of this framework is to promote a logical and transparent process for making informed decisions for conservation. Specification of such a framework leads naturally to consideration of definitions and roles of different kinds of thresholds in the process. We distinguish among three categories of thresholds. Ecological thresholds are values of system state variables at which small changes bring about substantial changes in system dynamics. Utility thresholds are components of management objectives (determined by human values) and are values of state or performance variables at which small changes yield substantial changes in the value of the management outcome. Decision thresholds are values of system state variables at which small changes prompt changes in management actions in order to reach specified management objectives. The approach that we present focuses directly on the objectives of management, with an aim to providing decisions that are optimal with respect to those objectives. This approach clearly distinguishes the components of the decision process that are inherently subjective (management objectives, potential management actions) from those that are more objective (system models, estimates of system state). Optimization based on these components then leads to decision matrices specifying optimal actions to be taken at various values of system state variables. Values of state variables separating different actions in such matrices are viewed as decision thresholds. Utility thresholds are included in the objectives

  3. Expanding the prevention armamentarium portfolio: A framework for promoting HIV-Conversant Communities within a complex, adaptive epidemiological landscape

    PubMed Central

    Burman, Christopher J.; Aphane, Marota; Mtapuri, Oliver; Delobelle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The article describes a design journey that culminated in an HIV-Conversant Community Framework that is now being piloted in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The objective of the initiative is to reduce the aggregate community viral load by building capacity at multiple scales that strengthens peoples' HIV-related navigational skill sets—while simultaneously opening a ‘chronic situation’ schema. The framework design is based upon a transdisciplinary methodological combination that synthesises ideas and constructs from complexity science and the management sciences as a vehicle through which to re-conceptualise HIV prevention. This resulted in a prototype that included the following constructs: managing HIV-prevention in a complex, adaptive epidemiological landscape; problematising and increasing the scope of the HIV knowledge armamentarium through education that focuses on the viral load and Langerhans cells; disruptive innovation and safe-fail probes followed by the facilitation of path creations and pattern management implementation techniques. These constructs are underpinned by a ‘middle-ground’ prevention approach which is designed to bridge the prevention ‘fault line’, enabling a multi-ontology conceptualisation of the challenge to be developed. The article concludes that stepping outside of the ‘ordered’ epistemological parameters of the existing prevention ‘messaging’ mind-set towards a more systemic approach that emphasises agency, structure and social practices as a contribution to ‘ending AIDS by 2030’ is worthy of further attention if communities are to engage more adaptively with the dynamic HIV landscape in South Africa. PMID:25888256

  4. CAreDroid: Adaptation Framework for Android Context-Aware Applications.

    PubMed

    Elmalaki, Salma; Wanner, Lucas; Srivastava, Mani

    2015-09-01

    Context-awareness is the ability of software systems to sense and adapt to their physical environment. Many contemporary mobile applications adapt to changing locations, connectivity states, available computational and energy resources, and proximity to other users and devices. Nevertheless, there is little systematic support for context-awareness in contemporary mobile operating systems. Because of this, application developers must build their own context-awareness adaptation engines, dealing directly with sensors and polluting application code with complex adaptation decisions. In this paper, we introduce CAreDroid, which is a framework that is designed to decouple the application logic from the complex adaptation decisions in Android context-aware applications. In this framework, developers are required- only-to focus on the application logic by providing a list of methods that are sensitive to certain contexts along with the permissible operating ranges under those contexts. At run time, CAreDroid monitors the context of the physical environment and intercepts calls to sensitive methods, activating only the blocks of code that best fit the current physical context. CAreDroid is implemented as part of the Android runtime system. By pushing context monitoring and adaptation into the runtime system, CAreDroid eases the development of context-aware applications and increases their efficiency. In particular, case study applications implemented using CAre-Droid are shown to have: (1) at least half lines of code fewer and (2) at least 10× more efficient in execution time compared to equivalent context-aware applications that use only standard Android APIs.

  5. CAreDroid: Adaptation Framework for Android Context-Aware Applications

    PubMed Central

    Elmalaki, Salma; Wanner, Lucas; Srivastava, Mani

    2015-01-01

    Context-awareness is the ability of software systems to sense and adapt to their physical environment. Many contemporary mobile applications adapt to changing locations, connectivity states, available computational and energy resources, and proximity to other users and devices. Nevertheless, there is little systematic support for context-awareness in contemporary mobile operating systems. Because of this, application developers must build their own context-awareness adaptation engines, dealing directly with sensors and polluting application code with complex adaptation decisions. In this paper, we introduce CAreDroid, which is a framework that is designed to decouple the application logic from the complex adaptation decisions in Android context-aware applications. In this framework, developers are required— only—to focus on the application logic by providing a list of methods that are sensitive to certain contexts along with the permissible operating ranges under those contexts. At run time, CAreDroid monitors the context of the physical environment and intercepts calls to sensitive methods, activating only the blocks of code that best fit the current physical context. CAreDroid is implemented as part of the Android runtime system. By pushing context monitoring and adaptation into the runtime system, CAreDroid eases the development of context-aware applications and increases their efficiency. In particular, case study applications implemented using CAre-Droid are shown to have: (1) at least half lines of code fewer and (2) at least 10× more efficient in execution time compared to equivalent context-aware applications that use only standard Android APIs. PMID:26834512

  6. Societal transformation and adaptation necessary to manage dynamics in flood hazard and risk mitigation (TRANS-ADAPT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Thaler, Thomas; Bonnefond, Mathieu; Clarke, Darren; Driessen, Peter; Hegger, Dries; Gatien-Tournat, Amandine; Gralepois, Mathilde; Fournier, Marie; Mees, Heleen; Murphy, Conor; Servain-Courant, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    Facing the challenges of climate change, this project aims to analyse and to evaluate the multiple use of flood alleviation schemes with respect to social transformation in communities exposed to flood hazards in Europe. The overall goals are: (1) the identification of indicators and parameters necessary for strategies to increase societal resilience, (2) an analysis of the institutional settings needed for societal transformation, and (3) perspectives of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. This proposal assesses societal transformations from the perspective of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. Yet each risk mitigation measure is built on a narrative of exchanges and relations between people and therefore may condition the outputs. As such, governance is done by people interacting and defining risk mitigation measures as well as climate change adaptation are therefore simultaneously both outcomes of, and productive to, public and private responsibilities. Building off current knowledge this project will focus on different dimensions of adaptation and mitigation strategies based on social, economic and institutional incentives and settings, centring on the linkages between these different dimensions and complementing existing flood risk governance arrangements. The policy dimension of adaptation, predominantly decisions on the societal admissible level of vulnerability and risk, will be evaluated by a human-environment interaction approach using multiple methods and the assessment of social capacities of stakeholders across scales. As such, the challenges of adaptation to flood risk will be tackled by converting scientific frameworks into practical assessment and policy advice. In addressing the relationship between these dimensions of adaptation on different temporal and spatial scales, this

  7. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  8. Accelerating Adaptation of Natural Resource Management to Address Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn AF

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants’ self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world. Acelerando la Adaptación del Manejo de Recursos Naturales para

  9. 50 CFR 648.130 - Scup framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scup framework adjustments to management measures. 648.130 Section 648.130 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.130 Scup framework adjustments to management measures....

  10. 50 CFR 648.130 - Scup framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scup framework adjustments to management measures. 648.130 Section 648.130 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.130 Scup framework adjustments to management measures....

  11. 50 CFR 648.130 - Scup framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scup framework adjustments to management measures. 648.130 Section 648.130 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.130 Scup framework adjustments to management measures....

  12. 50 CFR 648.130 - Scup framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scup framework adjustments to management measures. 648.130 Section 648.130 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... Management Measures for the Scup Fishery § 648.130 Scup framework adjustments to management measures....

  13. Adapting water allocation management to drought scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacomelli, P.; Rossetti, A.; Brambilla, M.

    2008-04-01

    Climate change dynamics have significant consequences on water resources on a watershed scale. With water becoming scarcer and susceptible to variation, the planning and reallocation decisions in watershed management need to be reviewed. This research focuses on an in-depth understanding of the current allocation balance of water resources among competitors, placed along the course of the Adda River. In particular, during the summer period, the demand for water dramatically increases. This is due to the increase in irrigation activities in the lower part of the basin and to the highest peaks of tourist inflow, in the Como Lake and Valtellina areas. Moreover, during these months, the hydroelectric reservoirs in the upper part of the Adda River basin (the Valtellina) retain most of the volume of water coming from the snow and glacier melt. The existing allocation problem among these different competing users is exacerbated by the decreasing water supplies. The summer of 2003 testified the rise in a number of allocation problems and situations of water scarcity that brought about environmental and economical consequences. The RICLIC project is committed to the understanding of water dynamics on a regional scale, to quantify the volumes involved and offer local communities an instrument to improve a sustainable water management system, within uncertain climate change scenarios.

  14. Lessons Learned from the First Decade of Adaptive Management in Comprehensive Everglades Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although few successful examples of large-scale adaptive management applications are available to ecosystem restoration scientists and managers, examining where and how the components of an adaptive management program have been successfully implemented yields insight into what ...

  15. A Framework for Integration of IVHM Technologies for Intelligent Integration for Vehicle Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Mike

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of IIVM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the effected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the IIVM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  16. Institutional framework for integrated Pharmaceutical Benefits Management: results from a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hermanowski, Tomasz Roman; Drozdowska, Aleksandra Krystyna; Kowalczyk, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this paper, we emphasised that effective management of health plans beneficiaries access to reimbursed medicines requires proper institutional set-up. The main objective was to identify and recommend an institutional framework of integrated pharmaceutical care providing effective, safe and equitable access to medicines. Method The institutional framework of drug policy was derived on the basis of publications obtained by systematic reviews. A comparative analysis concerning adaptation of coordinated pharmaceutical care services in the USA, the UK, Poland, Italy, Denmark and Germany was performed. Results While most European Union Member States promote the implementation of selected e-Health tools, like e-Prescribing, these efforts do not necessarily implement an integrated package. There is no single agent who would manage an insured patients’ access to medicines and health care in a coordinated manner, thereby increasing the efficiency and safety of drug policy. More attention should be paid by European Union Member States as to how to integrate various e-Health tools to enhance benefits to both individuals and societies. One solution could be to implement an integrated “pharmacy benefit management” model, which is well established in the USA and Canada and provides an integrated package of cost-containment methods, implemented within a transparent institutional framework and powered by strong motivation of the agent. PMID:26528099

  17. A health impact assessment framework for assessing vulnerability and adaptation planning for climate change.

    PubMed

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru.

  18. A Health Impact Assessment Framework for Assessing Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Helen; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of an approach designed to investigate the application of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework to assess the potential health impacts of climate change. A HIA framework has been combined with key climate change terminology and concepts. The fundamental premise of this framework is an understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and climate. The diversity and complexity of these interactions can hinder much needed action on the critical health issue of climate change. The objectives of the framework are to improve the methodology for understanding and assessing the risks associated with potential health impacts of climate change, and to provide decision-makers with information that can facilitate the development of effective adaptation plans. While the process presented here provides guidance with respect to this task it is not intended to be prescriptive. As such, aspects of the process can be amended to suit the scope and available resources of each project. A series of working tables has been developed to assist in the collation of evidence throughout the process. The framework has been tested in a number of locations including Western Australia, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and Nauru. PMID:25514146

  19. A framework for understanding waste management studies in construction

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Weisheng; Yuan Hongping

    2011-06-15

    During the past decades, construction and demolition (C and D) waste issues have received increasing attention from both practitioners and researchers around the world. A plethora of research relating to C and D waste management (WM) has been published in scholarly journals. However, a comprehensive understanding of the C and D WM research is somehow absent in spite of its proliferation. The aim of this paper is to develop a framework that helps readers understand the C and D WM research as archived in selected journals. Papers under the topic of C and D WM are retrieved based on a set of rigorous procedures. The information of these papers is then analyzed with the assistance of the Qualitative Social Research (QSR) software package NVivo. A framework for understanding C and D WM research is created based on the analytic results. By following the framework, a bibliometric analysis of research in C and D WM is presented, followed by an in-depth literature analysis. It is found that C and D generation, reduction, and recycling are the three major topics in the discipline of C and D WM. Future research is recommended to (a) investigate C and D waste issues in wider scopes including design, maintenance and demolition, (b) develop a unified measurement for waste generation so that WM performance can be compared across various economies, and (c) enhance effectiveness of WM approaches (e.g. waste charging scheme) based on new WM concepts (e.g. Extended Producer Responsibility). In addition to the above research findings, the approach for producing the research framework can be useful references for other studies which attempt to understand the research of a given discipline.

  20. A framework for understanding waste management studies in construction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weisheng; Yuan, Hongping

    2011-06-01

    During the past decades, construction and demolition (C&D) waste issues have received increasing attention from both practitioners and researchers around the world. A plethora of research relating to C&D waste management (WM) has been published in scholarly journals. However, a comprehensive understanding of the C&D WM research is somehow absent in spite of its proliferation. The aim of this paper is to develop a framework that helps readers understand the C&D WM research as archived in selected journals. Papers under the topic of C&D WM are retrieved based on a set of rigorous procedures. The information of these papers is then analyzed with the assistance of the Qualitative Social Research (QSR) software package NVivo. A framework for understanding C&D WM research is created based on the analytic results. By following the framework, a bibliometric analysis of research in C&D WM is presented, followed by an in-depth literature analysis. It is found that C&D generation, reduction, and recycling are the three major topics in the discipline of C&D WM. Future research is recommended to (a) investigate C&D waste issues in wider scopes including design, maintenance and demolition, (b) develop a unified measurement for waste generation so that WM performance can be compared across various economies, and (c) enhance effectiveness of WM approaches (e.g. waste charging scheme) based on new WM concepts (e.g. Extended Producer Responsibility). In addition to the above research findings, the approach for producing the research framework can be useful references for other studies which attempt to understand the research of a given discipline.

  1. A Holistic Management Architecture for Large-Scale Adaptive Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    MANAGEMENT ARCHITECTURE FOR LARGE-SCALE ADAPTIVE NETWORKS by Michael R. Clement September 2007 Thesis Advisor: Alex Bordetsky Second Reader...TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL September 2007 Author: Michael R. Clement Approved by: Dr. Alex ...achieve in life is by His will. Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam. To my parents, my family, and Caitlin: For supporting me, listening to me when I got

  2. Adaptivity with near-orthogonality constraint for high compression rates in lifting scheme framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwa, Tadeusz; Voisin, Yvon; Diou, Alain

    2004-01-01

    Since few years, Lifting Scheme has proven its utility in compression field. It permits to easily create fast, reversible, separable or no, not necessarily linear, multiresolution analysis for sound, image, video or even 3D graphics. An interesting feature of lifting scheme is the ability to build adaptive transforms for compression, more easily than with other decompositions. Many works have already be done in this subject, especially in lossless or near-lossless compression framework : better compression than with usually used methods can be obtained. However, most of the techniques used in adaptive near-lossless compression can not be extended to higher lossy compression rates, even in the simplest cases. Indeed, this is due to the quantization error introduced before coding, which has not controlled propagation through inverse transform. Authors have put their interest to the classical Lifting Scheme, with linear convolution filters, but they studied criterions to maintain a high level of adaptivity and a good error propagation through inverse transform. This article aims to present relatively simple criterion to obtain filters able to build image and video compression with high compression rate, tested here with the Spiht coder. For this, upgrade and predict filters are simultaneously adapted thanks to a constrained least-square method. The constraint consists in a near-orthogonality inequality, letting sufficiently high level of adaptivity. Some compression results are given, illustrating relevance of this method, even with short filters.

  3. Adaptive resource management and the value of information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Breininger, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The value of information is a general and broadly applicable concept that has been used for several decades to aid in making decisions in the face of uncertainty. Yet there are relatively few examples of its use in ecology and natural resources management, and almost none that are framed in terms of the future impacts of management decisions. In this paper we discuss the value of information in a context of adaptive management, in which actions are taken sequentially over a timeframe and both future resource conditions and residual uncertainties about resource responses are taken into account. Our objective is to derive the value of reducing or eliminating uncertainty in adaptive decision making. We describe several measures of the value of information, with each based on management objectives that are appropriate for adaptive management. We highlight some mathematical properties of these measures, discuss their geometries, and illustrate them with an example in natural resources management. Accounting for the value of information can help to inform decisions about whether and how much to monitor resource conditions through time.

  4. Judging adaptive management practices of U.S. agencies.

    PubMed

    Fischman, Robert L; Ruhl, J B

    2016-04-01

    All U.S. federal agencies administering environmental laws purport to practice adaptive management (AM), but little is known about how they actually implement this conservation tool. A gap between the theory and practice of AM is revealed in judicial decisions reviewing agency adaptive management plans. We analyzed all U.S. federal court opinions published through 1 January 2015 to identify the agency AM practices courts found most deficient. The shortcomings included lack of clear objectives and processes, monitoring thresholds, and defined actions triggered by thresholds. This trio of agency shortcuts around critical, iterative steps characterizes what we call AM-lite. Passive AM differs from active AM in its relative lack of management interventions through experimental strategies. In contrast, AM-lite is a distinctive form of passive AM that fails to provide for the iterative steps necessary to learn from management. Courts have developed a sophisticated understanding of AM and often offer instructive rather than merely critical opinions. The role of the judiciary is limited by agency discretion under U.S. administrative law. But courts have overturned some agency AM-lite practices and insisted on more rigorous analyses to ensure that the promised benefits of structured learning and fine-tuned management have a reasonable likelihood of occurring. Nonetheless, there remains a mismatch in U.S. administrative law between the flexibility demanded by adaptive management and the legal objectives of transparency, public participation, and finality.

  5. Adaptive resource management and the value of information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.; Eaton, M.J.; Breininger, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The value of information is a general and broadly applicable concept that has been used for several decades to aid in making decisions in the face of uncertainty. Yet there are relatively few examples of its use in ecology and natural resources management, and almost none that are framed in terms of the future impacts of management decisions. In this paper we discuss the value of information in a context of adaptive management, in which actions are taken sequentially over a timeframe and both future resource conditions and residual uncertainties about resource responses are taken into account. Our objective is to derive the value of reducing or eliminating uncertainty in adaptive decision making. We describe several measures of the value of information, with each based on management objectives that are appropriate for adaptive management. We highlight some mathematical properties of these measures, discuss their geometries, and illustrate them with an example in natural resources management. Accounting for the value of information can help to inform decisions about whether and how much to monitor resource conditions through time. ?? 2011.

  6. . Ecological conceptual models: a framework and case study on ecosystem management for South Florida sustainability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gentile, J.H.; Harwell, M.A.; Cropper, W.; Harwell, C. C.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Davis, S.; Ogden, J.C.; Lirman, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Everglades and South Florida ecosystems are the focus of national and international attention because of their current degraded and threatened state. Ecological risk assessment, sustainability and ecosystem and adaptive management principles and processes are being used nationally as a decision and policy framework for a variety of types of ecological assessments. The intent of this study is to demonstrate the application of these paradigms and principles at a regional scale. The effects-directed assessment approach used in this study consists of a retrospective, eco-epidemiological phase to determine the causes for the current conditions and a prospective predictive risk-based assessment using scenario analysis to evaluate future options. Embedded in these assessment phases is a process that begins with the identification of goals and societal preferences which are used to develop an integrated suite of risk-based and policy relevant conceptual models. Conceptual models are used to illustrate the linkages among management (societal) actions, environmental stressors, and societal/ecological effects, and provide the basis for developing and testing causal hypotheses. These models, developed for a variety of landscape units and their drivers, stressors, and endpoints, are used to formulate hypotheses to explain the current conditions. They are also used as the basis for structuring management scenarios and analyses to project the temporal and spatial magnitude of risk reduction and system recovery. Within the context of recovery, the conceptual models are used in the initial development of performance criteria for those stressors that are determined to be most important in shaping the landscape, and to guide the use of numerical models used to develop quantitative performance criteria in the scenario analysis. The results will be discussed within an ecosystem and adaptive management framework that provides the foundation for decision making.

  7. 62 FR 42818 - Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-08-08

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior... Work Group (AMWG) will be an open public meeting to discuss administrative and program related issues. This meeting will discuss the following agenda items: Work Group organization, technical work...

  8. Adaptive Knowledge Management of Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an approach to Adaptive Knowledge Management (AKM) of project-based learning (PBL) is to intensify subject study through guiding, inducing, and facilitating development knowledge, accountability skills, and collaborative skills of students. Knowledge development is attained by knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge…

  9. 50 CFR 648.25 - Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... framework adjustments to management measures. 648.25 Section 648.25 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management... introducing new concepts may require amendment of the FMP instead of a framework adjustment. (2)...

  10. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework... instead of a framework adjustment. (2) MAFMC recommendation. After developing management actions...

  11. 50 CFR 648.25 - Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... framework adjustments to management measures. 648.25 Section 648.25 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management... may require amendment of the FMP instead of a framework adjustment. (2) MAFMC recommendation....

  12. 50 CFR 648.25 - Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... framework adjustments to management measures. 648.25 Section 648.25 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management... introducing new concepts may require amendment of the FMP instead of a framework adjustment. (2)...

  13. Management framework paradigms for disorders of sex development.

    PubMed

    Telles-Silveira, Mariana; Knobloch, Felicia; Kater, Claudio E

    2015-10-01

    Until 2005, questions regarding medical treatment and diagnostic information on Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) were not systematically discussed with both the patients and their families; however, the way these patients are currently treated have been changing with time. Interventional changes in the clinical-psychotherapeutic-surgical areas of DSD determine not only different medical recommendations but also help to place the patient and the family into the decisional process of therapy. We must consider two paradigmatic periods that have influenced and transformed the clinical management framework of patients with DSD: a) The "Money era" (1955), which emphasized the role of the gonads as the diagnostic criterion, having the environment as determinant of the sex identity; and b) The Chicago Consensus (2005) phase, in which the role of genetics and molecular biology was critical for an early identification, as well as in building a proper sex identity, emphasizing ethical questions and the "stigma culture". In addition, recent data have focused on the importance of interdisciplinarity and statements on questions concerning Human Rights as key factors in treatment decision making. Despite each of these management models being able to determine specific directions and recommendations regarding the clinical handling of these patients, we verify that a composite of these several models is the clinical routine nowadays. In the present paper, we discuss these several paradigms, and pinpoint clinical differences and their unfolding regarding management of DSD patients and their families.

  14. Working towards an integrated land contamination management framework for Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sam, Kabari; Coulon, Frédéric; Prpich, George

    2016-11-15

    Over the past five decades, Nigeria has developed a number of contaminated land legislations to address the damage caused primarily by oil and gas exploitation activities. Within these legislations exists elements of risk assessment and risk-based corrective action. Despite this progress, we argue that contaminated land management approaches in Nigeria need further development to be able to integrate new scientific information, and to address environmental, economic, and social values. By comparison, advanced contaminated land regimes in the United Kingdom (UK), the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States of America (USA) apply a number of integrative approaches (e.g. sustainability appraisal, liability regime, funding mechanisms, technology demonstration) that enable them to meet the environmental, economic, and social needs of their populations. In comparison, Nigerian governance lacks many of these mechanisms and management of contaminated land is ad hoc. In this paper we propose an integrated risk assessment framework for Nigeria that incorporates the principles of sustainability and stakeholder engagement into the decision-making processes for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management. The integrated approach relies on transparency to promote acceptance and build trust in institutions, and uses stakeholder engagement to address data deficiencies. We conclude this paper with a roadmap for how Nigeria might implement such an integrative approach into their existing contaminated land regulatory system, as well as identify a series of policy priorities that should be addressed.

  15. Compromise-based Robust Prioritization of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies for Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Chung, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    This study suggests a robust prioritization framework for climate change adaptation strategies under multiple climate change scenarios with a case study of selecting sites for reusing treated wastewater (TWW) in a Korean urban watershed. The framework utilizes various multi-criteria decision making techniques, including the VIKOR method and the Shannon entropy-based weights. In this case study, the sustainability of TWW use is quantified with indicator-based approaches with the DPSIR framework, which considers both hydro-environmental and socio-economic aspects of the watershed management. Under the various climate change scenarios, the hydro-environmental responses to reusing TWW in potential alternative sub-watersheds are determined using the Hydrologic Simulation Program in Fortran (HSPF). The socio-economic indicators are obtained from the statistical databases. Sustainability scores for multiple scenarios are estimated individually and then integrated with the proposed approach. At last, the suggested framework allows us to prioritize adaptation strategies in a robust manner with varying levels of compromise between utility-based and regret-based strategies.

  16. Adapting a theoretical framework for characterizing students' use of equations in physics problem solving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, Carina M.; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2012-02-01

    Previous studies have focused on the resources that students activate and utilize while solving a given physics problem. However, few studies explore how students relate a given resource such as an equation, to various types of physics problems and contexts and how they ascertain the meaning and applicability of that resource. We explore how students view physics equations, derive meaning from those equations, and use those equations in physics problem solving. We adapt Dubinsky and McDonald's description of APOS (action-process-object-schema) theory of learning in mathematics, to construct a theoretical framework that describes how students interpret and use equations in physics in terms of actions, processes, objects, and schemas. This framework provides a lens for understanding how students construct their understanding of physics concepts and their relation to equations. We highlight how APOS theory can be operationalized to serve as a lens for studying the use of mathematics in physics problem solving.

  17. An efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework for heterogeneous wireless sensor network-based applications.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Ylianttila, Mika; Gurtov, Andrei; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2014-02-11

    Robust security is highly coveted in real wireless sensor network (WSN) applications since wireless sensors' sense critical data from the application environment. This article presents an efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework that suits real heterogeneous WSN-based applications (such as smart homes, industrial environments, smart grids, and healthcare monitoring). The proposed framework offers: (i) key initialization; (ii) secure network (cluster) formation (i.e., mutual authentication and dynamic key establishment); (iii) key revocation; and (iv) new node addition into the network. The correctness of the proposed scheme is formally verified. An extensive analysis shows the proposed scheme coupled with message confidentiality, mutual authentication and dynamic session key establishment, node privacy, and message freshness. Moreover, the preliminary study also reveals the proposed framework is secure against popular types of attacks, such as impersonation attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, replay attacks, and information-leakage attacks. As a result, we believe the proposed framework achieves efficiency at reasonable computation and communication costs and it can be a safeguard to real heterogeneous WSN applications.

  18. An Adaptive Simulation Framework for the Exploration of Extreme and Unexpected Events in Dynamic Engineered Systems.

    PubMed

    Turati, Pietro; Pedroni, Nicola; Zio, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    The end states reached by an engineered system during an accident scenario depend not only on the sequences of the events composing the scenario, but also on their timing and magnitudes. Including these additional features within an overarching framework can render the analysis infeasible in practical cases, due to the high dimension of the system state-space and the computational effort correspondingly needed to explore the possible system evolutions in search of the interesting (and very rare) ones of failure. To tackle this hurdle, in this article we introduce a framework for efficiently probing the space of event sequences of a dynamic system by means of a guided Monte Carlo simulation. Such framework is semi-automatic and allows embedding the analyst's prior knowledge about the system and his/her objectives of analysis. Specifically, the framework allows adaptively and intelligently allocating the simulation efforts preferably on those sequences leading to outcomes of interest for the objectives of the analysis, e.g., typically those that are more safety-critical (and/or rare). The emerging diversification in the filling of the state-space by the preference-guided exploration allows also the retrieval of critical system features, which can be useful to analysts and designers for taking appropriate means of prevention and mitigation of dangerous and/or unexpected consequences. A dynamic system for gas transmission is considered as a case study to demonstrate the application of the method.

  19. An Efficient and Adaptive Mutual Authentication Framework for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Network-Based Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pardeep; Ylianttila, Mika; Gurtov, Andrei; Lee, Sang-Gon; Lee, Hoon-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Robust security is highly coveted in real wireless sensor network (WSN) applications since wireless sensors' sense critical data from the application environment. This article presents an efficient and adaptive mutual authentication framework that suits real heterogeneous WSN-based applications (such as smart homes, industrial environments, smart grids, and healthcare monitoring). The proposed framework offers: (i) key initialization; (ii) secure network (cluster) formation (i.e., mutual authentication and dynamic key establishment); (iii) key revocation; and (iv) new node addition into the network. The correctness of the proposed scheme is formally verified. An extensive analysis shows the proposed scheme coupled with message confidentiality, mutual authentication and dynamic session key establishment, node privacy, and message freshness. Moreover, the preliminary study also reveals the proposed framework is secure against popular types of attacks, such as impersonation attacks, man-in-the-middle attacks, replay attacks, and information-leakage attacks. As a result, we believe the proposed framework achieves efficiency at reasonable computation and communication costs and it can be a safeguard to real heterogeneous WSN applications. PMID:24521942

  20. Role of Science, Policy, and Society in Adaptive Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Richard M. T.

    2009-03-01

    Planning for an Uncertain Future: Monitoring, Integration, and Adaptation; Estes Park, Colorado, 8-11 September 2008; Water managers around the world are being tasked to include potential effects of climate change in their future operations scenarios. One important water manager, the federal government, owns and manages 30% of all land in the United States, the vast majority of which is in western states and Alaska. On 9 March 2007, the Secretary of the Interior signed Order 3270, which states that adaptive management should be considered when (1) there are consequential decisions to be made; (2) there is an opportunity to apply learning; (3) the objectives of management are clear; (4) the value of reducing uncertainty is high; (5) uncertainty can be expressed as a set of competing, testable models; and (6) an experimental design and monitoring system can be put in place with a reasonable expectation of reducing uncertainty. The Third Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds provided an appropriate forum to discuss science-driven resource management in the context of new adaptive management strategies. The conference was organized by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and cosponsored by the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Agricultural Research Service, the Natural Resources Conservation Service, the U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

  1. A Framework of Complex Adaptive Systems: Parents As Partners in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    DʼAgata, Amy L; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2016-01-01

    Advances in neonatal care are allowing for increased infant survival; however, neurodevelopmental complications continue. Using a complex adaptive system framework, a broad analysis of the network of agents most influential to vulnerable infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is presented: parent, nurse, and organization. By exploring these interconnected relationships and the emergent behaviors, a model of care that increases parental caregiving in the NICU is proposed. Supportive parent caregiving early in an infant's NICU stay has the potential for more sensitive caregiving and enhanced opportunities for attachment, perhaps positively impacting neurodevelopment.

  2. A Structural Model Decomposition Framework for Systems Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhury, Indranil; Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Pulido, Belamino

    2013-01-01

    Systems health management (SHM) is an important set of technologies aimed at increasing system safety and reliability by detecting, isolating, and identifying faults; and predicting when the system reaches end of life (EOL), so that appropriate fault mitigation and recovery actions can be taken. Model-based SHM approaches typically make use of global, monolithic system models for online analysis, which results in a loss of scalability and efficiency for large-scale systems. Improvement in scalability and efficiency can be achieved by decomposing the system model into smaller local submodels and operating on these submodels instead. In this paper, the global system model is analyzed offline and structurally decomposed into local submodels. We define a common model decomposition framework for extracting submodels from the global model. This framework is then used to develop algorithms for solving model decomposition problems for the design of three separate SHM technologies, namely, estimation (which is useful for fault detection and identification), fault isolation, and EOL prediction. We solve these model decomposition problems using a three-tank system as a case study.

  3. Shaping the Cities of Tomorrow: Integrating Local Urban Adaptation within an Environmental Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgescu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Contemporary methods focused on increasing urban sustainability are largely based on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. While these efforts are essential steps forward, continued characterization of urban sustainability solely within a biogeochemical framework, with neglect of the biophysical impact of the built environment, omits regional hydroclimatic forcing of the same order of magnitude as greenhouse gas emissions. Using a suite of continuous, multi-year and multi-member continental scale numerical simulations with the WRF model for the U.S., we examine hydroclimatic impacts for a variety of U.S. urban expansion scenarios (for the year 2100) and urban adaptation futures (cool roofs, green roofs, and a hypothetical hybrid approach integrating biophysical properties of both cool and green roofs), and compare those to experiments utilizing a contemporary urban extent. Widespread adoption of adaptation strategies exhibits regionally and seasonally dependent hydroclimatic impacts. For some regions and seasons, urban-induced warming in excess of 3°C can be completely offset by all adaptation approaches examined. For other regions, widespread adoption of some adaptation approaches leads to significant rainfall decline. Sustainable urban expansion therefore requires an integrated assessment that also incorporates biophysically induced urban impacts, and demands tradeoff assessment of various strategies aimed to ameliorate deleterious consequences of growth (e.g., urban heat island reduction).

  4. An Assessment of Integrated Health Management (IHM) Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    N. Lybeck; M. Tawfik; L. Bond; J. Coble

    2012-05-01

    In order to meet the ever increasing demand for energy, the United States nuclear industry is turning to life extension of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs). Economically ensuring the safe, secure, and reliable operation of aging nuclear power plants presents many challenges. The 2009 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop identified online monitoring of active and structural components as essential to the better understanding and management of the challenges posed by aging nuclear power plants. Additionally, there is increasing adoption of condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components in NPPs. These techniques provide a foundation upon which a variety of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic, and prognostic techniques can be deployed to continuously monitor and assess the health of NPP systems and components. The next step in the development of advanced online monitoring is to move beyond CBM to estimating the remaining useful life of active components using prognostic tools. Deployment of prognostic health management (PHM) on the scale of a NPP requires the use of an integrated health management (IHM) framework - a software product (or suite of products) used to manage the necessary elements needed for a complete implementation of online monitoring and prognostics. This paper provides a thoughtful look at the desirable functions and features of IHM architectures. A full PHM system involves several modules, including data acquisition, system modeling, fault detection, fault diagnostics, system prognostics, and advisory generation (operations and maintenance planning). The standards applicable to PHM applications are indentified and summarized. A list of evaluation criteria for PHM software products, developed to ensure scalability of the toolset to an environment with the complexity of a NPP, is presented. Fourteen commercially available PHM software products are identified and classified into four groups: research tools, PHM system

  5. 78 FR 70354 - Conceptual Example of a Proposed Risk Management Regulatory Framework Policy Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... understanding of the value and use of risk concepts and risk management language. The proposed risk-informed and... COMMISSION Conceptual Example of a Proposed Risk Management Regulatory Framework Policy Statement AGENCY... Paper on a Conceptual Example of a Proposed Risk Management Regulatory Framework Policy...

  6. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  7. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  8. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  9. 50 CFR 648.79 - Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surfclam and ocean quahog framework... NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Surf Clam and Ocean Quahog Fisheries § 648.79 Surfclam and ocean quahog framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season management...

  10. Native Prairie Adaptive Management: a multi region adaptive approach to invasive plant management on Fish and Wildlife Service owned native prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses, smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Management to suppress these invasive plants has had poor to inconsistent success. The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. In partnership with the FWS, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. This joint partnership is known as the Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) initiative. The NPAM decision framework is built around practical constraints faced by FWS refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen FWS field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, have participated in the initiative. These FWS cooperators share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. Though the scope is broad, the initiative interfaces with individual land managers who provide site-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators. We describe the technical components of this approach, how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. During an initial scoping workshop, FWS cooperators developed a consensus management objective

  11. Filtering Based Adaptive Visual Odometry Sensor Framework Robust to Blurred Images.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haiying; Liu, Yong; Xie, Xiaojia; Liao, Yiyi; Liu, Xixi

    2016-07-05

    Visual odometry (VO) estimation from blurred image is a challenging problem in practical robot applications, and the blurred images will severely reduce the estimation accuracy of the VO. In this paper, we address the problem of visual odometry estimation from blurred images, and present an adaptive visual odometry estimation framework robust to blurred images. Our approach employs an objective measure of images, named small image gradient distribution (SIGD), to evaluate the blurring degree of the image, then an adaptive blurred image classification algorithm is proposed to recognize the blurred images, finally we propose an anti-blurred key-frame selection algorithm to enable the VO robust to blurred images. We also carried out varied comparable experiments to evaluate the performance of the VO algorithms with our anti-blur framework under varied blurred images, and the experimental results show that our approach can achieve superior performance comparing to the state-of-the-art methods under the condition with blurred images while not increasing too much computation cost to the original VO algorithms.

  12. Climate change adaptation through urban heat management in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brian; Vargo, Jason; Liu, Peng; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead

    2013-07-16

    This study explores the potential effectiveness of metropolitan land cover change as a climate change adaptation strategy for managing rising temperatures in a large and rapidly warming metropolitan region of the United States. Through the integration of a mesoscale meteorological model with estimated land cover data for the Atlanta, Georgia region in 2010, this study quantifies the influence of extensive land cover change at the periphery of a large metropolitan region on temperature within the city center. The first study to directly model a metropolitan scale heat transfer mechanism, we find both enhanced tree canopy and impervious cover in the suburban zones of the Atlanta region to produce statistically significant cooling and warming effects in the urban core. Based on these findings, we conclude that urban heat island management both within and beyond the central developed core of large cities may provide an effective climate change adaptation strategy for large metropolitan regions.

  13. Adaptive management: a paradigm for remediation of public facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Janecky, David R; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Doerr, Ted B

    2009-01-01

    Public facility restoration planning traditionally focused on response to natural disasters and hazardous materials accidental releases. These plans now need to integrate response to terrorist actions. Therefore, plans must address a wide range of potential vulnerabilities. Similar types of broad remediation planning are needed for restoration of waste and hazardous material handling areas and facilities. There are strong similarities in damage results and remediation activities between unintentional and terrorist actions; however, the uncertainties associated with terrorist actions result in a re-evaluation of approaches to planning. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in confined industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. Therefore, they arguably involve a superset of drivers, concerns and public agencies compared to other restoration efforts. This superset of conditions increases complexity of interactions, reduces our knowledge of the initial conditions, and even condenses the timeline for restoration response. Therefore, evaluations of alternative restoration management approaches developed for responding to terrorist actions provide useful knowledge for large, complex waste management projects. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the 'adaptive management' paradigm provides a constructive parallel operations paradigm for restoration of facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, multiple/simUltaneous public agency actions, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a facility and surrounding area(s) after a

  14. Adaptability in Crisis Management: The Role of Organizational Structure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    and hindrance stress : Relationships with exhaustion, motivation to learn, and learning performance. Journal of Applied Psychology , 89, 883-891...The notion of EOs is not new. Indeed, in organizational psychology and management sciences very similar concepts – for example, empowered self...role and implications of adaptability in relation to other aspects of teamwork and team effectiveness, for instance team cognition (e.g., shared

  15. Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Adaptive Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, N.

    2006-12-01

    The dramatic changes of societal complexity due to intensive interactions among agricultural, industrial, and municipal sectors have resulted in acute issues of water resources redistribution and water quality management in many river basins. Given the fact that integrated watershed management is more a political and societal than a technical challenge, there is a need for developing a compelling method leading to justify a water-based land use program in some critical regions. Adaptive watershed management is viewed as an indispensable tool nowadays for providing step-wise constructive decision support that is concerned with all related aspects of the water consumption cycle and those facilities affecting water quality and quantity temporally and spatially. Yet the greatest challenge that decision makers face today is to consider how to leverage ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty to their competitive advantage of management policy quantitatively. This paper explores a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation method for water resources redistribution and subsequent water quality management with respect to a multipurpose channel-reservoir system--the Tseng- Wen River Basin, South Taiwan. Four fuzzy operators tailored for this fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis depict greater flexibility in representing the complexity of various possible trade-offs among management alternatives constrained by physical, economic, and technical factors essential for adaptive watershed management. The management strategies derived may enable decision makers to integrate a vast number of internal weirs, water intakes, reservoirs, drainage ditches, transfer pipelines, and wastewater treatment facilities within the basin and bring up the permitting issue for transboundary diversion from a neighboring river basin. Experience gained indicates that the use of different types of fuzzy operators is highly instructive, which also provide unique guidance collectively for achieving the overarching goals

  16. Using the New Scenarios Framework to Inform Climate Change Adaptation Policy in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    In 2005, Finland was among the first countries in the world to develop a national climate change adaptation strategy (Marttila et al., 2005). This included a characterization of future changes in climate and socioeconomic conditions using scenarios based on the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES - IPCC, 2000). Following a government evaluation of the strategy, completion of a national adaptation research programme, and in light of the recent European Union adaptation strategy, the Finnish strategy is now under revision. As part of this revision process, the New Scenario Framework (Moss et al., 2010) is being used to guide the mapping of future conditions in Finland out to the end of the 21st century. Future Finnish climate is being analysed using the CMIP5 climate model simulations (Taylor et al., 2012), including downscaled information based on regional climate model projections in the EURO-CORDEX project (Vautard et al., 2013). All projections are forced by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs - van Vuuren et al., 2011). Socioeconomic scenarios are also being developed by outlining alternative pathways that reflect national social, economic, environmental and planning goals. These are designed according to the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) framework of challenges to adaptation and mitigation (Kriegler et al., 2012). Work is in progress to characterize these pathways, mainly qualitatively, for different sectors in Finland. Preliminary results of the conceptual scenario development phase will be presented in this session. These initial ideas will be exchanged with representatives of ministries, regional government and key stakeholder groups. The eventual form and number of scenarios that appear in the revised strategy will be determined following a formal review of the draft document to be prepared in 2014. Future work could include quantification of scenarios, possibly mapping them onto the specific SSP worlds. This would then provide

  17. Pathology and failure in the design and implementation of adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Gunderson, Lance H.

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual underpinnings for adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex ecological systems as a result non-linear interactions among components and emergence, yet management decisions must still be made. The strength of adaptive management is in the recognition and confrontation of such uncertainty. Rather than ignore uncertainty, or use it to preclude management actions, adaptive management can foster resilience and flexibility to cope with an uncertain future, and develop safe to fail management approaches that acknowledge inevitable changes and surprises. Since its initial introduction, adaptive management has been hailed as a solution to endless trial and error approaches to complex natural resource management challenges. However, its implementation has failed more often than not. It does not produce easy answers, and it is appropriate in only a subset of natural resource management problems. Clearly adaptive management has great potential when applied appropriately. Just as clearly adaptive management has seemingly failed to live up to its high expectations. Why? We outline nine pathologies and challenges that can lead to failure in adaptive management programs. We focus on general sources of failures in adaptive management, so that others can avoid these pitfalls in the future. Adaptive management can be a powerful and beneficial tool when applied correctly to appropriate management problems; the challenge is to keep the concept of adaptive management from being hijacked for inappropriate use.

  18. The role of adaptive management as an operational approach for resource management agencies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    In making resource management decisions, agencies use a variety of approaches that involve different levels of political concern, historical precedence, data analyses, and evaluation. Traditional decision-making approaches have often failed to achieve objectives for complex problems in large systems, such as the Everglades or the Colorado River. I contend that adaptive management is the best approach available to agencies for addressing this type of complex problem, although its success has been limited thus far. Traditional decision-making approaches have been fairly successful at addressing relatively straightforward problems in small, replicated systems, such as management of trout in small streams or pulp production in forests. However, this success may be jeopardized as more users place increasing demands on these systems. Adaptive management has received little attention from agencies for addressing problems in small-scale systems, but I suggest that it may be a useful approach for creating a holistic view of common problems and developing guidelines that can then be used in simpler, more traditional approaches to management. Although adaptive management may be more expensive to initiate than traditional approaches, it may be less expensive in the long run if it leads to more effective management. The overall goal of adaptive management is not to maintain an optimal condition of the resource, but to develop an optimal management capacity. This is accomplished by maintaining ecological resilience that allows the system to react to inevitable stresses, and generating flexibility in institutions and stakeholders that allows managers to react when conditions change. The result is that, rather than managing for a single, optimal state, we manage within a range of acceptable outcomes while avoiding catastrophes and irreversible negative effects. Copyright ?? 1999 by The Resilience Alliance.

  19. 69 FR 41278 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group; Notice of Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-07-08

    ... Office of the Secretary Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group; Notice of Renewal This notice is... of the Interior (Secretary) is renewing the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and provide recommendations to the...

  20. 64 FR 173 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group; Notice of Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-01-04

    ... Office of the Secretary Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group; Notice of Renewal This notice is... of the Interior (Secretary) is renewing the Glen Canyon Dam adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and provide recommendations to the...

  1. 50 CFR 648.167 - Bluefish framework adjustment to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bluefish framework adjustment to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.167 Bluefish framework... concepts may require an amendment of the FMP instead of a framework adjustment. (2) MAFMC...

  2. 50 CFR 648.167 - Bluefish framework adjustment to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bluefish framework adjustment to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.167 Bluefish framework... concepts may require an amendment of the FMP instead of a framework adjustment. (2) MAFMC...

  3. 50 CFR 648.167 - Bluefish framework adjustment to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bluefish framework adjustment to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.167 Bluefish framework... concepts may require an amendment of the FMP instead of a framework adjustment. (2) MAFMC...

  4. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting agricultural management for climate change in developing countries: providing the basis for action.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Stephen M; Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Lini; Rosenstock, Todd; Tubiello, Francesco; Paustian, Keith; Buendia, Leandro; Nihart, Alison; Smith, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture in developing countries has attracted increasing attention in international negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for both adaptation to climate change and greenhouse gas mitigation. However, there is limited understanding about potential complementarity between management practices that promote adaptation and mitigation, and limited basis to account for greenhouse gas emission reductions in this sector. The good news is that the global research community could provide the support needed to address these issues through further research linking adaptation and mitigation. In addition, a small shift in strategy by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and ongoing assistance from agricultural organizations could produce a framework to move the research and development from concept to reality. In turn, significant progress is possible in the near term providing the basis for UNFCCC negotiations to move beyond discussion to action for the agricultural sector in developing countries.

  5. Facilitating adaptive management in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed through the use of online decision support tools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullinx, Cassandra; Phillips, Scott; Shenk, Kelly; Hearn, Paul; Devereux, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) is attempting to more strategically implement management actions to improve the health of the Nation’s largest estuary. In 2007 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) CBP office began a joint effort to develop a suite of Internetaccessible decision-support tools and to help meet the needs of CBP partners to improve water quality and habitat conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its watersheds. An adaptive management framework is being used to provide a structured decision process for information and individual tools needed to implement and assess practices to improve the condition of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The Chesapeake Online Adaptive Support Toolkit (COAST) is a collection of web-based analytical tools and information, organized in an adaptive management framework, intended to aid decisionmakers in protecting and restoring the integrity of the Bay ecosystem. The initial version of COAST is focused on water quality issues. During early and mid- 2008, initial ideas for COAST were shared and discussed with various CBP partners and other potential user groups. At these meetings, test cases were selected to help improve understanding of the types of information and analytical functionality that would be most useful for specific partners’ needs. These discussions added considerable knowledge about the nature of decisionmaking for Federal, State, local and nongovernmental partners. Version 1.0 of COAST, released in early winter of 2008, will be further reviewed to determine improvements needed to address implementation and assessment of water quality practices. Future versions of COAST may address other aspects of ecosystem restoration, including restoration of habitat and living resources and maintaining watershed health.

  6. Hierarchical adaptation scheme for multiagent data fusion and resource management in situation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaskeur, Abder R.; Roy, Jean

    2001-08-01

    Sensor Management (SM) has to do with how to best manage, coordinate and organize the use of sensing resources in a manner that synergistically improves the process of data fusion. Based on the contextual information, SM develops options for collecting further information, allocates and directs the sensors towards the achievement of the mission goals and/or tunes the parameters for the realtime improvement of the effectiveness of the sensing process. Conscious of the important role that SM has to play in modern data fusion systems, we are currently studying advanced SM Concepts that would help increase the survivability of the current Halifax and Iroquois Class ships, as well as their possible future upgrades. For this purpose, a hierarchical scheme has been proposed for data fusion and resource management adaptation, based on the control theory and within the process refinement paradigm of the JDL data fusion model, and taking into account the multi-agent model put forward by the SASS Group for the situation analysis process. The novelty of this work lies in the unified framework that has been defined for tackling the adaptation of both the fusion process and the sensor/weapon management.

  7. Flexible Ubiquitous Learning Management System Adapted to Learning Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ji-Seong; Kim, Mihye; Park, Chan; Yoo, Jae-Soo; Yoo, Kwan-Hee

    This paper proposes a u-learning management system (ULMS) appropriate to the ubiquitous learning environment, with emphasis on the significance of context awareness and adaptation in learning. The proposed system supports the basic functions of an e-learning management system and incorporates a number of tools and additional features to provide a more customized learning service. The proposed system automatically corresponds to various forms of user terminal without modifying the existing system. The functions, formats, and course learning activities of the system are dynamically and adaptively constructed at runtime according to user terminals, course types, pedagogical goals as well as student characteristics and learning context. A prototype for university use has been implemented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed approach. We regard the proposed ULMS as an ideal u-learning system because it can not only lead students into continuous and mobile 'anytime, anywhere' learning using any kind of terminal, but can also foster enhanced self-directed learning through the establishment of an adaptive learning environment.

  8. Toward university modeling instruction--biology: adapting curricular frameworks from physics to biology.

    PubMed

    Manthey, Seth; Brewe, Eric

    2013-06-01

    University Modeling Instruction (UMI) is an approach to curriculum and pedagogy that focuses instruction on engaging students in building, validating, and deploying scientific models. Modeling Instruction has been successfully implemented in both high school and university physics courses. Studies within the physics education research (PER) community have identified UMI's positive impacts on learning gains, equity, attitudinal shifts, and self-efficacy. While the success of this pedagogical approach has been recognized within the physics community, the use of models and modeling practices is still being developed for biology. Drawing from the existing research on UMI in physics, we describe the theoretical foundations of UMI and how UMI can be adapted to include an emphasis on models and modeling for undergraduate introductory biology courses. In particular, we discuss our ongoing work to develop a framework for the first semester of a two-semester introductory biology course sequence by identifying the essential basic models for an introductory biology course sequence.

  9. A comprehensive review on adaptability of network forensics frameworks for mobile cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Khan, Suleman; Shiraz, Muhammad; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Gani, Abdullah; Han, Qi; Rahman, Zulkanain Bin Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs) have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC.

  10. Toward University Modeling Instruction—Biology: Adapting Curricular Frameworks from Physics to Biology

    PubMed Central

    Manthey, Seth; Brewe, Eric

    2013-01-01

    University Modeling Instruction (UMI) is an approach to curriculum and pedagogy that focuses instruction on engaging students in building, validating, and deploying scientific models. Modeling Instruction has been successfully implemented in both high school and university physics courses. Studies within the physics education research (PER) community have identified UMI's positive impacts on learning gains, equity, attitudinal shifts, and self-efficacy. While the success of this pedagogical approach has been recognized within the physics community, the use of models and modeling practices is still being developed for biology. Drawing from the existing research on UMI in physics, we describe the theoretical foundations of UMI and how UMI can be adapted to include an emphasis on models and modeling for undergraduate introductory biology courses. In particular, we discuss our ongoing work to develop a framework for the first semester of a two-semester introductory biology course sequence by identifying the essential basic models for an introductory biology course sequence. PMID:23737628

  11. A Framework for the Development of Context-Adaptable User Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Gervasio; Paz-Lopez, Alejandro; Becerra, Jose A.; Duro, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of developing user interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing (UC) and Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. These kind of systems are expected to provide a natural user experience, considering interaction modalities adapted to the user abilities and preferences and using whatever interaction devices are present in the environment. These interaction devices are not necessarily known at design time. The task is quite complicated due to the variety of devices and technologies, and the diversity of scenarios, and it usually burdens the developer with the need to create many different UIs in order to consider the foreseeable user-environment combinations. Here, we propose an UI abstraction framework for UC and AmI systems that effectively improves the portability of those systems between different environments and for different users. It allows developers to design and implement a single UI capable of being deployed with different devices and modalities regardless the physical location. PMID:27399711

  12. A Framework for the Development of Context-Adaptable User Interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing Systems.

    PubMed

    Varela, Gervasio; Paz-Lopez, Alejandro; Becerra, Jose A; Duro, Richard

    2016-07-07

    This paper addresses the problem of developing user interfaces for Ubiquitous Computing (UC) and Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. These kind of systems are expected to provide a natural user experience, considering interaction modalities adapted to the user abilities and preferences and using whatever interaction devices are present in the environment. These interaction devices are not necessarily known at design time. The task is quite complicated due to the variety of devices and technologies, and the diversity of scenarios, and it usually burdens the developer with the need to create many different UIs in order to consider the foreseeable user-environment combinations. Here, we propose an UI abstraction framework for UC and AmI systems that effectively improves the portability of those systems between different environments and for different users. It allows developers to design and implement a single UI capable of being deployed with different devices and modalities regardless the physical location.

  13. A Comprehensive Review on Adaptability of Network Forensics Frameworks for Mobile Cloud Computing

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid; Han, Qi; Bin Abdul Rahman, Zulkanain

    2014-01-01

    Network forensics enables investigation and identification of network attacks through the retrieved digital content. The proliferation of smartphones and the cost-effective universal data access through cloud has made Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) a congenital target for network attacks. However, confines in carrying out forensics in MCC is interrelated with the autonomous cloud hosting companies and their policies for restricted access to the digital content in the back-end cloud platforms. It implies that existing Network Forensic Frameworks (NFFs) have limited impact in the MCC paradigm. To this end, we qualitatively analyze the adaptability of existing NFFs when applied to the MCC. Explicitly, the fundamental mechanisms of NFFs are highlighted and then analyzed using the most relevant parameters. A classification is proposed to help understand the anatomy of existing NFFs. Subsequently, a comparison is given that explores the functional similarities and deviations among NFFs. The paper concludes by discussing research challenges for progressive network forensics in MCC. PMID:25097880

  14. Robustness and management adaptability in tropical rangelands: a viability-based assessment under the non-equilibrium paradigm.

    PubMed

    Accatino, F; Sabatier, R; De Michele, C; Ward, D; Wiegand, K; Meyer, K M

    2014-08-01

    Rangelands provide the main forage resource for livestock in many parts of the world, but maintaining long-term productivity and providing sufficient income for the rancher remains a challenge. One key issue is to maintain the rangeland in conditions where the rancher has the greatest possibility to adapt his/her management choices to a highly fluctuating and uncertain environment. In this study, we address management robustness and adaptability, which increase the resilience of a rangeland. After reviewing how the concept of resilience evolved in parallel to modelling views on rangelands, we present a dynamic model of rangelands to which we applied the mathematical framework of viability theory to quantify the management adaptability of the system in a stochastic environment. This quantification is based on an index that combines the robustness of the system to rainfall variability and the ability of the rancher to adjust his/her management through time. We evaluated the adaptability for four possible scenarios combining two rainfall regimes (high or low) with two herding strategies (grazers only or mixed herd). Results show that pure grazing is viable only for high-rainfall regimes, and that the use of mixed-feeder herds increases the adaptability of the management. The management is the most adaptive with mixed herds and in rangelands composed of an intermediate density of trees and grasses. In such situations, grass provides high quantities of biomass and woody plants ensure robustness to droughts. Beyond the implications for management, our results illustrate the relevance of viability theory for addressing the issue of robustness and adaptability in non-equilibrium environments.

  15. Conceptualizing the Participation of Managers in Career-Focused Learning and Development: A Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbery, Ronan; Garavan, Thomas N.

    2007-01-01

    Protean, boundaryless, authentic, and portfolio careers increasingly challenge managers to be proactive and self-regulated. Managers are expected to manage their careers, develop employability, and continually learn. This article proposes a conceptual framework to explain manager participation in career-focused learning and development. It…

  16. The Legacy Ecosystem Management Framework: From Theory to Application in the Detention Pond Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Coty, J; Stevenson, M; Vogt, K A

    2002-02-01

    The Detention Pond is a constructed and lined storm water treatment basin at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that serves multiple stakeholder objectives and programmatic goals. This paper examines the process and outcome involved in the development of a new management plan for the Detention Pond. The plan was created using a new ecosystem management tool, the Legacy Framework. This stakeholder-driven conceptual framework provides an interdisciplinary methodology for determining ecosystem health, appropriate management strategies, and sensitive indicators. The conceptual framework, the Detention Ponds project, and the use of the framework in the context of the project, are described and evaluated, and evaluative criteria for this and other ecosystem management frameworks are offered. The project benefited in several ways from use of the Legacy Framework, although refinements to the framework are suggested. The stakeholder process created a context and environment in which team members became receptive to using an ecosystem management approach to evaluate and support management alternatives previously not considered. This allowed for the unanimous agreement to pursue support from upper management and organizational funding to implement a progressive management strategy. The greatly improved stakeholder relations resulted in upper management support for the project.

  17. Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef and the Grand Canyon world heritage areas.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Terence P; Gunderson, Lance H; Folke, Carl; Baird, Andrew H; Bellwood, David; Berkes, Fikret; Crona, Beatrice; Helfgott, Ariella; Leslie, Heather; Norberg, Jon; Nyström, Magnus; Olsson, Per; Osterblom, Henrik; Scheffer, Marten; Schuttenberg, Heidi; Steneck, Robert S; Tengö, Maria; Troell, Max; Walker, Brian; Wilson, James; Worm, Boris

    2007-11-01

    Conventional perceptions of the interactions between people and their environment are rapidly transforming. Old paradigms that view humans as separate from nature, natural resources as inexhaustible or endlessly substitutable, and the world as stable, predictable, and in balance are no longer tenable. New conceptual frameworks are rapidly emerging based on an adaptive approach that focuses on learning and flexible management in a dynamic social-ecological landscape. Using two iconic World Heritage Areas as case studies (the Great Barrier Reef and the Grand Canyon) we outline how an improved integration of the scientific and social aspects of natural resource management can guide the evolution of multiscale systems of governance that confront and cope with uncertainty, risk, and change in an increasingly human-dominated world.

  18. Adapting a memory framework (source monitoring) to the study of closure processes.

    PubMed

    Foley, Mary Ann; Foley, Hugh J; Korenman, Lisa M

    2002-04-01

    The present experiments adapt a memory framework (source monitoring) to the study of closure processes. Closure processes are invoked as explanatory mechanisms underlying the ability to identify objects under conditions of incomplete visual information. If closure processes are activated, filling in missing pieces of visual information, intriguing memory predictions follow. When making source judgments about the way in which visual information was experienced initially (e.g., complete or incomplete in form), a particular kind of memory error should be evident. Incomplete visual information should be remembered as complete in form, and indeed, this error is observed. The present experiments test alternative interpretations for the initial reports of this memory error in the context of a search task modeled after the Where's Waldo? children's books. The effects of several new factors (e.g., familiarity) are reported, and alternative interpretations for the bias to report complete are eliminated. Findings, therefore, have implications for understanding the mechanisms of closure processes, as well as for the source-monitoring framework itself.

  19. Conceptual Modeling for Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management in the Barycz Valley, Lower Silesia, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Magnuszewski, Piotr; Sendzimir, Jan; Kronenberg, Jakub

    2005-01-01

    The complexity of interactions in socio-ecological systems makes it very difficult to plan and implement policies successfully. Traditional environmental management and assessment techniques produce unsatisfactory results because they often ignore facets of system structure that underlie complexity: delays, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Assuming that causes are linked in a linear chain, they concentrate on technological developments (“hard path”) as the only solutions to environmental problems. Adaptive Management is recognized as a promising alternative approach directly addressing links between social and ecological systems and involving stakeholders in the analysis and decision process. This “soft path” requires special tools to facilitate collaboration between “experts” and stakeholders in analyzing complex situations and prioritizing policies and actions. We have applied conceptual modeling to increase communication, understanding and commitment in the project of seven NGOs “Sustainable Regional Development in the Odra Catchment”. The main goal was to help our NGO partners to facilitate their efforts related to developing sustainable policies and practices to respond to large-scale challenges (EU accession, global changes in climate and economy) to their natural, economic and socio-cultural heritages. Among the variety of sustainability issues explored by these NGOs, two (extensive agricultural practices and “green” local products) were examined by using Adaptive Management (AM) as a framework that would link analysis, discussion, research, actions and monitoring. Within the AM framework the project coordinators used tools of systems analysis (Mental Model Mapping) to facilitate discussions in which NGO professionals and local stakeholders could graphically diagram and study their understanding of what factors interacted and how they affect the region’s sustainability. These discussions produced larger-scale Regional Sustainability

  20. Conceptual modeling for adaptive environmental assessment and management in the Barycz Valley, lower Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed

    Magnuszewski, Piotr; Sendzimir, Jan; Kronenberg, Jakub

    2005-08-01

    The complexity of interactions in socio-ecological systems makes it very difficult to plan and implement policies successfully. Traditional environmental management and assessment techniques produce unsatisfactory results because they often ignore facets of system structure that underlie complexity: delays, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Assuming that causes are linked in a linear chain, they concentrate on technological developments ("hard path") as the only solutions to environmental problems. Adaptive Management is recognized as a promising alternative approach directly addressing links between social and ecological systems and involving stakeholders in the analysis and decision process. This "soft path" requires special tools to facilitate collaboration between "experts" and stakeholders in analyzing complex situations and prioritizing policies and actions. We have applied conceptual modeling to increase communication, understanding and commitment in the project of seven NGOs "Sustainable Regional Development in the Odra Catchment". The main goal was to help our NGO partners to facilitate their efforts related to developing sustainable policies and practices to respond to large-scale challenges (EU accession, global changes in climate and economy) to their natural, economic and socio-cultural heritages. Among the variety of sustainability issues explored by these NGOs, two (extensive agricultural practices and "green" local products) were examined by using Adaptive Management (AM) as a framework that would link analysis, discussion, research, actions and monitoring. Within the AM framework the project coordinators used tools of systems analysis (Mental Model Mapping) to facilitate discussions in which NGO professionals and local stakeholders could graphically diagram and study their understanding of what factors interacted and how they affect the region's sustainability. These discussions produced larger-scale Regional Sustainability Models as well as more

  1. Measuring the Impact of a Moving Target: Towards a Dynamic Framework for Evaluating Collaborative Adaptive Interactive Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Witteman, Holly; Bender, Jacqueline L; Urowitz, Sara; Wiljer, David; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2009-01-01

    Background Website evaluation is a key issue for researchers, organizations, and others responsible for designing, maintaining, endorsing, approving, and/or assessing the use and impact of interventions designed to influence health and health services. Traditionally, these evaluations have included elements such as content credibility, interface usability, and overall design aesthetics. With the emergence of collaborative, adaptive, and interactive ("Web 2.0") technologies such as wikis and other forms of social networking applications, these metrics may no longer be sufficient to adequately assess the quality, use or impact of a health website. Collaborative, adaptive, interactive applications support different ways for people to interact with health information on the Web, including the potential for increased user participation in the design, creation, and maintenance of such sites. Objective We propose a framework that addresses how to evaluate collaborative, adaptive, and interactive applications. Methods In this paper, we conducted a comprehensive review of a variety of databases using terminology related to this area. Results We present a review of evaluation frameworks and also propose a framework that incorporates collaborative, adaptive, and interactive technologies, grounded in evaluation theory. Conclusion This framework can be applied by researchers who wish to compare Web-based interventions, non-profit organizations, and clinical groups who aim to provide health information and support about a particular health concern via the Web, and decisions about funding grants by agencies interested in the role of social networks and collaborative, adaptive, and interactive technologies technologies to improve health and the health system. PMID:19632973

  2. Hydrologic landscape units and adaptive management of intermountain wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Stephen G.; Sojda, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    daptive management is often proposed to assist in the management of national wildlife refuges and allows the exploration of alternatives as well as the addition of ne w knowledge as it becomes available. The hydrological landscape unit can be a good foundation for such efforts. Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is in an intermountain basin dominated by vertical tectonics in the Northern Rocky Mountains. A geographic information system was used to define the boundaries for the hydrologic landscape units there. Units identified include alluvial fan, interfan, stream alluvi um and basin flat. Management alternatives can be informed by ex amination of processes that occu r on the units. For example, an ancient alluvial fan unit related to Red Rock Creek appear s to be isolated from stream flow today, with recharge dominated by precipitation and bedrock springs; while other alluvial fan units in the area have shallow ground water recharged from mountain streams and precipitation. The scale of hydrologic processes in interfan units differs from that in alluvial fan hydrologic landscape units. These differences are important when the refuge is evaluating habitat management activities. Hydrologic landscape units provide scientific unde rpinnings for the refuge’s comprehensive planning process. New geologic, hydrologic, and biologic knowledge can be integrated into the hydrologic landscape unit definition and improve adaptive management.

  3. Adaptive multibeam concepts for traffic management satellite systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisaga, J. J.; Blank, H. A.; Klein, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The analysis of the performance of the various implementations of the simultaneous system in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans has demonstrated that the use of adaptive system concepts in satellite traffic management systems can greatly improve the performance capabilities of these systems as compared to the corresponding performance capabilities of conventional nonadaptive satellite communications systems. It is considered that the techniques developed and analyzed represent a significant technological advance, and that the performance improvement achieved will generally outweigh the increased cost and implementation factors.

  4. Towards a competency-based framework for nursing management education.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2010-12-01

    Defining a competency-based model for nursing management development will help to establish core competencies for nursing managers which will not only strengthen their practice and provide further learning and development opportunities, but will also provide the basis to focus training and professional development efforts. This paper identifies the competencies important for effective nursing management in the public and private health sectors. A total of 420 senior nursing managers in South Africa were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents had to rate the importance of 51 competency items as it pertains to effective nursing management. Self-management, controlling, health/clinical, organizing, people management, planning and ethical/legal competencies were found the most valuable for optimal nursing management. These findings reflect the reality of the nursing management milieu and will be useful in the design and delivery of management development programmes aimed at enhancing nursing management capacity.

  5. Adaptive momentum management for the dual keel Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, M.; Hahn, E.

    1987-01-01

    The report discusses momentum management for a large space structure with the structure selected configuration being the Initial Orbital Configuration of the dual-keel Space Station. The external torques considered were gravity gradient and aerodynamic torques. The goal of the momentum management scheme developed is to remove the bias components of the external torques and center the cyclic components of the stored angular momentum. The scheme investigated is adaptive to uncertainties of the inertia tensor and requires only approximate knowledge of principal moments of inertia. Computational requirements are minimal and should present no implementation problem in a flight-type computer. The method proposed is shown to be effective in the presence of attitude control bandwidths as low as 0.01 radian/sec.

  6. Dictating participation? Rethinking the adaptive co-management of socio-ecological systems in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Vilaly, Audra; Abd salam El Vilaly, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    In the face of environmental change, enhancing adaptive capacity relies on stakeholder engagement. But the participatory process, while critical to the translation, transfer, and application of scientific knowledge to society, is not without its own contradictions. These include the asymmetrical relations of power that prevail between environmental scientists, managers, and local users; discrepant understandings of knowledge and its appropriate uses; and conflicting social, economic, and ecological values, to name only a few. Our research examines five major transboundary river basin organizations in West Africa and their efforts to improve adaptive basin management via stakeholder collaboration. In particular, we evaluate the participatory strategies of these organizations to measure non-linear, multi-directional feedbacks between the social and biophysical factors of land use/land cover change, as well as the impacts of this change on basins and their dependent populations. Our research suggests that oftentimes, these methods paradoxically produce a hierarchical and marginalizing effect on local stakeholders in relation to the scientists that study them. In seeking to address these limitations, we assess the potential costs and benefits of integrating select components of a Participatory Action Research (PAR) framework (see, for example, Reason & Bradbury-Huang, 2007) into studies of complex socio-ecological problems. This approach, used widely in the social sciences, promotes critical reflection on and minimization of the power inequities inherent in science-society collaborations. It instead favors more horizontal forms of knowledge co-production that support and foster the expansion of local, existing movements for social and environmental justice. A PAR framework may therefore improve the efficiency, sustainability, and equitability of land-based adaptation to environmental change; further research is thus recommended to test this hypothesis. References

  7. Integrated approaches to natural resources management in practice: the catalyzing role of National Adaptation Programmes for Action.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Virpi; Smith, Mark

    2011-06-01

    The relationship of forests in water quantity and quality has been debated during the past years. At the same time, focus on climate change has increased interest in ecosystem restoration as a means for adaptation. Climate change might become one of the key drivers pushing integrated approaches for natural resources management into practice. The National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) is an initiative agreed under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. An analysis was done to find out how widely ecosystem restoration and integrated approaches have been incorporated into NAPA priority adaptation projects. The data show that that the NAPAs can be seen as potentially important channel for operationalizing various integrated concepts. Key challenge is to implement the NAPA projects. The amount needed to implement the NAPA projects aiming at ecosystem restoration using integrated approaches presents only 0.7% of the money pledged in Copenhagen for climate change adaptation.

  8. Evaluating mallard adaptive management models with time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, P.B.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife practitioners concerned with midcontinent mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) management in the United States have instituted a system of adaptive harvest management (AHM) as an objective format for setting harvest regulations. Under the AHM paradigm, predictions from a set of models that reflect key uncertainties about processes underlying population dynamics are used in coordination with optimization software to determine an optimal set of harvest decisions. Managers use comparisons of the predictive abilities of these models to gauge the relative truth of different hypotheses about density-dependent recruitment and survival, with better-predicting models giving more weight to the determination of harvest regulations. We tested the effectiveness of this strategy by examining convergence rates of 'predictor' models when the true model for population dynamics was known a priori. We generated time series for cases when the a priori model was 1 of the predictor models as well as for several cases when the a priori model was not in the model set. We further examined the addition of different levels of uncertainty into the variance structure of predictor models, reflecting different levels of confidence about estimated parameters. We showed that in certain situations, the model-selection process favors a predictor model that incorporates the hypotheses of additive harvest mortality and weakly density-dependent recruitment, even when the model is not used to generate data. Higher levels of predictor model variance led to decreased rates of convergence to the model that generated the data, but model weight trajectories were in general more stable. We suggest that predictive models should incorporate all sources of uncertainty about estimated parameters, that the variance structure should be similar for all predictor models, and that models with different functional forms for population dynamics should be considered for inclusion in predictor model! sets. All of these

  9. A Framework for Integrating Knowledge Management with Risk Management for Information Technology Projects (RiskManiT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadsheh, Louay A.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on the challenges experienced when executing risk management activities for information technology projects. The lack of adequate knowledge management support of risk management activities has caused many project failures in the past. The research objective was to propose a conceptual framework of the Knowledge-Based Risk…

  10. Understanding enabling capacities for managing the 'wicked problem' of nonpoint source water pollution in catchments: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Patterson, James J; Smith, Carl; Bellamy, Jennifer

    2013-10-15

    Nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in catchments is a 'wicked' problem that threatens water quality, water security, ecosystem health and biodiversity, and thus the provision of ecosystem services that support human livelihoods and wellbeing from local to global scales. However, it is a difficult problem to manage because water catchments are linked human and natural systems that are complex, dynamic, multi-actor, and multi-scalar in nature. This in turn raises questions about understanding and influencing change across multiple levels of planning, decision-making and action. A key challenge in practice is enabling implementation of local management action, which can be influenced by a range of factors across multiple levels. This paper reviews and synthesises important 'enabling' capacities that can influence implementation of local management action, and develops a conceptual framework for understanding and analysing these in practice. Important enabling capacities identified include: history and contingency; institutional arrangements; collaboration; engagement; vision and strategy; knowledge building and brokerage; resourcing; entrepreneurship and leadership; and reflection and adaptation. Furthermore, local action is embedded within multi-scalar contexts and therefore, is highly contextual. The findings highlight the need for: (1) a systemic and integrative perspective for understanding and influencing change for managing the wicked problem of NPS water pollution; and (2) 'enabling' social and institutional arenas that support emergent and adaptive management structures, processes and innovations for addressing NPS water pollution in practice. These findings also have wider relevance to other 'wicked' natural resource management issues facing similar implementation challenges.

  11. Two-step Adaptive Management for choosing between two management actions.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alana L; Walker, Leila; Runge, Michael C; McDonald-Madden, Eve; McCarthy, Michael A

    2017-01-31

    Adaptive management is widely advocated to improve environmental management. Derivations of optimal strategies for adaptive management, however, tend to be case specific and time consuming. In contrast, managers might seek relatively simple guidance, such as insight into when a new potential management action should be considered, and how much effort should be expended on trialing such an action. We constructed a two time-step scenario where a manager is choosing between two possible management actions. The manager has a total budget which can be split between a learning phase and an implementation phase. We use this scenario to investigate when and how much a manager should invest in learning about the management actions available. The optimal investment in learning can be understood intuitively by accounting for the expected value of sample information, the benefits that accrue during learning, the direct costs of learning, and the opportunity costs of learning. We find that the optimal proportion of the budget to spend on learning is characterized by several critical thresholds that mark a jump from spending a large proportion of the budget on learning to spending nothing. For example, as sampling variance increases it is optimal to spend a larger proportion of the budget on learning, up to a point - if the sampling variance passes a critical threshold, it is no longer beneficial to invest in learning. Similar thresholds are observed as a function of the total budget and the difference in the expected performance of the two actions. We illustrate how this model can be applied using a case study of choosing between alternative rearing diets for hihi, an endangered New Zealand passerine. Although the model presented is a simplified scenario, we believe it is relevant to many management situations. Managers often have relatively short time horizons for management, and might be reluctant to consider further investment in learning and monitoring beyond collecting

  12. Australian Defence Risk Management Framework: A Comparative Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    contemplated well ahead of the traditional corporate and business - planning processes. There is also an upside to using risk management, i.e. improving...place to properly manage these risks; • To ensure that risk management is integrated into Defence�s business planning processes; and • To establish...and based on AS/NZS 4360:1999 and the Defence Risk Management Policy. It prescribes risk management to be integrated into the business planning process

  13. Knowledge Management for School Leaders: An Ecological Framework for Thinking Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrides, Lisa A.; Guiney, Susan Zahra

    2002-01-01

    Using examples from schools, this paper illustrates how knowledge management can enable schools to examine the plethora of data they collect and how an ecological framework can be used to transform these data into meaningful information. The paper highlights: the history of management information systems; shifts from information management to…

  14. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  15. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  16. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  17. 50 CFR 648.149 - Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Black sea bass framework adjustments to management measures. 648.149 Section 648.149 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.149 Black sea bass...

  18. Building a conceptual framework to culturally adapt health promotion and prevention programs at the deep structural level.

    PubMed

    Wang-Schweig, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Altfeld, Susan J; Miller, Arlene M; Miller, Brenda A

    2014-07-01

    The debate on the effectiveness and merit for the amount of time, effort, and resources to culturally adapt health promotion and prevention programs continues. This may be due, in large part, to the lack of theory in commonly used methods to match programmatic content and delivery to the culture of a population, particularly at the deep structural level. This paper asserts that prior to the cultural adaptation of prevention programs, it is necessary to first develop a conceptual framework. We propose a multiphase approach to address key challenges in the science of cultural adaptation by first identifying and exploring relevant cultural factors that may affect the targeted health-related behavior prior to proceeding through steps of a stage model. The first phase involves developing an underlying conceptual framework that integrates cultural factors to ground this process. The second phase employs the different steps of a stage model. For Phase I of our approach, we offer four key steps and use our research study as an example of how these steps were applied to build a framework for the cultural adaptation of a family-based intervention to prevent adolescent alcohol use, Guiding Good Choices (GGC), to Chinese American families. We then provide a summary of the preliminary evidence from a few key relationships that were tested among our sample with the greater purpose of discussing how these findings might be used to culturally adapt GGC.

  19. DECISION SUPPORT FRAMEWORK FOR STORMWATER MANAGEMENT IN URBAN WATERSHEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assist stormwater management professionals in planning for best management practices (BMPs) implementation, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is developing a decision support system for placement of BMPs at strategic locations in urban watersheds. This tool wil...

  20. Impacts on Water Management and Crop Production of Regional Cropping System Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.; Sun, L.; Tian, Z.; Liang, Z.; Fischer, G.

    2014-12-01

    China is one of the most populous and fast developing countries, also faces a great pressure on grain production and food security. Multi-cropping system is widely applied in China to fully utilize agro-climatic resources and increase land productivity. As the heat resource keep improving under climate warming, multi-cropping system will also shifting northward, and benefit crop production. But water shortage in North China Plain will constrain the adoption of new multi-cropping system. Effectiveness of multi-cropping system adaptation to climate change will greatly depend on future hydrological change and agriculture water management. So it is necessary to quantitatively express the water demand of different multi-cropping systems under climate change. In this paper, we proposed an integrated climate-cropping system-crops adaptation framework, and specifically focused on: 1) precipitation and hydrological change under future climate change in China; 2) the best multi-cropping system and correspondent crop rotation sequence, and water demand under future agro-climatic resources; 3) attainable crop production with water constraint; and 4) future water management. In order to obtain climate projection and precipitation distribution, global climate change scenario from HADCAM3 is downscaled with regional climate model (PRECIS), historical climate data (1960-1990) was interpolated from more than 700 meteorological observation stations. The regional Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ) model is applied to simulate the best multi-cropping system and crop rotation sequence under projected climate change scenario. Finally, we use the site process-based DSSAT model to estimate attainable crop production and the water deficiency. Our findings indicate that annual land productivity may increase and China can gain benefit from climate change if multi-cropping system would be adopted. This study provides a macro-scale view of agriculture adaptation, and gives suggestions to national

  1. A robust adaptive denoising framework for real-time artifact removal in scalp EEG measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilicarslan, Atilla; Grossman, Robert G.; Contreras-Vidal, Jose Luis

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Non-invasive measurement of human neural activity based on the scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) allows for the development of biomedical devices that interface with the nervous system for scientific, diagnostic, therapeutic, or restorative purposes. However, EEG recordings are often considered as prone to physiological and non-physiological artifacts of different types and frequency characteristics. Among them, ocular artifacts and signal drifts represent major sources of EEG contamination, particularly in real-time closed-loop brain-machine interface (BMI) applications, which require effective handling of these artifacts across sessions and in natural settings. Approach. We extend the usage of a robust adaptive noise cancelling (ANC) scheme ({H}∞ filtering) for removal of eye blinks, eye motions, amplitude drifts and recording biases simultaneously. We also characterize the volume conduction, by estimating the signal propagation levels across all EEG scalp recording areas due to ocular artifact generators. We find that the amplitude and spatial distribution of ocular artifacts vary greatly depending on the electrode location. Therefore, fixed filtering parameters for all recording areas would naturally hinder the true overall performance of an ANC scheme for artifact removal. We treat each electrode as a separate sub-system to be filtered, and without the loss of generality, they are assumed to be uncorrelated and uncoupled. Main results. Our results show over 95-99.9% correlation between the raw and processed signals at non-ocular artifact regions, and depending on the contamination profile, 40-70% correlation when ocular artifacts are dominant. We also compare our results with the offline independent component analysis and artifact subspace reconstruction methods, and show that some local quantities are handled better by our sample-adaptive real-time framework. Decoding performance is also compared with multi-day experimental data from 2 subjects

  2. Adapting to a changing world: Implications for water management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loucks, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Everyone is aware that the world is changing, and that many of these changes will impact our water resource supplies and how they are used and managed. It's always a challenge to try to predict the future, especially the very uncertain distant future. But one thing is certain, the future environment our descendants will experience will differ from the economic, social, technological and natural conditions we experience today. Some aspects of the changes that are happening may not be under human control, but many are. And to the extent they are, we can influence that future. In this paper I attempt to speculate about a future some 40 to 50 years from now, and how water will need to be managed then. My goal is to motivate some thinking and discussion about how we as water managers can influence and prepare ourselves (or our successors) for that future. It will require collaboration among multiple disciplines to determine how best we as a profession can help society adapt to these changes, and this in turn will require all of us to learn how to work together more effectively than we do now. This theme fits in with the current interest in sustainability, for no matter how it is defined, sustainability makes us think about the long-term future. How do we develop and manage our natural and cultural resources in ways that benefit both us and future generations of people living on this earth? What will their needs and goals be? We don't know and that is the major challenge in deciding what decisions we might make today on their behalf. Here I attempt to identify the challenges and issues water managers could be addressing some 40 to 50 years from now, and what we in each of our disciplines, and together, can begin to do now to address them.

  3. Designing monitoring programs in an adaptive management context for regional multiple species conservation plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, A.J.; Trenham, P.C.; Fisher, R.N.; Hathaway, S.A.; Johnson, B.S.; Torres, S.G.; Moore, Y.C.

    2004-01-01

    critical management uncertainties; and 3) implementing long-term monitoring and adaptive management. Ultimately, the success of regional conservation planning depends on the ability of monitoring programs to confront the challenges of adaptively managing and monitoring complex ecosystems and diverse arrays of sensitive species.

  4. Deriving empirical benchmarks from existing monitoring datasets for rangeland adaptive management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under adaptive management, goals and decisions for managing rangeland resources are shaped by requirements like the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Land Health Standards, which specify desired conditions. Without formalized, quantitative benchmarks for triggering management actions, adaptive man...

  5. Re-engineering cities: a framework for adaptation to global change.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Richard

    2007-12-15

    Urban areas are expected to continue their rapid growth in the twenty-first century. Globally, cities are major sources of greenhouse gases emissions and their high population densities make them potential focal points of vulnerability to global environmental change. Moreover, their reach, in terms of flows of materials and resources, extends far outside their borders. Evidently, it is no longer tenable to consider urban systems to be static artefacts constructed in a stable environment, nor continue to divorce them from the global context that influences many of the climatic and socio-economic changes within cities. Furthermore, the uncertainty in the future climatic and socio-economic conditions poses significant challenges for planners. A framework is proposed for analysing urban systems with evidence-based tools over extended time scales. This forms the basis of a manifesto for future challenges and research directions for this critical subject area, which ultimately will help engineers and urban planners to better understand the areas for which they are responsible and to develop adaptation strategies that can tackle the challenges posed by long-term global change and lead to more sustainable cities.

  6. A fully automatic framework for cell segmentation on non-confocal adaptive optics images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianfei; Dubra, Alfredo; Tam, Johnny

    2016-03-01

    By the time most retinal diseases are diagnosed, macroscopic irreversible cellular loss has already occurred. Earlier detection of subtle structural changes at the single photoreceptor level is now possible, using the adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). This work aims to develop a fully automatic segmentation framework to extract cell boundaries from non-confocal split-detection AOSLO images of the cone photoreceptor mosaic in the living human eye. Significant challenges include anisotropy, heterogeneous cell regions arising from shading effects, and low contrast between cells and background. To overcome these challenges, we propose the use of: 1) multi-scale Hessian response to detect heterogeneous cell regions, 2) convex hulls to create boundary templates, and 3) circularlyconstrained geodesic active contours to refine cell boundaries. We acquired images from three healthy subjects at eccentric retinal regions and manually contoured cells to generate ground-truth for evaluating segmentation accuracy. Dice coefficient, relative absolute area difference, and average contour distance were 82±2%, 11±6%, and 2.0±0.2 pixels (Mean±SD), respectively. We find that strong shading effects from vessels are a main factor that causes cell oversegmentation and false segmentation of non-cell regions. Our segmentation algorithm can automatically and accurately segment photoreceptor cells on non-confocal AOSLO images, which is the first step in longitudinal tracking of cellular changes in the individual eye over the time course of disease progression.

  7. Acoustic sleepiness detection: framework and validation of a speech-adapted pattern recognition approach.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Jarek; Batliner, Anton; Golz, Martin

    2009-08-01

    This article describes a general framework for detecting sleepiness states on the basis of prosody, articulation, and speech-quality-related speech characteristics. The advantages of this automatic real-time approach are that obtaining speech data is nonobstrusive and is free from sensor application and calibration efforts. Different types of acoustic features derived from speech, speaker, and emotion recognition were employed (frame-level-based speech features). Combing these features with high-level contour descriptors, which capture the temporal information of frame-level descriptor contours, results in 45,088 features per speech sample. In general, the measurement process follows the speech-adapted steps of pattern recognition: (1) recording speech, (2) preprocessing, (3) feature computation (using perceptual and signal-processing-related features such as, e.g., fundamental frequency, intensity, pause patterns, formants, and cepstral coefficients), (4) dimensionality reduction, (5) classification, and (6) evaluation. After a correlation-filter-based feature subset selection employed on the feature space in order to find most relevant features, different classification models were trained. The best model-namely, the support-vector machine-achieved 86.1% classification accuracy in predicting sleepiness in a sleep deprivation study (two-class problem, N=12; 01.00-08.00 a.m.).

  8. Adapting California Water Management to Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanak, E.; Lund, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    California faces the prospect of significant water management challenges from climate change. The most certain changes are accelerated sea level rise and increased temperatures, which will reduce the Sierra Nevada snowpack and shift more runoff to winter months. These changes will likely cause major problems for flood control, for water supply reservoir operations, and for the maintenance of the present system of water exports through the fragile levee system of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Rising water temperatures also are likely to compromise habitat for some native aquatic species and pose challenges for reservoir operations, which must release cool water to support fish downstream. Although there is as yet little scientific consensus on the effects of climate change on overall precipitation levels, many expect precipitation variability to increase, with more extreme drought and flood events posing additional challenges to water managers. Fortunately, California also possesses numerous assets - including adaptation tools and institutional capabilities - which can limit vulnerability of the state’s residents to changing conditions. Water supply managers have already begun using underground storage, water transfers, conservation, recycling, and desalination to expand their capacity to meet changing demands, and these same tools present cost-effective options for responding to a wide range of climate change scenarios. Many staples of flood management - including reservoir operations, levees, bypasses, insurance, and land-use regulation - are appropriate for the challenges posed by increasing flood flows. Yet actions are also needed to improve response capacity in some areas. For water supply, a central issue is the management of the Delta, where new conveyance and habitat investments and regulations are needed to sustain water supply reliability and ecosystem conditions. For flood management, studies to anticipate required changes have only begun, and

  9. The soil management assessment framework: A potential soil health assessment tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) was developed in the 1990s utilizing Systems Engineering and Ecology experiences with scoring functions to normalize disparate soil physical, chemical, and biological indicator data representing critical properties and processes associated with soil qu...

  10. 50 CFR 648.239 - Spiny dogfish framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spiny dogfish framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery § 648.239 Spiny dogfish framework... consistent with the goals and objectives of the Spiny Dogfish FMP. (1) Adjustment process. After the...

  11. 50 CFR 648.239 - Spiny dogfish framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spiny dogfish framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery § 648.239 Spiny dogfish framework... consistent with the goals and objectives of the Spiny Dogfish FMP. (1) Adjustment process. After the...

  12. 50 CFR 648.239 - Spiny dogfish framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spiny dogfish framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery § 648.239 Spiny dogfish framework... consistent with the goals and objectives of the Spiny Dogfish FMP. (1) Adjustment process. After the...

  13. 50 CFR 648.239 - Spiny dogfish framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spiny dogfish framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Spiny Dogfish Fishery § 648.239 Spiny dogfish framework... consistent with the goals and objectives of the Spiny Dogfish FMP. (1) Adjustment process. After the...

  14. Factors Influencing the Use of Learning Management System in Saudi Arabian Higher Education: A Theoretical Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiri, Mohammed J. Sherbib; Mahmud, Rosnaini bt; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi bin Mohd

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the theoretical framework underlying a research on factors that influence utilization of the Jusur Learning Management System (Jusur LMS) in Saudi Arabian public universities. Development of the theoretical framework was done based on library research approach. Initially, the existing literature relevant to…

  15. A Re-Usable Software Framework for Authoring and Managing Web Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breiteneder, Christian; Platzer, Hubert; Hitz, Martin

    In the course of a Web development project for the Museum fur Volkerkunde in Vienna, ViEx, a reuse framework supporting authoring and managing hypermedia exhibitions, has been developed. The framework consists of three major components: a relational content database, a corresponding browser based editing interface, and a Web page generator which…

  16. Role of Knowledge Management and Analytical CRM in Business: Data Mining Based Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranjan, Jayanthi; Bhatnagar, Vishal

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to provide a thorough analysis of the concepts of business intelligence (BI), knowledge management (KM) and analytical CRM (aCRM) and to establish a framework for integrating all the three to each other. The paper also seeks to establish a KM and aCRM based framework using data mining (DM) techniques, which…

  17. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework... are otherwise introducing new concepts may require an amendment of the FMP instead of a...

  18. 50 CFR 648.167 - Bluefish framework adjustment to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bluefish framework adjustment to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.167 Bluefish framework... that are otherwise introducing new concepts may require an amendment of the FMP instead of a...

  19. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework... are otherwise introducing new concepts may require an amendment of the FMP instead of a...

  20. 50 CFR 648.110 - Summer flounder framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Summer flounder framework adjustments to... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.110 Summer flounder framework... are otherwise introducing new concepts may require an amendment of the FMP instead of a...

  1. Impacts Of Climate Change On Ecosystems Management In Africa: An Assessment Of Disaster Risk Management And Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndebele-Murisa, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is a synthesis of eight studies which demonstrate the interface between disaster risk management (DRM) and adaptation. The studies; conducted from November 2011 to July 2012 included diverse ecosystems from forests, coastlines, rural areas to a lake region and showed that climate change/variability are major factors among other factors such as deforestation and land degradation, unsustainable land use practices, overharvesting of natural products and invasive species encroachment that are causing changes in ecosystems. The most common extreme events reported included shifts in and shorter rainfall seasons, extended droughts, increased temperatures, extreme heat, heavy rainfall, flooding, inundation, strong winds and sea level rises. As a result of these climate phenomena, adverse impacts on ecosystems and communities were reported as biodiversity loss, reduced fish catch, reduced water for forests/agriculture/consumption, increased rough waves, coastal erosion/sediment deposition and lastly land/mud slides in order of commonality. In response to these impacts communities are practicing coping and adaptation strategies but there is a huge gap between proper DRM and adaptation. This is mainly because the adaptation is practiced as an aftermath with very little effort propelled towards proactive DRM or preparedness. In addition, national level policies are archaic and do not address the current environmental changes. This was demonstrated in Togo where wood energy potential is deteriorating at an unprecedented rate but is projected to increase between 6.4% and 101% in the near and far future if the national forest action plans are implemented; preventing an energy crisis in the country. This shows that appropriate legal and policy frameworks and well planned responses to projected extreme events and climate changes are crucial in order to prevent disasters and to achieve sustainable utilisation of resources in the continent.

  2. ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance System Window Manager Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Mike W.; Innis, John D.; Miller, Steven P.; Wagner, Lucas G.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in modeling languages have made it feasible to formally specify and analyze the behavior of large system components. Synchronous data flow languages, such as Lustre, SCR, and RSML-e are particularly well suited to this task, and commercial versions of these tools such as SCADE and Simulink are growing in popularity among designers of safety critical systems, largely due to their ability to automatically generate code from the models. At the same time, advances in formal analysis tools have made it practical to formally verify important properties of these models to ensure that design defects are identified and corrected early in the lifecycle. This report describes how these tools have been applied to the ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance Window Manager being developed by Rockwell Collins Inc. This work demonstrates how formal methods can be easily and cost-efficiently used to remove defects early in the design cycle.

  3. Forest management under climatic and social uncertainty: trade-offs between reducing climate change impacts and fostering adaptive capacity.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Rupert; Lexer, Manfred J

    2013-01-15

    The unabated continuation of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and the lack of an international consensus on a stringent climate change mitigation policy underscore the importance of adaptation for coping with the all but inevitable changes in the climate system. Adaptation measures in forestry have particularly long lead times. A timely implementation is thus crucial for reducing the considerable climate vulnerability of forest ecosystems. However, since future environmental conditions as well as future societal demands on forests are inherently uncertain, a core requirement for adaptation is robustness to a wide variety of possible futures. Here we explicitly address the roles of climatic and social uncertainty in forest management, and tackle the question of robustness of adaptation measures in the context of multi-objective sustainable forest management (SFM). We used the Austrian Federal Forests (AFF) as a case study, and employed a comprehensive vulnerability assessment framework based on ecosystem modeling, multi-criteria decision analysis, and practitioner participation. We explicitly considered climate uncertainty by means of three climate change scenarios, and accounted for uncertainty in future social demands by means of three societal preference scenarios regarding SFM indicators. We found that the effects of climatic and social uncertainty on the projected performance of management were in the same order of magnitude, underlining the notion that climate change adaptation requires an integrated social-ecological perspective. Furthermore, our analysis of adaptation measures revealed considerable trade-offs between reducing adverse impacts of climate change and facilitating adaptive capacity. This finding implies that prioritization between these two general aims of adaptation is necessary in management planning, which we suggest can draw on uncertainty analysis: Where the variation induced by social-ecological uncertainty renders measures aiming to

  4. Adaptive local linear regression with application to printer color management.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Maya R; Garcia, Eric K; Chin, Erika

    2008-06-01

    Local learning methods, such as local linear regression and nearest neighbor classifiers, base estimates on nearby training samples, neighbors. Usually, the number of neighbors used in estimation is fixed to be a global "optimal" value, chosen by cross validation. This paper proposes adapting the number of neighbors used for estimation to the local geometry of the data, without need for cross validation. The term enclosing neighborhood is introduced to describe a set of neighbors whose convex hull contains the test point when possible. It is proven that enclosing neighborhoods yield bounded estimation variance under some assumptions. Three such enclosing neighborhood definitions are presented: natural neighbors, natural neighbors inclusive, and enclosing k-NN. The effectiveness of these neighborhood definitions with local linear regression is tested for estimating lookup tables for color management. Significant improvements in error metrics are shown, indicating that enclosing neighborhoods may be a promising adaptive neighborhood definition for other local learning tasks as well, depending on the density of training samples.

  5. Outlining a Framework for the Use of ICT in Disaster Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    FRAMEWORK FOR THE USE OF ICT IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT by Alexander Koch September 2014 Thesis Advisor: Mark E. Nissen Second Reader: Ulrike...DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OUTLINING A FRAMEWORK FOR THE USE OF ICT IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR...and, therefore, a lack of information and reduced situational awareness. Information and communication technologies ( ICT ) promise a way to distribute

  6. Physicians' financial incentives in five dimensions: a conceptual framework for HMO managers.

    PubMed

    Magnus, S A

    1999-01-01

    A conceptual framework for HMO managers who are evaluating physicians' financial incentives proposes that the incentives vary along five dimensions: (1) the percentage of the physician's income at stake, (2) the organizational level, (3) the synergy between multiple financial incentives, (4) the synergy between financial and nonfinancial incentives, and (5) signaling effects. Managers can apply this framework to assess the intensity of physicians' financial incentives and to devise better incentives.

  7. Scalable Publish-Subscribe in a Managed Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    managed, strongly-typed environments such as Java or .NET, integration with such environments is of particular importance. What factors limit...such as Java or .NET, we believe that the second requirement can only be satisfied by building a platform that is an integral part of a managed...Since the majority of development today is done in managed, strongly-typed environments such as Java or .NET, integration with such environments is

  8. Adaptive and Rational Anticipations in Risk Management Systems and Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-11-01

    The global financial crisis of year 2009 is explained as a result of uncoordinated risk management decisions in business firms and economic organisations. The underlying reason for this can be found in the current financial system. As the financial market has lost much of its direct coupling to the concrete economy it provides misleading information to economic decision makers at all levels. Hence, the financial system has moved from a state of moderate and slow cyclical fluctuations into a state of fast and chaotic ones. Those misleading decisions can further be described, but not explained, by help of adaptive and rational expectations from macroeconomic theory. In this context, AE, the Adaptive Expectations are related to weak passive Exo-anticipation, and RE, the Rational expectations can be related to a strong, active and design oriented anticipation. The shortcomings of conventional cures, which builds on a reactive paradigm, have already been demonstrated in economic literature and are here further underlined by help of Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety", Weaver's distinction between systems of "Disorganized Complexity" and those of "Organized Complexity", and Klir's "Reconstructability Analysis". Anticipatory decision-making is hence here proposed as a replacement to current expectation based and passive risk management. An anticipatory model of the business cycle is presented for supporting that proposition. The model, which is an extension of the Kaldor-Kalecki model, includes both retardation and anticipation. While cybernetics with the feedback process in control system deals with an explicit goal or purpose given to a system, the anticipatory system discussed here deals with a behaviour for which the future state of the system is built by the system itself, without explicit goal. A system with weak anticipation is based on a predictive model of the system, while a system with strong anticipation builds its own future by itself. Numerical simulations on

  9. Prevention, Management, and Moderation: Ethical Frameworks of Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Jurgen

    2004-01-01

    This article seeks to analyse and draft an ethical framework of governance in the area of higher education and science. To this end, a distinction is made between ethical challenges as such, and preventive measures and remedies. An outline of ethical challenges to both higher education and science and governance is provided, addressing the quest…

  10. Building health behavior models to guide the development of just-in-time adaptive interventions: A pragmatic framework.

    PubMed

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Hekler, Eric B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2015-12-01

    Advances in wireless devices and mobile technology offer many opportunities for delivering just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs)-suites of interventions that adapt over time to an individual's changing status and circumstances with the goal to address the individual's need for support, whenever this need arises. A major challenge confronting behavioral scientists aiming to develop a JITAI concerns the selection and integration of existing empirical, theoretical and practical evidence into a scientific model that can inform the construction of a JITAI and help identify scientific gaps. The purpose of this paper is to establish a pragmatic framework that can be used to organize existing evidence into a useful model for JITAI construction. This framework involves clarifying the conceptual purpose of a JITAI, namely, the provision of just-in-time support via adaptation, as well as describing the components of a JITAI and articulating a list of concrete questions to guide the establishment of a useful model for JITAI construction. The proposed framework includes an organizing scheme for translating the relatively static scientific models underlying many health behavior interventions into a more dynamic model that better incorporates the element of time. This framework will help to guide the next generation of empirical work to support the creation of effective JITAIs.

  11. Building health behavior models to guide the development of just-in-time adaptive interventions: A pragmatic framework

    PubMed Central

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Hekler, Eric B.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Advances in wireless devices and mobile technology offer many opportunities for delivering just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs)--suites of interventions that adapt over time to an individual’s changing status and circumstances with the goal to address the individual’s need for support, whenever this need arises. A major challenge confronting behavioral scientists aiming to develop a JITAI concerns the selection and integration of existing empirical, theoretical and practical evidence into a scientific model that can inform the construction of a JITAI and help identify scientific gaps. The purpose of this paper is to establish a pragmatic framework that can be used to organize existing evidence into a useful model for JITAI construction. This framework involves clarifying the conceptual purpose of a JITAI, namely the provision of just-in-time support via adaptation, as well as describing the components of a JITAI and articulating a list of concrete questions to guide the establishment of a useful model for JITAI construction. The proposed framework includes an organizing scheme for translating the relatively static scientific models underlying many health behavior interventions into a more dynamic model that better incorporates the element of time. This framework will help to guide the next generation of empirical work to support the creation of effective JITAIs. PMID:26651462

  12. Optimal Aeroacoustic Shape Design Using the Surrogate Management Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-09

    wish to thank the IMA for providing a forum for collaboration, as well as Charles Audet and Petros Koumoutsakos for valuable discussions. The authors...17] N. Hansen, D. Mller, and P. Koumoutsakos . Reducing the time complexity of the derandomized evolution strategy with covariance matrix adaptation...P. Koumoutsakos . Optimal aeroacoustic shape design using approximation modeling. Annual Research Briefs, Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford

  13. An adaptive approach to invasive plant management on U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service-owned native prairies in the Prairie Pothole Region: decision support under uncertainity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Moore, Clinton T.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Flanders-Wanner, Bridgette

    2011-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. We describe the technical components of a USGS management project, and explain how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. In partnership with the Service, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. The framework is built around practical constraints faced by refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen Service field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, are participating in the project. They share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. While the scope is broad, the project interfaces with individual land managers who provide refuge-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators.

  14. Innovation Management and Performance Framework for Research University in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowang, Tan Owee; Long, Choi Sang; Rasli, Amran

    2015-01-01

    Institutions of Higher Learning (IHL) in Malaysia are recognized as the core of new innovation development. This paper empirically studies one of IHLs in Malaysia with the objectives to gauge the perceived important level of success factors for innovation management, and to examine the relationship between innovation management success factors…

  15. AN INTEGRATED FRAMEWORK FOR WATERSHED ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Watershed approaches to water quality management have become popular, because they can address multiple point and non-point sources and the influences of land use. Developing technically-sound watershed management strategies can be challenging due to the need to 1) account for mu...

  16. Citizen Science & MPA Monitoring: Informing adaptive management through enriched local knowledge systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, R.; Freitag, A.; McGregor, A.; Whiteman, E.

    2013-12-01

    Along the California coast, a wealth of capacity exists among individuals, groups and organizations collecting scientific data. This citizen science can take many forms, from spontaneous observations of seabirds to organized surveys of nearshore reefs. Yet, as is often the case, state resource managers have struggled to find ways to access and use this scientific information in decision-making. A unique opportunity exists to alter this status-quo. California has the largest network of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the nation with more than 100 MPAs statewide. Monitoring is essential to inform adaptive management of this network. Traditionally, MPA monitoring has been the purview of academic or agency scientists. Yet, there is increasing recognition that this approach, while playing an important role, is unlikely by itself to provide a sustainable path forward. An opportunity therefore exists to understand how to sustainably and cost-effectively expand the capacity or human capital invested in monitoring and ocean stewardship. In this presentation we will share our collaborative approach to development of a new framework for incorporating citizen science into a partnerships-based portfolio of MPA monitoring in California. We will present initial findings and lessons learned from a broad review of published and gray literature, as well as reflections from interviews and participant observations with citizen science groups in the Central Coast region of California's MPA network. Through research, engagement with existing citizen science programs, and involvement of natural resource managers, we are identifying general best practices and specific opportunities for these groups to collaborate effectively, and for citizen science to play a constructive ongoing role in adaptive management of MPAs.

  17. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program: An experiment in science-based resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kaplinski, m

    2001-12-01

    In 1996, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management (GCDAMP) program was established to provide input on Glen Canyon Dam operations and their affect on the Colorado Ecosystem in Grand Canyon. The GCDAMP is a bold experiment in federal resource management that features a governing partnership with all relevant stakeholders sitting at the same table. It is a complicated, difficult process where stakeholder-derived management actions must balance resource protection with water and power delivery compacts, the Endangered Species Act, the National Historical Preservation Act, the Grand Canyon Protection Act, National Park Service Policy, and other stakeholder concerns. The program consists of four entities: the Adaptive Management Workgroup (AMWG), the Technical Workgroup (TWG), the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC), and independent review panels. The AMWG and TWG are federal advisory committees that consists of federal and state resource managers, Native American tribes, power, environmental and recreation interests. The AMWG is develops, evaluates and recommends alternative dam operations to the Secretary. The TWG translates AMWG policy and goals into management objectives and information needs, provides questions that serve as the basis for long-term monitoring and research activities, interprets research results from the GCMRC, and prepares reports as required for the AMWG. The GCMRC is an independent science center that is responsible for all GCDAMP monitoring and research activities. The GCMRC utilizes proposal requests with external peer review and an in-house staff that directs and synthesizes monitoring and research results. The GCMRC meets regularly with the TWG and AMWG and provides scientific information on the consequences of GCDAMP actions. Independent review panels consist of external peer review panels that provide reviews of scientific activities and the program in general, technical advice to the GCMRC, TWG and AMWG, and play a critical

  18. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    Spickett, Jeffery T.; Brown, Helen L.; Katscherian, Dianne

    2011-04-15

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to

  19. A trait-based framework for predicting when and where microbial adaptation to climate change will affect ecosystem functioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallenstein, Matthew D.; Hall, Edward K.

    2012-01-01

    As the earth system changes in response to human activities, a critical objective is to predict how biogeochemical process rates (e.g. nitrification, decomposition) and ecosystem function (e.g. net ecosystem productivity) will change under future conditions. A particular challenge is that the microbial communities that drive many of these processes are capable of adapting to environmental change in ways that alter ecosystem functioning. Despite evidence that microbes can adapt to temperature, precipitation regimes, and redox fluctuations, microbial communities are typically not optimally adapted to their local environment. For example, temperature optima for growth and enzyme activity are often greater than in situ temperatures in their environment. Here we discuss fundamental constraints on microbial adaptation and suggest specific environments where microbial adaptation to climate change (or lack thereof) is most likely to alter ecosystem functioning. Our framework is based on two principal assumptions. First, there are fundamental ecological trade-offs in microbial community traits that occur across environmental gradients (in time and space). These trade-offs result in shifting of microbial function (e.g. ability to take up resources at low temperature) in response to adaptation of another trait (e.g. limiting maintenance respiration at high temperature). Second, the mechanism and level of microbial community adaptation to changing environmental parameters is a function of the potential rate of change in community composition relative to the rate of environmental change. Together, this framework provides a basis for developing testable predictions about how the rate and degree of microbial adaptation to climate change will alter biogeochemical processes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems across the planet.

  20. Early decision framework for integrating sustainable risk management for complex remediation sites: Drivers, barriers, and performance metrics.

    PubMed

    Harclerode, Melissa A; Macbeth, Tamzen W; Miller, Michael E; Gurr, Christopher J; Myers, Teri S

    2016-12-15

    As the environmental remediation industry matures, remaining sites often have significant underlying technical challenges and financial constraints. More often than not, significant remediation efforts at these "complex" sites have not achieved stringent, promulgated cleanup goals. Decisions then have to be made about whether and how to commit additional resources towards achieving those goals, which are often not achievable nor required to protect receptors. Guidance on cleanup approaches focused on evaluating and managing site-specific conditions and risks, rather than uniformly meeting contaminant cleanup criteria in all media, is available to aid in this decision. Although these risk-based cleanup approaches, such as alternative endpoints and adaptive management strategies, have been developed, they are under-utilized due to environmental, socio-economic, and risk perception barriers. Also, these approaches are usually implemented late in the project life cycle after unsuccessful remedial attempts to achieve stringent cleanup criteria. In this article, we address these barriers by developing an early decision framework to identify if site characteristics support sustainable risk management, and develop performance metrics and tools to evaluate and implement successful risk-based cleanup approaches. In addition, we address uncertainty and risk perception challenges by aligning risk-based cleanup approaches with the concepts of risk management and sustainable remediation. This approach was developed in the context of lessons learned from implementing remediation at complex sites, but as a framework can, and should, be applied to all sites undergoing remediation.

  1. Active adaptive management for reintroduction of an animal population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Captive animals are frequently reintroduced to the wild in the face of uncertainty, but that uncertainty can often be reduced over the course of the reintroduction effort, providing the opportunity for adaptive management. One common uncertainty in reintroductions is the short-term survival rate of released adults (a release cost), an important factor because it can affect whether releasing adults or juveniles is better. Information about this rate can improve the success of the reintroduction program, but does the expected gain offset the costs of obtaining the information? I explored this question for reintroduction of the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) by framing the management question as a belief Markov decision process, characterizing uncertainty about release cost with 2 information state variables, and finding the solution using stochastic dynamic programming. For a reintroduction program of fixed length (e.g., 5 years of releases), the optimal policy in the final release year resembles the deterministic solution: release either all adults or all juveniles depending on whether the point estimate for the survival rate in question is above or below a specific threshold. But the optimal policy in the earlier release years 1) includes release of a mixture of juveniles and adults under some circumstances, and 2) recommends release of adults even when the point estimate of survival is much less than the deterministic threshold. These results show that in an iterated decision setting, the optimal decision in early years can be quite different from that in later years because of the value of learning. 

  2. Optimal stochastic control in natural resource management: Framework and examples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    A framework is presented for the application of optimal control methods to natural resource problems. An expression of the optimal control problem appropriate for renewable natural resources is given and its application to Markovian systems is presented in some detail. Three general approaches are outlined for determining optimal control of infinite time horizon systems and three examples from the natural resource literature are used for illustration.

  3. Managing information systems: an ethical framework and information needs matrix.

    PubMed

    Caputo, R K

    1991-01-01

    This paper urged administrators in human services to attend to values and ethics in the design and implementation of automated information systems. Toward this end, it presented an ethical framework reasserting the primacy of clients as citizens and encouraging the development of client-driven information systems. Finally, the paper presented the rationale for and two examples of an Information Needs Matrix to assist administrators in their deliberations about allocating discretionary resources among functional units within organizations.

  4. Trust Management Considerations For the Cooperative Infrastructure Defense Framework: Trust Relationships, Evidence, and Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Maiden, Wendy M.

    2009-12-01

    Cooperative Infrastructure Defense (CID) is a hierarchical, agent-based, adaptive, cyber-security framework designed to collaboratively protect multiple enclaves or organizations participating in a complex infrastructure. CID employs a swarm of lightweight, mobile agents called Sensors designed to roam hosts throughout a security enclave to find indications of anomalies and report them to host-based Sentinels. The Sensors’ findings become pieces of a larger puzzle, which the Sentinel puts together to determine the problem and respond per policy as given by the enclave-level Sergeant agent. Horizontally across multiple enclaves and vertically within each enclave, authentication and access control technologies are necessary but insufficient authorization mechanisms to ensure that CID agents continue to fulfill their roles in a trustworthy manner. Trust management fills the gap, providing mechanisms to detect malicious agents and offering more robust mechanisms for authorization. This paper identifies the trust relationships throughout the CID hierarchy, the types of trust evidence that could be gathered, and the actions that the CID system could take if an entity is determined to be untrustworthy.

  5. 50 CFR 648.127 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., FMP Monitoring Committee composition and process, description and identification of essential fish habitat (and fishing gear management measures that impact EFH), description and identification of habitat areas of particular concern, overfishing definition and related thresholds and targets, regional...

  6. Adaptive management on the central Platte River--science, engineering, and decision analysis to assist in the recovery of four species.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chadwin B

    2011-05-01

    Active adaptive management is the centerpiece of a major species recovery program now underway on the central Platte River in Nebraska. The Platte River Recovery Implementation Program initiated on January 1, 2007 and is a joint effort between the states of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska; the U.S. Department of the Interior; waters users; and conservation groups. This program is intended to address issues related to endangered species and loss of habitat along the Platte River in central Nebraska by managing land and water resources and using adaptive management as its science framework. The adaptive management plan provides a systematic process to test hypotheses and apply the information learned to improve management on the ground, and is centered on conceptual models and priority hypotheses that reflect different interpretations of how river processes work and the best approach to meeting key objectives. This framework reveals a shared attempt to use the best available science to implement experiments, learn, and revise management actions accordingly on the Platte River. This paper focuses on the status of adaptive management implementation on the Platte, experimental and habitat design issues, and the use of decision analysis tools to help set objectives and guide decisions.

  7. Managing O and S Costs: A Framework to Consider

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    James Francisco n Worth Mizell n Daniel Cikovic Jaynes is the assistant commander for Logistics and Industrial Operations at NAVAIR Systems Command... Assistance , DAU Mid-Atlantic; Francisco is the PMA-213 assistant program manager for Logistics, DAU Mid-Atlantic; Mizell is the former PMA-213 JPALS... assistant program manager for Logistics, DAU Mid-Atlantic; Cikovic is the former PMA-213 NAVAIR 4.2 cost lead, DAU Mid-Atlantic. For most weapon

  8. Using ICT to Enhance Knowledge Management in Higher Education: A Conceptual Framework and Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omona, Walter; van der Weide, Theo; Lubega, Jude

    2010-01-01

    The adoption and use of ICT to enhance and facilitate Knowledge Management (KM) has brought to focus the urgent need to come out with new methods, tools and techniques in the development of KM systems frameworks, knowledge processes and knowledge technologies to promote effective management of knowledge for improved service deliveries in higher…

  9. The Strategic Management of Charter Schools: Frameworks and Tools for Educational Entrepreneurs. Educational Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkin, Peter; Manno, Bruno V.; Edgington, Nell

    2011-01-01

    "The Strategic Management of Charter Schools" addresses the challenges facing such schools by mapping out, in straightforward and highly pragmatic terms, a management framework for them. The first charter school law in the United States was enacted in Minnesota in 1991. In the twenty years since that modest beginning, the movement has burgeoned…

  10. Development of a Procurement Management Framework in Ghana: A New Paradigm for Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Manu, D.; Badu, E.; Edwards, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Procurement in the corporate world is increasingly complex, multi-faceted and interdisciplinary. This paper explores existing knowledge specifications relating to procurement management competencies and proposes a new procurement management competency framework (PMCF) and a competency-based postgraduate programme for postgraduate students in…

  11. Spatial optimization of watershed management practices for nitrogen load reduction using a modeling-optimization framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Best management practices (BMPs) are perceived as being effective in reducing nutrient loads transported from non-point sources (NPS) to receiving water bodies. The objective of this study was to develop a modeling-optimization framework that can be used by watershed management p...

  12. Adaptive Flow Management in Regulated Rivers: Successes and Challenges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. T.; Melis, T. S.; Kennedy, T.; Korman, J.; Ortlepp, J.

    2013-12-01

    Experimental high flows are becoming common management actions in rivers affected by large dams. When implemented under clear objectives and goals, experimental flows provide opportunities for long-term ecological successes but also impose various ecological challenges as systems shift under environmental change or from human-related actions. We present case studies from long-term adaptive flow management programs on the River Spöl, Switzerland and the Colorado River, USA, both of which are regulated by high dams and flow through National Parks. The management goals in each system differ thus reflecting the different high flow practices implemented over time. Regulated flows in the Spöl reflect a compromise between hydropower needs and ecology (native brown trout fishery), whereas Glen Canyon Dam flows have mainly been directed towards maintenance of river beaches in Grand Canyon National Park with co-management of both nonnative rainbow trout in the tailwater immediately below the dam and downstream endangered native fish of Grand Canyon also an objective. Some 24 experimental floods have occurred on the Spöl over the last 13 years, resulting in a positive effect on the trout fishery and a zoobenthic assemblage having a more typical alpine stream composition. The system has experienced various shifts in assemblage composition over time with the last shift occurring 7 years after the initial floods. A major challenge occurred in spring 2013 with an accidental release of fine sediments from the reservoir behind Punt dal Gall Dam, causing high fish mortality and smothering of the river bottom. Results showed that the effect was pronounced near the dam and gradually lessened downriver to the lower reservoir. Zoobenthic assemblages displayed relatively high resistance to the event and some fish found refugia in the lower reservoir and larger side tributaries, thus projecting a faster recovery than initially thought. Below Glen Canyon dam, benefits to sandbars have

  13. Bovine brucellosis in wildlife: using adaptive management to improve understanding, technology and suppression.

    PubMed

    White, P J; Treanor, J J; Geremia, C; Wallen, R L; Blanton, D W; Hallac, D E

    2013-04-01

    Eradication of brucellosis from bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus) populations in the Greater Yellowstone Area is not possible with current technology. There are considerable uncertainties regarding the effectiveness of management techniques and unintended effects on wildlife behaviour and demography. However, adaptive management provides a framework for learning about the disease, improving suppression techniques, and lowering brucellosis transmission among wildlife and to cattle. Since it takes approximately three years after birth for female bison to become reproductively active and contribute to brucellosis transmission, there is an opportunity to implement actions such as vaccination and the selective removal of infectious bison based on age and assay results to reduce the potential for transmission. Older adult bison that have been exposed to the bacteria, but recovered from acute infection, could be retained in the population to provide some immunity (resistance) against future transmission. Through careful predictions, research, and monitoring, our understanding and technology will be improved and management actions can be adjusted to better achieve desired outcomes.

  14. Enhancing the Relevance of Incident Management Systems in Public Health Emergency Preparedness: A Novel Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Bochenek, Richard; Grant, Moira; Schwartz, Brian

    2015-08-01

    We outline a conceptual framework developed to meet the needs of public health professionals in the province of Ontario for incident management system-related education and training. By using visual models, this framework applies a public health lens to emergency management, introducing concepts relevant to public health and thereby shifting the focus of emergency preparedness from a strict "doctrine" to a more dynamic and flexible approach grounded in the traditional principles of incident management systems. These models provide a foundation for further exploration of the theoretical foundations for public health emergency preparedness in practice.

  15. Stroke disease management--a framework for comprehensive stroke care.

    PubMed

    Venketasubramanian, N; Chan, B P L; Lim, E; Hafizah, Noor; Goh, K T; Lew, Y J; Loo, L; Yin, A; Widjaja, L; Loke, W C; Kuick, G; Lee, N L; Ong, B S; Koh, S F; Heng, B H; Cheah, J

    2002-07-01

    Disease management is an approach to patient care that coordinates medical resources for the patient across the entire healthcare delivery system throughout the lifetime of the patient with the disease. Stroke is suitable for disease management as it is a well-known disease with a high prevalence, high cost, variable practice pattern, poor clinical outcome, and managed by a non-integrated healthcare system. It has measurable and actionable outcomes, with available local expertise and support of the Ministry of Health. Developing the programme requires a multidisciplinary team, baseline data on target populations and healthcare services, identification of core components, collaboration with key stakeholders, development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and carepaths, institution of care coordinators, use of information technology and continuous quality improvement to produce an effective plan. Core components include public education, risk factor screening and management, primary care and specialist clinics, acute stroke units, inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation facilities, and supportive community services including medical, nursing, therapy, home help and support groups for patients and carers. The family physician plays a key role. Coordination of services is best done by a network of hospital and community-based care managers, and is enhanced by a coordinating call centre. Continuous quality improvement is required, with audit of processes and outcomes, facilitated by a disease registry. Pitfalls include inappropriate exclusion of deserving patients, misuse, loss of physician and patient independence, over-estimation of benefits, and care fragmentation. Collaboration and cooperative among all parties will help ensure a successful and sustainable programme.

  16. A framework design for the mHealth system for self-management promotion.

    PubMed

    Jia, Guifeng; Yang, Pan; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Hengyi; Lin, Chengyu; Chen, Jin; Cai, Guolong; Yan, Jing; Ning, Gangmin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile health (mHealth) technology has been proposed to alleviate the lack of sufficient medical resources for personal healthcare. However, usage difficulties and compliance issues relating to this technology restrict the effect of mHealth system-supported self-management. In this study, an mHealth framework is introduced to overcome these drawbacks and improve the outcome of self-management. We implemented a set of ease of use principles in the mHealth design and employed the quantitative Fogg Behavior Model to enhance users' execution ability. The framework was realized in a prototype design for the mHealth system, which consists of medical apparatuses, mobile applications and a health management server. The system is able to monitor the physiological status in an unconstrained manner with simplified operations, while supervising the healthcare plan. The results suggest that the present framework design is accessible for ordinary users and effective in improving users' execution ability in self-management.

  17. Creating a Forest-Wide Context for Adaptive Management at Jackson Demonstration State Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liquori, M.; Helms, J.; Porter, D.

    2010-12-01

    At nearly 50,000 acres, Jackson Demonstration State Forest (JDSF) is the largest State-owned forest in California. In 2008, the CALFIRE Director appointed a 13-member Jackson Advisory Group to provide recommendations to the California State Board of Forestry for how to transition JDSF into a “world-class research forest”. After nearly 3 years of deliberations, we have developed a draft Research-Oriented Management Framework (ROMF) that, if adopted, will introduce a new model for adaptive management within the forestry sector. Our approach integrates several core elements. Scientific “Centers of Excellence” (including one focused on Coho recovery and/or watershed processes) would be developed around a Research-Oriented Landscape Allocation, that considers the existing distribution of forest attributes both within JDSF as well as within the broader coastal Redwood Region. The ROMF would establish an Experimental Basis for Management that seeks to leverage harvest activities with explicit experimental designs and monitoring objectives. Like many of the forests that comprise its customer-base, JDSF has a mandate to produce timber revenues. We view this as an opportunity to mimic the management constraint imposed on most private and conservation trust landowners to routinely harvest timber to support operational and capital costs. Timber revenues on JDSF would be used (in part) to support the research and monitoring program. Such a system would support both passive and active modes of forest manipulation and research, and would make JDSF research activities more relevant to stakeholders, potentially increasing opportunities for collaborative, landscape-scale studies that seek to resolve outstanding management issues and uncertainties. The ROMF also would seek to develop and improve practices related to sustainable forestry. Both Late-Seral Development Areas and Old-Forest Structure Zones would be established that will utilize uneven-aged management treatments to

  18. Patient management scenario: a framework for clinical decision and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Gospodarowicz, Mary; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The depiction of prognosis is one of the main activities and a mainstay in medical practice. In cancer, as in other diseases, the prognosis differs for a variety of situations and evolves with time and with medical interventions. Although most commonly described at diagnosis, prognosis may be defined at any time during the course of the disease and for any endpoint including response to therapy, failure of treatment, survival, or preservation of function, and so forth. To facilitate the accurate portrayal of the future, the prognosis should be defined within a specific setting, referred to as a 'management scenario'. In the concept of a management scenario, the prognosis is defined using systematically considered prognostic factors, interventions and the outcome of interest. A deliberate and careful determination of prognosis is essential to clinical decision making and patient care. We illustrate the use of the concept of management scenario in several clinical examples.

  19. Options for Managing Hypoxic Blackwater in River Systems: Case Studies and Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitworth, Kerry L.; Kerr, Janice L.; Mosley, Luke M.; Conallin, John; Hardwick, Lorraine; Baldwin, Darren S.

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxic blackwater events occur when large amounts of organic material are leached into a water body (e.g., during floodplain inundation) and rapid metabolism of this carbon depletes oxygen from the water column, often with catastrophic effects on the aquatic environment. River regulation may have increased the frequency and severity of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems, necessitating management intervention to mitigate the impacts of these events on aquatic biota. We examine the effectiveness of a range of mitigation interventions that have been used during large-scale hypoxic blackwater events in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia and that may be applicable in other environments at risk from hypoxic blackwater. Strategies for hypoxia mitigation include: delivery of dilution flows; enhancement of physical re-aeration rates by increasing surface turbulence; and diversion of blackwater into shallow off-channel storages. We show that the impact of dilution water delivery is determined by relative volumes and water quality and can be predicted using simple models. At the dilution water inflow point, localized oxygenated plumes may also act as refuges. Physical re-aeration strategies generally result in only a small increase in dissolved oxygen but may be beneficial for local refuge protection. Dilution and natural re-aeration processes in large, shallow lake systems can be sufficient to compensate for hypoxic inflows and water processed in off-channel lakes may be able to be returned to the river channel as dilution flows. We provide a set of predictive models (as electronic supplementary material) for estimation of the re-aeration potential of intervention activities and a framework to guide the adaptive management of future hypoxic blackwater events.

  20. Options for managing hypoxic blackwater in river systems: case studies and framework.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Kerry L; Kerr, Janice L; Mosley, Luke M; Conallin, John; Hardwick, Lorraine; Baldwin, Darren S

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxic blackwater events occur when large amounts of organic material are leached into a water body (e.g., during floodplain inundation) and rapid metabolism of this carbon depletes oxygen from the water column, often with catastrophic effects on the aquatic environment. River regulation may have increased the frequency and severity of hypoxic blackwater events in lowland river systems, necessitating management intervention to mitigate the impacts of these events on aquatic biota. We examine the effectiveness of a range of mitigation interventions that have been used during large-scale hypoxic blackwater events in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia and that may be applicable in other environments at risk from hypoxic blackwater. Strategies for hypoxia mitigation include: delivery of dilution flows; enhancement of physical re-aeration rates by increasing surface turbulence; and diversion of blackwater into shallow off-channel storages. We show that the impact of dilution water delivery is determined by relative volumes and water quality and can be predicted using simple models. At the dilution water inflow point, localized oxygenated plumes may also act as refuges. Physical re-aeration strategies generally result in only a small increase in dissolved oxygen but may be beneficial for local refuge protection. Dilution and natural re-aeration processes in large, shallow lake systems can be sufficient to compensate for hypoxic inflows and water processed in off-channel lakes may be able to be returned to the river channel as dilution flows. We provide a set of predictive models (as electronic supplementary material) for estimation of the re-aeration potential of intervention activities and a framework to guide the adaptive management of future hypoxic blackwater events.

  1. Development of adaptation strategies of marshland water management to regional climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, Helge; Frank, Ahlhorn; Luise, Giani; Kirsten, Klaassen; Thomas, Klenke

    2010-05-01

    , alternative strategies for a future water management were developed. They are based on the stakeholder's picture of their future landscape, describing how the region should look like in year 2050, considering the landscape in general as well as socioeconomic aspects such as land use, employment market and tourism. And they are also based on guiding principles of future water management on which all stakeholders agreed. In comparison with the list of potential measures suggested by regional stakeholders, a concept is presented which was developed by a group of international water management experts from Netherlands, UK, Sweden and Belgium in the framework of a project workshop of the EU-Interreg IVb ‘Climate Proof Areas' project. This comparison highlights the impact of setting certain boundary conditions of a future development, i.e. the sustainable development of the future landscape versus keeping the landscape and its cultural heritage as it is now, for example by maintaining the traditional farming system as fundamental precondition for the climate adaptation process. Setting these priorities governs the decision making process and decides whether the focus is set on technical adaptation measures in contrast to alternative land use concepts for a region.

  2. A Model for an Information Security Risk Management (ISRM) Framework for Saudi Arabian Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshareef, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Countries in the Gulf represent thriving, globally important commercial centres. They have embraced technology and modern management methods, often originating in the western countries. In adapting to quite different cultures these do not always operate as successfully. The adoption and practices of the Information Security Risk Management (ISRM)…

  3. Watershed Conservation, Groundwater Management, and Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumasset, J.; Burnett, K.; Wada, C.

    2009-12-01

    5-10% reduction in wet season mean precipitation and a 5% increase during the dry season by the end of the 21st century. These trends will be used to condition the time series analysis through Bayesian updating. The resulting distributions, conditioned for seasonality and long-run climate change, will be used to recursively simulate daily rainfalls, thereby allowing for serial correlation and forming a basis for the watershed model to recursively determine components of the water balance equation. The methodology will allow us to generate different sequences of rainfall from the estimated distribution and the corresponding recharge functions. These in turn are used as the basis of optimizing groundwater management under both the watershed conservation program and no conservation. We calculate how much adaptation via joint optimization of watershed conservation and groundwater management decreases the damages from declining precipitation. Inasmuch as groundwater scarcity increases with the forecasted climate change, even under optimal groundwater management, the value of watershed conservation also increases.

  4. 78 FR 42799 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of... AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and independent.... Dated: July 11, 2013. Glen Knowles, Chief, Adaptive Management Work Group, Upper Colorado...

  5. 75 FR 44809 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG), a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center,...

  6. 65 FR 62750 - Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group and Glen Canyon Technical Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-10-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group and Glen Canyon Technical Work Group... organized and includes a federal advisory committee (the Glen Canyon Adaptive Management Work Group, or AMWG), a technical work group (the Glen Canyon Technical Work Group, or TWG), a monitoring and...

  7. 74 FR 36505 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-07-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a federal advisory committee, the Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG), a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center,...

  8. 74 FR 16009 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-04-08

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1992. The AMP includes a federal advisory committee (AMWG), a technical work group (TWG), a monitoring... . Dated: March 19, 2009. Dennis Kubly, Chief, Adaptive Management Group, Environmental Resources...

  9. An Adaptive Approach to Managing Knowledge Development in a Project-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an adaptive approach to managing the development of students' knowledge in the comprehensive project-based learning (PBL) environment. Subject study is realized by two-stage PBL. It shapes adaptive knowledge management (KM) process and promotes the correct balance between personalized and collaborative learning. The…

  10. 77 FR 60138 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Teleconference/Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Teleconference/ Web-Based... Wildlife Service, announce a public teleconference/web-based meeting of ] the Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG). DATES: Teleconference/web-based meeting: Wednesday October 17, 2012, from 9 a.m....

  11. 78 FR 5830 - Renewal of the Trinity River Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River restoration efforts. FOR... Office of the Secretary Renewal of the Trinity River Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Office of... consultation with the General Services Administration, has renewed the Trinity River Adaptive...

  12. Framework for Incorporating Green Infrastructure into Urban Watershed Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efforts have been under way by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) since 2003 to develop a decision-support system for placement of best management practices (BMPs) at strategic locations in urban watersheds. This system is called the System for Urban Stormwater Treatm...

  13. Grounding the Management of Liabilities in the Risk Analysis Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Peter W. B.; Smyth, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Discussions of socioeconomic liability and compensation must necessarily start from an understanding of the socioeconomic, legal, and scientific basis for identifying, assessing, managing, and apportioning blame for hazards related to innovations. Public discussions about the nature of the liability challenge related to genetically modified (GM)…

  14. Exploration of a Contextual Management Framework for Strategic Learning Alliances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to take a further step forward in examining those important business factors that will shape the future of best practice in the quality management of internal and external strategic alliances. Design/methodology/approach: The article presents a speculative scenario on the future of strategic alliances in education,…

  15. Applying a Conflict Resolution Framework to Disputes in Managed Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom-Gottfried, Kimberly

    1998-01-01

    Describes the application of conflict-resolution strategies to managed-care disputes. The premises and processes for conflict resolution through negotiation are presented, the application of these principles to common disagreements between providers and payers is demonstrated. Strategies for overcoming difficulties resulting from differential…

  16. Management of Inclusive Education in Oman: A Framework for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed Emam, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Inclusive education (IE) and the special education services related to it are relatively new in Oman. Efforts to manage special/inclusive education face many challenges due to a number of culturally rooted factors. Further, empirical research on IE in Oman is scarce and there is a need to advance IE discourse based on empirically validated…

  17. Operational Resiliency Management: An Introduction to the Resiliency Engineering Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-20

    Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) . 5 © 2006 Carnegie Mellon University y FRB Bus Con Conference 2006 Managing Today’s Operational Risk Challenges...function • Seen as a technical function or responsibility • Searching for magic bullet: CobiT , ITIL, ISO17799, NFP1600 • Poorly defined and measured

  18. The Four Pillars: A Framework for Improving IT Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Anne Scrivener

    2005-01-01

    As information technology (IT) becomes increasingly central to the teaching, learning, and research missions of colleges and universities, the expectations of the IT department's customers continue to grow at a rate that far outstrips the growth in resources to meet that demand. As a result, managers in the IT organization--from the executives to…

  19. 50 CFR 648.55 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., above which overfishing is occurring in the scallop fishery. The F associated with OFL shall be used to... section. (2) The specification of ABC, ACL, and ACT shall be based upon the following overfishing... recommendation on adjustments or additions to management measures must include measures to prevent overfishing...

  20. 50 CFR 648.55 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., above which, overfishing is occurring in the scallop fishery. The F associated with OFL shall be used to... section. (2) The specification of ABC, ACL, and ACT shall be based upon the following overfishing... additions to management measures must include measures to prevent overfishing of the available biomass...

  1. 50 CFR 648.55 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., above which overfishing is occurring in the scallop fishery. The F associated with OFL shall be used to... section. (2) The specification of ABC, ACL, and ACT shall be based upon the following overfishing... recommendation on adjustments or additions to management measures must include measures to prevent overfishing...

  2. 50 CFR 648.55 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., above which overfishing is occurring in the scallop fishery. The F associated with OFL shall be used to... section. (2) The specification of ABC, ACL, and ACT shall be based upon the following overfishing... additions to management measures must include measures to prevent overfishing of the available biomass...

  3. A Semantic Based Policy Management Framework for Cloud Computing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takabi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing paradigm has gained tremendous momentum and generated intensive interest. Although security issues are delaying its fast adoption, cloud computing is an unstoppable force and we need to provide security mechanisms to ensure its secure adoption. In this dissertation, we mainly focus on issues related to policy management and access…

  4. A Framework for Managing Inter-Site Storage Area Networks using Grid Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben; McCall, Fritz; Smorul, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland Institute for Advanced Computer Studies are studying mechanisms for installing and managing Storage Area Networks (SANs) that span multiple independent collaborating institutions using Storage Area Network Routers (SAN Routers). We present a framework for managing inter-site distributed SANs that uses Grid Technologies to balance the competing needs to control local resources, share information, delegate administrative access, and manage the complex trust relationships between the participating sites.

  5. Bayesian inference and decision theory - A framework for decision making in natural resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, R.M.; Johnson, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian inference and decision theory may be used in the solution of relatively complex problems of natural resource management, owing to recent advances in statistical theory and computing. In particular, Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms provide a computational framework for fitting models of adequate complexity and for evaluating the expected consequences of alternative management actions. We illustrate these features using an example based on management of waterfowl habitat.

  6. Kernel based model parametrization and adaptation with applications to battery management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Caihao

    With the wide spread use of energy storage systems, battery state of health (SOH) monitoring has become one of the most crucial challenges in power and energy research, as SOH significantly affects the performance and life cycle of batteries as well as the systems they are interacting with. Identifying the SOH and adapting of the battery energy/power management system accordingly are thus two important challenges for applications such as electric vehicles, smart buildings and hybrid power systems. This dissertation focuses on the identification of lithium ion battery capacity fading, and proposes an on-board implementable model parametrization and adaptation framework for SOH monitoring. Both parametric and non-parametric approaches that are based on kernel functions are explored for the modeling of battery charging data and aging signature extraction. A unified parametric open circuit voltage model is first developed to improve the accuracy of battery state estimation. Several analytical and numerical methods are then investigated for the non-parametric modeling of battery data, among which the support vector regression (SVR) algorithm is shown to be the most robust and consistent approach with respect to data sizes and ranges. For data collected on LiFePO 4 cells, it is shown that the model developed with the SVR approach is able to predict the battery capacity fading with less than 2% error. Moreover, motivated by the initial success of applying kernel based modeling methods for battery SOH monitoring, this dissertation further exploits the parametric SVR representation for real-time battery characterization supported by test data. Through the study of the invariant properties of the support vectors, a kernel based model parametrization and adaptation framework is developed. The high dimensional optimization problem in the learning algorithm could be reformulated as a parameter estimation problem, that can be solved by standard estimation algorithms such as the

  7. Beyond Reactive Planning: Self Adaptive Software and Self Modeling Software in Predictive Deliberation Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    13th ICCRTS “C2 for Complex Endeavors” Title of Paper: Beyond Reactive Planning: Self Adaptive Software and Self Modeling Software in...Adaptive Software and Self Modeling Software in Predictive Deliberation Management 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...space. We present the following hypothesis: predictive deliberation management using self adapting and self modeling software will be required to provide

  8. Science-policy interface in transformative adaptive flood risk management - decision-making in Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaler, Thomas; Attems, Marie-Sophie; Rauter, Magdalena; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Facing the challenges of climate change, this paper aims to analyse and to evaluate the multiple use of flood alleviation schemes with respect to social transformation in communities exposed to flood hazards in Europe. The overall goals are: (1) the identification of indicators and parameters necessary for strategies to increase societal resilience, (2) an analysis of the institutional settings needed for societal transformation, and (3) perspectives of changing divisions of responsibilities between public and private actors necessary to arrive at more resilient societies. As such, governance is done by people interacting and defining risk mitigation measures as well as climate change adaptation are therefore simultaneously both outcomes of, and productive to, public and private responsibilities. Building off current knowledge this paper focussed on different dimensions of adaptation and mitigation strategies based on social, economic and institutional incentives and settings, centring on the linkages between these different dimensions and complementing existing flood risk governance arrangements. As such, the challenges of adaptation to flood risk will be tackled by converting scientific frameworks into practical assessment and policy advice. This paper used the Formative Scenario Analysis (FSA) as a method to construct well-defined sets of assumptions to gain insight into a system and its potential future development, based on qualitatively assessed impact factors and rated quantitative relations between these factors, such as impact and consistency analysis. The purpose of this approach was to develop scenarios, where participations develop their own strategies how to implement a transformative adaptation strategy in flood risk management. In particular, the interaction between researcher, the public and policy makers was analysed. Challenges and limitations were assessed, such as benefits on costs of adaptation measures, for the implementation of visions to

  9. Increasing sustainable stormwater management adaption through transdisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingfield, Thea; Potter, Karen; Jones, Gareth; Spees, Jack; Macdonald, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The Ribble Rivers Trust leads a partnership of land and water management organisations that use a holistic approach to water management in the Ribble catchment. They are interested in incorporating sustainable stormwater systems, into their program of delivery with a view to ensuring that their activities to improve the environments and habitats of the catchment also contribute to reducing flood risk. A methodology, to locate interventions that would slow water within the catchment are identified; however partner buy in, institutional caution and economic barriers are felt to be hindering delivery. In response a transdisciplinary research project in which both the academics of the University of Liverpool and the practitioners of The Ribble Rivers Trust are active investigators has been established. The project aims to increase the uptake of sustainable stormwater management techniques through the analysis of the institutional, experiential and governance processes and their interactions with the physical hydrological processes governing stormwater systems. Research that is transdisciplinary must integrate academic knowledge with practitioner, local understanding and practice. Furthermore methodologies belonging to different academic fields must be blended together to collect, analyse and interpret data in order to examine complex problems through different disciplinary lenses in an integrated way. This approach has been developed in response to the complex relationships of cause and effect of contemporary inter-related economic, environmental and societal challenges. There have been a number of challenges to overcome as transdisciplinary researchers, the first and most important was to understand the different research philosophies and theoretical assumptions behind various natural science and social science research methods. Without this understanding research methodologies could be flawed and would not be effectively integrated and the data would not be

  10. Framework for effective community participation in water quality management in Luvuvhu Catchment of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nare, L.; Odiyo, J. O.; Francis, J.; Potgieter, N.

    A study has been done in Luvuvhu Catchment to develop a framework for effective community participation in water quality monitoring and management. Community participation and involvement in development has since the 1970s gathered momentum among the non-governmental organisations (NGOs) fraternity but has never gained clear status with Governments world over. In South Africa the policy and legal frameworks for community consultation, involvement and participation are clearly spelt out on paper starting with the country’s constitution. The division of the country into Water Management Areas (WMA) and the formation of Catchment Management Agencies (CMA), Water User Associations (WUAs) for example, was meant to increase participation of stakeholders including communities in the management of water resources. These efforts have not translated into effective participation by local communities in the management of water resources because there is no link between the national water quality management frameworks and community based development structures. An extensive review of development frameworks including community based structures has been undertaken. The most critical frameworks identified were the national water quality management framework (Directorate of Water Quality Monitoring and Catchment Management Agencies), community based structures and local government structures and systems (municipalities, provincial and national structures). There was no flow of information between the national water quality framework and community based development structures and therefore linkages were created between the lower tiers of the catchment management system (sub catchment fora and WUAs) to allow for information from the Directorate of Quality Monitoring to reach communities and vice versa. The lower tiers of the catchment management system should serve as specialised committees under the community development structures. The municipalities who control and fund

  11. A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, G. Scott; Hudson, Naomi L.; Maier, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1) scenario planning, 2) risk analysis, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). This DSS facilitates dynamic decision making during each of the distinct life cycle phases of an emergency incident (ie, preparedness, response, or recovery) and identifies EMO needs. A checklist tool provides key questions intended to guide users through the complexities of conducting a dermal risk assessment. The questions define the scope of the framework for resource identification and application to support decision-making needs. The framework consists of three primary modules: 1) resource compilation, 2) prioritization, and 3) decision. The modules systematically identify, organize, and rank relevant information resources relating to the hazards of dermal exposures to chemicals and risk management strategies. Each module is subdivided into critical elements designed to further delineate the resources based on relevant incident phase and type of information. The DSS framework provides a much needed structure based on contemporary decision analysis principles for 1) documenting key questions for EMO problem formulation and 2) a method for systematically organizing, screening, and prioritizing information resources on dermal hazards, exposures, risk characterization, and management. PMID:26312660

  12. A decision support framework for characterizing and managing dermal exposures to chemicals during Emergency Management and Operations.

    PubMed

    Dotson, G Scott; Hudson, Naomi L; Maier, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Management and Operations (EMO) personnel are in need of resources and tools to assist in understanding the health risks associated with dermal exposures during chemical incidents. This article reviews available resources and presents a conceptual framework for a decision support system (DSS) that assists in characterizing and managing risk during chemical emergencies involving dermal exposures. The framework merges principles of three decision-making techniques: 1) scenario planning, 2) risk analysis, and 3) multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA). This DSS facilitates dynamic decision making during each of the distinct life cycle phases of an emergency incident (ie, preparedness, response, or recovery) and identifies EMO needs. A checklist tool provides key questions intended to guide users through the complexities of conducting a dermal risk assessment. The questions define the scope of the framework for resource identification and application to support decision-making needs. The framework consists of three primary modules: 1) resource compilation, 2) prioritization, and 3) decision. The modules systematically identify, organize, and rank relevant information resources relating to the hazards of dermal exposures to chemicals and risk management strategies. Each module is subdivided into critical elements designed to further delineate the resources based on relevant incident phase and type of information. The DSS framework provides a much needed structure based on contemporary decision analysis principles for 1) documenting key questions for EMO problem formulation and 2) a method for systematically organizing, screening, and prioritizing information resources on dermal hazards, exposures, risk characterization, and management.

  13. A framework for the decentralised management of wastewater in Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhapi, Innocent

    The traditional wastewater management style is now presenting some problems, having evolved from a situation of small communities, little industrial activities, and abundance of freshwater. The style is characterized by high water consumption and large treatment plants that employ sophisticated treatment systems with final effluent discharged to rivers. This paper focuses on analysis and development of an alternative strategy of decentralised wastewater management in Zimbabwe. Serious pollution problems related to inappropriate effluent discharges are prevalent necessitating an efficient and reliable strategy of controlling environmental pollution whilst obtaining optimal benefits from wastewater reuse. A conceptual plan for the decentralised strategy was developed taking into account capital and operational costs, wastewater generation patterns and quality, and urban agriculture. Maize cultivation was used to illustrate the implications of water and nutrient utilisation potential of the strategy. It was concluded that the strategy would suit high and medium density dwellings in Zimbabwe and that greywater separation can be used as part of the strategy.

  14. An Operational Framework for Insecticide Resistance Management Planning

    PubMed Central

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Thomsen, Edward K.; Musapa, Mulenga; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Brogdon, William G.; Norris, Douglas E.; Masaninga, Freddie; Wirtz, Robert; Sikaala, Chadwick H.; Muleba, Mbanga; Craig, Allen; Govere, John M.; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet; Seyoum, Aklilu; Macdonald, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Arthropod vectors transmit organisms that cause many emerging and reemerging diseases, and their control is reliant mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. Only a few classes of insecticides are available for public health use, and the increased spread of insecticide resistance is a major threat to sustainable disease control. The primary strategy for mitigating the detrimental effects of insecticide resistance is the development of an insecticide resistance management plan. However, few examples exist to show how to implement such plans programmatically. We describe the formulation and implementation of a resistance management plan for mosquito vectors of human disease in Zambia. We also discuss challenges, steps taken to address the challenges, and directions for the future. PMID:27089119

  15. A Framework for Global Collaborative Data Management for Malaria Research.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Juan B; Harb, Omar S; Zheng, Jie; Tisch, Daniel J; Charlebois, Edwin D; Stoeckert, Christian J; Sullivan, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    Data generated during the course of research activities carried out by the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) is heterogeneous, large, and multi-scaled. The complexity of federated and global data operations and the diverse uses planned for the data pose tremendous challenges and opportunities for collaborative research. In this article, we present the foundational principles for data management across the ICEMR Program, the logistics associated with multiple aspects of the data life cycle, and describe a pilot centralized web information system created in PlasmoDB to query a subset of this data. The paradigm proposed as a solution for the data operations in the ICEMR Program is widely applicable to large, multifaceted research projects, and could be reproduced in other contexts that require sophisticated data management.

  16. An Operational Framework for Insecticide Resistance Management Planning.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Thomsen, Edward K; Musapa, Mulenga; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Brogdon, William G; Norris, Douglas E; Masaninga, Freddie; Wirtz, Robert; Sikaala, Chadwick H; Muleba, Mbanga; Craig, Allen; Govere, John M; Ranson, Hilary; Hemingway, Janet; Seyoum, Aklilu; Macdonald, Michael B; Coleman, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Arthropod vectors transmit organisms that cause many emerging and reemerging diseases, and their control is reliant mainly on the use of chemical insecticides. Only a few classes of insecticides are available for public health use, and the increased spread of insecticide resistance is a major threat to sustainable disease control. The primary strategy for mitigating the detrimental effects of insecticide resistance is the development of an insecticide resistance management plan. However, few examples exist to show how to implement such plans programmatically. We describe the formulation and implementation of a resistance management plan for mosquito vectors of human disease in Zambia. We also discuss challenges, steps taken to address the challenges, and directions for the future.

  17. A Framework for Global Collaborative Data Management for Malaria Research

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, Juan B.; Harb, Omar S.; Zheng, Jie; Tisch, Daniel J.; Charlebois, Edwin D.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Sullivan, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Data generated during the course of research activities carried out by the International Centers of Excellence for Malaria Research (ICEMR) is heterogeneous, large, and multi-scaled. The complexity of federated and global data operations and the diverse uses planned for the data pose tremendous challenges and opportunities for collaborative research. In this article, we present the foundational principles for data management across the ICEMR Program, the logistics associated with multiple aspects of the data life cycle, and describe a pilot centralized web information system created in PlasmoDB to query a subset of this data. The paradigm proposed as a solution for the data operations in the ICEMR Program is widely applicable to large, multifaceted research projects, and could be reproduced in other contexts that require sophisticated data management. PMID:26259944

  18. A Uniform Framework of Global Nuclear Materials Management

    SciTech Connect

    Dupree, S.A.; Mangan, D.L.; Sanders, T.L; Sellers, T.A.

    1999-04-20

    Global Nuclear Materials Management (GNMM) anticipates and supports a growing international recognition of the importance of uniform, effective management of civilian, excess defense, and nuclear weapons materials. We expect thereto be a continuing increase in both the number of international agreements and conventions on safety, security, and transparency of nuclear materials, and the number of U.S.-Russian agreements for the safety, protection, and transparency of weapons and excess defense materials. This inventory of agreements and conventions may soon expand into broad, mandatory, international programs that will include provisions for inspection, verification, and transparency, To meet such demand the community must build on the resources we have, including State agencies, the IAEA and regional organizations. By these measures we will meet the future expectations for monitoring and inspection of materials, maintenance of safety and security, and implementation of transparency measures.

  19. Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: unravelling local adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Descheemaeker, K.; Giller, K. E.; Huising, J.; Merckx, R.; Nziguheba, G.; Wendt, J.; Zingore, S.

    2014-12-01

    Intensification of smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is necessary to address rural poverty and natural resource degradation. Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) is a means to enhance crop productivity while maximizing the agronomic efficiency (AE) of applied inputs, and can thus contribute to sustainable intensification. ISFM consists of a set of best practices, preferably used in combination, including the use of appropriate germplasm, the appropriate use of fertilizer and of organic resources, and good agronomic practices. The large variability in soil fertility conditions within smallholder farms is also recognised within ISFM, including soils with constraints beyond those addressed by fertilizer and organic inputs. The variable biophysical environments that characterize smallholder farming systems have profound effects on crop productivity and AE and targeted application of limited agro-inputs and management practices is necessary to enhance AE. Further, management decisions depend on the farmer's resource endowments and production objectives. In this paper we discuss the "local adaptation" component of ISFM and how this can be conceptualized within an ISFM framework, backstopped by analysis of AE at plot and farm level. At plot level, a set of four constraints to maximum AE is discussed in relation to "local adaptation": soil acidity, secondary nutrient and micro-nutrient (SMN) deficiencies, physical constraints, and drought stress. In each of these cases, examples are presented whereby amendments and/or practices addressing these have a significantly positive impact on fertilizer AE, including mechanistic principles underlying these effects. While the impact of such amendments and/or practices is easily understood for some practices (e.g., the application of SMNs where these are limiting), for others, more complex interactions with fertilizer AE can be identified (e.g., water harvesting under varying rainfall conditions). At farm scale

  20. Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: unravelling local adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Descheemaeker, K.; Giller, K. E.; Huising, J.; Merckx, R.; Nziguheba, G.; Wendt, J.; Zingore, S.

    2015-06-01

    Intensification of smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is necessary to address rural poverty and natural resource degradation. Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) is a means to enhance crop productivity while maximizing the agronomic efficiency (AE) of applied inputs, and can thus contribute to sustainable intensification. ISFM consists of a set of best practices, preferably used in combination, including the use of appropriate germplasm, the appropriate use of fertilizer and of organic resources, and good agronomic practices. The large variability in soil fertility conditions within smallholder farms is also recognized within ISFM, including soils with constraints beyond those addressed by fertilizer and organic inputs. The variable biophysical environments that characterize smallholder farming systems have profound effects on crop productivity and AE, and targeted application of agro-inputs and management practices is necessary to enhance AE. Further, management decisions depend on the farmer's resource endowments and production objectives. In this paper we discuss the "local adaptation" component of ISFM and how this can be conceptualized within an ISFM framework, backstopped by analysis of AE at plot and farm level. At plot level, a set of four constraints to maximum AE is discussed in relation to "local adaptation": soil acidity, secondary nutrient and micronutrient (SMN) deficiencies, physical constraints, and drought stress. In each of these cases, examples are presented whereby amendments and/or practices addressing these have a significantly positive impact on fertilizer AE, including mechanistic principles underlying these effects. While the impact of such amendments and/or practices is easily understood for some practices (e.g. the application of SMNs where these are limiting), for others, more complex processes influence AE (e.g. water harvesting under varying rainfall conditions). At farm scale, adjusting fertilizer applications to