Science.gov

Sample records for adaptive management process

  1. Adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  2. Adaptive Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive managem...

  3. Adaptive management: Chapter 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management where knowledge is incomplete, and when, despite inherent uncertainty, managers and policymakers must act. Unlike a traditional trial and error approach, adaptive management has explicit structure, including a careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. The process is iterative, and serves to reduce uncertainty, build knowledge and improve management over time in a goal-oriented and structured process.

  4. Adaptive Management of Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management. As such, management may be treated as experiment, with replication, or management may be conducted in an iterative manner. Although the concept has resonated with many...

  5. Planning an adaptive management process for biodiversity conservation and resource development in the Camisea River Basin.

    PubMed

    Dallmeier, Francisco; Alonso, Alfonso; Jones, Murray

    2002-05-01

    The Smithsonian Institution's Monitoring and Assessment of Biodiversity Program joined Shell Prospecting and Development Peru (SPDP) to protect biodiversity during a natural gas exploration project. Emphasis was on long-term societal and environmental benefits in addition to financial gain for the company. The systematic, cyclical adaptive management process was used to generate feedback for SPDP managers. Adaptive management enables ongoing improvement of management policies and practices based on lessons learned from operational activities. Previous to this study, very little information about the local biodiversity was available. Over a 2-year period, the team conducted biological assessments of six taxonomic groups at five sites located within 600 km2. A broad range of management options such as location, timing and technology were developed from the beginning of the project. They were considered in conjunction with emerging lessons from the biodiversity assessments. Critical decisions included location of a gas plant and the cost of helicopter access versus roads to service the full field development. Both of these decisions were evaluated to ensure that they were economically and environmentally feasible. Project design changes, addressed in the planning stage, were accepted once consensus was achieved. Stakeholders were apprised of the implications of the baseline biodiversity assessments.

  6. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management. Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adapta...

  7. Adapting Semantic Natural Language Processing Technology to Address Information Overload in Influenza Epidemic Management

    PubMed Central

    Keselman, Alla; Rosemblat, Graciela; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Jin, Honglan; Shin, Dongwook; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Explosion of disaster health information results in information overload among response professionals. The objective of this project was to determine the feasibility of applying semantic natural language processing (NLP) technology to addressing this overload. The project characterizes concepts and relationships commonly used in disaster health-related documents on influenza pandemics, as the basis for adapting an existing semantic summarizer to the domain. Methods include human review and semantic NLP analysis of a set of relevant documents. This is followed by a pilot-test in which two information specialists use the adapted application for a realistic information seeking task. According to the results, the ontology of influenza epidemics management can be described via a manageable number of semantic relationships that involve concepts from a limited number of semantic types. Test users demonstrate several ways to engage with the application to obtain useful information. This suggests that existing semantic NLP algorithms can be adapted to support information summarization and visualization in influenza epidemics and other disaster health areas. However, additional research is needed in the areas of terminology development (as many relevant relationships and terms are not part of existing standardized vocabularies), NLP, and user interface design. PMID:24311971

  8. An Evolving Simulation/Gaming Process to Facilitate Adaptive Watershed Management in Northern Mountainous Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaud, Cecile; Promburom, Tanya; Trebuil, Guy; Bousquet, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The decentralization of natural resource management provides an opportunity for communities to increase their participation in related decision making. Research should propose adapted methodologies enabling the numerous stakeholders of these complex socioecological settings to define their problems and identify agreed-on solutions. This article…

  9. Hydropower, Adaptive Management, and Biodiversity

    PubMed

    WIERINGA; MORTON

    1996-11-01

    / Adaptive management is a policy framework within which an iterative process of decision making is followed based on the observed responses to and effectiveness of previous decisions. The use of adaptive management allows science-based research and monitoring of natural resource and ecological community responses, in conjunction with societal values and goals, to guide decisions concerning man's activities. The adaptive management process has been proposed for application to hydropower operations at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, a situation that requires complex balancing of natural resources requirements and competing human uses. This example is representative of the general increase in public interest in the operation of hydropower facilities and possible effects on downstream natural resources and of the growing conflicts between uses and users of river-based resources. This paper describes the adaptive management process, using the Glen Canyon Dam example, and discusses ways to make the process work effectively in managing downstream natural resources and biodiversity. KEY WORDS: Adaptive management; Biodiversity; Hydropower; Glen Canyon Dam; Ecology

  10. Adaptation and risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.

  11. Hydropower, adaptive management, and biodiversity

    SciTech Connect

    Wieringa, M.J.; Morton, A.G.

    1996-11-01

    Adaptive management is a policy framework within which an iterative process of decision making is allowed based on the observed responses to and effectiveness of previous decisions. The use of adaptive management allows science-based research and monitoring of natural resource and ecological community responses, in conjunction with societal values and goals, to guide decisions concerning man`s activities. The adaptive management process has been proposed for application to hydropower operations at Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, a situation that requires complex balancing of natural resources requirements and competing human uses. This example is representative of the general increase in public interest in the operation of hydropower facilities and possible effects on downstream natural resources and of the growing conflicts between uses and users of river-based resources. This paper describes the adaptive management process, using the Glen Canyon Dam example, and discusses ways to make the process work effectively in managing downstream natural resources and biodiversity. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Adaptive management: Promises and pitfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLain, Rebecca J.; Lee, Robert G.

    1996-07-01

    Proponents of the scientific adaptive management approach argue that it increases knowledge acquisition rates, enhances information flow among policy actors, and provides opportunities for creating shared understandings. However, evidence from efforts to implement the approach in New Brunswick, British Columbia, Canada, and the Columbia River Basin indicates that these promises have not been met. The data show that scientific adaptive management relies excessively on the use of linear systems models, discounts nonscientific forms of knowledge, and pays inadequate attention to policy processes that promote the development of shared understandings among diverse stakeholders. To be effective, new adaptive management efforts will need to incorporate knowledge from multiple sources, make use of multiple systems models, and support new forms of cooperation among stakeholders.

  13. Adaptive management of urban watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmestani, A.; Shuster, W.; Green, O. O.

    2013-12-01

    Consent decree settlements for violations of the Clean Water Act (1972) increasingly include provisions for redress of combined sewer overflow activity through hybrid approaches that incorporate the best of both gray (e.g., storage tunnels) and green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens). Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to improve environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that can help regulated communities achieve environmental quality objectives. We are using an adaptive management approach to guide a green infrastructure retrofit of a neighborhood in the Slavic Village Development Corporation area (Cleveland, Ohio). We are in the process of gathering hydrologic and ecosystem services data and will use this data as a basis for collaboration with area citizens on a plan to use green infrastructure to contain stormflows. Monitoring data provides researchers with feedback on the impact of green infrastructure implementation and suggest where improvements can be made.

  14. A holistic strategy for adaptive land management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrick, Jeffrey E.; Duniway, Michael C.; Pyke, David A.; Bestelmeyer, Brandon T.; Wills, Skye A.; Brown, Joel R.; Karl, Jason W.; Havstad, Kris M.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management is widely applied to natural resources management (Holling 1973; Walters and Holling 1990). Adaptive management can be generally defined as an iterative decision-making process that incorporates formulation of management objectives, actions designed to address these objectives, monitoring of results, and repeated adaptation of management until desired results are achieved (Brown and MacLeod 1996; Savory and Butterfield 1999). However, adaptive management is often criticized because very few projects ever complete more than one cycle, resulting in little adaptation and little knowledge gain (Lee 1999; Walters 2007). One significant criticism is that adaptive management is often used as a justification for undertaking actions with uncertain outcomes or as a surrogate for the development of specific, measurable indicators and monitoring programs (Lee 1999; Ruhl 2007).

  15. Adaptive passive fathometer processing.

    PubMed

    Siderius, Martin; Song, Heechun; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S; Hursky, Paul; Harrison, Chris

    2010-04-01

    Recently, a technique has been developed to image seabed layers using the ocean ambient noise field as the sound source. This so called passive fathometer technique exploits the naturally occurring acoustic sounds generated on the sea-surface, primarily from breaking waves. The method is based on the cross-correlation of noise from the ocean surface with its echo from the seabed, which recovers travel times to significant seabed reflectors. To limit averaging time and make this practical, beamforming is used with a vertical array of hydrophones to reduce interference from horizontally propagating noise. The initial development used conventional beamforming, but significant improvements have been realized using adaptive techniques. In this paper, adaptive methods for this process are described and applied to several data sets to demonstrate improvements possible as compared to conventional processing.

  16. Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parliament, Hugh A.

    1991-09-01

    The design and implementation of a system for the acquisition, processing, and analysis of signal data is described. The initial application for the system is the development and analysis of algorithms for excision of interfering tones from direct sequence spread spectrum communication systems. The system is called the Adaptive Signal Processing Testbed (ASPT) and is an integrated hardware and software system built around the TMS320C30 chip. The hardware consists of a radio frequency data source, digital receiver, and an adaptive signal processor implemented on a Sun workstation. The software components of the ASPT consists of a number of packages including the Sun driver package; UNIX programs that support software development on the TMS320C30 boards; UNIX programs that provide the control, user interaction, and display capabilities for the data acquisition, processing, and analysis components of the ASPT; and programs that perform the ASPT functions including data acquisition, despreading, and adaptive filtering. The performance of the ASPT system is evaluated by comparing actual data rates against their desired values. A number of system limitations are identified and recommendations are made for improvements.

  17. Process-based quality management for clinical implementation of adaptive radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Camille E.; Santanam, Lakshmi; Parikh, Parag J.; Mutic, Sasa

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated adaptive radiotherapy (ART) has been the focus of considerable research and developmental work due to its potential therapeutic benefits. However, in light of its unique quality assurance (QA) challenges, no one has described a robust framework for its clinical implementation. In fact, recent position papers by ASTRO and AAPM have firmly endorsed pretreatment patient-specific IMRT QA, which limits the feasibility of online ART. The authors aim to address these obstacles by applying failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) to identify high-priority errors and appropriate risk-mitigation strategies for clinical implementation of intensity-modulated ART. Methods: An experienced team of two clinical medical physicists, one clinical engineer, and one radiation oncologist was assembled to perform a standard FMEA for intensity-modulated ART. A set of 216 potential radiotherapy failures composed by the forthcoming AAPM task group 100 (TG-100) was used as the basis. Of the 216 failures, 127 were identified as most relevant to an ART scheme. Using the associated TG-100 FMEA values as a baseline, the team considered how the likeliness of occurrence (O), outcome severity (S), and likeliness of failure being undetected (D) would change for ART. New risk priority numbers (RPN) were calculated. Failures characterized by RPN ≥ 200 were identified as potentially critical. Results: FMEA revealed that ART RPN increased for 38% (n = 48/127) of potential failures, with 75% (n = 36/48) attributed to failures in the segmentation and treatment planning processes. Forty-three of 127 failures were identified as potentially critical. Risk-mitigation strategies include implementing a suite of quality control and decision support software, specialty QA software/hardware tools, and an increase in specially trained personnel. Conclusions: Results of the FMEA-based risk assessment demonstrate that intensity-modulated ART introduces different (but not necessarily

  18. Multimodel inference and adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehme, S.E.; Powell, L.A.; Allen, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Ecology is an inherently complex science coping with correlated variables, nonlinear interactions and multiple scales of pattern and process, making it difficult for experiments to result in clear, strong inference. Natural resource managers, policy makers, and stakeholders rely on science to provide timely and accurate management recommendations. However, the time necessary to untangle the complexities of interactions within ecosystems is often far greater than the time available to make management decisions. One method of coping with this problem is multimodel inference. Multimodel inference assesses uncertainty by calculating likelihoods among multiple competing hypotheses, but multimodel inference results are often equivocal. Despite this, there may be pressure for ecologists to provide management recommendations regardless of the strength of their study’s inference. We reviewed papers in the Journal of Wildlife Management (JWM) and the journal Conservation Biology (CB) to quantify the prevalence of multimodel inference approaches, the resulting inference (weak versus strong), and how authors dealt with the uncertainty. Thirty-eight percent and 14%, respectively, of articles in the JWM and CB used multimodel inference approaches. Strong inference was rarely observed, with only 7% of JWM and 20% of CB articles resulting in strong inference. We found the majority of weak inference papers in both journals (59%) gave specific management recommendations. Model selection uncertainty was ignored in most recommendations for management. We suggest that adaptive management is an ideal method to resolve uncertainty when research results in weak inference.

  19. Adaptive Management for Urban Watersheds: The Slavic Village Pilot Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an environmental management strategy that uses an iterative process of decision-making to reduce the uncertainty in environmental management via system monitoring. A central tenet of adaptive management is that management involves a learning process that ca...

  20. Adaptive processing for LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, R. B.; Reyer, J. F.

    1975-01-01

    Analytical and test results on the use of adaptive processing on LANDSAT data are presented. The Kalman filter was used as a framework to contain different adapting techniques. When LANDSAT MSS data were used all of the modifications made to the Kalman filter performed the functions for which they were designed. It was found that adaptive processing could provide compensation for incorrect signature means, within limits. However, if the data were such that poor classification accuracy would be obtained when the correct means were used, then adaptive processing would not improve the accuracy and might well lower it even further.

  1. Adaptive management of natural resources-framework and issues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management, an approach for simultaneously managing and learning about natural resources, has been around for several decades. Interest in adaptive decision making has grown steadily over that time, and by now many in natural resources conservation claim that adaptive management is the approach they use in meeting their resource management responsibilities. Yet there remains considerable ambiguity about what adaptive management actually is, and how it is to be implemented by practitioners. The objective of this paper is to present a framework and conditions for adaptive decision making, and discuss some important challenges in its application. Adaptive management is described as a two-phase process of deliberative and iterative phases, which are implemented sequentially over the timeframe of an application. Key elements, processes, and issues in adaptive decision making are highlighted in terms of this framework. Special emphasis is given to the question of geographic scale, the difficulties presented by non-stationarity, and organizational challenges in implementing adaptive management. ?? 2010.

  2. Adaptive management of watersheds and related resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of learning about natural resources through the practice of management has been around for several decades and by now is associated with the term adaptive management. The objectives of this paper are to offer a framework for adaptive management that includes an operational definition, a description of conditions in which it can be usefully applied, and a systematic approach to its application. Adaptive decisionmaking is described as iterative, learning-based management in two phases, each with its own mechanisms for feedback and adaptation. The linkages between traditional experimental science and adaptive management are discussed.

  3. Adaptive processing for enhanced target acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Scott F.; Smith, Moira I.; Hickman, Duncan; Bernhardt, Mark; Oxford, William; Watson, Norman; Beath, F.

    2009-05-01

    Conventional air-to-ground target acquisition processes treat the image stream in isolation from external data sources. This ignores information that may be available through modern mission management systems which could be fused into the detection process in order to provide enhanced performance. By way of an example relating to target detection, this paper explores the use of a-priori knowledge and other sensor information in an adaptive architecture with the aim of enhancing performance in decision making. The approach taken here is to use knowledge of target size, terrain elevation, sensor geometry, solar geometry and atmospheric conditions to characterise the expected spatial and radiometric characteristics of a target in terms of probability density functions. An important consideration in the construction of the target probability density functions are the known errors in the a-priori knowledge. Potential targets are identified in the imagery and their spatial and expected radiometric characteristics are used to compute the target likelihood. The adaptive architecture is evaluated alongside a conventional non-adaptive algorithm using synthetic imagery representative of an air-to-ground target acquisition scenario. Lastly, future enhancements to the adaptive scheme are discussed as well as strategies for managing poor quality or absent a-priori information.

  4. Adaptable data management for systems biology investigations

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, John; Rovira, Hector; Cavnor, Chris; Burdick, David; Killcoyne, Sarah; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    Background Within research each experiment is different, the focus changes and the data is generated from a continually evolving barrage of technologies. There is a continual introduction of new techniques whose usage ranges from in-house protocols through to high-throughput instrumentation. To support these requirements data management systems are needed that can be rapidly built and readily adapted for new usage. Results The adaptable data management system discussed is designed to support the seamless mining and analysis of biological experiment data that is commonly used in systems biology (e.g. ChIP-chip, gene expression, proteomics, imaging, flow cytometry). We use different content graphs to represent different views upon the data. These views are designed for different roles: equipment specific views are used to gather instrumentation information; data processing oriented views are provided to enable the rapid development of analysis applications; and research project specific views are used to organize information for individual research experiments. This management system allows for both the rapid introduction of new types of information and the evolution of the knowledge it represents. Conclusion Data management is an important aspect of any research enterprise. It is the foundation on which most applications are built, and must be easily extended to serve new functionality for new scientific areas. We have found that adopting a three-tier architecture for data management, built around distributed standardized content repositories, allows us to rapidly develop new applications to support a diverse user community. PMID:19265554

  5. Study Of Adaptive-Array Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satorius, Edgar H.; Griffiths, Lloyd

    1990-01-01

    Report describes study of adaptive signal-processing techniques for suppression of mutual satellite interference in mobile (on ground)/satellite communication system. Presents analyses and numerical simulations of performances of two approaches to signal processing for suppression of interference. One approach, known as "adaptive side lobe canceling", second called "adaptive temporal processing".

  6. Adaptive management for a turbulent future.

    PubMed

    Allen, Craig R; Fontaine, Joseph J; Pope, Kevin L; Garmestani, Ahjond S

    2011-05-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  7. Adaptive management for a turbulent future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, C.R.; Fontaine, J.J.; Pope, K.L.; Garmestani, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  8. Adaptive Management for a Turbulent Future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Pope, Kevin L.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.

    2011-01-01

    The challenges that face humanity today differ from the past because as the scale of human influence has increased, our biggest challenges have become global in nature, and formerly local problems that could be addressed by shifting populations or switching resources, now aggregate (i.e., "scale up") limiting potential management options. Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that emphasizes learning through management based on the philosophy that knowledge is incomplete and much of what we think we know is actually wrong. Adaptive management has explicit structure, including careful elucidation of goals, identification of alternative management objectives and hypotheses of causation, and procedures for the collection of data followed by evaluation and reiteration. It is evident that adaptive management has matured, but it has also reached a crossroads. Practitioners and scientists have developed adaptive management and structured decision making techniques, and mathematicians have developed methods to reduce the uncertainties encountered in resource management, yet there continues to be misapplication of the method and misunderstanding of its purpose. Ironically, the confusion over the term "adaptive management" may stem from the flexibility inherent in the approach, which has resulted in multiple interpretations of "adaptive management" that fall along a continuum of complexity and a priori design. Adaptive management is not a panacea for the navigation of 'wicked problems' as it does not produce easy answers, and is only appropriate in a subset of natural resource management problems where both uncertainty and controllability are high. Nonetheless, the conceptual underpinnings of adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex social-ecological systems, but management decisions must still be made, and whenever possible, we should incorporate

  9. 50 CFR 218.241 - Adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adaptive management. 218.241 Section 218.241 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Low Frequency Active (SURTASS LFA) Sonar § 218.241 Adaptive management. NMFS may modify...

  10. Is adaptive co-management ethical?

    PubMed

    Fennell, David; Plummer, Ryan; Marschke, Melissa

    2008-07-01

    'Good' governance and adaptive co-management hold broad appeal due to their positive connotations and 'noble ethical claims'. This paper poses a fundamental question: is adaptive co-management ethical? In pursuing an answer to this question, the concept of adaptive co-management is succinctly summarized and three ethical perspectives (deontology, teleology and existentialism) are explored. The case of adaptive co-management in Cambodia is described and subsequently considered through the lens of ethical triangulation. The case illuminates important ethical considerations and directs attention towards the need for meditative thinking which increases the value of tradition, ecology, and culture. Giving ethics a central position makes clear the potential for adaptive co-management to be an agent for governance, which is good, right and authentic as well as an arena to embrace uncertainty. PMID:17391840

  11. Is adaptive co-management ethical?

    PubMed

    Fennell, David; Plummer, Ryan; Marschke, Melissa

    2008-07-01

    'Good' governance and adaptive co-management hold broad appeal due to their positive connotations and 'noble ethical claims'. This paper poses a fundamental question: is adaptive co-management ethical? In pursuing an answer to this question, the concept of adaptive co-management is succinctly summarized and three ethical perspectives (deontology, teleology and existentialism) are explored. The case of adaptive co-management in Cambodia is described and subsequently considered through the lens of ethical triangulation. The case illuminates important ethical considerations and directs attention towards the need for meditative thinking which increases the value of tradition, ecology, and culture. Giving ethics a central position makes clear the potential for adaptive co-management to be an agent for governance, which is good, right and authentic as well as an arena to embrace uncertainty.

  12. Adaptive Delta Management: cultural aspects of dealing with uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Jos; Haasnoot, Marjolijn; Hermans, Leon; Kwakkel, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Hofstede's (1983) cultural dimensions, of which uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation are of particular relevance for our analysis. Our conclusions comment on the suitability of approaches in Adaptive Delta Management rooted in different management theories are more suitable for specific delta countries than others. The most striking conclusion is the unsuitability of rational policy analytic approaches for The Netherlands. Although surprising this conclusion finds some support in the process dominated approach taken in the Dutch Delta Program. In addition, the divergence between Vietnam, Bangladesh and Myanmar, all located in South East Asia, is striking. References Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of international business studies, 75-89. Jos Timmermans, Marjolijn Haasnoot, Leon Hermans, Jan Kwakkel, Martine Rutten and Wil Thissen (2015). Adaptive Delta Management: Roots and Branches, IAHR The Hague 2015.

  13. A roadmap for climate change adaptation in Sweden's forests: addressing wicked problems using adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, L.; Felton, A.; Samuelsson, L.; Marald, E.; Karlsson, B.; Johansson, U.; Rosvall, O.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems. Forests will have to adapt not only to changes in mean climate variables but also to increased climatic variability and altered disturbance regimes. Rates of change will likely exceed many forests capabilities to naturally adapt and many of today's trees will be exposed to the climates of 2090. In Sweden the effects are already being seen and more severe impacts are expected in the future. Exacerbating the challenge posed by climate change, a large proportion of Sweden's forests are, as a consequence of dominant production goals, greatly simplified and thus potentially more vulnerable to the uncertainties and risks associated with climate change. This simplification also confers reduced adaptive capacity to respond to potential impacts. Furthermore, many adaptation measures themselves carry uncertainties and risks. Future changes and effects are thus uncertain, yet forest managers, policymakers, scientists and other stakeholders must act. Strategies that build social and ecological resilience in the face of multiple interacting unknowns and surprises are needed. Adaptive management aims to collect and integrate knowledge about how a managed system is likely to respond to alternative management schemes and changing environmental conditions within a continuous decision process. There have been suggestions that adaptive management is not well suited to the large complex uncertainties associated with climate change and associated adaptation measures. However, more recently it has been suggested that adaptive management can handle such wicked problems, given adequate resources and a suitable breakdown of the targeted uncertainties. Here we test this hypothesis by evaluating how an adaptive management process could be used to manage the uncertainties and risks associated with securing resilient, biodiverse and productive forests in Sweden in the face of climate change. We

  14. An adaptive watershed management assessment based on watershed investigation data.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  15. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Dulen, Deanna M.; Ebersole, Joseph L.; Jackson, Stephen T.; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Millar, Constance I.; Maher, Sean P.; Monahan, William B.; Nydick, Koren R.; Redmond, Kelly T.; Sawyer, Sarah C.; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change. PMID:27509088

  16. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Dulen, Deanna M; Ebersole, Joseph L; Jackson, Stephen T; Lundquist, Jessica D; Millar, Constance I; Maher, Sean P; Monahan, William B; Nydick, Koren R; Redmond, Kelly T; Sawyer, Sarah C; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change. PMID:27509088

  17. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Climate Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Daly, Christopher; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Dulen, Deanna M; Ebersole, Joseph L; Jackson, Stephen T; Lundquist, Jessica D; Millar, Constance I; Maher, Sean P; Monahan, William B; Nydick, Koren R; Redmond, Kelly T; Sawyer, Sarah C; Stock, Sarah; Beissinger, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Refugia have long been studied from paleontological and biogeographical perspectives to understand how populations persisted during past periods of unfavorable climate. Recently, researchers have applied the idea to contemporary landscapes to identify climate change refugia, here defined as areas relatively buffered from contemporary climate change over time that enable persistence of valued physical, ecological, and socio-cultural resources. We differentiate historical and contemporary views, and characterize physical and ecological processes that create and maintain climate change refugia. We then delineate how refugia can fit into existing decision support frameworks for climate adaptation and describe seven steps for managing them. Finally, we identify challenges and opportunities for operationalizing the concept of climate change refugia. Managing climate change refugia can be an important option for conservation in the face of ongoing climate change.

  18. Reducing uncertainty about objective functions in adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends the uncertainty framework of adaptive management to include uncertainty about the objectives to be used in guiding decisions. Adaptive decision making typically assumes explicit and agreed-upon objectives for management, but allows for uncertainty as to the structure of the decision process that generates change through time. Yet it is not unusual for there to be uncertainty (or disagreement) about objectives, with different stakeholders expressing different views not only about resource responses to management but also about the appropriate management objectives. In this paper I extend the treatment of uncertainty in adaptive management, and describe a stochastic structure for the joint occurrence of uncertainty about objectives as well as models, and show how adaptive decision making and the assessment of post-decision monitoring data can be used to reduce uncertainties of both kinds. Different degrees of association between model and objective uncertainty lead to different patterns of learning about objectives. ?? 2011.

  19. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management.

    PubMed

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of 'knowledge work' and Westley's (2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers-'managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics-scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the 'doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

  20. Decision-making triggers in adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Nie, Martin A; Schultz, Courtney A

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed whether decision-making triggers increase accountability of adaptive-management plans. Triggers are prenegotiated commitments in an adaptive-management plan that specify what actions are to be taken and when on the basis of information obtained from monitoring. Triggers improve certainty that particular actions will be taken by agencies in the future. We conducted an in-depth, qualitative review of the political and legal contexts of adaptive management and its application by U.S. federal agencies. Agencies must satisfy the judiciary that adaptive-management plans meet substantive legal standards and comply with the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act. We examined 3 cases in which triggers were used in adaptive-management plans: salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River, oil and gas development by the Bureau of Land Management, and a habitat conservation plan under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In all the cases, key aspects of adaptive management, including controls and preidentified feedback loops, were not incorporated in the plans. Monitoring and triggered mitigation actions were limited in their enforceability, which was contingent on several factors, including which laws applied in each case and the degree of specificity in how triggers were written into plans. Other controversial aspects of these plans revolved around who designed, conducted, interpreted, and funded monitoring programs. Additional contentious issues were the level of precaution associated with trigger mechanisms and the definition of ecological baselines used as points of comparison. Despite these challenges, triggers can be used to increase accountability, by predefining points at which an adaptive management plan will be revisited and reevaluated, and thus improve the application of adaptive management in its complicated political and legal context. PMID:22891956

  1. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2001-12-20

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenancewithin the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior isinherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptivemanagement, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science isneeded.

  2. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of `knowledge work' and Westley's 2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers—`managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics—scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the `doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

  3. Protocol and practice in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, F.; Williams, K.

    1999-01-01

    Waterfowl harvest management in North America, for all its success, historically has had several shortcomings, including a lack of well-defined objectives, a failure to account for uncertain management outcomes, and inefficient use of harvest regulations to understand the effects of management. To address these and other concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service began implementation of adaptive harvest management in 1995. Harvest policies are now developed using a Markov decision process in which there is an explicit accounting for uncontrolled environmental variation, partial controllability of harvest, and structural uncertainty in waterfowl population dynamics. Current policies are passively adaptive, in the sense that any reduction in structural uncertainty is an unplanned by-product of the regulatory process. A generalization of the Markov decision process permits the calculation of optimal actively adaptive policies, but it is not yet clear how state-specific harvest actions differ between passive and active approaches. The Markov decision process also provides managers the ability to explore optimal levels of aggregation or "management scale" for regulating harvests in a system that exhibits high temporal, spatial, and organizational variability. Progress in institutionalizing adaptive harvest management has been remarkable, but some managers still perceive the process as a panacea, while failing to appreciate the challenges presented by this more explicit and methodical approach to harvest regulation. Technical hurdles include the need to develop better linkages between population processes and the dynamics of landscapes, and to model the dynamics of structural uncertainty in a more comprehensive fashion. From an institutional perspective, agreement on how to value and allocate harvests continues to be elusive, and there is some evidence that waterfowl managers have overestimated the importance of achievement-oriented factors in setting hunting

  4. Adaptive grazing management experiment: The new frontier of grazing management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Adaptive Grazing Management experiment at the USDA-ARS Central Plains Experimental Range addresses important gaps in our current understanding of grazing management including: 1) lack of management-science partnerships to more fully understand the effect of management decisions, 2) need for mana...

  5. Engaging stakeholders for adaptive management using structured decision analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Elise R.; Kathryn, D.; Kennedy, Mickett

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive management is different from other types of management in that it includes all stakeholders (versus only policy makers) in the process, uses resource optimization techniques to evaluate competing objectives, and recognizes and attempts to reduce uncertainty inherent in natural resource systems. Management actions are negotiated by stakeholders, monitored results are compared to predictions of how the system should respond, and management strategies are adjusted in a “monitor-compare-adjust” iterative routine. Many adaptive management projects fail because of the lack of stakeholder identification, engagement, and continued involvement. Primary reasons for this vary but are usually related to either stakeholders not having ownership (or representation) in decision processes or disenfranchisement of stakeholders after adaptive management begins. We present an example in which stakeholders participated fully in adaptive management of a southeastern regulated river. Structured decision analysis was used to define management objectives and stakeholder values and to determine initial flow prescriptions. The process was transparent, and the visual nature of the modeling software allowed stakeholders to see how their interests and values were represented in the decision process. The development of a stakeholder governance structure and communication mechanism has been critical to the success of the project.

  6. Investigations in adaptive processing of multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Horwitz, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    Adaptive data processing procedures are applied to the problem of classifying objects in a scene scanned by multispectral sensor. These procedures show a performance improvement over standard nonadaptive techniques. Some sources of error in classification are identified and those correctable by adaptive processing are discussed. Experiments in adaptation of signature means by decision-directed methods are described. Some of these methods assume correlation between the trajectories of different signature means; for others this assumption is not made.

  7. An adaptive signal-processing approach to online adaptive tutoring.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Bryan; Cline, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Conventional intelligent or adaptive tutoring online systems rely on domain-specific models of learner behavior based on rules, deep domain knowledge, and other resource-intensive methods. We have developed and studied a domain-independent methodology of adaptive tutoring based on domain-independent signal-processing approaches that obviate the need for the construction of explicit expert and student models. A key advantage of our method over conventional approaches is a lower barrier to entry for educators who want to develop adaptive online learning materials.

  8. Everglades Collaborative Adaptive Management Program Progress

    EPA Science Inventory

    When the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) was authorized in 2000, adaptive management (AM) was recognized as a necessary tool to address uncertainty in achieving the broad goals and objectives for restoring a highly managed system. The Everglades covers18,000 squ...

  9. Photoreceptor processes in visual adaptation.

    PubMed

    Ripps, H; Pepperberg, D R

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we have stressed two experimental results in need of explanation: (i) the reduced efficacy with which (remaining, abundant) rhodopsin in the light-adapted receptor mediates the flash response; and (ii) the disparity in conditions of irradiation (weak background vs. extensive bleaching) leading to equivalent conditions of threshold. The model discussed above suggests, in molecular terms, a possible basis for both properties of receptor adaptation. On the view developed here, property (i) derives from the ability of photoactivated or bleached pigment (R or B) to restrict dramatically the availability of a substance required for phototransduction. Property (ii) derives in large part from the pronounced disparity in the effectiveness of R (during illumination) and B (remaining after illumination) in reducing the availability of this substance. On this view, the "equivalence" of threshold elevation in states of light- vs. dark-adaptation derives from an overall equality of a product of factors (Q, Etot/Es, and J of equation 2). Under all but extreme conditions, this aggregate of factors is dominated by the term Etot/Es, reflecting the functional state of E. PMID:3317149

  10. Adaptive Management Implementation: Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program Trinity River Restoration Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wittler, R.; McBain, S.; Stalnaker, C.; Bizier, P.; DeBarry, P.

    2003-01-01

    Two adaptive management programs, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP) and the Trinity River Restoration Program (TRRP) are examined. In both cases, the focus is on managing the aquatic and riparian systems downstream of a large dam and water supply project. The status of the two programs, lessons learned by the program managers and the Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management (AEAM) evolution of the TRRP are discussed. The Trinity River illustrates some of the scientific uncertainities that a program faces and the ways the program evolves from concept through implementation.

  11. Optical Profilometers Using Adaptive Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Gregory A.; Youngquist, Robert; Mikhael, Wasfy

    2006-01-01

    A method of adaptive signal processing has been proposed as the basis of a new generation of interferometric optical profilometers for measuring surfaces. The proposed profilometers would be portable, hand-held units. Sizes could be thus reduced because the adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to substitute lower-power coherent light sources (e.g., laser diodes) for white light sources and would eliminate the need for most of the optical components of current white-light profilometers. The adaptive-signal-processing method would make it possible to attain scanning ranges of the order of decimeters in the proposed profilometers.

  12. Electronic Handbooks Simplify Process Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Getting a multitude of people to work together to manage processes across many organizations for example, flight projects, research, technologies, or data centers and others is not an easy task. Just ask Dr. Barry E. Jacobs, a research computer scientist at Goddard Space Flight Center. He helped NASA develop a process management solution that provided documenting tools for process developers and participants to help them quickly learn, adapt, test, and teach their views. Some of these tools included editable files for subprocess descriptions, document descriptions, role guidelines, manager worksheets, and references. First utilized for NASA's Headquarters Directives Management process, the approach led to the invention of a concept called the Electronic Handbook (EHB). This EHB concept was successfully applied to NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) programs, among other NASA programs. Several Federal agencies showed interest in the concept, so Jacobs and his team visited these agencies to show them how their specific processes could be managed by the methodology, as well as to create mockup versions of the EHBs.

  13. 77 FR 74203 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  14. 76 FR 23621 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  15. 77 FR 10766 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  16. 75 FR 27814 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  17. 76 FR 34248 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  18. 75 FR 51284 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  19. 75 FR 17158 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  20. 76 FR 70751 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  1. 76 FR 14044 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  2. 75 FR 10501 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  3. 75 FR 70947 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  4. 77 FR 45370 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  5. 77 FR 50155 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG) affords stakeholders the opportunity to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity...

  6. Adaptive management for drought on rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adaptive management for drought on rangelands encompasses 1) enterprise flexibility – herd structure where the proportion of cow-calf pairs and yearlings provides plasticity to match forage availability with forage demand, with advantages to economic returns and increased resiliency of plant communi...

  7. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-01-01

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social–ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives. PMID:26082542

  8. Adaptable Learning Assistant for Item Bank Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuntiyagul, Atorn; Naruedomkul, Kanlaya; Cercone, Nick; Wongsawang, Damras

    2008-01-01

    We present PKIP, an adaptable learning assistant tool for managing question items in item banks. PKIP is not only able to automatically assist educational users to categorize the question items into predefined categories by their contents but also to correctly retrieve the items by specifying the category and/or the difficulty level. PKIP adapts…

  9. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-06-16

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives. PMID:26082542

  10. Adaptive governance, ecosystem management, and natural capital.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Lisen; Folke, Carl; Österblom, Henrik; Olsson, Per

    2015-06-16

    To gain insights into the effects of adaptive governance on natural capital, we compare three well-studied initiatives; a landscape in Southern Sweden, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, and fisheries in the Southern Ocean. We assess changes in natural capital and ecosystem services related to these social-ecological governance approaches to ecosystem management and investigate their capacity to respond to change and new challenges. The adaptive governance initiatives are compared with other efforts aimed at conservation and sustainable use of natural capital: Natura 2000 in Europe, lobster fisheries in the Gulf of Maine, North America, and fisheries in Europe. In contrast to these efforts, we found that the adaptive governance cases developed capacity to perform ecosystem management, manage multiple ecosystem services, and monitor, communicate, and respond to ecosystem-wide changes at landscape and seascape levels with visible effects on natural capital. They enabled actors to collaborate across diverse interests, sectors, and institutional arrangements and detect opportunities and problems as they developed while nurturing adaptive capacity to deal with them. They all spanned local to international levels of decision making, thus representing multilevel governance systems for managing natural capital. As with any governance system, internal changes and external drivers of global impacts and demands will continue to challenge the long-term success of such initiatives.

  11. Adaptive Resource Management Technology for Satellite Constellations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Lonnie; Tjaden, Brett; Pfarr, Barbara B.; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This manuscript describes the Sensor Web Adaptive Resource Manager (SWARM) project. The primary focus of the project is on the design and prototyping of middleware for managing computing and network resources in a way that enables the information systems of satellite constellations to provide realtime performance within dynamic environments. The middleware has been prototyped, and it has been evaluated by employing it to manage a pool of distributed resources for the ITOS (Integrated Test and Operations System) satellite command and control software system. The design of the middleware is discussed and a summary of the evaluation effort is provided.

  12. Adaptive filtering in biological signal processing.

    PubMed

    Iyer, V K; Ploysongsang, Y; Ramamoorthy, P A

    1990-01-01

    The high dependence of conventional optimal filtering methods on the a priori knowledge of the signal and noise statistics render them ineffective in dealing with signals whose statistics cannot be predetermined accurately. Adaptive filtering methods offer a better alternative, since the a priori knowledge of statistics is less critical, real time processing is possible, and the computations are less expensive for this approach. Adaptive filtering methods compute the filter coefficients "on-line", converging to the optimal values in the least-mean square (LMS) error sense. Adaptive filtering is therefore apt for dealing with the "unknown" statistics situation and has been applied extensively in areas like communication, speech, radar, sonar, seismology, and biological signal processing and analysis for channel equalization, interference and echo canceling, line enhancement, signal detection, system identification, spectral analysis, beamforming, modeling, control, etc. In this review article adaptive filtering in the context of biological signals is reviewed. An intuitive approach to the underlying theory of adaptive filters and its applicability are presented. Applications of the principles in biological signal processing are discussed in a manner that brings out the key ideas involved. Current and potential future directions in adaptive biological signal processing are also discussed.

  13. Adaptive management: from more talk to real action.

    PubMed

    Williams, Byron K; Brown, Eleanor D

    2014-02-01

    The challenges currently facing resource managers are large-scale and complex, and demand new approaches to balance development and conservation goals. One approach that shows considerable promise for addressing these challenges is adaptive management, which by now is broadly seen as a natural, intuitive, and potentially effective way to address decision-making in the face of uncertainties. Yet the concept of adaptive management continues to evolve, and its record of success remains limited. In this article, we present an operational framework for adaptive decision-making, and describe the challenges and opportunities in applying it to real-world problems. We discuss the key elements required for adaptive decision-making, and their integration into an iterative process that highlights and distinguishes technical and social learning. We illustrate the elements and processes of the framework with some successful on-the-ground examples of natural resource management. Finally, we address some of the difficulties in applying learning-based management, and finish with a discussion of future directions and strategic challenges. PMID:24271618

  14. Confronting socially generated uncertainty in adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Tyre, Andrew J; Michaels, Sarah

    2011-05-01

    As more and more organizations with responsibility for natural resource management adopt adaptive management as the rubric in which they wish to operate, it becomes increasingly important to consider the sources of uncertainty inherent in their endeavors. Without recognizing that uncertainty originates both in the natural world and in human undertakings, efforts to manage adaptively at the least will prove frustrating and at the worst will prove damaging to the very natural resources that are the management targets. There will be more surprises and those surprises potentially may prove at the very least unwanted and at the worst devastating. We illustrate how acknowledging uncertainty associated with the natural world is necessary but not sufficient to avoid surprise using case studies of efforts to manage three wildlife species; Hector's Dolphins, American Alligators and Pallid Sturgeon. Three characteristics of indeterminism are salient to all of them; non-stationarity, irreducibility and an inability to define objective probabilities. As an antidote, we recommend employing a holistic treatment of indeterminism, that includes recognizing that uncertainty originates in ecological systems and in how people perceive, interact and decide about the natural world of which they are integral players. PMID:20965642

  15. Neural Adaptation Effects in Conceptual Processing

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Barbara F. M.; Borghi, Anna M.; Gemmi, Luca; Cacciari, Cristina; Riggio, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the conceptual processing of nouns referring to objects characterized by a highly typical color and orientation. We used a go/no-go task in which we asked participants to categorize each noun as referring or not to natural entities (e.g., animals) after a selective adaptation of color-edge neurons in the posterior LV4 region of the visual cortex was induced by means of a McCollough effect procedure. This manipulation affected categorization: the green-vertical adaptation led to slower responses than the green-horizontal adaptation, regardless of the specific color and orientation of the to-be-categorized noun. This result suggests that the conceptual processing of natural entities may entail the activation of modality-specific neural channels with weights proportional to the reliability of the signals produced by these channels during actual perception. This finding is discussed with reference to the debate about the grounded cognition view. PMID:26264031

  16. Learning and adaptation in the management of waterfowl harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2011-01-01

    A formal framework for the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests was adopted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1995. The process admits competing models of waterfowl population dynamics and harvest impacts, and relies on model averaging to compute optimal strategies for regulating harvest. Model weights, reflecting the relative ability of the alternative models to predict changes in population size, are used in the model averaging and are updated each year based on a comparison of model predictions and observations of population size. Since its inception the adaptive harvest program has focused principally on mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), which constitute a large portion of the U.S. waterfowl harvest. Four competing models, derived from a combination of two survival and two reproductive hypotheses, were originally assigned equal weights. In the last year of available information (2007), model weights favored the weakly density-dependent reproductive hypothesis over the strongly density-dependent one, and the additive mortality hypothesis over the compensatory one. The change in model weights led to a more conservative harvesting policy than what was in effect in the early years of the program. Adaptive harvest management has been successful in many ways, but nonetheless has exposed the difficulties in defining management objectives, in predicting and regulating harvests, and in coping with the tradeoffs inherent in managing multiple waterfowl stocks exposed to a common harvest. The key challenge now facing managers is whether adaptive harvest management as an institution can be sufficiently adaptive, and whether the knowledge and experience gained from the process can be reflected in higher-level policy decisions.

  17. Bayesian nonparametric adaptive control using Gaussian processes.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Girish; Kingravi, Hassan A; How, Jonathan P; Vela, Patricio A

    2015-03-01

    Most current model reference adaptive control (MRAC) methods rely on parametric adaptive elements, in which the number of parameters of the adaptive element are fixed a priori, often through expert judgment. An example of such an adaptive element is radial basis function networks (RBFNs), with RBF centers preallocated based on the expected operating domain. If the system operates outside of the expected operating domain, this adaptive element can become noneffective in capturing and canceling the uncertainty, thus rendering the adaptive controller only semiglobal in nature. This paper investigates a Gaussian process-based Bayesian MRAC architecture (GP-MRAC), which leverages the power and flexibility of GP Bayesian nonparametric models of uncertainty. The GP-MRAC does not require the centers to be preallocated, can inherently handle measurement noise, and enables MRAC to handle a broader set of uncertainties, including those that are defined as distributions over functions. We use stochastic stability arguments to show that GP-MRAC guarantees good closed-loop performance with no prior domain knowledge of the uncertainty. Online implementable GP inference methods are compared in numerical simulations against RBFN-MRAC with preallocated centers and are shown to provide better tracking and improved long-term learning.

  18. Judging adaptive management practices of U.S. agencies.

    PubMed

    Fischman, Robert L; Ruhl, J B

    2016-04-01

    All U.S. federal agencies administering environmental laws purport to practice adaptive management (AM), but little is known about how they actually implement this conservation tool. A gap between the theory and practice of AM is revealed in judicial decisions reviewing agency adaptive management plans. We analyzed all U.S. federal court opinions published through 1 January 2015 to identify the agency AM practices courts found most deficient. The shortcomings included lack of clear objectives and processes, monitoring thresholds, and defined actions triggered by thresholds. This trio of agency shortcuts around critical, iterative steps characterizes what we call AM-lite. Passive AM differs from active AM in its relative lack of management interventions through experimental strategies. In contrast, AM-lite is a distinctive form of passive AM that fails to provide for the iterative steps necessary to learn from management. Courts have developed a sophisticated understanding of AM and often offer instructive rather than merely critical opinions. The role of the judiciary is limited by agency discretion under U.S. administrative law. But courts have overturned some agency AM-lite practices and insisted on more rigorous analyses to ensure that the promised benefits of structured learning and fine-tuned management have a reasonable likelihood of occurring. Nonetheless, there remains a mismatch in U.S. administrative law between the flexibility demanded by adaptive management and the legal objectives of transparency, public participation, and finality.

  19. Judging adaptive management practices of U.S. agencies.

    PubMed

    Fischman, Robert L; Ruhl, J B

    2016-04-01

    All U.S. federal agencies administering environmental laws purport to practice adaptive management (AM), but little is known about how they actually implement this conservation tool. A gap between the theory and practice of AM is revealed in judicial decisions reviewing agency adaptive management plans. We analyzed all U.S. federal court opinions published through 1 January 2015 to identify the agency AM practices courts found most deficient. The shortcomings included lack of clear objectives and processes, monitoring thresholds, and defined actions triggered by thresholds. This trio of agency shortcuts around critical, iterative steps characterizes what we call AM-lite. Passive AM differs from active AM in its relative lack of management interventions through experimental strategies. In contrast, AM-lite is a distinctive form of passive AM that fails to provide for the iterative steps necessary to learn from management. Courts have developed a sophisticated understanding of AM and often offer instructive rather than merely critical opinions. The role of the judiciary is limited by agency discretion under U.S. administrative law. But courts have overturned some agency AM-lite practices and insisted on more rigorous analyses to ensure that the promised benefits of structured learning and fine-tuned management have a reasonable likelihood of occurring. Nonetheless, there remains a mismatch in U.S. administrative law between the flexibility demanded by adaptive management and the legal objectives of transparency, public participation, and finality. PMID:26306648

  20. Adaptive management of social-ecological systems: the path forward

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive management remains at the forefront of environmental management nearly 40 years after its original conception, largely because we have yet to develop other methodologies that offer the same promise. Despite the criticisms of adaptive management and the numerous failed attempts to implement it, adaptive management has yet to be replaced with a better alternative. The concept persists because it is simple, allows action despite uncertainty, and fosters learning. Moving forward, adaptive management of social-ecological systems provides policymakers, managers and scientists a powerful tool for managing for resilience in the face of uncertainty.

  1. A Novel Approach for Adaptive Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ya-Chin; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1998-01-01

    Adaptive linear predictors have been used extensively in practice in a wide variety of forms. In the main, their theoretical development is based upon the assumption of stationarity of the signals involved, particularly with respect to the second order statistics. On this basis, the well-known normal equations can be formulated. If high- order statistical stationarity is assumed, then the equivalent normal equations involve high-order signal moments. In either case, the cross moments (second or higher) are needed. This renders the adaptive prediction procedure non-blind. A novel procedure for blind adaptive prediction has been proposed and considerable implementation has been made in our contributions in the past year. The approach is based upon a suitable interpretation of blind equalization methods that satisfy the constant modulus property and offers significant deviations from the standard prediction methods. These blind adaptive algorithms are derived by formulating Lagrange equivalents from mechanisms of constrained optimization. In this report, other new update algorithms are derived from the fundamental concepts of advanced system identification to carry out the proposed blind adaptive prediction. The results of the work can be extended to a number of control-related problems, such as disturbance identification. The basic principles are outlined in this report and differences from other existing methods are discussed. The applications implemented are speech processing, such as coding and synthesis. Simulations are included to verify the novel modelling method.

  2. Improving our legacy: Incorporation of adaptive management into state wildlife action plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is a mounting concern, but despite numerous attempts there are few large scale conservation efforts that have proven successful in reversing current declines. Given the challenge of biodiversity conservation, there is a need to develop strategic conservation plans that address species declines even with the inherent uncertainty in managing multiple species in complex environments. In 2002, the State Wildlife Grant program was initiated to fulfill this need, and while not explicitly outlined by Congress follows the fundamental premise of adaptive management, 'Learning by doing'. When action is necessary, but basic biological information and an understanding of appropriate management strategies are lacking, adaptive management enables managers to be proactive in spite of uncertainty. However, regardless of the strengths of adaptive management, the development of an effective adaptive management framework is challenging. In a review of 53 State Wildlife Action Plans, I found a keen awareness by planners that adaptive management was an effective method for addressing biodiversity conservation, but the development and incorporation of explicit adaptive management approaches within each plan remained elusive. Only ???25% of the plans included a framework for how adaptive management would be implemented at the project level within their state. There was, however, considerable support across plans for further development and implementation of adaptive management. By furthering the incorporation of adaptive management principles in conservation plans and explicitly outlining the decision making process, states will be poised to meet the pending challenges to biodiversity conservation. ?? 2010 .

  3. Photorefractive processing for large adaptive phased arrays.

    PubMed

    Weverka, R T; Wagner, K; Sarto, A

    1996-03-10

    An adaptive null-steering phased-array optical processor that utilizes a photorefractive crystal to time integrate the adaptive weights and null out correlated jammers is described. This is a beam-steering processor in which the temporal waveform of the desired signal is known but the look direction is not. The processor computes the angle(s) of arrival of the desired signal and steers the array to look in that direction while rotating the nulls of the antenna pattern toward any narrow-band jammers that may be present. We have experimentally demonstrated a simplified version of this adaptive phased-array-radar processor that nulls out the narrow-band jammers by using feedback-correlation detection. In this processor it is assumed that we know a priori only that the signal is broadband and the jammers are narrow band. These are examples of a class of optical processors that use the angular selectivity of volume holograms to form the nulls and look directions in an adaptive phased-array-radar pattern and thereby to harness the computational abilities of three-dimensional parallelism in the volume of photorefractive crystals. The development of this processing in volume holographic system has led to a new algorithm for phased-array-radar processing that uses fewer tapped-delay lines than does the classic time-domain beam former. The optical implementation of the new algorithm has the further advantage of utilization of a single photorefractive crystal to implement as many as a million adaptive weights, allowing the radar system to scale to large size with no increase in processing hardware.

  4. Contrast Adaptation Implies Two Spatiotemporal Channels but Three Adapting Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Keith; Bex, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    The contrast gain control model of adaptation predicts that the effects of contrast adaptation correlate with contrast sensitivity. This article reports that the effects of high contrast spatiotemporal adaptors are maximum when adapting around 19 Hz, which is a factor of two or more greater than the peak in contrast sensitivity. To explain the…

  5. Adaptive momentum management for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, E.

    1987-01-01

    Momentum management is discussed for a Large Space Structure (LSS) with the structure selected configuration being the Initial Orbital Configuration (IOC) of the dual keel space station. The external forces considered were gravity gradient and aerodynamic torques. The goal of the momentum management scheme developed is to remove the bias components of the external torques and center the cyclic components of the stored angular momentum. The scheme investigated is adaptive to uncertainties of the inertia tensor and requires only approximate knowledge of principle moments of inertia. Computational requirements are minimal and should present no implementation problem in a flight type computer and the method proposed is shown to be effective in the presence of attitude control bandwidths as low as .01 radian/sec.

  6. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Susan K; Morris, Julie K; Sanders, J Scott; Wiley, Eugene N; Brooks, Michael; Bennetts, Robert E; Percival, H Franklin; Marynowski, Susan

    2006-10-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  7. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, S.K.; Morris, J.K.; Sanders, J.S.; Wiley, E.N.; Brooks, M.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.; Marynowski, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  8. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz de Rodríguez, Lucy; Ruiz de Cárdenas, Carmen Helena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the recourses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004), in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Processing, defines Coping as the ''behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands''. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986), a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that enhance this adaptation. Methods: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Synergy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services. PMID:24893059

  9. An Adaptive Approach to Managing Knowledge Development in a Project-Based Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose an adaptive approach to managing the development of students' knowledge in the comprehensive project-based learning (PBL) environment. Subject study is realized by two-stage PBL. It shapes adaptive knowledge management (KM) process and promotes the correct balance between personalized and collaborative learning. The…

  10. Adaptive management and its role in managing Great Barrier Reef water quality.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J; Lawrence, P; Johnstone, R; Shaw, R

    2005-01-01

    Adaptive management is the pathway to effective conservation, use and management of Australia's coastal catchments and waterways. While the concepts of adaptive management are not new, applications involving both assessment and management responses are indeed limited at the national and regional scales. This paper outlines the components of a systematic framework for linking scientific knowledge, existing tools, planning approaches and participatory processes to achieve healthy regional partnerships between community, industry, government agencies and science providers to overcome institutional barriers and uncoordinated monitoring. The framework developed by the Coastal CRC (www.coastal.crc.org.au/amf/amf/_index.htm) is hierarchical in the way it displays information to allow associated frameworks to be integrated, and represents a construct in which processes, information, decision tools and outcomes are brought together in a structured and transparent way for adaptive catchment and coastal management. This paper proposes how an adaptive management approach could be used to benefit the implementation of the Reef Water Quality Protection Plan (RWQPP).

  11. Adaptive memory: animacy processing produces mnemonic advantages.

    PubMed

    VanArsdall, Joshua E; Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S; Blunt, Janell R

    2013-01-01

    It is adaptive to remember animates, particularly animate agents, because they play an important role in survival and reproduction. Yet, surprisingly, the role of animacy in mnemonic processing has received little direct attention in the literature. In two experiments, participants were presented with pronounceable nonwords and properties characteristic of either living (animate) or nonliving (inanimate) things. The task was to rate the likelihood that each nonword-property pair represented a living thing or a nonliving object. In Experiment 1, a subsequent recognition memory test for the nonwords revealed a significant advantage for the nonwords paired with properties of living things. To generalize this finding, Experiment 2 replicated the animate advantage using free recall. These data demonstrate a new phenomenon in the memory literature - a possible mnemonic tuning for animacy - and add to growing data supporting adaptive memory theory. PMID:23261948

  12. Public access management as an adaptive wildlife management tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Watts, Raymond D.

    2005-01-01

    One key issue in the Black Mesa – Black Canyon area is the interaction between motorized vehicles and. The working hypothesis for this study is that early season elk movement onto private lands and the National Park is precipitated by increased use of Off Highway Vehicles (OHV’s). Data on intensity of motorized use is extremely limited. In this study, we monitor intensity of motorized vehicle and trail use on elk movements and habitat usage and analyze interactions. If management agencies decide to alter accessibility, we will monitor wildlife responses to changes in the human-use regime. This provides a unique opportunity for adaptive management experimentation based on coordinated research and monitoring. The products from this project will provide natural resource managers across the nation with tools and information to better meet these resource challenges.

  13. Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems: The Path Forward

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management remains at the forefront of environmental management nearly 40 years after its original conception, largely because we have yet to develop other methodologies that offer the same promise. Despite the criticisms of adaptive management and the numerous failed at...

  14. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  15. From adaptive management to adjustive management: a pragmatic account of biodiversity values.

    PubMed

    Maris, Virginie; Béchet, Arnaud

    2010-08-01

    The conservation of biodiversity poses an exceptionally difficult problem in that it needs to be effective in a context of double uncertainty: scientific (i.e., how to conserve biodiversity) and normative (i.e., which biodiversity to conserve and why). Although adaptive management offers a promising approach to overcome scientific uncertainty, normative uncertainty is seldom tackled by conservation science. We expanded on the approach proposed by adaptive-management theorists by devising an integrative and iterative approach to conservation that encompasses both types of uncertainty. Inspired by environmental pragmatism, we suggest that moral values at stake in biodiversity conservation are plastic and that a plurality of individual normative positions can coexist and evolve. Moral values should thus be explored through an experimental process as additional parameters to be incorporated in the traditional adaptive-management approach. As such, moral values should also be monitored by environmental ethicists working side by side with scientists and managers on conservation projects. Acknowledging the diversity of moral values and integrating them in a process of collective deliberation will help overcome the normative uncertainty. We used Dewey's distinction between adaptation and adjustment to offer a new paradigm built around what we call adjustive management, which reflects both the uncertainty and the likely evolution of the moral values humans attribute to biodiversity. We illustrate how this paradigm relates to practical conservation decisions by exploring the case of the Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus), an alien species in France that is the target of an eradication plan undertaken with little regard for moral issues. We propose that a more satisfying result of efforts to control Sacred Ibis could have been reached by rerouting the traditional feedback loop of adaptive management to include a normative inquiry. This adjustive management approach now

  16. Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) project is creating a record of forest disturbance and regrowth for North America from the Landsat satellite record, in support of the carbon modeling activities. LEDAPS relies on the decadal Landsat GeoCover data set supplemented by dense image time series for selected locations. Imagery is first atmospherically corrected to surface reflectance, and then change detection algorithms are used to extract disturbance area, type, and frequency. Reuse of the MODIS Land processing system (MODAPS) architecture allows rapid throughput of over 2200 MSS, TM, and ETM+ scenes. Initial ("Beta") surface reflectance products are currently available for testing, and initial continental disturbance products will be available by the middle of 2006.

  17. Parameter adaptive estimation of random processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the parameter adaptive least squares estimation of random processes. The main result is a general representation theorem for the conditional expectation of a random variable on a product probability space. Using this theorem along with the general likelihood ratio expression, the least squares estimate of the process is found in terms of the parameter conditioned estimates. The stochastic differential for the a posteriori probability and the stochastic differential equation for the a posteriori density are found by using simple stochastic calculus on the representations obtained. The results are specialized to the case when the parameter has a discrete distribution. The results can be used to construct an implementable recursive estimator for certain types of nonlinear filtering problems. This is illustrated by some simple examples.

  18. Lessons Learned from the Everglades Collaborative Adaptive Management Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent technical papers explore whether adaptive management (AM) is useful for environmental management and restoration efforts and discuss the many challenges to overcome for successful implementation, especially for large-scale restoration programs (McLain and Lee 1996; Levine ...

  19. Adaptive management: a paradigm for remediation of public facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Janecky, David R; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Doerr, Ted B

    2009-01-01

    disruptive event suggest numerous advantages over preset linearly-structured plans by incorporating the flexibility and overlap of processes inherent in effective facility restoration. We discuss three restoration case studies (e.g., the Hart Senate Office Building anthrax restoration, Rocky Flats actinide remediation, and hurricane destruction restoration), that implement aspects of adaptive management but not a formal approach. We propose that more formal adoption of adaptive management principles could be a basis for more flexible standards to improve site-specific remediation plans under conditions of high uncertainty.

  20. Hydrologic landscape units and adaptive management of intermountain wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Stephen G.; Sojda, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    daptive management is often proposed to assist in the management of national wildlife refuges and allows the exploration of alternatives as well as the addition of ne w knowledge as it becomes available. The hydrological landscape unit can be a good foundation for such efforts. Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is in an intermountain basin dominated by vertical tectonics in the Northern Rocky Mountains. A geographic information system was used to define the boundaries for the hydrologic landscape units there. Units identified include alluvial fan, interfan, stream alluvi um and basin flat. Management alternatives can be informed by ex amination of processes that occu r on the units. For example, an ancient alluvial fan unit related to Red Rock Creek appear s to be isolated from stream flow today, with recharge dominated by precipitation and bedrock springs; while other alluvial fan units in the area have shallow ground water recharged from mountain streams and precipitation. The scale of hydrologic processes in interfan units differs from that in alluvial fan hydrologic landscape units. These differences are important when the refuge is evaluating habitat management activities. Hydrologic landscape units provide scientific unde rpinnings for the refuge’s comprehensive planning process. New geologic, hydrologic, and biologic knowledge can be integrated into the hydrologic landscape unit definition and improve adaptive management.

  1. Adapting natural resource management to climate change: The South Central Oregon and Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halofsky, J.; Peterson, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help natural resource managers take the first steps to incorporate climate change into management and take advantage of opportunities to balance the negative effects of climate change. We recently initiated two science-management climate change adaptation partnerships, one with three national forests and one national park in south central Oregon, and the other with 16 national forests, three national parks and other stakeholders in the northern Rockies region. Goals of both partnerships were to: (1) synthesize published information and data to assess the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of key resource areas, including water use, infrastructure, fisheries, and vegetation and disturbance; (2) develop science-based adaptation strategies and tactics that will help to mitigate the negative effects of climate change and assist the transition of biological systems and management to a warmer climate; (3) ensure adaptation strategies and tactics are incorporated into relevant planning documents; and (4) foster an enduring partnership to facilitate ongoing dialogue and activities related to climate change in the partnerships regions. After an initial vulnerability assessment by agency and university scientists and local resource specialists, adaptation strategies and tactics were developed in a series of scientist-manager workshops. The final vulnerability assessments and adaptation actions are incorporated in technical reports. The partnerships produced concrete adaptation options for national forest and other natural resource managers and illustrated the utility of place-based vulnerability assessments and scientist-manager workshops in adapting to climate change.

  2. Adaptive harvest management of North American waterfowl populations: a brief history and future prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Runge, M.C.; Johnson, F.A.; Williams, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1995, the US Fish and Wildlife Service has used an adaptive approach to the management of sport harvest of mid-continent Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in North America. This approach differs from many current approaches to conservation and management in requiring close collaboration between managers and scientists. Key elements of this process are objectives, alternative management actions, models permitting prediction of system responses, and a monitoring program. The iterative process produces optimal management decisions and leads to reduction in uncertainty about response of populations to management. This general approach to management has a number of desirable features and is recommended for use in many other programs of management and conservation.

  3. Passive and active adaptive management: Approaches and an example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management is a framework for resource conservation that promotes iterative learning-based decision making. Yet there remains considerable confusion about what adaptive management entails, and how to actually make resource decisions adaptively. A key but somewhat ambiguous distinction in adaptive management is between active and passive forms of adaptive decision making. The objective of this paper is to illustrate some approaches to active and passive adaptive management with a simple example involving the drawdown of water impoundments on a wildlife refuge. The approaches are illustrated for the drawdown example, and contrasted in terms of objectives, costs, and potential learning rates. Some key challenges to the actual practice of AM are discussed, and tradeoffs between implementation costs and long-term benefits are highlighted. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. 43 CFR 46.145 - Using adaptive management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... implementation decisions. The NEPA analysis conducted in the context of an adaptive management approach should... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Using adaptive management. 46.145 Section... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.145 Using...

  5. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations...

  6. 76 FR 24516 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations...

  7. 77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations...

  8. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations...

  9. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The... with respect to the operation of Glen Canyon Dam and the exercise of other authorities pursuant...

  10. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting (WebEx/conference call). SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive... Dam operations and other management actions to protect resources downstream of Glen Canyon...

  11. 77 FR 43117 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations...

  12. Complex Adaptive Systems as Metaphors for Organizational Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmberg, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of complex adaptive systems (CAS) from the perspective of managing organizations, to describe and explore the management principles in a case study of an organization with unconventional ways of management and to present a tentative model for managing organizations as CAS--system…

  13. The Urban Adaptation and Adaptation Process of Urban Migrant Children: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yang; Fang, Xiaoyi; Cai, Rong; Wu, Yang; Zhang, Yaofang

    2009-01-01

    This article employs qualitative research methods to explore the urban adaptation and adaptation processes of Chinese migrant children. Through twenty-one in-depth interviews with migrant children, the researchers discovered: The participant migrant children showed a fairly high level of adaptation to the city; their process of urban adaptation…

  14. Linearly-Constrained Adaptive Signal Processing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Lloyd J.

    1988-01-01

    In adaptive least-squares estimation problems, a desired signal d(n) is estimated using a linear combination of L observation values samples xi (n), x2(n), . . . , xL-1(n) and denoted by the vector X(n). The estimate is formed as the inner product of this vector with a corresponding L-dimensional weight vector W. One particular weight vector of interest is Wopt which minimizes the mean-square between d(n) and the estimate. In this context, the term `mean-square difference' is a quadratic measure such as statistical expectation or time average. The specific value of W which achieves the minimum is given by the prod-uct of the inverse data covariance matrix and the cross-correlation between the data vector and the desired signal. The latter is often referred to as the P-vector. For those cases in which time samples of both the desired and data vector signals are available, a variety of adaptive methods have been proposed which will guarantee that an iterative weight vector Wa(n) converges (in some sense) to the op-timal solution. Two which have been extensively studied are the recursive least-squares (RLS) method and the LMS gradient approximation approach. There are several problems of interest in the communication and radar environment in which the optimal least-squares weight set is of interest and in which time samples of the desired signal are not available. Examples can be found in array processing in which only the direction of arrival of the desired signal is known and in single channel filtering where the spectrum of the desired response is known a priori. One approach to these problems which has been suggested is the P-vector algorithm which is an LMS-like approximate gradient method. Although it is easy to derive the mean and variance of the weights which result with this algorithm, there has never been an identification of the corresponding underlying error surface which the procedure searches. The purpose of this paper is to suggest an alternative

  15. Waste Management Process Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, J.; Borden, G.; Rangel, G. R.

    2002-02-25

    The Bechtel Hanford-led Environmental Restoration Contractor team's Waste Management Process Improvement Project is working diligently with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Richland Operations Office to improve the waste management process to meet DOE's need for an efficient, cost-effective program for the management of dangerous, low-level and mixed-low-level waste. Additionally the program must meet all applicable regulatory requirements. The need for improvement was highlighted when a change in the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project's waste management practices resulted in a larger amount of waste being generated than the waste management organization had been set up to handle.

  16. Evaluating mallard adaptive management models with time series

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, P.B.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife practitioners concerned with midcontinent mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) management in the United States have instituted a system of adaptive harvest management (AHM) as an objective format for setting harvest regulations. Under the AHM paradigm, predictions from a set of models that reflect key uncertainties about processes underlying population dynamics are used in coordination with optimization software to determine an optimal set of harvest decisions. Managers use comparisons of the predictive abilities of these models to gauge the relative truth of different hypotheses about density-dependent recruitment and survival, with better-predicting models giving more weight to the determination of harvest regulations. We tested the effectiveness of this strategy by examining convergence rates of 'predictor' models when the true model for population dynamics was known a priori. We generated time series for cases when the a priori model was 1 of the predictor models as well as for several cases when the a priori model was not in the model set. We further examined the addition of different levels of uncertainty into the variance structure of predictor models, reflecting different levels of confidence about estimated parameters. We showed that in certain situations, the model-selection process favors a predictor model that incorporates the hypotheses of additive harvest mortality and weakly density-dependent recruitment, even when the model is not used to generate data. Higher levels of predictor model variance led to decreased rates of convergence to the model that generated the data, but model weight trajectories were in general more stable. We suggest that predictive models should incorporate all sources of uncertainty about estimated parameters, that the variance structure should be similar for all predictor models, and that models with different functional forms for population dynamics should be considered for inclusion in predictor model! sets. All of these

  17. Flood adaptive traits and processes: an overview.

    PubMed

    Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Unanticipated flooding challenges plant growth and fitness in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Here we describe mechanisms of developmental plasticity and metabolic modulation that underpin adaptive traits and acclimation responses to waterlogging of root systems and submergence of aerial tissues. This includes insights into processes that enhance ventilation of submerged organs. At the intersection between metabolism and growth, submergence survival strategies have evolved involving an ethylene-driven and gibberellin-enhanced module that regulates growth of submerged organs. Opposing regulation of this pathway is facilitated by a subgroup of ethylene-response transcription factors (ERFs), which include members that require low O₂ or low nitric oxide (NO) conditions for their stabilization. These transcription factors control genes encoding enzymes required for anaerobic metabolism as well as proteins that fine-tune their function in transcription and turnover. Other mechanisms that control metabolism and growth at seed, seedling and mature stages under flooding conditions are reviewed, as well as findings demonstrating that true endurance of submergence includes an ability to restore growth following the deluge. Finally, we highlight molecular insights obtained from natural variation of domesticated and wild species that occupy different hydrological niches, emphasizing the value of understanding natural flooding survival strategies in efforts to stabilize crop yields in flood-prone environments.

  18. An introduction to adaptive management for threatened and endangered species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Management of threatened and endangered species would seem to be a perfect context for adaptive management. Many of the decisions are recurrent and plagued by uncertainty, exactly the conditions that warrant an adaptive approach. But although the potential of adaptive management in these settings has been extolled, there are limited applications in practice. The impediments to practical implementation are manifold and include semantic confusion, institutional inertia, misperceptions about the suitability and utility, and a lack of guiding examples. In this special section of the Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management, we hope to reinvigorate the appropriate application of adaptive management for threatened and endangered species by framing such management in a decision-analytical context, clarifying misperceptions, classifying the types of decisions that might be amenable to an adaptive approach, and providing three fully developed case studies. In this overview paper, I define terms, review the past application of adaptive management, challenge perceived hurdles, and set the stage for the case studies which follow.

  19. Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lucy; Felton, Adam; Mårald, Erland; Samuelsson, Lars; Lundmark, Tomas; Rosvall, Ola

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden's current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership-characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry. PMID:26744049

  20. Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lucy; Felton, Adam; Mårald, Erland; Samuelsson, Lars; Lundmark, Tomas; Rosvall, Ola

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden's current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership-characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry.

  1. Adaptive, predictive controller for optimal process control

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.K.; Baum, C.C.; Bowling, P.S.; Buescher, K.L.; Hanagandi, V.M.; Hinde, R.F. Jr.; Jones, R.D.; Parkinson, W.J.

    1995-12-01

    One can derive a model for use in a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) from first principles or from experimental data. Until recently, both methods failed for all but the simplest processes. First principles are almost always incomplete and fitting to experimental data fails for dimensions greater than one as well as for non-linear cases. Several authors have suggested the use of a neural network to fit the experimental data to a multi-dimensional and/or non-linear model. Most networks, however, use simple sigmoid functions and backpropagation for fitting. Training of these networks generally requires large amounts of data and, consequently, very long training times. In 1993 we reported on the tuning and optimization of a negative ion source using a special neural network[2]. One of the properties of this network (CNLSnet), a modified radial basis function network, is that it is able to fit data with few basis functions. Another is that its training is linear resulting in guaranteed convergence and rapid training. We found the training to be rapid enough to support real-time control. This work has been extended to incorporate this network into an MPC using the model built by the network for predictive control. This controller has shown some remarkable capabilities in such non-linear applications as continuous stirred exothermic tank reactors and high-purity fractional distillation columns[3]. The controller is able not only to build an appropriate model from operating data but also to thin the network continuously so that the model adapts to changing plant conditions. The controller is discussed as well as its possible use in various of the difficult control problems that face this community.

  2. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-15

    climate conditions. There are several ways in which the World Bank Group can continue helping its clients better manage climate risks to poverty reduction and sustainable development: Integrating climate risk management into the project cycle, by adopting early risk identification (for instance by applying a quick and simple risk-screening tool) and following up throughout the design process if necessary. Integrating climate risk management into country and sector dialogues, especially in countries and sectors that are particularly vulnerable. Enhancing internal support for and coordination of climate risk management by, for example, expanding analytical work and capacity for cross-support by the Global Climate Change Team and the Hazard Management Unit of the World Bank and by actively developing climate risk management activities within regional departments. Supporting the establishment of proper financing mechanisms for adaptation, using, for example, the Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development. New funding mechanisms created under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and being made operational by the Global Environment Facility (GEF), as well as the Kyoto Protocol, should be used to leverage maximum adaptation results within the Bank's broad range of development activities and investments. By enhancing climate risk management, the World Bank Group will be able to address the growing risks from climate change and, at the same time, make current development investments more resilient to climate variability and extreme weather events. In that way, climate risk management will not only guard the Bank's investments in a changing climate but will also improve the impact of development efforts right now.

  3. [Cyclic interactions in the processes of adaptation regulation].

    PubMed

    Vasilevskiĭ, N N; Aleksandrova, Zh G; Suvorov, N B

    1989-01-01

    Human adaptation is characterised by essential changes of functional systems biorhythms which appears in the changes of their components' sequence and in the dynamics of biorhythmological cycles. These objective laws, having been described for human EEG, allow to discern clearly the individual-typological peculiarities in man with different stages of adaptation, the same as the adaptive shifts during long-term influence of external factors. The cyclic course of adaptative processes is regarded as a measure of adaptability. With the help of biorhythmic multitude the memory is constantly satiated from the brain by discrete portions of adaptogenic information, which prevents the natural processes of the memory disintegration. PMID:2816008

  4. Modular and Adaptive Control of Sound Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nort, Douglas

    parameters. In this view, desired gestural dynamics and sonic response are achieved through modular construction of mapping layers that are themselves subject to parametric control. Complementing this view of the design process, the work concludes with an approach in which the creation of gestural control/sound dynamics are considered in the low-level of the underlying sound model. The result is an adaptive system that is specialized to noise-based transformations that are particularly relevant in an electroacoustic music context. Taken together, these different approaches to design and evaluation result in a unified framework for creation of an instrumental system. The key point is that this framework addresses the influence that mapping structure and control dynamics have on the perceived feel of the instrument. Each of the results illustrate this using either top-down or bottom-up approaches that consider musical control context, thereby pointing to the greater potential for refined sonic articulation that can be had by combining them in the design process.

  5. Quantitative genetic study of the adaptive process.

    PubMed

    Shaw, R G; Shaw, F H

    2014-01-01

    The additive genetic variance with respect to absolute fitness, VA(W), divided by mean absolute fitness, , sets the rate of ongoing adaptation. Fisher's key insight yielding this quantitative prediction of adaptive evolution, known as the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection, is well appreciated by evolutionists. Nevertheless, extremely scant information about VA(W) is available for natural populations. Consequently, the capacity for fitness increase via natural selection is unknown. Particularly in the current context of rapid environmental change, which is likely to reduce fitness directly and, consequently, the size and persistence of populations, the urgency of advancing understanding of immediate adaptive capacity is extreme. We here explore reasons for the dearth of empirical information about VA(W), despite its theoretical renown and critical evolutionary role. Of these reasons, we suggest that expectations that VA(W) is negligible, in general, together with severe statistical challenges of estimating it, may largely account for the limited empirical emphasis on it. To develop insight into the dynamics of VA(W) in a changing environment, we have conducted individual-based genetically explicit simulations. We show that, as optimizing selection on a trait changes steadily over generations, VA(W) can grow considerably, supporting more rapid adaptation than would the VA(W) of the base population. We call for direct evaluation of VA(W) and in support of prediction of rates adaptive evolution, and we advocate for the use of aster modeling as a rigorous basis for achieving this goal.

  6. U.S. natural resources and climate change: concepts and approaches for management adaptation.

    PubMed

    West, Jordan M; Julius, Susan H; Kareiva, Peter; Enquist, Carolyn; Lawler, Joshua J; Petersen, Brian; Johnson, Ayana E; Shaw, M Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    Public lands and waters in the United States traditionally have been managed using frameworks and objectives that were established under an implicit assumption of stable climatic conditions. However, projected climatic changes render this assumption invalid. Here, we summarize general principles for management adaptations that have emerged from a major literature review. These general principles cover many topics including: (1) how to assess climate impacts to ecosystem processes that are key to management goals; (2) using management practices to support ecosystem resilience; (3) converting barriers that may inhibit management responses into opportunities for successful implementation; and (4) promoting flexible decision making that takes into account challenges of scale and thresholds. To date, the literature on management adaptations to climate change has mostly focused on strategies for bolstering the resilience of ecosystems to persist in their current states. Yet in the longer term, it is anticipated that climate change will push certain ecosystems and species beyond their capacity to recover. When managing to support resilience becomes infeasible, adaptation may require more than simply changing management practices--it may require changing management goals and managing transitions to new ecosystem states. After transitions have occurred, management will again support resilience--this time for a new ecosystem state. Thus, successful management of natural resources in the context of climate change will require recognition on the part of managers and decisions makers of the need to cycle between "managing for resilience" and "managing for change."

  7. Adaptive forest management for drinking water protection under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeck, R.; Hochbichler, E.

    2012-04-01

    Drinking water resources drawn from forested catchment areas are prominent for providing water supply on our planet. Despite the fact that source waters stemming from forested watersheds have generally lower water quality problems than those stemming from agriculturally used watersheds, it has to be guaranteed that the forest stands meet high standards regarding their water protection functionality. For fulfilling these, forest management concepts have to be applied, which are adaptive regarding the specific forest site conditions and also regarding climate change scenarios. In the past century forest management in the alpine area of Austria was mainly based on the cultivation of Norway spruce, by the way neglecting specific forest site conditions, what caused in many cases highly vulnerable mono-species forest stands. The GIS based forest hydrotope model (FoHyM) provides a framework for forest management, which defines the most crucial parameters in a spatial explicit form. FoHyM stratifies the spacious drinking water protection catchments into forest hydrotopes, being operational units for forest management. The primary information layer of FoHyM is the potential natural forest community, which reflects the specific forest site conditions regarding geology, soil types, elevation above sea level, exposition and inclination adequately and hence defines the specific forest hydrotopes. For each forest hydrotope, the adequate tree species composition and forest stand structure for drinking water protection functionality was deduced, based on the plant-sociological information base provided by FoHyM. The most important overall purpose for the related elaboration of adaptive forest management concepts and measures was the improvement of forest stand stability, which can be seen as the crucial parameter for drinking water protection. Only stable forest stands can protect the fragile soil and humus layers and hence prevent erosion process which could endanger the water

  8. A systematic process for adaptive concept exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Janel Nicole

    several common challenges to the creation of quantitative modeling and simulation environments. Namely, a greater number of alternative solutions imply a greater number of design variables as well as larger ranges on those variables. This translates to a high-dimension combinatorial problem. As the size and dimensionality of the solution space gets larger, the number of physically impossible solutions within that space greatly increases. Thus, the ratio of feasible design space to infeasible space decreases, making it much harder to not only obtain a good quantitative sample of the space, but to also make sense of that data. This is especially the case in the early stages of design, where it is not practical to dedicate a great deal of resources to performing thorough, high-fidelity analyses on all the potential solutions. To make quantitative analyses feasible in these early stages of design, a method is needed that allows for a relatively sparse set of information to be collected quickly and efficiently, and yet, that information needs to be meaningful enough with which to base a decision. The method developed to address this need uses a Systematic Process for Adaptive Concept Exploration (SPACE). In the SPACE method, design space exploration occurs in a sequential fashion; as data is acquired, the sampling scheme adapts to the specific problem at hand. Previously gathered data is used to make inferences about the nature of the problem so that future samples can be taken from the more interesting portions of the design space. Furthermore, the SPACE method identifies those analyses that have significant impacts on the relationships being modeled, so that effort can be focused on acquiring only the most pertinent information. The SPACE method uses a four-part sampling scheme to efficiently uncover the parametric relationships between the design variables and responses. Step 1 aims to identify the location of infeasible space within the region of interest using an initial

  9. Career management: an active process.

    PubMed

    Mackowiak, J; Eckel, F M

    1985-03-01

    The self-assessment, goal-setting, and career-planning techniques of career management are discussed, and the organization's role in career management is discussed. Career management is a planned process, initiated and carried out by an individual with the assistance of others. Because work and nonwork activities are so interrelated, career and life management planning can maximize a pharmacist's personal success. The career- and life-management process begins with the development of a personal definition of success. A self-assessment must be made of one's values, needs, interests, and activities. The next step of the process involves setting goals and establishing a plan or strategy to achieve them. Establishing a career path requires researching alternate career goals. Career competencies are identified that can increase an employee's chances of success. The employer shares the responsibility for career development through coaching, job structuring, and keeping the employee aware of constraints. Through the integration of the roles of the individual and the organization in the career-management process, employees can optimize their contribution to an organization. Pharmacists can successfully manage their careers by applying the techniques of self-assessment, goal setting, and career planning. PMID:3985018

  10. Consideration of reference points for the management of renewable resources under an adaptive management paradigm

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Brian J.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The success of natural resource management depends on monitoring, assessment and enforcement. In support of these efforts, reference points (RPs) are often viewed as critical values of management-relevant indicators. This paper considers RPs from the standpoint of objective-driven decision making in dynamic resource systems, guided by principles of structured decision making (SDM) and adaptive resource management (AM). During the development of natural resource policy, RPs have been variously treated as either ‘targets’ or ‘triggers’. Under a SDM/AM paradigm, target RPs correspond approximately to value-based objectives, which may in turn be either of fundamental interest to stakeholders or intermediaries to other central objectives. By contrast, trigger RPs correspond to decision rules that are presumed to lead to desirable outcomes (such as the programme targets). Casting RPs as triggers or targets within a SDM framework is helpful towards clarifying why (or whether) a particular metric is appropriate. Further, the benefits of a SDM/AM process include elucidation of underlying untested assumptions that may reveal alternative metrics for use as RPs. Likewise, a structured decision-analytic framework may also reveal that failure to achieve management goals is not because the metrics are wrong, but because the decision-making process in which they are embedded is insufficiently robust to uncertainty, is not efficiently directed at producing a resource objective, or is incapable of adaptation to new knowledge.

  11. Adaptive mesh refinement for stochastic reaction-diffusion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bayati, Basil; Chatelain, Philippe; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2011-01-01

    We present an algorithm for adaptive mesh refinement applied to mesoscopic stochastic simulations of spatially evolving reaction-diffusion processes. The transition rates for the diffusion process are derived on adaptive, locally refined structured meshes. Convergence of the diffusion process is presented and the fluctuations of the stochastic process are verified. Furthermore, a refinement criterion is proposed for the evolution of the adaptive mesh. The method is validated in simulations of reaction-diffusion processes as described by the Fisher-Kolmogorov and Gray-Scott equations.

  12. The Value of Adaptive Regret Management in Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Jamie C.; Wrosch, Carsten; Pushkar, Dolores; Li, Karen Z. H.

    2013-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study examined the associations between regret management, everyday activities, and retirement satisfaction among recent retirees. We hypothesized that the regulation of a severe life regret can facilitate activity engagement and retirement satisfaction, but only if retirees manage their regrets adaptively by either…

  13. Managing Adaptive Challenges: Learning with Principals in Bermuda and Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor; Maslin-Ostrowski, Patricia; Hoffman, Alexander M.; Barbaro, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We interviewed eight principals from Bermuda and Florida about how they identify and manage their most pressing challenges. Their challenges are composed of both adaptive and technical work, requiring leaders to learn to diagnose and manage them. Challenges focused on change and were traced to accountability contexts, yet accountability was not…

  14. Developing adaptive capacity within groundwater abstraction management systems.

    PubMed

    Holman, I P; Trawick, P

    2011-06-01

    Groundwater is a key resource for global agricultural production but is vulnerable to a changing climate. Given significant uncertainty about future impacts, bottom-up approaches for developing adaptive capacity are a more appropriate paradigm than seeking optimal adaptation strategies that assume a high ability to predict future risks or outcomes. This paper analyses the groundwater management practices adopted at multiple scales in East Anglia, UK, to identify wider lessons for developing adaptive capacity within groundwater management. Key elements are (1) horizontal and vertical integration within resource management; (2) making better use of water resources, at all scales, which vary in space and time; (3) embedding adaptation at multiple scales (from farm to national) within an adaptive management framework which allows strategies and management decisions to be updated in the light of changing understanding or conditions; (4) facilitating the ongoing formation through collective action of local Water Abstractor Groups; (5) promoting efficient use of scarce water resources by these groups, so as to increase their power to negotiate over possible short-term license restrictions; (6) controlling abstractions within a sustainable resource management framework, whether at national (regulatory) or at local (Abstractor Group) scales, that takes account of environmental water needs; and (7) reducing non-climate pressures which have the potential to further reduce the availability of usable groundwater.

  15. Adapting livestock behaviour to achieve management goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using livestock to efficiently achieve management goals requires melding animal behavior with mechanical and electronic equipment. Practices such as autonomously obtaining individual animal liveweight when combined with individual animal electronic identification can produce numerous cost saving ad...

  16. Adapting environmental management to uncertain but inevitable change

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Sam; Fuller, Richard A.; Iwamura, Takuya; Chadès, Iadine

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of adaptation actions to protect biodiversity is limited by uncertainty about the future. One reason for this is the fear of making the wrong decisions caused by the myriad future scenarios presented to decision-makers. We propose an adaptive management (AM) method for optimally managing a population under uncertain and changing habitat conditions. Our approach incorporates multiple future scenarios and continually learns the best management strategy from observations, even as conditions change. We demonstrate the performance of our AM approach by applying it to the spatial management of migratory shorebird habitats on the East Asian–Australasian flyway, predicted to be severely impacted by future sea-level rise. By accounting for non-stationary dynamics, our solution protects 25 000 more birds per year than the current best stationary approach. Our approach can be applied to many ecological systems that require efficient adaptation strategies for an uncertain future. PMID:25972463

  17. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program: An experiment in science-based resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    kaplinski, m

    2001-12-01

    In 1996, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management (GCDAMP) program was established to provide input on Glen Canyon Dam operations and their affect on the Colorado Ecosystem in Grand Canyon. The GCDAMP is a bold experiment in federal resource management that features a governing partnership with all relevant stakeholders sitting at the same table. It is a complicated, difficult process where stakeholder-derived management actions must balance resource protection with water and power delivery compacts, the Endangered Species Act, the National Historical Preservation Act, the Grand Canyon Protection Act, National Park Service Policy, and other stakeholder concerns. The program consists of four entities: the Adaptive Management Workgroup (AMWG), the Technical Workgroup (TWG), the Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC), and independent review panels. The AMWG and TWG are federal advisory committees that consists of federal and state resource managers, Native American tribes, power, environmental and recreation interests. The AMWG is develops, evaluates and recommends alternative dam operations to the Secretary. The TWG translates AMWG policy and goals into management objectives and information needs, provides questions that serve as the basis for long-term monitoring and research activities, interprets research results from the GCMRC, and prepares reports as required for the AMWG. The GCMRC is an independent science center that is responsible for all GCDAMP monitoring and research activities. The GCMRC utilizes proposal requests with external peer review and an in-house staff that directs and synthesizes monitoring and research results. The GCMRC meets regularly with the TWG and AMWG and provides scientific information on the consequences of GCDAMP actions. Independent review panels consist of external peer review panels that provide reviews of scientific activities and the program in general, technical advice to the GCMRC, TWG and AMWG, and play a critical

  18. Improving Voluntary Environmental Management Programs: Facilitating Learning and Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genskow, Kenneth D.; Wood, Danielle M.

    2011-05-01

    Environmental planners and managers face unique challenges understanding and documenting the effectiveness of programs that rely on voluntary actions by private landowners. Programs, such as those aimed at reducing nonpoint source pollution or improving habitat, intend to reach those goals by persuading landowners to adopt behaviors and management practices consistent with environmental restoration and protection. Our purpose with this paper is to identify barriers for improving voluntary environmental management programs and ways to overcome them. We first draw upon insights regarding data, learning, and adaptation from the adaptive management and performance management literatures, describing three key issues: overcoming information constraints, structural limitations, and organizational culture. Although these lessons are applicable to a variety of voluntary environmental management programs, we then present the issues in the context of on-going research for nonpoint source water quality pollution. We end the discussion by highlighting important elements for advancing voluntary program efforts.

  19. Efficient use of information in adaptive management with an application to managing recreation near golden eagle nesting sites.

    PubMed

    Fackler, Paul L; Pacifici, Krishna; Martin, Julien; McIntyre, Carol

    2014-01-01

    It is generally the case that a significant degree of uncertainty exists concerning the behavior of ecological systems. Adaptive management has been developed to address such structural uncertainty, while recognizing that decisions must be made without full knowledge of how a system behaves. This paradigm attempts to use new information that develops during the course of management to learn how the system works. To date, however, adaptive management has used a very limited information set to characterize the learning that is possible. This paper uses an extension of the Partial Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) framework to expand the information set used to update belief in competing models. This feature can potentially increase the speed of learning through adaptive management, and lead to better management in the future. We apply this framework to a case study wherein interest lies in managing recreational restrictions around golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting sites. The ultimate management objective is to maintain an abundant eagle population in Denali National Park while minimizing the regulatory burden on park visitors. In order to capture this objective, we developed a utility function that trades off expected breeding success with hiker access. Our work is relevant to the management of human activities in protected areas, but more generally demonstrates some of the benefits of POMDP in the context of adaptive management. PMID:25098955

  20. Efficient use of information in adaptive management with an application to managing recreation near golden eagle nesting sites.

    PubMed

    Fackler, Paul L; Pacifici, Krishna; Martin, Julien; McIntyre, Carol

    2014-01-01

    It is generally the case that a significant degree of uncertainty exists concerning the behavior of ecological systems. Adaptive management has been developed to address such structural uncertainty, while recognizing that decisions must be made without full knowledge of how a system behaves. This paradigm attempts to use new information that develops during the course of management to learn how the system works. To date, however, adaptive management has used a very limited information set to characterize the learning that is possible. This paper uses an extension of the Partial Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) framework to expand the information set used to update belief in competing models. This feature can potentially increase the speed of learning through adaptive management, and lead to better management in the future. We apply this framework to a case study wherein interest lies in managing recreational restrictions around golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting sites. The ultimate management objective is to maintain an abundant eagle population in Denali National Park while minimizing the regulatory burden on park visitors. In order to capture this objective, we developed a utility function that trades off expected breeding success with hiker access. Our work is relevant to the management of human activities in protected areas, but more generally demonstrates some of the benefits of POMDP in the context of adaptive management.

  1. Efficient Use of Information in Adaptive Management with an Application to Managing Recreation near Golden Eagle Nesting Sites

    PubMed Central

    Fackler, Paul L.; Pacifici, Krishna; Martin, Julien; McIntyre, Carol

    2014-01-01

    It is generally the case that a significant degree of uncertainty exists concerning the behavior of ecological systems. Adaptive management has been developed to address such structural uncertainty, while recognizing that decisions must be made without full knowledge of how a system behaves. This paradigm attempts to use new information that develops during the course of management to learn how the system works. To date, however, adaptive management has used a very limited information set to characterize the learning that is possible. This paper uses an extension of the Partial Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) framework to expand the information set used to update belief in competing models. This feature can potentially increase the speed of learning through adaptive management, and lead to better management in the future. We apply this framework to a case study wherein interest lies in managing recreational restrictions around golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) nesting sites. The ultimate management objective is to maintain an abundant eagle population in Denali National Park while minimizing the regulatory burden on park visitors. In order to capture this objective, we developed a utility function that trades off expected breeding success with hiker access. Our work is relevant to the management of human activities in protected areas, but more generally demonstrates some of the benefits of POMDP in the context of adaptive management. PMID:25098955

  2. Soliciting scientific information and beliefs in predictive modeling and adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Post-normal science requires public engagement and adaptive corrections in addressing issues with high complexity and uncertainty. An adaptive management framework is presented for the improved management of natural resources and environments through a public participation process. The framework solicits the gathering and transformation and/or modeling of scientific information but also explicitly solicits the expression of participant beliefs. Beliefs and information are compared, explicitly discussed for alignments or misalignments, and ultimately melded back together as a "knowledge" basis for making decisions. An effort is made to recognize the human or participant biases that may affect the information base and the potential decisions. In a separate step, an attempt is made to recognize and predict the potential "winners" and "losers" (perceived or real) of any decision or action. These "winners" and "losers" include present human communities with different spatial, demographic or socio-economic characteristics as well as more dispersed or more diffusely characterized regional or global communities. "Winners" and "losers" may also include future human communities as well as communities of other biotic species. As in any adaptive management framework, assessment of predictions, iterative follow-through and adaptation of policies or actions is essential, and commonly very difficult or impossible to achieve. Recognizing beforehand the limits of adaptive management is essential. More generally, knowledge of the behavioral and economic sciences and of ethics and sociology will be key to a successful implementation of this adaptive management framework. Knowledge of biogeophysical processes will also be essential, but by definition of the issues being addressed, will always be incomplete and highly uncertain. The human dimensions of the issues addressed and the participatory processes used carry their own complexities and uncertainties. Some ideas and principles are

  3. Adaptive and Rational Anticipations in Risk Management Systems and Economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-11-01

    The global financial crisis of year 2009 is explained as a result of uncoordinated risk management decisions in business firms and economic organisations. The underlying reason for this can be found in the current financial system. As the financial market has lost much of its direct coupling to the concrete economy it provides misleading information to economic decision makers at all levels. Hence, the financial system has moved from a state of moderate and slow cyclical fluctuations into a state of fast and chaotic ones. Those misleading decisions can further be described, but not explained, by help of adaptive and rational expectations from macroeconomic theory. In this context, AE, the Adaptive Expectations are related to weak passive Exo-anticipation, and RE, the Rational expectations can be related to a strong, active and design oriented anticipation. The shortcomings of conventional cures, which builds on a reactive paradigm, have already been demonstrated in economic literature and are here further underlined by help of Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety", Weaver's distinction between systems of "Disorganized Complexity" and those of "Organized Complexity", and Klir's "Reconstructability Analysis". Anticipatory decision-making is hence here proposed as a replacement to current expectation based and passive risk management. An anticipatory model of the business cycle is presented for supporting that proposition. The model, which is an extension of the Kaldor-Kalecki model, includes both retardation and anticipation. While cybernetics with the feedback process in control system deals with an explicit goal or purpose given to a system, the anticipatory system discussed here deals with a behaviour for which the future state of the system is built by the system itself, without explicit goal. A system with weak anticipation is based on a predictive model of the system, while a system with strong anticipation builds its own future by itself. Numerical simulations on

  4. Adaptive Processes in Thalamus and Cortex Revealed by Silencing of Primary Visual Cortex during Contrast Adaptation.

    PubMed

    King, Jillian L; Lowe, Matthew P; Stover, Kurt R; Wong, Aimee A; Crowder, Nathan A

    2016-05-23

    Visual adaptation illusions indicate that our perception is influenced not only by the current stimulus but also by what we have seen in the recent past. Adaptation to stimulus contrast (the relative luminance created by edges or contours in a scene) induces the perception of the stimulus fading away and increases the contrast detection threshold in psychophysical tests [1, 2]. Neural correlates of contrast adaptation have been described throughout the visual system including the retina [3], dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) [4, 5], primary visual cortex (V1) [6], and parietal cortex [7]. The apparent ubiquity of adaptation at all stages raises the question of how this process cascades across brain regions [8]. Focusing on V1, adaptation could be inherited from pre-cortical stages, arise from synaptic depression at the thalamo-cortical synapse [9], or develop locally, but what is the weighting of these contributions? Because contrast adaptation in mouse V1 is similar to classical animal models [10, 11], we took advantage of the optogenetic tools available in mice to disentangle the processes contributing to adaptation in V1. We disrupted cortical adaptation by optogenetically silencing V1 and found that adaptation measured in V1 now resembled that observed in dLGN. Thus, the majority of adaptation seen in V1 neurons arises through local activity-dependent processes, with smaller contributions from dLGN inheritance and synaptic depression at the thalamo-cortical synapse. Furthermore, modeling indicates that divisive scaling of the weakly adapted dLGN input can predict some of the emerging features of V1 adaptation.

  5. Bridging the management-science partnership gap: Adaptive grazing management experiment in shortgrass steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Adaptive Grazing Management experiment (2013-2023) in shortgrass steppe of Colorado addresses a critical gap in grazing management: lack of management-science partnerships to more fully understand the effect of management decisions for multiple ecosystem goods and services at ranch-scales. A Sta...

  6. Adaptive Constructive Processes and the Future of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Memory serves critical functions in everyday life but is also prone to error. This article examines adaptive constructive processes, which play a functional role in memory and cognition but can also produce distortions, errors, and illusions. The article describes several types of memory errors that are produced by adaptive constructive processes…

  7. An enhanced adaptive management approach for remediation of legacy mercury in the South River.

    PubMed

    Foran, Christy M; Baker, Kelsie M; Grosso, Nancy R; Linkov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties about future conditions and the effects of chosen actions, as well as increasing resource scarcity, have been driving forces in the utilization of adaptive management strategies. However, many applications of adaptive management have been criticized for a number of shortcomings, including a limited ability to learn from actions and a lack of consideration of stakeholder objectives. To address these criticisms, we supplement existing adaptive management approaches with a decision-analytical approach that first informs the initial selection of management alternatives and then allows for periodic re-evaluation or phased implementation of management alternatives based on monitoring information and incorporation of stakeholder values. We describe the application of this enhanced adaptive management (EAM) framework to compare remedial alternatives for mercury in the South River, based on an understanding of the loading and behavior of mercury in the South River near Waynesboro, VA. The outcomes show that the ranking of remedial alternatives is influenced by uncertainty in the mercury loading model, by the relative importance placed on different criteria, and by cost estimates. The process itself demonstrates that a decision model can link project performance criteria, decision-maker preferences, environmental models, and short- and long-term monitoring information with management choices to help shape a remediation approach that provides useful information for adaptive, incremental implementation.

  8. Guiding climate change adaptation within vulnerable natural resource management systems.

    PubMed

    Bardsley, Douglas K; Sweeney, Susan M

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  9. Guiding Climate Change Adaptation Within Vulnerable Natural Resource Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, Douglas K.; Sweeney, Susan M.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change has the potential to compromise the sustainability of natural resources in Mediterranean climatic systems, such that short-term reactive responses will increasingly be insufficient to ensure effective management. There is a simultaneous need for both the clear articulation of the vulnerabilities of specific management systems to climate risk, and the development of appropriate short- and long-term strategic planning responses that anticipate environmental change or allow for sustainable adaptive management in response to trends in resource condition. Governments are developing climate change adaptation policy frameworks, but without the recognition of the importance of responding strategically, regional stakeholders will struggle to manage future climate risk. In a partnership between the South Australian Government, the Adelaide and Mt Lofty Ranges Natural Resource Management Board and the regional community, a range of available research approaches to support regional climate change adaptation decision-making, were applied and critically examined, including: scenario modelling; applied and participatory Geographical Information Systems modelling; environmental risk analysis; and participatory action learning. As managers apply ideas for adaptation within their own biophysical and socio-cultural contexts, there would be both successes and failures, but a learning orientation to societal change will enable improvements over time. A base-line target for regional responses to climate change is the ownership of the issue by stakeholders, which leads to an acceptance that effective actions to adapt are now both possible and vitally important. Beyond such baseline knowledge, the research suggests that there is a range of tools from the social and physical sciences available to guide adaptation decision-making.

  10. Adaptive Noise Suppression Using Digital Signal Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozel, David; Nelson, Richard

    1996-01-01

    A signal to noise ratio dependent adaptive spectral subtraction algorithm is developed to eliminate noise from noise corrupted speech signals. The algorithm determines the signal to noise ratio and adjusts the spectral subtraction proportion appropriately. After spectra subtraction low amplitude signals are squelched. A single microphone is used to obtain both eh noise corrupted speech and the average noise estimate. This is done by determining if the frame of data being sampled is a voiced or unvoiced frame. During unvoice frames an estimate of the noise is obtained. A running average of the noise is used to approximate the expected value of the noise. Applications include the emergency egress vehicle and the crawler transporter.

  11. Active adaptive management for reintroduction of an animal population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Captive animals are frequently reintroduced to the wild in the face of uncertainty, but that uncertainty can often be reduced over the course of the reintroduction effort, providing the opportunity for adaptive management. One common uncertainty in reintroductions is the short-term survival rate of released adults (a release cost), an important factor because it can affect whether releasing adults or juveniles is better. Information about this rate can improve the success of the reintroduction program, but does the expected gain offset the costs of obtaining the information? I explored this question for reintroduction of the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) by framing the management question as a belief Markov decision process, characterizing uncertainty about release cost with 2 information state variables, and finding the solution using stochastic dynamic programming. For a reintroduction program of fixed length (e.g., 5 years of releases), the optimal policy in the final release year resembles the deterministic solution: release either all adults or all juveniles depending on whether the point estimate for the survival rate in question is above or below a specific threshold. But the optimal policy in the earlier release years 1) includes release of a mixture of juveniles and adults under some circumstances, and 2) recommends release of adults even when the point estimate of survival is much less than the deterministic threshold. These results show that in an iterated decision setting, the optimal decision in early years can be quite different from that in later years because of the value of learning. 

  12. Adaptive Memory: Is Survival Processing Special?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nairne, James S.; Pandeirada, Josefa N. S.

    2008-01-01

    Do the operating characteristics of memory continue to bear the imprints of ancestral selection pressures? Previous work in our laboratory has shown that human memory may be specially tuned to retain information processed in terms of its survival relevance. A few seconds of survival processing in an incidental learning context can produce recall…

  13. XCPU2 process management system

    SciTech Connect

    Ionkov, Latchesar; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Xcpu2 is a new process management system that allows the users to specify custom file system for a running job. Most cluster management systems enforce single software distribution running on all nodes. Xcpu2 allows programs running on the cluster to work in environment identical to the user's desktop, using the same versions of the libraries and tools the user installed locally, and accessing the configuration file in the same places they are located on the desktop. Xcpu2 builds on our earlier work with the Xcpu system. Like Xcpu, Xcpu2's process management interface is represented as a set of files exported by a 9P file server. It supports heterogeneous clusters and multiple head nodes. Unlike Xcpu, it uses pull instead of push model. In this paper we describe the Xcpu2 clustering model, its operation and how the per-job filesystem configuration can be used to solve some of the common problems when running a cluster.

  14. Adapting hypertension self-management interventions to enhance their sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans.

    PubMed

    Ameling, Jessica M; Ephraim, Patti L; Bone, Lee R; Levine, David M; Roter, Debra L; Wolff, Jennifer L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Noronha, Gary J; Fagan, Peter J; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Cooper, Lisa A; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Albert, Michael C; Flynn, Sarah J; Boulware, L Ebony

    2014-01-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions' cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community members. The process required substantial time and resources, and the adapted interventions will be tested in a randomized controlled trial.

  15. NCCDS configuration management process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Kathy

    1993-01-01

    By concentrating on defining and improving specific Configuration Management (CM) functions, processes, procedures, personnel selection/development, and tools, internal and external customers received improved CM services. Job performance within the section increased in both satisfaction and output. Participation in achieving major improvements has led to the delivery of consistent quality CM products as well as significant decreases in every measured CM metrics category.

  16. Climate change adaptation strategies for resource management and conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Joshua J

    2009-04-01

    Recent rapid changes in the Earth's climate have altered ecological systems around the globe. Global warming has been linked to changes in physiology, phenology, species distributions, interspecific interactions, and disturbance regimes. Projected future climate change will undoubtedly result in even more dramatic shifts in the states of many ecosystems. These shifts will provide one of the largest challenges to natural resource managers and conservation planners. Managing natural resources and ecosystems in the face of uncertain climate requires new approaches. Here, the many adaptation strategies that have been proposed for managing natural systems in a changing climate are reviewed. Most of the recommended approaches are general principles and many are tools that managers are already using. What is new is a turning toward a more agile management perspective. To address climate change, managers will need to act over different spatial and temporal scales. The focus of restoration will need to shift from historic species assemblages to potential future ecosystem services. Active adaptive management based on potential future climate impact scenarios will need to be a part of everyday operations. And triage will likely become a critical option. Although many concepts and tools for addressing climate change have been proposed, key pieces of information are still missing. To successfully manage for climate change, a better understanding will be needed of which species and systems will likely be most affected by climate change, how to preserve and enhance the evolutionary capacity of species, how to implement effective adaptive management in new systems, and perhaps most importantly, in which situations and systems will the general adaptation strategies that have been proposed work and how can they be effectively applied.

  17. Adapters, strugglers, and case managers: a typology of spouse caregivers.

    PubMed

    Davis, Linda Lindsey; Chestnutt, Deborah; Molloy, Margory; Deshefy-Longhi, Tess; Shim, Bomin; Gilliss, Catherine L

    2014-11-01

    Although family home care problems are frequently described in the health care literature, the ways in which families and other informal caregivers manage those problems are not often addressed. We conducted a descriptive analysis of interviews in which spouses caring for a partner with Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease were asked to describe difficult home care problems and how they managed those problems. Analysis of these interviews indicated three recurring management styles. Adapters told stories about applying pre-existing skills to manage home care problems. Strugglers told stories of reoccurring home care problems for which they had few or no management strategies. Case managers' interview stories focused on the challenges of finding and coordinating home care services. These findings suggest that caregiving burden might be influenced more by the caregiver's management style than the demands of the care situation. Suggestions for tailoring support programs for the three types of caregivers are proposed.

  18. Approaches to evaluating climate change impacts on species: a guide to initiating the adaptation planning process.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Erika L; Davison, Jennifer E; Graumlich, Lisa J

    2011-03-01

    Assessing the impact of climate change on species and associated management objectives is a critical initial step for engaging in the adaptation planning process. Multiple approaches are available. While all possess limitations to their application associated with the uncertainties inherent in the data and models that inform their results, conducting and incorporating impact assessments into the adaptation planning process at least provides some basis for making resource management decisions that are becoming inevitable in the face of rapidly changing climate. Here we provide a non-exhaustive review of long-standing (e.g., species distribution models) and newly developed (e.g., vulnerability indices) methods used to anticipate the response to climate change of individual species as a guide for managers grappling with how to begin the climate change adaptation process. We address the limitations (e.g., uncertainties in climate change projections) associated with these methods, and other considerations for matching appropriate assessment approaches with the management questions and goals. Thorough consideration of the objectives, scope, scale, time frame and available resources for a climate impact assessment allows for informed method selection. With many data sets and tools available on-line, the capacity to undertake and/or benefit from existing species impact assessments is accessible to those engaged in resource management. With some understanding of potential impacts, even if limited, adaptation planning begins to move toward the development of management strategies and targeted actions that may help to sustain functioning ecosystems and their associated services into the future.

  19. Resource Management for Real-Time Adaptive Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Lonnie; Chelberg, David; Pfarr, Barbara; Fleeman, David; Parrott, David; Tan, Zhen-Yu; Jain, Shikha; Drews, Frank; Bruggeman, Carl; Shuler, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Increased autonomy and automation in onboard flight systems offer numerous potential benefits, including cost reduction and greater flexibility. The existence of generic mechanisms for automation is critical for handling unanticipated science events and anomalies where limitations in traditional control software with fixed, predetermined algorithms can mean loss of science data and missed opportunities for observing important terrestrial events. We have developed such a mechanism by adding a Hierarchical Agent-based ReaLTime technology (HART) extension to our Dynamic Resource Management (DRM) middleware. Traditional DRM provides mechanisms to monitor the realtime performance of distributed applications and to move applications among processors to improve real-time performance. In the HART project we have designed and implemented a performance adaptation mechanism to improve reaktime performance. To use this mechanism, applications are developed that can run at various levels of quality. The DRM can choose a setting for the quality level of an application dynamically at run-time in order to manage satellite resource usage more effectively. A groundbased prototype of a satellite system that captures and processes images has also been developed as part of this project to be used as a benchmark for evaluating the resource management framework A significant enhancement of this generic mission-independent framework allows scientists to specify the utility, or "scientific benefit," of science observations under various conditions like cloud cover and compression method. The resource manager then uses these benefit tables to determine in redtime how to set the quality levels for applications to maximize overall system utility as defined by the scientists running the mission. We also show how maintenance functions llke health and safety data can be integrated into the utility framework. Once thls framework has been certified for missions and successfully flight tested it

  20. Lessons Learned from the First Decade of Adaptive Management in Comprehensive Everglades Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although few successful examples of large-scale adaptive management applications are available to ecosystem restoration scientists and managers, examining where and how the components of an adaptive management program have been successfully implemented yields insight into what ...

  1. Learning about colonization when managing metapopulations under an adaptive management framework.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Darren M; Hauser, Cindy E; McCarthy, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive management is a framework for resolving key uncertainties while managing complex ecological systems. Its use has been prominent in fisheries research and wildlife harvesting; however, its application to other areas of environmental management remains somewhat limited. Indeed, adaptive management has not been used to guide and inform metapopulation restoration, despite considerable uncertainty surrounding such actions. In this study, we determined how best to learn about the colonization rate when managing metapopulations under an adaptive management framework. We developed a mainland-island metapopulation model based on the threatened bay checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha bayensis) and assessed three management approaches: adding new patches, adding area to existing patches, and doing nothing. Using stochastic dynamic programming, we found the optimal passive and active adaptive management strategies by monitoring colonization of vacant patches. Under a passive adaptive strategy, increasing patch area was best when the expected colonization rate was below a threshold; otherwise, adding new patches was optimal. Under an active adaptive strategy, it was best to add patches only when we were reasonably confident that the colonization rate was high. This research provides a framework for managing mainland-island metapopulations in the face of uncertainty while learning about the dynamics of these complex systems. PMID:27039525

  2. Adaptive resource management and the value of information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Byron K.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Breininger, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The value of information is a general and broadly applicable concept that has been used for several decades to aid in making decisions in the face of uncertainty. Yet there are relatively few examples of its use in ecology and natural resources management, and almost none that are framed in terms of the future impacts of management decisions. In this paper we discuss the value of information in a context of adaptive management, in which actions are taken sequentially over a timeframe and both future resource conditions and residual uncertainties about resource responses are taken into account. Our objective is to derive the value of reducing or eliminating uncertainty in adaptive decision making. We describe several measures of the value of information, with each based on management objectives that are appropriate for adaptive management. We highlight some mathematical properties of these measures, discuss their geometries, and illustrate them with an example in natural resources management. Accounting for the value of information can help to inform decisions about whether and how much to monitor resource conditions through time.

  3. Adaptive resource management and the value of information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.; Eaton, M.J.; Breininger, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    The value of information is a general and broadly applicable concept that has been used for several decades to aid in making decisions in the face of uncertainty. Yet there are relatively few examples of its use in ecology and natural resources management, and almost none that are framed in terms of the future impacts of management decisions. In this paper we discuss the value of information in a context of adaptive management, in which actions are taken sequentially over a timeframe and both future resource conditions and residual uncertainties about resource responses are taken into account. Our objective is to derive the value of reducing or eliminating uncertainty in adaptive decision making. We describe several measures of the value of information, with each based on management objectives that are appropriate for adaptive management. We highlight some mathematical properties of these measures, discuss their geometries, and illustrate them with an example in natural resources management. Accounting for the value of information can help to inform decisions about whether and how much to monitor resource conditions through time. ?? 2011.

  4. Sensory Processing Subtypes in Autism: Association with Adaptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Alison E.; Young, Robyn L.; Baker, Amy E. Z.; Angley, Manya T.

    2010-01-01

    Children with autism are frequently observed to experience difficulties in sensory processing. This study examined specific patterns of sensory processing in 54 children with autistic disorder and their association with adaptive behavior. Model-based cluster analysis revealed three distinct sensory processing subtypes in autism. These subtypes…

  5. 77 FR 30314 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... Course Road, Weaverville, CA 96093. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Meeting Information: Nancy J....

  6. Adaptive Knowledge Management of Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilchin, Oleg; Kittany, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The goal of an approach to Adaptive Knowledge Management (AKM) of project-based learning (PBL) is to intensify subject study through guiding, inducing, and facilitating development knowledge, accountability skills, and collaborative skills of students. Knowledge development is attained by knowledge acquisition, knowledge sharing, and knowledge…

  7. Adapters, Strugglers, and Case Managers: A Typology of Spouse Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Linda Lindsey; Chestnutt, Deborah; Molloy, Margory; Deshefy-Longhi, Tess; Shim, Bomin; Gilliss, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Although family home care problems are frequently described in the health care literature, the ways in which families and other informal caregivers manage those problems are not often addressed. We conducted a descriptive analysis of interviews in which spouses caring for a partner with Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease were asked to describe difficult home care problems and how they managed those problems. Analysis of these interviews indicated three recurring management styles. Adapters told stories about applying pre-existing skills to manage home care problems. Strugglers told stories of reoccurring home care problems for which they had few or no management strategies. Case Managers’ interview stories focused on the challenges of finding and coordinating home care services. These findings suggest that caregiving burden might be influenced more by the caregiver’s management style than the demands of the care situation. Suggestions for tailoring support programs for the three types of caregivers are proposed. PMID:25189535

  8. On adaptive robustness approach to Anti-Jam signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberezhskiy, Y. S.; Poberezhskiy, G. Y.

    An effective approach to exploiting statistical differences between desired and jamming signals named adaptive robustness is proposed and analyzed in this paper. It combines conventional Bayesian, adaptive, and robust approaches that are complementary to each other. This combining strengthens the advantages and mitigates the drawbacks of the conventional approaches. Adaptive robustness is equally applicable to both jammers and their victim systems. The capabilities required for realization of adaptive robustness in jammers and victim systems are determined. The employment of a specific nonlinear robust algorithm for anti-jam (AJ) processing is described and analyzed. Its effectiveness in practical situations has been proven analytically and confirmed by simulation. Since adaptive robustness can be used by both sides in electronic warfare, it is more advantageous for the fastest and most intelligent side. Many results obtained and discussed in this paper are also applicable to commercial applications such as communications in unregulated or poorly regulated frequency ranges and systems with cognitive capabilities.

  9. Adaptive management in EBIPM: A key to success in invasive plant management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    EBIPM is an important advancement in management of invasive plants. EBIPM puts land management decisions on a sound-footing based on ecological principles that cause plant community change. These principles, however, must be incorporated into the adaptive management cycle to truly make a change in h...

  10. Adaptive management in the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System: science-management partnerships for conservation delivery.

    PubMed

    Moore, Clinton T; Lonsdorf, Eric V; Knutson, Melinda G; Laskowski, Harold P; Lor, Socheata K

    2011-05-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to recurrent decision making in which uncertainty about the decision is reduced over time through comparison of outcomes predicted by competing models against observed values of those outcomes. The National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is a large land management program charged with making natural resource management decisions, which often are made under considerable uncertainty, severe operational constraints, and conditions that limit ability to precisely carry out actions as intended. The NWRS presents outstanding opportunities for the application of adaptive management, but also difficult challenges. We describe two cooperative programs between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Geological Survey to implement adaptive management at scales ranging from small, single refuge applications to large, multi-refuge, multi-region projects. Our experience to date suggests three important attributes common to successful implementation: a vigorous multi-partner collaboration, practical and informative decision framework components, and a sustained commitment to the process. Administrators in both agencies should consider these attributes when developing programs to promote the use and acceptance of adaptive management in the NWRS. PMID:21109341

  11. Adaptive management in the U.S. National Wildlife Refuge System: Science-management partnerships for conservation delivery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Lonsdorf, E.V.; Knutson, M.G.; Laskowski, H.P.; Lor, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to recurrent decision making in which uncertainty about the decision is reduced over time through comparison of outcomes predicted by competing models against observed values of those outcomes. The National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is a large land management program charged with making natural resource management decisions, which often are made under considerable uncertainty, severe operational constraints, and conditions that limit ability to precisely carry out actions as intended. The NWRS presents outstanding opportunities for the application of adaptive management, but also difficult challenges. We describe two cooperative programs between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. Geological Survey to implement adaptive management at scales ranging from small, single refuge applications to large, multi-refuge, multi-region projects. Our experience to date suggests three important attributes common to successful implementation: a vigorous multi-partner collaboration, practical and informative decision framework components, and a sustained commitment to the process. Administrators in both agencies should consider these attributes when developing programs to promote the use and acceptance of adaptive management in the NWRS. ?? 2010 .

  12. Characterizing the Networks of Digital Information that Support Collaborative Adaptive Forest Management in Sierra Nevada Forests.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shufei; Iles, Alastair; Kelly, Maggi

    2015-07-01

    Some of the factors that can contribute to the success of collaborative adaptive management--such as social learning, open communication, and trust--are built upon a foundation of the open exchange of information about science and management between participants and the public. Despite the importance of information transparency, the use and flow of information in collaborative adaptive management has not been characterized in detail in the literature, and currently there exist opportunities to develop strategies for increasing the exchange of information, as well as to track information flow in such contexts. As digital information channels and networks have been increased over the last decade, powerful new information monitoring tools have also been evolved allowing for the complete characterization of information products through their production, transport, use, and monitoring. This study uses these tools to investigate the use of various science and management information products in a case study--the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project--using a mixed method (citation analysis, web analytics, and content analysis) research approach borrowed from the information processing and management field. The results from our case study show that information technologies greatly facilitate the flow and use of digital information, leading to multiparty collaborations such as knowledge transfer and public participation in science research. We conclude with recommendations for expanding information exchange in collaborative adaptive management by taking advantage of available information technologies and networks. PMID:25877459

  13. Characterizing the Networks of Digital Information that Support Collaborative Adaptive Forest Management in Sierra Nevada Forests.

    PubMed

    Lei, Shufei; Iles, Alastair; Kelly, Maggi

    2015-07-01

    Some of the factors that can contribute to the success of collaborative adaptive management--such as social learning, open communication, and trust--are built upon a foundation of the open exchange of information about science and management between participants and the public. Despite the importance of information transparency, the use and flow of information in collaborative adaptive management has not been characterized in detail in the literature, and currently there exist opportunities to develop strategies for increasing the exchange of information, as well as to track information flow in such contexts. As digital information channels and networks have been increased over the last decade, powerful new information monitoring tools have also been evolved allowing for the complete characterization of information products through their production, transport, use, and monitoring. This study uses these tools to investigate the use of various science and management information products in a case study--the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project--using a mixed method (citation analysis, web analytics, and content analysis) research approach borrowed from the information processing and management field. The results from our case study show that information technologies greatly facilitate the flow and use of digital information, leading to multiparty collaborations such as knowledge transfer and public participation in science research. We conclude with recommendations for expanding information exchange in collaborative adaptive management by taking advantage of available information technologies and networks.

  14. Systems identification and the adaptive management of waterfowl in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.; Nichols, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    Waterfowl management in the United States is one of the more visible conservation success stories in the United States. It is authorized and supported by appropriate legislative authorities, based on large-scale monitoring programs, and widely accepted by the public. The process is one of only a limited number of large-scale examples of effective collaboration between research and management, integrating scientific information with management in a coherent framework for regulatory decision-making. However, harvest management continues to face some serious technical problems, many of which focus on sequential identification of the resource system in a context of optimal decision-making. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical foundation of adaptive harvest management, the approach currently in use in the United States for regulatory decision-making. We lay out the legal and institutional framework for adaptive harvest management and provide a formal description of regulatory decision-making in terms of adaptive optimization. We discuss some technical and institutional challenges in applying adaptive harvest management and focus specifically on methods of estimating resource states for linear resource systems.

  15. Dynamic and adaptive data-management in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassnig, Mario; Garonne, Vincent; Branco, Miguel; Molfetas, Angelos

    2010-04-01

    Distributed data-management on the grid is subject to huge uncertainties yet static policies govern its usage. Due to the unpredictability of user behaviour, the high-latency and the heterogeneous nature of the environment, distributed data-management on the grid is challenging. In this paper we present the first steps towards a future dynamic data-management system that adapts to the changing conditions and environment. Such a system would eliminate the number of manual interventions and remove unnecessary software layers, thereby providing a higher quality of service to the collaboration.

  16. Adaptive Management and Monitoring as Fundamental Tools to Effective Salt Marsh Restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management as applied to ecological restoration is a systematic decision-making process in which the results of restoration activities are repeatedly monitored and evaluated to provide guidance that can be used in determining any necessary future restoration actions. In...

  17. Recasting Hope: a process of adaptation following fetal anomaly diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lalor, Joan; Begley, Cecily M; Galavan, Eoin

    2009-02-01

    Recent decades have seen ultrasound revolutionise the management of pregnancy and its possible complications. However, somewhat less consideration has been given to the psychosocial consequences of mass screening resulting in fetal anomaly detection in low-risk populations, particularly in contexts where termination of pregnancy services are not readily accessible. A grounded theory study was conducted exploring forty-one women's experiences of ultrasound diagnosis of fetal abnormality up to and beyond the birth in the Republic of Ireland. Thirty-one women chose to continue the pregnancy and ten women accessed termination of pregnancy services outside the state. Data were collected using repeated in-depth individual interviews pre- and post-birth and analysed using the constant comparative method. Recasting Hope, the process of adaptation following diagnosis is represented temporally as four phases: 'Assume Normal', 'Shock', 'Gaining Meaning' and 'Rebuilding'. Some mothers expressed a sense of incredulity when informed of the anomaly and the 'Assume Normal' phase provides an improved understanding as to why women remain unprepared for an adverse diagnosis. Transition to phase 2, 'Shock,' is characterised by receiving the diagnosis and makes explicit women's initial reactions. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, a process of 'Gaining Meaning' commences, whereby an attempt to make sense of this ostensibly negative event begins. 'Rebuilding', the final stage in the process, is concerned with the extent to which women recover from the loss and resolve the inconsistency between their experience and their previous expectations of pregnancy in particular and beliefs in the world in general. This theory contributes to the theoretical field of thanatology as applied to the process of grieving associated with the loss of an ideal child. The framework of Recasting Hope is intended for use as a tool to assist health professionals through offering simple yet effective

  18. Improving environmental and social targeting through adaptive management in Mexico's payments for hydrological services program.

    PubMed

    Sims, Katharine R E; Alix-Garcia, Jennifer M; Shapiro-Garza, Elizabeth; Fine, Leah R; Radeloff, Volker C; Aronson, Glen; Castillo, Selene; Ramirez-Reyes, Carlos; Yañez-Pagans, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Natural resource managers are often expected to achieve both environmental protection and economic development even when there are fundamental trade-offs between these goals. Adaptive management provides a theoretical structure for program administrators to balance social priorities in the presence of trade-offs and to improve conservation targeting. We used the case of Mexico's federal Payments for Hydrological Services program (PSAH) to illustrate the importance of adaptive management for improving program targeting. We documented adaptive elements of PSAH and corresponding changes in program eligibility and selection criteria. To evaluate whether these changes resulted in enrollment of lands of high environmental and social priority, we compared the environmental and social characteristics of the areas enrolled in the program with the characteristics of all forested areas in Mexico, all areas eligible for the program, and all areas submitted for application to the program. The program successfully enrolled areas of both high ecological and social priority, and over time, adaptive changes in the program's criteria for eligibility and selection led to increased enrollment of land scoring high on both dimensions. Three factors facilitated adaptive management in Mexico and are likely to be generally important for conservation managers: a supportive political environment, including financial backing and encouragement to experiment from the federal government; availability of relatively good social and environmental data; and active participation in the review process by stakeholders and outside evaluators.

  19. Improving environmental and social targeting through adaptive management in Mexico's payments for hydrological services program.

    PubMed

    Sims, Katharine R E; Alix-Garcia, Jennifer M; Shapiro-Garza, Elizabeth; Fine, Leah R; Radeloff, Volker C; Aronson, Glen; Castillo, Selene; Ramirez-Reyes, Carlos; Yañez-Pagans, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Natural resource managers are often expected to achieve both environmental protection and economic development even when there are fundamental trade-offs between these goals. Adaptive management provides a theoretical structure for program administrators to balance social priorities in the presence of trade-offs and to improve conservation targeting. We used the case of Mexico's federal Payments for Hydrological Services program (PSAH) to illustrate the importance of adaptive management for improving program targeting. We documented adaptive elements of PSAH and corresponding changes in program eligibility and selection criteria. To evaluate whether these changes resulted in enrollment of lands of high environmental and social priority, we compared the environmental and social characteristics of the areas enrolled in the program with the characteristics of all forested areas in Mexico, all areas eligible for the program, and all areas submitted for application to the program. The program successfully enrolled areas of both high ecological and social priority, and over time, adaptive changes in the program's criteria for eligibility and selection led to increased enrollment of land scoring high on both dimensions. Three factors facilitated adaptive management in Mexico and are likely to be generally important for conservation managers: a supportive political environment, including financial backing and encouragement to experiment from the federal government; availability of relatively good social and environmental data; and active participation in the review process by stakeholders and outside evaluators. PMID:25039240

  20. Innovation Process Design: A Change Management and Innovation Dimension Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peisl, Thomas; Reger, Veronika; Schmied, Juergen

    The authors propose an innovative approach to the management of innovation integrating business, process, and maturity dimensions. Core element of the concept is the adaptation of ISO/IEC 15504 to the innovation process including 14 innovation drivers. Two managerial models are applied to conceptualize and visualize the respective innovation strategies, the Balanced Scorecard and a Barriers in Change Processes Model. An illustrative case study shows a practical implementation process.

  1. Accelerating adaptation of natural resource management to address climate change.

    PubMed

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn A F

    2013-02-01

    Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants' self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world.

  2. Adaptive constructive processes and the future of memory

    PubMed Central

    Schacter, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Memory serves critical functions in everyday life, but is also prone to error. This article examines adaptive constructive processes, which play a functional role in memory and cognition but can also produce distortions, errors, or illusions. The article describes several types of memory errors that are produced by adaptive constructive processes, and focuses in particular on the process of imagining or simulating events that might occur in one’s personal future. Simulating future events relies on many of the same cognitive and neural processes as remembering past events, which may help to explain why imagination and memory can be easily confused. The article considers both pitfalls and adaptive aspects of future event simulation in the context of research on planning, prediction, problem solving, mind-wandering, prospective and retrospective memory, coping and positivity bias, and the interconnected set of brain regions known as the default network. PMID:23163437

  3. True-Time-Delay Adaptive Array Processing Using Photorefractive Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriehn, G. R.; Wagner, K.

    Radio frequency (RF) signal processing has proven to be a fertile application area when using photorefractive-based, optical processing techniques. This is due to a photorefractive material's capability to record gratings and diffract off these gratings with optically modulated beams that contain a wide RF bandwidth, and include applications such as the bias-free time-integrating correlator [1], adaptive signal processing, and jammer excision, [2, 3, 4]. Photorefractive processing of signals from RF antenna arrays is especially appropriate because of the massive parallelism that is readily achievable in a photorefractive crystal (in which many resolvable beams can be incident on a single crystal simultaneously—each coming from an optical modulator driven by a separate RF antenna element), and because a number of approaches for adaptive array processing using photorefractive crystals have been successfully investigated [5, 6]. In these types of applications, the adaptive weight coefficients are represented by the amplitude and phase of the holographic gratings, and many millions of such adaptive weights can be multiplexed within the volume of a photorefractive crystal. RF modulated optical signals from each array element are diffracted from the adaptively recorded photorefractive gratings (which can be multiplexed either angularly or spatially), and are then coherently combined with the appropriate amplitude weights and phase shifts to effectively steer the angular receptivity pattern of the antenna array toward the desired arriving signal. Likewise, the antenna nulls can also be rotated toward unwanted narrowband jammers for extinction, thereby optimizing the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio.

  4. Designing Forest Adaptation Experiments through Manager-Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, L. M.; Swanston, C.; Janowiak, M.

    2014-12-01

    Three common forest adaptation options discussed in the context of an uncertain future climate are: creating resistance, promoting resilience, and enabling forests to respond to change. Though there is consensus on the broad management goals addressed by each of these options, translating these concepts into management plans specific for individual forest types that vary in structure, composition, and function remains a challenge. We will describe a decision-making framework that we employed within a manager-scientist partnership to develop a suite of adaptation treatments for two contrasting forest types as part of a long-term forest management experiment. The first, in northern Minnesota, is a red pine-dominated forest with components of white pine, aspen, paper birch, and northern red oak, with a hazel understory. The second, in southwest Colorado, is a warm-dry mixed conifer forest dominated by ponderosa pine, white fir, and Douglas-fir, with scattered aspen and an understory of Gambel oak. The current conditions at both sites are characterized by overstocking with moderate-to-high fuel loading, vulnerability to numerous forest health threats, and are generally uncharacteristic of historic structure and composition. The desired future condition articulated by managers for each site included elements of historic structure and natural range of variability, but were greatly tempered by known vulnerabilities and projected changes to climate and disturbance patterns. The resultant range of treatments we developed are distinct for each forest type, and address a wide range of management objectives.

  5. Surprise and opportunity for learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melis, Theodore S.; Walters, Carl; Korman, Josh

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  6. Characterizing the Networks of Digital Information that Support Collaborative Adaptive Forest Management in Sierra Nevada Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Shufei; Iles, Alastair; Kelly, Maggi

    2015-07-01

    Some of the factors that can contribute to the success of collaborative adaptive management—such as social learning, open communication, and trust—are built upon a foundation of the open exchange of information about science and management between participants and the public. Despite the importance of information transparency, the use and flow of information in collaborative adaptive management has not been characterized in detail in the literature, and currently there exist opportunities to develop strategies for increasing the exchange of information, as well as to track information flow in such contexts. As digital information channels and networks have been increased over the last decade, powerful new information monitoring tools have also been evolved allowing for the complete characterization of information products through their production, transport, use, and monitoring. This study uses these tools to investigate the use of various science and management information products in a case study—the Sierra Nevada Adaptive Management Project—using a mixed method (citation analysis, web analytics, and content analysis) research approach borrowed from the information processing and management field. The results from our case study show that information technologies greatly facilitate the flow and use of digital information, leading to multiparty collaborations such as knowledge transfer and public participation in science research. We conclude with recommendations for expanding information exchange in collaborative adaptive management by taking advantage of available information technologies and networks.

  7. Adopting public values and climate change adaptation strategies in urban forest management: A review and analysis of the relevant literature.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez Barona, Camilo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees are a dominant natural element in cities; they provide important ecosystem services to urban citizens and help urban areas adapt to climate change. Many rationales have been proposed to provide a purpose for urban forest management, some of which have been ineffective in addressing important ecological and social management themes. Among these rationales we find a values-based perspective, which sees management as a process where the desires of urban dwellers are met. Another perspective is climate change adaptation, which sees management as a process where urban forest vulnerability to climate change is reduced and resilience enhanced. Both these rationales have the advantage of complementing, enhancing, and broadening urban forest management objectives. A critical analysis of the literature on public values related to urban forests and climate change adaptation in the context of urban forests is undertaken to discuss what it means to adopt these two issues in urban forest management. The analysis suggests that by seeing urban forest management as a process by which public values are satisfied and urban-forest vulnerabilities to climate change are reduced, we can place issues such as naturalization, adaptive management, and engaging people in management at the centre of urban forest management. Focusing urban forest management on these issues may help ensure the success of programs focused on planting more trees and increasing citizen participation in urban forest management. PMID:26410091

  8. Adopting public values and climate change adaptation strategies in urban forest management: A review and analysis of the relevant literature.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez Barona, Camilo

    2015-12-01

    Urban trees are a dominant natural element in cities; they provide important ecosystem services to urban citizens and help urban areas adapt to climate change. Many rationales have been proposed to provide a purpose for urban forest management, some of which have been ineffective in addressing important ecological and social management themes. Among these rationales we find a values-based perspective, which sees management as a process where the desires of urban dwellers are met. Another perspective is climate change adaptation, which sees management as a process where urban forest vulnerability to climate change is reduced and resilience enhanced. Both these rationales have the advantage of complementing, enhancing, and broadening urban forest management objectives. A critical analysis of the literature on public values related to urban forests and climate change adaptation in the context of urban forests is undertaken to discuss what it means to adopt these two issues in urban forest management. The analysis suggests that by seeing urban forest management as a process by which public values are satisfied and urban-forest vulnerabilities to climate change are reduced, we can place issues such as naturalization, adaptive management, and engaging people in management at the centre of urban forest management. Focusing urban forest management on these issues may help ensure the success of programs focused on planting more trees and increasing citizen participation in urban forest management.

  9. Adaptive harvest management of North American waterfowl populations - recent successes and future prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Runge, M.C.; Johnson, F.A.; Williams, B.K.; Schodde, Richard; Hannon, Susan; Scheiffarth, Gregor; Bairlein, Franz

    2006-01-01

    The history of North American waterfowl harvest management has been characterized by attempts to use population monitoring data to make informed harvest management decisions. Early attempts can be characterized as intuitive decision processes, and later efforts were guided increasingly by population models and associated predictions. In 1995, a formal adaptive management process was implemented, and annual decisions about duck harvest regulations in the United States are still based on this process. This formal decision process is designed to deal appropriately with the various forms of uncertainty that characterize management decisions, environmental uncertainty, structural uncertainty, partial controllability and partial observability. The key components of the process are (1) objectives, (2) potential management actions, (3) model(s) of population response to management actions, (4) credibility measures for these models, and (5) a monitoring program. The operation of this iterative process is described, and a brief history of a decade of its use is presented. Future challenges range from social and political issues such as appropriate objectives and management actions, to technical issues such as multispecies management, geographic allocation of harvest, and incorporation of actions that include habitat acquisition and management.

  10. Climate change adaptation through urban heat management in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Stone, Brian; Vargo, Jason; Liu, Peng; Hu, Yongtao; Russell, Armistead

    2013-07-16

    This study explores the potential effectiveness of metropolitan land cover change as a climate change adaptation strategy for managing rising temperatures in a large and rapidly warming metropolitan region of the United States. Through the integration of a mesoscale meteorological model with estimated land cover data for the Atlanta, Georgia region in 2010, this study quantifies the influence of extensive land cover change at the periphery of a large metropolitan region on temperature within the city center. The first study to directly model a metropolitan scale heat transfer mechanism, we find both enhanced tree canopy and impervious cover in the suburban zones of the Atlanta region to produce statistically significant cooling and warming effects in the urban core. Based on these findings, we conclude that urban heat island management both within and beyond the central developed core of large cities may provide an effective climate change adaptation strategy for large metropolitan regions.

  11. Applying statistical process control to the adaptive rate control problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, Nelson R.; Willebeek-LeMair, Marc H.; Prakash, Atul

    1997-12-01

    Due to the heterogeneity and shared resource nature of today's computer network environments, the end-to-end delivery of multimedia requires adaptive mechanisms to be effective. We present a framework for the adaptive streaming of heterogeneous media. We introduce the application of online statistical process control (SPC) to the problem of dynamic rate control. In SPC, the goal is to establish (and preserve) a state of statistical quality control (i.e., controlled variability around a target mean) over a process. We consider the end-to-end streaming of multimedia content over the internet as the process to be controlled. First, at each client, we measure process performance and apply statistical quality control (SQC) with respect to application-level requirements. Then, we guide an adaptive rate control (ARC) problem at the server based on the statistical significance of trends and departures on these measurements. We show this scheme facilitates handling of heterogeneous media. Last, because SPC is designed to monitor long-term process performance, we show that our online SPC scheme could be used to adapt to various degrees of long-term (network) variability (i.e., statistically significant process shifts as opposed to short-term random fluctuations). We develop several examples and analyze its statistical behavior and guarantees.

  12. Conditions and limitations on learning in the adaptive management of mallard harvests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, F.A.; Kendall, W.L.; Dubovsky, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1995, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service adopted a protocol for the adaptive management of waterfowl hunting regulations (AHM) to help reduce uncertainty about the magnitude of sustainable harvests. To date, the AHM process has focused principally on the midcontinent population of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), whose dynamics are described by 4 alternative models. Collectively, these models express uncertainty (or disagreement) about whether harvest is an additive or a compensatory form of mortality and whether the reproductive process is weakly or strongly density-dependent. Each model is associated with a probability or 'weight,' which describes its relative ability to predict changes in population size. These Bayesian probabilities are updated annually using a comparison of population size predicted under each model with that observed by a monitoring program. The current AHM process is passively adaptive, in the sense that there is no a priori consideration of how harvest decisions might affect discrimination among models. We contrast this approach with an actively adaptive approach, in which harvest decisions are used in part to produce the learning needed to increase long-term management performance. Our investigation suggests that the passive approach is expected to perform nearly as well as an optimal actively adaptive approach, particularly considering the nature of the model set, management objectives and constraints, and current regulatory alternatives. We offer some comments about the nature of the biological hypotheses being tested and describe some of the inherent limitations on learning in the AHM process.

  13. Configuration Management Process Assessment Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Thad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a strategy for assessing the development and effectiveness of configuration management systems within Programs, Projects, and Design Activities performed by technical organizations and their supporting development contractors. Scope: Various entities CM Systems will be assessed dependent on Project Scope (DDT&E), Support Services and Acquisition Agreements. Approach: Model based structured against assessing organizations CM requirements including best practices maturity criteria. The model is tailored to the entity being assessed dependent on their CM system. The assessment approach provides objective feedback to Engineering and Project Management of the observed CM system maturity state versus the ideal state of the configuration management processes and outcomes(system). center dot Identifies strengths and risks versus audit gotcha's (findings/observations). center dot Used "recursively and iteratively" throughout program lifecycle at select points of need. (Typical assessments timing is Post PDR/Post CDR) center dot Ideal state criteria and maturity targets are reviewed with the assessed entity prior to an assessment (Tailoring) and is dependent on the assessed phase of the CM system. center dot Supports exit success criteria for Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews. center dot Gives a comprehensive CM system assessment which ultimately supports configuration verification activities.*

  14. Fuzzy Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Adaptive Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, N.

    2006-12-01

    The dramatic changes of societal complexity due to intensive interactions among agricultural, industrial, and municipal sectors have resulted in acute issues of water resources redistribution and water quality management in many river basins. Given the fact that integrated watershed management is more a political and societal than a technical challenge, there is a need for developing a compelling method leading to justify a water-based land use program in some critical regions. Adaptive watershed management is viewed as an indispensable tool nowadays for providing step-wise constructive decision support that is concerned with all related aspects of the water consumption cycle and those facilities affecting water quality and quantity temporally and spatially. Yet the greatest challenge that decision makers face today is to consider how to leverage ambiguity, paradox, and uncertainty to their competitive advantage of management policy quantitatively. This paper explores a fuzzy multicriteria evaluation method for water resources redistribution and subsequent water quality management with respect to a multipurpose channel-reservoir system--the Tseng- Wen River Basin, South Taiwan. Four fuzzy operators tailored for this fuzzy multicriteria decision analysis depict greater flexibility in representing the complexity of various possible trade-offs among management alternatives constrained by physical, economic, and technical factors essential for adaptive watershed management. The management strategies derived may enable decision makers to integrate a vast number of internal weirs, water intakes, reservoirs, drainage ditches, transfer pipelines, and wastewater treatment facilities within the basin and bring up the permitting issue for transboundary diversion from a neighboring river basin. Experience gained indicates that the use of different types of fuzzy operators is highly instructive, which also provide unique guidance collectively for achieving the overarching goals

  15. Confronting Complexity: Adaptation Strategies for Managing Biodiversity in the Face of Rapid Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graumlich, L.; Cross, M.; Tabor, G.; Enquist, C.; Rowland, E.

    2008-12-01

    There is no doubt that the montane landscapes of the Western US are being transformed by a complex interplay of changing climate, growing urban centers, altered disturbance regimes and invasive species. Among this suite of drivers of change, climate change has emerged as a critical concern of managers and agencies concerned with protected areas and protected species. These managers are under intensifying pressure to come up with scientifically robust and socially acceptable plans for adaptation to climate change. Those charged with managing biodiversity in the face of change have turned to the scientific community for decision support tools that they can implement immediately to proactively address adaptation. Broadly speaking, this is good news for that part of the scientific community that is keen to engage in translational science, even if the timeline is a bit breathtaking. A key challenge in this endeavor is to find common ground between all those issues that define complexity for the scientific community (e.g., nonlinearity, thresholds, cross-scale interactions) and a range of issues that define complexity for the management community (e.g., multiple jurisdictions, regulatory issues, values of diverse stakeholders). In this talk, we reflect on emerging strategies that seek to infuse adaptation into climate change into landscape scale conservation planning in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and the Southwestern US. We describe how climate change challenges current adaptive management practices to 1) anticipate a broad range of climate trajectories, including no-analog scenarios, and 2) to actively incorporate new information from positive outcomes and negative consequences of management interventions. The success of such adaption hinges on public understanding and acceptance of the process of adaption, which, in turn, demands even greater attention to be paid to increasing public understanding of the intersection of climate change and the role of

  16. Towards adaptive and integrated management paradigms to meet the challenges of water governance.

    PubMed

    Halbe, J; Pahl-Wostl, C; Sendzimir, J; Adamowski, J

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) aims at finding practical and sustainable solutions to water resource issues. Research and practice have shown that innovative methods and tools are not sufficient to implement IWRM - the concept needs to also be integrated in prevailing management paradigms and institutions. Water governance science addresses this human dimension by focusing on the analysis of regulatory processes that influence the behavior of actors in water management systems. This paper proposes a new methodology for the integrated analysis of water resources management and governance systems in order to elicit and analyze case-specific management paradigms. It builds on the Management and Transition Framework (MTF) that allows for the examination of structures and processes underlying water management and governance. The new methodology presented in this paper combines participatory modeling and analysis of the governance system by using the MTF to investigate case-specific management paradigms. The linking of participatory modeling and research on complex management and governance systems allows for the transfer of knowledge between scientific, policy, engineering and local communities. In this way, the proposed methodology facilitates assessment and implementation of transformation processes towards IWRM that require also the adoption of adaptive management principles. A case study on flood management in the Tisza River Basin in Hungary is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed methodology.

  17. Pathology and failure in the design and implementation of adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Gunderson, Lance H.

    2011-01-01

    The conceptual underpinnings for adaptive management are simple; there will always be inherent uncertainty and unpredictability in the dynamics and behavior of complex ecological systems as a result non-linear interactions among components and emergence, yet management decisions must still be made. The strength of adaptive management is in the recognition and confrontation of such uncertainty. Rather than ignore uncertainty, or use it to preclude management actions, adaptive management can foster resilience and flexibility to cope with an uncertain future, and develop safe to fail management approaches that acknowledge inevitable changes and surprises. Since its initial introduction, adaptive management has been hailed as a solution to endless trial and error approaches to complex natural resource management challenges. However, its implementation has failed more often than not. It does not produce easy answers, and it is appropriate in only a subset of natural resource management problems. Clearly adaptive management has great potential when applied appropriately. Just as clearly adaptive management has seemingly failed to live up to its high expectations. Why? We outline nine pathologies and challenges that can lead to failure in adaptive management programs. We focus on general sources of failures in adaptive management, so that others can avoid these pitfalls in the future. Adaptive management can be a powerful and beneficial tool when applied correctly to appropriate management problems; the challenge is to keep the concept of adaptive management from being hijacked for inappropriate use.

  18. Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO™) in Mexico City: Integrating Cultural Adaptation Activities in an Implementation Model

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Ana A.; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M.; Amador, Nancy G.; Forgatch, Marion S.; Parra-Cardona, J. Rubén

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the process of cultural adaptation at the start of the implementation of the Parent Management Training intervention-Oregon model (PMTO) in Mexico City. The implementation process was guided by the model, and the cultural adaptation of PMTO was theoretically guided by the cultural adaptation process (CAP) model. During the process of the adaptation, we uncovered the potential for the CAP to be embedded in the implementation process, taking into account broader training and economic challenges and opportunities. We discuss how cultural adaptation and implementation processes are inextricably linked and iterative and how maintaining a collaborative relationship with the treatment developer has guided our work and has helped expand our research efforts, and how building human capital to implement PMTO in Mexico supported the implementation efforts of PMTO in other places in the United States. PMID:26052184

  19. Adapting the Transtheoretical Model of Change to the Bereavement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderwood, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    Theorists currently believe that bereaved people undergo some transformation of self rather than returning to their original state. To advance our understanding of this process, this article presents an adaptation of Prochaska and DiClemente's transtheoretical model of change as it could be applied to the journey that bereaved individuals…

  20. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Peter; Rosenior-Patten, Onayomi; Dahmen, Johannes C; Bell, Olivia; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The brain possesses a remarkable capacity to compensate for changes in inputs resulting from a range of sensory impairments. Developmental studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation to asymmetric hearing loss can be achieved either by reinterpreting altered spatial cues or by relying more on those cues that remain intact. Adaptation to monaural deprivation in adulthood is also possible, but appears to lack such flexibility. Here we show, however, that appropriate behavioral training enables monaurally-deprived adult humans to exploit both of these adaptive processes. Moreover, cortical recordings in ferrets reared with asymmetric hearing loss suggest that these forms of plasticity have distinct neural substrates. An ability to adapt to asymmetric hearing loss using multiple adaptive processes is therefore shared by different species and may persist throughout the lifespan. This highlights the fundamental flexibility of neural systems, and may also point toward novel therapeutic strategies for treating sensory disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12264.001 PMID:27008181

  1. Adaptive beamforming for array signal processing in aeroacoustic measurements.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xun; Bai, Long; Vinogradov, Igor; Peers, Edward

    2012-03-01

    Phased microphone arrays have become an important tool in the localization of noise sources for aeroacoustic applications. In most practical aerospace cases the conventional beamforming algorithm of the delay-and-sum type has been adopted. Conventional beamforming cannot take advantage of knowledge of the noise field, and thus has poorer resolution in the presence of noise and interference. Adaptive beamforming has been used for more than three decades to address these issues and has already achieved various degrees of success in areas of communication and sonar. In this work an adaptive beamforming algorithm designed specifically for aeroacoustic applications is discussed and applied to practical experimental data. It shows that the adaptive beamforming method could save significant amounts of post-processing time for a deconvolution method. For example, the adaptive beamforming method is able to reduce the DAMAS computation time by at least 60% for the practical case considered in this work. Therefore, adaptive beamforming can be considered as a promising signal processing method for aeroacoustic measurements.

  2. 78 FR 54482 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to provide advice and recommendations to the Secretary concerning the operation of Glen Canyon...

  3. 76 FR 54487 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... Canyon Dam and the exercise of other authorities pursuant to applicable Federal law. FOR...

  4. The role of adaptive management as an operational approach for resource management agencies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.L.

    1999-01-01

    In making resource management decisions, agencies use a variety of approaches that involve different levels of political concern, historical precedence, data analyses, and evaluation. Traditional decision-making approaches have often failed to achieve objectives for complex problems in large systems, such as the Everglades or the Colorado River. I contend that adaptive management is the best approach available to agencies for addressing this type of complex problem, although its success has been limited thus far. Traditional decision-making approaches have been fairly successful at addressing relatively straightforward problems in small, replicated systems, such as management of trout in small streams or pulp production in forests. However, this success may be jeopardized as more users place increasing demands on these systems. Adaptive management has received little attention from agencies for addressing problems in small-scale systems, but I suggest that it may be a useful approach for creating a holistic view of common problems and developing guidelines that can then be used in simpler, more traditional approaches to management. Although adaptive management may be more expensive to initiate than traditional approaches, it may be less expensive in the long run if it leads to more effective management. The overall goal of adaptive management is not to maintain an optimal condition of the resource, but to develop an optimal management capacity. This is accomplished by maintaining ecological resilience that allows the system to react to inevitable stresses, and generating flexibility in institutions and stakeholders that allows managers to react when conditions change. The result is that, rather than managing for a single, optimal state, we manage within a range of acceptable outcomes while avoiding catastrophes and irreversible negative effects. Copyright ?? 1999 by The Resilience Alliance.

  5. Flexible Ubiquitous Learning Management System Adapted to Learning Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ji-Seong; Kim, Mihye; Park, Chan; Yoo, Jae-Soo; Yoo, Kwan-Hee

    This paper proposes a u-learning management system (ULMS) appropriate to the ubiquitous learning environment, with emphasis on the significance of context awareness and adaptation in learning. The proposed system supports the basic functions of an e-learning management system and incorporates a number of tools and additional features to provide a more customized learning service. The proposed system automatically corresponds to various forms of user terminal without modifying the existing system. The functions, formats, and course learning activities of the system are dynamically and adaptively constructed at runtime according to user terminals, course types, pedagogical goals as well as student characteristics and learning context. A prototype for university use has been implemented to demonstrate and evaluate the proposed approach. We regard the proposed ULMS as an ideal u-learning system because it can not only lead students into continuous and mobile 'anytime, anywhere' learning using any kind of terminal, but can also foster enhanced self-directed learning through the establishment of an adaptive learning environment.

  6. Quantum state and process tomography via adaptive measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, HengYan; Zheng, WenQiang; Yu, NengKun; Li, KeRen; Lu, DaWei; Xin, Tao; Li, Carson; Ji, ZhengFeng; Kribs, David; Zeng, Bei; Peng, XinHua; Du, JiangFeng

    2016-10-01

    We investigate quantum state tomography (QST) for pure states and quantum process tomography (QPT) for unitary channels via adaptive measurements. For a quantum system with a d-dimensional Hilbert space, we first propose an adaptive protocol where only 2 d - 1 measurement outcomes are used to accomplish the QST for all pure states. This idea is then extended to study QPT for unitary channels, where an adaptive unitary process tomography (AUPT) protocol of d 2+ d-1 measurement outcomes is constructed for any unitary channel. We experimentally implement the AUPT protocol in a 2-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance system. We examine the performance of the AUPT protocol when applied to Hadamard gate, T gate ( π/8 phase gate), and controlled-NOT gate, respectively, as these gates form the universal gate set for quantum information processing purpose. As a comparison, standard QPT is also implemented for each gate. Our experimental results show that the AUPT protocol that reconstructing unitary channels via adaptive measurements significantly reduce the number of experiments required by standard QPT without considerable loss of fidelity.

  7. Adaptive Process Control with Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision-making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  8. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  9. Epidemic processes over adaptive state-dependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Masaki; Preciado, Victor M.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we study the dynamics of epidemic processes taking place in adaptive networks of arbitrary topology. We focus our study on the adaptive susceptible-infected-susceptible (ASIS) model, where healthy individuals are allowed to temporarily cut edges connecting them to infected nodes in order to prevent the spread of the infection. In this paper we derive a closed-form expression for a lower bound on the epidemic threshold of the ASIS model in arbitrary networks with heterogeneous node and edge dynamics. For networks with homogeneous node and edge dynamics, we show that the resulting lower bound is proportional to the epidemic threshold of the standard SIS model over static networks, with a proportionality constant that depends on the adaptation rates. Furthermore, based on our results, we propose an efficient algorithm to optimally tune the adaptation rates in order to eradicate epidemic outbreaks in arbitrary networks. We confirm the tightness of the proposed lower bounds with several numerical simulations and compare our optimal adaptation rates with popular centrality measures.

  10. Efficient true-time-delay adaptive array processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Kelvin H.; Kraut, Shawn; Griffiths, Lloyd J.; Weaver, Samuel P.; Weverka, Robert T.; Sarto, Anthony W.

    1996-11-01

    We present a novel and efficient approach to true-time-delay (TTD) beamforming for large adaptive phased arrays with N elements, for application in radar, sonar, and communication. This broadband and efficient adaptive method for time-delay array processing algorithm decreases the number of tapped delay lines required for N-element arrays form N to only 2, producing an enormous savings in optical hardware, especially for large arrays. This new adaptive system provides the full NM degrees of freedom of a conventional N element time delay beamformer with M taps, each, enabling it to fully and optimally adapt to an arbitrary complex spatio-temporal signal environment that can contain broadband signals, noise, and narrowband and broadband jammers, all of which can arrive from arbitrary angles onto an arbitrarily shaped array. The photonic implementation of this algorithm uses index gratings produce in the volume of photorefractive crystals as the adaptive weights in a TTD beamforming network, 1 or 2 acousto-optic devices for signal injection, and 1 or 2 time-delay-and- integrate detectors for signal extraction. This approach achieves significant reduction in hardware complexity when compared to systems employing discrete RF hardware for the weights or when compared to alternative optical systems that typically use N channel acousto-optic deflectors.

  11. Thermodynamic Costs of Information Processing in Sensory Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Pablo; Granger, Léo; Lee, Chiu Fan; Horowitz, Jordan M.

    2014-01-01

    Biological sensory systems react to changes in their surroundings. They are characterized by fast response and slow adaptation to varying environmental cues. Insofar as sensory adaptive systems map environmental changes to changes of their internal degrees of freedom, they can be regarded as computational devices manipulating information. Landauer established that information is ultimately physical, and its manipulation subject to the entropic and energetic bounds of thermodynamics. Thus the fundamental costs of biological sensory adaptation can be elucidated by tracking how the information the system has about its environment is altered. These bounds are particularly relevant for small organisms, which unlike everyday computers, operate at very low energies. In this paper, we establish a general framework for the thermodynamics of information processing in sensing. With it, we quantify how during sensory adaptation information about the past is erased, while information about the present is gathered. This process produces entropy larger than the amount of old information erased and has an energetic cost bounded by the amount of new information written to memory. We apply these principles to the E. coli's chemotaxis pathway during binary ligand concentration changes. In this regime, we quantify the amount of information stored by each methyl group and show that receptors consume energy in the range of the information-theoretic minimum. Our work provides a basis for further inquiries into more complex phenomena, such as gradient sensing and frequency response. PMID:25503948

  12. Computer Aided Management for Information Processing Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akman, Ibrahim; Kocamustafaogullari, Kemal

    1995-01-01

    Outlines the nature of information processing projects and discusses some project management programming packages. Describes an in-house interface program developed to utilize a selected project management package (TIMELINE) by using Oracle Data Base Management System tools and Pascal programming language for the management of information system…

  13. Climate and Adaptive Management: What Are We Learning While We're Doing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R.; Melis, T.; Shurts, J.; Jain, S.

    2005-12-01

    Learning is of strategic importance in the decades-long process of adapting to climatic change and variability and in accumulating lessons from past and current practices. Even when physical effects can be established with fair confidence there usually exist large uncertainties about biological and ecological effects and even greater uncertainties with respect to social consequences. Much work and experience has shown that long-term environmental problems can seldom be dealt with by single discrete actions or policies but respond only to continuing, sustained efforts at learning, supported by steady public attention and visibility. In many cases, the complications of recorded changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of rainfall, temperature soil moisture, runoff, frequency and magnitudes of droughts and floods have not been explicitly included in response planning. The idea of "adaptive management" has been widely advocated as a bridge between science and policy with a specific focus on ecosystems. We discuss this idea in the context of climatic and other uncertainties but ground the discussion in the implementation of actual adaptive management programs. Adaptive management has three key tenets (1) Policies are experiments that should be designed to produce usable lessons; (2) It should operate on scales compatible with natural processes, recognizing social and economic viability within functioning ecosystems; and: (3) Is realized through effective partnerships among private, local, state, tribal and federal interests. In a watershed setting this can mean balancing hydropower production, habitat management, conservation, endangered species recovery, and cultural resources in order to experiment, learn, incorporate learning, and adapt. Each of these carries its sources of uncertainty. The primary focus is on the experience of the Columbia and Colorado River Basins, the longest running explicit efforts at adaptive management. Experience will also be drawn

  14. Thermal energy management process experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, S.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal energy management processes experiment (TEMP) will demonstrate that through the use of two-phase flow technology, thermal systems can be significantly enhanced by increasing heat transport capabilities at reduced power consumption while operating within narrow temperature limits. It has been noted that such phenomena as excess fluid puddling, priming, stratification, and surface tension effects all tend to mask the performance of two-phase flow systems in a 1-g field. The flight experiment approach would be to attack the experiment to an appropriate mounting surface with a 15 to 20 meter effective length and provide a heat input and output station in the form of heaters and a radiator. Using environmental data, the size, location, and orientation of the experiment can be optimized. The approach would be to provide a self-contained panel and mount it to the STEP through a frame. A small electronics package would be developed to interface with the STEP avionics for command and data handling. During the flight, heaters on the evaporator will be exercised to determine performance. Flight data will be evaluated against the ground tests to determine any anomalous behavior.

  15. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood.

  16. Adaptive Sampling for Learning Gaussian Processes Using Mobile Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yunfei; Choi, Jongeun

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel class of self-organizing sensing agents that adaptively learn an anisotropic, spatio-temporal Gaussian process using noisy measurements and move in order to improve the quality of the estimated covariance function. This approach is based on a class of anisotropic covariance functions of Gaussian processes introduced to model a broad range of spatio-temporal physical phenomena. The covariance function is assumed to be unknown a priori. Hence, it is estimated by the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimator. The prediction of the field of interest is then obtained based on the MAP estimate of the covariance function. An optimal sampling strategy is proposed to minimize the information-theoretic cost function of the Fisher Information Matrix. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and the adaptability of the proposed scheme. PMID:22163785

  17. Low-latency adaptive optics system processing electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Terry S.; Voas, Joshua K.; Eager, Robert J.; Newey, Scott C.; Wynia, John L.

    2003-02-01

    Extensive system modeling and analysis clearly shows that system latency is a primary performance driver in closed loop adaptive optical systems. With careful attention to all sensing, processing, and controlling components, system latency can be significantly reduced. Upgrades to the Starfire Optical Range (SOR) 3.5-meter telescope facility adaptive optical system have resulted in a reduction in overall latency from 660 μsec to 297 μsec. Future efforts will reduce the system latency even more to the 170 msec range. The changes improve system bandwidth significantly by reducing the "age" of the correction that is applied to the deformable mirror. Latency reductions have been achieved by increasing the pixel readout pattern and rate on the wavefront sensor, utilizing a new high-speed field programmable gate array (FPGA) based wavefront processor, doubling the processing rate of the real-time reconstructor, and streamlining the operation of the deformable mirror drivers.

  18. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The Process of Parental Adaptation and Implications for Genetic Counseling.

    PubMed

    Andrighetti, Heather; Semaka, Alicia; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shuman, Cheryl; Hayeems, Robin; Austin, Jehannine

    2016-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has primarily pediatric onset and well-documented unique impacts on family functioning. Limited research has assessed the understanding that parents of children with OCD have of the etiology of the condition, and there are no data regarding potential applications of genetic counseling for this population. We recruited 13 parents of 13 children diagnosed with OCD from the OCD Registry at British Columbia Children's Hospital, and conducted qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews to explore participants' experiences with their child's OCD, causal attributions of OCD, and perceptions of two genetic counseling vignettes. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using elements of grounded theory qualitative methodology. Analysis revealed key components and contextual elements of the process through which parents adapt to their child's OCD. This adaptation process involved conceptualizing the meaning of OCD, navigating its impact on family dynamics, and developing effective illness management strategies. Adaptation took place against a backdrop of stigmatization and was shaped by participants' family history of mental illness and their child's specific manifestations of OCD. Parents perceived genetic counseling, as described in the vignettes, as being empowering, alleviating guilt and blame, and positively impacting treatment orientation. These data provide insight into the process of parental adaptation to pediatric OCD, and suggest that genetic counseling services for families affected by OCD may help facilitate adaptation to this illness.

  19. Incident Management: Process into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaac, Gayle; Moore, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Tornados, shootings, fires--these are emergencies that require fast action by school district personnel, but they are not the only incidents that require risk management. The authors have introduced the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the Incident Command System (ICS) and assured that these systems can help educators plan for and…

  20. Total quality management: Strengths and barriers to implementation and cultural adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.; Glenn, Michael; Hamilton, Louise

    1992-01-01

    NASA/Langley Research Center (LaRC) is in the process of implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) throughout the organization in order to improve productivity and make the Center an even better place to work. The purpose of this project was to determine strengths and barriers to TQM being implemented and becoming a part of the organizational culture of the Human Resources Management Division (HRMD) at Langley. The target population for this project was both supervisory and nonsupervisory staff of the HMRD. In order to generate data on strengths and barriers to TQM implementation and cultural adaptation, a modified nominal group technique was used.

  1. Total quality management: Strengths and barriers to implementation and cultural adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.; Glenn, Michael; Hamilton, Louise

    1992-09-01

    NASA/Langley Research Center (LaRC) is in the process of implementing Total Quality Management (TQM) throughout the organization in order to improve productivity and make the Center an even better place to work. The purpose of this project was to determine strengths and barriers to TQM being implemented and becoming a part of the organizational culture of the Human Resources Management Division (HRMD) at Langley. The target population for this project was both supervisory and nonsupervisory staff of the HMRD. In order to generate data on strengths and barriers to TQM implementation and cultural adaptation, a modified nominal group technique was used.

  2. Adaptive processes drive ecomorphological convergent evolution in antwrens (Thamnophilidae).

    PubMed

    Bravo, Gustavo A; Remsen, J V; Brumfield, Robb T

    2014-10-01

    Phylogenetic niche conservatism (PNC) and convergence are contrasting evolutionary patterns that describe phenotypic similarity across independent lineages. Assessing whether and how adaptive processes give origin to these patterns represent a fundamental step toward understanding phenotypic evolution. Phylogenetic model-based approaches offer the opportunity not only to distinguish between PNC and convergence, but also to determine the extent that adaptive processes explain phenotypic similarity. The Myrmotherula complex in the Neotropical family Thamnophilidae is a polyphyletic group of sexually dimorphic small insectivorous forest birds that are relatively homogeneous in size and shape. Here, we integrate a comprehensive species-level molecular phylogeny of the Myrmotherula complex with morphometric and ecological data within a comparative framework to test whether phenotypic similarity is described by a pattern of PNC or convergence, and to identify evolutionary mechanisms underlying body size and shape evolution. We show that antwrens in the Myrmotherula complex represent distantly related clades that exhibit adaptive convergent evolution in body size and divergent evolution in body shape. Phenotypic similarity in the group is primarily driven by their tendency to converge toward smaller body sizes. Differences in body size and shape across lineages are associated to ecological and behavioral factors.

  3. Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Kenneth R N; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas A J; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on

  4. Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Kenneth RN; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas AJ; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on

  5. Operationalizing resilience for adaptive coral reef management under global environmental change.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Kenneth R N; Marshall, Paul A; Abdulla, Ameer; Beeden, Roger; Bergh, Chris; Black, Ryan; Eakin, C Mark; Game, Edward T; Gooch, Margaret; Graham, Nicholas A J; Green, Alison; Heron, Scott F; van Hooidonk, Ruben; Knowland, Cheryl; Mangubhai, Sangeeta; Marshall, Nadine; Maynard, Jeffrey A; McGinnity, Peter; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Nyström, Magnus; Obura, David; Oliver, Jamie; Possingham, Hugh P; Pressey, Robert L; Rowlands, Gwilym P; Tamelander, Jerker; Wachenfeld, David; Wear, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative pressures from global climate and ocean change combined with multiple regional and local-scale stressors pose fundamental challenges to coral reef managers worldwide. Understanding how cumulative stressors affect coral reef vulnerability is critical for successful reef conservation now and in the future. In this review, we present the case that strategically managing for increased ecological resilience (capacity for stress resistance and recovery) can reduce coral reef vulnerability (risk of net decline) up to a point. Specifically, we propose an operational framework for identifying effective management levers to enhance resilience and support management decisions that reduce reef vulnerability. Building on a system understanding of biological and ecological processes that drive resilience of coral reefs in different environmental and socio-economic settings, we present an Adaptive Resilience-Based management (ARBM) framework and suggest a set of guidelines for how and where resilience can be enhanced via management interventions. We argue that press-type stressors (pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, ocean warming and acidification) are key threats to coral reef resilience by affecting processes underpinning resistance and recovery, while pulse-type (acute) stressors (e.g. storms, bleaching events, crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks) increase the demand for resilience. We apply the framework to a set of example problems for Caribbean and Indo-Pacific reefs. A combined strategy of active risk reduction and resilience support is needed, informed by key management objectives, knowledge of reef ecosystem processes and consideration of environmental and social drivers. As climate change and ocean acidification erode the resilience and increase the vulnerability of coral reefs globally, successful adaptive management of coral reefs will become increasingly difficult. Given limited resources, on-the-ground solutions are likely to focus increasingly on

  6. Optimal and adaptive methods of processing hydroacoustic signals (review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshkin, G. S.; Sidel'nikov, G. B.

    2014-09-01

    Different methods of optimal and adaptive processing of hydroacoustic signals for multipath propagation and scattering are considered. Advantages and drawbacks of the classical adaptive (Capon, MUSIC, and Johnson) algorithms and "fast" projection algorithms are analyzed for the case of multipath propagation and scattering of strong signals. The classical optimal approaches to detecting multipath signals are presented. A mechanism of controlled normalization of strong signals is proposed to automatically detect weak signals. The results of simulating the operation of different detection algorithms for a linear equidistant array under multipath propagation and scattering are presented. An automatic detector is analyzed, which is based on classical or fast projection algorithms, which estimates the background proceeding from median filtering or the method of bilateral spatial contrast.

  7. Parallel Processing of Adaptive Meshes with Load Balancing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Sajal K.; Harvey, Daniel J.; Biswas, Rupak; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Many scientific applications involve grids that lack a uniform underlying structure. These applications are often also dynamic in nature in that the grid structure significantly changes between successive phases of execution. In parallel computing environments, mesh adaptation of unstructured grids through selective refinement/coarsening has proven to be an effective approach. However, achieving load balance while minimizing interprocessor communication and redistribution costs is a difficult problem. Traditional dynamic load balancers are mostly inadequate because they lack a global view of system loads across processors. In this paper, we propose a novel and general-purpose load balancer that utilizes symmetric broadcast networks (SBN) as the underlying communication topology, and compare its performance with a successful global load balancing environment, called PLUM, specifically created to handle adaptive unstructured applications. Our experimental results on an IBM SP2 demonstrate that the SBN-based load balancer achieves lower redistribution costs than that under PLUM by overlapping processing and data migration.

  8. Managing the Software Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubelczky, Jeffrey T.; Parra, Amy

    1999-01-01

    The goal of any software development project is to produce a product that is delivered on time, within the allocated budget, and with the capabilities expected by the customer and unfortunately, this goal is rarely achieved. However, a properly managed project in a mature software engineering environment can consistently achieve this goal. In this paper we provide an introduction to three project success factors, a properly managed project, a competent project manager, and a mature software engineering environment. We will also present an overview of the benefits of a mature software engineering environment based on 24 years of data from the Software Engineering Lab, and suggest some first steps that an organization can take to begin benefiting from this environment. The depth and breadth of software engineering exceeds this paper, various references are cited with a goal of raising awareness and encouraging further investigation into software engineering and project management practices.

  9. Adapting to a changing world: Implications for water management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loucks, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Everyone is aware that the world is changing, and that many of these changes will impact our water resource supplies and how they are used and managed. It's always a challenge to try to predict the future, especially the very uncertain distant future. But one thing is certain, the future environment our descendants will experience will differ from the economic, social, technological and natural conditions we experience today. Some aspects of the changes that are happening may not be under human control, but many are. And to the extent they are, we can influence that future. In this paper I attempt to speculate about a future some 40 to 50 years from now, and how water will need to be managed then. My goal is to motivate some thinking and discussion about how we as water managers can influence and prepare ourselves (or our successors) for that future. It will require collaboration among multiple disciplines to determine how best we as a profession can help society adapt to these changes, and this in turn will require all of us to learn how to work together more effectively than we do now. This theme fits in with the current interest in sustainability, for no matter how it is defined, sustainability makes us think about the long-term future. How do we develop and manage our natural and cultural resources in ways that benefit both us and future generations of people living on this earth? What will their needs and goals be? We don't know and that is the major challenge in deciding what decisions we might make today on their behalf. Here I attempt to identify the challenges and issues water managers could be addressing some 40 to 50 years from now, and what we in each of our disciplines, and together, can begin to do now to address them.

  10. A predictive model to inform adaptive management of double-crested cormorants and fisheries in Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsehaye, Iyob; Jones, Michael L.; Irwin, Brian J.; Fielder, David G.; Breck, James E.; Luukkonen, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of double-crested cormorants (DCCOs; Phalacrocorax auritus) in North America has raised concerns over their potential negative impacts on game, cultured and forage fishes, island and terrestrial resources, and other colonial water birds, leading to increased public demands to reduce their abundance. By combining fish surplus production and bird functional feeding response models, we developed a deterministic predictive model representing bird–fish interactions to inform an adaptive management process for the control of DCCOs in multiple colonies in Michigan. Comparisons of model predictions with observations of changes in DCCO numbers under management measures implemented from 2004 to 2012 suggested that our relatively simple model was able to accurately reconstruct past DCCO population dynamics. These comparisons helped discriminate among alternative parameterizations of demographic processes that were poorly known, especially site fidelity. Using sensitivity analysis, we also identified remaining critical uncertainties (mainly in the spatial distributions of fish vs. DCCO feeding areas) that can be used to prioritize future research and monitoring needs. Model forecasts suggested that continuation of existing control efforts would be sufficient to achieve long-term DCCO control targets in Michigan and that DCCO control may be necessary to achieve management goals for some DCCO-impacted fisheries in the state. Finally, our model can be extended by accounting for parametric or ecological uncertainty and including more complex assumptions on DCCO–fish interactions as part of the adaptive management process.

  11. Adaptive data management in the ARC Grid middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, D.; Gholami, A.; Karpenko, D.; Konstantinov, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) Grid middleware was designed almost 10 years ago, and has proven to be an attractive distributed computing solution and successful in adapting to new data management and storage technologies. However, with an ever-increasing user base and scale of resources to manage, along with the introduction of more advanced data transfer protocols, some limitations in the current architecture have become apparent. The simple first-in first-out approach to data transfer leads to bottlenecks in the system, as does the built-in assumption that all data is immediately available from remote data storage. We present an entirely new data management architecture for ARC which aims to alleviate these problems, by introducing a three-layer structure. The top layer accepts incoming requests for data transfer and directs them to the middle layer, which schedules individual transfers and negotiates with various intermediate catalog and storage systems until the physical file is ready to be transferred. The lower layer performs all operations which use large amounts of bandwidth, i.e. the physical data transfer. Using such a layered structure allows more efficient use of the available bandwidth as well as enabling late-binding of jobs to data transfer slots based on a priority system. Here we describe in full detail the design and implementation of the new system.

  12. Adapting California Water Management to Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanak, E.; Lund, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    California faces the prospect of significant water management challenges from climate change. The most certain changes are accelerated sea level rise and increased temperatures, which will reduce the Sierra Nevada snowpack and shift more runoff to winter months. These changes will likely cause major problems for flood control, for water supply reservoir operations, and for the maintenance of the present system of water exports through the fragile levee system of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Rising water temperatures also are likely to compromise habitat for some native aquatic species and pose challenges for reservoir operations, which must release cool water to support fish downstream. Although there is as yet little scientific consensus on the effects of climate change on overall precipitation levels, many expect precipitation variability to increase, with more extreme drought and flood events posing additional challenges to water managers. Fortunately, California also possesses numerous assets - including adaptation tools and institutional capabilities - which can limit vulnerability of the state’s residents to changing conditions. Water supply managers have already begun using underground storage, water transfers, conservation, recycling, and desalination to expand their capacity to meet changing demands, and these same tools present cost-effective options for responding to a wide range of climate change scenarios. Many staples of flood management - including reservoir operations, levees, bypasses, insurance, and land-use regulation - are appropriate for the challenges posed by increasing flood flows. Yet actions are also needed to improve response capacity in some areas. For water supply, a central issue is the management of the Delta, where new conveyance and habitat investments and regulations are needed to sustain water supply reliability and ecosystem conditions. For flood management, studies to anticipate required changes have only begun, and

  13. Designing monitoring programs in an adaptive management context for regional multiple species conservation plans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, A.J.; Trenham, P.C.; Fisher, R.N.; Hathaway, S.A.; Johnson, B.S.; Torres, S.G.; Moore, Y.C.

    2004-01-01

    critical management uncertainties; and 3) implementing long-term monitoring and adaptive management. Ultimately, the success of regional conservation planning depends on the ability of monitoring programs to confront the challenges of adaptively managing and monitoring complex ecosystems and diverse arrays of sensitive species.

  14. 78 FR 5830 - Renewal of the Trinity River Adaptive Management Working Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... Office of the Secretary Renewal of the Trinity River Adaptive Management Working Group AGENCY: Office of... consultation with the General Services Administration, has renewed the Trinity River Adaptive Management... to give policy, management, and technical input concerning Trinity River restoration efforts....

  15. Deriving empirical benchmarks from existing monitoring datasets for rangeland adaptive management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under adaptive management, goals and decisions for managing rangeland resources are shaped by requirements like the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM’s) Land Health Standards, which specify desired conditions. Without formalized, quantitative benchmarks for triggering management actions, adaptive man...

  16. On Cognition, Structured Sequence Processing, and Adaptive Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2008-11-01

    Cognitive neuroscience approaches the brain as a cognitive system: a system that functionally is conceptualized in terms of information processing. We outline some aspects of this concept and consider a physical system to be an information processing device when a subclass of its physical states can be viewed as representational/cognitive and transitions between these can be conceptualized as a process operating on these states by implementing operations on the corresponding representational structures. We identify a generic and fundamental problem in cognition: sequentially organized structured processing. Structured sequence processing provides the brain, in an essential sense, with its processing logic. In an approach addressing this problem, we illustrate how to integrate levels of analysis within a framework of adaptive dynamical systems. We note that the dynamical system framework lends itself to a description of asynchronous event-driven devices, which is likely to be important in cognition because the brain appears to be an asynchronous processing system. We use the human language faculty and natural language processing as a concrete example through out.

  17. Monitoring in the context of structured decision-making and adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, J.E.; Runge, M.C.; Laskowski, H.P.; Kendall, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    In a natural resource management setting, monitoring is a crucial component of an informed process for making decisions, and monitoring design should be driven by the decision context and associated uncertainties. Monitoring itself can play >3 roles. First, it is important for state-dependent decision-making, as when managers need to know the system state before deciding on the appropriate course of action during the ensuing management cycle. Second, monitoring is critical for evaluating the effectiveness of management actions relative to objectives. Third, in an adaptive management setting, monitoring provides the feedback loop for learning about the system; learning is sought not for its own sake but primarily to better achieve management objectives. In this case, monitoring should be designed to reduce the critical uncertainties in models of the managed system. The United States Geological Survey and United States Fish and Wildlife Service are conducting a large-scale management experiment on 23 National Wildlife Refuges across the Northeast and Midwest Regions. The primary management objective is to provide habitat for migratory waterbirds, particularly during migration, using water-level manipulations in managed wetlands. Key uncertainties are related to the potential trade-offs created by management for a specific waterbird guild (e.g., migratory shorebirds) and the response of waterbirds, plant communities, and invertebrates to specific experimental hydroperiods. We reviewed the monitoring program associated with this study, and the ways that specific observations fill >1 of the roles identified above. We used observations from our monitoring to improve state-dependent decisions to control undesired plants, to evaluate management performance relative to shallow-water habitat objectives, and to evaluate potential trade-offs between waterfowl and shorebird habitat management. With limited staff and budgets, management agencies need efficient monitoring

  18. [Specifically adapted management of diabetics after myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Passa, P

    1998-06-13

    Approximately 20% of all patients hospitalized for myocardial infarction have diabetes. The percentage has been increasing constantly and mortality is significantly higher in these patients. The highest rate is observed in women. Despite continuing progress in patient management there has been no reduction in the overmortality after myocardial infarction in diabetic patients. The majority of these deaths are unwarranted and could be avoided if diabetic patients were given specifically adapted treatment after myocardial infarction. Unfortunately, as shown by the EURASPIRE study, there is a gap between intensive care unit discharge prescriptions and follow-up care. With the explosive "epidemic" of noninsulin-diabetes and population aging the number of patients with coronary artery disease and diabetes will rise in the future. Wouldn't it be reasonable to establish special cardiodiabetic units where such patients could benefit from close, and daily, cooperation between diabetologists and cardiologists? Such facilities could be expected to significantly reduce the overmortality in diabetic patients after myocardial infarction.

  19. ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance System Window Manager Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Mike W.; Innis, John D.; Miller, Steven P.; Wagner, Lucas G.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in modeling languages have made it feasible to formally specify and analyze the behavior of large system components. Synchronous data flow languages, such as Lustre, SCR, and RSML-e are particularly well suited to this task, and commercial versions of these tools such as SCADE and Simulink are growing in popularity among designers of safety critical systems, largely due to their ability to automatically generate code from the models. At the same time, advances in formal analysis tools have made it practical to formally verify important properties of these models to ensure that design defects are identified and corrected early in the lifecycle. This report describes how these tools have been applied to the ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance Window Manager being developed by Rockwell Collins Inc. This work demonstrates how formal methods can be easily and cost-efficiently used to remove defects early in the design cycle.

  20. Root developmental adaptation to Fe toxicity: Mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangjie; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential microelement but is highly toxic when in excess. To cope with Fe excess, plants have evolved complex adaptive responses that include morphological and physiological modifications. The highly dynamic adjustments in overall root system architecture (RSA) determine root plasticity and allow plants to efficiently adapt to environmental constraints. However, the effects of Fe excess on RSA are poorly understood. Recently, we showed that excess Fe treatment in Arabidopsis not only directly impairs primary root (PR) growth but also arrests lateral root (LR) formation by acting at the tip of the growing primary root. Such a change is believed to help RSA adjust and restrict excessive Fe absorption in the part of the rhizosphere subject to acute toxicity while maintaining the absorption of other nutrients in the less stressed components of the root system. We further showed that the suppression of PR growth and LR formation under excess Fe is alleviated by K(+) addition, providing useful insight into the effectiveness of nutrient management to improve RSA and alleviate Fe toxicity symptoms in the field.

  1. Adaptive ocean acoustic processing for a shallow ocean experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.V.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1995-07-19

    A model-based approach is developed to solve an adaptive ocean acoustic signal processing problem. Here we investigate the design of model-based identifier (MBID) for a normal-mode model developed from a shallow water ocean experiment and then apply it to a set of experimental data demonstrating the feasibility of this approach. In this problem we show how the processor can be structured to estimate the horizontal wave numbers directly from measured pressure sound speed thereby eliminating the need for synthetic aperture processing or a propagation model solution. Ocean acoustic signal processing has made great strides over the past decade necessitated by the development of quieter submarines and the recent proliferation of diesel powered vessels.

  2. Adaptive PCA based fault diagnosis scheme in imperial smelting process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhikun; Chen, Zhiwen; Gui, Weihua; Jiang, Bin

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive fault detection scheme based on a recursive principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to deal with the problem of false alarm due to normal process changes in real process. Our further study is also dedicated to develop a fault isolation approach based on Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLR) test and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) which is one of general techniques of PCA, on which the off-set and scaling fault can be easily isolated with explicit off-set fault direction and scaling fault classification. The identification of off-set and scaling fault is also applied. The complete scheme of PCA-based fault diagnosis procedure is proposed. The proposed scheme is first applied to Imperial Smelting Process, and the results show that the proposed strategies can be able to mitigate false alarms and isolate faults efficiently.

  3. Adaptive Management of Bull Trout Populations in the Lemhi Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James T.; Tyre, Andrew J.; Converse, Sarah J.; Bogich, Tiffany L.; Miller, Damien; Post van der Burg, Max; Thomas, Carmen; Thompson, Ralph J.; Wood, Jeri; Brewer, Donna; Runge, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    The bull trout Salvelinus confluentus, a stream-living salmonid distributed in drainages of the northwestern United States, is listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act because of rangewide declines. One proposed recovery action is the reconnection of tributaries in the Lemhi Basin. Past water use policies in this core area disconnected headwater spawning sites from downstream habitat and have led to the loss of migratory life history forms. We developed an adaptive management framework to analyze which types of streams should be prioritized for reconnection under a proposed Habitat Conservation Plan. We developed a Stochastic Dynamic Program that identified optimal policies over time under four different assumptions about the nature of the migratory behavior and the effects of brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis on subpopulations of bull trout. In general, given the current state of the system and the uncertainties about the dynamics, the optimal policy would be to connect streams that are currently occupied by bull trout. We also estimated the value of information as the difference between absolute certainty about which of our four assumptions were correct, and a model averaged optimization assuming no knowledge. Overall there is little to be gained by learning about the dynamics of the system in its current state, although in other parts of the state space reducing uncertainties about the system would be very valuable. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis; the optimal decision at the current state does not change even when parameter values are changed up to 75% of the baseline values. Overall, the exercise demonstrates that it is possible to apply adaptive management principles to threatened and endangered species, but logistical and data availability constraints make detailed analyses difficult.

  4. A general framework for adaptive processing of data structures.

    PubMed

    Frasconi, P; Gori, M; Sperduti, A

    1998-01-01

    A structured organization of information is typically required by symbolic processing. On the other hand, most connectionist models assume that data are organized according to relatively poor structures, like arrays or sequences. The framework described in this paper is an attempt to unify adaptive models like artificial neural nets and belief nets for the problem of processing structured information. In particular, relations between data variables are expressed by directed acyclic graphs, where both numerical and categorical values coexist. The general framework proposed in this paper can be regarded as an extension of both recurrent neural networks and hidden Markov models to the case of acyclic graphs. In particular we study the supervised learning problem as the problem of learning transductions from an input structured space to an output structured space, where transductions are assumed to admit a recursive hidden statespace representation. We introduce a graphical formalism for representing this class of adaptive transductions by means of recursive networks, i.e., cyclic graphs where nodes are labeled by variables and edges are labeled by generalized delay elements. This representation makes it possible to incorporate the symbolic and subsymbolic nature of data. Structures are processed by unfolding the recursive network into an acyclic graph called encoding network. In so doing, inference and learning algorithms can be easily inherited from the corresponding algorithms for artificial neural networks or probabilistic graphical model.

  5. [Super sweet corn hybrids adaptability for industrial processing. I freezing].

    PubMed

    Alfonzo, Braunnier; Camacho, Candelario; Ortiz de Bertorelli, Ligia; De Venanzi, Frank

    2002-09-01

    With the purpose of evaluating adaptability to the freezing process of super sweet corn sh2 hybrids Krispy King, Victor and 324, 100 cobs of each type were frozen at -18 degrees C. After 120 days of storage, their chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics were compared with a sweet corn su. Industrial quality of the process of freezing and length and number of rows in cobs were also determined. Results revealed yields above 60% in frozen corns. Length and number of rows in cobs were acceptable. Most of the chemical characteristics of super sweet hybrids were not different from the sweet corn assayed at the 5% significance level. Moisture content and soluble solids of hybrid Victor, as well as total sugars of hybrid 324 were statistically different. All sh2 corns had higher pH values. During freezing, soluble solids concentration, sugars and acids decreased whereas pH increased. Frozen cobs exhibited acceptable microbiological rank, with low activities of mesophiles and total coliforms, absence of psychrophiles and fecal coliforms, and an appreciable amount of molds. In conclusion, sh2 hybrids adapted with no problems to the freezing process, they had lower contents of soluble solids and higher contents of total sugars, which almost doubled the amount of su corn; flavor, texture, sweetness and appearance of kernels were also better. Hybrid Victor was preferred by the evaluating panel and had an outstanding performance due to its yield and sensorial characteristics. PMID:12448345

  6. Landsat ecosystem disturbance adaptive processing system (LEDAPS) algorithm description

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Gail; Jenkerson, Calli; Masek, Jeffrey; Vermote, Eric; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    The Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) software was originally developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration–Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland to produce top-of-atmosphere reflectance from LandsatThematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Level 1 digital numbers and to apply atmospheric corrections to generate a surface-reflectance product.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the LEDAPS algorithm for producing the Landsat Surface Reflectance Climate Data Record.This report discusses the LEDAPS algorithm, which was implemented by the USGS.

  7. Prediction and control of chaotic processes using nonlinear adaptive networks

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.D.; Barnes, C.W.; Flake, G.W.; Lee, K.; Lewis, P.S.; O'Rouke, M.K.; Qian, S.

    1990-01-01

    We present the theory of nonlinear adaptive networks and discuss a few applications. In particular, we review the theory of feedforward backpropagation networks. We then present the theory of the Connectionist Normalized Linear Spline network in both its feedforward and iterated modes. Also, we briefly discuss the theory of stochastic cellular automata. We then discuss applications to chaotic time series, tidal prediction in Venice lagoon, finite differencing, sonar transient detection, control of nonlinear processes, control of a negative ion source, balancing a double inverted pendulum and design advice for free electron lasers and laser fusion targets.

  8. Temporal and Location Based RFID Event Data Management and Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Liu, Peiya

    Advance of sensor and RFID technology provides significant new power for humans to sense, understand and manage the world. RFID provides fast data collection with precise identification of objects with unique IDs without line of sight, thus it can be used for identifying, locating, tracking and monitoring physical objects. Despite these benefits, RFID poses many challenges for data processing and management. RFID data are temporal and history oriented, multi-dimensional, and carrying implicit semantics. Moreover, RFID applications are heterogeneous. RFID data management or data warehouse systems need to support generic and expressive data modeling for tracking and monitoring physical objects, and provide automated data interpretation and processing. We develop a powerful temporal and location oriented data model for modeling and queryingRFID data, and a declarative event and rule based framework for automated complex RFID event processing. The approach is general and can be easily adapted for different RFID-enabled applications, thus significantly reduces the cost of RFID data integration.

  9. Risk tradeoffs in adaptive ecosystem management: the case of the U.S. Forest Service.

    PubMed

    Stern, Marc J; Martin, Caysie A; Predmore, S Andrew; Morse, Wayde C

    2014-06-01

    Natural resource planning processes on public lands in the United States are driven in large part by the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which dictates general processes for analyzing and disclosing the likely impacts of proposed actions. The outcomes of these processes are the result of multiple factors, many related to the manifold smaller incremental decisions made by agency personnel directing the processes. Through interviews with decision makers, team leaders, and team members on five NEPA processes within the U.S. Forest Service, this study examines those incremental decisions. Risk, in particular external relationship risk, emerged as a dominant lens through which agency personnel weigh and make process-related decisions. We discuss the tradeoffs associated with agency actors' emphasis on this form of risk and their potential implications for adaptive ecosystem management and organizational performance.

  10. Risk Tradeoffs in Adaptive Ecosystem Management: The Case of the U.S. Forest Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Marc J.; Martin, Caysie A.; Predmore, S. Andrew; Morse, Wayde C.

    2014-06-01

    Natural resource planning processes on public lands in the United States are driven in large part by the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), which dictates general processes for analyzing and disclosing the likely impacts of proposed actions. The outcomes of these processes are the result of multiple factors, many related to the manifold smaller incremental decisions made by agency personnel directing the processes. Through interviews with decision makers, team leaders, and team members on five NEPA processes within the U.S. Forest Service, this study examines those incremental decisions. Risk, in particular external relationship risk, emerged as a dominant lens through which agency personnel weigh and make process-related decisions. We discuss the tradeoffs associated with agency actors' emphasis on this form of risk and their potential implications for adaptive ecosystem management and organizational performance.

  11. Adaptive environmental management of tourism in the Province of Siena, Italy using the ecological footprint.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Trista M; Niccolucci, Valentina; Marchettini, Nadia

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive management as applied to tourism policy treats management policies as experiments that probe the responses of the system as human behavior changes. We present a conceptual systems model that incorporates the gap between observed and desired levels of the ecological footprint with respect to biocapacity. Addressing this gap (or 'overshoot') can inform strategies to increase or decrease visitation or its associated consumption in the coming years. The feedback mechanism in this conceptual model incorporates a gap between observed and desired ecological footprint levels of tourists and residents. The work is based on longer-term and ongoing study of tourism impacts and ecological footprint assessments from the SPIN-Eco Project. We present historical tourism and environmental data from the province of Siena, Italy and discuss the use of discrete, static environmental indicators as part of an iterative feedback process to manage tourism within biophysical limits. We discuss a necessary shift of emphasis from certain and static numbers to a process-based management model that can reflect slow changes to biophysical resources. As underscored by ecological footprint analysis, the energy and material use associated with tourism and local activity can erode natural capital foundations if that use exceeds the area's biological capacity to support it. The dynamic, and iterative process of using such indicators as management feedback allows us to view sustainability more accurately as a transition and journey, rather than a static destination to which management must arrive.

  12. Polymer Solidification and Stabilization: Adaptable Processes for Atypical Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.

    2007-07-01

    Vinyl Ester Styrene (VES) and Advanced Polymer Solidification (APS{sup TM}) processes are used to solidify, stabilize, and immobilize radioactive, pyrophoric and hazardous wastes at US Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) sites, and commercial nuclear facilities. A wide range of projects have been accomplished, including in situ immobilization of ion exchange resin and carbon filter media in decommissioned submarines; underwater solidification of zirconium and hafnium machining swarf; solidification of uranium chips; impregnation of depth filters; immobilization of mercury, lead and other hazardous wastes (including paint chips and blasting media); and in situ solidification of submerged demineralizers. Discussion of the adaptability of the VES and APS{sup TM} processes is timely, given the decommissioning work at government sites, and efforts by commercial nuclear plants to reduce inventories of one-of-a-kind wastes. The VES and APS{sup TM} media and processes are highly adaptable to a wide range of waste forms, including liquids, slurries, bead and granular media; as well as metal fines, particles and larger pieces. With the ability to solidify/stabilize liquid wastes using high-speed mixing; wet sludges and solids by low-speed mixing; or bead and granular materials through in situ processing, these polymer will produce a stable, rock-hard product that has the ability to sequester many hazardous waste components and create Class B and C stabilized waste forms for disposal. Technical assessment and approval of these solidification processes and final waste forms have been greatly simplified by exhaustive waste form testing, as well as multiple NRC and CRCPD waste form approvals. (authors)

  13. Towards sustainable groundwater use: Setting long-term goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gleeson, T.; Alley, W.M.; Allen, D.M.; Sophocleous, M.A.; Zhou, Y.; Taniguchi, M.; Vandersteen, J.

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of crucial earth resources, such as groundwater, is a critical issue. We consider groundwater sustainability a value-driven process of intra- and intergenerational equity that balances the environment, society, and economy. Synthesizing hydrogeological science and current sustainability concepts, we emphasize three sustainability approaches: setting multigenerational sustainability goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively. As most aquifer problems are long-term problems, we propose that multigenerational goals (50 to 100 years) for water quantity and quality that acknowledge the connections between groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems be set for many aquifers. The goals should be set by a watershed- or aquifer-based community in an inclusive and participatory manner. Policies for shorter time horizons should be developed by backcasting, and measures implemented through adaptive management to achieve the long-term goals. Two case histories illustrate the importance and complexity of a multigenerational perspective and adaptive management. These approaches could transform aquifer depletion and contamination to more sustainable groundwater use, providing groundwater for current and future generations while protecting ecological integrity and resilience. ?? 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water ?? 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Towards sustainable groundwater use: setting long-term goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, Tom; Alley, William M; Allen, Diana M; Sophocleous, Marios A; Zhou, Yangxiao; Taniguchi, Makoto; VanderSteen, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The sustainability of crucial earth resources, such as groundwater, is a critical issue. We consider groundwater sustainability a value-driven process of intra- and intergenerational equity that balances the environment, society, and economy. Synthesizing hydrogeological science and current sustainability concepts, we emphasize three sustainability approaches: setting multigenerational sustainability goals, backcasting, and managing adaptively. As most aquifer problems are long-term problems, we propose that multigenerational goals (50 to 100 years) for water quantity and quality that acknowledge the connections between groundwater, surface water, and ecosystems be set for many aquifers. The goals should be set by a watershed- or aquifer-based community in an inclusive and participatory manner. Policies for shorter time horizons should be developed by backcasting, and measures implemented through adaptive management to achieve the long-term goals. Two case histories illustrate the importance and complexity of a multigenerational perspective and adaptive management. These approaches could transform aquifer depletion and contamination to more sustainable groundwater use, providing groundwater for current and future generations while protecting ecological integrity and resilience.

  15. Adaptation as process: the future of Darwinism and the legacy of Theodosius Dobzhansky.

    PubMed

    Depew, David J

    2011-03-01

    Conceptions of adaptation have varied in the history of genetic Darwinism depending on whether what is taken to be focal is the process of adaptation, adapted states of populations, or discrete adaptations in individual organisms. I argue that Theodosius Dobzhansky's view of adaptation as a dynamical process contrasts with so-called "adaptationist" views of natural selection figured as "design-without-a-designer" of relatively discrete, enumerable adaptations. Correlated with these respectively process and product oriented approaches to adaptive natural selection are divergent pictures of organisms themselves as developmental wholes or as "bundles" of adaptations. While even process versions of genetical Darwinism are insufficiently sensitive to the fact much of the variation on which adaptive selection works consists of changes in the timing, rate, or location of ontogenetic events, I argue that articulations of the Modern Synthesis influenced by Dobzhansky are more easily reconciled with the recent shift to evolutionary developmentalism than are versions that make discrete adaptations central.

  16. Parallel Block Structured Adaptive Mesh Refinement on Graphics Processing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Beckingsale, D. A.; Gaudin, W. P.; Hornung, R. D.; Gunney, B. T.; Gamblin, T.; Herdman, J. A.; Jarvis, S. A.

    2014-11-17

    Block-structured adaptive mesh refinement is a technique that can be used when solving partial differential equations to reduce the number of zones necessary to achieve the required accuracy in areas of interest. These areas (shock fronts, material interfaces, etc.) are recursively covered with finer mesh patches that are grouped into a hierarchy of refinement levels. Despite the potential for large savings in computational requirements and memory usage without a corresponding reduction in accuracy, AMR adds overhead in managing the mesh hierarchy, adding complex communication and data movement requirements to a simulation. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a native GPU-based AMR library, including: the classes used to manage data on a mesh patch, the routines used for transferring data between GPUs on different nodes, and the data-parallel operators developed to coarsen and refine mesh data. We validate the performance and accuracy of our implementation using three test problems and two architectures: an eight-node cluster, and over four thousand nodes of Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Titan supercomputer. Our GPU-based AMR hydrodynamics code performs up to 4.87× faster than the CPU-based implementation, and has been scaled to over four thousand GPUs using a combination of MPI and CUDA.

  17. Enhancing learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability in health care organizations: the ELIAS performance management framework.

    PubMed

    Persaud, D David

    2014-01-01

    The development of sustainable health care organizations that provide high-quality accessible care is a topic of intense interest. This article provides a practical performance management framework that can be utilized to develop sustainable health care organizations. It is a cyclical 5-step process that is premised on accountability, performance management, and learning practices that are the foundation for a continuous process of measurement, disconfirmation, contextualization, implementation, and routinization This results in the enhancement of learning, innovation, adaptation, and sustainability (ELIAS). Important considerations such as recognizing that health care organizations are complex adaptive systems and the presence of a dynamic learning culture are necessary contextual factors that maximize the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Importantly, the ELIAS framework utilizes data that are already being collected by health care organizations for accountability, improvement, evaluation, and strategic purposes. Therefore, the benefit of the framework, when used as outlined, would be to enhance the chances of health care organizations achieving the goals of ongoing adaptation and sustainability, by design, rather than by chance.

  18. Accelerating Adaptation of Natural Resource Management to Address Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn AF

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants’ self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world. Acelerando la Adaptación del Manejo de Recursos Naturales para

  19. Accelerating Adaptation of Natural Resource Management to Address Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Molly S; McCarthy, Patrick D; Garfin, Gregg; Gori, David; Enquist, Carolyn AF

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Natural resource managers are seeking tools to help them address current and future effects of climate change. We present a model for collaborative planning aimed at identifying ways to adapt management actions to address the effects of climate change in landscapes that cross public and private jurisdictional boundaries. The Southwest Climate Change Initiative (SWCCI) piloted the Adaptation for Conservation Targets (ACT) planning approach at workshops in 4 southwestern U.S. landscapes. This planning approach successfully increased participants’ self-reported capacity to address climate change by providing them with a better understanding of potential effects and guiding the identification of solutions. The workshops fostered cross-jurisdictional and multidisciplinary dialogue on climate change through active participation of scientists and managers in assessing climate change effects, discussing the implications of those effects for determining management goals and activities, and cultivating opportunities for regional coordination on adaptation of management plans. Facilitated application of the ACT framework advanced group discussions beyond assessing effects to devising options to mitigate the effects of climate change on specific species, ecological functions, and ecosystems. Participants addressed uncertainty about future conditions by considering more than one climate-change scenario. They outlined opportunities and identified next steps for implementing several actions, and local partnerships have begun implementing actions and conducting additional planning. Continued investment in adaptation of management plans and actions to address the effects of climate change in the southwestern United States and extension of the approaches used in this project to additional landscapes are needed if biological diversity and ecosystem services are to be maintained in a rapidly changing world. Acelerando la Adaptación del Manejo de Recursos Naturales para

  20. Adaptive Flow Management in Regulated Rivers: Successes and Challenges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C. T.; Melis, T. S.; Kennedy, T.; Korman, J.; Ortlepp, J.

    2013-12-01

    Experimental high flows are becoming common management actions in rivers affected by large dams. When implemented under clear objectives and goals, experimental flows provide opportunities for long-term ecological successes but also impose various ecological challenges as systems shift under environmental change or from human-related actions. We present case studies from long-term adaptive flow management programs on the River Spöl, Switzerland and the Colorado River, USA, both of which are regulated by high dams and flow through National Parks. The management goals in each system differ thus reflecting the different high flow practices implemented over time. Regulated flows in the Spöl reflect a compromise between hydropower needs and ecology (native brown trout fishery), whereas Glen Canyon Dam flows have mainly been directed towards maintenance of river beaches in Grand Canyon National Park with co-management of both nonnative rainbow trout in the tailwater immediately below the dam and downstream endangered native fish of Grand Canyon also an objective. Some 24 experimental floods have occurred on the Spöl over the last 13 years, resulting in a positive effect on the trout fishery and a zoobenthic assemblage having a more typical alpine stream composition. The system has experienced various shifts in assemblage composition over time with the last shift occurring 7 years after the initial floods. A major challenge occurred in spring 2013 with an accidental release of fine sediments from the reservoir behind Punt dal Gall Dam, causing high fish mortality and smothering of the river bottom. Results showed that the effect was pronounced near the dam and gradually lessened downriver to the lower reservoir. Zoobenthic assemblages displayed relatively high resistance to the event and some fish found refugia in the lower reservoir and larger side tributaries, thus projecting a faster recovery than initially thought. Below Glen Canyon dam, benefits to sandbars have

  1. Science, Uncertainty, and Adaptive Management in Large River Restoration Programs: Trinity River example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBain, S.

    2002-12-01

    Following construction of Trinity and Lewiston dams on the upper Trinity River in 1964, dam induced changes to streamflows and sediment regime had severely simplified channel morphology and aquatic habitat downstream of the dams. This habitat change, combined with blocked access to over 100 miles of salmon and steelhead habitat upstream of the dams, caused salmon and steelhead populations to quickly plummet. An instream flow study was initiated in 1984 to address the flow needs to restore the fishery, and this study relied on the Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) Model to quantify instream flow needs. In 1992, geomorphic and riparian studies were integrated into the instream flow study, with the overall study completed in 1999 (USFWS 1999). This 13-year process continued through three presidential administrations, several agency managers, and many turnovers of the agency technical staff responsible for conducting the study. This process culminated in 1996-1998 when a group of scientists were convened to integrate all the studies and data to produce the final instream flow study document. This 13-year, non-linear process, resulted in many uncertainties that could not be resolved in the short amount of time allowed for completing the instream flow study document. Shortly after completion of the instream flow study document, the Secretary of Interior issued a Record of Decision to implement the recommendations contained in the instream flow study document. The uncertainties encountered as the instream flow study report was prepared were highlighted in the report, and the Record of Decision initiated an Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management program to address these existing uncertainties and improve future river management. There have been many lessons learned going through this process, and the presentation will summarize: 1)The progression of science used to develop the instream flow study report; 2)How the scientists preparing the report addressed

  2. Guidelines to Data Processing Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Processing Management Association, Park Ridge, IL.

    This is a revised and updated version of an earlier published set of guidelines. As in the instance of the first edition, this volume contains contributions by some of the most capable consultants in the information processing field. Their comments are based on sound, proved judgment tested in day-to-day operations at installations throughout the…

  3. Adaptive random renormalization group classification of multiscale dispersive processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cushman, John; O'Malley, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Renormalization group operators provide a detailed classification tool for dispersive processes. We begin by reviewing a two-scale renormalization group classification scheme. Repeated application of one operator is associated with long time behavior of the process while repeated application of the other is associated with short time behavior. This approach is shown to be robust even in the presence of non-stationary increments and/or infinite second moments. Fixed points of the operators can be used for further sub classification of the processes when appropriate limits exist. As an example we look at advective dispersion in an ergodic velocity field. Let X(t) be a fixed point of the long-time renormalization group operator (RGO) RX(t)=X(rt)/r^p. Scaling laws for the probability density, mean first passage times, and finite-size Lyapunov exponents of such fixed points are reviewed in anticipation of more general results. A generalized RGO, Rp, where the exponent in R above is now a random variable is introduced. Scaling laws associated with these random RGOs (RRGOs) are demonstrated numerically and applied to a process modeling the transition from sub-dispersion to Fickian dispersion. The scaling laws for the RRGO are not simple power laws, but instead are a weighted average of power laws. The weighting in the scaling laws can be determined adaptively via Bayes' theorem.

  4. Adaptive management: a paradigm for remediation of public facilities following a terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Whicker, Jeffrey J; Janecky, David R; Doerr, Ted B

    2008-10-01

    Terrorist actions are aimed at maximizing harm (health, psychological, economical, and political) through the combined physical impacts of the act and fear. Immediate and effective response to a terrorist act is critical to limit human and environmental harm, effectively restore facility function, and maintain public confidence. Though there have been terrorist attacks in public facilities that we have learned from, overall our experiences in restoration of public facilities following a terrorist attack are limited. Restoration of public facilities following a release of a hazardous material is inherently far more complex than in industrial settings and has many unique technical, economic, social, and political challenges. For example, there may be a great need to quickly restore the facility to full operation and allow public access even though it was not designed for easy or rapid restoration, and critical information is needed for quantitative risk assessment and effective restoration must be anticipated to be incomplete and uncertain. Whereas present planning documents have substantial linearity in their organization, the "adaptive management" paradigm provides a constructive parallel paradigm for restoration of public facilities that anticipates and plans for uncertainty, inefficiencies, and stakeholder participation. Adaptive management grew out of the need to manage and restore natural resources in highly complex and changing environments with limited knowledge about causal relationships and responses to restoration actions. Similarities between natural resource management and restoration of a public facility after a terrorist attack suggest that integration of adaptive management principles explicitly into restoration processes will result in substantially enhanced and flexible responses necessary to meet the uncertainties of potential terrorist attacks.

  5. Monitoring and evaluation to support adaptive co-management: Lessons learned from the Millennium Villages Project.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sarah; Sullivan, Clare; Palm, Cheryl; Huynh, Uyen; Diru, William; Masira, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    This article focuses attention on monitoring and evaluation approaches that will help resource managers to manage for change and uncertainty in adaptive co-management (ACM). ACM is a learning-by-doing approach that aims to build flexible community-based natural resource governance systems through collaborative or otherwise participatory means. We describe the framework for monitoring and evaluation that we developed and applied in ten African countries, which includes fixed indicators and measures for co-management performance monitoring, a process evaluation element, a platform for repeat ecological surveillance, and a longitudinal household survey. We comment on the usefulness of this framework, and its applicability to a wide range of geographic contexts. We then present a four step model to assist managers in applying the framework to specific co-management problems. The model suggests a cascade approach to defining key evaluations questions at a systems, network, individual and synthesis level. We illustrate the application of our model and framework by means of a case study of a co-managed agroforestry program in western Kenya.

  6. Monitoring and evaluation to support adaptive co-management: Lessons learned from the Millennium Villages Project.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Sarah; Sullivan, Clare; Palm, Cheryl; Huynh, Uyen; Diru, William; Masira, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    This article focuses attention on monitoring and evaluation approaches that will help resource managers to manage for change and uncertainty in adaptive co-management (ACM). ACM is a learning-by-doing approach that aims to build flexible community-based natural resource governance systems through collaborative or otherwise participatory means. We describe the framework for monitoring and evaluation that we developed and applied in ten African countries, which includes fixed indicators and measures for co-management performance monitoring, a process evaluation element, a platform for repeat ecological surveillance, and a longitudinal household survey. We comment on the usefulness of this framework, and its applicability to a wide range of geographic contexts. We then present a four step model to assist managers in applying the framework to specific co-management problems. The model suggests a cascade approach to defining key evaluations questions at a systems, network, individual and synthesis level. We illustrate the application of our model and framework by means of a case study of a co-managed agroforestry program in western Kenya. PMID:27589922

  7. Watershed Conservation, Groundwater Management, and Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumasset, J.; Burnett, K.; Wada, C.

    2009-12-01

    5-10% reduction in wet season mean precipitation and a 5% increase during the dry season by the end of the 21st century. These trends will be used to condition the time series analysis through Bayesian updating. The resulting distributions, conditioned for seasonality and long-run climate change, will be used to recursively simulate daily rainfalls, thereby allowing for serial correlation and forming a basis for the watershed model to recursively determine components of the water balance equation. The methodology will allow us to generate different sequences of rainfall from the estimated distribution and the corresponding recharge functions. These in turn are used as the basis of optimizing groundwater management under both the watershed conservation program and no conservation. We calculate how much adaptation via joint optimization of watershed conservation and groundwater management decreases the damages from declining precipitation. Inasmuch as groundwater scarcity increases with the forecasted climate change, even under optimal groundwater management, the value of watershed conservation also increases.

  8. Regional Cumulative Effects Groundwater Management Associated with Large Resource Development Projects: Integrating Adaptive Management with Monitoring and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J.; Fennell, J.; Scott, M.

    2011-12-01

    We will present a systematic approach to cumulative effects groundwater management predicated on an integration of traditional tools and the necessary intimate connection between modelling, monitoring and adaptive management, which includes an inventory and gap analysis of available data, consideration for system dynamics in the context of climate variability and change, an assessment of aquifer vulnerability, and consideration for potential future development and overall associated risk to groundwater resources and connected receptors. In our experience, a systematic approach to cumulative effects groundwater management is key to addressing complex challenges associated with large resource development projects, with effects of these projects to aquifer systems often occurring at regional scales and possibly enduring over long time horizons. The principal goal for the groundwater management framework is to manage groundwater resources in a sustainable manner and protect it from over-use. However, proper balances with economic and community objectives need to be taken into account, emphasizing the need for stakeholder engagement in the overall process. Through an understanding of inter-relationships between natural resource and other objectives, legislation, policies and programs across various sectors goals can be developed to achieve the best overall long-term benefits for society and the environment, while minimizing conflicts. The principal goal of monitoring is to evaluate past and current conditions and address data gaps. Long-term monitoring can also be used to improve the hydrogeologic conceptualization of a region. The role of numerical modelling is to quantify the understanding of groundwater flow systems in a region, address uncertainty in this understanding, to quantify potential regional cumulative impacts of current and future development, to provide recommendations for future monitoring locations and targets and for assessing the effectiveness of

  9. Linking ecosystem processes to sustainable wetland management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, Ned H.; Smith, Loren M.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Browne, Bryant A.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of concern over problems associated with the future of managed wetlands in North America, nearly two dozen wetland scientists and managers met in February 2006 at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge in New Mexico and discussed a sustainable approach to wetland management. This approach links science with management by focusing on underlying wetland processes. From that meeting, several papers were developed and published in Wetlands to address these concerns (Euliss et al. 2008, Smith et al. 2008, Wilcox 2008). This article summarizes our first paper, Euliss et al. (2008), and a future Newsletter article will summarize Smith et al. (2008). Realization of the role that complex interactions play in maintaining ecosystems, coupled with increasing demands of humans for ecosystem services, has prompted much interest in ecosystem management. Not surprisingly, sustainability of ecosystems has become an explicitly stated goal of many natural resource agencies and, in some cases, has been legislatively mandated to ensure provision of resources for future generations. However, examples of sustainable ecosystem management are uncommon because management goals often focus on specific deliverables rather than processes that sustain ecosystems. This paper has three sections: (1) perspectives in which we provide a bit of history, (2), ecological consequences of a static view, and (3) suggestions to aid wetland managers link management goals with critical ecosystem processes responsible for provision of wetland services.

  10. Building an Identity Management Governance Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Joanne E.; Kraemer, Ron; Raatz, Carla; Devoti, Steve

    2009-01-01

    A particular challenge in any campus environment is determining how requests for access to services and resources are managed. Who decides the technology, infrastructure, policy, business process and procedure? The involvement of key institutional leaders and stakeholders in identity management governance is the driving force behind the way the…

  11. The Management-Business Process: Cultural Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Reynaldo

    The effect of culture on the business management process in a Hispanic setting is explored for the benefit of persons in business in Latin America or with Hispanic groups in the United States. Understanding of cultural differences is important for business managers who work with Spanish speaking employees or clients because of the wide-ranging and…

  12. Multilevel learning in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests: 20 years and counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Boomer, G. Scott; Williams, Byron K.; Nichols, James D.; Case, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service implemented an adaptive harvest management program (AHM) for the sport harvest of midcontinent mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The program has been successful in reducing long-standing contentiousness in the regulatory process, while integrating science and policy in a coherent, rigorous, and transparent fashion. After 20 years, much has been learned about the relationship among waterfowl populations, their environment, and hunting regulations, with each increment of learning contributing to better management decisions. At the same time, however, much has been changing in the social, institutional, and environmental arenas that provide context for the AHM process. Declines in hunter numbers, competition from more pressing conservation issues, and global-change processes are increasingly challenging waterfowl managers to faithfully reflect the needs and desires of stakeholders, to account for an increasing number of institutional constraints, and to (probabilistically) predict the consequences of regulatory policy in a changing environment. We review the lessons learned from the AHM process so far, and describe emerging challenges and ways in which they may be addressed. We conclude that the practice of AHM has greatly increased an awareness of the roles of social values, trade-offs, and attitudes toward risk in regulatory decision-making. Nevertheless, going forward the waterfowl management community will need to focus not only on the relationships among habitat, harvest, and waterfowl populations, but on the ways in which society values waterfowl and how those values can change over time. 

  13. Adaptive model predictive process control using neural networks

    DOEpatents

    Buescher, Kevin L.; Baum, Christopher C.; Jones, Roger D.

    1997-01-01

    A control system for controlling the output of at least one plant process output parameter is implemented by adaptive model predictive control using a neural network. An improved method and apparatus provides for sampling plant output and control input at a first sampling rate to provide control inputs at the fast rate. The MPC system is, however, provided with a network state vector that is constructed at a second, slower rate so that the input control values used by the MPC system are averaged over a gapped time period. Another improvement is a provision for on-line training that may include difference training, curvature training, and basis center adjustment to maintain the weights and basis centers of the neural in an updated state that can follow changes in the plant operation apart from initial off-line training data.

  14. Adaptive model predictive process control using neural networks

    DOEpatents

    Buescher, K.L.; Baum, C.C.; Jones, R.D.

    1997-08-19

    A control system for controlling the output of at least one plant process output parameter is implemented by adaptive model predictive control using a neural network. An improved method and apparatus provides for sampling plant output and control input at a first sampling rate to provide control inputs at the fast rate. The MPC system is, however, provided with a network state vector that is constructed at a second, slower rate so that the input control values used by the MPC system are averaged over a gapped time period. Another improvement is a provision for on-line training that may include difference training, curvature training, and basis center adjustment to maintain the weights and basis centers of the neural in an updated state that can follow changes in the plant operation apart from initial off-line training data. 46 figs.

  15. Non-linear, adaptive array processing for acoustic interference suppression.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Elizabeth; Roan, Michael

    2009-06-01

    A method is introduced where blind source separation of acoustical sources is combined with spatial processing to remove non-Gaussian, broadband interferers from space-time displays such as bearing track recorder displays. This differs from most standard techniques such as generalized sidelobe cancellers in that the separation of signals is not done spatially. The algorithm performance is compared to adaptive beamforming techniques such as minimum variance distortionless response beamforming. Simulations and experiments using two acoustic sources were used to verify the performance of the algorithm. Simulations were also used to determine the effectiveness of the algorithm under various signal to interference, signal to noise, and array geometry conditions. A voice activity detection algorithm was used to benchmark the performance of the source isolation.

  16. 75 FR 439 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was implemented as a result of the Record of Decision on the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam...

  17. 78 FR 42799 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Meetings AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon...

  18. 77 FR 60138 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Teleconference/Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Teleconference/ Web-Based... Wildlife Service, announce a public teleconference/web-based meeting of ] the Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG). DATES: Teleconference/web-based meeting: Wednesday October 17, 2012, from 9 a.m....

  19. 75 FR 44809 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (AMP) was implemented as a result of the Record of Decision on the Operation of Glen Canyon Dam...

  20. Adaptive Regulation of the Northern California Reservoir System for Water, Energy, and Environmental Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, A. P.; Kistenmacher, M.; Yao, H.; Georgakakos, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The 2014 National Climate Assessment of the US Global Change Research Program emphasizes that water resources managers and planners in most US regions will have to cope with new risks, vulnerabilities, and opportunities, and recommends the development of adaptive capacity to effectively respond to the new water resources planning and management challenges. In the face of these challenges, adaptive reservoir regulation is becoming all the more ncessary. Water resources management in Northern California relies on the coordinated operation of several multi-objective reservoirs on the Trinity, Sacramento, American, Feather, and San Joaquin Rivers. To be effective, reservoir regulation must be able to (a) account for forecast uncertainty; (b) assess changing tradeoffs among water uses and regions; and (c) adjust management policies as conditions change; and (d) evaluate the socio-economic and environmental benefits and risks of forecasts and policies for each region and for the system as a whole. The Integrated Forecast and Reservoir Management (INFORM) prototype demonstration project operated in Northern California through the collaboration of several forecast and management agencies has shown that decision support systems (DSS) with these attributes add value to stakeholder decision processes compared to current, less flexible management practices. Key features of the INFORM DSS include: (a) dynamically downscaled operational forecasts and climate projections that maintain the spatio-temporal coherence of the downscaled land surface forcing fields within synoptic scales; (b) use of ensemble forecast methodologies for reservoir inflows; (c) assessment of relevant tradeoffs among water uses on regional and local scales; (d) development and evaluation of dynamic reservoir policies with explicit consideration of hydro-climatic forecast uncertainties; and (e) focus on stakeholder information needs.This article discusses the INFORM integrated design concept, underlying

  1. Agricultural Catchments: Evaluating Policies and Monitoring Adaptive Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, P.; Shortle, G.; Mellander, P. E.; Shore, M.; McDonald, N.; Buckley, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural management in river catchments must combine the objectives of economic profit and environmental stewardship and, in many countries, mitigate the decline of water quality and/or maintain high water quality. Achieving these objectives is, amongst other activities, in the remit of 'sustainable intensification'. Of concern is the efficient use of crop nutrients, phosphorus and nitrogen, and minimising or offsetting the effects of transfers from land to water - corner-stone requirements of many agri-environmental regulations. This requires a robust monitoring programme that can audit the stages of nutrient inputs and outputs in river catchments and indicate where the likely points of successful policy interventions can be observed - or confounded. In this paper, a catchment, or watershed, experimental design and results are described for monitoring the nutrient transfer continuum in the Irish agricultural landscape against the backdrop of the European Union Nitrates and Water Framework Directives. This Agricultural Catchments Programme experimental design also serves to indicate water quality pressure-points that may be catchment specific as agricultural activities intensify to adapt to national efforts to build important parts of the post-recession economy.

  2. Nursing process approach improves receivables management.

    PubMed

    Dias, K; Stockamp, D

    1992-09-01

    The "nursing process" is a systematic decision-making approach to problem solving based on open-system theory. This theory assumes that there is an on-going interchange between all system components. Components cannot be viewed in isolation, because decisions regarding one component will affect other components. Receivables management is similar to the nursing process, in that it involves constant diagnosis, assessment, and intervention in the work in process during all phases of the receivables cycle. In experiments that applied the nursing process concept to the management of accounts receivable in several hospitals, gross days in accounts receivable were reduced and cash flow was increased. PMID:10145682

  3. Non-adaptive and adaptive hybrid approaches for enhancing water quality management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalwij, Ineke M.; Peralta, Richard C.

    2008-09-01

    SummaryUsing optimization to help solve groundwater management problems cost-effectively is becoming increasingly important. Hybrid optimization approaches, that combine two or more optimization algorithms, will become valuable and common tools for addressing complex nonlinear hydrologic problems. Hybrid heuristic optimizers have capabilities far beyond those of a simple genetic algorithm (SGA), and are continuously improving. SGAs having only parent selection, crossover, and mutation are inefficient and rarely used for optimizing contaminant transport management. Even an advanced genetic algorithm (AGA) that includes elitism (to emphasize using the best strategies as parents) and healing (to help assure optimal strategy feasibility) is undesirably inefficient. Much more efficient than an AGA is the presented hybrid (AGCT), which adds comprehensive tabu search (TS) features to an AGA. TS mechanisms (TS probability, tabu list size, search coarseness and solution space size, and a TS threshold value) force the optimizer to search portions of the solution space that yield superior pumping strategies, and to avoid reproducing similar or inferior strategies. An AGCT characteristic is that TS control parameters are unchanging during optimization. However, TS parameter values that are ideal for optimization commencement can be undesirable when nearing assumed global optimality. The second presented hybrid, termed global converger (GC), is significantly better than the AGCT. GC includes AGCT plus feedback-driven auto-adaptive control that dynamically changes TS parameters during run-time. Before comparing AGCT and GC, we empirically derived scaled dimensionless TS control parameter guidelines by evaluating 50 sets of parameter values for a hypothetical optimization problem. For the hypothetical area, AGCT optimized both well locations and pumping rates. The parameters are useful starting values because using trial-and-error to identify an ideal combination of control

  4. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  5. Sustaining a Mature Risk Management Process: Ensuring the International Space Station for a Vibrant Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Carter-Journet, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) risk management methodology is an example of a mature and sustainable process. Risk management is a systematic approach used to proactively identify, analyze, plan, track, control, communicate, and document risks to help management make risk-informed decisions that increase the likelihood of achieving program objectives. The ISS has been operating in space for over 14 years and permanently crewed for over 12 years. It is the longest surviving habitable vehicle in low Earth orbit history. Without a mature and proven risk management plan, it would be increasingly difficult to achieve mission success throughout the life of the ISS Program. A successful risk management process must be able to adapt to a dynamic program. As ISS program-level decision processes have evolved, so too has the ISS risk management process continued to innovate, improve, and adapt. Constant adaptation of risk management tools and an ever-improving process is essential to the continued success of the ISS Program. Above all, sustained support from program management is vital to risk management continued effectiveness. Risk management is valued and stressed as an important process by the ISS Program.

  6. Augmenting synthetic aperture radar with space time adaptive processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedl, Michael; Potter, Lee C.; Ertin, Emre

    2013-05-01

    Wide-area persistent radar video offers the ability to track moving targets. A shortcoming of the current technology is an inability to maintain track when Doppler shift places moving target returns co-located with strong clutter. Further, the high down-link data rate required for wide-area imaging presents a stringent system bottleneck. We present a multi-channel approach to augment the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) modality with space time adaptive processing (STAP) while constraining the down-link data rate to that of a single antenna SAR system. To this end, we adopt a multiple transmit, single receive (MISO) architecture. A frequency division design for orthogonal transmit waveforms is presented; the approach maintains coherence on clutter, achieves the maximal unaliased band of radial velocities, retains full resolution SAR images, and requires no increase in receiver data rate vis-a-vis the wide-area SAR modality. For Nt transmit antennas and N samples per pulse, the enhanced sensing provides a STAP capability with Nt times larger range bins than the SAR mode, at the cost of O(log N) more computations per pulse. The proposed MISO system and the associated signal processing are detailed, and the approach is numerically demonstrated via simulation of an airborne X-band system.

  7. Adapting and Testing Business Management Development Programs for Educational Administrators. Volume 5 of 6 Volumes. Appendix I-Planning Document: North Carolina LEA, Laurinburg-Scotland. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klawuhn, Raymond E.; Basso, Alexander J.

    This document is comprised of an appendix that provides a portion of the materials utilized in the project to test the feasibility of adapting business management practices to educational institutions. Included is the educational planning process document for one of the eight participating management teams. The planning process document states the…

  8. FORUM: Balancing Endangered Species and Ecosystems: A Case Study of Adaptive Management in Grand Canyon.

    PubMed

    Meretsky; Wegner; Stevens

    2000-06-01

    / Adaptive ecosystem management seeks to sustain ecosystems while extracting or using natural resources. The goal of endangered species management under the Endangered Species Act is limited to the protection and recovery of designated species, and the act takes precedence over other policies and regulations guiding ecosystem management. We present an example of conflict between endangered species and ecosystem management during the first planned flood on the Colorado River in Grand Canyon in 1996. We discuss the resolution of the conflict and the circumstances that allowed a solution to be reached. We recommend that adaptive management be implemented extensively and early in ecosystem management so that information and working relationships will be available to address conflicts as they arise. Though adaptive management is not a panacea, it offers the best opportunity for balanced solutions to competing management goals.

  9. Assessing confidence in management adaptation approaches for climate-sensitive ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. M.; Julius, S. H.; Weaver, C. P.

    2012-03-01

    A number of options are available for adapting ecosystem management to improve resilience in the face of climatic changes. However, uncertainty exists as to the effectiveness of these options. A report prepared for the US Climate Change Science Program reviewed adaptation options for a range of federally managed systems in the United States. The report included a qualitative uncertainty analysis of conceptual approaches to adaptation derived from the review. The approaches included reducing anthropogenic stressors, protecting key ecosystem features, maintaining representation, replicating, restoring, identifying refugia and relocating organisms. The results showed that the expert teams had the greatest scientific confidence in adaptation options that reduce anthropogenic stresses. Confidence in other approaches was lower because of gaps in understanding of ecosystem function, climate change impacts on ecosystems, and management effectiveness. This letter discusses insights gained from the confidence exercise and proposes strategies for improving future assessments of confidence for management adaptations to climate change.

  10. Service Contract Compliance Management in Business Process Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kharbili, Marwane; Pulvermueller, Elke

    Compliance management is a critical concern for corporations, required to respect contracts. This concern is particularly relevant in the context of business process management (BPM) as this paradigm is getting adopted more widely for-designing and building IT systems. Enforcing contractual compliance needs to be modeled at different levels of a BPM framework, which also includes the service layer. In this paper, we discuss requirements and methods for modeling contractual compliance for an SOA-supported BPM. We also show how business rule management integrated into an industry BPM tool allows modeling and processing functional and non-functional-property constraints which may be extracted from business process contracts. This work proposes a framework that responds to the requirements identified and proposes an architecture implementing it. Our approach is also illustrated by an example.

  11. Management Strategies for Complex Adaptive Systems: Sensemaking, Learning, and Improvisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Reuben R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Misspecification of the nature of organizations may be a major reason for difficulty in achieving performance improvement. Organizations are often viewed as machine-like, but complexity science suggests that organizations should be viewed as complex adaptive systems. I identify the characteristics of complex adaptive systems and give examples of…

  12. Adaptive automation, trust, and self-confidence in fault management of time-critical tasks.

    PubMed

    Moray, N; Inagaki, T; Itoh, M

    2000-03-01

    An experiment on adaptive automation is described. Reliability of automated fault diagnosis, mode of fault management (manual vs. automated), and fault dynamics affect variables including root mean square error, avoidance of accidents and false shutdowns, subjective trust in the system, and operator self-confidence. Results are discussed in relation to levels of automation, models of trust and self-confidence, and theories of human-machine function allocation. Trust in automation but not self-confidence was strongly affected by automation reliability. Operators controlled a continuous process with difficulty only while performing fault management but could prevent unnecessary shutdowns. Final authority for decisions and action must be allocated to automation in time-critical situations.

  13. CONFIG - Adapting qualitative modeling and discrete event simulation for design of fault management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Basham, Bryan D.

    1989-01-01

    CONFIG is a modeling and simulation tool prototype for analyzing the normal and faulty qualitative behaviors of engineered systems. Qualitative modeling and discrete-event simulation have been adapted and integrated, to support early development, during system design, of software and procedures for management of failures, especially in diagnostic expert systems. Qualitative component models are defined in terms of normal and faulty modes and processes, which are defined by invocation statements and effect statements with time delays. System models are constructed graphically by using instances of components and relations from object-oriented hierarchical model libraries. Extension and reuse of CONFIG models and analysis capabilities in hybrid rule- and model-based expert fault-management support systems are discussed.

  14. Impact of learning adaptability and time management disposition on study engagement among Chinese baccalaureate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-Ying; Liu, Yan-Hui; Yang, Ji-Peng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among study engagement, learning adaptability, and time management disposition in a sample of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. A convenient sample of 467 baccalaureate nursing students was surveyed in two universities in Tianjin, China. Students completed a questionnaire that included their demographic information, Chinese Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Questionnaire, Learning Adaptability Scale, and Adolescence Time Management Disposition Scale. One-way analysis of variance tests were used to assess the relationship between certain characteristics of baccalaureate nursing students. Pearson correlation was performed to test the correlation among study engagement, learning adaptability, and time management disposition. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of time management disposition. The results revealed that study engagement (F = 7.20, P < .01) and learning adaptability (F = 4.41, P < .01) differed across grade groups. Learning adaptability (r = 0.382, P < .01) and time management disposition (r = 0.741, P < .01) were positively related with study engagement. Time management disposition had a partially mediating effect on the relationship between study engagement and learning adaptability. The findings implicate that educators should not only promote interventions to increase engagement of baccalaureate nursing students but also focus on development, investment in adaptability, and time management.

  15. Impacts on Water Management and Crop Production of Regional Cropping System Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.; Sun, L.; Tian, Z.; Liang, Z.; Fischer, G.

    2014-12-01

    China is one of the most populous and fast developing countries, also faces a great pressure on grain production and food security. Multi-cropping system is widely applied in China to fully utilize agro-climatic resources and increase land productivity. As the heat resource keep improving under climate warming, multi-cropping system will also shifting northward, and benefit crop production. But water shortage in North China Plain will constrain the adoption of new multi-cropping system. Effectiveness of multi-cropping system adaptation to climate change will greatly depend on future hydrological change and agriculture water management. So it is necessary to quantitatively express the water demand of different multi-cropping systems under climate change. In this paper, we proposed an integrated climate-cropping system-crops adaptation framework, and specifically focused on: 1) precipitation and hydrological change under future climate change in China; 2) the best multi-cropping system and correspondent crop rotation sequence, and water demand under future agro-climatic resources; 3) attainable crop production with water constraint; and 4) future water management. In order to obtain climate projection and precipitation distribution, global climate change scenario from HADCAM3 is downscaled with regional climate model (PRECIS), historical climate data (1960-1990) was interpolated from more than 700 meteorological observation stations. The regional Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ) model is applied to simulate the best multi-cropping system and crop rotation sequence under projected climate change scenario. Finally, we use the site process-based DSSAT model to estimate attainable crop production and the water deficiency. Our findings indicate that annual land productivity may increase and China can gain benefit from climate change if multi-cropping system would be adopted. This study provides a macro-scale view of agriculture adaptation, and gives suggestions to national

  16. Managing Analysis Models in the Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2006-01-01

    Design of large, complex space systems depends on significant model-based support for exploration of the design space. Integrated models predict system performance in mission-relevant terms given design descriptions and multiple physics-based numerical models. Both the design activities and the modeling activities warrant explicit process definitions and active process management to protect the project from excessive risk. Software and systems engineering processes have been formalized and similar formal process activities are under development for design engineering and integrated modeling. JPL is establishing a modeling process to define development and application of such system-level models.

  17. Idea processing for creativity and management

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P E

    1988-01-01

    Tips and case histories on computer use for idea and outline processing: Productivity software to solve problems of idea hierarchy, transitions, and developments is matched to solutions for communicators. One case is text that ranges from methods and procedures to histories and legal definitions of classification for the US Department of Energy. Applications of value to writers, editors, and managers are for research; calendars; creativity; prioritization; idea discovery and manipulation; file and time management; and contents, indexes, and glossaries. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  18. The sensitivity of current and future forest managers to climate-induced changes in ecological processes.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Rupert; Aggestam, Filip; Rammer, Werner; Blennow, Kristina; Wolfslehner, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    Climate vulnerability of managed forest ecosystems is not only determined by ecological processes but also influenced by the adaptive capacity of forest managers. To better understand adaptive behaviour, we conducted a questionnaire study among current and future forest managers (i.e. active managers and forestry students) in Austria. We found widespread belief in climate change (94.7 % of respondents), and no significant difference between current and future managers. Based on intended responses to climate-induced ecosystem changes, we distinguished four groups: highly sensitive managers (27.7 %), those mainly sensitive to changes in growth and regeneration processes (46.7 %), managers primarily sensitive to regeneration changes (11.2 %), and insensitive managers (14.4 %). Experiences and beliefs with regard to disturbance-related tree mortality were found to particularly influence a manager's sensitivity to climate change. Our findings underline the importance of the social dimension of climate change adaptation, and suggest potentially strong adaptive feedbacks between ecosystems and their managers.

  19. Management of bulimia nervosa: a case study with the Roy adaptation model.

    PubMed

    Seah, Xin Yi; Tham, Xiang Cong

    2015-04-01

    Bulimia nervosa is a crippling and chronic disorder, with individuals experiencing repeated binge-purge episodes. It is not widely understood by society. The use of the Roy adaptation model for the management of bulimia nervosa is examined in this article. Nursing models are utilized to provide a structure for planning and implementation of patient management. The Roy adaptation model focuses on the importance of individuals as able to adapt well to their changing surrounding environments. This model can be useful in managing patients with bulimia nervosa.

  20. An Adaptive Management Approach for Summer Water Level Reductions on the Upper Mississippi River System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, B.L.; Barko, J.W.; Clevenstine, R.; Davis, M.; Galat, D.L.; Lubinski, S.J.; Nestler, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to provide an adaptive management approach for learning more about summer water level reductions (drawdowns) as a management tool, including where and how drawdowns can be applied most effectively within the Upper Mississippi River System. The report reviews previous drawdowns conducted within the system and provides specific recommendations for learning more about the lesser known effects of drawdowns and how the outcomes can be influenced by different implementation strategies and local conditions. The knowledge gained can be used by managers to determine how best to implement drawdowns in different parts of the UMRS to help achieve management goals. The information and recommendations contained in the report are derived from results of previous drawdown projects, insights from regional disciplinary experts, and the experience of the authors in experimental design, modeling, and monitoring. Modeling is a critical part of adaptive management and can involve conceptual models, simulation models, and empirical models. In this report we present conceptual models that express current understanding regarding functioning of the UMRS as related to drawdowns and highlight interactions among key ecological components of the system. The models were developed within the constraints of drawdown timing, magnitude (depth), and spatial differences in effects (longitudinal and lateral) with attention to ecological processes affected by drawdowns. With input from regional experts we focused on the responses of vegetation, fish, mussels, other invertebrates, and birds. The conceptual models reflect current understanding about relations and interactions among system components, the expected strength of those interactions, potential responses of system components to drawdowns, likelihood of the response occurring, and key uncertainties that limit our ability to make accurate predictions of effects (Table 1, Fig. 4-10). Based on this current

  1. Facilitating adaptive management in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed through the use of online decision support tools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mullinx, Cassandra; Phillips, Scott; Shenk, Kelly; Hearn, Paul; Devereux, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP) is attempting to more strategically implement management actions to improve the health of the Nation’s largest estuary. In 2007 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) CBP office began a joint effort to develop a suite of Internetaccessible decision-support tools and to help meet the needs of CBP partners to improve water quality and habitat conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its watersheds. An adaptive management framework is being used to provide a structured decision process for information and individual tools needed to implement and assess practices to improve the condition of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The Chesapeake Online Adaptive Support Toolkit (COAST) is a collection of web-based analytical tools and information, organized in an adaptive management framework, intended to aid decisionmakers in protecting and restoring the integrity of the Bay ecosystem. The initial version of COAST is focused on water quality issues. During early and mid- 2008, initial ideas for COAST were shared and discussed with various CBP partners and other potential user groups. At these meetings, test cases were selected to help improve understanding of the types of information and analytical functionality that would be most useful for specific partners’ needs. These discussions added considerable knowledge about the nature of decisionmaking for Federal, State, local and nongovernmental partners. Version 1.0 of COAST, released in early winter of 2008, will be further reviewed to determine improvements needed to address implementation and assessment of water quality practices. Future versions of COAST may address other aspects of ecosystem restoration, including restoration of habitat and living resources and maintaining watershed health.

  2. 76 FR 57723 - Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... to publish the Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline. The guideline describes a risk management process that is targeted to the specific needs of electricity...

  3. Increasing sustainable stormwater management adaption through transdisciplinary research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wingfield, Thea; Potter, Karen; Jones, Gareth; Spees, Jack; Macdonald, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The Ribble Rivers Trust leads a partnership of land and water management organisations that use a holistic approach to water management in the Ribble catchment. They are interested in incorporating sustainable stormwater systems, into their program of delivery with a view to ensuring that their activities to improve the environments and habitats of the catchment also contribute to reducing flood risk. A methodology, to locate interventions that would slow water within the catchment are identified; however partner buy in, institutional caution and economic barriers are felt to be hindering delivery. In response a transdisciplinary research project in which both the academics of the University of Liverpool and the practitioners of The Ribble Rivers Trust are active investigators has been established. The project aims to increase the uptake of sustainable stormwater management techniques through the analysis of the institutional, experiential and governance processes and their interactions with the physical hydrological processes governing stormwater systems. Research that is transdisciplinary must integrate academic knowledge with practitioner, local understanding and practice. Furthermore methodologies belonging to different academic fields must be blended together to collect, analyse and interpret data in order to examine complex problems through different disciplinary lenses in an integrated way. This approach has been developed in response to the complex relationships of cause and effect of contemporary inter-related economic, environmental and societal challenges. There have been a number of challenges to overcome as transdisciplinary researchers, the first and most important was to understand the different research philosophies and theoretical assumptions behind various natural science and social science research methods. Without this understanding research methodologies could be flawed and would not be effectively integrated and the data would not be

  4. Adapting and Testing Business Management Development Programs for Educational Administrators. Volume 6 of 6 Volumes. Appendix J-Evaluation Report, Maxwell School. Appendix K-Schematic of Planning Process and Narrative Description. Appendix L-Narrative Description. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klawuhn, Raymond E.; Basso, Alexander J.

    This report constitutes an evaluation of the first year of a 2-year training program conducted by the American Management Association. The program focuses on organizational planning in two State educational agencies and involves the sequential implementation of three distinct, offsite, residential training efforts. The first of these, the…

  5. Development of adaptation strategies of marshland water management to regional climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, Helge; Frank, Ahlhorn; Luise, Giani; Kirsten, Klaassen; Thomas, Klenke

    2010-05-01

    , alternative strategies for a future water management were developed. They are based on the stakeholder's picture of their future landscape, describing how the region should look like in year 2050, considering the landscape in general as well as socioeconomic aspects such as land use, employment market and tourism. And they are also based on guiding principles of future water management on which all stakeholders agreed. In comparison with the list of potential measures suggested by regional stakeholders, a concept is presented which was developed by a group of international water management experts from Netherlands, UK, Sweden and Belgium in the framework of a project workshop of the EU-Interreg IVb ‘Climate Proof Areas' project. This comparison highlights the impact of setting certain boundary conditions of a future development, i.e. the sustainable development of the future landscape versus keeping the landscape and its cultural heritage as it is now, for example by maintaining the traditional farming system as fundamental precondition for the climate adaptation process. Setting these priorities governs the decision making process and decides whether the focus is set on technical adaptation measures in contrast to alternative land use concepts for a region.

  6. Managed traffic evacuation using distributed sensor processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Biswas, Subir

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents an integrated sensor network and distributed event processing architecture for managed in-building traffic evacuation during natural and human-caused disasters, including earthquakes, fire and biological/chemical terrorist attacks. The proposed wireless sensor network protocols and distributed event processing mechanisms offer a new distributed paradigm for improving reliability in building evacuation and disaster management. The networking component of the system is constructed using distributed wireless sensors for measuring environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, and detecting unusual events such as smoke, structural failures, vibration, biological/chemical or nuclear agents. Distributed event processing algorithms will be executed by these sensor nodes to detect the propagation pattern of the disaster and to measure the concentration and activity of human traffic in different parts of the building. Based on this information, dynamic evacuation decisions are taken for maximizing the evacuation speed and minimizing unwanted incidents such as human exposure to harmful agents and stampedes near exits. A set of audio-visual indicators and actuators are used for aiding the automated evacuation process. In this paper we develop integrated protocols, algorithms and their simulation models for the proposed sensor networking and the distributed event processing framework. Also, efficient harnessing of the individually low, but collectively massive, processing abilities of the sensor nodes is a powerful concept behind our proposed distributed event processing algorithms. Results obtained through simulation in this paper are used for a detailed characterization of the proposed evacuation management system and its associated algorithmic components.

  7. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (I): Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Ye, Yushi

    2015-12-01

    Due to the adaption, dynamic and multi-objective characteristics of complex water resources system, it is a considerable challenge to manage water resources in an efficient, equitable and sustainable way. An integrated optimal allocation model is proposed for complex adaptive system of water resources management. The model consists of three modules: (1) an agent-based module for revealing evolution mechanism of complex adaptive system using agent-based, system dynamic and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II methods, (2) an optimal module for deriving decision set of water resources allocation using multi-objective genetic algorithm, and (3) a multi-objective evaluation module for evaluating the efficiency of the optimal module and selecting the optimal water resources allocation scheme using project pursuit method. This study has provided a theoretical framework for adaptive allocation, dynamic allocation and multi-objective optimization for a complex adaptive system of water resources management.

  8. Private adaptation strategies and implementation in flood risk management: why people do nothing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Maris, Fotios; Paparrizos, Spyros; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    In the past decades, vulnerability assessment has emerged as an important field of research in flood risk management, in particular with respect to climate change and necessary adaptation strategies for the society. Probably starting with Chamber's seminal article on vulnerability, coping and policy (Chambers 1989), and further developed as the causal structure of vulnerability by Bohle (2001) and others, at least two research paradigms exist: an internal side focusing on societal resilience and coping capacities, and an external side targeted at a reduction of negative effects in terms of loss reduction (Fuchs 2009). Despite considerable research effects, however, different definitions and concepts still dominate the debate; it is surely that different scientific disciplines are working with this term: natural scientists, engineers, social scientists or economists, to name just a few. Each discipline defines vulnerability in a way which fits to their disciplinary purposes (Fuchs et al. 2011). But why has there been so little progress in our ability to adapt to flood hazards? White et al. (2001) summarised this paradox in an article with the title "Knowing better and losing even more - the use of knowledge in hazard management". One of the fundamental reasons for the lack of progress is the continuing separation of research on natural processes and socio-economic processes without considering interaction between these systems (Fuchs & Keiler 2013), as well as between scientific research results and the policy implementation (Medd & Marvin 2005). Moreover, as many studies were focused on the vulnerability of least developed societies to natural hazards (O'Brien et al. 2008), there is a particular lack in studies targeted at an implementation of existing adaptation frameworks at the level of highly-developed countries (Field et al. 2012; Scolobig et al. 2012). This gap results in a challenge for attempts to develop formal models into practical application and policy

  9. Analysis of dynamic deformation processes with adaptive KALMAN-filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichhorn, Andreas

    2007-05-01

    In this paper the approach of a full system analysis is shown quantifying a dynamic structural ("white-box"-) model for the calculation of thermal deformations of bar-shaped machine elements. The task was motivated from mechanical engineering searching new methods for the precise prediction and computational compensation of thermal influences in the heating and cooling phases of machine tools (i.e. robot arms, etc.). The quantification of thermal deformations under variable dynamic loads requires the modelling of the non-stationary spatial temperature distribution inside the object. Based upon FOURIERS law of heat flow the high-grade non-linear temperature gradient is represented by a system of partial differential equations within the framework of a dynamic Finite Element topology. It is shown that adaptive KALMAN-filtering is suitable to quantify relevant disturbance influences and to identify thermal parameters (i.e. thermal diffusivity) with a deviation of only 0,2%. As result an identified (and verified) parametric model for the realistic prediction respectively simulation of dynamic temperature processes is presented. Classifying the thermal bend as the main deformation quantity of bar-shaped machine tools, the temperature model is extended to a temperature deformation model. In lab tests thermal load steps are applied to an aluminum column. Independent control measurements show that the identified model can be used to predict the columns bend with a mean deviation (r.m.s.) smaller than 10 mgon. These results show that the deformation model is a precise predictor and suitable for realistic simulations of thermal deformations. Experiments with modified heat sources will be necessary to verify the model in further frequency spectra of dynamic thermal loads.

  10. Corrective action management (CAM) process guide

    SciTech Connect

    Lutter, T.M., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-18

    Consistent direction for identification, long-term reporting and trending, and correction of conditions adverse to the environment, safety and health will facilitate a successful transition and follow- on for the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC). Continuity of the corrective action management process is vital. It provides consistency via reporting and trending on corrective action management activities at the Site during the transition process. To ensure success,consideration of the business rules and the Hanford Action Tracking System (HATS), the automated tool that supports them, is essential. This document provides a consolidated synopsis of corrective action management business rules, the process, and the HATS to support the transition process at Hanford. It applies to the baseline of corrective action work the PHMC and its subcontractors will inherit. HATS satisfies the requirement for collection of data that enables long-term reporting and trending. The information contains all originating document, condition,and action data. HATS facilitates consistent tracking,reporting, closure, and trending of the corrective action work in progress across the Site. HATS follows the glossary standard definitions for commitment tracking listed in Appendix A and Site data value standards that are applicable. For long term access and use, HATS data are fed to a full text search and retrieval system called Search Hanford Accessible Reports Electronically(SHARE). An individual, organization, or company has the ability, through SHARE, to pull together the appropriate information as needed.

  11. 75 FR 20381 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting (webinar conference call). SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive... Canyon Dam Final Environmental Impact Statement to comply with consultation requirements of the...

  12. Yet Another Adaptive Learning Management System Based on Felder and Silverman's Learning Styles and Mashup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi-Hsing; Chen, Yen-Yi; Chen, Nian-Shing; Lu, You-Te; Fang, Rong-Jyue

    2016-01-01

    This study designs and implements an adaptive learning management system based on Felder and Silverman's Learning Style Model and the Mashup technology. In this system, Felder and Silverman's Learning Style model is used to assess students' learning styles, in order to provide adaptive learning to leverage learners' learning preferences.…

  13. Adaptive Classification of Landscape Process and Function: An Integration of Geoinformatics and Self-Organizing Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre M.

    2009-07-17

    The advanced geospatial information extraction and analysis capabilities of a Geographic Information System (GISs) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), particularly Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs), provide a topology-preserving means for reducing and understanding complex data relationships in the landscape. The Adaptive Landscape Classification Procedure (ALCP) is presented as an adaptive and evolutionary capability where varying types of data can be assimilated to address different management needs such as hydrologic response, erosion potential, habitat structure, instrumentation placement, and various forecast or what-if scenarios. This paper defines how the evaluation and analysis of spatial and/or temporal patterns in the landscape can provide insight into complex ecological, hydrological, climatic, and other natural and anthropogenic-influenced processes. Establishing relationships among high-dimensional datasets through neurocomputing based pattern recognition methods can help 1) resolve large volumes of data into a structured and meaningful form; 2) provide an approach for inferring landscape processes in areas that have limited data available but exhibit similar landscape characteristics; and 3) discover the value of individual variables or groups of variables that contribute to specific processes in the landscape. Classification of hydrologic patterns in the landscape is demonstrated.

  14. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  15. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  16. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    PubMed

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions. PMID:25926277

  17. Integrated and adaptive management of water resources: Tensions, legacies, and the next best thing

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, Nathan L.; Johns, Owen R.; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Nelson, Donald

    2011-02-01

    Integrated water resources management (IWRM) and adaptive management (AM) are two institutional and management paradigms designed to address shortcomings within water systems governance – the limits of hierarchical water institutional arrangements in the case of IWRM and the challenge of making water management decisions under uncertainty in the case of AM. Recently, there has been a trend to merge these paradigms to address the growing complexity of stressors shaping water management, such as globalization and climate change. However, because many of these joint approaches have received little empirical attention, questions remain about how they might work (or not) in practice. Here, we explore a few of these issues using empirical research carried out in Brazil. We focus on highlighting the potentially negative interactions, tensions, and tradeoffs between different institutions/mechanisms perceived as desirable as research and practice attempt to make water systems management simultaneously integrated and adaptive. Our examples pertain mainly on the use of techno-scientific knowledge in water management and governance in Brazil’s IWRM model and how it relates to participation, democracy, deliberation, diversity, and adaptability. We show that a legacy of technical and hierarchical management has shaped the integration of management, and subsequently, the degree to which management might also be adaptive. While integrated systems may be more legitimate and accountable than top-down command and control ones, the mechanisms of IWRM may be at odds with the flexible, experimental, and self-organizing nature of AM.

  18. Public Sector Reform and Governance for Adaptation: Implications of New Public Management for Adaptive Capacity in Mexico and Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, Hallie; Eriksen, Siri; Eikeland, Per-Ove; Øyen, Cecilie

    2011-03-01

    Although many governments are assuming the responsibility of initiating adaptation policy in relation to climate change, the compatibility of "governance-for-adaptation" with the current paradigms of public administration has generally been overlooked. Over the last several decades, countries around the globe have embraced variants of the philosophy of administration broadly called "New Public Management" (NPM) in an effort to improve administrative efficiencies and the provision of public services. Using evidence from a case study of reforms in the building sector in Norway, and a case study of water and flood risk management in central Mexico, we analyze the implications of the adoption of the tenets of NPM for adaptive capacity. Our cases illustrate that some of the key attributes associated with governance for adaptation—namely, technical and financial capacities; institutional memory, learning and knowledge; and participation and accountability—have been eroded by NPM reforms. Despite improvements in specific operational tasks of the public sector in each case, we show that the success of NPM reforms presumes the existence of core elements of governance that have often been found lacking, including solid institutional frameworks and accountability. Our analysis illustrates the importance of considering both longer-term adaptive capacities and short-term efficiency goals in public sector administration reform.

  19. Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning to Address Rapid Change: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caves, J. K.; Bodner, G.; Simms, K.; Fisher, L.; Robertson, T.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision-making and adaptive management (CAM) have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We present the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA), a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: 1) shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; 2) mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision-making; 3) efforts to make information increasingly relevant and reliable; and 4) shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. Yet the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control—including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets—with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. While CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: 1) Creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives which may be crucial from those which may hinder a flexible response to climate change, and 2) Incorporating scenario planning into CAM

  20. Patellar tendinosis as an adaptive process: a new hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, B; Purdam, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Patellar tendinosis (PT), or "jumper's knee" is a common condition in athletes participating in jumping sports, and is characterised by proximal patellar tendon pain and focal tenderness to palpation. Hypoechoic lesions observed in the proximal patellar tendon associated with the tendinosis are typically described as being a result of degenerative change or "failed healing". We propose a new model for the development of the hypoechoic lesion observed in PT, in which the aetiology is an adaptive response to differential forces within the tendon. Methods: We assessed the clinical, histopathological, and biomechanical literature surrounding the patellar tendon and integrated this with research into the response of tendons to differential forces. Results and conclusions: We propose that the hypoechoic lesion commonly described in PT is the result of adaptation or partial adaptation of the proximal patellar tendon to a compressive load. We postulate that the biomechanics of the patellar–patellar tendon interface creates this compressive environment. Secondary failure of the surrounding tensile adapted tendon tissue may result in tissue overload and failure, with resultant stimulation of nociceptors. We believe that this "adaptive model" of patellar tendinosis is consistent with the clinical and histological findings. PMID:15562176

  1. Time in Redox Adaptation Processes: From Evolution to Hormesis

    PubMed Central

    Sthijns, Mireille M. J. P. E.; Weseler, Antje R.; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth has to adapt to the ever changing environment. For example, due to introduction of oxygen in the atmosphere, an antioxidant network evolved to cope with the exposure to oxygen. The adaptive mechanisms of the antioxidant network, specifically the glutathione (GSH) system, are reviewed with a special focus on the time. The quickest adaptive response to oxidative stress is direct enzyme modification, increasing the GSH levels or activating the GSH-dependent protective enzymes. After several hours, a hormetic response is seen at the transcriptional level by up-regulating Nrf2-mediated expression of enzymes involved in GSH synthesis. In the long run, adaptations occur at the epigenetic and genomic level; for example, the ability to synthesize GSH by phototrophic bacteria. Apparently, in an adaptive hormetic response not only the dose or the compound, but also time, should be considered. This is essential for targeted interventions aimed to prevent diseases by successfully coping with changes in the environment e.g., oxidative stress. PMID:27690013

  2. Adapting livestock management to spatio-temporal heterogeneity in semi-arid rangelands.

    PubMed

    Jakoby, O; Quaas, M F; Baumgärtner, S; Frank, K

    2015-10-01

    Management strategies in rotational grazing systems differ in their level of complexity and adaptivity. Different components of such grazing strategies are expected to allow for adaptation to environmental heterogeneities in space and time. However, most models investigating general principles of rangeland management strategies neglect spatio-temporal system properties including seasonality and spatial heterogeneity of environmental variables. We developed an ecological-economic rangeland model that combines a spatially explicit farm structure with intra-annual time steps. This allows investigating different management components in rotational grazing systems (including stocking and rotation rules) and evaluating their effect on the ecological and economic states of semi-arid grazing systems. Our results show that adaptive stocking is less sensitive to overstocking compared to a constant stocking strategy. Furthermore, the rotation rule becomes important only at stocking numbers that maximize expected income. Altogether, the best of the tested strategies is adaptive stocking combined with a rotation that adapts to both spatial forage availability and seasonality. This management strategy maximises mean income and at the same time maintains the rangeland in a viable condition. However, we could also show that inappropriate adaptation that neglects seasonality even leads to deterioration. Rangelands characterised by higher inter-annual climate variability show a higher risk of income losses under a non-adaptive stocking rule, and non-adaptive rotation is least able to buffer increasing climate variability. Overall, all important system properties including seasonality and spatial heterogeneity of available resources need to be considered when designing an appropriate rangeland management system. Resulting adaptive rotational grazing strategies can be valuable for improving management and mitigating income risks.

  3. Dictating participation? Rethinking the adaptive co-management of socio-ecological systems in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Vilaly, Audra; Abd salam El Vilaly, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    In the face of environmental change, enhancing adaptive capacity relies on stakeholder engagement. But the participatory process, while critical to the translation, transfer, and application of scientific knowledge to society, is not without its own contradictions. These include the asymmetrical relations of power that prevail between environmental scientists, managers, and local users; discrepant understandings of knowledge and its appropriate uses; and conflicting social, economic, and ecological values, to name only a few. Our research examines five major transboundary river basin organizations in West Africa and their efforts to improve adaptive basin management via stakeholder collaboration. In particular, we evaluate the participatory strategies of these organizations to measure non-linear, multi-directional feedbacks between the social and biophysical factors of land use/land cover change, as well as the impacts of this change on basins and their dependent populations. Our research suggests that oftentimes, these methods paradoxically produce a hierarchical and marginalizing effect on local stakeholders in relation to the scientists that study them. In seeking to address these limitations, we assess the potential costs and benefits of integrating select components of a Participatory Action Research (PAR) framework (see, for example, Reason & Bradbury-Huang, 2007) into studies of complex socio-ecological problems. This approach, used widely in the social sciences, promotes critical reflection on and minimization of the power inequities inherent in science-society collaborations. It instead favors more horizontal forms of knowledge co-production that support and foster the expansion of local, existing movements for social and environmental justice. A PAR framework may therefore improve the efficiency, sustainability, and equitability of land-based adaptation to environmental change; further research is thus recommended to test this hypothesis. References

  4. Creating a Forest-Wide Context for Adaptive Management at Jackson Demonstration State Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liquori, M.; Helms, J.; Porter, D.

    2010-12-01

    At nearly 50,000 acres, Jackson Demonstration State Forest (JDSF) is the largest State-owned forest in California. In 2008, the CALFIRE Director appointed a 13-member Jackson Advisory Group to provide recommendations to the California State Board of Forestry for how to transition JDSF into a “world-class research forest”. After nearly 3 years of deliberations, we have developed a draft Research-Oriented Management Framework (ROMF) that, if adopted, will introduce a new model for adaptive management within the forestry sector. Our approach integrates several core elements. Scientific “Centers of Excellence” (including one focused on Coho recovery and/or watershed processes) would be developed around a Research-Oriented Landscape Allocation, that considers the existing distribution of forest attributes both within JDSF as well as within the broader coastal Redwood Region. The ROMF would establish an Experimental Basis for Management that seeks to leverage harvest activities with explicit experimental designs and monitoring objectives. Like many of the forests that comprise its customer-base, JDSF has a mandate to produce timber revenues. We view this as an opportunity to mimic the management constraint imposed on most private and conservation trust landowners to routinely harvest timber to support operational and capital costs. Timber revenues on JDSF would be used (in part) to support the research and monitoring program. Such a system would support both passive and active modes of forest manipulation and research, and would make JDSF research activities more relevant to stakeholders, potentially increasing opportunities for collaborative, landscape-scale studies that seek to resolve outstanding management issues and uncertainties. The ROMF also would seek to develop and improve practices related to sustainable forestry. Both Late-Seral Development Areas and Old-Forest Structure Zones would be established that will utilize uneven-aged management treatments to

  5. Adaptive management of river flows in Europe: A transferable framework for implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, M. F.; Holman, I. P.; Grabowski, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    The evidence base for defining flow regimes to support healthy river ecosystems is weak, as there are few studies which quantify the ecological impact associated with different degrees of hydrological alteration. As a result, river flow standards used to manage water abstraction are largely based on expert judgement. Planned adaptive management studies on multiple rivers under the European Water Framework Directive represent an opportunity to learn about ecological flow requirements and improve the quantitative evidence base. However, identifying clear ecological responses to flow alteration can be a significant challenge, because of the complexity of river systems and the other factors which may confound the response. This paper describes the Adaptive River Management (ARM) framework, a flexible framework for implementing adaptive management of river flows that is transferable to other regions of the world. Application of the framework will ensure that the effectiveness of implemented management actions is appraised and that transferable quantitative data are collected that can be used in other geographical regions.

  6. 77 FR 30517 - Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... to develop a flexible risk management process tuned to the diverse missions, equipment, and business... Electricity Subsector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... Management Process guideline. The guideline describes a risk management process that is targeted to...

  7. Options for Managing Student Behavior: Adaptations for Individual Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Rita C.; Evans, Elizabeth T.

    This paper applies principles of situational leadership theory to the management of student behavior problems. First, it summarizes situational leadership, noting the theory's premise that leaders must consider two important factors to gain acceptance and compliance in managing people--the maturity level of the individuals and the nature of the…

  8. Analysis of Risk Management in Adapted Physical Education Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelle L.; Donovan, Jacqueline B.; Berg, Dominck A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs vary on how the topics of safe teaching and risk management are addressed. Common practices to cover such issues include requiring textbooks, lesson planning, peer teaching, videotaping, reflecting, and reading case law analyses. We used a mixed methods design to examine how risk management is…

  9. Regional and Foreign Accent Processing in English: Can Listeners Adapt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floccia, Caroline; Butler, Joseph; Goslin, Jeremy; Ellis, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    Recent data suggest that the first presentation of a foreign accent triggers a delay in word identification, followed by a subsequent adaptation. This study examines under what conditions the delay resumes to baseline level. The delay will be experimentally induced by the presentation of sentences spoken to listeners in a foreign or a regional…

  10. Shifts in fisheries management: adapting to regime shifts

    PubMed Central

    King, Jacquelynne R.; McFarlane, Gordon A.; Punt, André E.

    2015-01-01

    For many years, fisheries management was based on optimizing yield and maintaining a target biomass, with little regard given to low-frequency environmental forcing. However, this policy was often unsuccessful. In the last two to three decades, fisheries science and management have undergone a shift towards balancing sustainable yield with conservation, with the goal of including ecosystem considerations in decision-making frameworks. Scientific understanding of low-frequency climate–ocean variability, which is manifested as ecosystem regime shifts and states, has led to attempts to incorporate these shifts and states into fisheries assessment and management. To date, operationalizing these attempts to provide tactical advice has met with limited success. We review efforts to incorporate regime shifts and states into the assessment and management of fisheries resources, propose directions for future investigation and outline a potential framework to include regime shifts and changes in ecosystem states into fisheries management.

  11. Flexible Description and Adaptive Processing of Earth Observation Data through the BigEarth Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgan, Dorian; Bacu, Victor; Stefanut, Teodor; Nandra, Cosmin; Mihon, Danut

    2016-04-01

    The Earth Observation data repositories extending periodically by several terabytes become a critical issue for organizations. The management of the storage capacity of such big datasets, accessing policy, data protection, searching, and complex processing require high costs that impose efficient solutions to balance the cost and value of data. Data can create value only when it is used, and the data protection has to be oriented toward allowing innovation that sometimes depends on creative people, which achieve unexpected valuable results through a flexible and adaptive manner. The users need to describe and experiment themselves different complex algorithms through analytics in order to valorize data. The analytics uses descriptive and predictive models to gain valuable knowledge and information from data analysis. Possible solutions for advanced processing of big Earth Observation data are given by the HPC platforms such as cloud. With platforms becoming more complex and heterogeneous, the developing of applications is even harder and the efficient mapping of these applications to a suitable and optimum platform, working on huge distributed data repositories, is challenging and complex as well, even by using specialized software services. From the user point of view, an optimum environment gives acceptable execution times, offers a high level of usability by hiding the complexity of computing infrastructure, and supports an open accessibility and control to application entities and functionality. The BigEarth platform [1] supports the entire flow of flexible description of processing by basic operators and adaptive execution over cloud infrastructure [2]. The basic modules of the pipeline such as the KEOPS [3] set of basic operators, the WorDeL language [4], the Planner for sequential and parallel processing, and the Executor through virtual machines, are detailed as the main components of the BigEarth platform [5]. The presentation exemplifies the development

  12. [Dynamics of adaptation processes and morbidity risk for the popupation of the territory of industrial cities].

    PubMed

    Prusakov, V M; Prusakova, A V

    2014-01-01

    There was investigated the character of the adaptation processes in the population residing in conditions ofprolonged exposure to environmental pollution in the territory of the industrial cities of the Irkutsk region in order to identify the possible periodicity of their manifestations in the formation of the morbidity risk for the population of different age groups. Under conditions of prolonged exposure to air pollution and other adverse unfavorable factors of industrial cities in the population of all age groups long cyclic changes of adaptation processes in the body in the form of repeated 11-15-years cycles in which a period of relative destabilization of physiological functions with lowered resistance is replaced by the period with the state of elevated nonspecific resistance were established to be observed. Undulating changes of the dynamics of the relative risks of general morbidity should be considered in the assessment of the medical and environmental situation in the territory and making the managing decisions at the base on the data of public health monitoring.

  13. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  14. Integrated soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: unravelling local adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Descheemaeker, K.; Giller, K. E.; Huising, J.; Merckx, R.; Nziguheba, G.; Wendt, J.; Zingore, S.

    2015-06-01

    Intensification of smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa is necessary to address rural poverty and natural resource degradation. Integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) is a means to enhance crop productivity while maximizing the agronomic efficiency (AE) of applied inputs, and can thus contribute to sustainable intensification. ISFM consists of a set of best practices, preferably used in combination, including the use of appropriate germplasm, the appropriate use of fertilizer and of organic resources, and good agronomic practices. The large variability in soil fertility conditions within smallholder farms is also recognized within ISFM, including soils with constraints beyond those addressed by fertilizer and organic inputs. The variable biophysical environments that characterize smallholder farming systems have profound effects on crop productivity and AE, and targeted application of agro-inputs and management practices is necessary to enhance AE. Further, management decisions depend on the farmer's resource endowments and production objectives. In this paper we discuss the "local adaptation" component of ISFM and how this can be conceptualized within an ISFM framework, backstopped by analysis of AE at plot and farm level. At plot level, a set of four constraints to maximum AE is discussed in relation to "local adaptation": soil acidity, secondary nutrient and micronutrient (SMN) deficiencies, physical constraints, and drought stress. In each of these cases, examples are presented whereby amendments and/or practices addressing these have a significantly positive impact on fertilizer AE, including mechanistic principles underlying these effects. While the impact of such amendments and/or practices is easily understood for some practices (e.g. the application of SMNs where these are limiting), for others, more complex processes influence AE (e.g. water harvesting under varying rainfall conditions). At farm scale, adjusting fertilizer applications to

  15. Conceptual modeling for adaptive environmental assessment and management in the Barycz Valley, lower Silesia, Poland.

    PubMed

    Magnuszewski, Piotr; Sendzimir, Jan; Kronenberg, Jakub

    2005-08-01

    The complexity of interactions in socio-ecological systems makes it very difficult to plan and implement policies successfully. Traditional environmental management and assessment techniques produce unsatisfactory results because they often ignore facets of system structure that underlie complexity: delays, feedbacks, and non-linearities. Assuming that causes are linked in a linear chain, they concentrate on technological developments ("hard path") as the only solutions to environmental problems. Adaptive Management is recognized as a promising alternative approach directly addressing links between social and ecological systems and involving stakeholders in the analysis and decision process. This "soft path" requires special tools to facilitate collaboration between "experts" and stakeholders in analyzing complex situations and prioritizing policies and actions. We have applied conceptual modeling to increase communication, understanding and commitment in the project of seven NGOs "Sustainable Regional Development in the Odra Catchment". The main goal was to help our NGO partners to facilitate their efforts related to developing sustainable policies and practices to respond to large-scale challenges (EU accession, global changes in climate and economy) to their natural, economic and socio-cultural heritages. Among the variety of sustainability issues explored by these NGOs, two (extensive agricultural practices and "green" local products) were examined by using Adaptive Management (AM) as a framework that would link analysis, discussion, research, actions and monitoring. Within the AM framework the project coordinators used tools of systems analysis (Mental Model Mapping) to facilitate discussions in which NGO professionals and local stakeholders could graphically diagram and study their understanding of what factors interacted and how they affect the region's sustainability. These discussions produced larger-scale Regional Sustainability Models as well as more

  16. Societal transformation and adaptation necessary to manage dynamics in flood hazard and risk mitigation (TRANS-ADAPT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Thaler, Thomas; Bonnefond, Mathieu; Clarke, Darren; Driessen, Peter; Hegger, Dries; Gatien-Tournat, Amandine; Gralepois, Mathilde; Fournier, Marie; Mees, Heleen; Murphy, Conor; Servain-Courant, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    project is both scientifically innovative and policy relevant, thereby supporting climate policy needs in Europe towards a concept of risk governance. Key words: climate change adaptation; transformation; flood risk management; resilience; vulnerability; innovative bottom-up developments; multifunctional use

  17. OSHA`s process safety management standard

    SciTech Connect

    Morelli, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    On February 24, 1992, OSHA published the final rule for its Process Safety Management Standard (PSM) mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. (see Federal Register 57 FR 6356-6417). This standard imposes several responsibilities upon employers whose processes can cause large accident releases that could result in processes can cause large accident releases that could result in catastrophes. In contrast to OSHA`s Hazard Communication standard which focuses on routine daily exposures to hazardous materials, the PSM Standard is concerned with processes whereby the use, storage, manufacturing, handling or on-site movement of highly hazardous chemicals which exceed threshold quantities, provides potential for a catastrophic release. The PSM Standard requires: a written program, plans, training, hazard analysis and compliance auditing. This paper outlines the provisions under this Standard pursuant to OSHA regulation 29 Code of Federal Regulation 1910.119.

  18. Adaptive Management for Climate Change Impact for Water Sector in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun

    2013-04-01

    China, as a larger developing country in the world, in facing to bigger challenges than before on wisely managing water resources to support rapidly socio-economic development in 2020 and beyond. China has a vast area of 9.6 million sq. km and relatively abundant water resources with ranked sixth in the world after Brazil, the Russian Federation, Canada, the United States and Indonesia in terms of absolute amount of annual runoff. However, given its large population of over 1.3 billion, China has a very low per capita amount (about one quarter of the world average) of water resources and, is therefore one of the countries with the most severe shortage of water in the world, particular North China. North China is one of very important regions in China. For this region, population has 0.437 billion in 2000 that occupies 35% of total in China, GDP reaches 386 billion US that is also 32% of total in China. Irrigation area of North China is 42% of total in China, and agricultural product has 40% of total in China. However, it is the most water shortage area in China. For instance, water resources per capita in Hai River Basin have only 270 cubic meters, which is only 1/7 of the national average and 1/24 of the world average. Water Resource Vulnerability under impact of both climate change and human activities are rather significantly. This presentation will focus on two issues: (1) how to screening climate changes impact to water sector, and how to quantify water resource vulnerability related to impact of climate change and human activity? (2) how to take adaptation & wisely manage water to changing environment on existing water projects and new water programme & water policy in China? A screening process for climate impact to water sector in North China was proposed. A new study on quantifying water resource vulnerability, based on three practical and workable, i.e., the use to availability ratio, water crowding and per capita water use, were developed. Four case

  19. Turnaround Management Strategies: The Adaptive Model and the Constructive Model. ASHE 1983 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen E.

    The use of two management strategies by 14 liberal arts and comprehensive colleges attempting to recover from serious financial decline during 1973-1976 were studied. The adaptive model of strategy, based on resource dependence, involves managing demands in order to satisfy critical-resource providers. The constructive model of strategy, based on…

  20. Strategic Management of Electronic Commerce: An Adaptation of the Balanced Scorecard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasan, Helen; Tibbits, Hendrika

    2000-01-01

    The balanced scorecard is a formal management technique built on the premise that measurement is a prerequisite to strategic management. A case study of the implementation of the balanced scorecard in a public utility is analyzed to suggest how the basic concepts and philosophy of the balanced scorecard can be retained in its adaptation to the…

  1. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  2. Flight data processing with the F-8 adaptive algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, G.; Stein, G.; Petersen, K.

    1977-01-01

    An explicit adaptive control algorithm based on maximum likelihood estimation of parameters has been designed for NASA's DFBW F-8 aircraft. To avoid iterative calculations, the algorithm uses parallel channels of Kalman filters operating at fixed locations in parameter space. This algorithm has been implemented in NASA/DFRC's Remotely Augmented Vehicle (RAV) facility. Real-time sensor outputs (rate gyro, accelerometer and surface position) are telemetered to a ground computer which sends new gain values to an on-board system. Ground test data and flight records were used to establish design values of noise statistics and to verify the ground-based adaptive software. The software and its performance evaluation based on flight data are described

  3. Color management: printing processes - opportunities and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Samuel T.

    2002-06-01

    Digital tools have impacted traditional methods employed to reproduce color images during the past decade. The shift from a purely photomechanical process in color reproduction to colorimetric reproduction offers tremendous opportunity in the graphic arts industry. But good things do not necessarily come to all in the same package. Printing processes possess different reproduction attributes: tone reproduction, gray balance and color correction requirements are as different as the ingredient sets selected for color reproduction. This paper will provide insight toward understanding advantages and limitations offered by the new digital technologies in printing, publishing and packaging. For the past five years the Clemson University Graphic Communications Department has conducted numerous color projects using the new digital colorimetric tools during the previous decade. Several approaches have been used including experimental research and typical production workflows. The use of colorimetric data in color reproduction has given an opportunity to realize real gains in color use, predictability and consistency. Meeting an image's separation and reproduction requirements for a specified printing process can involve disruption of the anticipated workflow. Understanding the printing process requirements and the fit within the specifications of a colorimetric workflow are critical to the successful adoption of a color managed workflow. The paper will also provide an insight into the issues and challenges experienced with a color managed workflow. The printing processes used include offset litho, narrow and wide-web flexography (paper, liner board, corrugated and film), screen printing (paper board and polycarbonates), and digital imaging with toner, ink and inkjet systems. A proposal for technology integration will be the focus of the presentation drawn from documented experiences in over 300 applications of color management tools. Discussion will include the structure of

  4. Sustainable intensification by managing microbial communities and processes in agroecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By focusing on soil biology and biochemistry, agroecosystem management strategies are implemented which include reduced soil disturbance, diverse and adaptable crop rotations, retention of residue, and incorporation of livestock, cover crops, or both This systems approach is required to sustainably ...

  5. Developing Coastal Adaptation to Climate Change in the New York City Infrastructure-Shed: Process, Approach, Tools, and Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Solecki, William D.; Blake, Reginald; Bowman, Malcolm; Faris, Craig; Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Jacob, Klaus; LeBlanc, Alice; Leichenko, Robin; Linkin, Megan; Major, David; O'Grady, Megan; Patrick, Lesley; Sussman, Edna; Yohe, Gary; Zimmerman, Rae

    2010-01-01

    While current rates of sea level rise and associated coastal flooding in the New York City region appear to be manageable by stakeholders responsible for communications, energy, transportation, and water infrastructure, projections for sea level rise and associated flooding in the future, especially those associated with rapid icemelt of the Greenland and West Antarctic Icesheets, may be beyond the range of current capacity because an extreme event might cause flooding and inundation beyond the planning and preparedness regimes. This paper describes the comprehensive process, approach, and tools developed by the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC) in conjunction with the region s stakeholders who manage its critical infrastructure, much of which lies near the coast. It presents the adaptation approach and the sea-level rise and storm projections related to coastal risks developed through the stakeholder process. Climate change adaptation planning in New York City is characterized by a multi-jurisdictional stakeholder-scientist process, state-of-the-art scientific projections and mapping, and development of adaptation strategies based on a risk-management approach.

  6. Enhanced Adaptive Management: Integrating Decision Analysis, Scenario Analysis and Environmental Modeling for the Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertino, Matteo; Foran, Christy M.; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Scarlett, Lynn; Loschiavo, Andy; Kiker, Gregory A.; Linkov, Igor

    2013-10-01

    We propose to enhance existing adaptive management efforts with a decision-analytical approach that can guide the initial selection of robust restoration alternative plans and inform the need to adjust these alternatives in the course of action based on continuously acquired monitoring information and changing stakeholder values. We demonstrate an application of enhanced adaptive management for a wetland restoration case study inspired by the Florida Everglades restoration effort. We find that alternatives designed to reconstruct the pre-drainage flow may have a positive ecological impact, but may also have high operational costs and only marginally contribute to meeting other objectives such as reduction of flooding. Enhanced adaptive management allows managers to guide investment in ecosystem modeling and monitoring efforts through scenario and value of information analyses to support optimal restoration strategies in the face of uncertain and changing information.

  7. Neural adaptation and behavioral measures of temporal processing and speech perception in cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fawen; Benson, Chelsea; Murphy, Dora; Boian, Melissa; Scott, Michael; Keith, Robert; Xiang, Jing; Abbas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine if one of the neural temporal features, neural adaptation, can account for the across-subject variability in behavioral measures of temporal processing and speech perception performance in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Neural adaptation is the phenomenon in which neural responses are the strongest at the beginning of the stimulus and decline following stimulus repetition (e.g., stimulus trains). It is unclear how this temporal property of neural responses relates to psychophysical measures of temporal processing (e.g., gap detection) or speech perception. The adaptation of the electrical compound action potential (ECAP) was obtained using 1000 pulses per second (pps) biphasic pulse trains presented directly to the electrode. The adaptation of the late auditory evoked potential (LAEP) was obtained using a sequence of 1-kHz tone bursts presented acoustically, through the cochlear implant. Behavioral temporal processing was measured using the Random Gap Detection Test at the most comfortable listening level. Consonant nucleus consonant (CNC) word and AzBio sentences were also tested. The results showed that both ECAP and LAEP display adaptive patterns, with a substantial across-subject variability in the amount of adaptation. No correlations between the amount of neural adaptation and gap detection thresholds (GDTs) or speech perception scores were found. The correlations between the degree of neural adaptation and demographic factors showed that CI users having more LAEP adaptation were likely to be those implanted at a younger age than CI users with less LAEP adaptation. The results suggested that neural adaptation, at least this feature alone, cannot account for the across-subject variability in temporal processing ability in the CI users. However, the finding that the LAEP adaptive pattern was less prominent in the CI group compared to the normal hearing group may suggest the important role of normal adaptation pattern at the

  8. Neural Adaptation and Behavioral Measures of Temporal Processing and Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fawen; Benson, Chelsea; Murphy, Dora; Boian, Melissa; Scott, Michael; Keith, Robert; Xiang, Jing; Abbas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to determine if one of the neural temporal features, neural adaptation, can account for the across-subject variability in behavioral measures of temporal processing and speech perception performance in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Neural adaptation is the phenomenon in which neural responses are the strongest at the beginning of the stimulus and decline following stimulus repetition (e.g., stimulus trains). It is unclear how this temporal property of neural responses relates to psychophysical measures of temporal processing (e.g., gap detection) or speech perception. The adaptation of the electrical compound action potential (ECAP) was obtained using 1000 pulses per second (pps) biphasic pulse trains presented directly to the electrode. The adaptation of the late auditory evoked potential (LAEP) was obtained using a sequence of 1-kHz tone bursts presented acoustically, through the cochlear implant. Behavioral temporal processing was measured using the Random Gap Detection Test at the most comfortable listening level. Consonant nucleus consonant (CNC) word and AzBio sentences were also tested. The results showed that both ECAP and LAEP display adaptive patterns, with a substantial across-subject variability in the amount of adaptation. No correlations between the amount of neural adaptation and gap detection thresholds (GDTs) or speech perception scores were found. The correlations between the degree of neural adaptation and demographic factors showed that CI users having more LAEP adaptation were likely to be those implanted at a younger age than CI users with less LAEP adaptation. The results suggested that neural adaptation, at least this feature alone, cannot account for the across-subject variability in temporal processing ability in the CI users. However, the finding that the LAEP adaptive pattern was less prominent in the CI group compared to the normal hearing group may suggest the important role of normal adaptation pattern at the

  9. Negotiating uncertainty: the transitional process of adapting to life with HIV.

    PubMed

    Perrett, Stephanie E; Biley, Francis C

    2013-01-01

    Glaser's (1978) grounded-theory method was used to investigate the transitional process of adapting to life with HIV. Semistructured interviews took place with 8 male HIV-infected participants recruited from a clinic in South Wales, United Kingdom. Data analysis used open, substantive, and theoretical coding. Adapting to a life with HIV infection emerged as a process of adapting to uncertainty with "negotiating uncertainty" as a core concept. Seven subcategories represented movements between bipolar opposites labeled "anticipating hopelessness" and "regaining optimism." This work progresses the theoretical concepts of transitions, uncertainty, and adaptation in relation to the HIV experience.

  10. Native Prairie Adaptive Management: a multi region adaptive approach to invasive plant management on Fish and Wildlife Service owned native prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses, smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Management to suppress these invasive plants has had poor to inconsistent success. The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. In partnership with the FWS, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. This joint partnership is known as the Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) initiative. The NPAM decision framework is built around practical constraints faced by FWS refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen FWS field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, have participated in the initiative. These FWS cooperators share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. Though the scope is broad, the initiative interfaces with individual land managers who provide site-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators. We describe the technical components of this approach, how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. During an initial scoping workshop, FWS cooperators developed a consensus management objective

  11. Adapt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  12. Management of Hypertension: Adapting New Guidelines for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanji, Jeffrey L.; Batt, Mark E.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses recent guidelines on hypertension from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and details the latest management protocols for patients with high blood pressure. The article helps physicians interpret the guidelines for treating active patients, highlighting diagnosis, step care revision, pharmacology, and sports participation…

  13. Adapting the rangeland database for managing ecological site description data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field data collection for writing Ecological Data Descriptions (ESD) creates a paperwork burden that reduces efficiency of ESD preparation. The recently developed Rangeland Database and Field Data Entry System is well suited to managing ESD data. This database was developed to automate data entry an...

  14. Multimodal and Adaptive Learning Management: An Iterative Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, David R.; Orey, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to measure the outcome of a comprehensive learning management system implemented at a Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) hospital in the Southeast United States. Specifically this SCI hospital has been experiencing an evident volume of patients returning seeking more information about the nature of their injuries. Recognizing…

  15. 33 CFR 385.31 - Adaptive management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the South Florida ecosystem to implementation of the Plan; to determine whether or not these... ecosystem. (3) RECOVER shall conduct monitoring activities and use the information collected and analyzed... Florida Water Management District shall also consult with the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration...

  16. 33 CFR 385.31 - Adaptive management program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the South Florida ecosystem to implementation of the Plan; to determine whether or not these... ecosystem. (3) RECOVER shall conduct monitoring activities and use the information collected and analyzed... Florida Water Management District shall also consult with the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration...

  17. Adapting Project Management Practices to Research-Based Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahr, P.; Baker, T.; Corbin, B.; Keith, L.; Loerch, L.; Mullenax, C.; Myers, R.; Rhodes, B.; Skytland, N.

    2007-01-01

    From dealing with the inherent uncertainties in outcomes of scientific research to the lack of applicability of current NASA Procedural Requirements guidance documentation, research-based projects present challenges that require unique application of classical project management techniques. If additionally challenged by the creation of a new program transitioning from basic to applied research in a technical environment often unfamiliar with the cost and schedule constraints addressed by project management practices, such projects can find themselves struggling throughout their life cycles. Finally, supplying deliverables to a prime vehicle customer, also in the formative stage, adds further complexity to the development and management of research-based projects. The Biomedical Research and Countermeasures Projects Branch at NASA Johnson Space Center encompasses several diverse applied research-based or research-enabling projects within the newly-formed Human Research Program. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the organizational structure and environment in which these projects operate and how the projects coordinate to address and manage technical requirements. We will identify several of the challenges (cost, technical, schedule, and personnel) encountered by projects across the Branch, present case reports of actions taken and techniques implemented to deal with these challenges, and then close the session with an open forum discussion of remaining challenges and potential mitigations.

  18. Fair process: managing in the knowledge economy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Unlike the traditional factors of production--land, labor, and capital--knowledge is a resource that can't be forced out of people. But creating and sharing knowledge is essential to fostering innovation, the key challenge of the knowledge-based economy. To create a climate in which employees volunteer their creativity and expertise, managers need to look beyond the traditional tools at their disposal. They need to build trust. The authors have studied the links between trust, idea sharing, and corporate performance for more than a decade. They have explored the question of why managers of local subsidiaries so often fail to share information with executives at headquarters. They have studied the dynamics of idea sharing in product development teams, joint ventures, supplier partnerships, and corporate transformations. They offer an explanation for why people resist change even when it would benefit them directly. In every case, the decisive factor was what the authors call fair process--fairness in the way a company makes and executes decisions. The elements of fair process are simple: Engage people's input in decisions that directly affect them. Explain why decisions are made the way they are. Make clear what will be expected of employees after the changes are made. Fair process may sound like a soft issue, but it is crucial to building trust and unlocking ideas. Without it, people are apt to withhold their full cooperation and their creativity. The results are costly: ideas that never see daylight and initiatives that are never seized.

  19. A conceptual framework for addressing complexity and unfolding transition dynamics when developing sustainable adaptation strategies in urban water management.

    PubMed

    Fratini, C F; Elle, M; Jensen, M B; Mikkelsen, P S

    2012-01-01

    To achieve a successful and sustainable adaptation to climate change we need to transform the way we think about change. Much water management research has focused on technical innovation with a range of new solutions developed to achieve a 'more sustainable and integrated urban water management cycle'. But Danish municipalities and utility companies are struggling to bring such solutions into practice. 'Green infrastructure', for example, requires the consideration of a larger range of aspects related to the urban context than the traditional urban water system optimization. There is the need for standardized methods and guidelines to organize transdisciplinary processes where different types of knowledge and perspectives are taken into account. On the basis of the macro-meso-micro pattern inspired by complexity science and transition theory, we developed a conceptual framework to organize processes addressing the complexity characterizing urban water management in the context of climate change. In this paper the framework is used to organize a research process aiming at understanding and unfolding urban dynamics for sustainable transition. The final goal is to enable local authorities and utilities to create the basis for managing and catalysing the technical and organizational innovation necessary for a sustainable transition towards climate change adaptation in urban areas.

  20. Context-Aware Design for Process Flexibility and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Today's organizations face continuous and unprecedented changes in their business environment. Traditional process design tools tend to be inflexible and can only support rigidly defined processes (e.g., order processing in the supply chain). This considerably restricts their real-world applications value, especially in the dynamic and…

  1. Adaptation and habitat selection in the eco-evolutionary process

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Douglas W.

    2011-01-01

    The struggle for existence occurs through the vital rates of population growth. This basic fact demonstrates the tight connection between ecology and evolution that defines the emerging field of eco-evolutionary dynamics. An effective synthesis of the interdependencies between ecology and evolution is grounded in six principles. The mechanics of evolution specifies the origin and rules governing traits and evolutionary strategies. Traits and evolutionary strategies achieve their selective value through their functional relationships with fitness. Function depends on the underlying structure of variation and the temporal, spatial and organizational scales of evolution. An understanding of how changes in traits and strategies occur requires conjoining ecological and evolutionary dynamics. Adaptation merges these five pillars to achieve a comprehensive understanding of ecological and evolutionary change. I demonstrate the value of this world-view with reference to the theory and practice of habitat selection. The theory allows us to assess evolutionarily stable strategies and states of habitat selection, and to draw the adaptive landscapes for habitat-selecting species. The landscapes can then be used to forecast future evolution under a variety of climate change and other scenarios. PMID:21613295

  2. Adaptation as a Political Process: Adjusting to Drought and Conflict in Kenya's Drylands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Siri; Lind, Jeremy

    2009-05-01

    In this article, we argue that people’s adjustments to multiple shocks and changes, such as conflict and drought, are intrinsically political processes that have uneven outcomes. Strengthening local adaptive capacity is a critical component of adapting to climate change. Based on fieldwork in two areas in Kenya, we investigate how people seek to access livelihood adjustment options and promote particular adaptation interests through forming social relations and political alliances to influence collective decision-making. First, we find that, in the face of drought and conflict, relations are formed among individuals, politicians, customary institutions, and government administration aimed at retaining or strengthening power bases in addition to securing material means of survival. Second, national economic and political structures and processes affect local adaptive capacity in fundamental ways, such as through the unequal allocation of resources across regions, development policy biased against pastoralism, and competition for elected political positions. Third, conflict is part and parcel of the adaptation process, not just an external factor inhibiting local adaptation strategies. Fourth, there are relative winners and losers of adaptation, but whether or not local adjustments to drought and conflict compound existing inequalities depends on power relations at multiple geographic scales that shape how conflicting interests are negotiated locally. Climate change adaptation policies are unlikely to be successful or minimize inequity unless the political dimensions of local adaptation are considered; however, existing power structures and conflicts of interests represent political obstacles to developing such policies.

  3. Adaptation as a political process: adjusting to drought and conflict in Kenya's drylands.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Siri; Lind, Jeremy

    2009-05-01

    In this article, we argue that people's adjustments to multiple shocks and changes, such as conflict and drought, are intrinsically political processes that have uneven outcomes. Strengthening local adaptive capacity is a critical component of adapting to climate change. Based on fieldwork in two areas in Kenya, we investigate how people seek to access livelihood adjustment options and promote particular adaptation interests through forming social relations and political alliances to influence collective decision-making. First, we find that, in the face of drought and conflict, relations are formed among individuals, politicians, customary institutions, and government administration aimed at retaining or strengthening power bases in addition to securing material means of survival. Second, national economic and political structures and processes affect local adaptive capacity in fundamental ways, such as through the unequal allocation of resources across regions, development policy biased against pastoralism, and competition for elected political positions. Third, conflict is part and parcel of the adaptation process, not just an external factor inhibiting local adaptation strategies. Fourth, there are relative winners and losers of adaptation, but whether or not local adjustments to drought and conflict compound existing inequalities depends on power relations at multiple geographic scales that shape how conflicting interests are negotiated locally. Climate change adaptation policies are unlikely to be successful or minimize inequity unless the political dimensions of local adaptation are considered; however, existing power structures and conflicts of interests represent political obstacles to developing such policies.

  4. Embedding Knowledge Management into Business Logic of E-learning Platform for Obtaining Adaptivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdescu, Dumitru Dan; Mihaescu, Marian Cristian; Logofatu, Bogdan

    Obtaining adaptivity is one of the main concerns in current e-Learning development. This chapter proposes a methodology for obtaining adaptivity by embedding knowledge management into the business logic of the e-Learning platform. Naïve Bayes classifier is used as machine learning algorithm for obtaining the resources that need to be further accessed by learners. The analysis is accomplished on a discipline that is well structured according to a concept map.

  5. Fish traders as key actors in fisheries: gender and adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Lindström, Lars; Jiddawi, Narriman S

    2013-12-01

    This paper fills an important gap towards adaptive management of small-scale fisheries by analyzing the gender dimension of fish trade in Zanzibar, Tanzania. We hypothesize that gender-based differences are present in the fish value chain and to test the hypothesis interviews were performed to analyze: (i) markets, customers, and mobility, (ii) material and economic resources, (iii) traded fish species, (iv) contacts and organizations, and (v) perceptions and experiences. Additionally, management documents were analyzed to examine the degree to which gender is considered. Results show that women traders had less access to social and economic resources, profitable markets, and high-value fish, which resulted in lower income. These gender inequalities are linked, among others, to women's reproductive roles such as childcare and household responsibilities. Formal fisheries management was found to be gender insensitive, showing how a crucial feedback element of adaptive management is missing in Zanzibar's management system, i.e., knowledge about key actors, their needs and challenges.

  6. 76 FR 47237 - Notice of Public Meeting for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group Federal Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Notice of Public Meeting for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon Dam operations and other management actions to protect resources downstream of...

  7. The Dynamics of Vulnerability and Implications for Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons from Urban Water Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilling, L.; Daly, M.; Travis, W.; Wilhelmi, O.; Klein, R.; Kenney, D.; Ray, A. J.; Miller, K.

    2013-12-01

    Recent reports and scholarship have suggested that adapting to current climate variability may represent a "no regrets" strategy for adapting to climate change. Filling "adaptation deficits" and other approaches that rely on addressing current vulnerabilities are of course helpful for responding to current climate variability, but we find here that they are not sufficient for adapting to climate change. First, following a comprehensive review and unique synthesis of the natural hazards and climate adaptation literatures, we advance six reasons why adapting to climate variability is not sufficient for adapting to climate change: 1) Vulnerability is different at different levels of exposure; 2) Coping with climate variability is not equivalent to adaptation to longer term change; 3) The socioeconomic context for vulnerability is constantly changing; 4) The perception of risk associated with climate variability does not necessarily promote adaptive behavior in the face of climate change; 5) Adaptations made to short term climate variability may reduce the flexibility of the system in the long term; and 6) Adaptive actions may shift vulnerabilities to other parts of the system or to other people. Instead we suggest that decision makers faced with choices to adapt to climate change must consider the dynamics of vulnerability in a connected system-- how choices made in one part of the system might impact other valued outcomes or even create new vulnerabilities. Furthermore we suggest that rather than expressing climate change adaptation as an extension of adaptation to climate variability, the research and practice communities would do well to articulate adaptation as an imperfect policy, with tradeoffs and consequences and that decisions be prioritized to preserve flexibility be revisited often as climate change unfolds. We then present the results of a number of empirical studies of decision making for drought in urban water systems in the United States to understand

  8. Adaptive harvest management for the Svalbard population of pink-footed geese: briefing summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA; http://www.unep-aewa.org/) calls for means to manage populations which cause conflicts with certain human economic activities. The Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose has been selected as the first test case for such an international species management plan to be developed. This document describes progress to date on the development of an adaptive harvest management (AHM) strategy for maintaining pink-footed goose abundance near their target level by providing for sustainable harvasts in Norway and Denmark. This briefing supplements material provided in the Progress Summary distributed to the International Working Group on February 1, 2013. We emphasize that peer review is an essential aspect of the process of developing and implementing an AHM program for pink-footed geese, and we will continue to solicit reviews by the International Working Group and their staff, as well as scientists not engaged in this effort. We wish to make the Working Group aware the the following two manuscripts have been submitted recently to refereed journals and are available upon request from the senior authors: Jensen, G.H., J. Madsen, F.A. Johnson, and M. Tamstorf. Snow conditions as an estimator of the breeding output in high-Arctic pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus. Polar Biology: In review. Johnson, F.A., G.H. Jensen, J. Madsen, and B.K. Williams. Uncertainity, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population. Ecological Modeling: In review. In addition to these manuscripts, the Progress Summary (February 1, 2013), and this Briefing Summary (April 23, 2013) an annual report will be produced in August 2013 and every summer thereafter. Additional manuscripts for journal publication are also anticipated.

  9. Private adaptation strategies and implementation in flood risk management: why people do nothing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Maris, Fotios; Paparrizos, Spyros; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    In the past decades, vulnerability assessment has emerged as an important field of research in flood risk management, in particular with respect to climate change and necessary adaptation strategies for the society. Probably starting with Chamber's seminal article on vulnerability, coping and policy (Chambers 1989), and further developed as the causal structure of vulnerability by Bohle (2001) and others, at least two research paradigms exist: an internal side focusing on societal resilience and coping capacities, and an external side targeted at a reduction of negative effects in terms of loss reduction (Fuchs 2009). Despite considerable research effects, however, different definitions and concepts still dominate the debate; it is surely that different scientific disciplines are working with this term: natural scientists, engineers, social scientists or economists, to name just a few. Each discipline defines vulnerability in a way which fits to their disciplinary purposes (Fuchs et al. 2011). But why has there been so little progress in our ability to adapt to flood hazards? White et al. (2001) summarised this paradox in an article with the title "Knowing better and losing even more - the use of knowledge in hazard management". One of the fundamental reasons for the lack of progress is the continuing separation of research on natural processes and socio-economic processes without considering interaction between these systems (Fuchs & Keiler 2013), as well as between scientific research results and the policy implementation (Medd & Marvin 2005). Moreover, as many studies were focused on the vulnerability of least developed societies to natural hazards (O'Brien et al. 2008), there is a particular lack in studies targeted at an implementation of existing adaptation frameworks at the level of highly-developed countries (Field et al. 2012; Scolobig et al. 2012). This gap results in a challenge for attempts to develop formal models into practical application and policy

  10. System Development by Process Integrated Knowledge Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Margareth; Laner, Dietmar

    Due to globalization and ever shorter change cycle's organizations improve increasingly faster their products, services, technologies, IT and organization according to customer requirements, optimize their efficiency, effectiveness and reduce costs. Thus the largest potential is the continually improvement and the management of information, data and knowledge. Long time organizations had developed lot separate and frequently independent IT applications. In the last years they were integrated by interfaces and always more by common databases. In large sized enterprises or in the public administration IT must operate various different applications, which requires a lot of personal and cost. Many organizations improve their IT starting from the lived processes using new technologies, but ask not, how they can use technology to support new processes.

  11. Concurrent processing adaptation of aeroplastic analysis of propfans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janetzke, David C.; Murthy, Durbha V.

    1990-01-01

    Discussed here is a study involving the adaptation of an advanced aeroelastic analysis program to run concurrently on a shared memory multiple processor computer. The program uses a three-dimensional compressible unsteady aerodynamic model and blade normal modes to calculate aeroelastic stability and response of propfan blades. The identification of the computational parallelism within the sequential code and the scheduling of the concurrent subtasks to minimize processor idle time are discussed. Processor idle time in the calculation of the unsteady aerodynamic coefficients was reduced by the simple strategy of appropriately ordering the computations. Speedup and efficiency results are presented for the calculation of the matched flutter point of an experimental propfan model. The results show that efficiencies above 70 percent can be obtained using the present implementation with 7 processors. The parallel computational strategy described here is also applicable to other aeroelastic analysis procedures based on panel methods.

  12. Predicting Health Care Cost Transitions Using a Multidimensional Adaptive Prediction Process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaobo; Gandy, William; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James; Rula, Elizabeth; Wells, Aaron

    2015-08-01

    Managing population health requires meeting individual care needs while striving for increased efficiency and quality of care. Predictive models can integrate diverse data to provide objective assessment of individual prospective risk to identify individuals requiring more intensive health management in the present. The purpose of this research was to develop and test a predictive modeling approach, Multidimensional Adaptive Prediction Process (MAPP). MAPP is predicated on dividing the population into cost cohorts and then utilizing a collection of models and covariates to optimize future cost prediction for individuals in each cohort. MAPP was tested on 3 years of administrative health care claims starting in 2009 for health plan members (average n=25,143) with evidence of coronary heart disease. A "status quo" reference modeling methodology applied to the total annual population was established for comparative purposes. Results showed that members identified by MAPP contributed $7.9 million and $9.7 million more in 2011 health care costs than the reference model for cohorts increasing in cost or remaining high cost, respectively. Across all cohorts, the additional accurate cost capture of MAPP translated to an annual difference of $1882 per member, a 21% improvement, relative to the reference model. The results demonstrate that improved future cost prediction is achievable using a novel adaptive multiple model approach. Through accurate prospective identification of individuals whose costs are expected to increase, MAPP can help health care entities achieve efficient resource allocation while improving care quality for emergent need individuals who are intermixed among a diverse set of health care consumers.

  13. Implementation Of Quality Management System For Irradiation Processing Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lungu, Ion-Bogdan; Manea, Maria-Mihaela

    2015-07-01

    In today's market, due to an increasing competitiveness, quality management has set itself as an indispensable tool and a reference point for every business. It is ultimately focused on customer satisfaction which is a stringent factor for every business. Implementing and maintaining a QMS is a rather difficult, time consuming and expensive process which must be done with respect of many factors. The aim of this paper is to present a case study for implementing QMS ISO 9001 in a gamma irradiation treatment service provider. The research goals are the identification of key benefits, reasons, advantages, disadvantages, drawbacks etc for a successful QMS implementation and use. Finally, the expected results focus on creating a general framework for implementing an efficient QMS plan that can be easily adapted to other kind of services and markets.

  14. Maximizing the utility of monitoring to the adaptive management of natural resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, William L.; Moore, Clinton T.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Data collection is an important step in any investigation about the structure or processes related to a natural system. In a purely scientific investigation (experiments, quasi-experiments, observational studies), data collection is part of the scientific method, preceded by the identification of hypotheses and the design of any manipulations of the system to test those hypotheses. Data collection and the manipulations that precede it are ideally designed to maximize the information that is derived from the study. That is, such investigations should be designed for maximum power to evaluate the relative validity of the hypotheses posed. When data collection is intended to inform the management of ecological systems, we call it monitoring. Note that our definition of monitoring encompasses a broader range of data-collection efforts than some alternative definitions – e.g. Chapter 3. The purpose of monitoring as we use the term can vary, from surveillance or “thumb on the pulse” monitoring (see Nichols and Williams 2006), intended to detect changes in a system due to any non-specified source (e.g. the North American Breeding Bird Survey), to very specific and targeted monitoring of the results of specific management actions (e.g. banding and aerial survey efforts related to North American waterfowl harvest management). Although a role of surveillance monitoring is to detect unanticipated changes in a system, the same result is possible from a collection of targeted monitoring programs distributed across the same spatial range (Box 4.1). In the face of limited budgets and many specific management questions, tying monitoring as closely as possible to management needs is warranted (Nichols and Williams 2006). Adaptive resource management (ARM; Walters 1986, Williams 1997, Kendall 2001, Moore and Conroy 2006, McCarthy and Possingham 2007, Conroy et al. 2008a) provides a context and specific purpose for monitoring: to evaluate decisions with respect to achievement

  15. Adaptive information processing in auditory cortex. Annual report, 1 June 1987-31 May 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, N.M.

    1988-05-31

    The fact that learning induces frequency-specific modification of receptive fields in auditory cortex implies that the functional organization of auditory (and perhaps other sensory) cortex comprises an adaptively-constituted information base. This project initiates the first systematic investigation of adaptive information processing in cerebral cortex. A major goal is to determine the circumstances under which adaptive information processing is induced by experience. This project also addresses central hypotheses about rules that govern adaptive information processing, at three levels of spatial scale: (a) parallel processing in different auditory fields: (b) modular processing in different cortical lamina within fields; (c) local processing in different neurons within the same locus within lamina. The author emphasized determining the learning circumstances under which adaptive information processing is invoked by the brain. Current studies reveal that the frequency receptive fields of neurons in the auditory cortex, and the physiologically plastic magnocellular medial geniculate nucleus, develop frequency-specific modification such that maximal shifts in tuning are at or adjacent to the signal frequency. Further, this adaptive re-tuning of neurons develops rapidly during habituation, classical conditioning, and instrumental avoidance conditioning. The generality of re-tuning has established that AIP during learning represents a general brain strategy for the acquisition and subsequent processing of information.

  16. The NASA Continuous Risk Management Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokorny, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    As an intern this summer in the GRC Risk Management Office, I have become familiar with the NASA Continuous Risk Management Process. In this process, risk is considered in terms of the probability that an undesired event will occur and the impact of the event, should it occur (ref., NASA-NPG: 7120.5). Risk management belongs in every part of every project and should be ongoing from start to finish. Another key point is that a risk is not a problem until it has happened. With that in mind, there is a six step cycle for continuous risk management that prevents risks from becoming problems. The steps are: identify, analyze, plan, track, control, and communicate & document. Incorporated in the first step are several methods to identify risks such as brainstorming and using lessons learned. Once a risk is identified, a risk statement is made on a risk information sheet consisting of a single condition and one or more consequences. There can also be a context section where the risk is explained in more detail. Additionally there are three main goals of analyzing a risk, which are evaluate, classify, and prioritize. Here is where a value is given to the attributes of a risk &e., probability, impact, and timeframe) based on a multi-level classification system (e.g., low, medium, high). It is important to keep in mind that the definitions of these levels are probably different for each project. Furthermore the risks can be combined into groups. Then, the risks are prioritized to see what risk is necessary to mitigate first. After the risks are analyzed, a plan is made to mitigate as many risks as feasible. Each risk should be assigned to someone in the project with knowledge in the area of the risk. Then the possible approaches to choose from are: research, accept, watch, or mitigate. Next, all risks, mitigated or not, are tracked either individually or in groups. As the plan is executed, risks are re-evaluated, and the attribute values are adjusted as necessary. Metrics

  17. Future water supply management adaptation measures - case study of Ljubljana field aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čenčur Curk, B.; Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Bogardi, I.

    2012-04-01

    The main drinking water supply problems are related to the significant change of groundwater quantity and quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices and very likely also climate change. The latter may affect the ability of drinking water suppliers to provide enough water of sufficient quality to the consumers. These topics were studied in the frame of SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impact on Water Supply) with the main goal to develop a water supply management system regarding optimisation of water extraction and land use restrictions under climate change scenarios for water suppliers, since existing management practices are mostly inadequate to reduce impacts of CC on water supply reliability. The main goal was a designation of appropriate measures and risk assessment to adapt water supply to changing climate and land use activities considering socio-economic aspects. This was accomplished by using 'Fuzzy Decimaker', which is a tool for selecting and ranking risk reduction measures or management actions for local waterworks or water authorities under the pressure of climate change. Firstly, management options were selected and ranked. For public water supply of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, several management options were selected. For improvement of water supply and preservation of water resource quantities there is a need for engineering interventions, such as reducing water losses on pipelines. For improving drinking water safety and preserving water resource quality farmers are not allowed to use fertilisers in the first safeguarding zone and they get compensations for income reduction because of lower farming production. Compensations for farming restrictions in the second safeguarding zone were applied as additional management option. On the other hand, drinking water treatment is another management option to be considered. Trends in groundwater level are decreasing, above all recharge areas of waterworks

  18. Self-adaptive thermal management - the fundamentals and applications in Li-polymer batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Xiaobao

    The thermal management systems for electronic devices and their power sources are facing increasing challenge to accommodate the ever-changing environmental and operational conditions. The conventional thermal management systems, with a predominant focus on cooling, are often not sufficient in those cases. In addition, to support miniaturization, complex systems and broader applications (e.g., space and military), the thermal management system often needs to be compatible with smaller device and their fabrication processes, dissipate heat efficiently for localized heat spot, and meet the requirement of light weight and low power consumption. In order to address such issues, a self-adaptive thermal switch array (TSA) is proposed based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology which has the capability automatically change its thermal conductance according to the environmental and operational conditions. This TSA was actuated by low melting alloy (LMA) with neither control unit nor parasitic energy consumption. The idea has been first demonstrated by a prototype device with the stabilization temperatures under various power inputs investigated both experimentally and theoretically. When the power input was changed from 3.8W to 5.8W, the stabilization temperature of the device was increased only by 2.5°C due to the stabilization effect of TSA. The experimental data were found in good agreement with their theoretical value. Based on the theoretical model, two types of TSA, namely high-on and low-off, were further developed to increase on-state thermal conductance and decrease off-state thermal conductance, respectively. Compared with the low-off TSA, the high-on TSA can more efficiently cool the devices and stabilize their temperature at a value closer to the melting point of LMA even under higher power inputs. On the other hand, the startup time and energy consumption were significantly reduced with the low-off TSA design due to the enhanced off

  19. Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

  20. Incorporating Deeply Uncertain Factors into the Many Objective Search Process: Improving Adaptation to Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Watson, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Deep uncertainty refers to situations in which decision makers or stakeholders do not know, or cannot fully agree upon, the full suite of risk factors within a planning problem. This phenomenon is especially important when considering scenarios of future environmental change, since there exist multiple trajectories of environmental forcings (e.g., streamflow timing and magnitude) and socioeconomic factors (e.g., population growth). This presentation first briefly reviews robust optimization and scenario approaches that have been proposed to plan for systems under deep uncertainty. One recently introduced framework is Many Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM). MORDM combines two techniques: evolutionary algorithm search is used to generate planning alternatives, and robust decision making methods are used to sample performance over a large range of plausible factors and, subsequently, choose a robust solution. Within MORDM, Pareto approximate tradeoff sets of solutions are used to balance objectives and examine alternatives. However, MORDM does not currently incorporate the deeply uncertain scenario information into the search process itself. In this presentation, we suggest several avenues for doing so, that are focused on modifying the suite of uncertain data that is selected within the search process. Visualizations that compare tradeoff sets across different sets of assumptions can be used to guide decision makers' learning and, ultimately, their selection of several candidate solutions for further planning. For example, the baseline assumptions about probability distributions can be compared to optimization results under severe events to determine adaptive management strategies. A case study of water planning in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas is used to demonstrate the approach. Our LRGV results compare baseline optimization with new solution sets that examine optimal management strategies under scenarios characterized by lower than average

  1. Color Imaging management in film processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremeau, Alain; Konik, Hubert; Colantoni, Philippe

    2003-12-01

    The latest research projects in the laboratory LIGIV concerns capture, processing, archiving and display of color images considering the trichromatic nature of the Human Vision System (HSV). Among these projects one addresses digital cinematographic film sequences of high resolution and dynamic range. This project aims to optimize the use of content for the post-production operators and for the end user. The studies presented in this paper address the use of metadata to optimise the consumption of video content on a device of user's choice independent of the nature of the equipment that captured the content. Optimising consumption includes enhancing the quality of image reconstruction on a display. Another part of this project addresses the content-based adaptation of image display. Main focus is on Regions of Interest (ROI) operations, based on the ROI concepts of MPEG-7. The aim of this second part is to characterize and ensure the conditions of display even if display device or display media changes. This requires firstly the definition of a reference color space and the definition of bi-directional color transformations for each peripheral device (camera, display, film recorder, etc.). The complicating factor is that different devices have different color gamuts, depending on the chromaticity of their primaries and the ambient illumination under which they are viewed. To match the displayed image to the aimed appearance, all kind of production metadata (camera specification, camera colour primaries, lighting conditions) should be associated to the film material. Metadata and content build together rich content. The author is assumed to specify conditions as known from digital graphics arts. To control image pre-processing and image post-processing, these specifications should be contained in the film's metadata. The specifications are related to the ICC profiles but need additionally consider mesopic viewing conditions.

  2. Adaptation to Leftward-shifting Prisms Enhances Local Processing in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Scott A.; Dassonville, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In healthy individuals, adaptation to left-shifting prisms has been shown to simulate the symptoms of hemispatial neglect, including a reduction in global processing that approximates the local bias observed in neglect patients. The current study tested whether leftward prism adaptation can more specifically enhance local processing abilities. In three experiments, the impact of local and global processing was assessed through tasks that measure susceptibility to illusions that are known to be driven by local or global contextual effects. Susceptibility to the rod-and-frame illusion – an illusion disproportionately driven by both local and global effects depending on frame size – was measured before and after adaptation to left- and right-shifting prisms. A significant increase in rod-and-frame susceptibility was found for the left-shifting prism group, suggesting that adaptation caused an increase in local processing effects. The results of a second experiment confirmed that leftward prism adaptation enhances local processing, as assessed with susceptibility to the simultaneous-tilt illusion. A final experiment employed a more specific measure of the global effect typically associated with the rod-andframe illusion, and found that although the global effect was somewhat diminished after leftward prism adaptation, the trend failed to reach significance (p = .078). Rightward prism adaptation had no significant effects on performance in any of the experiments. Combined, these findings indicate that leftward prism adaptation in healthy individuals can simulate the local processing bias of neglect patients primarily through an increased sensitivity to local visual cues, and confirm that prism adaptation not only modulates lateral shifts of attention, but also prompts shifts from one level of processing to another. PMID:24560913

  3. Adaptation to leftward-shifting prisms enhances local processing in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Reed, Scott A; Dassonville, Paul

    2014-04-01

    In healthy individuals, adaptation to left-shifting prisms has been shown to simulate the symptoms of hemispatial neglect, including a reduction in global processing that approximates the local bias observed in neglect patients. The current study tested whether leftward prism adaptation can more specifically enhance local processing abilities. In three experiments, the impact of local and global processing was assessed through tasks that measure susceptibility to illusions that are known to be driven by local or global contextual effects. Susceptibility to the rod-and-frame illusion - an illusion disproportionately driven by both local and global effects depending on frame size - was measured before and after adaptation to left- and right-shifting prisms. A significant increase in rod-and-frame susceptibility was found for the left-shifting prism group, suggesting that adaptation caused an increase in local processing effects. The results of a second experiment confirmed that leftward prism adaptation enhances local processing, as assessed with susceptibility to the simultaneous-tilt illusion. A final experiment employed a more specific measure of the global effect typically associated with the rod-and-frame illusion, and found that although the global effect was somewhat diminished after leftward prism adaptation, the trend failed to reach significance (p=.078). Rightward prism adaptation had no significant effects on performance in any of the experiments. Combined, these findings indicate that leftward prism adaptation in healthy individuals can simulate the local processing bias of neglect patients primarily through an increased sensitivity to local visual cues, and confirm that prism adaptation not only modulates lateral shifts of attention, but also prompts shifts from one level of processing to another.

  4. Does external funding help adaptation? Evidence from community-based water management in the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    Murtinho, Felipe; Eakin, Hallie; López-Carr, David; Hayes, Tanya M

    2013-11-01

    Despite debate regarding whether, and in what form, communities need external support for adaptation to environmental change, few studies have examined how external funding impacts adaptation decisions in rural resource-dependent communities. In this article, we use quantitative and qualitative methods to assess how different funding sources influence the initiative to adapt to water scarcity in the Colombian Andes. We compare efforts to adapt to water scarcity in 111 rural Andean communities with varied dependence on external funding for water management activities. Findings suggest that despite efforts to use their own internal resources, communities often need external support to finance adaptation strategies. However, not all external financial support positively impacts a community's abilities to adapt. Results show the importance of community-driven requests for external support. In cases where external support was unsolicited, the results show a decline, or "crowding-out," in community efforts to adapt. In contrast, in cases where communities initiated the request for external support to fund their own projects, findings show that external intervention is more likely to enhance or "crowds-in" community-driven adaptation.

  5. Management of an adaptable-bit-rate video service in a MAN environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, Michele; Albanese, Andres

    1991-02-01

    This paper describes an adaptable-bit-rate video service concept experiment and its management in an experimental prototype of a public metropolitan area network (MAN). In the experiment the " service providers" supply their customers with a set of service management primitives to implement customer-defined management applications and provide users with a high level of flexibility in the service definition. The paper describes the architecture for an experimental service management system that includes customer controlled features for dynamic bandwidth allocation group addressing and address screening. 1

  6. Nonprofit, payload process improvement through lean management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Melissa

    Organizations that are successful and competitive long-term have learned to efficiently utilize their resources, such as money, people, facilities, and time. Over the last half-century, there have been a variety of theories and techniques put forth on how to do this. One recent theory applied in the aerospace industry is Lean Management (LM), which emphasizes a customer focus and a rigorous elimination of activities that do not add value from the customer's perspective. LM has not, until now, been evaluated for small, nonprofit, one-off production organizations (NOPOs). Previous research on LM focused on for-profit companies and large-scale production organizations, producing relatively similar products repetitively (e.g. automobiles, commercial satellites, aircraft, and launch vehicles). One-off production organizations typically create one-of-a-kind products. The purpose of this research is to examine the applicability of LM to a NOPO. LM will improve resource utilization and thereby competitiveness, as well as exploring a new area of knowledge and research. The research methodology consists of conducting case studies, formal and informal interviews, observation and analysis in order to assess whether and how LM may be beneficial. The research focuses on one particular NOPO, BioServe Space Technologies (BST): a nonprofit, payload development organization. Additional NOPOs were interviewed in order to draw more generalized conclusions about LM benefits. The research demonstrates that LM is applicable to NOPOs, thus providing a tool to improve efficiency and competitiveness. Results from this research are guidelines for payload development organizations to implement LM, and highlighting potential LM weaknesses. A major conclusion is that LM needs some minor modifications to be applicable and useful to NOPOs, particularly in terms of value stream mapping. The LM implementation roadmap developed for NOPOs introduces customized metrics, as well as including standard

  7. Adaptive management on the central Platte River--science, engineering, and decision analysis to assist in the recovery of four species.

    PubMed

    Smith, Chadwin B

    2011-05-01

    Active adaptive management is the centerpiece of a major species recovery program now underway on the central Platte River in Nebraska. The Platte River Recovery Implementation Program initiated on January 1, 2007 and is a joint effort between the states of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska; the U.S. Department of the Interior; waters users; and conservation groups. This program is intended to address issues related to endangered species and loss of habitat along the Platte River in central Nebraska by managing land and water resources and using adaptive management as its science framework. The adaptive management plan provides a systematic process to test hypotheses and apply the information learned to improve management on the ground, and is centered on conceptual models and priority hypotheses that reflect different interpretations of how river processes work and the best approach to meeting key objectives. This framework reveals a shared attempt to use the best available science to implement experiments, learn, and revise management actions accordingly on the Platte River. This paper focuses on the status of adaptive management implementation on the Platte, experimental and habitat design issues, and the use of decision analysis tools to help set objectives and guide decisions.

  8. Native Prairie Adaptive Management: a multi region adaptive approach to invasive plant management on Fish and Wildlife Service owned native prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, Jill J.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Moore, Clinton T.

    2013-01-01

    Much of the native prairie managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the northern Great Plains is extensively invaded by the introduced cool-season grasses, smooth brome (Bromus inermis) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis). Management to suppress these invasive plants has had poor to inconsistent success. The central challenge to managers is selecting appropriate management actions in the face of biological and environmental uncertainties. In partnership with the FWS, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed an adaptive decision support framework to assist managers in selecting management actions under uncertainty and maximizing learning from management outcomes. This joint partnership is known as the Native Prairie Adaptive Management (NPAM) initiative. The NPAM decision framework is built around practical constraints faced by FWS refuge managers and includes identification of the management objective and strategies, analysis of uncertainty and construction of competing decision models, monitoring, and mechanisms for model feedback and decision selection. Nineteen FWS field stations, spanning four states of the PPR, have participated in the initiative. These FWS cooperators share a common management objective, available management strategies, and biological uncertainties. Though the scope is broad, the initiative interfaces with individual land managers who provide site-specific information and receive updated decision guidance that incorporates understanding gained from the collective experience of all cooperators. We describe the technical components of this approach, how the components integrate and inform each other, how data feedback from individual cooperators serves to reduce uncertainty across the whole region, and how a successful adaptive management project is coordinated and maintained on a large scale. During an initial scoping workshop, FWS cooperators developed a consensus management objective

  9. Rift Valley fever dynamics in Senegal: a project for pro-active adaptation and improvement of livestock raising management.

    PubMed

    Lafaye, Murielle; Sall, Baba; Ndiaye, Youssou; Vignolles, Cecile; Tourre, Yves M; Borchi, Franc Ois; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Diallo, Mawlouth; Dia, Ibrahima; Ba, Yamar; Faye, Abdoulaye; Ba, Taibou; Ka, Alioune; Ndione, Jacques-André; Gauthier, Hélène; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    The multi-disciplinary French project "Adaptation à la Fiévre de la Vallée du Rift" (AdaptFVR) has concluded a 10-year constructive interaction between many scientists/partners involved with the Rift Valley fever (RVF) dynamics in Senegal. The three targeted objectives reached were (i) to produce--in near real-time--validated risk maps for parked livestock exposed to RVF mosquitoes/vectors bites; (ii) to assess the impacts on RVF vectors from climate variability at different time-scales including climate change; and (iii) to isolate processes improving local livestock management and animal health. Based on these results, concrete, pro-active adaptive actions were taken on site, which led to the establishment of a RVF early warning system (RVFews). Bulletins were released in a timely fashion during the project, tested and validated in close collaboration with the local populations, i.e. the primary users. Among the strategic, adaptive methods developed, conducted and evaluated in terms of cost/benefit analyses are the larvicide campaigns and the coupled bio-mathematical (hydrological and entomological) model technologies, which are being transferred to the staff of the "Centre de Suivi Ecologique" (CSE) in Dakar during 2013. Based on the results from the AdaptFVR project, other projects with similar conceptual and modelling approaches are currently being implemented, e.g. for urban and rural malaria and dengue in the French Antilles. PMID:24258902

  10. Rift Valley fever dynamics in Senegal: a project for pro-active adaptation and improvement of livestock raising management.

    PubMed

    Lafaye, Murielle; Sall, Baba; Ndiaye, Youssou; Vignolles, Cecile; Tourre, Yves M; Borchi, Franc Ois; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Diallo, Mawlouth; Dia, Ibrahima; Ba, Yamar; Faye, Abdoulaye; Ba, Taibou; Ka, Alioune; Ndione, Jacques-André; Gauthier, Hélène; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    The multi-disciplinary French project "Adaptation à la Fiévre de la Vallée du Rift" (AdaptFVR) has concluded a 10-year constructive interaction between many scientists/partners involved with the Rift Valley fever (RVF) dynamics in Senegal. The three targeted objectives reached were (i) to produce--in near real-time--validated risk maps for parked livestock exposed to RVF mosquitoes/vectors bites; (ii) to assess the impacts on RVF vectors from climate variability at different time-scales including climate change; and (iii) to isolate processes improving local livestock management and animal health. Based on these results, concrete, pro-active adaptive actions were taken on site, which led to the establishment of a RVF early warning system (RVFews). Bulletins were released in a timely fashion during the project, tested and validated in close collaboration with the local populations, i.e. the primary users. Among the strategic, adaptive methods developed, conducted and evaluated in terms of cost/benefit analyses are the larvicide campaigns and the coupled bio-mathematical (hydrological and entomological) model technologies, which are being transferred to the staff of the "Centre de Suivi Ecologique" (CSE) in Dakar during 2013. Based on the results from the AdaptFVR project, other projects with similar conceptual and modelling approaches are currently being implemented, e.g. for urban and rural malaria and dengue in the French Antilles.

  11. Local adaptation in Trinidadian guppies alters ecosystem processes.

    PubMed

    Bassar, Ronald D; Marshall, Michael C; López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Zandonà, Eugenia; Auer, Sonya K; Travis, Joseph; Pringle, Catherine M; Flecker, Alexander S; Thomas, Steven A; Fraser, Douglas F; Reznick, David N

    2010-02-23

    Theory suggests evolutionary change can significantly influence and act in tandem with ecological forces via ecological-evolutionary feedbacks. This theory assumes that significant evolutionary change occurs over ecologically relevant timescales and that phenotypes have differential effects on the environment. Here we test the hypothesis that local adaptation causes ecosystem structure and function to diverge. We demonstrate that populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), characterized by differences in phenotypic and population-level traits, differ in their impact on ecosystem properties. We report results from a replicated, common garden mesocosm experiment and show that differences between guppy phenotypes result in the divergence of ecosystem structure (algal, invertebrate, and detrital standing stocks) and function (gross primary productivity, leaf decomposition rates, and nutrient flux). These phenotypic effects are further modified by effects of guppy density. We evaluated the generality of these effects by replicating the experiment using guppies derived from two independent origins of the phenotype. Finally, we tested the ability of multiple guppy traits to explain observed differences in the mesocosms. Our findings demonstrate that evolution can significantly affect both ecosystem structure and function. The ecosystem differences reported here are consistent with patterns observed across natural streams and argue that guppies play a significant role in shaping these ecosystems. PMID:20133670

  12. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (II): Case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, rapid economic development and increase of the human population are considered as the major triggers of increasing challenges for water resources management. This proposed integrated optimal allocation model (IOAM) for complex adaptive system of water resources management is applied in Dongjiang River basin located in the Guangdong Province of China. The IOAM is calibrated and validated under baseline period 2010 year and future period 2011-2030 year, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model can make a trade-off between demand and supply for sustainable development of society, economy, ecology and environment and achieve adaptive management of water resources allocation. The optimal scheme derived by multi-objective evaluation is recommended for decision-makers in order to maximize the comprehensive benefits of water resources management.

  13. Adaptive Memory: The Evolutionary Significance of Survival Processing.

    PubMed

    Nairne, James S; Pandeirada, Josefa N S

    2016-07-01

    A few seconds of survival processing, during which people assess the relevance of information to a survival situation, produces particularly good retention. One interpretation of this benefit is that our memory systems are optimized to process and retain fitness-relevant information. Such a "tuning" may exist, in part, because our memory systems were shaped by natural selection, using a fitness-based criterion. However, recent research suggests that traditional mnemonic processes, such as elaborative processing, may play an important role in producing the empirical benefit. Boundary conditions have been demonstrated as well, leading some to dismiss evolutionary interpretations of the phenomenon. In this article, we discuss the current state of the evolutionary account and provide a general framework for evaluating evolutionary and purportedly nonevolutionary interpretations of mnemonic phenomena. We suggest that survival processing effects are best viewed within the context of a general survival optimization system, designed by nature to help organisms deal with survival challenges. An important component of survival optimization is the ability to simulate activities that help to prevent or escape from future threats which, in turn, depends in an important way on accurate retrospective remembering of survival-relevant information. PMID:27474137

  14. Framework for adaptive multiscale analysis of nonhomogeneous point processes.

    PubMed

    Helgason, Hannes; Bartroff, Jay; Abry, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    We develop the methodology for hypothesis testing and model selection in nonhomogeneous Poisson processes, with an eye toward the application of modeling and variability detection in heart beat data. Modeling the process' non-constant rate function using templates of simple basis functions, we develop the generalized likelihood ratio statistic for a given template and a multiple testing scheme to model-select from a family of templates. A dynamic programming algorithm inspired by network flows is used to compute the maximum likelihood template in a multiscale manner. In a numerical example, the proposed procedure is nearly as powerful as the super-optimal procedures that know the true template size and true partition, respectively. Extensions to general history-dependent point processes is discussed.

  15. Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters in a Changing Climate: Lessons for Adaptation to Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrandrea, M.; Field, C. B.; Mach, K. J.; Barros, V.

    2013-12-01

    The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, published in 2012, integrates expertise in climate science, disaster risk reduction, and adaptation to inform discussions on how to reduce and manage the risks of extreme events and disasters in a changing climate. Impacts and the risks of disasters are determined by the interaction of the physical characteristics of weather and climate events with the vulnerability of exposed human society and ecosystems. The Special Report evaluates the factors that make people and infrastructure vulnerable to extreme events, trends in disaster losses, recent and future changes in the relationship between climate change and extremes, and experience with a wide range of options used by institutions, organizations, and communities to reduce exposure and vulnerability, and improve resilience, to climate extremes. Actions ranging from incremental improvements in governance and technology to more transformational changes are assessed. The Special Report provides a knowledge base that is also relevant to the broader context of managing the risks of climate change through mitigation, adaptation, and other responses, assessed in the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report (AR5), to be completed in 2014. These themes include managing risks through an iterative process involving learning about risks and the effectiveness of responses, employing a portfolio of actions tailored to local circumstances but with links from local to global scales, and considering additional benefits of actions such as improving livelihoods and well-being. The Working Group II contribution to the AR5 also examines the ways that extreme events and their impacts contribute to understanding of vulnerabilities and adaptation deficits in the context of climate change, the extent to which impacts of climate change are experienced through changes in the frequency and severity of extremes as opposed to mean changes

  16. Evaluating adaptive governance approaches to sustainable water management in north-west Thailand.

    PubMed

    Clark, Julian R A; Semmahasak, Chutiwalanch

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive governance is advanced as a potent means of addressing institutional fit of natural resource systems with prevailing modes of political-administrative management. Its advocates also argue that it enhances participatory and learning opportunities for stakeholders over time. Yet an increasing number of studies demonstrate real difficulties in implementing adaptive governance 'solutions'. This paper builds on these debates by examining the introduction of adaptive governance to water management in Chiang Mai province, north-west Thailand. The paper considers, first, the limitations of current water governance modes at the provincial scale, and the rationale for implementation of an adaptive approach. The new approach is then critically examined, with its initial performance and likely future success evaluated by (i) analysis of water stakeholders' opinions of its first year of operation; and (ii) comparison of its governance attributes against recent empirical accounts of implementation difficulty and failure of adaptive governance of natural resource management more generally. The analysis confirms the potentially significant role that the new approach can play in brokering and resolving the underlying differences in stakeholder representation and knowledge construction at the heart of the prevailing water governance modes in north-west Thailand.

  17. Collaborative adaptive landscape management (CALM) in rangelands: Discussion of general principles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The management of rangeland landscapes involves broad spatial extents, mixed land ownership, and multiple resource objectives. Management outcomes depend on biophysical heterogeneity, highly variable weather conditions, land use legacies, and spatial processes such as wildlife movement, hydrological...

  18. Intelligent elevator management system using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, H. Sai; Karunamurthy, Vignesh; Kumar, R. Barath

    2015-03-01

    In the modern era, the increase in the number of shopping malls and industrial building has led to an exponential increase in the usage of elevator systems. Thus there is an increased need for an effective control system to manage the elevator system. This paper is aimed at introducing an effective method to control the movement of the elevators by considering various cases where in the location of the person is found and the elevators are controlled based on various conditions like Load, proximity etc... This method continuously monitors the weight limit of each elevator while also making use of image processing to determine the number of persons waiting for an elevator in respective floors. Canny edge detection technique is used to find out the number of persons waiting for an elevator. Hence the algorithm takes a lot of cases into account and locates the correct elevator to service the respective persons waiting in different floors.

  19. The Adapted Dance Process: Planning, Partnering, and Performing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Betty A.; Johnson, Peggy V.

    2011-01-01

    This article contains specific planning, partnering, and performing techniques for fully integrating dancers with special needs into a dance pedagogy program. Each aspect is discussed within the context of the domains of learning. Fundamental partnering strategies are related to each domain as part of the integration process. The authors recommend…

  20. Computer simulation program is adaptable to industrial processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, F. E.

    1966-01-01

    The Reaction kinetics ablation program /REKAP/, developed to simulate ablation of various materials, provides mathematical formulations for computer programs which can simulate certain industrial processes. The programs are based on the use of nonsymmetrical difference equations that are employed to solve complex partial differential equation systems.

  1. Effects of Crowding and Attention on High-Levels of Motion Processing and Motion Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Pavan, Andrea; Greenlee, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The motion after-effect (MAE) persists in crowding conditions, i.e., when the adaptation direction cannot be reliably perceived. The MAE originating from complex moving patterns spreads into non-adapted sectors of a multi-sector adapting display (i.e., phantom MAE). In the present study we used global rotating patterns to measure the strength of the conventional and phantom MAEs in crowded and non-crowded conditions, and when attention was directed to the adapting stimulus and when it was diverted away from the adapting stimulus. The results show that: (i) the phantom MAE is weaker than the conventional MAE, for both non-crowded and crowded conditions, and when attention was focused on the adapting stimulus and when it was diverted from it, (ii) conventional and phantom MAEs in the crowded condition are weaker than in the non-crowded condition. Analysis conducted to assess the effect of crowding on high-level of motion adaptation suggests that crowding is likely to affect the awareness of the adapting stimulus rather than degrading its sensory representation, (iii) for high-level of motion processing the attentional manipulation does not affect the strength of either conventional or phantom MAEs, neither in the non-crowded nor in the crowded conditions. These results suggest that high-level MAEs do not depend on attention and that at high-level of motion adaptation the effects of crowding are not modulated by attention. PMID:25615577

  2. Effects of crowding and attention on high-levels of motion processing and motion adaptation.

    PubMed

    Pavan, Andrea; Greenlee, Mark W

    2015-01-01

    The motion after-effect (MAE) persists in crowding conditions, i.e., when the adaptation direction cannot be reliably perceived. The MAE originating from complex moving patterns spreads into non-adapted sectors of a multi-sector adapting display (i.e., phantom MAE). In the present study we used global rotating patterns to measure the strength of the conventional and phantom MAEs in crowded and non-crowded conditions, and when attention was directed to the adapting stimulus and when it was diverted away from the adapting stimulus. The results show that: (i) the phantom MAE is weaker than the conventional MAE, for both non-crowded and crowded conditions, and when attention was focused on the adapting stimulus and when it was diverted from it, (ii) conventional and phantom MAEs in the crowded condition are weaker than in the non-crowded condition. Analysis conducted to assess the effect of crowding on high-level of motion adaptation suggests that crowding is likely to affect the awareness of the adapting stimulus rather than degrading its sensory representation, (iii) for high-level of motion processing the attentional manipulation does not affect the strength of either conventional or phantom MAEs, neither in the non-crowded nor in the crowded conditions. These results suggest that high-level MAEs do not depend on attention and that at high-level of motion adaptation the effects of crowding are not modulated by attention.

  3. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the delaware bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, C.P.; Smith, D.R.; Sweka, J.A.; Martin, J.; Nichols, J.D.; Wong, R.; Lyons, J.E.; Niles, L.J.; Kalasz, K.; Brust, J.; Klopfer, M.; Spear, B.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David; Sweka, John A.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; Wong, Richard; Lyons, James E.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Kalasz, Kevin; Brust, Jeffrey; Klopfer, Michelle; Spear, Braddock

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species.

  5. Theoretical models of adaptive energy management in small wintering birds.

    PubMed

    Brodin, Anders

    2007-10-29

    Many small passerines are resident in forests with very cold winters. Considering their size and the adverse conditions, this is a remarkable feat that requires optimal energy management in several respects, for example regulation of body fat reserves, food hoarding and night-time hypothermia. Besides their beneficial effect on survival, these behaviours also entail various costs. The scenario is complex with many potentially important factors, and this has made 'the little bird in winter' a popular topic for theoretic modellers. Many predictions could have been made intuitively, but models have been especially important when many factors interact. Predictions that hardly could have been made without models include: (i) the minimum mortality occurs at the fat level where the marginal values of starvation risk and predation risk are equal; (ii) starvation risk may also decrease when food requirement increases; (iii) mortality from starvation may correlate positively with fat reserves; (iv) the existence of food stores can increase fitness substantially even if the food is not eaten; (v) environmental changes may induce increases or decreases in the level of reserves depending on whether changes are temporary or permanent; and (vi) hoarding can also evolve under seemingly group-selectionistic conditions.

  6. Farms adaptation to changes in flood risk: a management approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivot, Jean-Marc; Martin, Philippe

    2002-10-01

    Creating flood expansion areas e.g. for the protection of urban areas from flooding involves a localised increase in risk which may require farmers to be compensated for crop damage or other losses. With this in mind, the paper sets out the approach used to study the problem and gives results obtained from a survey of farms liable to flooding in central France. The approach is based on a study of decisions made by farmers in situations of uncertainty, using the concept of 'model of action'. The results show that damage caused to farming areas by flooding should be considered both at field level and at farm level. The damage caused to the field depends on the flood itself, the fixed characteristics of the field, and the plant species cultivated. However, the losses to the farm taken as a whole can differ considerably from those for the flooded field, due to 'knock-on' effects on farm operations which depend on the internal organization, the availability of production resources, and the farmer's objectives, both for the farm as a whole and for its individual enterprises. Three main strategies regarding possible flood events were identified. Reasons for choosing one of these include the way the farmer perceives the risk and the size of the area liable to flooding. Finally, the formalisation of farm system management in the face of uncertainty, especially due to flooding, enables compensation to be calculated for farmers whose land is affected by the creation of flood expansion areas.

  7. Effects of Culturally Adapted Parent Management Training on Latino Youth Behavioral Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Charles R.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2005-01-01

    A randomized experimental test of the implementation feasibility and the efficacy of a culturally adapted Parent Management Training intervention was conducted with a sample of 73 Spanish-speaking Latino parents with middle-school-aged youth at risk for problem behaviors. Intervention feasibility was evaluated through weekly parent satisfaction…

  8. Using Virtualization and Automatic Evaluation: Adapting Network Services Management Courses to the EHEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros, S.; Robles-Gomez, A.; Hernandez, R.; Caminero, A. C.; Pastor, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the adaptation of a course on the management of network services in operating systems, called NetServicesOS, to the context of the new European Higher Education Area (EHEA). NetServicesOS is a mandatory course in one of the official graduate programs in the Faculty of Computer Science at the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a…

  9. 78 FR 49281 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Web-Based Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting, teleconference, and web-based meeting of the Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG). DATES: Public meeting, Teleconference, and...

  10. 78 FR 35312 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Web-Based Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting, teleconference and web-based meeting of the Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG). DATES: Public meeting, Teleconference, and...

  11. 78 FR 17226 - Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group; Public Meeting, Teleconference and Web-Based Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Web-Based Meeting AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a public meeting, teleconference and web-based meeting of the Trinity Adaptive Management Working Group (TAMWG). DATES: Public meeting, Teleconference, and...

  12. Adaptive management of perennial pepperweed for endangered specias and tidal marsh recovery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial pepperweed has invaded a wide range of habitat types in the far west. In the San Francisco Estuary, dense infestations have impacted sensitive tidal wetlands and compromised endangered species recovery efforts. An adaptive management effort to reduce perennial pepperweed was initiated by...

  13. Who Needs Contingency Approaches and Guidelines in Order to Adapt Vague Management Ideas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortenblad, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to question the assumption that the general idea of the learning organisation needs to be adapted to the specific context before it can be put into practical use. It is suggested that there are lots of ways to use management ideas, other than implementing them in the practice of organisations. It is further…

  14. Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability: Enhancing the positive and mitigating the negative effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland management strategies for adapting to climatic variability are needed to reduce enterprise risk, increase resilience of rangeland/grassland ecosystems and deliver sustainable provision of ecosystem goods (e.g., livestock production) and services (e.g., wildlife habitat) from western North ...

  15. Overcoming the "Walmart Syndrome": Adapting Problem-Based Management Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Lu, Jiafang

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores design issues to be considered in adapting the problem-based learning (PBL) for use in the context of East Asian higher education and tests its instructional effectiveness in a Master of Management degree program at a graduate school of business (GSB) in Thailand. The research analyzes course evaluation data obtained from…

  16. Understanding Indian Institutional Networks and Participation in Water Management Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azhoni, A.; Holman, I.; Jude, S.

    2014-12-01

    Adaptation to climate change for water management involves complex interactions between different actors and sectors. The need to understand the relationships between key stakeholder institutions (KSIs) is increasingly recognized. The complexity of water management in India has meant that enhancing adaptive capacity through improved inter-institutional networks remains a challenge for both government and non-governmental institutions. To analyse such complex inter-actions this study has used Social Network and Stakeholder Analysis tools to quantify the participation of, and interactions between, each KSI in the climate change adaptation and water discourse based on keyword analysis of their online presence. Using NodeXL, a Social Network Analysis tool, network diagrams have been used to evaluate the inter-relationships between these KSIs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-five KSIs to identify the main barriers to adaptation and to triangulate the findings of the e-documents analysis. The analysis found that there is an inverse relationship between institutions' reference to water and climate change in their web-documents. Most institutions emphasize mitigation rather than adaptation. Bureaucratic delays, poor coordination between the KSIs, unclear policies and systemic deficiencies are identified as key barriers to improving adaptive capacity within water management to climate change. However, the increasing attention being given to the perceived climate change impacts on the water sector and improving the inter-institutional networks are some of the opportunities for Indian water institutions. Although websites of Union Government Institutions seldom directly hyperlink to one another, they are linked through "bridging" websites which have the potential to act as brokers for enhancing adaptive capacity. The research has wider implications for analysis of complex inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional issues involving multi stakeholders.

  17. Moving towards adaptive management of cyanotoxin-impaired water bodies.

    PubMed

    Paerl, Hans W; Otten, Timothy G; Joyner, Alan R

    2016-09-01

    The cyanobacteria are a phylum of bacteria that have played a key role in shaping the Earth's biosphere due to their pioneering ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Throughout their history, cyanobacteria have experienced major biogeochemical changes accompanying Earth's geochemical evolution over the past 2.5+ billion years, including periods of extreme climatic change, hydrologic, nutrient and radiation stress. Today, they remain remarkably successful, exploiting human nutrient over-enrichment as nuisance "blooms." Cyanobacteria produce an array of unique metabolites, the functions and biotic ramifications of which are the subject of diverse ecophysiological studies. These metabolites are relevant from organismal and ecosystem function perspectives because some can be toxic and fatal to diverse biota, including zooplankton and fish consumers of algal biomass, and high-level consumers of aquatic food sources and drinking water, including humans. Given the long history of environmental extremes and selection pressures that cyanobacteria have experienced, it is likely that that these toxins serve ecophysiological functions aimed at optimizing growth and fitness during periods of environmental stress. Here, we explore the molecular and ecophysiological mechanisms underlying cyanotoxin production, with emphasis on key environmental conditions potentially controlling toxin production. Based on this information, we offer potential management strategies for reducing cyanotoxin potentials in natural waters; for cyanotoxins with no clear drivers yet elucidated, we highlight the data gaps and research questions that are still lacking. We focus on the four major classes of toxins (anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, microcystins and saxitoxins) that have thus far been identified as relevant from environmental health perspectives, but caution there may be other harmful metabolites waiting to be elucidated. PMID:27418325

  18. An adaptable product for material processing and life science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wassick, Gregory; Dobbs, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The Experiment Control System II (ECS-II) is designed to make available to the microgravity research community the same tools and mode of automated experimentation that their ground-based counterparts have enjoyed for the last two decades. The design goal was accomplished by combining commercial automation tools familiar to the experimenter community with system control components that interface with the on-orbit platform in a distributed architecture. The architecture insulates the tools necessary for managing a payload. By using commercial software and hardware components whenever possible, development costs were greatly reduced when compared to traditional space development projects. Using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components also improved the usability documentation, and reducing the need for training of the system by providing familiar user interfaces, providing a wealth of readily available documentation, and reducing the need for training on system-specific details. The modularity of the distributed architecture makes it very amenable for modification to different on-orbit experiments requiring robotics-based automation.

  19. Disability Management in Industry: A Joint Labor-Management Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruyere, Susanne M.; Shrey, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews impact of labor relations on employee disability and subsequent work disruptions. Model disability management programs illustrating joint support by labor and management are reviewed. Key features of these cooperative industry-based programs are presented, with implications for rehabilitation practice in disability management service…

  20. The ATLAS data management software engineering process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassnig, M.; Garonne, V.; Stewart, G. A.; Barisits, M.; Beermann, T.; Vigne, R.; Serfon, C.; Goossens, L.; Nairz, A.; Molfetas, A.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    Rucio is the next-generation data management system of the ATLAS experiment. The software engineering process to develop Rucio is fundamentally different to existing software development approaches in the ATLAS distributed computing community. Based on a conceptual design document, development takes place using peer-reviewed code in a test-driven environment. The main objectives are to ensure that every engineer understands the details of the full project, even components usually not touched by them, that the design and architecture are coherent, that temporary contributors can be productive without delay, that programming mistakes are prevented before being committed to the source code, and that the source is always in a fully functioning state. This contribution will illustrate the workflows and products used, and demonstrate the typical development cycle of a component from inception to deployment within this software engineering process. Next to the technological advantages, this contribution will also highlight the social aspects of an environment where every action is subject to detailed scrutiny.

  1. [Molecular genetic bases of adaptation processes and approaches to their analysis].

    PubMed

    Salmenkova, E A

    2013-01-01

    Great interest in studying the molecular genetic bases of the adaptation processes is explained by their importance in understanding evolutionary changes, in the development ofintraspecific and interspecific genetic diversity, and in the creation of approaches and programs for maintaining and restoring the population. The article examines the sources and conditions for generating adaptive genetic variability and contribution of neutral and adaptive genetic variability to the population structure of the species; methods for identifying the adaptive genetic variability on the genome level are also described. Considerable attention is paid to the potential of new technologies of genome analysis, including next-generation sequencing and some accompanying methods. In conclusion, the important role of the joint use of genomics and proteomics approaches in understanding the molecular genetic bases of adaptation is emphasized.

  2. The influence of negative stimulus features on conflict adaption: evidence from fluency of processing

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Julia; Fischer, Rico; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control enables adaptive behavior in a dynamically changing environment. In this context, one prominent adaptation effect is the sequential conflict adjustment, i.e., the observation of reduced response interference on trials following conflict trials. Increasing evidence suggests that such response conflicts are registered as aversive signals. So far, however, the functional role of this aversive signal for conflict adaptation to occur has not been put to test directly. In two experiments, the affective valence of conflict stimuli was manipulated by fluency of processing (stimulus contrast). Experiment 1 used a flanker interference task, Experiment 2 a color-word Stroop task. In both experiments, conflict adaptation effects were only present in fluent, but absent in disfluent trials. Results thus speak against the simple idea that any aversive stimulus feature is suited to promote specific conflict adjustments. Two alternative but not mutually exclusive accounts, namely resource competition and adaptation-by-motivation, will be discussed. PMID:25767453

  3. Torrefaction Processing for Human Solid Waste Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serio, Michael A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Wójtowicz, Marek A.; Stapleton, Thomas J.; Nalette, Tim A.; Ewert, Michael K.; Lee, Jeffrey; Fisher, John

    2016-01-01

    This study involved a torrefaction (mild pyrolysis) processing approach that could be used to sterilize feces and produce a stable, odor-free solid product that can be stored or recycled, and also to simultaneously recover moisture. It was demonstrated that mild heating (200-250 C) in nitrogen or air was adequate for torrefaction of a fecal simulant and an analog of human solid waste (canine feces). The net result was a nearly undetectable odor (for the canine feces), complete recovery of moisture, some additional water production, a modest reduction of the dry solid mass, and the production of small amounts of gas and liquid. The liquid product is mainly water, with a small Total Organic Carbon content. The amount of solid vs gas plus liquid products can be controlled by adjusting the torrefaction conditions (final temperature, holding time), and the current work has shown that the benefits of torrefaction could be achieved in a low temperature range (< 250 C). These temperatures are compatible with the PTFE bag materials historically used by NASA for fecal waste containment and will reduce the energy consumption of the process. The solid product was a dry material that did not support bacterial growth and was hydrophobic relative to the starting material. In the case of canine feces, the solid product was a mechanically friable material that could be easily compacted to a significantly smaller volume (approx. 50%). The proposed Torrefaction Processing Unit (TPU) would be designed to be compatible with the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), now under development by NASA. A stand-alone TPU could be used to treat the canister from the UWMS, along with other types of wet solid wastes, with either conventional or microwave heating. Over time, a more complete integration of the TPU and the UWMS could be achieved, but will require design changes in both units.

  4. Integrating Systems Health Management with Adaptive Controls for a Utility-Scale Wind Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan A.; Goebel, Kai; Trinh, Khanh V.; Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. Systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage. Advanced adaptive controls can provide the mechanism to enable optimized operations that also provide the enabling technology for Systems Health Management goals. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbine blades with contingency management and adaptive controls. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  5. Climate Proof Areas: Adaptation of water management in coastal areas to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, H.; Ahlhorn, F.; Giani, L.; Klenke, T.

    2009-04-01

    Due to future climate change coastal areas within the North Sea region will be faced with severe water management problems. On the one hand, mean sea level as well as storm tides will remarkably rise within the 21st century, and on the other hand it can be expected that the mean runoff from coastal river catchments will increase as well. The increase in runoff in Northwest Germany mainly will be caused by a changed seasonality of the water cycle (increase in runoff generation during winter, decrease in runoff generation during summer) and an increase in flooding intensity. Large parts of the German North Sea coast consist of low lying marsh and fen areas which are already intensively drained to be cultivable as agricultural land and to be usable to build settlements. Water management will have to adapt in order to be able to still use those areas in the presence of climate change. Innovative strategies for coastal protection and drainage will be required, considering the increased probability in summer drought periods as well which might accelerate salt water intrusion into surface and groundwater in summer time in particular inducing the need of irrigation. This contribution firstly introduces the hydrological effects of expected future climate change on the water cycle at the Lower Saxon North Sea coast (Germany). Then, the EC funded Interreg IVb project ‘Climate Proof Areas' is introduced, focusing on the development of adaptation strategies for water management in the North Sea region. Based on a participatory approach, future water management problems are defined, priorities and necessities are assessed, and possible approaches for a sustainable, future water management within the Wesermarsch region are developed. The scenario technique is used in order to elaborate and evaluate different, partly contrasting development paths and adaptations strategies. First water management adaptation scenarios point out potential conflicts between the diverse interests of

  6. An adaptive management approach to controlling suburban deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielson, C.K.; Porter, W.F.; Underwood, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Distance sight-resight sampling has particular relevance to aerial surveys, in which height above ground and aircraft speed make the critical assumption of certain detection on the track-line unrealistic. Recent developments in distance sight-resight theory have left practical issues related to data collection as the major impediment to widespread use of distance sight-resight sampling in aerial surveys. We describe and evaluate a system to automatically log, store, and process data from distance sight-resight aerial surveys. The system has a primary digital system and a secondary audio system. The digital system comprises a sighting 'gun' and small keypad for each observer, a global positioning system (GPS) receiver, and an altimeter interface, all linked to a central laptop computer. The gun is used to record time and angle of declination from the horizon of sighted groups of animals as they pass the aircraft. The keypad is used to record information on species and group size. The altimeter interface records altitude from the aircraft's radar altimeter, and the GPS receiver provides location data at user-definable intervals. We wrote software to import data into a database and convert it into a form appropriate for distance sight-resight analyses. Perpendicular distance of sighted groups of animals from the flight path is calculated from altitude and angle of declination. Time, angle of declination, species, and group size of sightings by independent observers on the same side of the aircraft are used as criteria to classify single and duplicate sightings, allowing testing of the critical distance sampling assumption (g(0)=1) and estimation of g(0) if that assumption fails. An audio system comprising headphones for each observer and a 4-track tape recorder allows recording of data that are difficult to accommodate in the digital system and provides a backup to the digital system. We evaluated the system by conducting experimental surveys and reviewing results

  7. Integrating the autonomous subsystems management process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, Barry R.

    1992-01-01

    Ways in which the ranking of the Space Station Module Power Management and Distribution testbed may be achieved and an individual subsystem's internal priorities may be managed within the complete system are examined. The application of these results in the integration and performance leveling of the autonomously managed system is discussed.

  8. Avoiding the Water-Climate-Poverty Trap: Adaptive Risk Management for Bangladesh's Coastal Embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    Our recent research on water security (Sadoff et al., 2015, Dadson et al., 2015) has revealed the dynamic relationship between water security and human well-being. A version of this dynamic is materialising in the coastal polder areas of Khulna, Bangladesh. Repeated coastal floods increase salinity, wipe out agricultural yields for several years and increase out-migration. As a tool to help inform and target future cycles of investment in improvements to the coastal embankments, in this paper we propose a dynamical model of biophysical processes and human well-being, which downscales our previous research to the Khulna region. State variables in the model include agricultural production, population, life expectancy and child mortality. Possible infrastructure interventions include embankment improvements, groundwater wells and drainage infrastructure. Hazard factors include flooding, salinization and drinking water pollution. Our system model can be used to inform adaptation decision making by testing the dynamical response of the system to a range of possible policy interventions, under uncertain future conditions. The analysis is intended to target investment and enable adaptive resource reallocation based on learning about the system response to interventions over the seven years of our research programme. The methodology and paper will demonstrate the complex interplay of factors that determine system vulnerability to climate change. The role of climate change uncertainties (in terms of mean sea level rise and storm surge frequency) will be evaluated alongside multiple other uncertain factors that determine system response. Adaptive management in a 'learning system' will be promoted as a mechanism for coping with climate uncertainties. References:Dadson, S., Hall, J.W., Garrick, D., Sadoff, C. and Grey, D. Water security, risk and economic growth: lessons from a dynamical systems model, Global Environmental Change, in review.Sadoff, C.W., Hall, J.W., Grey, D

  9. [Adaptability of sweet corn ears to a frozen process].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Matheus, Alejandra O; Martínez, Norelkys Maribel; de Bertorelli, Ligia O; De Venanzi, Frank

    2004-12-01

    The effects of frozen condition on the quality of three sweet corn ears (2038, 2010, 2004) and the pattern (Bonanza), were evaluated. Biometrics characteristics like ear size, ear diameter, row and kernel deep were measured as well as chemical and physical measurement in fresh and frozen states. The corn ears were frozen at -95 degrees C by 7 minutes. The yield and stability of the frozen ears were evaluated at 45 and 90 days of frozen storage (-18 degrees C). The average commercial yield as frozen corn ear for all the hybrids was 54.2%. The industry has a similar value range of 48% to 54%. The ear size average was 21.57 cm, row number was 15, ear diameter 45.54 mm and the kernel corn deep was 8.57 mm. All these measurements were found not different from commercial values found for the industry. All corn samples evaluated showed good stability despites the frozen processing and storage. Hybrid 2038 ranked higher in quality. PMID:15969270

  10. Land use and management change under climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies: a U.S. case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mu, Jianhong E.; Wein, Anne; McCarl, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of crop management adaptation and climate mitigation strategies on land use and land management, plus on related environmental and economic outcomes. We find that crop management adaptation (e.g. crop mix, new species) increases Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 1.7 % under a more severe climate projection while a carbon price reduces total forest and agriculture GHG annual flux by 15 % and 9 %, respectively. This shows that trade-offs are likely between mitigation and adaptation. Climate change coupled with crop management adaptation has small and mostly negative effects on welfare; mitigation, which is implemented as a carbon price starting at $15 per metric ton carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent with a 5 % annual increase rate, bolsters welfare carbon payments. When both crop management adaptation and carbon price are implemented the effects of the latter dominates.

  11. 43 CFR 1610.4 - Resource management planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Resource management planning process. 1610.4 Section 1610.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Resource Management Planning § 1610.4 Resource management planning process....

  12. 43 CFR 1610.4 - Resource management planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Resource management planning process. 1610.4 Section 1610.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Resource Management Planning § 1610.4 Resource management planning process....

  13. 43 CFR 1610.4 - Resource management planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Resource management planning process. 1610.4 Section 1610.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF... Resource Management Planning § 1610.4 Resource management planning process....

  14. 49 CFR 659.31 - Hazard management process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Agency § 659.31 Hazard management process. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency..., operational changes, or other changes within the rail transit environment. (b) The hazard management process must, at a minimum: (1) Define the rail transit agency's approach to hazard management and...

  15. 49 CFR 659.31 - Hazard management process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Agency § 659.31 Hazard management process. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency..., operational changes, or other changes within the rail transit environment. (b) The hazard management process must, at a minimum: (1) Define the rail transit agency's approach to hazard management and...

  16. 49 CFR 659.31 - Hazard management process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Agency § 659.31 Hazard management process. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency..., operational changes, or other changes within the rail transit environment. (b) The hazard management process must, at a minimum: (1) Define the rail transit agency's approach to hazard management and...

  17. 49 CFR 659.31 - Hazard management process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Agency § 659.31 Hazard management process. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency..., operational changes, or other changes within the rail transit environment. (b) The hazard management process must, at a minimum: (1) Define the rail transit agency's approach to hazard management and...

  18. 49 CFR 659.31 - Hazard management process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Agency § 659.31 Hazard management process. (a) The oversight agency must require the rail transit agency..., operational changes, or other changes within the rail transit environment. (b) The hazard management process must, at a minimum: (1) Define the rail transit agency's approach to hazard management and...

  19. Adaptive introgression as a resource for management and genetic conservation in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jill A; Miller, Joshua M

    2016-02-01

    Current rates of climate change require organisms to respond through migration, phenotypic plasticity, or genetic changes via adaptation. We focused on questions regarding species' and populations' ability to respond to climate change through adaptation. Specifically, the role adaptive introgression, movement of genetic material from the genome of 1 species into the genome of another through repeated interbreeding, may play in increasing species' ability to respond to a changing climate. Such interspecific gene flow may mediate extinction risk or consequences of limited adaptive potential that result from standing genetic variation and mutation alone, enabling a quicker demographic recovery in response to changing environments. Despite the near dismissal of the potential benefits of hybridization by conservation practitioners, we examined a number of case studies across different taxa that suggest gene flow between sympatric or parapatric sister species or within species that exhibit strong ecotypic differentiation may represent an underutilized management option to conserve evolutionary potential in a changing environment. This will be particularly true where advanced-generation hybrids exhibit adaptive traits outside the parental phenotypic range, a phenomenon known as transgressive segregation. The ideas presented in this essay are meant to provoke discussion regarding how we maintain evolutionary potential, the conservation value of natural hybrid zones, and consideration of their important role in adaptation to climate.

  20. Natural language processing and advanced information management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, James E.

    1989-01-01

    Integrating diverse information sources and application software in a principled and general manner will require a very capable advanced information management (AIM) system. In particular, such a system will need a comprehensive addressing scheme to locate the material in its docuverse. It will also need a natural language processing (NLP) system of great sophistication. It seems that the NLP system must serve three functions. First, it provides an natural language interface (NLI) for the users. Second, it serves as the core component that understands and makes use of the real-world interpretations (RWIs) contained in the docuverse. Third, it enables the reasoning specialists (RSs) to arrive at conclusions that can be transformed into procedures that will satisfy the users' requests. The best candidate for an intelligent agent that can satisfactorily make use of RSs and transform documents (TDs) appears to be an object oriented data base (OODB). OODBs have, apparently, an inherent capacity to use the large numbers of RSs and TDs that will be required by an AIM system and an inherent capacity to use them in an effective way.

  1. Adaptive management for improving species conservation across the captive-wild spectrum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canessa, Stefano; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Southwell, Darren M; Armstrong, Doug P.; Chadès, Iadine; Lacy, Robert C; Converse, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of endangered species increasingly envisages complex strategies that integrate captive and wild management actions. Management decisions in this context must be made in the face of uncertainty, often with limited capacity to collect information. Adaptive management (AM) combines management and monitoring, with the aim of updating knowledge and improving decision-making over time. We provide a guide for managers who may realize the potential of AM, but are unsure where to start. The urgent need for iterative management decisions, the existence of uncertainty, and the opportunity for learning offered by often highly-controlled captive environments create favorable conditions for AM. However, experiments and monitoring may be complicated by small sample sizes, and the ability to control the system, including stochasticity and observability, may be limited toward the wild end of the spectrum. We illustrate the key steps to implementing AM in threatened species management using four case studies, including the management of captive programs for cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and whooping cranes (Grus americana), of a translocation protocol for Arizona cliffroses Purshia subintegra and of ongoing supplementary feeding of reintroduced hihi (Notiomystis cincta) populations. For each case study, we explain (1) how to clarify whether the decision can be improved by learning (i.e. it is iterative and complicated by uncertainty) and what the management objectives are; (2) how to articulate uncertainty via alternative, testable hypotheses such as competing models or parameter distributions; (3) how to formally define how additional information can be collected and incorporated in future management decisions.

  2. Water management to cope with and adapt to climate variability and change.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, A.; Trisorio-Liuzzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In many parts of the world, variability in climatic conditions is already resulting in major impacts. These impacts are wide ranging and the link to water management problems is obvious and profound. The know-how and the available information undoubtedly indicate that climate change will lead to an intensification of the global hydrological cycle and can have major impacts on regional water resources, affecting both ground and surface water supply for sectorial water uses and, in particular, the irrigation field imposing notable negative effects on food security and poverty alleviation programs in most arid and semi-arid developing countries. At the United Nations Millennium Summit, in September 2000, world leaders adopted the Millennium Development Declaration. From this declaration, the IWRM was recognised as the key concept the water sector should be using for water related development and measures and, hence, for achieving the water related MDG's. However, the potential impacts of climate change and increasing climate variability are not sufficiently addressed in the IWRM plans. Indeed, only a very limited IWRM national plans have been prepared, coping with climate variability and changes. This is mainly due to the lack of operational instruments to deal with climate change and climate variability issues. This is particularly true in developing countries where the financial, human and ecological impacts are potentially greatest and where water resources may be already highly stressed, but the capacity to cope and adapt is weakest. Climate change has now brought realities including mainly rising temperatures and increasing frequency of floods and droughts that present new challenges to be addressed by the IWRM practice. There are already several regional and international initiatives underway that focus on various aspects of water resources management those to be linked with climate changes and vulnerability issues. This is the way where the water resources

  3. Adaptive Management for Decision Making at the Program and Project Levels of the Missouri River Recovery Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Anderson, Michael G.; Tyre, Drew; Fleming, Craig A.

    2009-02-28

    The paper, “Adaptive Management: Background for Stakeholders in the Missouri River Recovery Program,” introduced the concept of adaptive management (AM), its principles and how they relate to one-another, how AM is applied, and challenges for its implementation. This companion paper describes how the AM principles were applied to specific management actions within the Missouri River Recovery Program to facilitate understanding, decision-making, and stakeholder engagement. For context, we begin with a brief synopsis of the Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) and the strategy for implementing adaptive management (AM) within the program; we finish with an example of AM in action within Phase I of the MRPP.

  4. Incorporating Midbrain Adaptation to Mean Sound Level Improves Models of Auditory Cortical Processing

    PubMed Central

    Schoppe, Oliver; King, Andrew J.; Schnupp, Jan W.H.; Harper, Nicol S.

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to stimulus statistics, such as the mean level and contrast of recently heard sounds, has been demonstrated at various levels of the auditory pathway. It allows the nervous system to operate over the wide range of intensities and contrasts found in the natural world. Yet current standard models of the response properties of auditory neurons do not incorporate such adaptation. Here we present a model of neural responses in the ferret auditory cortex (the IC Adaptation model), which takes into account adaptation to mean sound level at a lower level of processing: the inferior colliculus (IC). The model performs high-pass filtering with frequency-dependent time constants on the sound spectrogram, followed by half-wave rectification, and passes the output to a standard linear–nonlinear (LN) model. We find that the IC Adaptation model consistently predicts cortical responses better than the standard LN model for a range of synthetic and natural stimuli. The IC Adaptation model introduces no extra free parameters, so it improves predictions without sacrificing parsimony. Furthermore, the time constants of adaptation in the IC appear to be matched to the statistics of natural sounds, suggesting that neurons in the auditory midbrain predict the mean level of future sounds and adapt their responses appropriately. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT An ability to accurately predict how sensory neurons respond to novel stimuli is critical if we are to fully characterize their response properties. Attempts to model these responses have had a distinguished history, but it has proven difficult to improve their predictive power significantly beyond that of simple, mostly linear receptive field models. Here we show that auditory cortex receptive field models benefit from a nonlinear preprocessing stage that replicates known adaptation properties of the auditory midbrain. This improves their predictive power across a wide range of stimuli but keeps model complexity low as it

  5. An Investigation of the Applicability of Modern Management Processes by Industrial Managers in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauter, Geza Peter

    This study noted American concepts of modern management which Turkish industrial managers tend to find difficult: identified cultural, economic, and other factors that impede application of modern management processes; and compared the practices of American overseas managers with those of Turkish managers of domestic firms. Managerial performance…

  6. Managing for Climate Change in Western Forest Ecosystems; The Role of Refugia in Adaptation Strategies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, C. I.; Morelli, T.

    2009-12-01

    Managing forested ecosystems in western North America for adaptation to climate change involves options that depend on resource objectives, landscape conditions, sensitivity to change, and social desires. Strategies range from preserving species and ecosystems in the face of change (resisting change); managing for resilience to change; realigning ecosystems that have been severely altered so that they can adapt successfully; and enabling species to respond to climate changes. We are exploring one extreme in this range of strategies, that is, to manage locations, species, communities, or ecosystems as refugia. This concept is familiar from the Quaternary literature as isolated locations where climates remained warm during cold glacial intervals and wherein species contracted and persisted in small populations. References to refugia have been made in the climate-adaptation literature but little elaborated, and applications have not been described. We are addressing this gap conceptually and in case-studies from national forest and national park environments in California. Using a classification of refugium categories, we extend the concept beyond the original use to include diverse locations and conditions where plant or animal species, or ecosystems of concern, would persist during future changing climatic backgrounds. These locations may be determined as refugial for reasons of local microclimate, substrate, elevation, topographic context, paleohistory, species ecology, or management capacity. Recognizing that species and ecosystems respond to climate change differently, refugium strategies are appropriate in some situations and not others. We describe favorable conditions for using refugium strategies and elaborate specific approaches in Sierra Nevada case studies.

  7. Adapting and Testing Business Management Development Programs for Educational Administrators. Volume 4 of 6 Volumes. Appendix G-Planning Document: North Carolina SEA, Program Services. Appendix H-Planning Document: North Carolina LEA, Cabarrus County. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klawuhn, Raymond E.; Basso, Alexander J.

    This document is comprised of two appendixes that provide a portion of the materials utilized in the project to test the feasibility of adapting business management practices to educational institutions. Included are the educational planning process documents for two of the eight participating management teams. Each planning process document…

  8. Adapting and Testing Business Management Development Programs for Educational Administrators. Volume 3 of 6 Volumes. Appendix E-Planning Document: Maryland LEA, Prince George's Co., Appendix F-Planning Document: North Carolina SEA, Executive Staff. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klawuhn, Raymond E.; Basso, Alexander J.

    This document is comprised of two appendixes that provide a portion of the materials utilized in the project to test the feasibility of adapting business management practices to educational institutions. Included are the educational planning process documents for two of the eight participating management teams. Each planning process document…

  9. The process of adapting a universal dating abuse prevention program to adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael; Chang, Ling-Yin; Moss, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed.

  10. Processes discriminating adaptive and maladaptive Internet use among European adolescents highly engaged online.

    PubMed

    Tzavela, Eleni C; Karakitsou, Chryssoula; Dreier, Michael; Mavromati, Foteini; Wölfling, Klaus; Halapi, Eva; Macarie, George; Wójcik, Szymon; Veldhuis, Lydian; Tsitsika, Artemis K

    2015-04-01

    Today adolescents are highly engaged online. Contrary to common concern, not all highly engaged adolescents develop maladaptive patterns of internet use. The present qualitative study explored the experiences, patterns and impact of use of 124 adolescents (M(age) = 16.0) reporting signs of internet addictive behaviors. The focus was to discern adaptive and maladaptive use patterns, which promote or interfere with adolescents' development, respectively. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, Netherlands and Iceland) and qualitatively analyzed using grounded theory. Considerable variability emerged in the way adolescents satisfied their personal needs online and offline, in the experienced impact from high online engagement and functional value ascribed to the internet, and in the self-regulatory processes underlying use. Variability in these discriminating processes was linked to adaptive or maladaptive adolescent internet use patterns. The emerged processes can provide direction for designing prevention and intervention programs promoting adaptive use.

  11. Serious-game for water resources management adaptation training to climatic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Eve; Saulnier, Georges-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Water resources access is a main issue for territorial development to ensure environmental and human well-being. Indeed, sustainable development is vulnerable to water availability and climate change may affect the quantity and temporality of available water resources for anthropogenic water uses. How then to adapt, how to change water management rules and practices and how to involve stakeholders is such process? To prevent water scarcity situations, which may generate conflicts and impacts on ecosystems, it is important to think about a sustainable development where anthropogenic water uses are in good balance with forecasted water resources availability. This implies to raise awareness and involve stakeholders for a sustainable water management. Stakeholders have to think about future territorial development taking into account climate change impacts on water resources. Collaboration between scientists and stakeholders is essential to insure consistent climate change knowledge, well identification of anthropogenic uses, tensions and stakes of the territory. However sharing information on complex questions such as climate change, hydro-meteorological modeling and practical constraints may be a difficult task. Therefore to contribute to an easier debate and to the global training of all the interested actors, a serious game about water management was built. The serious game uses scientist complex models with real data but via a simple and playful web-game interface. The advantage of this interface is that it may help stakeholders, citizen or the target group to raise their understandings of impacts of climate change on water resources and to raise their awareness to the need for a sustainable water management while using state-of-the-art knowledge. The principle of the game is simple. The gamer is a mayor of a city and has to manage the water withdrawals from hydro systems, water distribution and consumption, water retreatment etc. In the same time, a clock is

  12. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  13. Integration mockup and process material management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-02-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  14. Robust Brain-Machine Interface Design Using Optimal Feedback Control Modeling and Adaptive Point Process Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Carmena, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    Much progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) using decoders such as Kalman filters and finding their parameters with closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA). However, current decoders do not model the spikes directly, and hence may limit the processing time-scale of BMI control and adaptation. Moreover, while specialized CLDA techniques for intention estimation and assisted training exist, a unified and systematic CLDA framework that generalizes across different setups is lacking. Here we develop a novel closed-loop BMI training architecture that allows for processing, control, and adaptation using spike events, enables robust control and extends to various tasks. Moreover, we develop a unified control-theoretic CLDA framework within which intention estimation, assisted training, and adaptation are performed. The architecture incorporates an infinite-horizon optimal feedback-control (OFC) model of the brain’s behavior in closed-loop BMI control, and a point process model of spikes. The OFC model infers the user’s motor intention during CLDA—a process termed intention estimation. OFC is also used to design an autonomous and dynamic assisted training technique. The point process model allows for neural processing, control and decoder adaptation with every spike event and at a faster time-scale than current decoders; it also enables dynamic spike-event-based parameter adaptation unlike current CLDA methods that use batch-based adaptation on much slower adaptation time-scales. We conducted closed-loop experiments in a non-human primate over tens of days to dissociate the effects of these novel CLDA components. The OFC intention estimation improved BMI performance compared with current intention estimation techniques. OFC assisted training allowed the subject to consistently achieve proficient control. Spike-event-based adaptation resulted in faster and more consistent performance convergence compared with batch-based methods, and was robust to

  15. Robust Brain-Machine Interface Design Using Optimal Feedback Control Modeling and Adaptive Point Process Filtering.

    PubMed

    Shanechi, Maryam M; Orsborn, Amy L; Carmena, Jose M

    2016-04-01

    Much progress has been made in brain-machine interfaces (BMI) using decoders such as Kalman filters and finding their parameters with closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA). However, current decoders do not model the spikes directly, and hence may limit the processing time-scale of BMI control and adaptation. Moreover, while specialized CLDA techniques for intention estimation and assisted training exist, a unified and systematic CLDA framework that generalizes across different setups is lacking. Here we develop a novel closed-loop BMI training architecture that allows for processing, control, and adaptation using spike events, enables robust control and extends to various tasks. Moreover, we develop a unified control-theoretic CLDA framework within which intention estimation, assisted training, and adaptation are performed. The architecture incorporates an infinite-horizon optimal feedback-control (OFC) model of the brain's behavior in closed-loop BMI control, and a point process model of spikes. The OFC model infers the user's motor intention during CLDA-a process termed intention estimation. OFC is also used to design an autonomous and dynamic assisted training technique. The point process model allows for neural processing, control and decoder adaptation with every spike event and at a faster time-scale than current decoders; it also enables dynamic spike-event-based parameter adaptation unlike current CLDA methods that use batch-based adaptation on much slower adaptation time-scales. We conducted closed-loop experiments in a non-human primate over tens of days to dissociate the effects of these novel CLDA components. The OFC intention estimation improved BMI performance compared with current intention estimation techniques. OFC assisted training allowed the subject to consistently achieve proficient control. Spike-event-based adaptation resulted in faster and more consistent performance convergence compared with batch-based methods, and was robust to parameter

  16. Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerle, William; Hall, Stephen

    2005-12-30

    In 2002, Gnomon, Inc., entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for a project entitled, Adaptive Management and Planning Models for Cultural Resources in Oil and Gas Fields in New Mexico and Wyoming (DE-FC26-02NT15445). This project, funded through DOE’s Preferred Upstream Management Practices grant program, examined cultural resource management practices in two major oil- and gas-producing areas, southeastern New Mexico and the Powder River Basin of Wyoming (Figure 1). The purpose of this project was to examine how cultural resources have been investigated and managed and to identify more effective management practices. The project also was designed to build information technology and modeling tools to meet both current and future management needs. The goals of the project were described in the original proposal as follows: Goal 1. Create seamless information systems for the project areas. Goal 2. Examine what we have learned from archaeological work in the southeastern New Mexico oil fields and whether there are better ways to gain additional knowledge more rapidly or at a lower cost. Goal 3. Provide useful sensitivity models for planning, management, and as guidelines for field investigations. Goal 4. Integrate management, investigation, and decision- making in a real-time electronic system. Gnomon, Inc., in partnership with the Wyoming State Historic Preservation Office (WYSHPO) and Western GeoArch Research, carried out the Wyoming portion of the project. SRI Foundation, in partnership with the New Mexico Historic Preservation Division (NMHPD), Statistical Research, Inc., and Red Rock Geological Enterprises, completed the New Mexico component of the project. Both the New Mexico and Wyoming summaries concluded with recommendations how cultural resource management (CRM) processes might be modified based on the findings of this research.

  17. Decision support for hospital bed management using adaptable individual length of stay estimations and shared resources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Elective patient admission and assignment planning is an important task of the strategic and operational management of a hospital and early on became a central topic of clinical operations research. The management of hospital beds is an important subtask. Various approaches have been proposed, involving the computation of efficient assignments with regard to the patients’ condition, the necessity of the treatment, and the patients’ preferences. However, these approaches are mostly based on static, unadaptable estimates of the length of stay and, thus, do not take into account the uncertainty of the patient’s recovery. Furthermore, the effect of aggregated bed capacities have not been investigated in this context. Computer supported bed management, combining an adaptable length of stay estimation with the treatment of shared resources (aggregated bed capacities) has not yet been sufficiently investigated. The aim of our work is: 1) to define a cost function for patient admission taking into account adaptable length of stay estimations and aggregated resources, 2) to define a mathematical program formally modeling the assignment problem and an architecture for decision support, 3) to investigate four algorithmic methodologies addressing the assignment problem and one base-line approach, and 4) to evaluate these methodologies w.r.t. cost outcome, performance, and dismissal ratio. Methods The expected free ward capacity is calculated based on individual length of stay estimates, introducing Bernoulli distributed random variables for the ward occupation states and approximating the probability densities. The assignment problem is represented as a binary integer program. Four strategies for solving the problem are applied and compared: an exact approach, using the mixed integer programming solver SCIP; and three heuristic strategies, namely the longest expected processing time, the shortest expected processing time, and random choice. A baseline approach

  18. Evaluating adaptive co-management as conservation conflict resolution: Learning from seals and salmon.

    PubMed

    Butler, J R A; Young, J C; McMyn, I A G; Leyshon, B; Graham, I M; Walker, I; Baxter, J M; Dodd, J; Warburton, C

    2015-09-01

    By linking iterative learning and knowledge generation with power-sharing, adaptive co-management (ACM) provides a potential solution to resolving complex social-ecological problems. In this paper we evaluate ACM as a mechanism for resolving conservation conflict using a case study in Scotland, where seal and salmon fishery stakeholders have opposing and entrenched objectives. ACM emerged in 2002, successfully resolving this long-standing conflict. Applying evaluation approaches from the literature, in 2011 we interviewed stakeholders to characterise the evolution of ACM, and factors associated with its success over 10 years. In common with other ACM cases, triggers for the process were shifts in slow variables controlling the system (seal and salmon abundance, public perceptions of seal shooting), and exogenous shocks (changes in legal mandates, a seal disease outbreak). Also typical of ACM, three phases of evolution were evident: emerging local leadership preparing the system for change, a policy window of opportunity, and stakeholder partnerships building the resilience of the system. Parameters maintaining ACM were legal mechanisms and structures, legal power held by government, and the willingness of all stakeholders to reach a compromise and experiment with an alternative governance approach. Results highlighted the critical role of government power and support in resolving conservation conflict, which may constrain the extent of local stakeholder-driven ACM. The evaluation also demonstrated how, following perceived success, the trajectory of ACM has shifted to a 'stakeholder apathy' phase, with declining leadership, knowledge exchange, stakeholder engagement, and system resilience. We discuss remedial actions required to revive the process, and the importance of long term government resourcing and alternative financing schemes for successful conflict resolution. Based on the results we present a generic indicator framework and participatory method for the

  19. Evaluating adaptive co-management as conservation conflict resolution: Learning from seals and salmon.

    PubMed

    Butler, J R A; Young, J C; McMyn, I A G; Leyshon, B; Graham, I M; Walker, I; Baxter, J M; Dodd, J; Warburton, C

    2015-09-01

    By linking iterative learning and knowledge generation with power-sharing, adaptive co-management (ACM) provides a potential solution to resolving complex social-ecological problems. In this paper we evaluate ACM as a mechanism for resolving conservation conflict using a case study in Scotland, where seal and salmon fishery stakeholders have opposing and entrenched objectives. ACM emerged in 2002, successfully resolving this long-standing conflict. Applying evaluation approaches from the literature, in 2011 we interviewed stakeholders to characterise the evolution of ACM, and factors associated with its success over 10 years. In common with other ACM cases, triggers for the process were shifts in slow variables controlling the system (seal and salmon abundance, public perceptions of seal shooting), and exogenous shocks (changes in legal mandates, a seal disease outbreak). Also typical of ACM, three phases of evolution were evident: emerging local leadership preparing the system for change, a policy window of opportunity, and stakeholder partnerships building the resilience of the system. Parameters maintaining ACM were legal mechanisms and structures, legal power held by government, and the willingness of all stakeholders to reach a compromise and experiment with an alternative governance approach. Results highlighted the critical role of government power and support in resolving conservation conflict, which may constrain the extent of local stakeholder-driven ACM. The evaluation also demonstrated how, following perceived success, the trajectory of ACM has shifted to a 'stakeholder apathy' phase, with declining leadership, knowledge exchange, stakeholder engagement, and system resilience. We discuss remedial actions required to revive the process, and the importance of long term government resourcing and alternative financing schemes for successful conflict resolution. Based on the results we present a generic indicator framework and participatory method for the

  20. A High Fuel Consumption Efficiency Management Scheme for PHEVs Using an Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wah Ching; Tsang, Kim Fung; Chi, Hao Ran; Hung, Faan Hei; Wu, Chung Kit; Chui, Kwok Tai; Lau, Wing Hong; Leung, Yat Wah

    2015-01-01

    A high fuel efficiency management scheme for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) has been developed. In order to achieve fuel consumption reduction, an adaptive genetic algorithm scheme has been designed to adaptively manage the energy resource usage. The objective function of the genetic algorithm is implemented by designing a fuzzy logic controller which closely monitors and resembles the driving conditions and environment of PHEVs, thus trading off between petrol versus electricity for optimal driving efficiency. Comparison between calculated results and publicized data shows that the achieved efficiency of the fuzzified genetic algorithm is better by 10% than existing schemes. The developed scheme, if fully adopted, would help reduce over 600 tons of CO2 emissions worldwide every day. PMID:25587974

  1. A high fuel consumption efficiency management scheme for PHEVs using an adaptive genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wah Ching; Tsang, Kim Fung; Chi, Hao Ran; Hung, Faan Hei; Wu, Chung Kit; Chui, Kwok Tai; Lau, Wing Hong; Leung, Yat Wah

    2015-01-01

    A high fuel efficiency management scheme for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) has been developed. In order to achieve fuel consumption reduction, an adaptive genetic algorithm scheme has been designed to adaptively manage the energy resource usage. The objective function of the genetic algorithm is implemented by designing a fuzzy logic controller which closely monitors and resembles the driving conditions and environment of PHEVs, thus trading off between petrol versus electricity for optimal driving efficiency. Comparison between calculated results and publicized data shows that the achieved efficiency of the fuzzified genetic algorithm is better by 10% than existing schemes. The developed scheme, if fully adopted, would help reduce over 600 tons of CO2 emissions worldwide every day.

  2. Assessment of the Relationship Between Flexibility and Adaptive Capacity in Flood Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiFrancesco, K.; Tullos, D. D.

    2013-12-01

    Discussions around adapting water management systems to future changes often state the need to increase system flexibility. Intuitively, a flexible, easily modifiable system seems desirable when faced with a wide range of uncertain, but plausible future conditions. Yet, despite the frequent use of the terms flexibility, very little work has examined what exactly it means to have a flexible water management system, what makes one system more flexible than another, or the extent to which flexibility increases adaptive capacity. This study applies a methodology for assessing the inherent flexibility of the structural and non-structural components of flood management systems using original flexibility metrics in the categories of: slack, intensity, connectivity, adjustability, and coordination. We use these metrics to assess the flexibility of three sub-systems within the Sacramento Valley flood management system in California, USA under current system conditions as well as with proposed management actions in place. We then assess the range of hydrologic conditions under which each sub-system can meet flood risk targets in order to determine whether more flexible systems are also more robust and able to perform over a wider range of hydrologic conditions. In doing so, we identify flexible characteristics of flood management systems that enhance the ability of the system to preform over a wide range of conditions making them better suited to adapt to an uncertain hydrologic future. We find that the flexibility characteristics that increase the range of conditions under which the system can meet performance goals varies depending on whether the region is considered urban, rural, or a small community. In some cases, a decrease in certain flexibility characteristics is associated with an increase in robustness, indicating that more flexibility is not always desirable. Future work will assess the transferability of these results to other regions and systems.

  3. Fish traders as key actors in fisheries: gender and adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Fröcklin, Sara; de la Torre-Castro, Maricela; Lindström, Lars; Jiddawi, Narriman S

    2013-12-01

    This paper fills an important gap towards adaptive management of small-scale fisheries by analyzing the gender dimension of fish trade in Zanzibar, Tanzania. We hypothesize that gender-based differences are present in the fish value chain and to test the hypothesis interviews were performed to analyze: (i) markets, customers, and mobility, (ii) material and economic resources, (iii) traded fish species, (iv) contacts and organizations, and (v) perceptions and experiences. Additionally, management documents were analyzed to examine the degree to which gender is considered. Results show that women traders had less access to social and economic resources, profitable markets, and high-value fish, which resulted in lower income. These gender inequalities are linked, among others, to women's reproductive roles such as childcare and household responsibilities. Formal fisheries management was found to be gender insensitive, showing how a crucial feedback element of adaptive management is missing in Zanzibar's management system, i.e., knowledge about key actors, their needs and challenges. PMID:24213994

  4. System-focused environmental flow regime prescription, monitoring and adaptive management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetherington, David; Lexartza Artza, Irantzu

    2016-04-01

    that more peripheral influencing factors should be given serious consideration when developing environmental flow regimes. These factors could include the development of ice, non-fluvial geomorphic processes such as landslides, connectivity with groundwater and provision for local cottage industries. Even with a thorough appreciation of the holistic system, the value of detailed environmental monitoring and adaptive management plans cannot be underestimated as a means of further managing risk and uncertainty in complex systems. It is suggested that by taking a more holistic and system-focused approach to environmental flow definition, that environmental flow regimes can be tailored to the specificity and complexity of any given location. By improving the way that environmental flow regimes and associated physical mitigation are prescribed, monitored and managed it should be possible to develop more sustainable forms of energy production whilst minimising environmental harm as far as possible.

  5. The "internet +" quality resource management system based on process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Tong, Weichao; Yin, Hong; Liu, Zhilong; Shen, Jun; Zhong, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relative theories of quality resource management system and "Internet +", this paper combines the "Internet +"and quality resource management system. By using quality management process approach and taking computers and databases technology as tools, the system collects, archives and manages the quality data in process network, to supervise and control the process of the quality resource management system more effectively. Based on the quality control process in production site and the characteristics of the process, the paper constructs the frame of the resource management system. By taking the STM32F103 series microcontroller as core controller, the system achieves a network system and collects data automatically. The results show that the system can be positioning problem accurately timely and improves the productivity and quality of products.

  6. Adaptation to leftward-shifting prisms reduces the global processing bias of healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bultitude, Janet H; Woods, Jill M

    2010-05-01

    When healthy individuals are presented with peripheral figures in which small letters are arranged to form a large letter, they are faster to identify the global- than the local-level information, and have difficulty ignoring global information when identifying the local level. The global reaction time (RT) advantage and global interference effect imply preferential processing of global-level information in the normal brain. This contrasts with the local processing bias demonstrated following lesions to the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), such as those that lead to hemispatial neglect (neglect). Recent research from our lab demonstrated that visuo-motor adaptation to rightward-shifting prisms, which ameliorates many leftward performance deficits of neglect patients, improved the local processing bias of patients with right TPJ lesions (Bultitude, Rafal, & List, 2009). Here we demonstrate that adaptation to leftward-shifting prisms, which can induce neglect-like performance in neurologically healthy individuals, also reduces the normal global processing bias. Forty-eight healthy participants were asked to identify the global or local forms of hierarchical figures before and after adaptation to leftward- or rightward-shifting prisms. Prior to prism adaptation, both groups had greater difficulty ignoring irrelevant global information when identifying the local level (global interference) compared to their ability to ignore irrelevant local-level information when identifying the global level (local interference). Participants who adapted to leftward-shifting prisms showed a significant reduction in global interference, but there was no change in the performance of the rightward-shifting Prism Group. These results show, for the first time, that in addition to previously demonstrated effects on lateralised attention, prism adaptation can influence non-lateralised spatial attention in healthy individuals.

  7. Climate change adaptation options for sustainable management of agriculture in the Eastern Lower Danube Plain, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovici, Elena-Ana; Sima, Mihaela; Balteanu, Dan; Dragota, Carmen-Sofia; Grigorescu, Ines; Kucsicsa, Gheorghe

    2013-04-01

    The current study was carried out within the FP7 ECLISE project in the Eastern Lower Danube Plain (Bărăgan Plain), one of the major agricultural areas in Romania. In this region, climate change signals are becoming more evident being predominantly characterized by increasing temperatures, decreasing of precipitations and intensification of extreme events in terms of frequency, intensity and duration. Over the past decades, the effects of extreme climatic phenomena on crop production have been ever more severe (very low outputs in the droughty years, significant crop losses during flooding periods, hailstorms, etc.). Concurrently, these effects have been the result of a whole range of complex interactions with other environmental, social, economic and political factors over the post-communist period. Using questionnaires survey for small individual households and large agricultural farms, focus group interviews and direct field observation, this study analyses the farmers' perception in terms of climate change, the impact of climate change on agriculture and how the farmers react and adapt to these changes. The current study have revealed that all farmers believe drought as being by far the most important climatic factor with major impact on agricultural production, followed by acid rains, hail storms and ground frost, facts evidenced also by the climatic diagnosis of the region. The majority of respondents have taken adaptation agricultural measures in response to changes in climate conditions (drought resistant seeds, modern technology to keep the moisture in the soil, etc.), but they consider that a national strategy for mitigating the effects of climate change would be more effective in this respect. Also, in order to correlate the farmers' perception of climate change and climatic factors, the authors used and processed a wide range of meteorological data (daily, monthly and annual from the most representative meteorological stations in the study-area), as

  8. TWRS process engineering data management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.

    1997-05-12

    The Tank Characterization Data Management (TCDM) system provides customers and users with data and information of known and acceptable quality when they are needed, in the form they are needed, and at a reasonable cost. The TCDM mission will be accomplished by the following: (1) maintaining and managing tank characterization data and information based on business needs and objectives including transfer of ownership to future contractors; (2) capturing data where it originates and entering it only once to control data consistency, electronic data and information management shall be emphasized to the extent practicable; (3) establishing data quality standards, and managing and certifying databases and data sources against these standards to maintain the proper level of data and information quality consistent with the importance of the data and information, data obtained at high cost with significant implications to decision making regarding tank safety and/or disposal will be maintained and managed at the highest necessary levels of quality; (4) establishing and enforcing data management standards for the Tank Characterization Database (TCD) and supporting data sources including providing mechanisms for discovering and correcting data errors before they propagate; (5) emphasizing electronic data sharing with all authorized users, customers, contractors, and stakeholders to the extent practicable; (6) safeguarding data and information from unauthorized alteration or destruction; (7) providing standards for electronic information deliverables to subcontractors and vendors to achieve uniformity in electronic data management; and (8) investing in new technology (hardware and/or software) as prudent and necessary to accomplish the mission in an efficient and effective manner.

  9. 43 CFR 1610.4 - Resource management planning process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resource management planning process. 1610.4 Section 1610.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) PLANNING, PROGRAMMING,...

  10. Image processing and sensor management for autonomous UAV surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulvklo, Morgan H.; Nygards, Jonas; Karlholm, Jorgen M.; Skoglar, Per

    2004-08-01

    This paper describes a framework for image processing and sensor management for an autonomous unmanned airborne surveillance system equipped with infrared and video sensors. Our working hypothesis is that integration of the detection-tracking-classification chain with spatial awareness makes possible intelligent autonomous data acquisition by means of active sensor control. A central part of the framework is a surveillance scene representation, suitable for target tracking, geolocation, and sensor data fusion involving multiple platforms. The representation, based on Simultaneous Localization and Mapping, SLAM, take into account uncertainties associated with sensor data, platform navigation, and prior knowledge. A client/server approach, for on-line adaptable surveillance missions, is introduced. The presented system is designed to simultaneously and autonomously perform the following tasks: provide wide area coverage from multiple viewpoints by means of a step-stare procedure, detect and track multiple stationary and moving ground targets, perform a detailed analysis of detected regions-of-interest, and generate precise target coordinates by means of multi-view geolocation techniques.

  11. Global Change adaptation in water resources management: the Water Change project.

    PubMed

    Pouget, Laurent; Escaler, Isabel; Guiu, Roger; Mc Ennis, Suzy; Versini, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, water resources management has been facing new challenges due to increasing changes and their associated uncertainties, such as changes in climate, water demand or land use, which can be grouped under the term Global Change. The Water Change project (LIFE+ funding) developed a methodology and a tool to assess the Global Change impacts on water resources, thus helping river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. The main result of the project was the creation of a step by step methodology to assess Global Change impacts and define strategies of adaptation. This methodology was tested in the Llobregat river basin (Spain) with the objective of being applicable to any water system. It includes several steps such as setting-up the problem with a DPSIR framework, developing Global Change scenarios, running river basin models and performing a cost-benefit analysis to define optimal strategies of adaptation. This methodology was supported by the creation of a flexible modelling system, which can link a wide range of models, such as hydrological, water quality, and water management models. The tool allows users to integrate their own models to the system, which can then exchange information among them automatically. This enables to simulate the interactions among multiple components of the water cycle, and run quickly a large number of Global Change scenarios. The outcomes of this project make possible to define and test different sets of adaptation measures for the basin that can be further evaluated through cost-benefit analysis. The integration of the results contributes to an efficient decision-making on how to adapt to Global Change impacts.

  12. Land-based approach to evaluate sustainable land management and adaptive capacity of ecosystems/lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kust, German; Andreeva, Olga

    2015-04-01

    A number of new concepts and paradigms appeared during last decades, such as sustainable land management (SLM), climate change (CC) adaptation, environmental services, ecosystem health, and others. All of these initiatives still not having the common scientific platform although some agreements in terminology were reached, schemes of links and feedback loops created, and some models developed. Nevertheless, in spite of all these scientific achievements, the land related issues are still not in the focus of CC adaptation and mitigation. The last did not grow much beyond the "greenhouse gases" (GHG) concept, which makes land degradation as the "forgotten side of climate change" The possible decision to integrate concepts of climate and desertification/land degradation could be consideration of the "GHG" approach providing global solution, and "land" approach providing local solution covering other "locally manifesting" issues of global importance (biodiversity conservation, food security, disasters and risks, etc.) to serve as a central concept among those. SLM concept is a land-based approach, which includes the concepts of both ecosystem-based approach (EbA) and community-based approach (CbA). SLM can serve as in integral CC adaptation strategy, being based on the statement "the more healthy and resilient the system is, the less vulnerable and more adaptive it will be to any external changes and forces, including climate" The biggest scientific issue is the methods to evaluate the SLM and results of the SLM investments. We suggest using the approach based on the understanding of the balance or equilibrium of the land and nature components as the major sign of the sustainable system. Prom this point of view it is easier to understand the state of the ecosystem stress, size of the "health", range of adaptive capacity, drivers of degradation and SLM nature, as well as the extended land use, and the concept of environmental land management as the improved SLM approach

  13. Cultural adaptation process for international dissemination of the strengthening families program.

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L; Pinyuchon, Methinin; Teixeira de Melo, Ana; Whiteside, Henry O

    2008-06-01

    The Strengthening Families Program (SFP) is an evidence-based family skills training intervention developed and found efficacious for substance abuse prevention by U.S researchers in the 1980s. In the 1990s, a cultural adaptation process was developed to transport SFP for effectiveness trials with diverse populations (African, Hispanic, Asian, Pacific Islander, and Native American). Since 2003, SFP has been culturally adapted for use in 17 countries. This article reviews the SFP theory and research and a recommended cultural adaptation process. Challenges in international dissemination of evidence-based programs (EBPs) are discussed based on the results of U.N. and U.S. governmental initiatives to transport EBP family interventions to developing countries. The technology transfer and quality assurance system are described, including the language translation and cultural adaptation process for materials development, staff training, and on-site and online Web-based supervision and technical assistance and evaluation services to assure quality implementation and process evaluation feedback for improvements.

  14. Access to Learning for Handicapped Children: A Handbook on the Instructional Adaptation Process. Field Test Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Changar, Jerilynn; And Others

    The manual describes the results of a 36 month project to determine ways to modify existing curricula to meet the needs of special needs students in the mainstream. The handbook is designed in the main for administrators and facilitators as well as for teacher-adaptors. Each of eight steps in the adaptation process is broken down according to…

  15. Methods of Adapting Digital Content for the Learning Process via Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, J. L. Gimenez; Royo, T. Magal; Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Calvo, F. Garde

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses different methods of adapting digital content for its delivery via mobile devices taking into account two aspects which are a fundamental part of the learning process; on the one hand, functionality of the contents, and on the other, the actual controlled navigation requirements that the learner needs in order to acquire high…

  16. An Approach to Evaluating Adolescent Adaptive Processes: Validity of an Interview-Based Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardslee, William R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    An initial exploration of the validity of 15 scales designed to assess adaptive ego processes in adolescence is presented. Diabetic youngsters, psychiatric patients, and high school students with no illness are compared using the scales. Correlations are found between the scales and a separate, conceptually related measure of ego development.…

  17. Studying citizen science through adaptive management and learning feedbacks as mechanisms for improving conservation.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Rebecca; Gray, Steven; Sorensen, Amanda; Newman, Greg; Mellor, David; Newman, Greg; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy; LaDeau, Shannon; Biehler, Dawn; Crall, Alycia

    2016-06-01

    Citizen science has generated a growing interest among scientists and community groups, and citizen science programs have been created specifically for conservation. We examined collaborative science, a highly interactive form of citizen science, which we developed within a theoretically informed framework. In this essay, we focused on 2 aspects of our framework: social learning and adaptive management. Social learning, in contrast to individual-based learning, stresses collaborative and generative insight making and is well-suited for adaptive management. Adaptive-management integrates feedback loops that are informed by what is learned and is guided by iterative decision making. Participants engaged in citizen science are able to add to what they are learning through primary data collection, which can result in the real-time information that is often necessary for conservation. Our work is particularly timely because research publications consistently report a lack of established frameworks and evaluation plans to address the extent of conservation outcomes in citizen science. To illustrate how our framework supports conservation through citizen science, we examined how 2 programs enacted our collaborative science framework. Further, we inspected preliminary conservation outcomes of our case-study programs. These programs, despite their recent implementation, are demonstrating promise with regard to positive conservation outcomes. To date, they are independently earning funds to support research, earning buy-in from local partners to engage in experimentation, and, in the absence of leading scientists, are collecting data to test ideas. We argue that this success is due to citizen scientists being organized around local issues and engaging in iterative, collaborative, and adaptive learning.

  18. Studying citizen science through adaptive management and learning feedbacks as mechanisms for improving conservation.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Rebecca; Gray, Steven; Sorensen, Amanda; Newman, Greg; Mellor, David; Newman, Greg; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy; LaDeau, Shannon; Biehler, Dawn; Crall, Alycia

    2016-06-01

    Citizen science has generated a growing interest among scientists and community groups, and citizen science programs have been created specifically for conservation. We examined collaborative science, a highly interactive form of citizen science, which we developed within a theoretically informed framework. In this essay, we focused on 2 aspects of our framework: social learning and adaptive management. Social learning, in contrast to individual-based learning, stresses collaborative and generative insight making and is well-suited for adaptive management. Adaptive-management integrates feedback loops that are informed by what is learned and is guided by iterative decision making. Participants engaged in citizen science are able to add to what they are learning through primary data collection, which can result in the real-time information that is often necessary for conservation. Our work is particularly timely because research publications consistently report a lack of established frameworks and evaluation plans to address the extent of conservation outcomes in citizen science. To illustrate how our framework supports conservation through citizen science, we examined how 2 programs enacted our collaborative science framework. Further, we inspected preliminary conservation outcomes of our case-study programs. These programs, despite their recent implementation, are demonstrating promise with regard to positive conservation outcomes. To date, they are independently earning funds to support research, earning buy-in from local partners to engage in experimentation, and, in the absence of leading scientists, are collecting data to test ideas. We argue that this success is due to citizen scientists being organized around local issues and engaging in iterative, collaborative, and adaptive learning. PMID:26585836

  19. Evaluating success criteria and project monitoring in river enhancement within an adaptive management framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, T. K.; Galat, D.L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective setting, performance measures, and accountability are important components of an adaptive-management approach to river-enhancement programs. Few lessons learned by river-enhancement practitioners in the United States have been documented and disseminated relative to the number of projects implemented. We conducted scripted telephone surveys with river-enhancement project managers and practitioners within the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) to determine the extent of setting project success criteria, monitoring, evaluation of monitoring data, and data dissemination. Investigation of these elements enabled a determination of those that inhibited adaptive management. Seventy river enhancement projects were surveyed. Only 34% of projects surveyed incorporated a quantified measure of project success. Managers most often relied on geophysical attributes of rivers when setting project success criteria, followed by biological communities. Ninety-one percent of projects that performed monitoring included biologic variables, but the lack of data collection before and after project completion and lack of field-based reference or control sites will make future assessments of ecologic success difficult. Twenty percent of projects that performed monitoring evaluated ???1 variable but did not disseminate their evaluations outside their organization. Results suggest greater incentives may be required to advance the science of river enhancement. Future river-enhancement programs within the UMRB and elsewhere can increase knowledge gained from individual projects by offering better guidance on setting success criteria before project initiation and evaluation through established monitoring protocols. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Children’s Food Allergies: Development of the Food Allergy Management and Adaptation Scale

    PubMed Central

    McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Fedele, David A.; Faino, Anna; Strand, Matthew; Robinson, Jane; Atkins, Dan; Fleischer, David M.; O’B. Hourihane, Jonathan; Cohen, Sophia; Fransen, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Objective Develop a measure that evaluates effective pediatric food allergy (FA) management, child and parent FA anxiety, and integration of FA into family life. Methods A semistructured family interview was developed to evaluate FA management using a pilot sample (n = 27). Rating scales evaluated eight dimensions of FA management (FAMComposite), child anxiety, parent anxiety, and overall balanced integration (BI). Families of children with IgE-mediated food allergies (n = 60, child age: 6–12) were recruited for interview and rating scale validation. Results FAMComposite was correlated with physician ratings for families’ food avoidance and reaction response readiness. FA anxiety was correlated with general anxiety measures for children, but not parents. Parents’ FA anxiety was correlated with expectations of negative outcomes from FA. Low BI was associated with poor quality of life and negative impact on family functioning. Conclusions Preliminary analyses support Food Allergy Management and Adaptation Scale validity as a measure of family adaptation to pediatric FA. PMID:25797945

  1. Adaptive Management Plan for Sensitive Plant Species on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    C. A. Wills

    2001-03-01

    The Nevada Test Site supports numerous plant species considered sensitive because of their past or present status under the Endangered Species Act and with federal and state agencies. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operation Office (DOE/NV) prepared a Resource Management Plan which commits to protects and conserve these sensitive plant species and to minimize accumulative impacts to them. This document presents the procedures of a long-term adaptive management plan which is meant to ensure that these goals are met. It identifies the parameters that are measured for all sensitive plant populations during long-term monitoring and the adaptive management actions which may be taken if significant threats to these populations are detected. This plan does not, however, identify the current list of sensitive plant species know to occur on the Nevada Test Site. The current species list and progress on their monitoring is reported annually by DOE/NV in the Resource Management Plan.

  2. Science-society collaboration for robust adaptation planning in water management - The Maipo River Basin in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo Melgar, Anahí; Vicuña, Sebastián; Gironás, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    The Metropolitan Region (M.R.) in Chile is populated by over 6 million people and supplied by the Maipo River and its large number of irrigation channels. Potential environmental alterations caused by global change will extremely affect managers and users of water resources in this semi-arid basin. These hydro-climatological impacts combined with demographic and economic changes will be particularly complex in the city of Santiago, due to the diverse, counterpoised and equally important existing activities and demands. These challenges and complexities request the implementation of flexible plans and actions to adapt policies, institutions, infrastructure and behaviors to a new future with climate change. Due to the inherent uncertainties in the future, a recent research project entitled MAPA (Maipo Adaptation Plan for its initials in Spanish) has formed a collaborative science-society platform to generate insights into the vulnerabilities, challenges and possible mitigation measures that would be necessary to deal with the potential changes in the M.R. This large stakeholder platform conformed by around 30 public, private and civil society organizations, both at the local and regional level and guided by a Robust Decision Making Framework (RDMF) has identified vulnerabilities, future scenarios, performance indicators and mitigation measures for the Maipo River basin. The RDMF used in this project is the XLRM framework (Lempert et al. 2006) that incorporates policy levers (L), exogenous uncertainties (X), measures of performance standards (M) and relationships (R) in an interlinked process. Both stakeholders' expertise and computational capabilities have been used to create hydrological models for the urban, rural and highland sectors supported also by the Water Evaluation and Planning system software (WEAP). The identification of uncertainties and land use transition trends was used to develop future development scenarios to explore possible water management

  3. Process for Managing and Customizing HPC Operating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, David ML

    2014-04-02

    A process for maintaining a custom HPC operating system was developed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) over the past ten years. This process is generic and flexible to manage continuous change as well as keep systems updated while managing communication through well defined pieces of software.

  4. The management process, management information and control systems, and cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetos, Z. S.; Wilcox, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt has been made to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the cybernetics approach as applied to management. The conclusion is that cybernetics can serve not only as a conceptual philosophical aid, but also as an operational tool in both managerial planning and control. So far, however, most of its promise is yet unrealized; especially in the planning sphere. Only in the area of control of operations has the impact of this promising field shown tangible results.

  5. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  6. Climate change adaptation via targeted ecosystem service provision: a sustainable land management strategy for the Segura catchment (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagaria, Cecilia; de Vente, Joris; Perez-Cutillas, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Topical research investigating climate, land-use and management scenarios in the Segura catchment (SE Spain), depicts a landscape at high-risk of, quite literally, deserting agriculture. Land degradation in the semi-arid region of SE Spain is characterized by water shortage, high erosion rates and salinization, increasingly exacerbated by climatic changes, scarce vegetation cover and detrimental farming practices. Future climate scenarios predict increases in aridity, variability and intensity of rainfall events, leading to increasing pressure on scarce soil and water resources. This study conceptualized the impending crisis of agro-ecological systems of the Segura basin (18800 km2) as a crisis of ecosystem service deterioration. In light of existing land degradation drivers and future climate scenarios, the potential of Sustainable Land Management (SLM) strategies was evaluated to target three priority ecosystem services (water provision, sediment retention and carbon sequestration) as a means to achieve climate change adaptation and mitigation. A preceding thorough process of stakeholder engagement (as part of the EU funded DESIRE project) indicated five SLM technologies for potential implementation, all with a focus upon reducing soil erosion, increasing soil water holding capacity and soil organic matter content. These technologies have been tested for over four years in local experimental field plots, and have provided results on the local effects upon individual environmental parameters. Despite the growing emphasis witnessed in literature upon the context-specificity which characterizes adaptation solutions, the frequent analysis at the field scale is limited in both scope and utility. There is a need to investigate the effects of adaptive SLM solutions at wider, regional scales. Thus, this study modeled the cumulative effect of each of the five selected SLM technologies with InVEST, a spatial analyst tool designed for ecosystem service quantification and

  7. An adaptive altitude information fusion method for autonomous landing processes of small unmanned aerial rotorcraft.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xusheng; Li, Jingjing

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive information fusion method to improve the accuracy and reliability of the altitude measurement information for small unmanned aerial rotorcraft during the landing process. Focusing on the low measurement performance of sensors mounted on small unmanned aerial rotorcraft, a wavelet filter is applied as a pre-filter to attenuate the high frequency noises in the sensor output. Furthermore, to improve altitude information, an adaptive extended Kalman filter based on a maximum a posteriori criterion is proposed to estimate measurement noise covariance matrix in real time. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is proved by static tests, hovering flight and autonomous landing flight tests. PMID:23201993

  8. An Adaptive Altitude Information Fusion Method for Autonomous Landing Processes of Small Unmanned Aerial Rotorcraft

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xusheng; Li, Jingjing

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive information fusion method to improve the accuracy and reliability of the altitude measurement information for small unmanned aerial rotorcraft during the landing process. Focusing on the low measurement performance of sensors mounted on small unmanned aerial rotorcraft, a wavelet filter is applied as a pre-filter to attenuate the high frequency noises in the sensor output. Furthermore, to improve altitude information, an adaptive extended Kalman filter based on a maximum a posteriori criterion is proposed to estimate measurement noise covariance matrix in real time. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is proved by static tests, hovering flight and autonomous landing flight tests. PMID:23201993

  9. Principles and processes for effecting change in environmental management in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Ian; Hurley, Evelyn; Reid, Janet; Allen, Will

    2007-02-01

    In New Zealand environmental management is essentially the responsibility of land managers. Management decisions affect both production/productivity and the environment. However, responsibility for ensuring positive environmental outcomes falls on both local (Regional) and Central Government, and both they and international agencies such as the OECD would wish to monitor and report on changes. In terms of policy, strong links have been established via Central and Regional Government to land managers. Consumers in the market place are also, increasingly, requiring responsibility for positive environmental outcomes of those who purchase and process primary products. Strong links for responsibility have been established between our international markets and processing businesses and there is a noticeable strengthening of the links from the processors to the land manager/producer. In New Zealand a range of initiatives has been developed and implemented over recent times, whereby land managers are taking increasing responsibility for accounting for the environmental outcomes of their production activities. The range covers the spectrum from voluntary to compulsory (e.g., in order to meet market requirements) and from those initiated by customers to processor and/or producer initiatives. This paper follows the evolution of the principles that drove the predominant activities of the period and the processes that initiated the changes in environmental management. As the focus of agriculturalists changed from pioneering in a new world, to establishing a production base, to economic reality, and finally to environmental responsibility, the processes of extension adapted to meet the new challenge.

  10. The Glen Canyon Dam adaptive management program: progress and immediate challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamill, John F.; Melis, Theodore S.; Boon, Philip J.; Raven, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive management emerged as an important resource management strategy for major river systems in the United States (US) in the early 1990s. The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (‘the Program’) was formally established in 1997 to fulfill a statutory requirement in the 1992 Grand Canyon Protection Act (GCPA). The GCPA aimed to improve natural resource conditions in the Colorado River corridor in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area and Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona that were affected by the Glen Canyon dam. The Program achieves this by using science and a variety of stakeholder perspectives to inform decisions about dam operations. Since the Program started the ecosystem is now much better understood and several biological and physical improvements have been achieved. These improvements include: (i) an estimated 50% increase in the adult population of endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) between 2001 and 2008, following previous decline; (ii) a 90% decrease in non-native rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), which are known to compete with and prey on native fish, as a result of removal experiments; and (iii) the widespread reappearance of sandbars in response to an experimental high-flow release of dam water in March 2008.Although substantial progress has been made, the Program faces several immediate challenges. These include: (i) defining specific, measurable objectives and desired future conditions for important natural, cultural and recreational attributes to inform science and management decisions; (ii) implementing structural and operational changes to improve collaboration among stakeholders; (iii) establishing a long-term experimental programme and management plan; and (iv) securing long-term funding for monitoring programmes to assess ecosystem and other responses to management actions. Addressing these challenges and building on recent progress will require strong and consistent leadership from the US Department of the Interior

  11. Adaptive automation of human-machine system information-processing functions.

    PubMed

    Kaber, David B; Wright, Melanie C; Prinzel, Lawrence J; Clamann, Michael P

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this research was to describe the ability of human operators to interact with adaptive automation (AA) applied to various stages of complex systems information processing, defined in a model of human-automation interaction. Forty participants operated a simulation of an air traffic control task. Automated assistance was adaptively applied to information acquisition, information analysis, decision making, and action implementation aspects of the task based on operator workload states, which were measured using a secondary task. The differential effects of the forms of automation were determined and compared with a manual control condition. Results of two 20-min trials of AA or manual control revealed a significant effect of the type of automation on performance, particularly during manual control periods as part of the adaptive conditions. Humans appear to better adapt to AA applied to sensory and psychomotor information-processing functions (action implementation) than to AA applied to cognitive functions (information analysis and decision making), and AA is superior to completely manual control. Potential applications of this research include the design of automation to support air traffic controller information processing.

  12. A tale of two rain gardens: Barriers and bridges to adaptive management of urban stormwater in Cleveland, Ohio

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure installations such as rain gardens and bioswales are increasingly regarded as viable tools to mitigate stormwater runoff at the parcel level. The use of adaptive management to implement and monitor green infrastructure projects as experimental attempts to man...

  13. The Role of Bridging Organizations in Enhancing Ecosystem Services and Facilitating Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adaptive management is an approach for monitoring the response of ecological systems to different policies and practices and attempts to reduce the inherent uncertainty in ecological systems via system monitoring and iterative decision making and experimentation (Holling 1978). M...

  14. Improvement of radiology services based on the process management approach.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Creusa Sayuri Tahara; Rozenfeld, Henrique; Costa, Janaina Mascarenhas Hornos; Magon, Maria de Fátima de Andrade; Mascarenhas, Yvone Maria

    2011-06-01

    The health sector requires continuous investments to ensure the improvement of products and services from a technological standpoint, the use of new materials, equipment and tools, and the application of process management methods. Methods associated with the process management approach, such as the development of reference models of business processes, can provide significant innovations in the health sector and respond to the current market trend for modern management in this sector (Gunderman et al. (2008) [4]). This article proposes a process model for diagnostic medical X-ray imaging, from which it derives a primary reference model and describes how this information leads to gains in quality and improvements.

  15. Proposal for adaptive management to conserve biotic integrity in a regulated segment of the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Elise R.; Freeman, Mary C.

    2002-01-01

    Conserving river biota will require innovative approaches that foster and utilize scientific understanding of ecosystem responses to alternative river-management scenarios. We describe ecological and societal issues involved in flow management of a section of the Tallapoosa River (Alabama, U.S.A.) in which a species-rich native fauna is adversely affected by flow alteration by an upstream hydropower dam. We hypothesize that depleted Iow flows, flow instability and thermal alteration resulting from pulsed flow releases at the hydropower dam are most responsible for changes in the Tallapoosa River biota. However, existing data are insufficient to prescribe with certainty minimum flow levels or the frequency and duration of stable flow periods that would be necessary or sufficient to protect riverine biotic integrity. Rather than negotiate a specific change in the flow regime, we propose that stakeholders--including management agencies, the power utility, and river advocates--engage in a process of adaptive-flow management. This process would require that stakeholders (1) develop and agree to management objectives; (2) model hypothesized relations between dam operations and management objectives; (3) implement a change in dam operations; and (4) evaluate biological responses and other stakeholder benefits through an externally reviewed monitoring program. Models would be updated with monitoring data and stakeholders would agree to further modify flow regimes as necessary to achieve management objectives. A primary obstacle to adaptive management will be a perceived uncertainty of future costs for the power utility and other stakeholders. However, an adaptive, iterative approach offers the best opportunity for improving flow regimes for native biota while gaining information critical to guiding management decisions in other flow-regulated rivers.

  16. Habitat-based adaptive management at Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keigley, R.B.; Fager, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The 22,743-hectare Mount Haggin Wildlife Management Area was purchased in 1976, in part for moose (Alces alces) winter range. Observed moose populations climbed from a low of 7 in 1976 to a high of 56 in 2000. A 4-step management program was initiated in 2000 consisting of definition of management objective, monitoring to determine if the objective was attained, developing a management strategy, and implementing the strategy. The management objective for browse was defined to be: browsing will not preventyoung plants from attaining their potential stature, their growth being primarily limited by local environmental conditions. Asurvey of Geyer willow (Salix geyeriana) in critical moose habitat indicated that browse plants were 100% intensely browsed, suggesting that browsing could prevent willowheightgrowth. Beginning in 2000, willow trend was monitored annually at 4 sites using an index based on the height of the tallest live stem and the height of the tallest, dead intensely browsed stem (LD Index). Low LD Index values indicated that browsing did prevent height growth. In 2000 moose harvest quotas were increased by 40%; in 2002 harvest quotas were increased an additional 7%. From 2000 to 2002, willow growth increased at all 4 locations. From 2002 to 2004, growth indicators changed relatively little at Sullivan Creek, Deep Creek, and French Creek; at these sites willow condition in 2004 had improved compared to willow condition in 2000. From 2002 to 2004, growth indicators declined markedly at American Creek; in 2004, growth indicators at American Creek were lower compared to measurements made in 2000. The improvement of willow condition at 3 sites was likely due to a combination of reduced moose numbers (due to an increase in harvest) and increased dispersal (due to low snow-cover conditions). Over the study period, the sporting public complained of reduced moose sightability; harvest quotas were lowered substantially in 2003.

  17. Process-centered revenue-cycle management optimizes payment process.

    PubMed

    Schneider, R J; Mandelbaum, S P; Graboys, K; Bailey, C

    2001-01-01

    By implementing a process-centered revenue cycle, healthcare organizations and group practices can achieve a seamless payment process with clear lines of accountability to achieve target outcomes. The integrated, end-to-end, revenue-cycle process involves four key components: jobs, skills, staffing, and structure; information and information systems; organizational alignment and accountability; and performance measures and evaluation measures. The Henry Ford Health System (HFHS), based in Detroit, Michigan, exemplifies the type of results that are achievable with this model. HFHS includes a group practice with more than 1,000 physicians in 40 specialties. After implementing a process-centered revenue cycle, HFHS dramatically improved registration and verification transactions and optimized revenues.

  18. Adapting the Helpful Responses Questionnaire to assess communication skills involved in delivering contingency management: Preliminary psychometrics

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues’ (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write ‘what they would say next.’ In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. PMID:25770870

  19. Management of process change in a chemical company.

    PubMed

    Parrott, J W; Weiler, E D

    1991-10-01

    Management of process changes in a multibusiness and multinational chemical company is a significant challenge for most organizations. A generic process that focuses first on a clean, documented baseline definition of manufacturing processes and second on defined responsibilities, procedures, and guidelines for reviewing proposed changes in processes is described. A corporate database is recommended to provide comprehensive data on products and manufacturing processes. Process stewards should be identified for each major product line or technology.

  20. Small sample properties of an adaptive filter with application to low volume statistical process control

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, S.V.; Eshleman, L.

    1998-08-01

    In many manufacturing environments such as the nuclear weapons complex, emphasis has shifted from the regular production and delivery of large orders to infrequent small orders. However, the challenge to maintain the same high quality and reliability standards white building much smaller lot sizes remains. To meet this challenge, specific areas need more attention, including fast and on-target process start-up, low volume statistical process control, process characterization with small experiments, and estimating reliability given few actual performance tests of the product. In this paper the authors address the issue of low volume statistical process control. They investigate an adaptive filtering approach to process monitoring with a relatively short time series of autocorrelated data. The emphasis is on estimation and minimization of mean squared error rather than the traditional hypothesis testing and run length analyses associated with process control charting. The authors develop an adaptive filtering technique that assumes initial process parameters are unknown, and updates the parameters as more data become available. Using simulation techniques, they study the data requirements (the length of a time series of autocorrelated data) necessary to adequately estimate process parameters. They show that far fewer data values are needed than is typically recommended for process control applications. And they demonstrate the techniques with a case study from the nuclear weapons manufacturing complex.